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Sample records for behavioral convulsant effects

  1. Effect of hyperthermia on histamine blood level and convulsive behavior in infant rats.

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    Gholipoor, Peyman; Saboory, Ehsan; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Fereidoni, Javid

    2013-11-01

    Febrile seizures (FS), which have been extensively studied using animal models, are the most common type of convulsive events in children, but the cellular mechanisms causing FS are still unclear. Histamine has been suggested to participate in seizure control. This study investigated the effect of hyperthermia (HT) on histamine blood level (HBL) and convulsive behavior in prepubertal rats. Forty Wistar rat pups were assigned to 5 groups (n=8), namely, control, HT, cromolyn, chlorpheniramine, and ranitidine. Two groups of adult rats were also used as control and HT adults. The control rats were placed in a hyperthermic chamber, and a room temperature current of air was blown on them. In all other groups, the rats were placed in the chamber for 30 min, and a current of warm air was applied to them. In the pretreatment groups, the rats received an injection of 68-mg/kg cromolyn sodium, 4-mg/kg chlorpheniramine, or 80-mg/kg ranitidine intraperitoneally 30 min prior to HT. Body temperature and convulsive behaviors were recorded. Then, the rats were anesthetized with ether, and their blood sample was obtained through direct heart puncture. Hyperthermia initiated convulsive behaviors in infant rats but not in the adult ones. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine significantly potentiated convulsive behaviors (p=0.017). Hyperthermia led to a significant decrease in the HBL of both infant (pHistamine may have a pivotal role in hyperthermia-induced seizures. © 2013.

  2. Electroencephalographic and behavioral convulsant effects of hydrobromide and hydrochloride salts of bupropion in conscious rodents

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    David C Henshall

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available David C Henshall1, Nick Dürmüller2, H Steve White3, Robert Williams4, Paul Moser2, Mark Dunleavy1, Peter H Silverstone51Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; 2Porsolt and Partners Pharmacology, Le Genest-Saint-Isle, France; 3NeuroAdjuvants, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 4Biovail Technologies, Ltd., Dublin, Ireland; 5Biovail Corporation, Mississauga, ON, Canada Abstract: A novel bromide salt of the antidepressant bupropion (bupropion HBr has recently been developed and approved for use in the United States. Given previous use of bromides to treat seizures, and that the existing chloride salt of bupropion (HCl can cause seizures, it is important to determine if the HBr salt may be less likely to cause seizures than the HCl salt. In the present animal studies this was evaluated by means of quantified electroencephalogram (EEG, observation, and the rotarod test in mice and rats. Both bupropion salts were tested at increasing equimolar doses administered intraperitoneally. The results in mice showed that bupropion HCl 125 mg/kg induced a significantly higher ten-fold increase in the mean number of cortical EEG seizures compared to bupropion HBr (7.50 ± 2.56 vs 0.75 ± 0.96; p = 0.045, but neither drug caused any brain injuries. In rats bupropion HBr 100 mg/kg induced single EEG seizure activity in the cortical and hippocampal (depth electrodes and in signifi cantly (p < 0.05 fewer rats (44% compared to bupropion HCl, which induced 1 to 4 convulsions per rat in all rats (100% dosed. The total duration of cortical seizures in bupropion HCl-treated rats was significantly longer than the corresponding values obtained in bupropion HBr-treated rats (424.6 seconds vs 124.5 seconds respectively, p < 0.05. Bupropion HCl consistently induced more severe convulsions at each dose level compared to bupropion HBr. Both treatments demonstrated a similar dose-dependent impairment of rotarod

  3. Hesperidin potentiates the neuroprotective effects of diazepam and gabapentin against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice: Possible behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial alterations

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    Kumar, Anil; Lalitha, Sree; Mishra, Jitendriya

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder with complex pathophysiology. Several evidences suggest a role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in pathophysiology of epilepsy. Hesperidin (Hesp) acts as a powerful anti-oxidant agent against superoxide, singlet oxygen, and hydroxyl radicals. Thus, this study was undertaken to evaluate the possible neuroprotective mechanism of Hesp against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions in mice. Materials and Methods: Sixty males Laca mice (20-25 g) were randomly divided into 10 treatment groups (n = 6). Seven days pretreatment of Hesp (100, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was carried out before PTZ (80 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) challenge, whereas diazepam (DZP) (0.2, 0.5 mg/kg) and gabapentin (Gbp) (10, 20 mg/kg) were administered i.p. 30 min before PTZ administration, that is, on 7th day. Following PTZ challenge, severity of convulsions (onset of jerks, myoclonic seizures, extensor phase and death), brain anti-oxidant enzyme levels and mitochondrial complex enzymes activities were estimated. Results: Single i.p. PTZ (80 mg/kg) challenge demonstrated severe convulsions, oxidative damage (raised lipid peroxidation [LPO], nitrite concentration as well as depleted reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels), and depletion of mitochondrial enzyme Complex (I, II, IV) activities. Hesp (200 mg/kg), DZP (0.5 mg/kg) and Gbp (20 mg/kg) pretreatments attenuated PTZ induced behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial alterations. However, administration of Hesp (100 mg/kg) in combination with DZP (0.2 mg/kg) or Gbp (10 mg/kg) potentiated their neuroprotective effect, which was significant as compared to their effects in PTZ treated animals. Conclusion: Hesp possesses potent anticonvulsant activity which might be mediated through modulation of gamma-amino butyric acid/benzodiazepine receptor action. PMID:24987179

  4. (1)H NMR metabolomics to study the effects of diazepam on anisatin induced convulsive seizures.

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    Li, Pei; Wei, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jun-Song; Yang, Ming-Hua; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2016-01-05

    The anticonvulsive properties of diazepam have been extensively studied, mainly focusing on the γ-amino butyrate (GABA) system. The aim of this investigation was to integrally analyze the metabolic events related to neuroprotection of diazepam on anisatin-induced convulsive seizures by a NMR-based metabolomic approach combined with histopathological examination and behavior examination. Multivariate analysis on metabolic profiles of the piriform cortex and cerebellum of mice revealed that diazepam could relieve mice suffering from the convulsive seizures by recovering destructed neurotransmitter and neuromodulator metabolism, ameliorating oxidative stress, alleviating the disturbance in energy, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism in anisatin intoxicated mice. This integrated metabolomics study provided a powerful and highly effective approach to elucidate therapeutic effects and assessed the safety of diazepam. This study should be helpful for our understanding of convulsive seizures, and provide a holistic view of the treatment effects of benzodiazepine on convulsive seizures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of modafinil on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsive epilepsy.

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    Ozsoy, S; Aydin, D; Ekici, F

    2015-01-01

    Modafinil, is a wake-promoting drug approved by Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) for narcolepsy and sleep-apnoe syndrome. Although the mechanism underlying its arousal action remains elusive, it is known to increase glutamatergic, histaminergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic transmission and decrease GABA release in different regions of the brain, which are all known to be involved in pathophysiology of epilepsy. In the present study, the effects of modafinil on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced convulsive epilepsy were investigated in rats. Five experimental groups were formed for this purpose and each group was administered five different doses of modafinil (1, 2, 4, 45, 180 mg/kg, i.p) for seven days. All groups were administered PTZ (80 mg/kg, i.p) 2 hours after the final dose and the epileptic seizure activity was evaluated. According to the results; we detected that modafinil delayed the onset of the first myoclonic jerk and decreased the total major seizure period between 2-180 mg/kg doses and did not affect the major seizure onset period at any of the doses administrated. These results imply that modafinil exerts a dose dependent antiepileptic effect on PTZ induced convulsive epilepsy in rats (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref, 42).

  6. Anticonvulsive effects of endogenous prostaglandins formed in brain of spontaneously convulsing gerbils.

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    Förstermann, U; Seregi, A; Hertting, G

    1984-06-01

    Seizures were induced in a strain of epileptic gerbils by moderate environmental stress. Concentrations of five different cyclooxygenase products (PGD2, PGF2 alpha, PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane B2) were measured in brain by specific radioimmunoassays before and at different time intervals after the onset of clonic-tonic convulsions. All prostanoids markedly increased subsequent to the convulsions. Maximal concentrations were reached after about 15 min. The major compound detected was PGD2, followed by PGF2 alpha and lower concentrations of the other cyclooxygenase products. Indomethacin completely prevented the convulsion-induced formation of prostanoids. Fifteen min after a first seizure almost all animals proved to be protected against a second convulsion. Indomethacin pretreatment markedly reduced the number of convulsion-resistant animals. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that endogenous prostaglandins exert anticonvulsive effects.

  7. Positive effects of ceftriaxone on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion model in rats.

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    Uyanikgil, Yigit; Özkeşkek, Kübra; Çavuşoğlu, Türker; Solmaz, Volkan; Tümer, Mehmet Kemal; Erbas, Oytun

    2016-01-01

    Many drugs have been associated with seizures as a side effect. Although they are defined as safe for nervous system. The effect on proconvulsant activity of beta lactam antibiotics have been also reported. We aimed to investigate whether ceftriaxone has an anticonvulsant effect on PTZ-induced seizures in rats. 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats, 18 of them for EEG recording and 18 of them are for behavioral studies, were randomly divided in two groups: group A for EEG recordings and group B for behavioral assesment. About 70 mg/kg PTZ was used for behavioral studies after Ceftriaxone administiration. About 35 mg/kg PTZ were used for EEG recording after ceftriaxone administiration. The electrodes were implanted on dura over the left frontal cortex and the reference electrode was implanted over the cerebellum for EEG recording. The Racine convulsion scale, first myoclonic jerk onset time, spike percentages, brain MDA and SOD levels were evaluated between the groups. First myoclonic jerk onset time was significantly shorter in saline group than both 200 and 400 mg/kg ceftriaxone groups (p ceftriaxone groups than saline group (p ceftriaxone groups have lower spike percentages than the saline group (p ceftriaxone group compared with the saline group (p ceftriaxone has protective effects on PTZ-induced convulsions and on oxidative damage associated with PTZ.

  8. The novel δ opioid receptor agonist KNT-127 produces antidepressant-like and antinociceptive effects in mice without producing convulsions.

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    Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Sugiyama, Azusa; Nemoto, Toru; Fujii, Hideaki; Wada, Keiji; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Nagase, Hiroshi; Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2011-10-01

    We previously reported that the δ opioid receptor (DOP) agonists SNC80 and TAN-67 produce potent antidepressant-like and antinociceptive effects in rodents. However, SNC80 produced convulsive effects. Recently, we succeeded in synthesizing a novel DOP agonist called KNT-127. The present study examined the convulsive, antidepressant-like, and antinociceptive effects of KNT-127 in mice. In contrast to SNC80, KNT-127 produced no convulsions at doses of up to 100mg/kg. In mice subjected to the forced swim test, a screening model for antidepressants, KNT-127 (1mg/kg, s.c.) significantly decreased the duration of immobility and increased the duration of swimming without influencing spontaneous locomotor activity. These behavioral changes were similar to that observed for the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (6mg/kg). The antidepressant-like effect of KNT-127 in mice was antagonized by pretreatment with naltrindole (NTI), a selective DOP antagonist, or naltriben, a putative DOP(2) subtype antagonist. In addition, KNT-127 (3mg/kg, s.c.) significantly reduced the number of acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions and the duration of licking time, respectively, in mice subjected to a writhing test and a formalin test. These antinociceptive effects were antagonized by pretreatment with either NTI or 7-benzylidenenaltrexone, a putative DOP(1) subtype antagonist. We propose that KNT-127 should be considered as a candidate compound for the development of DOP-based antidepressants and/or analgesics that lack convulsive effects. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake: No evidence of spontaneous seizures, behavioral changes or neuronal damage.

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    Enginar, Nurhan; Nurten, Asiye; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Gündoğan, Gül İpek; Özünal, Zeynep Güneş

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged or repeated seizures have been shown to cause spontaneous recurrent seizures, increased anxiety‑related behavior, locomotor hyperactivity, impaired functions of learning and memory, and neuronal damage in the hippocampus and other brain regions in animals. Mice and rats treated with antimuscarinic drugs after fasting for two days or less develop convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. To address whether such behavioral and neuroanatomic changes occur following these convulsions, mice treated i.p. with saline (control) or 2.4 mg/kg atropine and given food after 24 h of fasting were grouped according to seizure scores for behavioral and histological analysis. Following convulsions, the occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures was observed for 30 days. Motor activity and grooming behavior were assessed in the open field, and memory was assessed using the novel object recognition test 4 and 7 days after onset of convulsions, respectively. Animals allocated for the histological analysis were decapitated 7 days after onset of convulsions and hippocampal slices were evaluated for the percentage of degenerating neurons stained with Fluoro‑Jade C. Spontaneous recurrent seizures, locomotor alterations, anxiety‑related behavior, memory impairment, and neuronal loss in the granular layer of the dentate gyrus were not detected in the animals with seizure score 1-2 or 3-5. These results are in accordance with those related to the absence of behavioral changes, cognitive deficits, and hippocampal neuronal damage after single brief seizures in animals and patients with epilepsy.

  10. The effect of ivermectin on convulsions in rats produced by lidocaine and strychnine.

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    Trailović, S M; Varagić, V M

    2007-10-01

    Ivermectin is one of the most commonly used drugs in pharmacotherapy of parasitic diseases in domestic and wild animals caused by parasitic nematodes and arthropods. However, ivermectin and other avermectins very often produce side-effects in hosts. The most dominant clinical symptom of ivermectin toxicity in domestic and wild animals is CNS depression. In nematodes, the target site of ivermectin's action is glutamate-gated chloride-channel receptor and GABA receptor. The depressive effect of ivermectin in mammals might include more than one mechanism; therefore, the anticonvulsive effect of ivermectin against convulsions caused by lidocaine and strychnine was evaluated. Ivermectin antagonized lidocaine- and strychnine-induced convulsions in rats, although these have different mechanisms. In the present study, the anticonvulsive ED50 ofivermectin for lidocaine-induced convulsions was 2.44 mg/kg (95% CL 1.67 to 3.57 mg/kg), whereas for convulsions induced by strychnine it was higher at 4.25 mg/kg (95% CL 2.32 to 3.78 mg/kg). At the same time, both anticonvulsive doses are significantly lower then the observed LD50 of ivermectin (18.20 mg/kg). Furthermore, flumazenil (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg), an antagonist of benzodiazepine receptors, antagonizes just one part of these anticonvulsive effects of ivermectin. Our results show the significant anticonvulsive properties of ivermectin and support the findings that ivermectin in the CNS of mammals produces multiple inhibitory effects, probably through participation in the function of GABA-sensitive and GABA-insensitive chloride channels.

  11. Memory and convulsive stimulation: effects of stimulus waveform.

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    Spanis, C W; Squire, L R

    1981-09-01

    Electrical stimulation with brief pulses can produce a seizure requiring less energy than conventional sine-wave stimulation, and it has been suggested that brief-pulse stimulation might reduce the memory loss associated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The authors evaluated the effects of electroconvulsive shock (ECS) on memory in mice by using various waveforms, current intensities, training-ECS intervals, pulse widths, and stimulus durations. When equated for ability to produce seizures, low-energy, brief-pulse stimulation caused as much amnesia as sine-wave stimulation and sometimes more. In the absence of comparisons of the amnesic effects of brief-pulse and sine-wave stimulation in humans, the use of brief pulses for administering ECT is unwarranted.

  12. Effect of Amlodipine and Indomethacin in electrical and picrotoxin induced convulsions in Mice

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    Jagathi Devi N, Prasanna V

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs are the drugs used in the treatment of epilepsy. Many AEDs have been developed, but the ideal AED which can not only prevent but also abolish seizures by correcting the underlying pathophysiology is still not in sight. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs may form such a group, as the initiation of epileptogenic activity in the neuron is connected with a phenomenon known as “intrinsic burst firing” which is activated by inward calcium current. In this study, Amlodipine, a CCB of the dihydropyridine class was evaluated for its anticonvulsant activity in mice. It was compared with Phenytoin sodium, one of the oldest anti epileptic drugs. Amlodipine was also combined with Indomethacin, a conventional NSAID, to look for any potentiating effect of this prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitor. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 adult Swiss albino mice of either sex weighing 20-30 G were used for this study; 48 were divided into 8 groups, each group containing 6 mice. Group 1-4 MES (50 m Amp for 0.1 secs induced convulsion method, Group 5-8 evaluated by using the chemo-convulsant, picrotoxin (0.7 mg / kg. Group 1, 5 are controls of MES, Picrotoxin (without treatment. Group 2 &6 administered standard drug phenytoin (0.5mg/100mg i.p, Group 3 & 7: Amlodipine group (8 mg / kg i.p and Group 4 & 8: Amlodipine (8 mg/kg and Indomethacin group (20 mg / kg. In MES method Duration of tonic hind limb extension, Clonic convulsions, Recovery period were studied. In Picrotoxin method Latent period before onset of convulsions, severity of convulsions assessed. Results: In electrically induced seizures, the 3 parameters compared are duration of tonic hind limb extension, THLE, (P0.05; duration of recovery phase (P<0.0001 and in picrotoxin-induced seizures, the 2 parameters are onset of seizures (P<0.05 and severity of seizures (P<0.05. Conclusion: The combination of Amlodipine and Indomethacin showed a superior

  13. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis on nicotine-induced convulsion in mice.

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    Arzi, A; Ahamehe, M; Sarahroodi, S

    2011-06-01

    Epilepsy an important CNS (central nervous system) problem that about 1% of world's population suffer of it. The aim of study was to evaluate of anticonvulsant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis. In this study, anticonvulsant activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) was studied against chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male mice. Lavandula officinalis (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1)), diazepam (0.15 mg kg(-1)) and normal saline (10 mL kg(-1)) were injected intraperitoneally, respectively in different groups of mice, 30 min before nicotine (5 mg kg(-) i.p.). The onset time intensity and duration of convulsions and the percentage of death were recorded. Also the time-response (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 min before nicotine injection) for most effective dose of plant extract (600 mg kg(-1)) was investigated. The results showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis had anticonvulsant effect. The most effective dose of plant extract was 600 mg kg(-1). In time-response study for the most effective dose of extract (600 mg kg(-1)), the onset, duration and intensity of convulsion significantly (p Lavandula.

  14. Effects of injectable anticholinergic drugs on soman-induced lethality and convulsant/subconvulsant activity

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    Harris, L.W.; Anderson, D.R.; Lennox, W.J.; Bowersox, S.L.; Anders, J.C.

    1993-05-13

    FDA approved, injectable preparations of candidate compounds BENZTROPINE (BZT), 1.0 mg/ml; biperiden (BIP), 5.0 mg/ml; dicyclomine (DCL), 10 mg/ml; 1-hyoscyamine (HYO), 0.5 mg/ml; orphenadrine (ORP), 30 mg/ml; scopolamine (SCP), 1.0 mg/ml were tested in parallel with diazepam (DZ, the standard) in male guinea pigs against ongoing soman induced convulsive (CV)/sub-CV activity. Three trained graders concurrently assigned CV/sub-CV scores (12 - convulsions; 0 normal) to each animal. Animals received (im) pyridostigmine (PYR; 26 ug/kg) 30 min before soman (56 ug/kg; 2 LD50), atropine (2 mg/kg) admixed with 2-PAM (25 mg/kg) at one min after soman, and the candidate drug preparation at 5.67 min post soman, a time when CV activity is assured. BIP and SCP demonstrated efficacy over dosage ranges between 10 and 0.3 and 1.0 and 0.13 mg/kg, respectively, while the other preparations were less effective at their respective maximum dosages. At optimal dosages of SCP (0.5 mg/kg) and BIP (10 mg/kg), the CV/sub-CV scores were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those of DZ.

  15. Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures.

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    Jones, Nicholas A; Glyn, Sarah E; Akiyama, Satoshi; Hill, Thomas D M; Hill, Andrew J; Weston, Samantha E; Burnett, Matthew D A; Yamasaki, Yuki; Stephens, Gary J; Whalley, Benjamin J; Williams, Claire M

    2012-06-01

    Cannabis sativa has been associated with contradictory effects upon seizure states despite its medicinal use by numerous people with epilepsy. We have recently shown that the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) reduces seizure severity and lethality in the well-established in vivo model of pentylenetetrazole-induced generalised seizures, suggesting that earlier, small-scale clinical trials examining CBD effects in people with epilepsy warrant renewed attention. Here, we report the effects of pure CBD (1, 10 and 100mg/kg) in two other established rodent seizure models, the acute pilocarpine model of temporal lobe seizure and the penicillin model of partial seizure. Seizure activity was video recorded and scored offline using model-specific seizure severity scales. In the pilocarpine model CBD (all doses) significantly reduced the percentage of animals experiencing the most severe seizures. In the penicillin model, CBD (≥ 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased the percentage mortality as a result of seizures; CBD (all doses) also decreased the percentage of animals experiencing the most severe tonic-clonic seizures. These results extend the anti-convulsant profile of CBD; when combined with a reported absence of psychoactive effects, this evidence strongly supports CBD as a therapeutic candidate for a diverse range of human epilepsies. Copyright © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between the general condition of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with remission rate and convulsion as an adverse effect chemotherapy

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    Rusdi Andid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study on the relationship between the general condition of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with remission rale and convulsion as an adverse effect of chemotherapy was conducted in leukemia patients of the hematology-oncology subdivision, Departmenl of Child Health, Medical School, University of North Sumatra, Medan. Of 114 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 81 (71.05% received chemotherapy, 31 patients among them was in good general condition. Remission rate of the 31 patients was 80.6% (25 children. Whereas in the remaining 50 patients, the remission rate among them was 84% (42 patients. There was no significant relationship between their general condition to the recurrence rate of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients who had been administered chemotherapy during induction phase. Convulsion was found In 2 cases, due to CNS leukemia.

  17. Anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects of synergetic combination of phenytoin and gastrodin on the convulsion induced by penicillin in mice.

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    Zhou, Ziqi; Lin, Yanzhu; Zheng, Hongyi; He, Yuzhong; Xu, Haohua; Zhang, Siheng; Weng, Wen; Li, Wei; Zhu, Linyan; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-08-01

    Phenytoin (PHT) is a commonly prescribed first-line antiepileptic drug. However, long-term administration of PHT can cause memory loss and balance disturbance. Gastrodin (GD) is the major bioactive component in Tianma and has sedative, anticonvulsive, memory strengthening, and neuroprotective effects. To combine the two drugs seems attractive; however, little was known about the efficacy of combination therapy. In this study, convulsive attack was successfully induced by penicillin. Isobolographic analysis, memory and balance behavior test, histopathological examination, and Western blot analysis were used to investigate whether the combination therapy of GD and PHT can enhance anticonvulsive effect and reduce the side effects associated with PHT. The GD alone (950.60 mg/kg) and the PHT alone (45.50 mg/kg) could produce an anticonvulsive effect, while comparable effect could be produced by PHT : GD = 1 : 50 (8.59 : 429.27 mg/kg), which reduce the dose of PHT by 81% and GD by 55%. After the chronic anticonvulsive experiments of 16 days, the balance disturbance and short-/long-term memory loss were observed in the PHT group, while the PHT + GD therapy can protect the normal balance and memory function. The neuron morphology of hippocampus was preserved, and the number of surviving neurons after combination therapy was more than the model group. The amount of NF-κB (p65) expression was increased in combination group. All above suggested the potential of the combination of PHT and GD enhances the anticonvulsive effect and the neuroprotective effect and reduces the PHT-associated memory and balance disturbance. The PHT + GD strategy would provide new possibilities as a novel promising methodology to treat epileptic patients. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  18. Early-Onset Convulsive Seizures Induced by Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia in Aging Mice: Effects of Anticonvulsive Treatments.

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    Justin Wang

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with an increased risk of seizures/epilepsy. Stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic and cardiac arrest related brain injury are two major causative factors for seizure development in this patient population. With either etiology, seizures are a poor prognostic factor. In spite of this, the underlying pathophysiology of seizure development is not well understood. In addition, a standardized treatment regimen with anticonvulsants and outcome assessments following treatment has yet to be established for these post-ischemic seizures. Previous studies have modeled post-ischemic seizures in adult rodents, but similar studies in aging/aged animals, a group that mirrors a higher risk elderly population, remain sparse. Our study therefore aimed to investigate early-onset seizures in aging animals using a hypoxia-ischemia (HI model. Male C57 black mice 18-20-month-old underwent a unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery followed by a systemic hypoxic episode (8% O2 for 30 min. Early-onset seizures were detected using combined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring. Brain injury was assessed histologically at different times post HI. Convulsive seizures were observed in 65% of aging mice post-HI but not in control aging mice following either sham surgery or hypoxia alone. These seizures typically occurred within hours of HI and behaviorally consisted of jumping, fast running, barrel-rolling, and/or falling (loss of the righting reflex with limb spasms. No evident discharges during any convulsive seizures were seen on cortical-hippocampal EEG recordings. Seizure development was closely associated with acute mortality and severe brain injury on brain histological analysis. Intra-peritoneal injections of lorazepam and fosphenytoin suppressed seizures and improved survival but only when applied prior to seizure onset and not after. These findings together suggest that seizures are a major contributing factor to acute

  19. Evaluating acute effects of Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT) on brain perfusion with Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

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    Ozguven, M.; Ozturk, E.; Gunalp, B.; Ozgen, F.; Bayhan, H.

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT in 10 schizophrenes (8 male, 2 female) undergoing electro convulsive therapy (ECT) and the results were compared to those of baseline studies performed 3 days prior to the ECT application to evaluate its acute effect on brain perfusion. ECT caused a redistribution in the tracers uptake. There was a global increase in the rCBF and the uptake became more pronounced in the basal ganglia (left: 44.4+-1.9%, right: 43.1+-19%) and to a degree in the parietal (left: 26.5+-4.1%, right: 25+-3.4%) and temporal (left: 22.9+-4.3%, right: 22.3+-3.6%) cortices. When evaluating the effects of ECT on rCBF, factors like the used perfusion agent, the injection and rCBF measurement times, clinical status of the patient, duration of the illness, used therapeutic agents and variations in the ECT application should be taken into consideration because the obtained data may reflect either the ictal or post-ictal changes on rCBF and is specific to the group of patients undergoing the study

  20. Аnticonvulsant effects of citicoline and diazepam at their combined application on model of the acute generalized convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole in Wistar rats.

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    Kuznetsova, L V; Karpova, M N; Zinkovski, K A; Klishina, N Yu

    2016-01-01

    Studying of efficiency of the combined application of the citicoline possessing nootropic and anticonvulsive action and antiepileptic drug of diazepam on the acute generalized convulsions (AGC) caused by a convulsant pentylentetrazole (PTZ). Experiments are executed on the male Wistar rats (n = 68) weighing 160-190 g on the AGС model caused by of PTZ in a dose of 80 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.). For studying of efficiency of the combined use of drugs determined the minimum anticonvulsive action of a citicoline (Tserakson, «Nicomed Ferrer Internacional, S.A.») and diazepam (Relanium, Warsaw pharmaceutical plant of Polf AO, Warsaw, Poland). For this citicoline were administered i.p. in doses 500 and 300 mg/kg 1 hour before the PTZ and diazepam - in doses of 0,5 and 0,25 mg/kg 30 min before administration of PTZ. Control animals were injected with saline to the same extent and under the same experimental conditions. It is shown that the combined administration of a citicoline and diazepam in minimum active doses (300 and 0.25 mg/kg respectively), increases anticonvulsive properties of both drugs. The combined administration of citicoline with diazepam in minimally active doses enhances anticonvulsant properties of both drugs, thereby reducing the risk of development of side effects. In addition, the research may serve as experimental justification for the use of drugs in case of convulsions for the purpose beneficial effect on cognitive function and delays of progressing of neurodegenerative processes.

  1. Effect of combined treatment with diuretics and gabapentin on convulsive threshold in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukawski, Krzysztof; Swiderska, Grajyna; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2013-01-01

    Research data show that diuretics can have anticonvulsant properties. This study examined effects of ethacrynic acid, a loop diuretic, and hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide-type diuretic, on the anticonvulsant activity of gabapentin, a newer antiepileptic drug, in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test in mice. Diuretics were administered intraperitoneally (ip.) both acutely (single dose) and chronically (once daily for seven days). Electroconvulsions were produced by an alternating current (50 Hz, 500 V, 0.2 s stimulus duration) delivered via ear-clip electrodes by a generator. Additionally, the influence of combined treatment with the diuretics and gabapentin on motor performance in the chimney test has been assessed. In the current study, ethacrynic acid at the chronic dose of 12.5 mg/kg and the single dose of 100 mg/kg did not affect the anticonvulsant activity of gabapentin. Similarly, hydrochlorothiazide (100 mg/kg), both in acute and chronic experiments, had no effect on the gabapentin action. On the other hand, in the chimney test, the combined treatment with ethacrynic acid (100 mg/kg) and gabapentin (50 mg/kg) significantly impaired motor performance in mice. Based on the current preclinical findings, it can be suggested that the diuretics should not affect the anticonvulsant action of gabapentin in epileptic patients. However, the combination of ethacrynic acid with gabapentin may cause neurotoxicity.

  2. Convulsant bicuculline modifies CNS muscarinic receptor affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz Georgina

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work from this laboratory has shown that the administration of the convulsant drug 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP, a GAD inhibitor, modifies not only GABA synthesis but also binding of the antagonist [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB to central muscarinic receptors, an effect due to an increase in affinity without modifications in binding site number. The cholinergic system has been implicated in several experimental epilepsy models and the ability of acetylcholine to regulate neuronal excitability in the neocortex is well known. To study the potential relationship between GABAergic and cholinergic systems with seizure activity, we analyzed the muscarinic receptor after inducing seizure by bicuculline (BIC, known to antagonize the GABA-A postsynaptic receptor subtype. Results We analyzed binding of muscarinic antagonist [3H]-QNB to rat CNS membranes after i.p. administration of BIC at subconvulsant (1.0 mg/kg and convulsant (7.5 mg/kg doses. Subconvulsant BIC dose failed to develop seizures but produced binding alteration in the cerebellum and hippocampus with roughly 40% increase and 10% decrease, respectively. After convulsant BIC dose, which invariably led to generalized tonic-clonic seizures, binding increased 36% and 15% to cerebellar and striatal membranes respectively, but decreased 12% to hippocampal membranes. Kd value was accordingly modified: with the subconvulsant dose it decreased 27% in cerebellum whereas it increased 61% in hippocampus; with the convulsant dose, Kd value decreased 33% in cerebellum but increased 85% in hippocampus. No change in receptor number site was found, and Hill number was invariably close to unity. Conclusion Results indicate dissimilar central nervous system area susceptibility of muscarinic receptor to BIC. Ligand binding was modified not only by a convulsant BIC dose but also by a subconvulsant dose, indicating that changes are not attributable to the seizure process

  3. Convulsive liability of bupropion hydrochloride metabolites in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Louis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that following chronic dosing with bupropion HCl active metabolites are present in plasma at levels that are several times higher than that of the parent drug, but the possible convulsive effects of the major metabolites are not known. Methods We investigated the convulsive liability and dose-response of the three major bupropion metabolites following intraperitoneal administration of single doses in female Swiss albino mice, namely erythrohydrobupropion HCl, threohydrobupropion HCl, and hydroxybupropion HCl. We compared these to bupropion HCl. The actual doses of the metabolites administered to mice (n = 120; 10 per dose group were equimolar equivalents of bupropion HCl 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg. Post treatment, all animals were observed continuously for 2 h during which the number, time of onset, duration and intensity of convulsions were recorded. The primary outcome variable was the percentage of mice in each group who had a convulsion at each dose. Other outcome measures were the time to onset of convulsions, mean convulsions per mouse, and the duration and intensity of convulsions. Results All metabolites were associated with a greater percentage of seizures compared to bupropion, but the percentage of convulsions differed between metabolites. Hydroxybupropion HCl treatment induced the largest percentage of convulsing mice (100% at both 50 and 75 mg/kg followed by threohydrobupropion HCl (50% and 100%, and then erythrohydrobupropion HCl (10% and 90%, compared to bupropion HCl (0% and 10%. Probit analysis also revealed the dose-response curves were significantly different (p 50 values of 35, 50, 61 and 82 mg/kg, respectively for the four different treatments. Cox proportional hazards model results showed that bupropion HCl, erythrohydrobupropion HCl, and threohydrobupropion HCl were significantly less likely to induce convulsions within the 2-h post treatment observation period compared to hydroxybupropion HCl. The

  4. Febrile convulsions and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and febrile convulsions are related aetiologically. We compared the risk of SIDS in 9877 siblings of children who had had febrile convulsions with that of 20.177 siblings of children who had never had febrile convulsions. We found...

  5. Pharmacological screening of Malian medicinal plants used against epilepsy and convulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael E; Vestergaard, Henrik T; Hansen, Suzanne L

    2009-01-01

    Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants.......Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants....

  6. Orthostatic convulsive syncope in a burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primrose, Matthew; McDermid, Robert C; Tredget, Edward E; Khadaroo, Rachel G

    2012-01-01

    Orthostatic convulsive syncope is defined as a decrease in cerebral blood supply resulting in convulsive, seizure-like symptoms. The authors present the first case report of orthostatic convulsive syncope in a burn patient. There are many causes of transient loss of consciousness in patients. An algorithm is presented to aid in the workup and management strategies for this diagnosis. This approach in conjunction with a neurology consult should add in the assessment and treatment of transient loss of consciousness and orthostatic convulsive syncope in a burn patient.

  7. The relationship between iron deficiency anemia and simple febrile convulsion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Eghbali, Aziz; Rafeie, Mohammad; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Zolfi, Mohaddeseh; Firouzifar, Mohammadreza

    2014-05-01

    Simple febrile convulsion is the most common disease of the nervous system in children. There are hypotheses that iron deficiency may affect febrile convulsion and the threshold of neuron excitation. This study was conducted with the objective of finding the effects of iron deficiency anemia on simple febrile convulsion episodes. The study was conducted at AmirKabir Hospital of Arak Medical Sciences University, Arak, Iran. This is a case-control study. In this study, 382 children who were selected according to our inclusion and exclusion factors, were divided into two groups of case (febrile convulsion) and control (other factors causing fever) by their cause of hospitalization. After fever subsided, 5 ml blood sample was taken from each child and complete blood count and iron profile tests were performed. The results were interpreted using descriptive statistics and independent t-test. The prevalence of anemia in the group with febrile convulsion was significantly less than that in the control group: 22.5% of the children in the group with febrile convulsion and 34% in the control group exhibited anemia (P < 0.001). Moreover, the group with febrile convulsion had significantly higher blood indices, such as Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, and MCHC, compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Iron deficiency can prevent febrile convulsion in children and probably increases the threshold of neuron excitation in fever.

  8. Anti-convulsants and anti-depressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, A H; Ghandehari, J

    2007-01-01

    systems that use the monoamines. These pathways become more active after nerve injury and are the site of action of anti-depressants. This chapter reviews the evidence and mechanisms of drugs, both anti-depressants and anti-convulsants, that are believed to be effective in pain control, with a major emphasis on the neuropathic state.

  9. Hippocampal Abnormalities after Prolonged Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation times were determined in an MRI study of 14 children with prolonged febrile convulsions (PFC who were investigated, 1 within 5 days of a PFC, and 2 at follow-up 4-8 months after the acute study, at the Institute of Child Health, University College, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  10. Automated differentiation between epileptic and non-epileptic convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was the clinical validation of an automated algorithm based on surface electromyography (EMG) for differentiation between convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Forty-four consecutive episodes with convulsive events were automatically analyzed with the a......%) and 18 PNESs (95%). The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95%. This algorithm is useful for distinguishing between epileptic and psychogenic convulsive seizures....

  11. Some Aspects of Epilepsy and Convulsions in Childhood | Brett ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnostic and therapeutic problems of epilepsy and convulsions in childhood are reviewed. Their non-specific aetiology is stressed, particularly with neonatal convulsions and infantile spasms. The role of febrile convulsions in causing later temporal lobe epilepsy and gross neurological deficit, underlines the ...

  12. RECURRENT CONVULSIONS IN CAPE TOWN CHILDREN*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1970-11-03

    Nov 3, 1970 ... A layman who is present when a child has a convulsion is usually considerably distressed by the experience-the more so if the child is his own. Something of this anguish is reflected in the New Eng!ish Bible account of a father's petition to Christ: 'Have pity, Sir, on my son: he is an epileptic and has bad fits.

  13. Increased association between febrile convulsion and allergic rhinitis in children: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Ya; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Ku, Yi-Chia; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-04-01

    Febrile convulsions and allergic rhinitis are both common childhood disorders and both are considered as generally benign disorders. Yet, especially in the case of allergic rhinitis, adverse effects on school performance and limited socialization are found. The relationship between febrile convulsions and allergic rhinitis has not been previously reported; thus, this article seeks to explore the association between these two disorders by collecting data from the Taiwanese nationwide cohort database. A total of 1304 children with febrile convulsions were identified as the case cohort, and controls were matched based on age, sex, urbanization levels, and parents' occupation on a 1 to 4 ratio. Cox's proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio and confidence interval of allergic rhinitis disorder among children with febrile convulsions. During an average 6.7 years follow-up period, the incidence of allergic rhinitis in the febrile convulsions case group was higher (65.16 vs 51.45 per 1000 person-years). After 11 years of follow-up, the allergic rhinitis incidence in the febrile convulsion patients was approximate 4% higher than controls (log-rank test P allergic rhinitis in the febrile convulsions group was found to be 1.21 times higher than in the control group (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.36). This risk of allergic rhinitis development is further increased (0.94 vs 18.9) with frequency of febrile convulsions-related medical visits (one to three visits vs more than three visits, P allergic rhinitis occurrence in children. Children with more than three febrile convulsion-related medical visits had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of allergic rhinitis. Both disorders have previously been reported to have similar cytokine profiles and specific viral infection association. More studies are required to explore a possible link between the two disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate induced convulsions by 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, P.; Marvizon, J.C.G.; Jackson, B.W.; Monn, J.A.; Rice, K.C.; Lewin, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid is a potent and selective ligand for the glycine modulatory site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex. This compound blocks the convulsions and deaths produced by N-methyl-D-aspartate in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast, 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid does not protect mice against convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole, strychnine, bicuculline, or maximal electroshock, and does not impair motor performance on either a rotarod or horizontal wire at doses of up to 2 g/kg. The methyl- and ethyl- esters of 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid are 5- and 2.3-fold more potent, respectively, than the parent compound in blocking the convulsant and lethal effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate. However, these esters are several orders of magnitude less potent than 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid as inhibitors of strychnine-insensitive [ 3 H]glycine binding, indicating that conversion to the parent compound may be required to elicit an anticonvulsant action

  15. Home Management of Febrile Convulsion in Under-fives: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Home Management of Febrile Convulsion in Under-fives: an Assessment of Perceptions and Practices of Caregivers in Ojokoro Local Council Development Area, Lagos. ... Of the 46 respondents that reported previous history of febrile convulsion, 39(84.8%)carried out inappropriate pre-facility management practices.

  16. Quantitative comparison of the convulsive activity of combinations of twelve fluoroquinolones with five nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jahye; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2009-01-01

    Concomitant administration of certain fluoroquinolone antimicrobials and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs) induces serious convulsion in humans. There are differences in convulsive activity among fluoroquinolones and in the potentiation of fluoroquinolone-induced convulsion among NSAIDs, but a comprehensive, quantitative comparison has not been carried out. This study evaluates the inhibitory effects of twelve fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, fleroxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, pazufloxacin, prulifloxacin, sparfloxacin, and tosufloxacin) alone or in the presence of an NSAID (4-biphenylacetic acid, diclofenac sodium, loxoprofen, lornoxicam or zaltoprofen) on the GABA(A) receptor binding of [(3)H]muscimol in an in vitro study using mice synaptic plasma membrane. The rank order of inhibitory effects of the fluoroquinolones was prulifloxacin asymptotically equal to norfloxacin > ciprofloxacin > or = enoxacin > gatifloxacin > or = ofloxacin asymptotically equal to tosufloxacin asymptotically equal to lomefloxacin > levofloxacin > or = sparfloxacin > or = pazufloxacin asymptotically equal to fleroxacin. 4-Biphenylacetic acid most potently enhanced the inhibitory effects of the fluoroquinolones, while zaltoprofen, loxoprofen, lornoxicam and diclofenac had essentially no effect. The clinical risk of convulsion for each combination was estimated using a pharmacodynamic model based on receptor occupancy using the in vitro data set obtained and pharmacokinetic parameters in humans collected from the literature. The combinations of 4-biphenylacetic acid with prulifloxacin and enoxacin were concluded to be the most hazardous.

  17. Prognosis and predictors of convulsion among pediatric lupus nephritis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Einollahi, Behzad; Taheri, Saeed; Panahi, Yunes; Maddani, Abbas; Esfahani, Taher; Sharifi-Bonab, Mir Mohsen

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to analyze features and outcome of convulsion in pediatric lupus nephritis patients. We retrospectively reviewed data of 14 Iranian children with lupus nephritis who developed seizures and compared them with a group of the same number of well matched pediatric lupus nephritis patients. Higher serum creatinine levels and higher frequencies of anemia and lymphopenia were observed in the convulsion group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the only risk factor for development of convulsion in pediatric lupus patients with nephritis was lymphopenia. Survival analysis showed that convulsion had no impact on patient and renal function outcomes in our pediatric lupus nephritis subjects. In conclusion, we found that lymphopenia is a predictive factor for convulsion occurrence in our patients and special attention to neurological status assessment may be needed in this situation. (author)

  18. Efficacy and safety of fosphenytoin for benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Mika; Toda, Soichiro; Abe, Shinpei; Ikeno, Mitsuru; Igarashi, Ayuko; Nakahara, Eri; Yamashita, Shintaro; Niijima, Shinichi; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Okumura, Akihisa

    2015-10-01

    To clarify the efficacy and safety of fosphenytoin for seizures in children with benign convulsions and mild gastroenteritis. Using the mailing list of the Annual Zao Conference on Pediatric Neurology, we recruited patients who met the following criteria: (1) clinical diagnosis of benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis and (2) treatment with intravenous fosphenytoin. Benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis were defined as a condition of (a) seizures associated with gastroenteritis without electrolyte imbalance, hypoglycemia, or dehydration in patients (b) between 6 months and 3 years of age with (c) no preexisting neurological disorders, (d) no impaired consciousness, and (e) a body temperature less than 38.0 °C before and after the seizures. The efficacy of fosphenytoin was categorized as effective when cessation of seizures was achieved. Data from 16 child patients were obtained (median age, 20 months). Seizures were completely controlled after the initial dose of fosphenytoin in 14 of 16 patients. The median loading dose of fosphenytoin was 22.5 mg/kg. In 10 patients, fosphenytoin was administered after other antiepileptic drugs such as diazepam and midazolam were used. Adverse effects of fosphenytoin, excessive sedation, or intravenous fluid incompatibility were not observed in any patients. Fosphenytoin is effective and well tolerated among children with benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Involvement of taurine in penicillin-induced epilepsy and anti-convulsion of acupuncture: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Guo, Jing-Chun; Jin, Hong-Bing; Cheng, Jie-Shi; Yang, Ru

    2005-01-01

    The potential role of taurine on epilepsy and acupuncture anti-convulsion was addressed in the present study. Epilepsy was induced by micro-injection of penicillin into hippocampus of Wistar rats. Taurine was applied by intraperitioneal (i.p.) injection. Electro-acupuncture (EA) was performed on acupoints of DU 20 "Bai Hui" and DU 16 "Feng Fu" along DU channel. Epileptic grades were evaluated by electro-encephalography (EEG) and behavior score. We featured the dose-response relationship between taurine-treated epilepsy and epilepsy-only subjects, detected the effect of exogenous taurine on epilepsy and acupuncture treatment, and investigated taurine transporter immuno-activity in hippocampus using immunohistochemistry. It was found that: 1), taurine had a significant antiepileptic effect as applied at i.p. 20 mg/kg, 40mg/kg, 80mg/kg, especially at 40mg/kg in the rat model of penicillin-induced seizure. Animals were improved by one to three Racine grades in behavior and in frequency and amplitude of EEG. 2), Exogenous taurine enhanced the anti-convulsive effect of EA. Both behavior and EEG were improved in taurine-treated rats. EA inhibited epilepsy. Exogenous taurine improved epilepsy in a synergistic manner to EA. 3), EA increased the concentration of taurine transporter in hippocampus by comparing EA-treated epilepsy with normal control and penicillin only, or EA-treated plus taurine-treated epilepsy with taurine-treated only epilepsy and penicillin only. The resulting data suggested that taurine may play an inhibitory role against epilepsy as an inhibitory amino acid in the central nervous system and EA may inhibit epilepsy via upregulating the concentration of taurine transporter to increase the release of taurine.

  20. Is intravenous lorazepam really more effective and safe than intravenous diazepam as first-line treatment for convulsive status epilepticus? A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Bacigaluppi, Susanna; Nardone, Raffaele; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-11-01

    Some guidelines or expert consensus indicate that intravenous (IV) lorazepam (LZP) is preferable to IV diazepam (DZP) for initial treatment of convulsive status epilepticus (SE). We aimed to critically assess all the available data on efficacy and tolerability of IV LZP compared with IV DZP as first-line treatment of convulsive SE. Systematic search of the literature (MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IV LZP versus IV DZP used as first-line treatment for convulsive SE (generalized or focal). Inverse variance, Mantel-Haenszel meta-analysis to obtain risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of following outcomes: seizure cessation after drug administration; continuation of SE requiring a different drug; seizure cessation after a single dose of medication; need for ventilator support; clinically relevant hypotension. Five RCTs were included, with a total of 656 patients, 320 randomly allocated to IV LZP and 336 to IV DZP. No statistically significant differences were found between IV LZP and IV DZP for clinical seizure cessation (RR 1.09; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.20), continuation of SE requiring a different drug (RR 0.76; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.02), seizure cessation after a single dose of medication (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.08), need for ventilator support RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.43, and clinically relevant hypotension. Despite its favorable pharmacokinetic profile, a systematic appraisal of the literature does not provide evidence to strongly support the preferential use of IV LZP as first-line treatment of convulsive SE over IV DZP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gammabenzene hexachloride-induced convulsions in an HIV positive individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panvelkar V

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of chancroid with scabies with HIV positivity is being presented. The individual was treated with 1% gamma benzene hexachloride for scabies and developed convulsions.

  2. Stress-related behavioral alterations accompanying cocaine toxicity: the effects of mixed opioid drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yamamoto, K

    2000-12-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of mixed opioid drugs on the severity of cocaine (COCA) toxicity by examining stress-related behavioral alterations in mice. In order to ascertain the strength of the stress, the continuous observation of the behavioral symptoms in the cage and the forced swimming test (Porsolt test) were performed in the COCA (75 mg/kg, i.p.)-treated groups, with or without the mixed mu-kappa receptor-related opioid drugs, buprenorphine (BUP) and pentazocine (PEN). Using the high-sensitivity activity measuring instrument Supermex, both the spontaneous behaviors in the cage and the forced swimming behaviors in the water were assessed as activity counts. The behavioral alterations in the COCA-treated groups were compared with a group of mice given a 10 min immobilization stress (IM group). In the COCA-only group, a prolonged increase in the spontaneous behaviors accompanied by convulsive seizures was observed even in the surviving mice, unlike in the IM group. However, an acceleration of behavioral despair in the Porsolt test similar to that observed in the IM group was observed in the COCA group after the disappearance of the acute toxic symptoms (5 hours after the COCA treatment). Among the opioid-treated groups, the mortality rate was attenuated only in the COCA-BUP (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) group. In the COCA-BUP group, a prolonged suppression of the morbid hyperactivity in the cage except for the convulsive seizures, and a normalization of the swimming behavior in the Porsolt test were observed in the survivors. On the other hand, in the COCA-PEN (5 mg/kg, i.p.) group, the swimming behavior in the Porsolt test was abnormally increased in addition to the prolonged morbid hyperactivity in the cage. Therefore, the COCA-induced stress-related behaviors were normalized in the group of mice treated with BUP, a group with a good prognosis.

  3. Etiology of convulsions in neonatal and infantile period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, T; Yokata, K; Takashima, S; Nambu, Y; Hanai, T

    1976-01-01

    1) Etiology of convulsions starting prior to two years of age was discussed in 418 cases. Neonatal seizures before 30 days old appeared in 86 cases (53 boys and 33 girls). Three hundred and thirty-two patients (172 boys and 160 girls) had convulsions in infancy. Twelve patients (9 boys and 3 girls) suffered from convulsions both in neonatal and infantile period. 2)Etiology of convulsions was prenatal in 67 cases (16%), natal in 49 cases (12%), postnatal in 158 cases (38%) and unknown in 144 cases (34%). Prenatal factors consisted of cerebral malformation (23 cases, 6%), associated physical minor anomaly such as cataracta or finger abomaly (11 cases, 3%), abnormal pernatal history (8 cases, 2%), congenital heart disease 3) cases, 1%), tuberose scleorsis (7 cases, 2%) and positive family history (13 cases, 3%). Postnatal causes included hypocalcemia or hypoglycemia (7 cases, 2%), brain tumors (3 cases, 1%), breath-holding spells (21 cases, 5%), febrile convulsion (44 cases, 11%), bathing (3 cases, 1%), afebrile colds (3 cases, 1%), purulent meningitis (17 cases, 4%), DPT immunization (10 cases 2%), vaccination (7 cases, 2%) and acute hemiplegia (10 cases, 2%). The group of unknown etiology were as fns (38 cases, 9%), epilepsy associated with interictal signs (23 cases, 6%), benign infantile convulsions (57 cases, 14%), neonatal convulsion of unknown etiology (12 cases, 3%) and miscellaneous categories (4%). 3) Pregnancy was abnormal in 53% of cases with cerebral malformation. Asphyxia at birth was noted in 43% of patients with tuberose sclerosis and in 35% of congenital cerebral abomaly. 4) Pneumoencephalographic examinations revealed midline anomaly in 50% of cerebral malformation. It was abnormal in all cases with tuberose sclerosis, head injury and epilepsy with interseizure neurological signs. 5) There were no correlations between the seizure pattern and the etiology in neonatal convulsion. In infancy, focal-unilateral convulsions and infantile spasms were

  4. New lessons: Classic treatments in convulsive status epilepticus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Renganathan, R

    2012-02-03

    Convulsive status epilepticus is a relatively common life-threatening illness requiring prompt intervention. There has been much debate about the appropriate protocol for management of convulsive status epilepticus. Published data on the management of this condition in Ireland is limited. Our aim was to establish if there was a structured, evidence-based or consensus-based protocol being implemented in the management of status epilepticus in our centre. We retrospectively audited all charts with a diagnosis of \\'Status Epilepticus\\' admitted to our hospital from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 95 episodes of convulsive status epilepticus were recorded. 34 charts were reviewed. Benzodiazepines were the drug class of first choice in 96% of patients. However, the doses of benzodiazepines used varied widely. The most frequent dose of phenytoin used was 1 gram. No one received continuous EEG monitoring during treatment of refractory status epilepticus. Overall mortality was 18%. The results of this study show that there is no consistent protocol was being followed for the management of convulsive status epilepticus in our centre. The drugs of first choice varied between diazepam and lorazepam in most cases. Although phenytoin was used as second line drug, the dose used was frequently suboptimal. We have developed a protocol for the management for convulsive status in our centre.

  5. HEREDITARY DISEASES AND SYNDROMES ACCOMPANIED BY FEBRILE CONVULSIONS: CLINICAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Dadali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors provide a review of the clinical and genetic characteristics of hereditary diseases and syndromes accompanied by febrile convulsions, which is illustrated by examples of their own observations. The paper sets forth the possibilities and limitations of using current methods for the molecular genetic diagnosis of idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsies. The most effective and less expensive technique of molecular genetic analysis is shown to be an exome sequencing test using the panels of genes responsible for the occurrence of diseases with simi1ar clinical symptoms. The paper also presents the structure of the panel of genes responsible for the occurrence of monogenic epilepsies, which has been designed at the Genomed Clinic and includes 448 genetic variants. It also determines the significance of using a chromosomal microarray analysis to diagnose both chromosomal and monogenic diseases accompanied by convulsions

  6. [Median nerve constrictive operation combined with tendon transfer to treat brain paralysis convulsive deformity of hand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shanjun; Zhou, Tianjian

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the median nerve constrictive operation combined with tendon transfer to treat the brain paralysis convulsive deformity of the hand. The clinical data from 21 cases with brain paralysis convulsive deformity of the hand were analyzed retrospectively between August 2009 and April 2012. Of them, there were 13 males and 8 females with an average age of 15 years (range, 10-29 years). The causes of the convulsive cerebral palsy included preterm deliveries in 11 cases, hypoxia asphyxia in 7, traumatic brain injury in 2, and encephalitis sequela in 1. The disease duration was 2-26 years (mean, 10.6 years). All the 21 patients had cock waists, crooking fingers, and contracture of adductors pollicis, 12 had the forearm pronation deformity. According to Ashworth criteria, there were 2 cases at level I, 5 cases at level II, 8 cases at level III, 4 cases at level IV, and 2 cases at level V. All patients had no intelligence disturbances. The forearm X-ray film showed no bone architectural changes before operation. The contraction of muscle and innervation was analyzed before operation. The median nerve constrictive operation combined with tendon transfer was performed. The functional activities and deformity improvement were evaluated during follow-up. After operation, all the patients' incision healed by first intension, without muscle atrophy and ischemic spasm. All the 21 cases were followed up 1.5-4.5 years (mean, 2.3 years). No superficial sensory loss occurred. The effectiveness was excellent in 13 cases, good in 6 cases, and poor in 2 cases, with an excellent and good rate of 90.4% at last follow-up. The median nerve constrictive operation combined with tendon transfer to treat brain paralysis convulsive deformity of the hand can remove and prevent the recurrence of spasm, achieve the orthopedic goals, to assure the restoration of motor function and the improvement of the life quality.

  7. [Convulsive status secondary to star anise poisoning in a neonate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Campos, M; Pérez Navero, J L; Ibarra De La Rosa, I

    2002-10-01

    Despite its potential toxicity, the use of star anise infusions for the treatment of infant colic is firmly rooted in our culture. In the last year, several cases of infants with acute neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of large quantities of star-shaped anise have been reported in Spain. We report a 1-month old girl who was admitted to our emergency room with convulsive status after ingesting a considerable amount of star anis administered to relieve possible infant colic. The patient required three repeat doses of diazepam to control the seizures. Because no abnormalities were found and outcome was favorable without anticonvulsant therapy, the clinical symptoms can be attributed to star anise ingestion, which contains potent neurotoxins such as veranisatins. The etiopathogenesis of this process and star anise toxicity are discussed and the need for the regulation of natural products with pharmacological effects which are freely dispensed from drug stores is stressed. Finally, the regulations of the Ministry of Health and Consumption for 2001 concerning the withdrawal of all anise-containing products are presented.

  8. Epilepsy is associated with ventricular alterations following convulsive status epilepticus in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Wail; Bubolz, Beth A; Nguyen, Linh; Castro, Danny; Coss-Bu, Jorge; Quach, Michael M; Kennedy, Curtis E; Anderson, Anne E; Lai, Yi-Chen

    2017-12-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus can exert profound cardiovascular effects in adults including ventricular depolarization-repolarization abnormalities. Whether status epilepticus adversely affects ventricular electrical properties in children is less understood. Therefore, we sought to characterize ventricular alterations and the associated clinical factors in children following convulsive status epilepticus. We conducted a 2-year retrospective, case-control study. Children between 1 month and 21 years of age were included if they were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with primary diagnosis of convulsive status epilepticus and had 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) within 24 hours of admission. Children with heart disease, ion channelopathy, or on vasoactive medications were excluded. Age-matched control subjects had no history of seizures or epilepsy. The primary outcome was ventricular abnormalities represented by ST segment changes, abnormal T wave, QRS axis deviation, and corrected QT (QTc) interval prolongation. The secondary outcomes included QT/RR relationship, beat-to-beat QTc interval variability, ECG interval measurement between groups, and clinical factors associated with ECG abnormalities. Of 317 eligible children, 59 met the inclusion criteria. History of epilepsy was present in 31 children (epileptic) and absent in 28 children (non-epileptic). Compared with the control subjects (n = 31), the status epilepticus groups were more likely to have an abnormal ECG with overall odds ratio of 3.8 and 7.0 for the non-epileptic and the epileptic groups respectively. Simple linear regression analysis demonstrated that children with epilepsy exhibited impaired dependence and adaptation of the QT interval on heart rate. Beat-to-beat QTc interval variability, a marker of ventricular repolarization instability, was increased in children with epilepsy. Convulsive status epilepticus can adversely affect ventricular electrical properties and stability in children

  9. Bilateral Paramedian Thalamic Infarction Initially Presenting as a Convulsive Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bithalamic infarctions initially presenting as a convulsive seizure are rarely reported and, to our best knowledge, have never been reported in China. Here, we present a patient with convulsive seizure at the onset of bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction. The diffusion-weighted imaging revealed that the infarct area is supplied by Percheron artery. Associated with the relationship between seizure and centrencephalic system and reticular formation as previously reported, we suggest that seizure could be the onset symptom of paramedian thalamic infarction. Physicians should recognize this condition, because both seizure control and early ischemic stroke management are required.

  10. Convulsive syncope related to a small dose of quetiapine in an adolescent with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai J

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Jianbo Lai,1,2 Qiaoqiao Lu,3 Tingting Huang,3 Shaohua Hu,1,2 Yi Xu1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 2Key Laboratory of Mental Disorder Management in Zhejiang Province, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China Abstract: Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has been extensively used in patients with bipolar disorder. Overdose of quetiapine can result in severe complications, such as coma, seizure, respiratory depression, arrhythmia, and even death. However, the paucity of toxicological evaluation in adolescence causes more potential risks in this population. Herein, we present a case of hypotension and convulsive syncope after exposure to a small dose of quetiapine in a 16-year-old who was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. After cessation of quetiapine, no additional convulsive movements were reported. This case indicates that even in young patients without predisposing factors, close monitoring of adverse effects should be warranted for safety concerns, especially at the initiation of quetiapine treatment. Keywords: quetiapine, bipolar disorder, hypotension, convulsive syncope

  11. Rocuronium and sugammadex: An alternative to succinylcholine for electro convulsive therapy in patients with suspected neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramamoorthy, Karthik G

    2012-01-31

    We report a case of presumptive neuroleptic malignant syndrome requiring muscle relaxation for electro-convulsive therapy. short acting muscle relaxation without the use of succinylcholine was achieved using rocvronivm reversed with the novel reversal agent sugammadex. We suggest that this combination is a safe and effective alternative to succinylcholine in such cases.

  12. Febrile Convulsion among Hospitalized Children Aged Six Months ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Febrile convulsion and sickle cell disease are common in tropical countries and both are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Worldwide, Nigeria has the highest prevalence of sickle cell disease. However, there is a dearth of knowledge on the haemoglobin electrophoresis in patients with ...

  13. Distribution of risk factors among children with febrile convulsions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximal risk factors are male gender, age < 2 years, 2nd birth order and positive family nd history. The social status of families is a distal risk factor. The second year of life and 2 birth order are the strongest predisposing factors to the development of FC. Key words: Febrile convulsions, Risk factors, Benin City, Nigeria ...

  14. Clinical Presentation of Febrile Convulsions in Benin City | Osaghae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Febrile convulsions are caused by fever due to infection soccuring outside the Central Nervous System and are recognised as major contributors to morbidity and mortality in children 6months to 60 months of age in developing countries. This study is designed to determine its prevalence in children, with a view to ...

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for Active Convulsive Epilepsy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little data in West Africa, to develop public health measures for epilepsy in this region. Methods: We conducted a three-stage cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence and risk factors for active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), and estimated the ...

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for Active Convulsive Epilepsy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little data in West Africa, to develop public health measures for epilepsy in this region. Methods: we conducted a three-stage cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence and risk factors for active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), and estimated the ...

  17. Some Aspects of Epilepsy and Convulsions in Childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-06

    Apr 6, 1974 ... In this review of some of the problems of epilepsy and convulsions in children, it seems wise to start by drawing a distinction between the child with epilepsy, defined as a tendency to recurrent attacks, on the one hand, and the child who, in certain situations, and only in such situations, has one or more ...

  18. CONVULSIVE DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH REFERENCE TO TREATMENT WITH KETOGENIC DIET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEITH, HADDOW M.

    WRITTEN FOR THE MEDICAL PROFESSION, THIS BOOK PROVIDES INFORMATION ON CHILDHOOD CONVULSIONS (EPILEPSY) AND METHODS OF TREATMENT. VARIOUS CONVULSIVE DISORDERS, INCLUDING HYPSARHYTHMIA, AUTONOMIC SEIZURES, SYMPTOM COMPLEXES, FEBRILE CONVULSIONS, AND "PHOTOGENIC" DISORDERS, ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, AND TREATMENT.…

  19. Electro convulsive therapy in a pre-pubertal child with severe depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT in pre-pubertal children is a controversial and underreported treatment. Even though the effectiveness and side effects of ECT in adolescents are comparable with those in adults, there is a pervasive reluctance to use ECT in children and adolescents. We report the case of a pre-pubertal child in an episode of severe depression with catatonic features, where a protracted course of ECT proved life-saving in spite of prolonged duration of seizures and delayed response to treatment. The case illustrates the safety and efficacy of ECT in children. Relevant literature is also reviewed along with the case report.

  20. Convulsive Movements in Bilateral Paramedian Thalamic and Midbrain Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Yamashiro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although some previous reports have described convulsive movements in bilateral paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarction, little is known about their nature. A 71-year-old man presented with impaired consciousness and clonic movements of both arms. Each series of movements lasted 10 to 20 s and occurred at 2- to 3-min intervals, which disappeared after intravenous administration of diazepam and phenytoin. Magnetic resonance imaging showed acute bilateral paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarction. A review of the literature revealed that convulsive movements were observed mostly at the onset of infarction. Clonic movements appeared frequently in the limbs, particularly in both arms. Clinical observations and results of animal experiments suggest that these seizures might originate from the mesencephalic reticular formation. Physicians should recognize this condition, because not only seizure control but also early management of ischemic stroke is required.

  1. Concussive convulsions: A YouTube video analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tényi, Dalma; Gyimesi, Csilla; Horváth, Réka; Kovács, Norbert; Ábrahám, Hajnalka; Darnai, Gergely; Fogarasi, András; Büki, András; Janszky, József

    2016-08-01

    To analyze seizure-like motor phenomena immediately occurring after concussion (concussive convulsions). Twenty-five videos of concussive convulsions were obtained from YouTube as a result of numerous sports-related search terms. The videos were analyzed by four independent observers, documenting observations of the casualty, the head injury, motor symptoms of the concussive convulsions, the postictal period, and the outcome. Immediate responses included the fencing response, bear hug position, and bilateral leg extension. Fencing response was the most common. The side of the hit (p = 0.039) and the head turning (p = 0.0002) was ipsilateral to the extended arm. There was a tendency that if the blow had only a vertical component, the bear hug position appeared more frequently (p = 0.12). The motor symptom that appeared with latency of 6 ± 3 s was clonus, sometimes superimposed with tonic motor phenomena. Clonus was focal, focally evolving bilateral or bilateral, with a duration of 27 ± 19 s (5-72 s). Where lateralization of clonus could be determined, the side of clonus and the side of hit were contralateral (p = 0.039). Concussive convulsions consist of two phases. The short-latency first phase encompasses motor phenomena resembling neonatal reflexes and may be of brainstem origin. The long-latency second phase consists of clonus. We hypothesize that the motor symptoms of the long-latency phase are attributed to cortical structures; however, they are probably not epileptic in origin but rather a result of a transient cortical neuronal disturbance induced by mechanical forces. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Behavioral efficacy of diazepam against nerve agent exposure in rhesus monkeys. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, C.A.; Larsen, T.; Finger, A.V.; Solana, R.P.; McMaster, S.B.

    1991-12-31

    The possibility that nerve agents will be used on the battlefield is real. The traditional therapy against nerve agent exposure consists of pyridostigmine pretreatment and atropine-pralidoxime chloride therapy administered after nerve agent exposure. This therapy regimen is extremely effective in preventing mortality in laboratory animals exposed to multilethal concentrations of nerve agent, yet these animals often display convulsions, brain damage, and behavioral incapacitation. We report here that the addition of diazepam to the traditional therapy for nerve agent (soman) exposure not only decreases the incidence of convulsions, but also attenuates the cognitive impairments of rhesus monkeys trained on a Serial Probe Recognition (SPR) task. Monkeys which received diazepam treatment required only 6 days before their performance on the SPR task returned to presoman exposure levels, compared to nondiazepamtreated monkeys which required 15 days. Moreover, only 1 out of the 5 monkeys which received diazepain treatment suffered tonic-clonic convulsions; in contrast all 5 monkeys which did not receive diazepam treatment experienced severe convulsive episodes. These results suggest that diazepam would be an excellent adjunct to traditional nerve agent therapy to facilitate behavioral recovery from nerve agent intoxication that might be encountered by US military personnel on the battlefield or accidental organophosphate poisoning encountered in industrial or agricultural accidents. Serial probe recognition task, diazepam, nerve agents, soman convulsions, rhesus monkeys, cognition, organophosphate.

  3. COMPROMISE EFFECT ON CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Surkamta Eric Santosa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The way consumers think about the products they will buy determines their buying behavior. The decision to buy a particular product is obviously in accordance with the buyer’s attitude. The buyers will also feel more comfortable if their behavior meets with the approval and expectations of the people close to them. While the development of a certain attitude has no effect on subjective judgment, the effect of compromise is likely to make a contribution to its development. Since it is still unclear, this study’s main purposed is to clarify this. In addition, while an attitude is theorized as being a predictor of behavior, through behavioral intention, the study’s secondary purpose is to boost the earlier findings. Likewise, in accordance with the theory of planned behavior, the study will also examine the other predictors of behavioral intention, in relation to the behavioral intention itself. A sample consisting of a 100 respondents was compiled by using the convenience and judgment technique. The data were analyzed using Amos 16.0 and SPSS 16.0. As expected, the compromise effect had a significant influence on whether the customers’ attitude or the subjective norm was the main determinant. Likewise, the customers’ attitude, the subjective norm and perceived behavioral control were confirmed as good predictors of customers’ behavioral intentions.

  4. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pretreatment and prophylaxis against nerve agent poisoning: Are undesirable behavioral side effects unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrer, Trond; Aas, Pål

    2016-12-01

    The threat of chemical warfare agents like nerve agents requires life saving measures of medical pretreatment combined with treatment after exposure. Pretreatment (pyridostigmine) may cause some side effects in a small number of individuals. A comprehensive research on animals has been performed to clarify effects on behavior. The results from these studies are far from unambiguous, since pyridostigmine may produce adverse effects on behavior in animals in relatively high doses, but not in a consistent way. Other animal studies have examined the potential of drugs like physostigmine, galantamine, benactyzine, trihexyphenidyl, and procyclidine, but they all produce marked behavioral impairment at doses sufficient to contribute to protection against a convulsant dose of soman. Attempts have also been made to develop a combination of drugs capable of assuring full protection (prophylaxis) against nerve agents. However, common to all combinations is that they at anticonvulsant doses cause behavioral deficits. Therefore, the use of limited pretreatment doses may be performed without marked side effects followed by post-exposure therapy with a combination of drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Studies on prostaglandin F2 alpha formation caused by pentametylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seregi, A; Folly, G; Antal, M; Serfözö, P; Schaefer, A

    1981-02-01

    Prostaglandin F2 alpha formation caused by pentametylenetetrazol convulsions was studied as a function of the duration, the doses of the convulsant and the intensity of the seizures. It was shown by the statistical analysis of the results in the case of clonic convulsions that the amount of synthetized PGF2 alpha did not depend on the doses of convulsant, while close relation existed between the duration and the PGF2 alpha production. At the same time, during tonic convulsions lasting longer than 50 sec, no more increase in the PGF2 alpha content of the brain was observed. An experimental model is suggested to study in vivo the mechanisms regulating the brain's prostaglandin biosynthesis. Pretreatment of the animals with reserpine did not affect the rate of convulsion-induced PGF2 alpha-formation.

  7. The seizure, not electricity, is essential in convulsive therapy: the flurothyl experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Max

    2014-06-01

    For more than 50 years, research in convulsive therapy has been focused on the impact of electricity and seizures on memory and not on brain chemistry or neurophysiology. Brief pulse and ultra-brief pulse currents replaced sinusoidal currents. Electrode placements were varied, energy dosing was altered, and electricity was replaced by magnetic currents. The published experiences and archival records of seizures induced by camphor, pentylenetetrazol, and flurothyl are reviewed and compared with the changes induced by electricity. The clinical efficacy of chemically induced seizures is equal to that of electrical inductions. Seizure durations are longer, and impairment of cognition and memory is less. Electroconvulsive therapy replaced chemical treatments for ease of use, not for greater efficacy or safety. The brain seizure, not the method of induction, is the essential element in the efficacy of convulsive therapy. Seizure induction with chemicals avoids the direct effects of electricity on brain functions with lesser effects on cognition. Reexamination of chemical inductions of seizures as replacements for electricity is encouraged.

  8. Strychnine poisoning as an unusual cause of convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, D. J.; Tomson, C. R.; Seviour, J.; Dale, G.

    1989-01-01

    A fatal case of strychnine poisoning is presented. The patient vomited then suffered a series of tonic convulsions which were triggered by tactile stimulation. In between paroxysms he was initially alert. Eventually the patient became comatosed due to anoxia and had a cardiac arrest. He presented with a marked metabolic acidosis and rapidly developed renal failure caused by acute rhabdomyolysis. This clinical picture is classical for strychnine poisoning and the complications which the intoxication produces. Attention is drawn to the fact that survival can even follow the ingestion of very large doses of strychnine providing there is no delay in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:2602253

  9. Dentate gyrus mossy cells control spontaneous convulsive seizures and spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Anh D; Nguyen, Theresa M; Limouse, Charles; Kim, Hannah K; Szabo, Gergely G; Felong, Sylwia; Maroso, Mattia; Soltesz, Ivan

    2018-02-16

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is characterized by debilitating, recurring seizures and an increased risk for cognitive deficits. Mossy cells (MCs) are key neurons in the hippocampal excitatory circuit, and the partial loss of MCs is a major hallmark of TLE. We investigated how MCs contribute to spontaneous ictal activity and to spatial contextual memory in a mouse model of TLE with hippocampal sclerosis, using a combination of optogenetic, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches. In chronically epileptic mice, real-time optogenetic modulation of MCs during spontaneous hippocampal seizures controlled the progression of activity from an electrographic to convulsive seizure. Decreased MC activity is sufficient to impede encoding of spatial context, recapitulating observed cognitive deficits in chronically epileptic mice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  10. Assessment of the Level of GABA and Some Trace Elements in Blood in Children who Suffer from Familial Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama N. Salah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizure is one of the most common neurological problems during childhood. The etiology and pathogenesis of febrile seizure remain unknown. However, several factors such as vitamin B6 deficiency, electrolyte disturbances, and reduction in serum zinc, selenium, magnesium levels, and low gamma - aminobutyric acid (GABA levels are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of febrile seizure. The present study included twenty children from 10 families, 11 were male and 9 were female. Each family has at least 2 members with a history of febrile convulsion. All cases were subjected to the following: Determination of serum levels of copper, zinc, magnesium, selenium level in serum, and plasma level of γ-aminobytaric acid (GABA. Serum levels of selenium and GABA were statistically significantly low in comparison with controls. Serum copper was statistically significantly higher in cases than controls, while serum zinc showed no significant changes in the cases of febrile convulsion compared with the control group. The mean Zn level in the serum of febrile convulsion was found to be at lower level than in the control group. The serum magnesium was significantly low in cases than controls. The logistic regression model in our study shows that Selenium and Magnesium have protective effects, while Copper has causative effect.

  11. Behavioral and electroencephalographic effects of delta sleep inducing peptide and its analogue on metaphit-induced audiogenic seizures in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojlović Olivera P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP is well known natural somnogenic peptide that has many other physiological functions. DSIP analogues representing hepta-and octapeptides (also known as long as well as tetrapeptide (termed short, used in our experiments were synthesized with a view to evaluate the peptide specificity in sleep. The effects of DSIP and its analogue DSIP1-4 on metaphit 1-[1(3-isothiocyanatophenyl-ciclohexyl-piperidine] induced audiogenic seizures were evaluated in rats. METHODS Male Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups: 1. Saline; 2. Metaphit; 3. Metaphit + DSIP, and 4. Metaphit + DSIP1-4. To examine the blocking effects of DSIP and its analogue on fully developed metaphit seizures, the last two groups were injected after the 8th audiogenic testing. Animals were injected with metaphit (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p. and exposed to sound stimulation (100±3 dB, 60 s at hourly intervals. The incidence and severity (running, clonus and tonus of seizures were analyzed. For electroencephalographic (EEG recordings, three gold-plated electrodes were used. Convulsive behavior was assessed by incidence of motor seizure and by seizure severity grade, determined by descriptive rating scale ranging from 0 to 3:0- no response, 1 -wild running only; 2-wild running followed by clonic seizures of all four limbs with body rollover; 3 - wild running progressing to generalized clonic convulsions followed by tonic extension of fore-and hind legs and tail. Sound onset, seizure events, and sound offset, along with the animal's behavior (convulsive or other were characterized with EEG changes. RESULTS In most animals, the administration of metaphit resulted in electroencephalographic abnormalities, elicited epileptic-form activity in the form of spikes, polyspikes and spike-wave complexes. Maximum incidence and severity of metaphit convulsions occurred 8 h after the injection (9/12, 75%, then abated gradually and disappeared 30 h

  12. Role of cow urine on the onset of leptazole-induced convulsion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the possible preventive role of cow urine on the onset of pentylenetetrazole (leptazole) induced convulsion in Wistar rats. Forty rats (each weighing 100-120g) in four groups were used. Two groups were orally administered with varying doses of cow urine and, after 60 minutes, convulsive dose ...

  13. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Randrianarivo

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The results confirmed at least partly the traditional uses of the smoke of M. moschatus for the management of convulsion, and implied that the essential oil may inhibit the convulsion by GABAergic neuromodulation.

  14. Spreading convulsions, spreading depolarization and epileptogenesis in human cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Jens P; Major, Sebastian; Pannek, Heinz-Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    channels initiates spreading depression of brain activity. In contrast, epileptic seizures show modest ion translocation and sustained depolarization below the inactivation threshold for action potential generating channels. Such modest sustained depolarization allows synchronous, highly frequent neuronal...... stimulations. Eventually, epileptic field potentials were recorded during the period that had originally seen spreading depression of activity. Such spreading convulsions are characterized by epileptic field potentials on the final shoulder of the large slow potential change of spreading depolarization. We...... depolarizations in contrast to only three patients (12%) with 55 ictal epileptic events isolated from spreading depolarizations. Spreading depolarization frequency and depression periods per 24 h recording episodes showed an early and a delayed peak on Day 7. Patients surviving subarachnoid haemorrhage with poor...

  15. Incidence of convulsive epilepsy in a rural area in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Anthony K; Bottomley, Christian; Scott, J Anthony G; Mung'ala-Odera, Victor; Bauni, Evasius; Sander, Josemir W; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Newton, Charles R

    2013-08-01

    There are only a few studies of incidence of epilepsy in low and middle income countries (LMICs). These are often small and conducted in specific age groups or areas where the prevalence of risk factors is high; therefore, these studies are not representative of the wider populations. We determined the incidence of convulsive epilepsy (CE) in a large rural population in Kenya. We conducted two cross-sectional surveys 5 years apart within a health and demographic surveillance system. Initially we identified residents without epilepsy who were then reexamined in the follow-up survey to determine incidence. We estimated the overall incidence of CE and incidence by age-group, sex, and by administrative location. Estimates were adjusted for attrition during case identification and for the sensitivity of the screening method. In a cohort of 151,408 people, 194 developed CE over the 5 years. The minimum crude incidence rate was 37.6/100,000 persons per year (95% confidence interval (CI) 32.7-43.3) and adjusted for loss to follow-up, and the sensitivity of the survey methodology was 77.0/100,000 persons per year (95% CI 67.7-87.4). Incidence was highest in children 6-12 years (96.1/100,000 persons per year; 95% CI 78.4-117.9), and was lowest in the 29-49 year age group (37.4/100,000 persons per year; 95% CI 25.7-54.7). We estimated a high incidence of convulsive epilepsy in this population. Incidence was highest early and late in life, suggesting that preventive interventions should target exposures that occur in these age groups. Incidence of focal epilepsy was more than twice that of generalized epilepsy, suggesting that etiologies that are amenable to intervention were most important in this population. It is likely that incidence is underestimated because of the early mortality of incident cases. © 2013 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Behavioral side effects of prophylactic therapies against soman-induced seizures and lethality in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Myhrer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four medical therapies previously shown to exert varying degrees of protection against a convulsant dose of soman were assessed for potential behavioral side effects in a novelty test. In Experiment 1, HI-6 (1-[([4-(aminocarbonylpyridino] methoxymethyl]-2-[(hydroxyiminomethyl]pyridinium (125 mg/kg, scopolamine (1 mg/kg, physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg, levetiracetam (50 mg/kg, and procyclidine (20 mg/kg were tested separately. In Experiment 2, the combination of HI-6, scopolamine, and physostigmine (termed the physostigmine regimen or HI-6, levetiracetam, and procyclidine (termed the procyclidine regimen were tested. In Experiment 3, the metabotropic glutamate modulators DCG-IV ((2S,2′R,3′R-2-(2′,3′-dicarboxycyclopropylglycine (4 mg/kg and MPEP (2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynylpyridine hydrochloride (30 mg/kg were tested separately or each drug in combination with HI-6 and procyclidine (termed the DCG-IV regimen and the MPEP regimen, respectively. The results showed that the physostigmine and procyclidine regimens both produced severe cognitive impairment (lack of preference for novelty and reduced locomotor and rearing activities. The DCG-IV and MPEP regimens caused milder deficits on the same behavioral measures. Some relations were seen between prophylactic capacity and degree of behavioral side effects. Only HI-6 or levetiracetam had no adverse effects on behavior. DCG-IV or MPEP produced some impairment, whereas the detrimental effects of scopolamine or procyclidine were pronounced. The relatively high dose of procyclidine (anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic needed for prophylactic efficacy may have played a major role for the side effects of the regimens in which the drug was used. It was concluded that behavioral side effects are inevitable for potent prophylactic therapies against soman intoxication.

  17. Effects of Customer Engagement Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Żyminkowska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - Research addressing the customer engagement behavior (CEB has rapidly developed in the marketing discipline, contributing to the knowledge on network organization. However, insights into the specific outcomes of CEB remain largely nebulous. Few comprehensive conceptual frameworks of CEB effects exists in the literature to-date. The empirical verification of CEB outcomes, particularly at the firm level, is still missing. Design/methodology/approach - In this article we first provide an overview of the CEB conceptualizations and its effects. Next we develop the CEB firm-level performance outcomes framework. Finally we explore CEB process, forms and outcomes in Stanley Black & Decker, applying qualitative methodological approach (case research incl. participant observation. Findings - We propose the logically arranged CEB effects in the conceptual model integrated with marketing metrics which are related to the recent advances in customer equity and customer asset management. Research implications/limitations - In empirical research we focused on the CEB effects related to one type of customer behaviors, i.e. Stanley Black& Decker customers' involvement in the product development and innovation which is a limitation in obtain-ing the comprehensive empirical picture of all CEB forms and its outcomes. Further empirical research (incl. quantitative one is necessary to verify our conceptual model. Originality/value/contribution - Our model of firm-level performance effects of CEB extends existing proposals and contributes to the knowledge on effective CEB management process in network organizations.

  18. Climatic effects on planning behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Kostakos, Vassilis; Li, Hongxiu

    2015-01-01

    What mechanism links climate change and social change? Palaeoanthropological analysis of human remains suggests that abrupt climate change is linked to societal restructuring, but it has been challenging to reliably identify the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship. Here we identify one potential mechanism that can link climate to behavior change, and underpins many of the reported findings on social restructuring. Specifically, we show that daily weather is linked to human planning behavior, and this effect is moderated by climate. Our results demonstrate that as weather gets colder, humans increase their planning in cold regions and decrease planning in warm regions. Since planning has previously been linked to group efficiency, cooperation, and societal organization, our work suggests planning is one mechanism that can link climate change to societal restructuring.

  19. Climatic effects on planning behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    Full Text Available What mechanism links climate change and social change? Palaeoanthropological analysis of human remains suggests that abrupt climate change is linked to societal restructuring, but it has been challenging to reliably identify the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship. Here we identify one potential mechanism that can link climate to behavior change, and underpins many of the reported findings on social restructuring. Specifically, we show that daily weather is linked to human planning behavior, and this effect is moderated by climate. Our results demonstrate that as weather gets colder, humans increase their planning in cold regions and decrease planning in warm regions. Since planning has previously been linked to group efficiency, cooperation, and societal organization, our work suggests planning is one mechanism that can link climate change to societal restructuring.

  20. Clinical Epidemiology and Treatment of Febrile and Afebrile Convulsions With Mild Gastroenteritis: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yousuke; Kubo, Toshihide; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Nakamura, Naoko; Yokota, Ichiro; Komiyama, Osamu; Kamimaki, Isamu; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Uchida, Yasushi; Watanabe, Kyoko; Yamashita, Hironori; Tanaka, Shigeki; Iguchi, Kosei; Ichimi, Ryouji; Miyagawa, Shinichiro; Takayanagi, Toshimitsu; Koga, Hiroshi; Shukuya, Akinori; Saito, Akiko; Horibe, Keizo

    2017-02-01

    We investigated features and responses to treatment in patients with febrile and afebrile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis and characterized convulsions with rotavirus and norovirus gastroenteritis. We conducted a prospective, observational study to evaluate patients with febrile and afebrile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis who were hospitalized between November 2011 and March 2014 at 13 facilities in the National Hospital Organization. We classified the patients into two groups: presence or absence of fever. We investigated the background, clinical and laboratory characteristics, viral antigen in stool, and efficacy of anticonvulsant drugs. Of 126 patients enrolled in this study, 50 were febrile (Fc group) and 76 were afebrile (aFc group). A family history of febrile seizures was significantly more frequent in the Fc group than in the aFc group (28.0% vs 9.2%, P = 0.005). Clinical characteristics were similar between the rotavirus and norovirus groups, but fever was significantly more frequent in the rotavirus group (46.2% vs 8.3%, P gastroenteritis show characteristics of both febrile seizures and convulsions with mild gastroenteritis. Carbamazepine is optimal for convulsions with mild gastroenteritis. Clinical features of convulsions with rotavirus and norovirus gastroenteritis are similar, except for fever. Serum sodium levels may play a major role in the onset of convulsions with mild gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with convulsive status epilepticus in Africans with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Symon M; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Wagner, Ryan G; Chengo, Eddie; White, Steven; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Ngugi, Anthony K; Sander, Josemir W; Neville, Brian G R; Newton, Charles R J

    2015-05-05

    We conducted a community survey to estimate the prevalence and describe the features, risk factors, and consequences of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) among people with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) identified in a multisite survey in Africa. We obtained clinical histories of CSE and neurologic examination data among 1,196 people with ACE identified from a population of 379,166 people in 3 sites: Agincourt, South Africa; Iganga-Mayuge, Uganda; and Kilifi, Kenya. We performed serologic assessment for the presence of antibodies to parasitic infections and HIV and determined adherence to antiepileptic drugs. Consequences of CSE were assessed using a questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors. The adjusted prevalence of CSE in ACE among the general population across the 3 sites was 2.3 per 1,000, and differed with site (p < 0.0001). Over half (55%) of CSE occurred in febrile illnesses and focal seizures were present in 61%. Risk factors for CSE in ACE were neurologic impairments, acute encephalopathy, previous hospitalization, and presence of antibody titers to falciparum malaria and HIV; these differed across sites. Burns (15%), lack of education (49%), being single (77%), and unemployment (78%) were common in CSE; these differed across the 3 sites. Nine percent with and 10% without CSE died. CSE is common in people with ACE in Africa; most occurs with febrile illnesses, is untreated, and has focal features suggesting preventable risk factors. Effective prevention and the management of infections and neurologic impairments may reduce the burden of CSE in ACE. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Pyridoxine-dependent convulsions among children with refractory seizures: A 3-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor; Deepak, Sai; Teja, Ravi; Kuruthukulangara, Seby

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy accounts for 1% of the global disease burden and about 8-10 million epilepsy patients live in India. About 30-40% of these patients become drug-resistant and land up with palliative or disease-modifying surgeries. This is a situation causing great concern in view of the psychosocial and economic burden on the patient and the family apart from severe cognitive and motor consequences, especially in children. Therefore, it is mandatory to have an insight into the wide spectrum of causes with reference to refractoriness to antiepileptic medications in children with epilepsy. Children admitted under our team with refractory epilepsy as per the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) criteria in the last 3 years were included in the study. Refractory epilepsy constituted 13.3% of inpatients in the pediatric group. Males dominated with 68.9% of these patients. Nearly 34.4% of these patients were found to suffer from various neurometabolic diseases. Almost 3.5% were due to pyridoxine-dependent convulsions. This group of patients showed an excellent response to dietary manipulation, disease-modifying treatment for the metabolic disorder, and supportive small-dose anticonvulsants. During follow-up, they showed very good response with reference to global development and seizure control. Pyridoxine-dependent convulsions are relatively rare forming about 3.5% of refractory epilepsies in this series. With initiation of appropriate therapy, results with reference to seizure control as well as neurodevelopment became evident within 2 weeks, and at 1-year follow-up, complete independence for majority of the needed activities is achieved with minimum cost, almost zero side effects, and absolute elimination of the need for palliative surgery.

  3. 'Infantile convulsions' in the early nineteenth century. Abnormal brain blood flow and leeches, teething and gums' scarification and food and purgatives: the historical contribution of John Clarke (1760-1815).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Lattanzi, Simona; Trinka, Eugen; Nardone, Raffaele; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Ruggieri, Martino; Vecchio, Ignazio; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-20

    In this article, we discuss on the role of the British physician and midwifery practitioner John Clarke (1760-1815) in the characterisation of the various types of seizures and epilepsy and related phenomena ('convulsions') occurring in children. In his unfinished work Commentaries on Some of the Most Important Diseases of Children (1815), Clarke discussed the pathophysiology of convulsions and was the first to describe, 12 years before the French neurologist Louis Francois Bravais (1801-1843) and more than 30 years before the Irish-born physician Robert Bentley Todd (1809-1860), the postictal paresis. He believed that convulsions originated from changes in pressure within the ventricles as a consequence of abnormal blood flow to the cerebral vessels. In keeping with the theories of his time (e.g. Baumes 1789, 1805; Brachet 1824), Clarke believed that teething was a major cause of 'infantile convulsions'. His proposed remedies ranged from scarification of the gums to ammonia, application of leeches, cold water, and purgatives. The use of antispasmodics, quite popular at the time, was instead questioned. In his Practical Observations on the Convulsions of Infants (1826), the London practitioner and midwifery John North (1790-1873) deeply criticised Clarke's view that convulsions arise inevitably as a consequence of organic brain lesions. North inferred that the results of autopsies of children who had died of convulsions revealed no brain damages, and claimed that cerebral irritation could also occur as the effect of distant lesions. Other Clarke's contemporaries (e.g. Jean Baptiste Timothée Baumes-1756-1828) inferred that all convulsions reflected a hereditary diathesis, which rendered children (especially those with softer and limper nervous and muscular tissues!) extremely sensitive to all sorts of provocation that could trigger convulsions, including bad digestion (more pronounced at the time of teething), loud noise, and bright light. Although almost every

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid acid-base status and lactate and pyruvate concentrations after convulsions of varied duration and aetiology in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, H; Habel, A H; George, E L

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two infants and children were studied after convulsions of varied cause and duration. Arterial and CSF acid-base variables, lactate and pyruvate concentrations, and lactate/pyruvate ratios were measured between 3 and 18 hours after convulsive episodes. Biochemical signs of cerebral hypoxia were found in 7 patients with prolonged (greater than 30 minutes) or recurrent short convulsions. These signs were absent in patients with single short convulsions. These findings indicate that cerebral hypoxia and possible brain damage is a hazard of prolonged or rapidly recurring short convulsions. PMID:23078

  5. Comparison of the effects of the GABAB receptor positive modulator BHF177 and the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on anxiety-like behavior, learning, and memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Risbrough, Victoria B; Cates-Gatto, Chelsea; Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Finn, M G; Roberts, Amanda J; Markou, Athina

    2013-07-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptor activation is a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of drug addiction, pain, anxiety, and depression. However, full agonists of this receptor induce side-effects, such as sedation, muscle relaxation, tolerance, and cognitive disruption. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the GABAB receptor may have similar therapeutic effects as agonists with superior side-effect profiles. The present study behaviorally characterized N-([1R,2R,4S]-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl)-2-methyl-5-(4-[trifluoromethyl]phenyl)-4-pyrimidinamine (BHF177), a GABAB receptor PAM, in mouse models of anxiety-like behavior, learning and memory. In addition, the effects of BHF177 were compared with the agonist baclofen. Unlike the anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide, baclofen (0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and BHF177 (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, orally) had no effect on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box, or Vogel conflict test. Baclofen increased punished drinking in the Vogel conflict test, but this effect may be attributable to the analgesic actions of baclofen. At the highest dose tested (2.5 mg/kg), baclofen-treated mice exhibited sedation-like effects (i.e., reduced locomotor activity) across many of the tests, whereas BHF177-treated mice exhibited no sedation-like effects. BHF177 exhibited pro-convulsion properties only in mice, but not in rats, indicating that this effect may be species-specific. At doses that were not sedative or pro-convulsant, baclofen and BHF177 had no selective effects on fear memory retrieval in contextual and cued fear conditioning or spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze. These data suggest that BHF177 has little sedative activity, no anxiolytic-like profile, and minimal impairment of learning and memory in mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative analysis of surface electromyography during epileptic and nonepileptic convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of sustained muscle activation during convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), as compared to voluntary muscle activation. The main goal was to find surface electromyography (EMG) features that can distinguish between convuls...

  7. Overview of developmental, reproductive, and behavioral/ neurological effects of mercury exposures in wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.; Klimstra, J.; Stebbins, K.

    2007-01-01

    We review wildlife/mercury literature and our own research findings that demonstrate the relevance of wildlife toxicity data in protecting human health. Methylmercury affects wildlife through reduced adult survival and reproduction, aberrant behavior, immune system effects, and teratogenic effects. Methylmercury can readily cross the blood-brain barrier, is excreted into eggs in birds, and is transferred to young mammals across the placenta and in milk. Its principal effect on wildlife is on neurological functions. Wild mink (Mustela vison) and otter (Lutra canadensis) have died from methylmercury poisoning, with signs of poisoning including anorexia, loss of weight, incoordination, tremors, and convulsions, which are symptoms similar to those experienced by mercury-poisoned humans. Mammals also may experience tonic and clonic convulsions and an increase in fetal anomalies, again paralleling toxic problems in people. Antibody-producing cells can be suppressed by methylmercury. Microscopically, the most notable lesions are in the cerebrum. Extensive vacuolation of hepatocytes in the liver and necrosis and other changes in the appearance of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys are often noted. When harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) were dosed with methylmercury chloride the number of circulating erythrocytes decreased and white blood cell counts greatly increased. The poisoned seals also suffered from uremia, hyperproteinemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevations in lactic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase. In birds, signs of methylmercury poisoning included emaciation and weakness in the extremities, which progressed until the birds died. Mercury poisoning in birds and mammals can be diagnosed from a combination of the signs of poisoning if the animal is still alive, the pathological effects seen in a gross necropsy, the histopathological effects seen with a microscope, and the concentrations of mercury in various tissues. Our

  8. Effects of Anti-Convulsant Medication on Sleep Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    In addition, I do not believe that the rapid eye movements (REMs) are related to the amount of light exposure or to dream content. When we are awake...into SWS, there is a cessation of movements 9 (see Fig. 2). Relevant to this point is that the patient with sleep apnea , with his frequent awakenings

  9. Community concepts of malaria-related illness with and without convulsions in southern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahorlu Cynthia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, both with or without convulsions, is a serious hardship for people living in endemic areas, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Community references to malaria, however, may encompass other conditions, which was collectively designated malaria-related illness (MRI. Inasmuch as the presence or absence of convulsions reportedly affects timely help-seeking for malaria, a local comparison of these conditions is needed to inform malaria control. Methods Vignette-based EMIC interviews (insider-perspective interviews for MRI with convulsions (convulsion positive, MRI-CP and without convulsions (convulsion negative, MRI-CN were developed to study relevant features of MRI-related experience, meaning and behaviour in two rural communities in Ghana. These semi-structured interviews elicited both qualitative narrative and categorical codes for quantitative analysis. Interviews with 201 respondents were conducted. Results The conditions depicted in the vignettes were well recognized by respondents and named with various local terms. Both presentations were considered serious, but MRI-CP was more frequently regarded potentially fatal than MRI-CN. More than 90.0% of respondents in both groups acknowledged the need to seek outside help. However, significantly more respondents advised appropriate help-seeking within 24 (p = 0.01 and 48 (p = 0.01 hours for MRI-CP. Over 50.0% of respondents responding to questions about MRI-CP identified MRI-CN as a cause of convulsions. Conclusion Local comparison of MRI-CP and MRI-CN based on vignettes found a similar profile of reported categories of perceived causes, patterns of distress, help-seeking and preventive measures for both presentations. This differs from previous findings in sub-Saharan Africa, which assert communities regard the two conditions to be unrelated. The perceived relationships should be acknowledged in formulating strategies to control malaria through timely help-seeking and

  10. Community concepts of malaria-related illness with and without convulsions in southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahorlu, Collins K; Koram, Kwadwo A; Ahorlu, Cynthia; de Savigny, Don; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2005-09-27

    Malaria, both with or without convulsions, is a serious hardship for people living in endemic areas, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Community references to malaria, however, may encompass other conditions, which was collectively designated malaria-related illness (MRI). Inasmuch as the presence or absence of convulsions reportedly affects timely help-seeking for malaria, a local comparison of these conditions is needed to inform malaria control. Vignette-based EMIC interviews (insider-perspective interviews) for MRI with convulsions (convulsion positive, MRI-CP) and without convulsions (convulsion negative, MRI-CN) were developed to study relevant features of MRI-related experience, meaning and behaviour in two rural communities in Ghana. These semi-structured interviews elicited both qualitative narrative and categorical codes for quantitative analysis. Interviews with 201 respondents were conducted. The conditions depicted in the vignettes were well recognized by respondents and named with various local terms. Both presentations were considered serious, but MRI-CP was more frequently regarded potentially fatal than MRI-CN. More than 90.0% of respondents in both groups acknowledged the need to seek outside help. However, significantly more respondents advised appropriate help-seeking within 24 (p = 0.01) and 48 (p = 0.01) hours for MRI-CP. Over 50.0% of respondents responding to questions about MRI-CP identified MRI-CN as a cause of convulsions. Local comparison of MRI-CP and MRI-CN based on vignettes found a similar profile of reported categories of perceived causes, patterns of distress, help-seeking and preventive measures for both presentations. This differs from previous findings in sub-Saharan Africa, which assert communities regard the two conditions to be unrelated. The perceived relationships should be acknowledged in formulating strategies to control malaria through timely help-seeking and treatment to reduce childhood mortality.

  11. Lorazepam or diazepam for convulsive status epilepticus: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Xue, Rong

    2016-07-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is a neurological emergency in adults and children. However, whether a particular benzodiazepine is of superior efficacy and safety in management of CSE is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the outcome of lorazepam and diazepam for treating CSE. We searched the PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar databases from 1966 to February 2014. No language restriction was applied. Reference lists of all the selected articles were hand-searched for any additional trials. Trial quality was assessed using the modified Jadad scale and the Consolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist. Two authors independently extracted data from all eligible studies, including study design, participants, interventions, and outcomes. The data was analyzed using fixed-effects or random-effects models with mean differences and risk ratios for continuous and dichotomous variables, respectively. A total of six studies involving 970 patients were included in this analysis. The majority of patients were children (n=574) and 396 patients were adults. Meta-analysis showed no significant difference between the two treatment groups regarding seizure control and adverse effects regardless of patient age. This meta-analysis demonstrates that diazepam and lorazepam have equal efficacy and side effects for treating CSE in adults and children, and either can be chosen as a reasonable first-line therapy. More high quality randomized controlled trials are needed to support this finding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency presented with convulsion: a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alparslan Merdin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells carry oxygen in the body and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase protects these cells from oxidative chemicals. If there is a lack of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, red blood cells can go acute hemolysis. Convulsion is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency. Herein, we report a case report of a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosed patient after presentation with convulsion. A 70 year-old woman patient had been hospitalized because of convulsion and fatigue. She has not had similar symptoms before. She had ingested fava beans in the last two days. Her hypophyseal and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Blood transfusion was performed and the patient recovered.

  13. Effects of departing individuals on collective behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yuta; Okuda, Shoma; Migita, Masao; Murakami, Hisashi; Tomaru, Takenori

    2017-07-01

    Utilizing living organisms' abilities is an effective approach to realize flexible and unconventional computing. One possible bio-inspired computer might be developed from animal collective research by clarifying collective behaviors. Therefore, it is important to reveal how collective animal behaviors emerge. In many studies, individuals departing from the other individualsare generally ignored. Is it not possible that such departing individuals contribute to the organization of such collectives? To investigate the effects of individuals departing from a collective against collective behaviors, we observed and analyzed the behaviors of 40 soldier crabs in four types of experimental arenas. The recorded behaviors demonstrate a temporally changing pattern and the existence of departing individuals. We analyzed the relationship between global activity and cohesion levels and verified the features of departing individuals. The results imply that departing individuals contribute to collective behaviors.

  14. Climatic Effects on Planning Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yong; Kostakos, Vassilis; Li, Hongxiu

    2015-01-01

    What mechanism links climate change and social change? Palaeoanthropological analysis of human remains suggests that abrupt climate change is linked to societal restructuring, but it has been challenging to reliably identify the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship. Here we identify one potential mechanism that can link climate to behavior change, and underpins many of the reported findings on social restructuring. Specifically, we show that daily weather is linked to human planning ...

  15. Dietary effects on canine and feline behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, Katherine A; Zicker, Steven

    2003-03-01

    The effects of dietary deficiency, including both malnutrition and deficiency of specific vitamins, on behavior is discussed with special emphasis on the growing kitten and puppy. The effect of caloric restriction on behavior is reviewed so that owners can be advised what to expect when their dog is placed on a reducing diet. The evidence for influence of dietary protein and tryptophan on canine aggression is presented. The effect of special diets on canine cognitive dysfunction is reviewed.

  16. Anticonvulsant activity of B2, an adenosine analog, on chemical convulsant-induced seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. However, approximately one-third of epilepsy patients still suffer from uncontrolled seizures. Effective treatments for epilepsy are yet to be developed. N (6-(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxybenzyl adenine riboside (B2 is a N(6-substitued adenosine analog. Here we describe an investigation of the effects and mechanisms of B2 on chemical convulsant-induced seizures. Seizures were induced in mice by administration of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, picrotoxin, kainite acid (KA, or strychnine. B2 has a dose-related anticonvulsant effect in these chemical-induced seizure models. The protective effects of B2 include increased latency of seizure onset, decreased seizure occurrence, shorter seizure duration and reduced mortality rate. Radioligand binding and cAMP accumulation assays indicated that B2 might be a functional ligand for both adenosine A1 and A2A receptors. Furthermore, DPCPX, a selective A1 receptor antagonist, but not SCH58261, a selective A2A receptor antagonist, blocked the anticonvulsant effect of B2 on PTZ-induced seizure. c-Fos is a cellular marker for neuronal activity. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses indicated that B2 significantly reversed PTZ-induced c-Fos expression in the hippocampus. Together, these results indicate that B2 has significant anticonvulsant effects. The anticonvulsant effects of B2 may be attributed to adenosine A1 receptor activation and reduced neuronal excitability in the hippocampus. These observations also support that the use of adenosine receptor agonist may be a promising approach for the treatment of epilepsy.

  17. Vocal Emotion Expressions Effects on Cooperation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Meneses, Jonathan Azael; Menez Díaz, Judith Marina

    2017-01-01

    Emotional expressions have been proposed to be important for regulating social interaction as they can serve as cues for behavioral intentions. The issue has been mainly addressed analyzing the effects of facial emotional expressions in cooperation behavior, but there are contradictory results regarding the impact of emotional expressions on that…

  18. Retrospective study of concussive convulsions in elite Australian rules and rugby league footballers: phenomenology, aetiology, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, P R; Bladin, P F; Berkovic, S F

    1997-01-18

    To study the ictal phenomenology, aetiology, and outcome of convulsions occurring within seconds of impact in violent collision sport. Retrospective identification of convulsions associated with concussive brain injury from case records from medical officers of football clubs over a 15 year period. Elite Australian rules and rugby league footballers. Neuroimaging studies, electroencephalography, neuropsychological test data, and statistics on performance in matches to determine presence of structural or functional brain injury. Clinical follow up and electroencephalography for evidence of epilepsy. Twenty two cases of concussive convulsions were identified with four events documented on television videotape. Convulsions began within 2 seconds of impact and comprised an initial period of tonic stiffening followed by myoclonic jerks of all limbs lasting up to 150 seconds. Some asymmetry in the convulsive manifestations was common, and recovery of consciousness was rapid. No structural or permanent brain injury was present on clinical assessment, neuropsychological testing, or neuroimaging studies. All players returned to elite competition within two weeks of the incident. Epilepsy did not develop in any player over a mean (range) follow up of 3.5 (1-13) years. These concussive or impact convulsions are probably a non-epileptic phenomenon, somewhat akin to convulsive syncope. The mechanism may be a transient traumatic functional decerebration. In concussive convulsions the outcome is universally good, antiepileptic treatment is not indicated, and prolonged absence from sport is unwarranted.

  19. Treatment of prolonged convulsive seizures in children; a single centre, retrospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, Danique R. M.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Callenbach, Petra M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate treatment of children with Prolonged Convulsive Seizures (PCS) at the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG). Material and methods: PCS were identified from an UMCG database of children with epilepsy aged = 10 mm and occurred between January 2000 and October 2012 in

  20. Treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in the UMCG: A retrospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, D.R.M.; Brouwer, O.F.; Callenbach, P.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known about clinical practice with respect to the application of guidelines in the treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus (CSE). This retrospective, observational study evaluated treatment of episodes of CSE in children at the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG).

  1. Non-Sedating Anti-Convulsant Activity Of Piper Guineense In Mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of aqueous extract of Piper guineense was tested against bicuculline induced seizure in albino mice. Intraperitoneal (ip) administration of 6mg/kg and 7.5mg/kg of bicuculline (BCCL) produced 60 and 100% convulsion and death in the treated mice. Pretreatment of mice with the extract (500 - 750mg/kg) ip ...

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Stress Cardiomyopathy After Convulsive Status Epilepticus in ICU Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcour, Dominique; Jabot, Julien; Grard, Benjamin; Roussiaux, Arnaud; Ferdynus, Cyril; Vandroux, David; Vignon, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Although stress cardiomyopathy has been described in association with epilepsy, its frequency in patients with convulsive status epilepticus remains unknown. Accordingly, we sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors of stress cardiomyopathy in patients admitted to the ICU for convulsive status epilepticus. Prospective, descriptive, single-center study. Medical-surgical ICU of a teaching hospital. Thirty-two consecutive ventilated patients (21 men; age, 50 ± 18 yr; Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, 53 ± 15; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, 6 ± 2) hospitalized in the ICU for convulsive status epilepticus. None. Hemodynamic parameters, transthoracic echocardiography, biological data, and electrocardiogram were obtained serially on ICU admission (H0), and after 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours of hospitalization (H6, H12, H24, and H48). Stress cardiomyopathy was defined as a 20% decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction between H0 or H6 and H48. Stress cardiomyopathy was diagnosed in 18 patients (56%; 95% CI, 38-74%). Mean left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular stroke index and cardiac index were initially (at H0 or H6 according to lowest individual values) significantly reduced in stress cardiomyopathy patients (45 ± 14% vs 61 ± 6%, p ICU for convulsive status epilepticus. Accordingly, these patients should be screened for stress cardiomyopathy and monitored if they present with hemodynamic compromise.

  3. Mutations in the Gene PRRT2 Cause Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Hsien-Yang; Huang, Yong; Bruneau, Nadine; Roll, Patrice; Roberson, Elisha D. O.; Hermann, Mark; Quinn, Emily; Maas, James; Edwards, Robert; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Baykan, Betul; Bhatia, Kailash; Bressman, Susan; Bruno, Michiko K.; Brunt, Ewout R.; Caraballo, Roberto; Echenne, Bernard; Fejerman, Natalio; Frucht, Steve; Gurnett, Christina A.; Hirsch, Edouard; Houlden, Henry; Jankovic, Joseph; Lee, Wei-Ling; Lynch, David R.; Mohammed, Shehla; Mueller, Ulrich; Nespeca, Mark P.; Renner, David; Rochette, Jacques; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Saiki, Shinji; Soong, Bing-Wen; Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Tucker, Sam; Wood, Nicholas; Hanna, Michael; Bowcock, Anne M.; Szepetowski, Pierre; Fu, Ying-Hui; Ptacek, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast

  4. The effects of radionuclides on animal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnaire, B.; Adam-Guillermin, C.; Bouron, A.; Lestaevel, P.

    2011-01-01

    Concomitant with the expansion of the nuclear industry, the concentrations of several pollutants, radioactive or otherwise, including uranium, caesium, cadmium and cobalt, have increased over the last few decades. These elemental pollutants do exist in the environment and are a threat to many organisms. Behavior represents the integration of all the anatomical adaptations and physiological processes that occur within an organism. Compared to other biological endpoints, the effects of pollutants on animal behavior have been the focus of only a few studies. However, behavioral changes appear to be ideal for assessing the effects of pollutants on animal populations, because behavior links physiological functions with ecological processes. The alteration of behavioral responses can have severe implications for survival of individuals and of population of some species. Behavioral disruptions may derive from several underlying mechanisms: disruption of neuro-sensorial activity and of endocrines, or oxidative and metabolic disruptions. In this review, we presented an overview of the current literature in which the effects of radioactive pollutants on behavior in humans, rodents, fish and wildlife species are addressed. When possible, we have also indicated the potential underlying mechanisms of the behavioral alterations and parameters measured. In fried, chronic uranium contamination is associated with behavior alterations and mental disorders in humans, and cognitive deficits in rats. Comparative studies on depleted and enriched uranium effects in rats showed that chemical and radiological activities of this metal induced negative effects on several behavioral parameters and also produced brain oxidative stress. Uranium exposure also modifies feeding behavior of bivalves and reproductive behavior of fish. Studies of the effects of the Chernobyl accident shows that chronic irradiation to 137 Cs induces both nervous system diseases and mental disorders in humans leading

  5. Effects of (60)Co gamma irradiation on behavior and gill histoarchitecture of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DE MAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-babu, P

    2013-06-01

    Present study was designed to observe the effects of (60)Co gamma radiation in behavioral and histological changes in the gills of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The adult prawns were irradiated with four different dose levels (3mGy, 30mGy, 300mGy and 3000mGy) and the control group (without irradiation) was maintained separately. Behavioral changes like hyperactivity, loss of balance, reduced swimming rate, slower rate of food intake and convulsions were observed in higher dose levels of 300mGy and 3000mGy. The histological alterations such as accumulated haemocytes in haemocoelic spaces, abnormal gill tips, lifted lamellar epithelium, swollen and fused lamellae, hyperplasic, necrotic, clavate-globate and complete disorganization of lamellae were observed in (60)Co gamma irradiated prawns. Significantly more considerable histological alterations were observed in the highest dose level of 3000mGy, but no mortality was evidenced. This study serves as biomonitoring tool to assess the radiation pollution in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunii Yasuto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

  7. Electroencephalographic features of convulsive epilepsy in Africa: A multicentre study of prevalence, pattern and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Symon M; White, Steven; Chengo, Eddie; Wagner, Ryan G; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth A; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Masanja, Honorati; Ngugi, Anthony K; Sander, Josemir W; Neville, Brian G; Newton, Charles R

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence and pattern of electroencephalographic (EEG) features of epilepsy and the associated factors in Africans with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE). We characterized electroencephalographic features and determined associated factors in a sample of people with ACE in five African sites. Mixed-effects modified Poisson regression model was used to determine factors associated with abnormal EEGs. Recordings were performed on 1426 people of whom 751 (53%) had abnormal EEGs, being an adjusted prevalence of 2.7 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.5-2.9) per 1000. 52% of the abnormal EEG had focal features (75% with temporal lobe involvement). The frequency and pattern of changes differed with site. Abnormal EEGs were associated with adverse perinatal events (risk ratio (RR)=1.19 (95% CI, 1.07-1.33)), cognitive impairments (RR=1.50 (95% CI, 1.30-1.73)), use of anti-epileptic drugs (RR=1.25 (95% CI, 1.05-1.49)), focal seizures (RR=1.09 (95% CI, 1.00-1.19)) and seizure frequency (RR=1.18 (95% CI, 1.10-1.26) for daily seizures; RR=1.22 (95% CI, 1.10-1.35) for weekly seizures and RR=1.15 (95% CI, 1.03-1.28) for monthly seizures)). EEG abnormalities are common in Africans with epilepsy and are associated with preventable risk factors. EEG is helpful in identifying focal epilepsy in Africa, where timing of focal aetiologies is problematic and there is a lack of neuroimaging services. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavioral effects of modafinil in marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Sanneke A M; Jongsma, Marjan J; Vanwersch, Raymond A P; Olivier, Berend; Philippens, Ingrid H C H M

    2006-05-01

    Modafinil is increasingly used in sleep disturbances in general and in neurodegenerative diseases and is recently being used in healthy people for attention control. However, the application of modafinil is possibly not only restricted to alertness enhancing effects. More insight in this compound may lead to new applications. Not all behavioral aspects have been studied sufficiently; therefore, more detailed investigations on modafinil's positive and aversive behavioral effects are addressed in this paper. Determination of effects of modafinil in marmoset monkeys with observational methods and with behavioral tests measuring locomotor activity, hand-eye coordination, response to a threat situation and startle response. Two hours after oral administration of modafinil in doses of 50, 100, 150, and 225 mg/kg, animals were observed and tested in the behavioral test systems. Locomotor activity was increased after 100 mg/kg modafinil in the Bungalow test and after 100, 150, and 225 mg/kg, as found in the movement parameters of the human threat test. Moreover, modafinil showed anxiolytic-like effects in the human threat test. No other side effects were observed, nor were the hand-eye coordination and startle response affected. Besides psychostimulation, modafinil has no aversive effects in the doses used in the domains measured. The potential anxiolytic-like effects of modafinil may create new possibilities for the therapeutic use of modafinil.

  9. The Effect of Incentives on Sustainable Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Laura Rosendahl; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how children respond to different treatments aimed to fostersustainable behavior in a productive (firm like) setting. We conduct a field experiment using teams of children (aged 11 or 12) that are participating in an entrepreneurship education program in the last grade...... of primary school in the Netherlands. Schools participating in this program are randomly assigned to one of three treatments: the first is purely financially oriented, the second promotes sustainable behavior and the third also induces sustainability by (monetary) incentives. Comparing the first twogroups we...... find that solely promoting sustainability does not lead to a change in sustainable behavior. However, once the monetary reward is linked to sustainable outcome measures, we find a significant positive effect on sustainable behavior. Inour specificsetting, the choice to behave more sustainable comes...

  10. Replicable effects of primes on human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, B Keith; Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Loersch, Chris

    2016-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported online in Journal of Experimental Psychology: General on Oct 31 2016 (see record 2016-52334-001). ] The effect of primes (i.e., incidental cues) on human behavior has become controversial. Early studies reported counterintuitive findings, suggesting that primes can shape a wide range of human behaviors. Recently, several studies failed to replicate some earlier priming results, raising doubts about the reliability of those effects. We present a within-subjects procedure for priming behavior, in which participants decide whether to bet or pass on each trial of a gambling game. We report 6 replications (N = 988) showing that primes consistently affected gambling decisions when the decision was uncertain. Decisions were influenced by primes presented visibly, with a warning to ignore the primes (Experiments 1 through 3) and with subliminally presented masked primes (Experiment 4). Using a process dissociation procedure, we found evidence that primes influenced responses through both automatic and controlled processes (Experiments 5 and 6). Results provide evidence that primes can reliably affect behavior, under at least some conditions, without intention. The findings suggest that the psychological question of whether behavior priming effects are real should be separated from methodological issues affecting how easily particular experimental designs will replicate. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved

  11. From the Behavioral Pharmacology of Beta-Carbolines to Seizures, Anxiety, and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Venault

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of beta-carbolines are inverse agonists of the GABA-A receptor complex, acting on the benzodiazepine site. They show convulsive properties when administered at high doses, anxiogenic properties at moderate doses, and learning-enhancing effects at low doses. These data suggest a possible physiological relationship, through the GABA-A receptor channel, between memory processes, anxiety, and ultimately, in pathological states, epileptic seizures. This relationship seems to be confirmed partially by experiments on mouse strains selected for their resistance (BR and sensitivity (BS to a single convulsive dose of a beta-carboline. These two strains also show differences in anxiety and learning abilities. However, some opposite results found while observing the behavior of the two strains suggest that in addition to pharmacologically induced anxiety, there is spontaneous anxiety, no doubt involving other brain mechanisms.

  12. Behavioral effects of etiracetam in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, O.L.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of etiracetam, a structural analogue or piracetam, were investigated in rats on Y-maze discrimination acquisition, on open field behavior, on one-trial passive avoidance learning and on shuttlebox acquisition and extinction. The results indicate that this drug significantly enhances

  13. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  14. [The genotype-based haplotype relative risk and transmission disequilibrium test analyses of familial febrile convulsions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Y; Wu, X; Guo, Z; Zhang, J; Pan, H; Li, M; Bao, X; Peng, J; Zou, L; Lin, Q

    1999-10-01

    To confirm the linkage of familial febrile convulsions to the short arm of chromosome 6(6p) or the long arm of chromosome 8(8q). The authors finished genotyping of Pst I locus on the coding region of heat shock protein (HSP) 70, 5'untranslated region of HSP70-1, 3' untranslated region of HSP70-2, D8S84 and D8S85. The data were processed by the genotype-based haplotype relative risk(GHRR) and transmission disequilibrium test(TDT) methods in PPAP. Some signs of association and disequilibrium between D8S85 and FC were shown by GHRR and TDT. A suspect linkage of familial febrile convulsions to the long arm of chromosome 8 has been proposed.

  15. Bilateral recurrent anterior fracture dislocation of shoulder joint due to grand mal epileptic convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekara Chowdipalya Maliyappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral shoulder dislocation is very much common with convulsions of different etiology. Often, these dislocations are associated with fractures due to violent muscle contractions. The typical lesion is bilateral posterior dislocation or fracture dislocations. The recurrent shoulder dislocations are common with traumatic etiology. The lack of asymmetry of the shoulders is stressed as a potential pitfall in the clinical evaluation of patients with this condition. We present a rare case of bilateral recurrent anterior fracture dislocation of the shoulder sustained due to repetitive episodes of convulsive seizures. Patient was treated by close reductions and immobilization on each episode. In epilepsy although posterior dislocations are common, the rare possibility of bilateral anterior fracture dislocation should be kept in mind. Often these patients are vulnerable for recurrence, similar to traumatic cases.

  16. Behavioral and cognitive effects of microwave exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, John A; Adair, Eleanor R; de Lorge, John O

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the recent behavioral literature concerning microwave exposure and discusses behavioral effects that have supported past exposure standards. Other effects, which are based on lower levels of exposure, are discussed as well, relative to setting exposure standards. The paper begins with a brief discussion of the ways in which behavioral end points are investigated in the laboratory, together with some of the methodological considerations pertinent to such studies when radio frequency (RF) exposure is involved. It has been pointed out by several sources that exposure to RF radiation can lead to changes in the behavior of humans and laboratory animals that can range from the perceptions of warmth and sound to lethal body temperatures. Behavior of laboratory animals can be perturbed and, under certain other conditions, animals will escape and subsequently avoid RF fields; but they will also work to obtain a burst of RF energy when they are cold. Reports of change of cognitive function (memory and learning) in humans and laboratory animals are in the scientific literature. Mostly, these are thermally mediated effects, but other low level effects are not so easily explained by thermal mechanisms. The phenomenon of behavioral disruption by microwave exposure, an operationally defined rate decrease (or rate increase), has served as the basis for human exposure guidelines since the early 1980s and still appears to be a very sensitive RF bioeffect. Nearly all evidence relates this phenomenon to the generation of heat in the tissues and reinforces the conclusion that behavioral changes observed in RF exposed animals are thermally mediated. Such behavioral alteration has been demonstrated in a variety of animal species and under several different conditions of RF exposure. Thermally based effects can clearly be hazardous to the organism and continue to be the best predictor of hazard for homosapiens. Nevertheless, similar research with man has

  17. Crise convulsive chez les abuseurs de Tramadol et caféine: à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous rapportons Huit cas de crises convulsives diagnostiquées comme maladie épileptique après ingestion de Tramadol et d'autres substances psychotropes dont la Caféine dans une région ou maladie épileptique et addiction au café sont fréquentes. L'objectif de ce travail était d'informer les praticiens sur le risque de ...

  18. Tomodensitometrie dans les convulsions de l'adulte au Togo | N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion : Les lésions vasculaires et infectieuses sont les plus fréquemment retrouvées. Les lésions vasculaires sont dominées par les AVC ischémiques et les lésions infectieuses par la cysticercose cérébrale, suivie de la toxoplasmose. Les lésions tumorales sont rares. Mots clés : convulsion, tomodensitométrie, Togo.

  19. A screening questionnaire for convulsive seizures: A three-stage field-validation in rural Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Loretta; Cicero, Calogero Edoardo; Crespo Gómez, Elizabeth Blanca; Padilla, Sandra; Bruno, Elisa; Camargo, Mario; Marin, Benoit; Sofia, Vito; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases in Latin American Countries (LAC) and epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures is the most frequent type. Therefore, the detection of convulsive seizures is a priority, but a validated Spanish-language screening tool to detect convulsive seizures is not available. We performed a field validation to evaluate the accuracy of a Spanish-language questionnaire to detect convulsive seizures in rural Bolivia using a three-stage design. The questionnaire was also administered face-to-face, using a two-stage design, to evaluate the difference in accuracy. The study was carried out in the rural communities of the Gran Chaco region. The questionnaire consists of a single screening question directed toward the householders and a confirmatory section administered face-to-face to the index case. Positive subjects underwent a neurological examination to detect false positive and true positive subjects. To estimate the proportion of false negative, a random sample of about 20% of the screened negative underwent a neurological evaluation. 792 householders have been interviewed representing a population of 3,562 subjects (52.2% men; mean age 24.5 ± 19.7 years). We found a sensitivity of 76.3% (95% CI 59.8-88.6) with a specificity of 99.6% (95% CI 99.4-99.8). The two-stage design showed only a slightly higher sensitivity respect to the three-stage design. Our screening tool shows a good accuracy and can be easily used by trained health workers to quickly screen the population of the rural communities of LAC through the householders using a three-stage design.

  20. Structure-activity relationships of convulsant and anticonvulsant barbiturates: a computer-graphic-based pattern-recognition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, P R; Mark, L C; Winkler, D A; Jones, G P

    1983-09-01

    A computer-graphic-based pattern-recognition study of two series of 5-ethyl-5-substituted barbiturates has been undertaken in an attempt to find a correlation between molecular conformation and convulsant and anticonvulsant activity. Studies of a first (trial) set of barbiturates related to pentobarbital revealed a region of space in which at least one low-energy conformation of the hydrocarbon side chain of each of the anticonvulsant barbiturates resides. Another region was occupied by a low-energy conformation of each of the convulsant barbiturates. These regions of space are, thus, possible pharmacophores for convulsant and anticonvulsant activity. Analysis of a second (test) set of barbiturates related to phenobarbital has shown that the activities and structures of these molecules are consistent with the above model. These pharmacophores thus provide a basis for the design of rigid, new analogues with potent convulsant or anticonvulsant activities.

  1. Acceptability – a neglected dimension of access to health care: findings from a study on childhood convulsions in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillip Angel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acceptability is a poorly conceptualized dimension of access to health care. Using a study on childhood convulsion in rural Tanzania, we examined social acceptability from a user perspective. The study design is based on the premise that a match between health providers’ and clients’ understanding of disease is an important dimension of social acceptability, especially in trans-cultural communication, for example if childhood convulsions are not linked with malaria and local treatment practices are mostly preferred. The study was linked to health interventions with the objective of bridging the gap between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions. Methods The study combined classical ethnography with the cultural epidemiology approach using EMIC (Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue tool. EMIC interviews were conducted in a 2007/08 convulsion study (n = 88 and results were compared with those of an earlier 2004/06 convulsion study (n = 135. Earlier studies on convulsion in the area were also examined to explore longer-term changes in treatment practices. Results The match between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions was already high in the 2004/06 study. Specific improvements were noted in form of (1 46% point increase among those who reported use of mosquito nets to prevent convulsion (2 13% point decrease among caregivers who associated convulsion with ‘evil eye and sorcery’, 3 14% point increase in prompt use of health facility and 416% point decrease among those who did not use health facility at all. Such changes can be partly attributed to interventions which explicitly aimed at increasing the match between local and biomedical understanding of malaria. Caregivers, mostly mothers, did not seek advice on where to take an ill child. This indicates that treatment at health facility has become socially acceptable for severe febrile with convulsion. Conclusion As an important dimension

  2. Video analysis of acute motor and convulsive manifestations in sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, P R; Berkovic, S F

    2000-04-11

    To describe the motor and convulsive manifestations in acute sports-related head injury. A total of 234 cases of concussive injuries during the 1995 through 1997 football seasons were obtained from the Australian Football League Medical Officers Association injury survey. Of these, 102 cases were recorded adequately on television videotape and were analyzed by two independent observers using a standardized recording form detailing injury mechanics and clinical features of the episodes. Motor and convulsive features were correlated with mechanical variables and with duration of loss of consciousness using linear modeling techniques. Tonic posturing occurred in 25 subjects, clonic movements in 6, righting movement in 40, and gait unsteadiness in 42. In one subject the tonic and clonic features were sufficiently prolonged to be deemed a concussive convulsion. The only risk factor for tonic posturing using logistic regression was the presence of loss of consciousness (p = 0.0001). There was a trend toward facial impact being an independent predictor of tonic posturing but this did not reach significance. No other independent variable predicted the development of clonic movements, righting movements, or gait unsteadiness. Subtle motor manifestations such as tonic posturing and clonic movements commonly occur in concussion; the main predictive factor for tonic posturing is the presence of loss of consciousness. The authors speculate that these clinical features are due to brainstem dysfunction secondary to biomechanical forces inducing a transient functional decerebration.

  3. Automatic detection of non-convulsive seizures: A reduced complexity approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazeem Fatma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Detection of non-convulsive seizures (NCSz is a challenging task because they lack convulsions, meaning no physical visible symptoms are there to detect the presence of a seizure activity. Hence their diagnosis is not easy, also continuous observation of full length EEG for the detection of non-convulsive seizures (NCSz by an expert or a technician is a very exhaustive, time consuming job. A technique for the automatic detection of NCSz is proposed in this paper. The database used in this research was recorded at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi. 13 EEG recordings of 9 subjects consisting of a total 23 seizures of 29.42 min duration were used for analysis. Normalized modified Wilson amplitude is used as a key feature to classify between normal and seizure activity. The main advantage of this study lies in the fact that no classifier is used here and hence algorithm is very simple and computationally fast. With the use of only one feature, all of the seizures under test were detected correctly, and hence the median sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.21% were achieved respectively.

  4. Behavioral effects in room evacuation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossetti, V.; Bouzat, S.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2017-08-01

    In this work we study a model for the evacuation of pedestrians from an enclosure considering a continuous space substrate and discrete time. We analyze the influence of behavioral features that affect the use of the empty space, that can be linked to the attitudes or characters of the pedestrians. We study how the interaction of different behavioral profiles affects the needed time to evacuate completely a room and the occurrence of clogging. We find that neither fully egotistic nor fully cooperative attitudes are optimal from the point of view of the crowd. In contrast, intermediate behaviors provide lower evacuation times. This leads us to identify some phenomena closely analogous to the faster-is-slower effect. The proposed model allows for distinguishing between the role of the attitudes in the search for empty space and the attitudes in the conflicts.

  5. Anticonvulsant, neuroprotective and behavioral effects of organic and conventional yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Cátia Dos Santos; Scola, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Adriana Dalpicolli; Cesio, Verónica; Laprovitera, Mariajosé; Heinzen, Horacio; Dos Santos, Maitê Telles; Fank, Bruna; de Freitas, Suzana Cesa Vieira; Coitinho, Adriana Simon; Salvador, Mirian

    2013-03-01

    Epilepsy, which is one of the most common neurological disorders, involves the occurrence of spontaneous and recurrent seizures that alter the performance of the brain and affect several sensory and behavioral functions. Oxidative damage has been associated with post-seizure neuronal injury, thereby increasing an individual's susceptibility to the occurrence of neurodegenerative disorders. The present study investigated the possible anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects of organic and conventional yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a plant rich in polyphenols, on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in Wistar rats. The behavioral and polyphenolic profiles of the yerba mate samples were also evaluated. Infusions of yerba mate (50mg/kg) or distilled water were given to rats for fifteen days by oral gavage. On the 15th day the animals were subjected to open field test, and exploratory behavior was assessed. Subsequently, 60mg/kg PTZ (i.p.) was administered, and animals were observed for the appearance of convulsions for 30min. Latency for the first seizure, tonic-clonic and generalized seizures time, frequency of seizures and mortality induced by PTZ were recorded. The animals were then sacrificed, and the cerebellum, cerebral cortex and hippocampus were quickly removed and frozen to study the neuroprotective effects of yerba mate. The oxidative damage in lipids and proteins, nitric oxide levels, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (Sod) and catalase (Cat) and non-enzymatic cellular defense (sulfhydryl protein) were quantified in all the tissues. The results showed that organic and conventional yerba mate infusions were able to reduce the frequency of seizures when compared to the PTZ group. Besides, organic yerba mate infusion decreases the tonic-clonic seizures time in relation to the PTZ group. It was also shown that organic and conventional yerba mate infusions reduced the oxidative damage in lipids and proteins and nitric oxide

  6. Characterization of seizure-induced cysteinyl-leukotriene formation in brain tissue of convulsion-prone gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmet, T; Seregi, A; Hertting, G

    1988-06-01

    Tonic-clonic seizures elicited in convulsion-prone gerbils resulted in a large increase in immunoreactive prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha and in a smaller increase in immunoreactive leukotriene (LT) C4-like material in brain tissue. Brain tissue contents of both eicosanoids were found to reach a maximum at 6 min after the onset of seizures and were still elevated at 54 min after the beginning of convulsions. By reversed phase HPLC the immunoreactive LTC4-like material was identified as LTC4 and LTD4 at 6 min after the onset of convulsions, whereas at 54 min after the onset, transformation of LTD4 to LTE4 could be detected as well. In gerbils showing only weak seizure activity a small increase in PGF2 alpha but no increase in immunoreactive LTC4-like material could be detected at 6 min after the onset of convulsions. Pretreatment with indomethacin abolished the formation of PGF2 alpha but significantly enhanced the biosynthesis of immunoreactive LTC4-like material at 18 min after the beginning of seizures. The results demonstrate formation of cysteinyl-LT following tonic-clonic convulsions in spontaneously convulsing gerbils which could be enhanced by inhibition of the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. Since cysteinyl-LT have potent biological actions in various organs this finding warrants further investigations on the potential role of cysteinyl-LT in the CNS.

  7. Effect of evaluation threat on procrastination behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Ngoc H

    2007-06-01

    The author evaluated the effects of evaluation apprehension and trait procrastination on behaviors. The author examined private university students from southern California (N = 72) on two independent variables: evaluation threat (manipulated) and trait procrastination (nonmanipulated). The author found a significant interaction effect between type of evaluation threat and level of trait procrastination on the number of days to complete an assigned essay. Post hoc analyses showed high trait procrastinators in the high evaluation threat group significantly delayed returning essays compared with those in the low evaluation threat group. Also, in the low evaluation threat group, low trait procrastinators delayed more than did high trait procrastinators. These results suggest that educators can reduce behavioral delays by increasing evaluation threat, depending on a student's level of trait procrastination.

  8. Acute and Developmental Behavioral Effects of Flame ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of acute or developmental exposure to t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), isopropylated phenyl phosphate (IPP), tricresyl phosphate (TMPP; also abbreviated TCP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP; also abbreviated TPP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP; also abbreviated TDCPP), tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), and 2,2-,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Larvae (n≈24 per dose per compound) were exposed to test compounds (0.4 - 120 µM) at sub-teratogenic concentrations either developmentally or acutely, and locomotor activity was assessed at 6 days post fertilization. When given developmentally, all chemicals except BPDP, IDDP and TBBPA produced behavioral effects. When given acutely, all chemicals produced behavioral effects, with TPHP, TBBPA, EHDP, IPP, and BPDP eliciting the most effects at the most concentrations. The results indicate that these replacement flame retardants may have developmental or pharmacological effects on the vertebrate nervous system. This study

  9. Efek Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT terhadap Daya Ingat Pasien Skizofrenia di RSJ Prof. HB. Sa’anin Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikky Nabila Nandinanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak  ECT merupakan terapi kejang listrik dengan menghantarkan arus listrik pada elektroda dan dipasang pada kepala sehingga menyebabkan konvulsi. ECT terbukti dapat memperbaiki gejala skizofrenia, namun ECT juga memiliki efek samping terutama pada daya ingat. Tujuan  penelitian ini adalah mengetahui efek ECT terhadap daya ingat pasien skizofrenia. Metode : Penelitian ini menggunakan desain analitik dengan jumlah sampel 15 orang penderita skizofrenia di Rumah Sakit Jiwa (RSJ Prof. HB. Sa’anin Padang dengan teknik pengambilan consecutive sampling.Pemeriksaan daya ingat menggunakan Tes Memori Indonesia, dilakukan sehari sebelum ECT dan 2 jam sesudah ECT. Analisis data dengan uji T berpasangan. Gangguan daya ingat sebelum ECT terjadi pada 90% sampel dengan terganggu sedang pada kemampuan immediate memory, terganggu ringan pada kemampuan recent memory, dan terganggu berat pada remote memory. Gangguan daya ingat sesudah ECT terjadi pada seluruh sampel (100% dengan terganggu sedang pada immediate memory, terganggu berat pada recent memory, dan terganggu berat padaremote memory. Uji hipotesis pada nilai kemampuan immediate dan recent memory menghasilkan nilai p 0,018 dan 0,031 (p < 0,05, berarti Ho ditolak, sedangkan nilai p remote memory 0,678 (p > 0,05, berarti Ho diterima. Kesimpulan adalah perbedaan daya ingat immediate dan recent memory pada pasien skizofrenia sebelum dan sesudah ECT, sedangkan kemampuan remote memory tidak mengalami perubahan.Kata kunci: skizofrenia, ECT, daya ingat Abstract ECT is an electric convulsive therapy by delivering electrical current to electrodes and mounted on the head causing convulsions. ECT shown to improve schizophrenia symptoms, but ECT also has side effects especially on memory. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of ECT on memory schizophrenic patients. Current study was conducted with analytic design with sample size was 15 schizophrenia people at RSJ Prof. HB. Sa'anin Padang

  10. [Management of prolonged convulsive seizures in the community: results of the PERFECT™ study in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspall-Chaure, M; Martínez-Bermejo, A; Pantoja-Martínez, J; Paredes-Carmona, F; Sánchez-Carpintero, R; Wait, S

    2014-08-01

    The Practices in Emergency and Rescue medication For Epilepsy managed with Community administered Therapy (PERFECT™) Initiative was set up in 2011 to gain a better understanding of how prolonged convulsive seizures are managed, and rescue medication is administered, in out-of-hospital settings across Europe. This paper explores the initial research findings for Spain. A review was made of existing clinical guidelines, guidance to schools, and relevant policy and legal frameworks, as well as a survey of 20 healthcare professionals who treat children with prolonged convulsive seizures in Spain. Existing clinical guidelines pertain mainly to the hospital setting, and contain very little information on how prolonged seizures should be managed outside of the hospital. Guidance for schools is unclear as to whether teachers are allowed to administer rescue medication to children, and there is no legal obligation for school staff to administer medication to children under their care. As a result of such uncertainty, whether or not children who experience prolonged seizures receive their rescue medication during school hours depends mostly on the resources and training available in each school. There is a need for more explicit guidance covering educational and healthcare settings, clearer information to parents and schools, and more systematic training to be made available to caregivers. This is to ensure that all children at risk of a prolonged convulsive seizure receive rescue medication in a timely manner, regardless of where their seizure occurs. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidence, Remission and Mortality of Convulsive Epilepsy in Rural Northeast South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G Wagner

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions globally, estimated to constitute 0.75% of the global burden of disease, with the majority of this burden found in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs. Few studies from LMICs, including much of sub-Saharan Africa, have described the incidence, remission or mortality rates due to epilepsy, which are needed to quantify the burden and inform policy. This study investigates the epidemiological parameters of convulsive epilepsy within a context of high HIV prevalence and an emerging burden of cardiovascular disease.A cross-sectional population survey of 82,818 individuals, in the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS in rural northeast South Africa was conducted in 2008, from which 296 people were identified with active convulsive epilepsy. A follow-up survey was conducted in 2012. Incidence and mortality rates were estimated, with duration and remission rates calculated using the DISMOD II software package.The crude incidence for convulsive epilepsy was 17.4/100,000 per year (95%CI: 13.1-23.0. Remission was 4.6% and 3.9% per year for males and females, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.6 (95%CI: 1.7-3.5, with 33.3% of deaths directly related to epilepsy. Mortality was higher in men than women (adjusted rate ratio (aRR 2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.4, and was significantly associated with older ages (50+ years versus those 0-5 years old (RR 4.8 (95%CI: 0.6-36.4.The crude incidence was lower whilst mortality rates were similar to other African studies; however, this study found higher mortality amongst older males. Efforts aimed at further understanding what causes epilepsy in older people and developing interventions to reduce prolonged seizures are likely to reduce the overall burden of ACE in rural South Africa.

  12. Incidence, Remission and Mortality of Convulsive Epilepsy in Rural Northeast South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ryan G; Bottomley, Christian; Ngugi, Anthony K; Ibinda, Fredrick; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Newton, Charles R; Wagner, Ryan; Twine, Rhian; Connor, Myles; Collinson, Mark; Masanja, Honratio; Mathew, Alexander; Kakooza, Angelina; Pariyo, George; Peterson, Stefan; Ndyo-mughenyi, Donald; Odhiambo, Rachael; Chengo, Eddie; Chabi, Martin; Bauni, Evasius; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Odera, Victor Mung'ala; Mageto, James O; Ae-Ngibise, Ken; Akpalu, Bright; Akpalu, Albert; Agbokey, Francis; Adjei, Patrick; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Doku, Victor C K; Odermatt, Peter; Neville, Brian; Sander, Josemir W; White, Steve; Nutman, Thomas; Wilkins, Patricia; Noh, John

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions globally, estimated to constitute 0.75% of the global burden of disease, with the majority of this burden found in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Few studies from LMICs, including much of sub-Saharan Africa, have described the incidence, remission or mortality rates due to epilepsy, which are needed to quantify the burden and inform policy. This study investigates the epidemiological parameters of convulsive epilepsy within a context of high HIV prevalence and an emerging burden of cardiovascular disease. A cross-sectional population survey of 82,818 individuals, in the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in rural northeast South Africa was conducted in 2008, from which 296 people were identified with active convulsive epilepsy. A follow-up survey was conducted in 2012. Incidence and mortality rates were estimated, with duration and remission rates calculated using the DISMOD II software package. The crude incidence for convulsive epilepsy was 17.4/100,000 per year (95%CI: 13.1-23.0). Remission was 4.6% and 3.9% per year for males and females, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.6 (95%CI: 1.7-3.5), with 33.3% of deaths directly related to epilepsy. Mortality was higher in men than women (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) 2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.4)), and was significantly associated with older ages (50+ years versus those 0-5 years old (RR 4.8 (95%CI: 0.6-36.4)). The crude incidence was lower whilst mortality rates were similar to other African studies; however, this study found higher mortality amongst older males. Efforts aimed at further understanding what causes epilepsy in older people and developing interventions to reduce prolonged seizures are likely to reduce the overall burden of ACE in rural South Africa.

  13. The Effects of Token Reinforcement on Delinquents' Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Michael M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The effects of a token reinforcement program on the classroom behavior of 19 delinquent boys in a correctional institution were investigated. Findings suggest that the use of global, composite measures may mask program effects on important component behaviors. (Author)

  14. Post-transfusion hypertension, convulsion and intracranial haemorrhage in beta-thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, S.A.; Zaidi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The haematologic disorder b-thalassemia major is common in Pakistan. We describe a patient with undiagnosed thalassemia presenting with hypertension and convulsions and found to have cerebral haemorrhage on neuro-imaging. He had been transfused 2 weeks before this illness. Our experience is similar to a few case reports described in literature that were found to have cerebral haemorrhages post-mortem after a similar clinical presentation. All patients had a blood transfusion within 2 weeks prior to the presentation so association with transfusion has been proposed. We have reviewed the several mechanisms presented and discussed the findings. (author)

  15. Risk factors associated with death in in-hospital pediatric convulsive status epilepticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Loddenkemper

    Full Text Available To evaluate in-patient mortality and predictors of death associated with convulsive status epilepticus (SE in a large, multi-center, pediatric cohort.We identified our cohort from the KID Inpatient Database for the years 1997, 2000, 2003 and 2006. We queried the database for convulsive SE, associated diagnoses, and for inpatient death. Univariate logistic testing was used to screen for potential risk factors. These risk factors were then entered into a stepwise backwards conditional multivariable logistic regression procedure. P-values less than 0.05 were taken as significant.We identified 12,365 (5,541 female patients with convulsive SE aged 0-20 years (mean age 6.2 years, standard deviation 5.5 years, median 5 years among 14,965,571 pediatric inpatients (0.08%. Of these, 117 died while in the hospital (0.9%. The most frequent additional admission ICD-9 code diagnoses in addition to SE were cerebral palsy, pneumonia, and respiratory failure. Independent risk factors for death in patients with SE, assessed by multivariate calculation, included near drowning (Odds ratio [OR] 43.2; Confidence Interval [CI] 4.4-426.8, hemorrhagic shock (OR 17.83; CI 6.5-49.1, sepsis (OR 10.14; CI 4.0-25.6, massive aspiration (OR 9.1; CI 1.8-47, mechanical ventilation >96 hours (OR9; 5.6-14.6, transfusion (OR 8.25; CI 4.3-15.8, structural brain lesion (OR7.0; CI 3.1-16, hypoglycemia (OR5.8; CI 1.75-19.2, sepsis with liver failure (OR 14.4; CI 5-41.9, and admission in December (OR3.4; CI 1.6-4.1. African American ethnicity (OR 0.4; CI 0.2-0.8 was associated with a decreased risk of death in SE.Pediatric convulsive SE occurs in up to 0.08% of pediatric inpatient admissions with a mortality of up to 1%. There appear to be several risk factors that can predict mortality. These may warrant additional monitoring and aggressive management.

  16. Case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with convulsion, gait disturbance, facial palsy and with multifocal CT lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, Tetsu; Kurihara, Eiji; Mizuno, Yoshihiko; Tamagawa, Kimiko; Komiya, Kazuhiko; Mizuguchi, Masashi.

    1988-07-01

    A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was presented. The patient was a 4-year-old boy with convulsion, ataxic gait, facial palsy. It was postulated that the influenza vaccine might induce the disease in this case. Cranial CT showed a low density arease in the right temporal lobe, which disappeared afterwards when other low density areas appeared in the right cerebellar hemisphere and in inner portion of the body of the left lateral ventricle. All symptoms disappeared without therapy and the CT findings improved within three months after onset.

  17. The effects of severe behavior problems in children on the teaching behavior of adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, E G; Taylor, J C; Robinson, S

    1991-01-01

    Applied behavior analysts have focused on how adults can influence the problem behavior of children using a variety of behavior modification strategies. A related question, virtually unexplored, is how the behavior problems of children influence adults. This child-effects concept was explored empirically in a study involving 12 adults who were asked to teach four pairs of children in which one member of the pair exhibited problem behavior and the other typically did not. Results demonstrated ...

  18. Evaluation of the efficacy of sodium valproate in convulsive status epilepticus following to ıschemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE is very rarely observed after ischaemic stroke. Sodium valproate (SV is one of the agents used in the treatment of CSE, but its role still controversial, and its degree of efficacy in treating CSE that develops following stroke is unclear. Method : We evaluated 19 patients who were treated with intravenous (IV SV (20 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg/h-12h after diazepam. Patients’ modified Rankin scores (mRS, SE types, and changes in biochemical parameters after treatment were assessed. Results : CSE was successfully treated in 12 (63.15% patients. Side effects such as hypotension and allergic reactions were observed in two patients. Refractory SE development was observed in 5 (29.4% patients with high mRS (˃ 3. No significant deterioration in patients’ laboratory evaluations, conducted before and after status, was observed. Conclusion : SV may be safe and effective in the treatment of CSE observed after ischaemic stroke, especially in patients with low mRS.

  19. Lead Exposure and Behavior: Effects on Antisocial and Risky Behavior among Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Wolpaw Reyes

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that exposure to lead has numerous adverse effects on behavior and development. Using data on two cohorts of children from the NLSY, this paper investigates the effect of early childhood lead exposure on behavior problems from childhood through early adulthood. I find large negative consequences of early childhood lead exposure, in the form of an unfolding series of adverse behavioral outcomes: behavior problems as a child, pregnancy and aggression as a teen, and criminal beh...

  20. 22q11.2 microdeletion in two adolescent patients who presented with convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkale, Murat; Erol, İlknur

    2014-03-01

    22q11.2 microdeletion which involves DiGeorge syndrome, velo-cardiofacial syndrome and conotruncal anomaly face syndrome occurs as a result of a deletion in the short segment of the long arm of the 22th chromosome. Patients with this syndrome have a wide clinical spectrum including learning difficulty, dysmorphic face, cardiac anomalies, hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, cleft palate, thymus anomalies, immune failure and speech and feeding problems. The number of clinical characteristics which have been reported to be related with this syndrome is higher than 180. All anomalies may not be present in all patients. In this article, a 12-year old female patient who was found to have 22q11.2 microdeletion with mild mental retardation and dysmorphic face and who presented to our hospital because of convulsion and a 13-year old male patient who was found to have 22q11.2 microdeletion with hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, dysmorphic face and mental retardation and who presented to our hospital because of convulsion (it was learned from his history that he was being followed up in another center because of autism) were presented.

  1. Unexpected Maternal Convulsion: An Idiopathic Case of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome after Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Agah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is associated with various clinical manifestations such as headache, blurred vision, confusion and tonic-clonic convulsion. Some of the predisposing factors for PRES include hypertensive encephalopathy, preeclampsia and eclampsia, lupus erythematosus, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs. This condition rarely occurs after normotensive and uneventful pregnancies. Several theories have been proposed on the etiology of PRES. For instance, endothelial injury and brain edema have been reported as possible causes of PRES. Although PRES is a temporary condition, proper and timely management of the disorder in the acute phase is critical for the prevention of permanent neurological complications. During pregnancy, PRES is normally accompanied with hypertension. In this paper, we present a rare case of PRES in a normotensive pregnancy in a 25-year-old parturient woman (Gravida 2, Ab 1. The patient unexpectedly manifested symptoms of tonic-clonic convulsion one hour after an uneventful vaginal delivery, which were successfully managed. According to our observations, PRES has various clinical manifestations with unexpected occurrence in some cases. Therefore, it is recommended that maternity centers be well-equipped with resuscitation tools, emergency drugs and expert staff so as to manage unforeseen PRES efficiently and prevent permanent maternal neurological complications and mortality.

  2. Evaluation of benign afebrile convulsions in 16 children with rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz, Alaaddin; Sert, Sadiye; Yilmaz, Fatma Hilal

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings of the patients hospitalized with rotavirus gastroenteritis-related afebrile seizure, retrospectively. The study population consisted of 16 patients (9 girls and 7 boys) with a mean age of 13.81 ± 5.98 months (age range 6-26). The male/female ratio was 0.77. None of the patients had any psychomotor developmental retardation. Neurological examinations of all the patients were normal. There were 7 patients with generalized tonic (43.75%), 8 generalized tonic-clonic (50%), and 1 focal seizure (6.25%). The duration of the seizures varied at a range of 2-7 min (mean 3.68 ± 1.35 min). The period between the onset of the clinical findings of the rotavirus infection and the occurrence of the seizures was ranged from 12 to 48 h (mean 31.5 ± 12.2 h). The prognosis of the rotavirus gastroenteritis-related afebrile convulsions was generally benign. Rotavirus infection should be taken into consideration in infants with gastroenteritis and afebrile convulsions.

  3. Convulsive Seizures as Presenting Symptom of Metronidazole-Induced Encephalopathy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar Godthaab Sørensen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Encephalopathy and convulsive seizures are rare manifestations of metronidazole toxicity. The incidence is unknown, but the condition has most frequently been reported in patients in their fifth to sixth decades. Usually, this condition is regarded as reversible, but permanent deficits and even death have been reported. Case Report: A 66-year-old female patient undergoing metronidazole treatment for pleural empyema was admitted to our institution after her second episode of seizure. Over the course of 1 week after admittance, the patient developed several convulsive seizures along with progressive cerebellar dysfunction and cognitive impairment. MRI revealed bilateral, symmetrical hyperintense signal changes in the pons and dentate nuclei. EEG, ECG, lumbar puncture, and blood samples were normal. The patient improved already 2–3 days after discontinuation of metronidazole and was discharged fully recovered after 17 days. Follow-up clinical assessment and MRI were unremarkable. Conclusion: Metronidazole-induced encephalopathy is a rare condition, and due to a general lack of awareness the diagnosis is often delayed. This condition should be considered in metronidazole-treated patients presenting with unprovoked seizures, myoclonus, cerebellar signs, and encephalopathy. Characteristic MRI lesions may support the clinical suspicion.

  4. Differentiation between eclampsia and cerebrovascular disorders by brain CT scan in pregnant patients with convulsive seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Katsuto; Lin, Yaw-Tyng; Noda, Kiyofumi; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Yonezawa, Masaru; Sekiba, Kaoru; Ochiai, Youji

    1987-01-01

    Six pregnant women with convulsions between 25 to 40 weeks of gestation were experienced. Among them, 4 patients were diagnosed as having intracranial hemorrhage and two as simple eclampsia. With the aid of brain CT scan, one case of arteriovenous malformation was detected and treated surgically with good prognosis for both the mother and the fetus. Two patients were diagnosed to have cerebral hemorrhage with subsequent penetration into the lateral ventricles and were treated conservatively. Their fetuses were delivered alive by cesarean section, but the mothers expired. The other patient with cerebral hemorrhage was treated surgically, and both the mother and the fetus survived. One of the simple eclampsia patients was noted to have a growth retarded fetus at 32 weeks of pregnancy with subsequent intra-uterine death, but the mother recovered after conservative treatment. Another patient at 40 weeks of pregnancy was also treated conservatively and both the fetus and the mother survived. Brain CT scan findings differed between these two eclampsia patients; local brain edema for the second patient and generalized brain edema for the first patient. Thus more active application of brain CT scan is recommended in managing pregnant patients with convulsions. (author)

  5. Differentiation between eclampsia and cerebrovascular disorders by brain CT scan in pregnant patients with convulsive seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Katsuto; Lin, Yaw-Tyng; Noda, Kiyofumi; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Yonezawa, Masaru; Sekiba, Kaoru; Ochiai, Youji

    1987-06-01

    Six pregnant women with convulsions between 25 to 40 weeks of gestation were experienced. Among them, 4 patients were diagnosed as having intracranial hemorrhage and two as simple eclampsia. With the aid of brain CT scan, one case of arteriovenous malformation was detected and treated surgically with good prognosis for both the mother and the fetus. Two patients were diagnosed to have cerebral hemorrhage with subsequent penetration into the lateral ventricles and were treated conservatively. Their fetuses were delivered alive by cesarean section, but the mothers expired. The other patient with cerebral hemorrhage was treated surgically, and both the mother and the fetus survived. One of the simple eclampsia patients was noted to have a growth retarded fetus at 32 weeks of pregnancy with subsequent intra-uterine death, but the mother recovered after conservative treatment. Another patient at 40 weeks of pregnancy was also treated conservatively and both the fetus and the mother survived. Brain CT scan findings differed between these two eclampsia patients; local brain edema for the second patient and generalized brain edema for the first patient. Thus more active application of brain CT scan is recommended in managing pregnant patients with convulsions.

  6. Ignoring pharmacokinetics may lead to isoboles misinterpretation: illustration with the norfloxacin-theophylline convulsant interaction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadart, Miren; Marchand, Sandrine; Pariat, Claudine; Bouquet, Serge; Couet, William

    2002-02-01

    To investigate the norfloxacin-theophylline convulsant interaction in vivo, with an experimental approach distinguishing between pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics contributions to the observed effect. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 38) were infused each compound separately or in different combination ratios. Infusion was maintained until the onset of maximal seizures. Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma samples were collected for high performance liquid chromatography drug determination. The nature and intensity of the pharmacodynamics interaction between drugs was quantified with an isobolographic approach. Isobolograms suggested a relatively marked antagonism between norfloxacin and theophylline at the cerebrospinal fluid (previously shown to be part of the biophase) and dose levels, but not at the plasma (free and total concentrations) levels. These apparent discrepancies could be explained by nonlinear distribution or/and distribution desequilibrium phenomenon. These findings showed that the quantitative isobolographic approach is appropriate to assess the nature and intensity of the pharmacodynamic interaction between two drugs when data are collected within the biophase, but that data interpretation outside the biophase can be risky due to further pharmacokinetic complexities, in particular slow or/and nonlinear diffusion into the biophase.

  7. Behavioral effects of delayed timeouts from reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Tom; Poling, Alan

    2017-03-01

    Timeouts are sometimes used in applied settings to reduce target responses, and in some circumstances delays are unavoidably imposed between the onset of a timeout and the offset of the response that produces it. The present study examined the effects of signaled and unsignaled timeouts in rats exposed to concurrent fixed-ratio 1 fixed-ratio 1 schedules of food delivery, where each response on one lever, the location of which changed across conditions, produced both food and a delayed 10-s timeout. Delays of 0 to 38 s were examined. Delayed timeouts often, but not always, substantially reduced the number of responses emitted on the lever that produced timeouts relative to the number emitted on the lever that did not produce timeouts. In general, greater sensitivity was observed to delayed timeouts when they were signaled. These results demonstrate that delayed timeouts, like other delayed consequences, can affect behavior, albeit less strongly than immediate consequences. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Anticonvulsant treatment of sarin-induced seizures with nasal midazolam: An electrographic, behavioral, and histological study in freely moving rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilat, E.; Kadar, T.; Levy, A.; Rabinovitz, I.; Cohen, G.; Kapon, Y.; Sahar, R.; Brandeis, R.

    2005-01-01

    Centrally mediated seizures and convulsions are common consequences of exposure to organophosphates (OPs). These seizures rapidly progress to status epilepticus (SE) and contribute to profound brain injury. Effective management of these seizures is critical for minimization of brain damage. Nasal application of midazolam (1.5 mg/kg) after 5 min of sarin-induced electrographic seizure activity (EGSA) ameliorated EGSA and convulsive behavior (238 ± 90 s). Identical treatment after 30 min was not sufficient to ameliorate ECoG paradoxical activity and convulsive behavior. Nasal midazolam (1.5 mg/kg), together with scopolamine (1 mg/kg, im) after 5 min of EGSA, exerted a powerful and rapid anticonvulsant effect (53 ± 10 s). Delaying the same treatment to 30 min of EGSA leads to attenuation of paroxysmal ECoG activity in all cases but total cessation of paroxysmal activity was not observed in most animals tested. Cognitive tests utilizing the Morris Water Maze demonstrated that nasal midazolam alone or together with scopolamine (im), administered after 5 min of convulsions, abolished the effect of sarin on learning. Both these treatments, when given after 30 min of convulsions, only decreased the sarin-induced learning impairments. Whereas rats which were not subject to the anticonvulsant agents did not show any memory for the platform location, both treatments (at 5 min as well as at 30 min) completely abolished the memory deficits. Both treatments equally blocked the impairment of reversal learning when given at 5 min. However, when administered after 30 min, midazolam alone reversed the impairments in reversal learning, while midazolam with scopolamine did not. Rats exposed to sarin and treated with the therapeutic regimen with the exclusion of midazolam exhibited severe brain lesions that encountered the hippocampus, pyriform cortex, and thalamus. Nasal midazolam at 5 min prevented brain damage, while delaying the midazolam treatment to 30 min of EGSA resulted in

  9. [Structural and functional reorganization of the interneuronal contacts of the cerebral cortex after a single convulsive paroxysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Iu N; Ereniev, S I; Semchenko, V V; Stepanov, S S

    1987-01-01

    Using the technique of contrasting the cerebral tissue with phosphotungstic acid, the authors studied the structural and functional status of interneuronal contacts of the molecular layer of the sensomotor cortex in the brain of Krushinsky-Molodkina rats following convulsive sound stimulation and the subsequent audiogenic convulsive paroxysm. Marked reduction in the general number of synapses 4 h after the attack was attended by transformation of some flat functionally mature contacts into concave ones, which reflects the activation of the synaptic pool. The relative levels of concave and flat mature contacts returned to the initial level 8 to 24 h later.

  10. The formation and regional distribution of prostaglandins D2 and F2 alpha in the brain of spontaneously convulsing gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seregi, A; Förstermann, U; Heldt, R; Hertting, G

    1985-06-24

    The distribution of the two major cyclooxygenase products prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) in 7 different regions of the brain (medulla, cerebellum, hypothalamus, striatum, midbrain, hippocampus and cerebral cortex) was studied. Basal levels were highest in hypothalamus and cortex. Following convulsions elicited by environmental stress prostaglandin concentrations increased in all areas, with largest increases (10-20-fold) in hippocampus and cortex, reaching 70 ng/g PGD2 in hippocampus and 115 ng/g PGD2 in cortex. These results demonstrate that, during spontaneous seizures, there is a greater increase in prostanoid production in those areas involved in the convulsive process.

  11. Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Leaf, Philip J

    2012-11-01

    School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a universal prevention strategy currently implemented in >16,000 schools across the United States. SWPBIS intends to reduce students' behavior problems by altering staff behaviors and developing systems and supports to meet children's behavioral needs. The current study reports intervention effects on child behaviors and adjustment from an effectiveness trial of SWPBIS. The sample of 12,344 elementary school children was 52.9% male, 45.1% African American, and 46.1% Caucasian. Approximately 49% received free or reduced-priced meals, and 12.9% received special education services at baseline. The trial used a group randomized controlled effectiveness design implemented in 37 elementary schools. Multilevel analyses were conducted on teachers' ratings of children's behavior problems, concentration problems, social-emotional functioning, prosocial behavior, office discipline referrals, and suspensions at 5 time points over the course of 4 school years. The multilevel results indicated significant effects of SWPBIS on children's behavior problems, concentration problems, social-emotional functioning, and prosocial behavior. Children in SWPBIS schools also were 33% less likely to receive an office discipline referral than those in the comparison schools. The effects tended to be strongest among children who were first exposed to SWPBIS in kindergarten. These findings provide support for the hypothesized reduction in behavior problems and improvements in prosocial behavior and effective emotion regulation after training in SWPBIS. The SWPBIS framework appears to be a promising approach for reducing problems and promoting adjustment among elementary school children.

  12. [Effect of parental feeding behavior on eating behavior of children aged 1-3 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Hua; Chen, Jin-Jin

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between the eating behavior of children aged 1-3 years and parental feeding behavior and the effect of family status on feeding behavior. With stratified random sampling, 2 324 children aged 1-3 years were selected from Shanghai. Questionnaires were filled out by their parents or feeders to investigate the basic family information, parental feeding behavior, the eating behavior of children, and the basic information on children. The eating behavior of children was positively correlated with eating environment (r=0.223) and parental monitoring behavior (r=0.245) but negatively correlated with parental compulsive behavior (r=-0.264) (Pparental compulsive behavior (r=-0.569) but positively correlated with parental monitoring behavior (r=0.615) and eating environment (r=0.621). The emotional undereating of children was positively correlated with parental emotional feeding (r=0.259) and parental compulsive behavior (r=0.279). Parental monitoring behavior showed significant differences between different families (PParental feeding behavior is closely related to the eating behavior of children. Parental feeding behavior may vary across different family status.

  13. The Effects of Jogging on the Rates of Selected Target Behaviors of Behaviorally Disordered Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell L.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated were the effects of a jogging program on talking out and out of seat behaviors exhibited by six elementary-aged behaviorally disordered students in a resource room setting. Results indicate a decrease in the occurrence of both behaviors following jogging for five of the six students. (Author/JDD)

  14. Effects of light on brain and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, G.C. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    It is obvious that light entering the eye permits the sensory capacity of vision. The human species is highly dependent on visual perception of the environment and consequently, the scientific study of vision and visual mechanisms is a centuries old endeavor. Relatively new discoveries are now leading to an expanded understanding of the role of light entering the eye - in addition to supporting vision, light has various nonvisual biological effects. Over the past thirty years, animal studies have shown that environmental light is the primary stimulus for regulating circadian rhythms, seasonal cycles, and neuroendocrine responses. As with all photobiological phenomena, the wavelength, intensity, timing and duration of a light stimulus is important in determining its regulatory influence on the circadian and neuroendocrine systems. Initially, the effects of light on rhythms and hormones were observed only in sub-human species. Research over the past decade, however, has confirmed that light entering the eyes of humans is a potent stimulus for controlling physiological rhythms. The aim of this paper is to examine three specific nonvisual responses in humans which are mediated by light entering the eye: light-induced melatonin suppression, light therapy for winter depression, and enhancement of nighttime performance. This will serve as a brief introduction to the growing database which demonstrates how light stimuli can influence physiology, mood and behavior in humans. Such information greatly expands our understanding of the human eye and will ultimately change our use of light in the human environment.

  15. Effects of light on brain and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, George C.

    1994-01-01

    It is obvious that light entering the eye permits the sensory capacity of vision. The human species is highly dependent on visual perception of the environment and consequently, the scientific study of vision and visual mechanisms is a centuries old endeavor. Relatively new discoveries are now leading to an expanded understanding of the role of light entering the eye in addition to supporting vision, light has various nonvisual biological effects. Over the past thirty years, animal studies have shown that environmental light is the primary stimulus for regulating circadian rhythms, seasonal cycles, and neuroendocrine responses. As with all photobiological phenomena, the wavelength, intensity, timing and duration of a light stimulus is important in determining its regulatory influence on the circadian and neuroendocrine systems. Initially, the effects of light on rhythms and hormones were observed only in sub-human species. Research over the past decade, however, has confirmed that light entering the eyes of humans is a potent stimulus for controlling physiological rhythms. The aim of this paper is to examine three specific nonvisual responses in humans which are mediated by light entering the eye: light-induced melatonin suppression, light therapy for winter depression, and enhancement of nighttime performance. This will serve as a brief introduction to the growing database which demonstrates how light stimuli can influence physiology, mood and behavior in humans. Such information greatly expands our understanding of the human eye and will ultimately change our use of light in the human environment.

  16. Mutations in the Gene PRRT2 Cause Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Yang Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majority (24/25 of well-characterized families with PKD/IC. PRRT2 truncating mutations were also detected in 28 of 78 additional families. PRRT2 encodes a proline-rich transmembrane protein of unknown function that has been reported to interact with the t-SNARE, SNAP25. PRRT2 localizes to axons but not to dendritic processes in primary neuronal culture, and mutants associated with PKD/IC lead to dramatically reduced PRRT2 levels, leading ultimately to neuronal hyperexcitability that manifests in vivo as PKD/IC.

  17. Rachitisme patent révélé par la perte du contrôle des convulsions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rachitisme patent révélé par la perte du contrôle des convulsions chez un garçon infirme moteur cérébral. Hubert Désiré Mbassi Awa, David Chelo, David Chelo, Mina Njiki Kinkela, Mina Njiki Kinkela, Paul Olivier Koki Ndombo, Paul Olivier Koki Ndombo ...

  18. Development and evaluation of simulation-based fever management module for children with febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Jeong; Oh, Jina; Kang, Kyung-Ah; Kim, SungHee

    2014-06-01

    A reliable and valid checklist for the evaluation of simulation learning outcomes has great value in nursing education. This study focuses on simulation-based fever management module including checklist for febrile convulsion in pediatric nursing. This study has two aims; (a) to develop a simulation-based fever management module for treating children with febrile convulsion, and (b) to evaluate students' performance and satisfaction. A convenient sample of 147 senior nursing students from two nursing schools in South Korea participated in this study from April 29 to June 14, 2013. This study was a three-stage process: developing the simulation-based module including algorithm with scenarios, items in checklist, and contents of debriefing (Stage I), performing simulation and debriefing for nursing students (Stage II), and evaluating the evaluation checklist of simulation performance and satisfaction of nursing students (Stage III). Student satisfaction was measured using the Satisfaction of Simulations Experience [SSE] scale. Debriefing data were analyzed using the Matrix Method. A scenario script was created to treat the patient's health issues. The algorithm proceeded as follows: identification of patient's condition (Step I), nursing interventions (Step II), and outcome evaluation and feedback (Step III). The total mean score of the evaluation checklist was 2.67 (±.32). The debriefing categories were as follows: non-technical skills, self-efficacy, critical thinking, and technical skills. The total mean score of the SSE was 4.48 (±.42). This study provides a blueprint for simulation-based practice for both nursing educators and nursing students. Further studies of checklists used in different contexts would be valuable for expanding upon this research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anticonvulsant and antipunishment effects of toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, R.W.; Coleman, J.B.; Schuler, R.; Cox, C.

    1984-01-01

    Toluene can have striking acute behavioral effects and is subject to abuse by inhalation. To determine if its actions resemble those of drugs used in the treatment of anxiety (anxiolytics), two sets of experiments were undertaken. Inasmuch as prevention of pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions is an identifying property of this class of agents, the authors first demonstrated that pretreatment of mice with injections of toluene delayed the onset of convulsive signs and prevented the tonic extension phase of the convulsant activity in a dose-related manner. Injections of another alkyl benzene, m-xylene, were of comparable potency to toluene. Inhalation of toluene delayed the time of death after pentylenetetrazol injection in a manner related to the duration and concentration of exposure; at lower convulsant doses, inhalation of moderate concentrations (EC/sub 58/, 1300 ppm) prevented death. Treatment with a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist (Ro 15-1788) failed to reduce the anticonvulsant activity of inhaled toluene. Anxiolytics also attenuate the reduction in response rate produced by punishment with electric shock. Toluene increased rates of responding suppressed by punishment when responding was maintained under a multiple fixed-interval fixed-interval punishment schedule of reinforcement. Distinct antipunishment effects were observed in rats after 2 hr of exposure to 1780 and 3000 ppm of toluene; the rate-increasing effects of toluene were related to concentration and to time after the termination of exposure. Thus, toluene and m-xylene resemble in several respects clinically useful drugs such as the benzodiazepines. 51 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral-Theory-Based Skill Training on Academic Procrastination Behaviors of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…

  1. The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior of children using stronger statistical controls than earlier literature in this area; to examine whether the effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior is nonlinear; and to investigate whether the effects of corporal punishment on antisocial…

  2. Unpacking links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems: direct, indirect, and interactive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer; Lewin-Bizan, Selva

    2011-08-01

    Building upon previous evidence for the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviors, this research assessed and compared three models seeking to explain links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. A representative sample of children from low-income families (N=261) was followed from age 3 through age 9. Lagged OLS regression models assessed both short-term (1½  years) and longer-term (5½  years) prospective links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. Results supported a direct effects model: fathers' antisocial behaviors predicted growth in children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, with links stronger among resident-father families. Limited evidence of indirect effects emerged, with links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems only slightly attenuated controlling for related risk factors and for parenting quality, showing limited evidence of mediation. A new interactive model was proposed and supported, with high levels of harsh discipline exacerbating negative links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's internalizing problems. Results suggest caution in policies and programs which seek to universally increase marriage or father involvement without attention to fathers' behaviors.

  3. Effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia

    2010-02-01

    Previous research has documented that playing violent video games has various negative effects on social behavior in that it causes an increase in aggressive behavior and a decrease in prosocial behavior. In contrast, there has been much less evidence on the effects of prosocial video games. In the present research, 4 experiments examined the hypothesis that playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video game increases helping behavior. In fact, participants who had played a prosocial video game were more likely to help after a mishap, were more willing (and devoted more time) to assist in further experiments, and intervened more often in a harassment situation. Results further showed that exposure to prosocial video games activated the accessibility of prosocial thoughts, which in turn promoted prosocial behavior. Thus, depending on the content of the video game, playing video games not only has negative effects on social behavior but has positive effects as well. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Behavioral effects of bidirectional selection for behavior towards human in virgin and lactate Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoshenko, Maria Yu; Plyusnina, Irina Z

    2012-06-01

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated strong differences in behavioral, hormonal and neurobiological characteristics between male rats selected for elimination (tame) and enhancement (aggressive) of aggressiveness towards humans, few studies have examined changes in female behavior under this selection. The objective of the current work was to evaluate the effects of bidirectional selection for aggressiveness towards humans on behavioral profiles of virgin and lactating rats compared with the behavior in tame, aggressive and unselected (wild-type) females. The behavior of virgin females was studied using the light-dark box, the startle response test and the modified glove test. Tame females were less anxious and more tolerant towards humans than unselected and aggressive rats. Principal component analysis of all behavioral parameters produced three independent factors, explaining 66.37% of the total variability. The measures of behavior towards humans and the measures of anxiety mainly loaded on PC1 (first principal component) which separated the tame females from the unselected and aggressive ones. These data suggest the genetic correlation between the selected behavior towards humans and anxiety-related behavior in virgin rats. No significant effect of line was found for PC2 scores, associated with risk assessment behavior. Measurements of freezing behavior mainly loaded on PC3, and this component separated rats of different genetic groups from each other. The behavior of lactating rats was studied in maternal defense and pup retrieval tests. Females of selected lines did not significantly differ in behavioral measurements of these tests and were characterized by higher maternal motivation than unselected rats. It is suggested that long-term breeding of tame and aggressive rats in captivity has reduced the threshold for maternal behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison effectiveness of Dialectic Behavioral Therapy and Behavior Cognitive Therapy on Depression in the Multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Narges Zamani; Mehran Farhadi; Hosein Jenaabadi

    2017-01-01

    Balsimelli S, Mendes MF, Bertolucci PH, Tilbery CP. Attention impairment associated with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with mild incapacity. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2007;65(2A):262-7. Zamani N, Ahmadi V, Ataie Moghanloo V, Mirshekar S. Comparing the effectiveness of two therapeutic methods of dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy on the improvement of impulsive behavior in the patients suffering  from major depressive disorder (MDD) showing a t...

  6. Exposure to multiple parasites is associated with the prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamuyu, Gathoni; Bottomley, Christian; Mageto, James; Lowe, Brett; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Nutman, Thomas B; Ngugi, Anthony K; Odhiambo, Rachael; Wagner, Ryan G; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth; Masanja, Honorati; Osier, Faith H A; Odermatt, Peter; Newton, Charles R

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is common in developing countries, and it is often associated with parasitic infections. We investigated the relationship between exposure to parasitic infections, particularly multiple infections and active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), in five sites across sub-Saharan Africa. A case-control design that matched on age and location was used. Blood samples were collected from 986 prevalent cases and 1,313 age-matched community controls and tested for presence of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Taenia solium and HIV. Exposure (seropositivity) to Onchocerca volvulus (OR = 1.98; 95%CI: 1.52-2.58, p<0.001), Toxocara canis (OR = 1.52; 95%CI: 1.23-1.87, p<0.001), Toxoplasma gondii (OR = 1.28; 95%CI: 1.04-1.56, p = 0.018) and higher antibody levels (top tertile) to Toxocara canis (OR = 1.70; 95%CI: 1.30-2.24, p<0.001) were associated with an increased prevalence of ACE. Exposure to multiple infections was common (73.8% of cases and 65.5% of controls had been exposed to two or more infections), and for T. gondii and O. volvulus co-infection, their combined effect on the prevalence of ACE, as determined by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), was more than additive (T. gondii and O. volvulus, RERI = 1.19). The prevalence of T. solium antibodies was low (2.8% of cases and 2.2% of controls) and was not associated with ACE in the study areas. This study investigates how the degree of exposure to parasites and multiple parasitic infections are associated with ACE and may explain conflicting results obtained when only seropositivity is considered. The findings from this study should be further validated.

  7. Exposure to multiple parasites is associated with the prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gathoni Kamuyu

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is common in developing countries, and it is often associated with parasitic infections. We investigated the relationship between exposure to parasitic infections, particularly multiple infections and active convulsive epilepsy (ACE, in five sites across sub-Saharan Africa.A case-control design that matched on age and location was used. Blood samples were collected from 986 prevalent cases and 1,313 age-matched community controls and tested for presence of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Taenia solium and HIV. Exposure (seropositivity to Onchocerca volvulus (OR = 1.98; 95%CI: 1.52-2.58, p<0.001, Toxocara canis (OR = 1.52; 95%CI: 1.23-1.87, p<0.001, Toxoplasma gondii (OR = 1.28; 95%CI: 1.04-1.56, p = 0.018 and higher antibody levels (top tertile to Toxocara canis (OR = 1.70; 95%CI: 1.30-2.24, p<0.001 were associated with an increased prevalence of ACE. Exposure to multiple infections was common (73.8% of cases and 65.5% of controls had been exposed to two or more infections, and for T. gondii and O. volvulus co-infection, their combined effect on the prevalence of ACE, as determined by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI, was more than additive (T. gondii and O. volvulus, RERI = 1.19. The prevalence of T. solium antibodies was low (2.8% of cases and 2.2% of controls and was not associated with ACE in the study areas.This study investigates how the degree of exposure to parasites and multiple parasitic infections are associated with ACE and may explain conflicting results obtained when only seropositivity is considered. The findings from this study should be further validated.

  8. Effects of Inconsistent Behaviors on Person Impressions: A Multidimensional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Roos

    1995-01-01

    Examined effects of unexpected behavioral information on person impressions. Inconsistency was manipulated with respect to Implicit Personality Theory. Found that behaviors with inconsistent evaluation implications did not affect impressions and that effects of inconsistent information depended on dimension of contrast, valence of initial…

  9. Effect of Training Different Classes of Verbal Behavior to Decrease Aberrant Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandbakk, Monica; Arntzen, Erik; Gisnaas, Arnt; Antonsen, Vidar; Gundhus, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate verbal behavior that is labeled "psychotic" is often described as insensitive to environmental contingencies. The purpose of the current study was to establish different classes of rational or appropriate verbal behavior in a woman with developmental disabilities and evaluate the effects on her psychotic or aberrant vocal verbal…

  10. The Effects of a Class-Wide Behavior Intervention for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Marc; Wills, Howard P.; Kottwitz, Esther; Kamps, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Class-wide interventions have strong empirical support for improving behavior in general education classes but are rarely tested in special education classes. The present study examined the effects of the Class-wide Function-related Intervention Team (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention, on the on-task behavior of six elementary…

  11. Prevalence of Lassa Virus Disease (LVD in Nigerian children with fever or fever and convulsions in an endemic area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odigie C Akhuemokhan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Convulsions with fever in children are a common neurologic emergency in the tropics, and determining the contribution of endemic viral infections can be challenging. In particular, there is a dearth of data on the prevalence and clinical differentiation of Lassa virus disease (LVD in febrile children in endemic areas of Nigeria, which has multiple lineages of the virus. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and presentation of LVD in febrile children with and without convulsions.This was a prospective study of consecutive febrile children aged ≥1 month- 15 years admitted to the Children's Emergency Room of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital over a period of 1 year. Febrile children with convulsions (Cases were compared with those without convulsions (Controls. LVD was defined by the presence of a positive Lassa virus RT-PCR test. Rates were compared between groups using χ2 or Fisher's exact tests and p <0.05 taken as significant. 373 (40.9% of 913 admissions had fever. Of these, 108/373 (29% presented with convulsions. The overall prevalence of LVD was 13/373 (3.5%; 95% CI = 1.9%, 5.7% in febrile admissions, 3/108 (2.8% in Cases and 10/265 (3.8% in Controls [(Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval (OR (95% CI of LVD in Cases versus Controls = 0.73 (0.2, 2.7]. Only vomiting (OR (95% CI = 0.09 (0.01, 0.70 and bleeding (OR (95% CI = 39.56 (8.52, 183.7 were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of LVD.LVD is an important cause of fever, including undifferentiated fever in children in endemic areas, but it is not significantly associated with convulsions associated with fever. Its prevalence, and lack of clinical differentiation on presentation, underscores the importance of a high index of suspicion in diagnosis. Screening of febrile children with undifferentiated fever in endemic areas for LVD could be an important medical and public health control measure.

  12. Prevalence of Lassa Virus Disease (LVD) in Nigerian children with fever or fever and convulsions in an endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhuemokhan, Odigie C; Ewah-Odiase, Rosemary O; Akpede, Nosa; Ehimuan, Jacqueline; Adomeh, Donatus I; Odia, Ikpomwonsa; Olomu, Sylvia C; Pahlmann, Meike; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Happi, Christian T; Asogun, Danny A; Okogbenin, Sylvanus A; Okokhere, Peter O; Dawodu, Osagie S; Omoike, Irekpono U; Sabeti, Pardis C; Günther, Stephan; Akpede, George O

    2017-07-01

    Convulsions with fever in children are a common neurologic emergency in the tropics, and determining the contribution of endemic viral infections can be challenging. In particular, there is a dearth of data on the prevalence and clinical differentiation of Lassa virus disease (LVD) in febrile children in endemic areas of Nigeria, which has multiple lineages of the virus. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and presentation of LVD in febrile children with and without convulsions. This was a prospective study of consecutive febrile children aged ≥1 month- 15 years admitted to the Children's Emergency Room of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital over a period of 1 year. Febrile children with convulsions (Cases) were compared with those without convulsions (Controls). LVD was defined by the presence of a positive Lassa virus RT-PCR test. Rates were compared between groups using χ2 or Fisher's exact tests and p <0.05 taken as significant. 373 (40.9%) of 913 admissions had fever. Of these, 108/373 (29%) presented with convulsions. The overall prevalence of LVD was 13/373 (3.5%; 95% CI = 1.9%, 5.7%) in febrile admissions, 3/108 (2.8%) in Cases and 10/265 (3.8%) in Controls [(Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) (OR (95% CI)) of LVD in Cases versus Controls = 0.73 (0.2, 2.7)]. Only vomiting (OR (95% CI) = 0.09 (0.01, 0.70)) and bleeding (OR (95% CI) = 39.56 (8.52, 183.7)) were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of LVD. LVD is an important cause of fever, including undifferentiated fever in children in endemic areas, but it is not significantly associated with convulsions associated with fever. Its prevalence, and lack of clinical differentiation on presentation, underscores the importance of a high index of suspicion in diagnosis. Screening of febrile children with undifferentiated fever in endemic areas for LVD could be an important medical and public health control measure.

  13. Neuropharmacological effects of aqueous leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gross behaviour and potentiation of pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time. It delayed onset in strychnine-and picrotoxin-induced convulsion (seizures) respectively with the protective effect being significantly higher in picrotoxin- than strychnine-induced convulsion. It also decreases the rate of picrotoxin-induced mortality in ...

  14. Microstructural Effects on Initiation Behavior in HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molek, Christopher; Welle, Eric; Hardin, Barrett; Vitarelli, Jim; Wixom, Ryan; Samuels, Philip

    Understanding the role microstructure plays on ignition and growth behavior has been the subject of a significant body of research within the detonation physics community. The pursuit of this understanding is important because safety and performance characteristics have been shown to strongly correlate to particle morphology. Historical studies have often correlated bulk powder characteristics to the performance or safety characteristics of pressed materials. We believe that a clearer and more relevant correlation is made between the pressed microstructure and the observed detonation behavior. This type of assessment is possible, as techniques now exist for the quantification of the pressed microstructures. Our talk will report on experimental efforts that correlate directly measured microstructural characteristics to initiation threshold behavior of HMX based materials. The internal microstructures were revealed using an argon ion cross-sectioning technique. This technique enabled the quantification of density and interface area of the pores within the pressed bed using methods of stereology. These bed characteristics are compared to the initiation threshold behavior of three HMX based materials using an electric gun based test method. Finally, a comparison of experimental threshold data to supporting theoretical efforts will be made.

  15. The effect of unethical behavior on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Faezeh Rezazadeh Baei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the components of ethical behavior and their impacts on life insurance companies in province of Mazandaran, Iran. There were 367 insurance representatives and the study selects a sample of 187 ones based on Cochran formula and 2 questionnaires were distributed among them. The first questionnaire, unethical behavior, includes 8 items including Bribery, Cheating, Deception, Interact with colleagues, Act as social behavior, Uncommitted to firm and Irresponsibility. In addition, the questionnaire of brand equity contains three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined that the effects of cheating and deception on unethical behaviors were not confirmed but the effects of other factors, bribery, interact with colleagues, act as social behavior, uncommitted to firm and irresponsibility on unethical behavior were confirmed. In addition, three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty had positive relationship with brand equity.

  16. Parafunctional Behaviors and Its Effect on Dental Bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharby, Amal; Alzayer, Hanan; Almahlawi, Ahmed; Alrashidi, Yazeed; Azhar, Samaa; Sheikho, Maan; Alandijani, Anas; Aljohani, Amjad; Obied, Manal

    2018-02-01

    Parafunctional behaviors, especially bruxism, are not uncommon among patient visiting dentists' clinics daily and they constitute a major dental issue for almost all dentists. Many researchers have focused on the definition, pathophysiology, and treatment of these behaviors. These parafunctional behaviors have a considerable negative impact on teeth and dental prothesis. In this review, we focused on the impact of parafunctional behaviors on dental bridges. We summarized the definitions, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and consequences of parafunctional behaviors. In addition, we reviewed previous dental literature studies that demonstrated the effect of bruxism or other parafunctional behaviors on dental bridges and dental prothesis. In conclusion, parafunctional behaviors are common involuntary movements involving the masticatory system. They are more prevalent among children. These behaviors have deleterious effects on dental structures. Causes of parafunctional behaviors include anxiety, depression, smoking, caffeine intake, sleep disorders, or central neurotransmitter dysfunction. Bruxism and other similar masticatory system activity cause dental fracture, loss, and weardown of enamel or teeth. They can also affect different types of dental protheses both fixed and removable types. Parafunctional behaviors shorten the life expectancy of these protheses, and damage residual dentition and denture-bearing tissues.

  17. The effect of childhood malnutrition on externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2006-10-01

    Childhood externalizing behavior (aggression, hyperactivity, and conduct disorder) has been increasingly viewed as a public health problem because of its etiology and outcome. The association between malnutrition and externalizing behavior has begun to receive attention. This review summarizes recent empirical findings on malnutrition as a risk factor for the development of externalizing behavior, with an emphasis on micronutrient deficiency, and explores brain dysfunction as a possible mechanism. Externalizing behavior is associated with both macromalnutrition (e.g. protein) and micromalnutrition (e.g. iron and zinc). Both prenatal and postnatal malnutrition is implicated. The long-term effects of malnutrition on behavior could be reversible. The effects of docosahexaenoic acid/omega-3 long-chain essential fatty acid on externalizing behavior are more mixed. From animal and human findings, it is hypothesized that malnutrition impairs neurocognitive functioning by reducing neurons, alternating neurotransmitter functioning, and increasing neurotoxicity, and that such neurocognitive impairments predispose to externalizing behavior. Different lines of evidence support the view that poor nutrition contributes to the development of child behavior problems. More randomized, controlled trials that manipulate nutritional intake and evaluate behavior in children are needed to evaluate the etiological role of nutrition in externalizing behavior in order to inform intervention and prevention efforts.

  18. Effect of information transmission on cooperative behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jintu; Wang Yinghai; Wang Shengjun; Huang Zigang; Yang Lei; Do, Younghae

    2010-01-01

    Considering the fact, in the real world, that information is transmitted with a time delay, we study an evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game where agents update strategies according to certain information that they have learned. In our study, the game dynamics are classified by the modes of information learning as well as game interaction, and four different combinations, i.e. the mean-field case, case I, case II and local case, are studied comparatively. It is found that the time delay in case II smoothes the phase transition from the absorbing states of C (or D) to their mixing state, and promotes cooperation for most parameter values. Our work provides insights into the temporal behavior of information and the memory of the system, and may be helpful in understanding the cooperative behavior induced by the time delay in social and biological systems.

  19. Effect of information transmission on cooperative behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin-Tu; Wang, Sheng-Jun; Huang, Zi-Gang; Yang, Lei; Do, Younghae; Wang, Ying-Hai

    2010-06-01

    Considering the fact, in the real world, that information is transmitted with a time delay, we study an evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game where agents update strategies according to certain information that they have learned. In our study, the game dynamics are classified by the modes of information learning as well as game interaction, and four different combinations, i.e. the mean-field case, case I, case II and local case, are studied comparatively. It is found that the time delay in case II smoothes the phase transition from the absorbing states of C (or D) to their mixing state, and promotes cooperation for most parameter values. Our work provides insights into the temporal behavior of information and the memory of the system, and may be helpful in understanding the cooperative behavior induced by the time delay in social and biological systems.

  20. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: Effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Natalie V.; Haas, Sarah M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Willoughby, Michael T.; Helseth, Sarah A.; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coles, Erika K.; Pelham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional traits (i.e., lack of empathy, guilt/lack of caring behaviors) (CU) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), however reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (condition C), compared to a standard behavioral intervention (condition A). Interventions were delivered through a Summer Treatment Program over seven weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of eleven children (7–11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the seven weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed. PMID:25022772

  1. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E

    2014-09-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Premature mortality in active convulsive epilepsy in rural Kenya: causes and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Anthony K; Bottomley, Christian; Fegan, Gregory; Chengo, Eddie; Odhiambo, Rachael; Bauni, Evasius; Neville, Brian; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Sander, Josemir W; Newton, Charles R

    2014-02-18

    We estimated premature mortality and identified causes of death and associated factors in people with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) in rural Kenya. In this prospective population-based study, people with ACE were identified in a cross-sectional survey and followed up regularly for 3 years, during which information on deaths and associated factors was collected. We used a validated verbal autopsy tool to establish putative causes of death. Age-specific rate ratios and standardized mortality ratios were estimated. Poisson regression was used to identify mortality risk factors. There were 61 deaths among 754 people with ACE, yielding a rate of 33.3/1,000 persons/year. Overall standardized mortality ratio was 6.5. Mortality was higher across all ACE age groups. Nonadherence to antiepileptic drugs (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] 3.37), cognitive impairment (aRR 4.55), and age (50+ years) (rate ratio 4.56) were risk factors for premature mortality. Most deaths (56%) were directly related to epilepsy, with prolonged seizures/possible status epilepticus (38%) most frequently associated with death; some of these may have been due to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Possible SUDEP was the likely cause in another 7%. Mortality in people with ACE was more than 6-fold greater than expected. This may be reduced by improving treatment adherence and prompt management of prolonged seizures and supporting those with cognitive impairment.

  3. Canine parvovirus type 2c infection in a kitten associated with intracranial abscess and convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Desario, Costantina; Amorisco, Francesca; Losurdo, Michele; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Greco, Maria Fiorella; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2011-04-01

    A case of canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) infection in a 3-month-old feral kitten with a cerebral abscess and neurological disease is reported. The cat displayed ataxia and convulsions together with signs of gastroenteritis and profound alteration of the total and differential white blood cell counts. A parvovirus strain was detected by a TaqMan assay in the blood and faeces of the affected kitten, which was characterised as CPV by means of molecular assays but did not react with any of the CPV type-specific probes. By sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the VP2-protein gene, the CPV-2c strain displayed a non-coding mutation in the probe-binding region. Although the role of CPV-2c in this particular case is unclear, it is possible that it predisposed the kitten to the clinical signs seen. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor future spreading of this CPV-2c mutant, and any associated clinical signs, in the dog and cat population. Copyright © 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of factors influencing admission to intensive care following convulsive status epilepticus in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tirupathi, Sandya

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical features and therapeutic decisions that influence admission to the Intensive Care unit (ICU) in children presenting with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). METHODS: We evaluated 47 admissions with status epilepticus to a tertiary paediatric hospital A&E over a three year period (2003-2006). Following initial management 23 episodes required admission to ICU and 24 were managed on a paediatric ward. We compared clinical, demographic data and compliance with our CSE protocol between the ICU and ward groups. RESULTS: Median age at presentation in the ICU group was 17 months (range 3 months-11 years) compared to 46 months in the ward group (range 3 months-10 years). Fifty per cent of patients in both groups had a previous history of seizures. Median duration of pre-hospital seizure activity was 30 min in both groups. More than two doses of benzodiazepines were given as first line medication in 62% of the ICU group and 33% of the ward group. Among children admitted to ICU with CSE, 26% had been managed according to the CSE protocol, compared to 66% of children who were admitted to a hospital ward. Febrile seizures were the most common aetiology in both groups. CONCLUSION: Younger age at presentation, administration of more than two doses of benzodiazepines and deviation from the CSE protocol appear to be factors which influence admission of children to ICU. Recognition of pre-hospital administration of benzodiazepines and adherence to therapeutic guidelines may reduce the need for ventilatory support in this group.

  5. Dialectical thinking and health behaviors: the effects of theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hou, Yubo; Yue, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) mediated the relationship between dialectical thinking and health behaviors. A sample of 285 undergraduates was tested with a dialectical thinking styles scale, health promoting lifestyle profiles, and TPB questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. Results indicated that all the three dimensions of thinking styles (belief in the connection, acceptance of change, and acceptance of contradiction) exerted significant effects on TPB constructs. Specifically, the connection and the change dimensions had positive effects on health behaviors mediated by TPB, whereas the contradiction dimension had a negative effect. Model 2 showed a satisfactory fit, demonstrating the influential pathways between dialectical thinking and health behaviors. Implications in issues of health promotion and future research are discussed.

  6. Effect of monosodium glutamate and aspartame on behavioral and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to investigate the individual and combined effect of mono-sodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) on biochemical, blood parameters and neuro-behavioral aspects of mice. The results indicated that exposure induced many changes in fear and anxiety behavior. The non-social and social ...

  7. Effects of Nonverbal Behavior on Perceptions of Power Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; Simonsen, Melissa M.; Pierce, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Manipulates three types of nonverbal behaviors and examines their effects on perceptions of power bases. Reports that a relaxed facial expression increased the ratings for five of the selected power bases; furthermore, direct eye contact yielded higher credibility ratings. Provides evidence that various nonverbal behaviors have only additive…

  8. Training programs in research into the effectiveness of teacher behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article contends that studies into the effectiveness of teacher behavior should give more attention both to a systematic design of training programs as well as to the collection of implementation data concerning teacher behavior, before incorporating the training program into an experimental

  9. Teachers' ratings of disruptive behaviors: the influence of halo effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abikoff, H; Courtney, M; Pelham, W E; Koplewicz, H S

    1993-10-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of teachers' ratings and examined whether these ratings are influenced by halo effects. One hundred thirty-nine elementary school teachers viewed videotapes of what they believed were children in regular fourth-grade classrooms. In fact, the children were actors who followed prepared scripts that depicted a child engaging in behaviors characteristic of an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), an oppositional defiant disorder or a normal youngster. The findings provide support for a bias that was unidirectional in nature. Specifically, teachers rated hyperactive behaviors accurately when the child behaved like an ADHD youngster. However, ratings of hyperactivity and of ADHD symptomatic behaviors were spuriously inflated when behaviors associated with oppositional defiant disorder occurred. In contrast, teachers rated oppositional and conduct problem behaviors accurately, regardless of the presence of hyperactive behaviors. The implications of these findings regarding diagnostic practices and rating scale formats are discussed.

  10. The universal behavior of inverse magnetocaloric effect in antiferromagnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Anis; Chandra, Sayan; Samanta, Tapas; Phan, M. H.; Das, I.; Srikanth, H.

    2013-05-01

    We report the universal behavior of inverse magnetocaloric effect (IMCE) in antiferromagnetic materials. In contrast to the universal behavior of conventional magnetocaloric effect often observed in ferromagnetic systems, a phenomenological universal master curve can be constructed to describe the temperature dependence of magnetic entropy change for IMCE without rescaling the temperature axis. The proposed universal curve method allows extrapolating the magnetic entropy change of an IMCE material, which would be imperative to judge its suitability in actual magnetic refrigeration devices.

  11. Late-onset epilepsy in children with acute febrile encephalopathy with prolonged convulsions: A clinical and encephalographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takashi; Saito, Yoshiaki; Sugai, Kenji; Nakagawa, Eiji; Komaki, Hirofumi; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Ishido, Yusaku; Kaneko, Yuu; Kaido, Takanobu; Takahashi, Akio; Ohtsuki, Taisuke; Sakuma, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the characteristics of epilepsies as the sequelae of acute febrile encephalopathy with prolonged convulsions during childhood. Sixteen patients (M:F=9:7) aged 2-13years (mean 6.1years) with history of febrile acute encephalopathy were retrospectively reviewed. These patients experienced febrile encephalopathy at the age of 11months to 4years, with 11 individuals presenting with findings of a biphasic clinical course (n=5), frontal predominant (n=8) lesions, and/or reduced diffusivity in the cerebral white matter on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; n=3). The remaining 5 patients had unilateral lesions that manifested the phenotype of hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome (HHES). Epilepsy emerged with a latent period of 2months to 2years after the acute phase of febrile encephalopathy. Head nodding or spasm with subsequent motion arrest and brief tonic seizures were the main seizure phenotypes. Ictal records of epileptic seizures were available in 9 patients. Epileptiform discharges with a focal or uneven distribution appeared at the seizure onset and lasted less than 1s in all patients; these were followed by either generalized attenuation or fast activity in 8 patients with head nodding, spasm, or brief tonic seizures, and by localized fast activity in 1 patient with versive tonic seizures. Notably, the seizure onset area was often located outside the severe lesions on MRI, i.e., in the parietal areas in patients with frontal predominant lesions, and in the spared hemisphere of HHES. Although phenobarbital, zonisamide, carbamazepine, clobazam, clonazepam, and clorazepate were partially effective in some patients, daily seizures persisted in 11 patients. Callosotomy was performed in 2 patients, and beneficial effects were observed in both. These characteristics suggested a broad distribution of augmented excitability in these patients, resulting in the rapid propagation of epileptic activity in the initial phase of ictal

  12. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  13. Effects of environmental enrichment on the behavior of shelter dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Meghan E; Kirby-Madden, Taylor M; Lord, Linda K

    2014-03-15

    To determine the effect of food-toy enrichment combined with cage-behavior training on desirable behaviors in shelter dogs and adoption rates. Randomized controlled clinical trial. 107 dogs. Dogs placed up for adoption in a municipal shelter were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 48) or control group (59). Experimental group subjects were exposed to an environmental enrichment and training protocol consisting of twice-daily cage-behavior training and daily provision of a food-filled toy. Cage-behavior training included operant conditioning via positive reinforcement of desirable behaviors, including approaching the front of the cage, sitting or lying, and remaining quiet when approached. Behavioral observations were performed by a blinded observer in a scan-sampling technique on day 0 (first day on adoption floor) and again on day 3 for experimental (n = 26) and control (32) dogs. Body posture, location in cage, and other behavioral parameters were recorded. Adoption information and behavioral observation data were compared between groups. Compared with the control group, the experimental group had a significantly greater percentage of dogs with an increase in desirable behaviors of sitting or lying down (17/26 [65%] vs 7/32 [22%]) and being quiet (9/26 [35%] vs 4/32 [13%]) and a significantly greater percentage of dogs with a decrease in the undesirable behavior of jumping (15/26 [57%] vs 3/32 [9%]). Location in cage, fearfulness, and eye contact were not significantly different between groups. Survival analysis revealed no significant difference in adoption rates between groups. Results suggested that enrichment programs improve desirable behaviors and decrease undesirable behavior in shelter dogs, which may enhance welfare.

  14. Teacher and Teaching Effects on Students’ Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazar, David; Kraft, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Research has focused predominantly on how teachers affect students’ achievement on tests despite evidence that a broad range of attitudes and behaviors are equally important to their long-term success. We find that upper-elementary teachers have large effects on self-reported measures of students’ self-efficacy in math, and happiness and behavior in class. Students’ attitudes and behaviors are predicted by teaching practices most proximal to these measures, including teachers’ emotional support and classroom organization. However, teachers who are effective at improving test scores often are not equally effective at improving students’ attitudes and behaviors. These findings lend empirical evidence to well-established theory on the multidimensional nature of teaching and the need to identify strategies for improving the full range of teachers’ skills. PMID:28931959

  15. A comparison of the acute behavioral effects of inhaled amyl, ethyl, and butyl acetate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, S E; Balster, R L

    1997-02-01

    The acute neurobehavioral effects of three acetates (amyl, ethyl, and n-butyl acetate) were investigated after 20-min inhalation exposures in mice using locomotor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB). Ethyl and n-butyl acetate produced significant decreases in locomotor activity at the highest concentrations examined, while amyl acetate was without effect. Minimally effective concentrations for activity-decreasing effects were 2000 ppm for ethyl acetate and 8000 ppm for n-butyl acetate. The potency order was similar in the FOB where ethyl acetate was more potent in disrupting the neurobehavioral measures. The FOB profile of effects for all three acetates included changes in posture, decreased arousal, increased tonic/clonic movements, disturbances in gait, delayed righting reflexes, and increased sensorimotor reactivity. Furthermore, handling-induced convulsions were produced in some mice acutely exposed to each of these acetates. Recovery from the acute effects of these acetates was rapid and began within minutes of removal from the exposure chamber. The acetates produced a profile of neurobehavioral effects that were different from those reported for depressant solvents (i.e., toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane) that are subject to abuse. Evidence is emerging for qualitative differences in the acute neurobehavioral effects of various volatile chemicals.

  16. PSEUDOTUMORAL FORM OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS WITH SYMPTOMATIC CONVULSIVE SEIZURES (A CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is prominent among central nervous system diseases. It affects chiefly young people and almost inevitably results in disability. In the past decade, there has been an upward trend for the prevalence of MS worldwide; in particular, the higher prevalence of this disease has been registered in the Moscow Region, which is associated with both an objective increase in its morbidity and improvement of specialized care to the population in the region. MS is characterized by a variety of clinical manifestations. However, paroxysmal disturbances are referred to as the rare symptoms of MS: the incidence of epileptic seizures in this condition is 0.89 to 7.5% according to the literature data. In addition to the clinical form of MS, there are its rare malignant atypical forms that also include its pseudotumoral form characterized by intrinsic neuroimaging and clinical signs that are different from the classical form of MS and another abnormality of the central nervous system. The pseudotumoral form of MS is characterized by the development of acute focal demyelination that appears as a large focus of an increased magnetic resonance signal with perifocal edema as evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging. A pseudotumoral focus of demyelination can occur both at the onset of MS and during its recurrent course. The atypical onset of MS is a special challenge because of diagnostic problems, which may lead to erroneous therapeutic policy and have a negative impact on the late prognosis of the disease. The authors provide a clinical case of the pseudotumoral form of MS with convulsive seizures at the onset of demyelinating disease. The problems of diagnosis and therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for active convulsive epilepsy in rural northeast South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ryan G; Ngugi, Anthony K; Twine, Rhian; Bottomley, Christian; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Connor, Myles D; Collinson, Mark A; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Newton, Charles R

    2014-05-01

    Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders worldwide. However, there are few large, population-based studies of the prevalence and risk factors for epilepsy in southern Africa. From August 2008 to February 2009, as part of a multi-site study, we undertook a three-stage, population-based study, embedded within the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system, to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors of active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) in a rural South African population. The crude prevalence of ACE, after adjusting for non-response and the sensitivity of the screening method, was 7.0/1,000 individuals (95% CI 6.4-7.6) with significant geographic heterogeneity across the study area. Being male (OR=2.3; 95% CI 1.6-3.2), family history of seizures (OR=4.0; 95% CI 2.0-8.1), a sibling with seizures (OR=7.0; 95% CI 1.6-31.7), problems after delivery (OR=5.9; 95% CI 1.2-24.6), and history of snoring (OR=6.5; 95% CI 4.5-9.5) were significantly associated with ACE. For children, their mother's exposure to some formal schooling was protective (OR=0.30; 95% CI 0.11-0.84) after controlling for age and sex. Human immunodeficiency virus was not found to be associated with ACE. ACE is less frequent in this part of rural South Africa than other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Improving obstetric services could prevent epilepsy. The relationship between snoring and ACE requires further investigation, as does the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to examine the increased risk in those with a family history of epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Familial febrile convulsions is supposed to link to human chromosome 19p13.3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Y; Lü, J; Wu, X

    2001-01-10

    To localize the familial febrile convulsion (FC) genes on human chromosomes. For 63 FC pedigrees, tetranucleotide repeat markers D19S253 D19S395 and D19S591 on the short arm of chromosome 19, as well as dinucleotide repeat markers D8S84 and D8S85 on the long arm of chromosome 8 were genotyped. Transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and Lod score calculation were carried out. The data were processed by PPAP software package. All the alleles in every locus of FC probands and normal controls were in Hardy-Weinburg balance. Transmission disequilibrium was found on D8S84, D19S395 and D19S591 in FC families. chi(2) values were 4.0, 5.124 and 7.364 separately. Each P value was < 0.05, and significantly meaningful. The two-point Lod scores between D8S84 and FC, D8S85 and FC, D19S253 and FC, D19S395 and FC, D19S591 and FC are 0.00002, 0.000017, 0.58, 1.53 and 1.42 respectively. The multi-point Lod score among markers on chromosome 8q and FC was 0.88, while Lod score among markers on chromosome 19p and FC reached 2.78. The results by both the non-parameter (TDT) and parameter (Lod score) methods were consistant on a whole. FC is linked with chromosome region 19p13.3, but not with chromosome 8q.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for active convulsive epilepsy in rural northeast South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ryan G.; Ngugi, Anthony K.; Twine, Rhian; Bottomley, Christian; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Connor, Myles D.; Collinson, Mark A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Newton, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Rationale Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders worldwide. However, there are few large, population-based studies of the prevalence and risk factors for epilepsy in southern Africa. Methods From August 2008 to February 2009, as part of a multi-site study, we undertook a three-stage, population-based study, embedded within the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system, to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors of active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) in a rural South African population. Results The crude prevalence of ACE, after adjusting for non-response and the sensitivity of the screening method, was 7.0/1,000 individuals (95%CI 6.4–7.6) with significant geographic heterogeneity across the study area. Being male (OR = 2.3; 95%CI 1.6–3.2), family history of seizures (OR = 4.0; 95%CI 2.0–8.1), a sibling with seizures (OR = 7.0; 95%CI 1.6–31.7), problems after delivery (OR = 5.9; 95%CI 1.2–24.6), and history of snoring (OR = 6.5; 95%CI 4.5–9.5) were significantly associated with ACE. For children, their mother's exposure to some formal schooling was protective (OR = 0.30; 95%CI 0.11–0.84) after controlling for age and sex. Human immunodeficiency virus was not found to be associated with ACE. Conclusions ACE is less frequent in this part of rural South Africa than other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Improving obstetric services could prevent epilepsy. The relationship between snoring and ACE requires further investigation, as does the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to examine the increased risk in those with a family history of epilepsy. PMID:24582322

  20. Incidence of benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis after introduction of rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Han Kyul; Kim, Ho Sung; Kim, Byoung Young; Cheon, Kyeong Ryeol; Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Sun Hee; Chung, Jae Keun; Woo, Young Jong

    2015-06-01

    Rotavirus was the most common virus in benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (CwG), with an incidence of 40-50%. As rotavirus gastroenteritis has decreased since introduction of rotavirus vaccine, we investigated the incidence of CwG and rotavirus positivity after introduction of the vaccine. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 987 patients aged between 3months and 3years who were admitted to the Chonnam National University Hospital between March 2005 and February 2014 due to their first seizures and enrolled 102 patients with CwG. The incidences of CwG among seizure patients and stool rotavirus positivity in CwG patients were compared between two periods: period I (March 2005-February 2010) and period II (March 2010-February 2014). Other viruses in stools were also reviewed. The incidence of CwG were 8.47% (45 among 531 patients) in period I and 12.50% (57 among 456 patients) in period II (P=0.018). Stool rotavirus was checked in 85.29% (87 patients): 82.22% (37 patients) in period I and 87.72% (50 patients) in period II (P=0.166). The positivity of rotavirus was 40.54% (15 patients) in period I and 16.00% (8 patients) in period II (P=0.01). In the patients without rotavirus gastroenteritis, 30 patients were test for other viruses. Norovirus was the most common (56.67%, 17 patients) and was more frequent in period II than I (71.43% versus 22.22%, P=0.018). After introduction of rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus-associated CwG has decreased but the incidence of CwG has increased due to an increase of norovirus. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  2. Cybercycling Effects on Classroom Behavior in Children With Behavioral Health Disorders: An RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, April; Slavet, James; Miller, Daniel P; Haneuse, Sebastien; Beardslee, William; Davison, Kirsten

    2017-02-01

    Exercise is linked with improved cognition and behavior in children in clinical and experimental settings. This translational study examined if an aerobic cybercycling intervention integrated into physical education (PE) resulted in improvements in behavioral self-regulation and classroom functioning among children with mental health disabilities attending a therapeutic day school. Using a 14-week crossover design, students (N = 103) were randomly assigned by classroom (k = 14) to receive the 7-week aerobic cybercycling PE curriculum during fall 2014 or spring 2015. During the intervention, children used the bikes 2 times per week during 30- to 40-minute PE classes. During the control period, children participated in standard nonaerobic PE. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to assess relationships between intervention exposures and clinical thresholds of behavioral outcomes, accounting for both individual and classroom random effects. Children experienced 32% to 51% lower odds of poor self-regulation and learning-inhibiting disciplinary time out of class when participating in the intervention; this result is both clinically and statistically significant. Effects were appreciably more pronounced on days that children participated in the aerobic exercise, but carryover effects were also observed. Aerobic cybercycling PE shows promise for improving self-regulation and classroom functioning among children with complex behavioral health disorders. This school-based exercise intervention may significantly improve child behavioral health without increasing parental burden or health care costs, or disrupting academic schedules. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Evaluation of Behavioral and Pharmacological Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Valeriana prionophylla Standl. from Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Iandra; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Mora, Ticiana C.; Cáceres, Armando; Martínez, Jose Vicente; Cruz, Sully M.; de Souza, Márcia Maria

    2011-01-01

    There are few studies on the pharmacological properties of Valeriana prionophylla Standl. (VP), known as “Valeriana del monte”, and used in Mesoamerican folk medicine to treat sleep disorders. This study examines the pharmacological effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of the dry rhizome using the open field, rota rod, elevated plus-maze (EPM), forced swimming (FST), strychnine- and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, PTZ-induced seizures, and the inhibitory avoidance tests. VP did not show any protective effect against PTZ-induced convulsions. In the EPM, exhibited an anxiolytic-like effect through the effective enhancement of the entries (38.5%) and time spent (44.7%) in the open arms, when compared with control group. Time spent and the numbers of entrances into the enclosed arms were decreased, similar to those effects observed with diazepam. In the FST, acute treatment with VP, produced a dose-dependent decrease in immobility time, similarly to imipramine. VP also produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in the latency of sleeping time, while producing an increase in total duration of sleep; influenced memory consolidation of the animals only at lower doses, unlike those that produced anti-depressant and anxiolytic effects. In summary, the results suggest that VP presents several psychopharmacological activities, including anxiolytic, antidepressant, and hypno-sedative effects. PMID:21754942

  4. Evaluation of Behavioral and Pharmacological Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Valeriana prionophylla Standl. from Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iandra Holzmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies on the pharmacological properties of Valeriana prionophylla Standl. (VP, known as “Valeriana del monte”, and used in Mesoamerican folk medicine to treat sleep disorders. This study examines the pharmacological effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of the dry rhizome using the open field, rota rod, elevated plus-maze (EPM, forced swimming (FST, strychnine- and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, PTZ-induced seizures, and the inhibitory avoidance tests. VP did not show any protective effect against PTZ-induced convulsions. In the EPM, exhibited an anxiolytic-like effect through the effective enhancement of the entries (38.5% and time spent (44.7% in the open arms, when compared with control group. Time spent and the numbers of entrances into the enclosed arms were decreased, similar to those effects observed with diazepam. In the FST, acute treatment with VP, produced a dose-dependent decrease in immobility time, similarly to imipramine. VP also produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in the latency of sleeping time, while producing an increase in total duration of sleep; influenced memory consolidation of the animals only at lower doses, unlike those that produced anti-depressant and anxiolytic effects. In summary, the results suggest that VP presents several psychopharmacological activities, including anxiolytic, antidepressant, and hypno-sedative effects.

  5. Consistency Versus Licensing Effects of Past Moral Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Elizabeth; Monin, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Why does past moral behavior sometimes lead people to do more of the same (consistency), whereas sometimes it liberates them to do the opposite (licensing)? We organize the literature on moderators of moral consistency versus licensing effects using five conceptual themes: construal level, progress versus commitment, identification, value reflection, and ambiguity. Our review reveals that individuals are more likely to exhibit consistency when they focus abstractly on the connection between their initial behavior and their values, whereas they are more likely to exhibit licensing when they think concretely about what they have accomplished with their initial behavior-as long as the second behavior does not blatantly threaten a cherished identity. Moreover, many studies lacked baseline conditions ("donut" designs), leaving it ambiguous whether licensing was observed. And although many proposed moderators yielded significant interactions, evidence for both significant consistency and balancing simple effects in the same study was nearly nonexistent.

  6. Effects of Managed Care on Southern Youths' Behavioral Services Use

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Robert C.; Heflinger, Craig Anne

    2004-01-01

    Children and adolescents' access to Medicaid-financed behavioral health services was examined over 8 years in Tennessee (managed care) and Mississippi (fee-for-service [FFS]) using logistic regression. Managed care reduced access to behavioral care overall, overnight services (e.g., inpatient), and specialty outpatient services. Managed care also restricted the relative use of overnight and specialty outpatient for children and adolescents. However, managed care had pronounced effects on use ...

  7. Effects of massage on behavior of full-term newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Tri Sunarti Wahyutami; Soedjatmiko Soedjatmiko; Agus Firmansyah; Rulina Suradi

    2010-01-01

    Background Baby massage is one of the touch stimulation that could be applied as soon as possible after birth. Giving massage regularly will affect the behavior of newborn. Objectives To explore the effects of ten-day massage on infant's behavior. Methods A randomized control trial was done from December 200S to March 2009. Full-term newborm were randomly assigned into massage group or control group. Babies in massage group were given massage by their mothers and supervised by midwive...

  8. Regional and technological effects of cooperation behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Cantner, Uwe; Meder, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the determinants of cooperative innovation and put our main focus on the regional or spatial and on the technological or sectoral dimension. We suggest a method to disentangle these two factors and to extract differential regional effects. The latter can be used to identify and evaluate the strength of regional innovation systems. Applying this method to German patent data we find evidence that regional differences in the degree of cooperative innovation are not o...

  9. Carisoprodol - Effects on Human Performance and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, M M; Marinetti, L J

    2003-01-01

    Carisoprodol, a commonly prescribed muscle relaxant, has adverse effects on human performance and is gaining recognition as a factor in driver impairment and accident causation. Carisoprodol is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant indicated for the relief of musculoskeletal pain. Carisoprodol and its major metabolite meprobamate have central nervous system (CNS) sedating effects similar to benzodiazepines or alcohol. Following the ingestion of carisoprodol or meprobamate symptoms such as drowsiness, confusion, poor balance, and coordination are well documented in drivers, all of which are detrimental to human performance and driving ability. Although identified as a drug capable of producing decreased human performance, the full extent of carisoprodol and meprobamate's involvement in motor vehicle accidents and effect on driving skills may not be fully appreciated. This is due in part to the common co-administration of other CNS depressants, hypnotics, or narcotic drugs and the lack of routine testing for carisoprodol and meprobamate in the human performance toxicology laboratory. Copyright © 2003 Central Police University.

  10. Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S.

    This review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) first looks at aspects of the history and prevalence of AS use in competitive sports. Research suggests that one-quarter to one-half million adolescents in the United States have used, or are currently using AS. Some effects of androgens…

  11. Effects of stress management on pain behavior in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multon, K D; Parker, J C; Smarr, K L; Stucky, R C; Petroski, G; Hewett, J E; Wright, G E; Rhee, S H; Walker, S E

    2001-04-01

    To examine the effects of stress management training on pain behavior exhibited by persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the relationship of change in pain behavior with certain patient characteristics as well as change in self-reported levels of pain. Patients with RA (n = 131) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a stress management group, an attention control group, or a standard care control group. The stress management and attention control groups received a 10-week intervention followed by a 15-month maintenance phase. The 3 groups did not differ significantly in the change in pain behavior at any of the assessment periods. However, persons with RA who had less disease activity tended to exhibit positive changes in pain behavior over time. Changes in self-reported pain were not significantly related to changes in pain behavior. The results indicate that stress management interventions do not reduce total pain behaviors exhibited by persons with RA. Changes in pain behaviors appear to be related to disease activity, age, and disease duration, but not to changes in self-reported measures of pain.

  12. Clinical features, proximate causes, and consequences of active convulsive epilepsy in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Symon M; Matuja, William; Akpalu, Albert; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Chabi, Martin; Wagner, Ryan G; Connor, Myles; Chengo, Eddie; Ngugi, Anthony K; Odhiambo, Rachael; Bottomley, Christian; White, Steven; Sander, Josemir W; Neville, Brian G R; Newton, Charles R J C; Twine, Rhian; Gómez Olivé, F Xavier; Collinson, Mark; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Masanja, Honratio; Mathew, Alexander; Pariyo, George; Peterson, Stefan; Ndyomughenyi, Donald; Bauni, Evasius; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Odera, Victor Mung'ala; Mageto, James O; Ae-Ngibise, Ken; Akpalu, Bright; Agbokey, Francis; Adjei, Patrick; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Doku, Victor C K; Odermatt, Peter; Nutman, Thomas; Wilkins, Patricia; Noh, John

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the clinical features and consequences are poorly characterized. Most studies are hospital-based, and few studies have compared different ecological sites in SSA. We described active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) identified in cross-sectional community-based surveys in SSA, to understand the proximate causes, features, and consequences. We performed a detailed clinical and neurophysiologic description of ACE cases identified from a community survey of 584,586 people using medical history, neurologic examination, and electroencephalography (EEG) data from five sites in Africa: South Africa; Tanzania; Uganda; Kenya; and Ghana. The cases were examined by clinicians to discover risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of epilepsy. We used logistic regression to determine the epilepsy factors associated with medical comorbidities. Half (51%) of the 2,170 people with ACE were children and 69% of seizures began in childhood. Focal features (EEG, seizure types, and neurologic deficits) were present in 58% of ACE cases, and these varied significantly with site. Status epilepticus occurred in 25% of people with ACE. Only 36% received antiepileptic drugs (phenobarbital was the most common drug [95%]), and the proportion varied significantly with the site. Proximate causes of ACE were adverse perinatal events (11%) for onset of seizures before 18 years; and acute encephalopathy (10%) and head injury prior to seizure onset (3%). Important comorbidities were malnutrition (15%), cognitive impairment (23%), and neurologic deficits (15%). The consequences of ACE were burns (16%), head injuries (postseizure) (1%), lack of education (43%), and being unmarried (67%) or unemployed (57%) in adults, all significantly more common than in those without epilepsy. There were significant differences in the comorbidities across sites. Focal features are common in ACE, suggesting identifiable and preventable causes. Malnutrition and

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for Active Convulsive Epilepsy in Kintampo, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth Ayuurebobi; Akpalu, Bright; Ngugi, Anthony; Akpalu, Albert; Agbokey, Francis; Adjei, Patrick; Punguyire, Damien; Bottomley, Christian; Newton, Charles; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little data in West Africa, to develop public health measures for epilepsy in this region. We conducted a three-stage cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence and risk factors for active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), and estimated the treatment gap in Kintampo situated in the middle of Ghana. 249 people with ACE were identified in a study population of 113,796 individuals. After adjusting for attrition and the sensitivity of the screening method, the prevalence of ACE was 10.1/1000 (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 9.5-10.7). In children aged <18 years, risk factors for ACE were: family history of seizures (OR=3.31; 95% CI: 1.83-5.96), abnormal delivery (OR=2.99; 95% CI: 1.07-8.34), problems after birth (OR=3.51; 95% CI: 1.02-12.06), and exposure to Onchocerca volvulus (OR=2.32; 95% CI: 1.12-4.78). In adults, a family history of seizures (OR=1.83; 95% CI: 1.05-3.20), never attended school (OR=11.68; 95% CI: 4.80-28.40), cassava consumption (OR=3.92; 95% CI: 1.14-13.54), pork consumption (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.09-2.58), history of snoring at least 3 nights per week (OR=3.40: 95% CI: 1.56-7.41), exposure to Toxoplasma gondii (OR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.15-3.45) and Onchocerca volvulus (OR=2.09: 95% CI: 1.29-3.40) were significant risk factors for the development of ACE. The self-reported treatment gap was 86.9% (95% CI: 83.5%-90.3%). ACE is common within the middle belt of Ghana and could be reduced with improved obstetric care and prevention of parasite infestations such as Onchocerca volvulus and Toxoplasma gondii.

  14. Clinical features, proximate causes, and consequences of active convulsive epilepsy in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Symon M; Matuja, William; Akpalu, Albert; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Chabi, Martin; Wagner, Ryan G; Connor, Myles; Chengo, Eddie; Ngugi, Anthony K; Odhiambo, Rachael; Bottomley, Christian; White, Steven; Sander, Josemir W; Neville, Brian G R; Newton, Charles R J C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the clinical features and consequences are poorly characterized. Most studies are hospital-based, and few studies have compared different ecological sites in SSA. We described active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) identified in cross-sectional community-based surveys in SSA, to understand the proximate causes, features, and consequences. Methods We performed a detailed clinical and neurophysiologic description of ACE cases identified from a community survey of 584,586 people using medical history, neurologic examination, and electroencephalography (EEG) data from five sites in Africa: South Africa; Tanzania; Uganda; Kenya; and Ghana. The cases were examined by clinicians to discover risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of epilepsy. We used logistic regression to determine the epilepsy factors associated with medical comorbidities. Key Findings Half (51%) of the 2,170 people with ACE were children and 69% of seizures began in childhood. Focal features (EEG, seizure types, and neurologic deficits) were present in 58% of ACE cases, and these varied significantly with site. Status epilepticus occurred in 25% of people with ACE. Only 36% received antiepileptic drugs (phenobarbital was the most common drug [95%]), and the proportion varied significantly with the site. Proximate causes of ACE were adverse perinatal events (11%) for onset of seizures before 18 years; and acute encephalopathy (10%) and head injury prior to seizure onset (3%). Important comorbidities were malnutrition (15%), cognitive impairment (23%), and neurologic deficits (15%). The consequences of ACE were burns (16%), head injuries (postseizure) (1%), lack of education (43%), and being unmarried (67%) or unemployed (57%) in adults, all significantly more common than in those without epilepsy. Significance There were significant differences in the comorbidities across sites. Focal features are common in ACE, suggesting identifiable and

  15. [Prehospital management of febrile convulsions by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekaer, A.L.; Nielsen, S.L.; Pedersen, Ulf Gøttrup

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We conducted a quality assurance project of The Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in the Capital Region of Denmark when dispatched to febrile convulsions. The study focuses on prehospital treatment, comparison between prehospital and in-hospital diagnoses and parents' perceptions......% of cases, the prehospital and in-hospital diagnosis were identical. CONCLUSION: In general, parents appreciate the service provided by the MECU. Reasons of dissatisfaction are described. On several occasions, the prehospital physician administered intravenous anticonvulsants, but we discuss if the MECU...

  16. A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with convulsion, gait disturbance, facial palsy and with multifocal CT lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Tetsu; Kurihara, Eiji; Mizuno, Yoshihiko; Tamagawa, Kimiko; Komiya, Kazuhiko; Mizuguchi, Masashi.

    1988-01-01

    A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was presented. The patient was a 4-year-old boy with convulsion, ataxic gait, facial palsy. It was postulated that the influenza vaccine might induce the disease in this case. Cranial CT showed a low density arease in the right temporal lobe, which disappeared afterwards when other low density areas appeared in the right cerebellar hemisphere and in inner portion of the body of the left lateral ventricle. All symptoms disappeared without therapy and the CT findings improved within three months after onset. (author)

  17. Patch Size and Population Density: the Effect of Immigration Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Bowman

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Many habitat fragmentation experiments make the prediction that animal population density will be positively related to fragment, or patch, size. The mechanism that is supposed to result in this prediction is unclear, but several recent reviews have demonstrated that population density often is negatively related to patch size. Immigration behavior is likely to have an important effect on population density for species that do not show strong edge effects, for species that have low emigration rates, and during short-term habitat fragmentation experiments. We consider the effect that different kinds of immigration behaviors will have on population density and we demonstrate that only a minority of possible scenarios produce positive density vs. patch size relationships. More commonly, these relationships are expected to be negative. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering autecological mechanisms, such as immigration behavior, when developing the predictions that we test in habitat fragmentation or other experiments.

  18. Behavioral effects of Euphorbia hirta L.: sedative and anxiolytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanhers, M C; Fleurentin, J; Cabalion, P; Rolland, A; Dorfman, P; Misslin, R; Pelt, J M

    1990-05-01

    Lyophilised aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) has been evaluated for behavioral effects in mice. The extract did not induce any toxic effect when it was administered i.p. and orally. Sedative properties could be confirmed with high doses (100 mg of dried plant/kg, and more), by a decrease of behavioral parameters measured in non-familiar environment tests (activitest and staircase test), whereas anticonflict effects appeared at lower doses (12.5 and 25 mg of dried plant/kg), by an enhancement of behavioral parameters measured in the staircase test and in the light/dark choice situation test. These findings validate the traditional use of E. hirta as a sedative and reveal original anxiolytic properties.

  19. [Effects of workers' interpersonal helping behavior enhancement program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Yuji; Otsuka, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal helping behavior in organizational citizenship behavior can enhance social support in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a workers' interpersonal helping behavior enhancement program increased interpersonal helping behavior, social support, and quantitative workload, and reduced psychological stress responses. A total of 72 workers in a manufacturing company in Japan participated in this study. After excluding 24 participants due to incomplete answers to a questionnaire, retirement, or absence from training, a total of 26 participants working in branch B assigned to an intervention group (22 male and 4 female) and a total of 22 participants working in branch C assigned to a control group (19 male and 3 female) were used for per-protocol analyses. In addition, after excluding 10 participants due to incomplete answers at pre test, a total of 35 participants working in branch B assigned to an intervention group (30 male and 5 female) and a total of 27 participants working in branch C assigned to a control group (23 male and 4 female) were used for intention to treat (ITT) analyses. Interpersonal helping behavior was assessed using the Japanese version of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale. The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire was used to measure quantitative workload, psychological stress responses, and social support. Only the intervention group participants attended a seminar on psychological education, performed role-playing, and did four weeks' homework (HW). Both the intervention and control group participants answered pre test (pre), post test (post), and follow-up test (follow-up) at the same times. To evaluate the effects of the workers' interpersonal helping behavior enhancement program, two-way analysis of variances were performed for per-protocol analyses. Interpersonal helping behavior, quantitative workload, psychological stress responses, and social support were used as the dependent variables, time

  20. [Factors effecting health promoting behaviors in middle-aged women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Ja; Chang, Chun-Ja; Yoo, Jae-Hee; Yi, Yeo-Jin

    2005-06-01

    This study was to evaluate the casual relationship between the factors in the Pender's model and to explain health promoting behaviors among middle-aged women in order to facilitate nursing interventions for this population group. 116 women between 40-60 years old living in Incheon were asked to complete a questionnaire about their health. The data was collected between March and November, 2003. The data was analyzed by descriptive statistics and the correctional analysis SPSSWIN 11.5 program. The LISREL 8.12 program was used to find the best fit model which explained a causal relationship of the variables. The climacteric symptoms of middle-aged women negatively correlated with health promoting behaviors. However, marital satisfaction positively correlated with health promoting behaviors. Marital satisfaction and climacteric symptoms had an effect on health promoting behaviors. Therefore, based on this study, we plan to develop a health education program to decrease climacteric symptoms and to promote marital satisfaction for health promotion.

  1. Beliefs and environmental behavior: the moderating effect of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Luzón, Maria Carmen; Calvo-Salguero, Antonia; Salinas, Jose Maria

    2014-12-01

    Recent decades have seen a proliferation of studies aiming to explain how pro-environmental behavior is shaped by attitudes, values and beliefs. In this study, we have included an aspect in our analysis that has been rarely touched upon until now, that is, the intelligent use of emotions as a possible component of pro-environmental behavior. We applied the Trait Meta Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) and the New Environmental Paradigm scale to a sample of 184 male and female undergraduate students. We also carried out correlation and hierarchical regression analyses of blocks. The results show the interaction effects of the system of environmental beliefs and the dimensions of emotional intelligence on glass recycling attitudes, intentions and behavior. The results are discussed from the perspective of research on how the management of emotions guides thought and behavior. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Comparison effectiveness of Dialectic Behavioral Therapy and Behavior Cognitive Therapy on Depression in the Multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Zamani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Balsimelli S, Mendes MF, Bertolucci PH, Tilbery CP. Attention impairment associated with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with mild incapacity. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2007;65(2A:262-7. Zamani N, Ahmadi V, Ataie Moghanloo V, Mirshekar S. Comparing the effectiveness of two therapeutic methods of dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy on the improvement of impulsive behavior in the patients suffering  from major depressive disorder (MDD showing a tendency to suicide. J Ilam Univ Med Sci 2014;22(5:45-54. [Full Text in Persian] Sadovnick AD. European charcot foundation lecture: The natural history of multiple sclerosis and gender. J Neurol Sci 2009;286(1-2:1-5. Robins LN. Psychiatric epidemiology. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984;41(10:931-33. Amato MP, Ponziani G, Siracusa G, Sorbi S. Cognitive dysfunction in early-onset multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 2001;58(10:1602-6.  Polman CH, Reingold SC, Banwell B, Michel Clanet M, Cohen JA, Filippi M, et al. Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: Revisions to the McDonald Criteria. Ann Neurol 2011;69(2:292–302. Zamani N, Farhadi M, Jamilian HR, Habibi M. Effectiveness of dialectical behavior group therapy on expulsive anger. J Arak Univ Med Sci 2015;8(101:35-44. [Full Text in Persian] Young JE, Klosko JS, Weishaar ME. Schema therapy: A Practitioner’s guide. Translated by: Hamidpoor H. New York: Guilford Press; 2003. Linehan M. Dialectical Behavior therapy frequently Asked Questions. Avalaible From: http://behavioraltech.org/downloads/dbtFaq_Cons.pdf. Accessed Sep, 2008. Zamani N, Habibi M, Darvishi M. To compare the effectiveness dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive-behavioral group therapy in reducing depression in mothers of children with disabilities. Arak Med Univ J 2015;18(94:32-42. [Full Text in Persian] Hawton K, Salkous K, Clarck. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for psychiatric problems, a practical guide. Translated by: Ghasemzadeh H. Tehran: Arjomand Pub; 2002

  3. Remote monitoring of electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, and behavior during controlled atmosphere stunning in broilers: implications for welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, A M L; Lankhaar, J; Lowe, J C; McKeegan, D E F

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the welfare implications of euthanizing broilers with 3 gas mixtures relevant to the commercial application of controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS). Birds were implanted/equipped with electrodes to measure brain activity (electroencephalogram, EEG) and heart rate. These signals were recorded using a purpose-built telemetry-logging system, small enough to be worn by each bird in a spandex backpack. The birds were euthanized in a scaled-down CAS apparatus consisting of a conveyor belt passing through 2 compartments. Three gas environments were applied (8 birds per treatment): 1) anoxia (N(2) with <2% residual O(2), in both compartments), 2) hypercapnic anoxia (N(2) with 30% CO(2) and <2% residual O(2), in both compartments), and 3) a 2-phase approach with a hypercapnic hyperoxygenated anesthetic phase (40% CO(2), 30% O(2), and 30% N(2), in the first compartment, 80 s) followed by a second euthanasia phase (80% CO(2) in air, in the second compartment). All 3 CAS approaches effectively achieved nonrecovery states, and time to loss of consciousness for each bird was determined by visual determination of isoelectric EEG and by calculation of the correlation dimension of the EEG. Hypercapnic anoxia resulted in rapid unconsciousness and death; both anoxic treatments were associated with early onset prolonged wing flapping and sustained tonic convulsions as displayed in the electrophysiological recordings. These responses were seen in the period when consciousness remained a possibility. Hypercapnic hyperoxygenation (the 2-phase approach) was associated with respiratory disruption, but this treatment eliminated initial clonic convulsions in the stunning process, and tonic convulsions were not seen. These results suggest that the presence of O(2) in the first stage of CAS is associated with an absence of potentially distressing behavioral responses. The respiratory discomfort associated with hypercapnic hyperoxygenation is an issue. We propose that this

  4. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Behavioral effects of nerve agents: laboratory animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse and often subtle behavioral consequences have been reported for humans exposed to nerve agents. Laboratory studies of nerve agent exposure offer rigorous control over important variables, but species other than man must be used. Nonhuman primate models offer the best means of identifying the toxic nervous system effects of nerve agent insult and the countermeasures best capable of preventing or attenuating these effects. Comprehensive behavioral models must evaluate preservation and recovery of function as well as new learning ability. The throughput and sensitivity of the tests chosen are important considerations. A few nonhuman primate studies will be discussed to elaborate recent successes, current limitations, and future directions.(author)

  6. Pressure effects on dynamics behavior of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebian, Taha [Faculty of Engineering, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The dynamic behavior of Multiwall boron nitride nanotubes (MWBNNTs) is investigated by employing multiple elastic shells model. The influences of van der Waals interactions on layers are shown as nonlinear functions of the interlayer distance of MWBNNTs. Governing equations are solved by using the developed finite element method and by employing time history diagrams. The radial wave speed from the outermost layer to the innermost layer is computed. The effects of geometrical factors such as diameter-to-thickness ratio on dynamic behavior of MWBNNTs are determined. The magnification aspects of MWBNNTs are computed, and the effects of surrounding pressures on wave speed and magnification aspect of MWBNNTs are discussed.

  7. Effects of piracetam on behavior and memory in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leah; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Utterback, Eli; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Frank, Kevin; Hart, Peter; Howard, Harry; Kalueff, Allan V

    2011-04-25

    Piracetam, a derivative of γ-aminobutyric acid, exerts memory-enhancing and mild anxiolytic effects in human and rodent studies. To examine the drug's behavioral profile further, we assessed its effects on behavioral and endocrine (cortisol) responses of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)--a novel model species rapidly gaining popularity in neurobehavioral research. Overall, acute piracetam did not affect zebrafish novel tank and light-dark box behavior at mild doses (25-400mg/L), but produced nonspecific behavioral inhibition at 700mg/L. No effects on cortisol levels or inter-/intra-session habituation in the novel tank test were observed for acute or chronic mild non-sedative dose of 200mg/L. In contrast, fish exposed to chronic piracetam at this dose performed significantly better in the cued learning plus-maze test. This observation parallels clinical and rodent literature on the behavioral profile of piracetam, supporting the utility of zebrafish paradigms for testing nootropic agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of holding office on the behavior of politicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemark, Daniel; Gibson, Clark C.; McCubbins, Mathew D.; Seim, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges—whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth—require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity. This combination of regression discontinuity and experimental designs allows us to estimate the effect of holding office on behavior. We find that holding office increases adherence to the norm of reciprocity. This study identifies causal effects of holding office on politicians’ behavior. PMID:27856736

  9. The effects of glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Fleur, Susanne E

    2006-08-30

    Glucocorticoids have major effects on food intake, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This article highlights data on the changes that occur when glucocorticoids are removed by adrenalectomy, and the effects of central and systemic administered glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats. Next, animal data on the interaction of glucocorticoids with insulin on intake of comfort foods are addressed and the hypothesis that glucocorticoids modify feeding behavior, whereas insulin modifies the choice of food is discussed. Finally a view is presented that hormonal and vagal signals generated when (comfort) food is consumed will affect the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) brain network important for the response to stress and the regulation of feeding. With a society, where stress is experienced daily and comfort food is found at every street corner, it will be vital to understand the interactions between the systems that react to stress and regulate feeding behavior to fight the obesity epidemic.

  10. Effect of holding office on the behavior of politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemark, Daniel; Gibson, Clark C; McCubbins, Mathew D; Seim, Brigitte

    2016-11-29

    Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges-whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth-require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity. This combination of regression discontinuity and experimental designs allows us to estimate the effect of holding office on behavior. We find that holding office increases adherence to the norm of reciprocity. This study identifies causal effects of holding office on politicians' behavior.

  11. Stimulant alcohol effects prime within session drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, William R; Gearhardt, Ashley; Fromme, Kim

    2008-04-01

    Individual differences in subjective alcohol effects have been shown to differ by risk status (e.g., family history of alcoholism) and to predict future risk for alcohol-related problems. Presumably, individual differences in both stimulant and sedative responses affect the rewarding value of drinking which, in turn, impacts future drinking behavior. Although plausible, this theoretical model is largely untested. The current study attempted to provide experimental evidence for the impact of subjective alcohol responses on within session drinking behavior. Using a placebo-controlled between-subjects alcohol administration paradigm, experiences and evaluations of stimulant and sedative alcohol effects (after a target dose of 0.06 g%) were assessed as predictors of ad-libitum consumption in the context of anticipatory stress. Analyses indicated that an initial dose of alcohol increased experiences of both stimulation and sedation although stimulant effects were evaluated much more positively. In addition, stimulant effects after a priming dose predicted further consumption, whereas sedative effects did not. At least among moderate to heavy drinking college students, stimulant alcohol effects are more reinforcing and predict within session drinking behavior under social stress. Increased attention should be given to stimulant alcohol effects as a risk factor for excessive consumption in this population. Incorporating information about stimulant alcohol effects in prevention and intervention programs may also be important if additional research supports the current results.

  12. Description and effects of sequential behavior practice in teacher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, T; Lounsbery, M; Bahls, V

    1997-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a sequential behavior feedback protocol on the practice-teaching experiences of undergraduate teacher trainees. The performance competencies of teacher trainees were analyzed using an alternative opportunities for appropriate action measure. Data support the added utility of sequential (Sharpe, 1997a, 1997b) behavior analysis information in systematic observation approaches to teacher education. One field-based undergraduate practicum using sequential behavior (i.e., field systems analysis) principles was monitored. Summarized are the key elements of the (a) classroom instruction provided as a precursor to the practice teaching experience, (b) practice teaching experience, and (c) field systems observation tool used for evaluation and feedback, including multiple-baseline data (N = 4) to support this approach to teacher education. Results point to (a) the strong relationship between sequential behavior feedback and the positive change in four preservice teachers' day-to-day teaching practices in challenging situational contexts, and (b) the relationship between changes in teacher practices and positive changes in the behavioral practices of gymnasium pupils. Sequential behavior feedback was also socially validated by the undergraduate participants and Professional Development School teacher supervisors in the study.

  13. Effect of Chronic Lead Intoxication on Risky Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mohammadyar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With industrialization of human societies, pollutants like lead have entered in the life cycle, causing harmful effects on body organs. No sufficient studies have been done on the effects of pollutants on behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of lead on some measurable behaviors of an animal model. Methods: Forty eight male adult mice were divided into 4 groups of 12 each. Lead acetate was added at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, or 500 ppm to the drinking water of the animals for 4 weeks (28 days. On day 29, animals were placed on an Elevated Plus maze (EPM for 5 min and the time in sec spent was measured on closed arms, open arms and the end 1/3rd of the open arms. Increased time on open arms, particularly the end 1/3rd was considered to reflect an enhanced risk-accepting behavior. Results: In this study, it was shown that lead exposure caused an increased number of entrance (P=0.006 and time spent (P=0.034 by mice on open arms of the EPM. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of lead acetate and those two effects. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that lead poisoning may decrease normal anxiety in mice and increase risky behavior in this species. Clinical studies on human subjects with risky behavior are strongly suggested in order to find a possible relation between chronic exposures to lead as well as plasma concentration of lead with the extent of this kind of behavior.

  14. The Effect of Training on Adopting Behaviors Preventing from Knee Osteoarthritis Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the arthritis is believed to be among common diseases which prevail in the developed and developing countries, including Iran. In demographic studies, the prevalence of knee arthritis which stands at %15/3 in the population above 15-years old was shown. Owing to the fact that societies are about to be aged than before, the issue has become a growing significance in the subject matter of public health. The present study is conducted with an aim to investigate into the effect of training based on the planned behavior model on preventing the teachers of preliminary schools from getting knee arthritis. Methods: the study as an intervention research is of quasi-experimental kind. The population in question included 114 individuals among female teachers of preliminary schools who were brought to the study randomly and divided into two groups intervention and non-intervention. Based on the primary results, the educational contents were designed and submitted in the intervention group. After two months of executing the training program, the post test was carried out. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 18. Due to the loss of normality in data distribution, non- parametric tests were used. Results: the study demonstrated that the components of the planned behavior theory (i.e. the attitudes, subjective norms and the control of perceived behavior could altogether estimate %37 of intention and %43 of behavior. Meanwhile, the role of subjective norms (β =56/0 in predicting intention was overriding, In this study,after the educational program, control of perceived behavior scores increased of 32/50 ± 4/05 to 34/82 ± 5/66. indicating that the major obstacles in adopting behaviors preventing from knee arthritis are the lack of regular physical activity (%72/4 and failure to use western-style toilet (%57. Conclusion: In this Study the effect theory of planned behavior support in predicting exercise intentions and behavior in the prevention of

  15. Effect of dietary protein content on behavior in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodman, N H; Reisner, I; Shuster, L; Rand, W; Luescher, U A; Robinson, I; Houpt, K A

    1996-02-01

    To determine the effect that feeding diets containing a low (17%), medium (25%), or high (32%) protein content would have on behavior in dogs. Prospective, controlled study. 12 dogs with dominance aggression, 12 dogs with hyperactivity, 12 dogs with territorial aggression, and 14 control dogs without behavioral problems. Dogs were fed each of the diets for a 2-week period, and owners were instructed to score their dogs' behavior on a daily basis. Behavior of the dogs with dominance aggression, dogs with hyperactivity, and control dogs was unchanged by the dietary manipulations. Territorial aggression was significantly reduced when dogs were fed the low- or medium-protein diet, compared with territorial aggression when fed the high-protein diet. Post hoc analysis indicated that this effect was attributable to a marked reduction in aggression in a subset of the group (n = 7) in which territorial aggression was a result of fear. Results of this study suggest that a reduction in dietary protein content is not generally useful in the treatment of behavior problems in dogs, but may be appropriate in dogs with territorial aggression that is a result of fear.

  16. Effect of cognitive-behavior therapy for betrayed women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrangiz Shoaa Kazemi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Infidelity is the most frequently cited cause of divorce and is described by couple therapists as among the most difficult problems to treat.im of this study was effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy for betrayed women in Tehran city Method was pre experimental. Sampling was purposeful in which 15 wives (20-35 years old were selected. They had experienced betrayals that were participating in cognitive- behavioral therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy sessions at three stages sessions after preliminary interview they were assessed by the spouse betrayal examination questionnaire and general health questionnaire-28 in pre-training. Then they had every week 1 session of 90 minutes. After the end of session again assessed by post-test. Mean and standard deviation of mental health showed significantly difference after sessions at post-test stage. There was significant effect in cognitive -behavioral therapy of sessions for improving mental health of betrayed women. We recommend behavioral technique in similar situations for betrayed women.

  17. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this

  18. Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Behavior Problems and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Parents and children completed measures that assessed children's behavior problems and depression. Children had experienced abuse, witnessed spouse abuse, experienced and witnessed abuse, or experienced no domestic violence. Reports of effects of domestic violence on children varied, depending on the type of violence and the person reporting it.…

  19. Hesperidin effects on behavior and locomotor activity of diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, there are sufficient validated scientific data that support the existence of relations between diabetes and certain neuropsychiatric disorders, such as behavioral disorders, anxiety, cognitive decline and depression. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of a natural bioflavonoid, the antioxidant ...

  20. The effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on aggression in patients with thalassemia. Methods: This is an applied study in terms of objective and it is semi-experimental due to the nature of the subject, pre-test, post-test and follow-up conducted in the control group.

  1. Parental Marital Status Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Susan; Udry, J. Richard

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed white virgin junior high school students in 1980 and again in 1982. Found effects of parental marital status on sexual behavior and on age-graded deviance, suggesting general loss of parental control. Control loss was associated with disruption of two-parent household for boys and with the state of living in a fatherless household for…

  2. Directions of Effects between Adolescent Psychopathic Traits and Parental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihovic, Selma; Kerr, Margaret; Ozdemir, Metin; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the directions of effects between adolescent psychopathic traits and parental behaviors. The data are from a community-based cohort-sequential study. Data were collected annually over 4 years. Participants were 875 adolescents, aged 13-15 at Time 1, and we analyzed their reports of negative and positive parental…

  3. Effects of Academic Experience and Prestige on Researchers’ Citing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a bibliometric study of the measurable effects of experience and prestige on researchers' citing behavior. All single authors from two econometrics journals over a 10-year time period form the basis of the analysis of how experience and prestige affect...... suggestions for future research within this new and promising area....

  4. Teacher and Teaching Effects on Students' Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazar, David; Kraft, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Research has focused predominantly on how teachers affect students' achievement on standardized tests despite evidence that a broad range of attitudes and behaviors are equally important to their long-term success. We find that upper-elementary teachers have large effects on self-reported measures of students' self-efficacy in math, and happiness…

  5. Intellectual Disability Modifies Gender Effects on Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Gray, Kylie M.; Ellis, Louise A.; Taffe, John; Emerson, Eric; Tonge, Bruce J.; Horstead, Sian K.

    2010-01-01

    In typically developing children, boys are more commonly diagnosed than girls with disruptive behavior disorders, namely, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder. For children with intellectual disability (ID), the evidence for this gender effect is less clear. In this report we examine gender…

  6. The Effects of a Team Charter on Student Team Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Joshua R.; McDowell, William C.; Herdman, Andrew O.

    2014-01-01

    The authors contribute to growing evidence that team charters contribute positively to performance by empirically testing their effects on key team process outcomes. Using a sample of business students in a team-based task requiring significant cooperative and coordinative behavior, the authors compare emergent team norms under a variety of team…

  7. Effects of Behavioral and Social Class Information on Social Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Reuben M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the role of disconfirming behavioral information and the limits on social class schema effects. Using a Bayesian model of social perception, it was found that unambiguous, relevant stimulus information influenced judgments. Although social class information did not affect relevant stimulus information, it did sway judgments in…

  8. Ileal brake activation: Macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Aam, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of

  9. Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this

  10. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbuehler, K.; Peters, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  11. Two-Year Findings from a National Effectiveness Trial: Effectiveness of Behavioral and Non-Behavioral Parenting Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högström, Jens; Olofsson, Viveca; Özdemir, Metin; Enebrink, Pia; Stattin, Håkan

    2017-04-01

    Long-term follow-up studies of selective parent training (PT) programs are scarce, particularly in the case of effectiveness trials conducted within regular care settings. This study evaluated the 2-year effects of 4 programs: Comet, Incredible Years, Cope, and Connect and differences in the rate of change among programs were investigated using Latent Growth Modeling (LGM). Participants were parents who had sought help at 30 local service sector units (e.g., child psychiatric clinics and social services centers) for major problems in managing their children's externalizing behavior. Parents of 749 children (63 % boys) with moderate levels of externalizing behavior, aged 3-12, were randomized to one of the 4 PT programs. Assessments included parent-reported measures of child externalizing, hyperactivity and inattention, as well as parenting practices, sense of competence, and parents' stress and depressive symptoms. At 2-year follow-up, there were no differences in any of the child outcomes among the programs. All programs had reduced externalizing behaviors with large effect sizes (d = 1.21 to d = 1.32), and negative parenting practices with moderate to large effect sizes (d = 0.49 to d = 0.83). LGM analyses showed that the 2 behavioral programs, Comet and Incredible Years, produced more rapid reductions in externalizing behavior during the course of the intervention than the non-behavioral program, Connect. Connect, however, was the only program where children continued to improve after the intervention. Overall, the results indicate that the 4 programs were equally effective in a clinical setting, despite differences in their theoretical origin.

  12. An Investigation of the Impact of Function of Problem Behavior on Effectiveness of the Behavior Education Program (BEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; O'Neill, Robert E.; MacLeod, K. Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The Behavior Education Program (BEP) is a check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at-risk for engaging in more severe problem behavior. Previous research with middle and elementary school students found that the BEP was more effective with students who had adult attention maintained problem behavior. The purposes of this…

  13. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Play Therapy on Externalizing Behavior Problems Among Street and Working Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Ghodousi

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: It seems that one of the effective ways to lessen externalizing behavior problems among street and working children is cognitive-behavioral play therapy; therefore, coaches and teachers of such children are recommended to make use of this method to lower their behavioral problems. 

  14. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...

  15. Improving healthcare practice behaviors: an exploratory study identifying effective and ineffective behaviors in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Fleet, David D; Peterson, Tim O

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of exploratory research designed to develop an awareness of healthcare behaviors, with a view toward improving the customer satisfaction with healthcare services. It examines the relationship between healthcare providers and their consumers/patients/clients. The study uses a critical incident methodology, with both effective and ineffective behavioral specimens examined across different provider groups. The effects of these different behaviors on what Berry (1999) identified as the common core values of service organizations are examined, as those values are required to build a lasting service relationship. Also examined are categories of healthcare practice based on the National Quality Strategy priorities. The most obvious is the retrospective nature of the method used. How accurate are patient or consumer memories? Are they capable of making valid judgments of healthcare experiences (Berry and Bendapudi, 2003)? While an obvious limitation, such recollections are clearly important as they may be paramount in following the healthcare practitioners' instructions, loyalty for repeat business, making recommendations to others and the like. Further, studies have shown retrospective reports to be accurate and useful (Miller et al., 1997). With this information, healthcare educators should be in a better position to improve the training offered in their programs and practitioners to better serve their customers. The findings would indicate that the human values of excellence, innovation, joy, respect and integrity play a significant role in building a strong service relationship between consumer and healthcare provider. Berry (1999) has argued that the overriding importance in building a lasting service business is human values. This exploratory study has shown how critical incident analysis can be used to determine both effective and ineffective practices of different medical providers. It also provides guidelines as

  16. Early Childhood Teachers' Use of Effective Instructional Practices and the Collateral Effects on Young Children's Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Vo, Abigail K.; Carr, Staci; Ogston, Paula L.

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of a classroom-based intervention, Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Training: Competent Learners Achieving School Success (BEST in CLASS), on teacher behaviors and child outcomes in early childhood classrooms. First, we examined the effects of professional development training and practice-based coaching…

  17. Decreased levels of brain cyclo-oxygenase products as a possible cause of increased seizure susceptibility in convulsion-prone gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seregi, A; Förstermann, U; Hertting, G

    1984-07-09

    Basal levels of 5 cerebral prostanoids (PGD2, PGF2 alpha, PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane/TX/B2) were measured radioimmunologically in normal and convulsion-prone gerbils. Significantly less PGD2,PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was found in the brain of seizure-sensitive animals. After treatment with indomethacin, which reduced the amount of brain cyclo-oxygenase products, also normal gerbils exhibited convulsions following environmental stress. The results are in accordance with the hypothesis that endogenous prostanoids play a role in the regulation of seizure susceptibility.

  18. Effects of embryonic cyclosporine exposures on brain development and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, Danielle E; Thorn, Robert J; Passarelli, Emily A; Kapoor, Mrinal; LoPiccolo, Mary K; Richendrfer, Holly A; Colwill, Ruth M; Creton, Robbert

    2015-04-01

    Cyclosporine, a calcineurin inhibitor, is successfully used as an immunosuppressant in transplant medicine. However, the use of this pharmaceutical during pregnancy is concerning since calcineurin is thought to play a role in neural development. The risk for human brain development is difficult to evaluate because of a lack of basic information on the sensitive developmental times and the potentially pleiotropic effects on brain development and behavior. In the present study, we use zebrafish as a model system to examine the effects of embryonic cyclosporine exposures. Early embryonic exposures reduced the size of the eyes and brain. Late embryonic exposures did not affect the size of the eyes or brain, but did lead to substantial behavioral defects at the larval stages. The cyclosporine-exposed larvae displayed a reduced avoidance response to visual stimuli, low swim speeds, increased resting, an increase in thigmotaxis, and changes in the average distance between larvae. Similar results were obtained with the calcineurin inhibitor FK506, suggesting that most, but not all, effects on brain development and behavior are mediated by calcineurin inhibition. Overall, the results show that cyclosporine can induce either structural or functional brain defects, depending on the exposure window. The observed functional brain defects highlight the importance of quantitative behavioral assays when evaluating the risk of developmental exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mazindol: anorectic and behavioral effects in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, R; Carlini, E A

    1995-01-01

    The anorectic and behavioral effects of mazindol (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) were determined. The experiments comprized acute and chronic administration to female rats, and the effects were compared with those produced by 2.5 mg/kg of methamphetamine. The following evaluation parameters were considered: food intake, body weight, motor activity, and stereotyped behavior. Acute administration of the three doses of mazindol, as well as of the methamphetamine dose, decreased food intake. Administered chronically to female rats, mazindol (5 and 10 mg/kg) and methamphetamine induced loss of body weight during the first fifteen days. However, weight was subsequently regained by the animals, indicating development of tolerance. Mazindol (10 mg/kg) and methamphetamine produced an increase in motor activity. This increase was, however, not observed after chronic treatment, suggesting development of tolerance. Additionally, mazindol induced noticeable dose-dependent effects, involving stereotyped behavior (sniffing, continuous licking, false bites), similar to those produced by methamphetamine. Verticalization, however, was only observed after administration of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of mazindol, and was absent after administration of the higher dose of mazindol as well as of methamphetamine. Finally, it should be stressed that features of stereotyped behavior induced by both drugs, such as licking, false bites, sniffing and verticalization, were very similar.

  20. Effects of massage on behavior of full-term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Sunarti Wahyutami

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Baby massage is one of the touch stimulation that could be applied as soon as possible after birth. Giving massage regularly will affect the behavior of newborn. Objectives To explore the effects of ten-day massage on infant's behavior. Methods A randomized control trial was done from December 200S to March 2009. Full-term newborm were randomly assigned into massage group or control group. Babies in massage group were given massage by their mothers and supervised by midwives. All babies were evaluated twice, i.e., on day 1 and day 11, using Brazelton Scale (Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale. The behavior was compared between the two groups. Results A total of 72 full-term newborn infants appropriate for gestational age were included in this study. Infants in the massage group sbowed significant difference in adaptive behavior compared to control group. Those adaptive behavior consisted of habituation (WMD 1.08 CI 95% 0.67 to 1.49, P<0.0001, social interaction (WMD 1.54 Cl 95% 1.23 to 1.84, P<0.0001, motor system (WMD 1.35 CI 95% 1.14 to 1.55, P<0.0001, organization state (P<0.0001, range of state (WMD 1.35 CI 95% 0.95 to 1.55, P< 0.0001, autonomic system (WMD 0.53 CI 95% 0.23 to 0.84, P<0.0001, end reflexes (P<0.0001. Conclusions Massage gives better adaptive behavior and reflexes of full-term newborns compared to those without massage.

  1. Neurofibromin Modulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Behavioral Effects of Antidepressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Li, Yanjiao; McKay, Renée M.; Riethmacher, Dieter; Parada, Luis F.

    2012-01-01

    Neurogenesis persists in the rodent dentate gyrus (DG) throughout adulthood but declines with age and stress. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) residing in the subgranular zone of the DG are regulated by an array of growth factors and respond to the microenvironment, adjusting their proliferation level to determine the rate of neurogenesis. Here we report that genetic deletion of neurofibromin (Nf1), a tumor suppressor with RAS-GAP activity,in adult NPCs enhanced DG proliferation and increased generation of new neurons in mice. Nf1 loss-associated neurogenesis had the functional effect of enhancing behavioral responses to subchronic antidepressants and, over time, led to spontaneous antidepressive-like behaviors. Thus, our findings establish an important role for the Nf1-Ras pathway in regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and demonstrate that activation of adult NPCs is sufficient to modulate depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:22399775

  2. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelson Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely

  3. Perinatal stress: characteristics and effects on adult eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Cesiana da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have pointed out the importance of mother-child interaction in the early months of life. A few decades ago, a method called kangaroo care was developed and its main goal was to keep underweight or premature newborns in direct contact with the mother. This method has reduced the morbidity and mortality of these newborns, increasing their growth rate, breastfeeding time and mother-child contact. In rodents, the dam's presence is crucial for avoiding aggression factors that may trigger phenotypic adaptations in the pups with irreversible morphological, functional and behavioral consequences. Eating behavior is an adaptive response stemming from the external environment demand and modulated by opportunities and limitations imposed by the external environment. This behavior is regulated by a complex interaction of peripheral and central mechanisms that control hunger and satiety. The hypothalamus is a brain structure that integrates central and peripheral signals to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight. The hypothalamic nucleus have orexigenic peptides, such as neuropeptide Y and the Agouti-related peptide, and anorexigenic peptides, such as cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript and proopiomelanocortin. An innovative study of eating behavior in experimental models of neonatal stress separates the mother from the offspring during lactation. This review describes the effects of stress during the neonatal period on general physiological factors, particularly on the control of eating behavior.

  4. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eCelec

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences.

  5. Characterization of behavioral and endocrine effects of LSD on zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leah; Utterback, Eli; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Chung, Kyung Min; Suciu, Christopher; Wong, Keith; Elegante, Marco; Elkhayat, Salem; Tan, Julia; Gilder, Thomas; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Cachat, Jonathan; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-12-25

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogenic drug that strongly affects animal and human behavior. Although adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a promising neurobehavioral model, the effects of LSD on zebrafish have not been investigated previously. Several behavioral paradigms (the novel tank, observation cylinder, light-dark box, open field, T-maze, social preference and shoaling tests), as well as modern video-tracking tools and whole-body cortisol assay were used to characterize the effects of acute LSD in zebrafish. While lower doses (5-100 microg/L) did not affect zebrafish behavior, 250 microg/L LSD increased top dwelling and reduced freezing in the novel tank and observation cylinder tests, also affecting spatiotemporal patterns of activity (as assessed by 3D reconstruction of zebrafish traces and ethograms). LSD evoked mild thigmotaxis in the open field test, increased light behavior in the light-dark test, reduced the number of arm entries and freezing in the T-maze and social preference test, without affecting social preference. In contrast, LSD affected zebrafish shoaling (increasing the inter-fish distance in a group), and elevated whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our findings show sensitivity of zebrafish to LSD action, and support the use of zebrafish models to study hallucinogenic drugs of abuse. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of cage density on behavior in young adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lauren P; Chedester, Alan L; Cole, Marlene N

    2007-08-01

    Optimal housing conditions for mice can be achieved by minimizing environmental variables, such as those that may contribute to anxiety-like behavior. This study evaluated the effects of cage size on juvenile mice through assessment of differences in weaning weight, locomotor skills, and anxiety-like behavior. Eighteen pairs of male and pregnant female Swiss-Webster (Cr:SW) mice were housed in 3 different caging scenarios, providing 429, 505, or 729 cm2 of space. Litters were standardized to 10 pups per litter in each cage. Mice reared in each caging scenario were assessed with the open-field, light-dark exploration, and elevated plus-maze tests. No differences in weaning weight were noted. Mice reared in the 505- and 729-cm2 cages explored a significantly larger area of the open-field arena than did those in the 429-cm2 cages. Those reared in the 505-cm2 cages spent more time in the center of the open field than did those in the 729-cm2 cages, suggesting that anxiety-like behavior may be increased in the animals housed in the larger cages. This study did not establish a consistent link between decreased floor space and increased anxiety-like behavior; neither does there appear to be a consistent effect of available floor area on the development of locomotor skills on mouse pups.

  7. Self-reported impulsivity, but not behavioral choice or response impulsivity, partially mediates the effect of stress on drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Ansell, Emily B; Reynolds, Brady; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Stress and impulsivity contribute to alcohol use, and stress may also act via impulsivity to increase drinking behavior. Impulsivity represents a multi-faceted construct and self-report and behavioral assessments may effectively capture distinct clinically relevant factors. The present research investigated whether aspects of impulsivity mediate the effect of stress on alcohol use. A community-based sample of 192 men and women was assessed on measures of cumulative stress, alcohol use, self-reported impulsivity, and behavioral choice and response impulsivity. Data were analyzed using regression and bootstrapping techniques to estimate indirect effects of stress on drinking via impulsivity. Cumulative adversity exhibited both direct effects and indirect effects (via self-reported impulsivity) on drinking behavior. Additional models examining specific types of stress indicated direct and indirect effects of trauma and recent life events, and indirect effects of major life events and chronic stressors on drinking behavior. Overall, cumulative stress was associated with increased drinking behavior, and this effect was partially mediated by self-reported impulsivity. Self-reported impulsivity also mediated the effects of different types of stress on drinking behavior. These findings highlight the value of mediation models to examine the pathways through which different types of stress increase drinking behavior. Treatment and prevention strategies should focus on enhancing stress management and self-control.

  8. Behavioral effects of ketamine and toxic interactions with psychostimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Keiichi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anesthetic drug ketamine (KT has been reported to be an abused drug and fatal cases have been observed in polydrug users. In the present study, considering the possibility of KT-enhanced toxic effects of other drugs, and KT-induced promotion of an overdose without making the subject aware of the danger due to the attenuation of several painful subjective symptoms, the intraperitoneal (i.p. KT-induced alterations in behaviors and toxic interactions with popular co-abused drugs, the psychostimulants cocaine (COC and methamphetamine (MA, were examined in ICR mice. Results A single dose of KT caused hyperlocomotion in a low (30 mg/kg, i.p. dose group, and hypolocomotion followed by hyperlocomotion in a high (100 mg/kg, i.p. dose group. However, no behavioral alterations derived from enhanced stress-related depression or anxiety were observed in the forced swimming or the elevated plus-maze test. A single non-fatal dose of COC (30 mg/kg, i.p. or MA (4 mg/kg, i.p. caused hyperlocomotion, stress-related depression in swimming behaviors in the forced swimming test, and anxiety-related behavioral changes (preference for closed arms in the elevated plus-maze test. For the COC (30 mg/kg or MA (4 mg/kg groups of mice simultaneously co-treated with KT, the psychostimulant-induced hyperlocomotion was suppressed by the high dose KT, and the psychostimulant-induced behavioral alterations in the above tests were reversed by both low and high doses of KT. For the toxic dose COC (70 mg/kg, i.p.- or MA (15 mg/kg, i.p.-only group, mortality and severe seizures were observed in some animals. In the toxic dose psychostimulant-KT groups, KT attenuated the severity of seizures dose-dependently. Nevertheless, the mortality rate was significantly increased by co-treatment with the high dose KT. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that, in spite of the absence of stress-related depressive and anxiety-related behavioral alterations following a single

  9. Smoking during teenage pregnancies: effects on behavioral problems in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; DeGenna, Natacha; Day, Nancy L

    2007-07-01

    We prospectively examined the relationship between prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and child behavior in a birth cohort of 357 offspring of teenage mothers. PTE was defined as any exposure across pregnancy and, in separate analyses, exposure within each trimester. Outcomes included measures of behavior problems, activity, and attention. On average, the children were 6.4 years of age, 48% were females, and 69% were Black. Data on maternal tobacco and other substance use were collected prenatally and postnatally: 46% of the mothers smoked in the first trimester and 58% smoked 6 years later. Child urinary cotinine measured exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Stepwise multiple regressions were run. PTE predicted significantly increased offspring activity; impulsivity; and aggression, externalizing, and total behavior problems in step 1. PTE remained a significant predictor of increased activity when maternal psychological characteristics, home environment, and ETS were added. The results were similar when PTE was examined by trimesters, although later pregnancy tobacco exposure predicted the most behavioral outcomes. In the final model, PTE (all three trimesters) and PTE (second trimester) were significant predictors of increased activity and attention problems, respectively. Other predictors of child behavior included maternal anxiety, depression, hostility, and home environment. ETS was not a significant predictor of child behavior when PTE was considered. Smoking during pregnancy among adolescents is a significant predictor of increased activity and attention problems in their offspring after controlling for covariates in the prenatal and current environments. Smoking cessation interventions are recommended for this population to avoid the effects of PTE on the offspring of pregnant adolescents. This is particularly important because these mothers will likely become pregnant again and many will increase their level of tobacco use as they mature.

  10. The Effect of Labor Supply Shortages on Asymmetric Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    This study examines the effect of shortages in labor supply on asymmetric cost behavior. Building on the labor demand literature, it is argued that labor supply shortages increase adjustment costs for hiring new employees. Consistent with this explanation, results provide evidence that companies...... facing restrictions in labor supply increase costs (and resources) less than companies operating with sufficient access to additional personnel. This leads to a more symmetrical cost behavior for increasing activity compared to decreasing activity. Additional analyses show that shortages in labor supply...... induce firms to increase selling prices but also to temporarily expect more effort from their current employees. The effect decreases with the length of the labor supply shock and is more pronounced for companies located in less populated regions. Results are robust to alternative explanations...

  11. Effects of elastic anisotropy on mechanical behavior of intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of the deformation and fracture behavior of ordered intermetallic compounds are examined within the framework of linear anisotropic elasticity theory of dislocations and cracks. The orientation dependence and the tension/compression asymmetry of yield stress are explained in terms of the anisotropic coupling effect of non-glide stresses to the glide strain. The anomalous yield behavior is related to the disparity (edge/screw) of dislocation mobility and the critical stress required for the dislocation multiplication mechanism of Frank-Read type. The slip-twin conjugate relationship, extensive faulting, and pseudo-twinning (martensitic transformation) at a crack tip can be enhanced also by the anisotropic coupling effect, which may lead to transformation toughening of shear type

  12. The effects of music on animal physiology, behavior and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Leanne C; Buerkle, Shawna C

    2013-02-01

    Physiological and psychological effects of listening to music have been documented in humans. The changes in physiology, cognition and brain chemistry and morphology induced by music have been studied in animal models, providing evidence that music may affect animals similarly to humans. Information about the potential benefits of music to animals suggests that providing music may be used as a means of improving the welfare of laboratory animals, such as through environmental enrichment, stress relief and behavioral modification. The authors review the current research on music's effect on animals' physiology and behavior and discuss its potential for improving animal welfare. They conclude that the benefits of providing music to laboratory animals depend on the species and the type of music.

  13. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, B S; Pitts, M M; Maclean, R; Cangialose, C; Kishel, M; Imai, H; Etchason, J

    2001-05-28

    Managed care organizations use explicit financial incentives to influence physicians' use of resources. This has contributed to concerns regarding conflicts of interest for physicians and adverse effects on the quality of patient care. In light of recent publicized legislative and legal battles about this issue, we reviewed the literature and analyzed studies that examine the effect of these explicit financial incentives on the behavior of physicians. The method used to undertake the literature review followed the approach set forth in the Cochrane Collaboration handbook. Our literature review revealed a paucity of data on the effect of explicit financial incentives. Based on this limited evidence, explicit incentives that place individual physicians at financial risk appear to be effective in reducing physician resource use. However, the empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of bonus payments on physician resource use is mixed. Similarly, our review revealed mixed effects of the influence of explicit financial incentives on the quality of patient care. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior is complicated by a lack of understanding of the incentive structure by the managed care organization and the physician. The lack of a universally acceptable definition of quality renders it important that future researchers identify the term explicitly.

  14. Differential Effectiveness of Interdependent and Dependent Group Contingencies in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…

  15. Behavioral treatment of insomnia: also effective for nocturia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Shachi; Resnick, Neil M; Perera, Subashan; Monk, Timothy H; Hall, Martica H; Buysse, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate changes in self-reported nocturia in community-dwelling adults aged 60 and older who received behavioral treatment for chronic insomnia. Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention for sleep. Academic medical center. Of the 79 enrollees, this analysis focused on 30 who, in addition to insomnia, also reported at least one nightly episode of waking up to void. The brief behavioral treatment of insomnia (BBTI) group (n = 14) received instructions on reducing time in bed and setting a regular sleep schedule. The information control (IC) group (n = 16) received printed materials. A nurse clinician delivered both interventions. Self-reported nocturnal awakenings to void assessed daily for 14 days at baseline and 4 weeks after the intervention. Participants who reported at least one episode of nocturia per night at baseline were included in this analysis. In individuals with nocturia at baseline, the total number of nocturnal voids over the 14-day assessment period decreased by 6.5 ± 4.8 in the BBTI group and increased by 1.3 ± 7.3 in the IC group (P = .04, effect size 0.82). After adjusting for baseline nocturia episodes, the difference remained significant (P = .05). In older adults with concurrent insomnia and nocturia, behavioral treatment directed solely at insomnia may also improve self-reported nocturia. Behavioral treatment of insomnia should be further investigated for its effect on nocturia in individuals with concurrent insomnia and nocturia. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Effective macroscopic adhesive contact behavior induced by small surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesari, Haneesh; Lew, Adrian J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we study a model contact problem involving adhesive elastic frictionless contact between rough surfaces. The problem's most notable feature is that it captures the phenomenon of depth-dependent-hysteresis (DDH) (e.g., see Kesari et al., 2010), which refers to the observation of different contact forces during the loading and unloading stages of a contact experiment. We specifically study contact between a rigid axi-symmetric punch and an elastic half-space. The roughness is represented as arbitrary periodic undulations in the punch's radial profile. These undulations induce multiple equilibrium contact regions between the bodies at each indentation-depth. Assuming that the system evolves so as to minimize its potential energy, we show that different equilibrium contact regions are selected during the loading and unloading stages at each indentation-depth, giving rise to DDH. When the period and amplitude of our model's roughness is reduced, we show that the evolution of the contact force and radius with the indentation-depth can be approximated with simpler curves, the effective macroscopic behavior, which we compute. Remarkably, the effective behavior depends solely on the amplitude and period of the model's roughness. The effective behavior is useful for estimating material properties from contact experiments displaying DDH. We show one such example here. Using the effective behavior for a particular roughness model (sinusoidal) we analyze the energy loss during a loading/unloading cycle, finding that roughness can toughen the interface. We also estimate the energy barriers between the different equilibrium contact regions at a fixed indentation-depth, which can be used to assess the importance of ambient energy fluctuations on DDH.

  17. Effects of Transport on Live Weight and Behavior of Lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Andronie; Adina Ciurea; Viorel Andronie; Dumitru Curcă

    2011-01-01

    The study has monitored the effects of transport stress on some biochemical indicators of stress and behavior lambs at time of slaughter. The research was carried out in the cold season, on a number of 120 lambs, transported for 6h- 16h, to be slaughtered. During our research, we followed the changes in bodyweight, behaviours expressed by sheep, and plasma cortisol levels. Bodyweight loss recorded in the slaughterhouse to 24 hours of departure transportation was of 4-5%. The behavioural manif...

  18. Mechanical behavior and stress effects in hard superconductors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C.C.; Easton, D.S.

    1977-11-01

    The mechanical properties of type II superconducting materials are reviewed as well as the effect of stress on the superconducting properties of these materials. The bcc alloys niobium-titanium and niobium-zirconium exhibit good strength and extensive ductility at room temperature. Mechanical tests on these alloys at 4.2 0 K revealed serrated stress-strain curves, nonlinear elastic effects and reduced ductility. The nonlinear behavior is probably due to twinning and detwinning or a reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation. The brittle A-15 compound superconductors, such as Nb 3 Sn and V 3 Ga, exhibit unusual elastic properties and structural instabilities at cryogenic temperatures. Multifilamentary composites consisting of superconducting filaments in a normal metal matrix are generally used for superconducting devices. The mechanical properties of alloy and compound composites, tapes, as well as composites of niobium carbonitride chemically vapor deposited on high strength carbon fibers are presented. Hysteretic stress-strain behavior in the metal matrix composites produces significant heat generation, an effect which may lead to degradation in the performance of high field magnets. Measurements of the critical current density, J/sub c/, under stress in a magnetic field are reported. Modest stress-reversible degradation in J/sub c/ was observed in niobium-titanium composites, while more serious degradation was found in Nb 3 Sn samples. The importance of mechanical behavior to device performance is discussed

  19. Effect of silicone finishes on the burning behavior of polyester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyon, Julien Xavier Eric

    Polyester fibers are widely used as filling in home applications such as pillows or comforters. Silicone finishes can be used to reduce friction between fibers during processing or as softeners to impart a pleasant down like hand on the fibers. However, it has been reported that these added silicone-based finishes may have a negative effect on the burning behavior of polyester. This research examined the possible mechanisms that can modify the response of polyester fibers when subjected to a flame source. In this study, a spunbond needled polyester nonwoven substrate was treated with different commercial silicone-based finishes. A vertical flame test was used to compare the effect of silicone finishes on the burning behavior of polyester to the inherent burning behavior of untreated polyester. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were performed on spunbond polyester fabric samples to investigate the influence of silicone finishes on the thermal degradation of polyester in air. Residues from TGA were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with elemental analysis. Vertical flammability testing showed that even at a low level, the application of silicone-based finishes on a polyester substrate resulted in a dramatic increase of the flame propagation by preventing its inherent response to heat. Thermograms suggested that the silicone finishes had little or no effect on the thermal degradation of polyester substrates.

  20. Effects of consumer motives on search behavior using internet advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kenneth C C

    2004-08-01

    Past studies on uses and gratifications theory suggested that consumer motives affect how they will use media and media contents. Recent advertising research has extended the theory to study the use of Internet advertising. The current study explores the effects of consumer motives on their search behavior using Internet advertising. The study employed a 2 by 2 between-subjects factorial experiment design. A total of 120 subjects were assigned to an experiment condition that contains an Internet advertisement varying by advertising appeals (i.e., rational vs. emotional) and product involvement levels (high vs. low). Consumer search behavior (measured by the depth, breadth, total amount of search), demographics, and motives were collected by post-experiment questionnaires. Because all three dependent variables measuring search behavior were conceptually related to each other, MANCOVA procedures were employed to examine the moderating effects of consumer motives on the dependent variables in four product involvement-advertising appeal conditions. Results indicated that main effects for product involvements and advertising appeals were statistically significant. Univariate ANOVA also showed that advertising appeals and product involvement levels influenced the total amount of search. Three-way interactions among advertising appeals, product involvement levels, and information motive were also statistically significant. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  1. Behavioral and social effects of family violence in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was tome asure effects of domestic violence on children, both child abuse and exposure to marital violence. 300 families were randomly selected in Hermosillo, Sonora, a northwestern Mexican city. Two members of each family were interviewed: the mother anda minor randomly selected among all their children. The research instrument collected demographicinformation, and information regarding mother's and parent's alcohol consumption, marital violence,child abuse, and child misconduct. A structural model was tested which estimated the effects ofchild abuse and exposure to marital violence on child problems. Results showed that the two forms of violence had repercussions on delinquent and antisocial behavior, produced attention problems,depression, anxiety, sadness and the manifestation of somatic symptoms. In addition, mother's education a level had a significant and negative effect on children's behavioral and social problemsand father's educational level inhibited their aggression against their wives. Alcohol consumption was positively related to child abuse. These results seems to indicate that both child abuse andexposure to marital violence rcsult in harmful consequences on children's behavior and well-being.

  2. Moderators Influencing the Effectiveness of a Behavioral Teacher Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Veenman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study assessed which moderators influenced the effectiveness of a low-intensive behavioral teacher program for children with symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD.Methods: Primary school children (N = 114 with ADHD symptoms in the classroom were randomly assigned to the intervention program (n = 58; 91% male or control group (n = 56; 77% male. Multilevel regression analyses assessed differential treatment gains of the intervention program in terms of ADHD symptoms and social skills. Moderators included demographic characteristics (gender, age, parental educational level, severity and comorbidity of problem behavior (ADHD symptoms, conduct and internalizing problems, social functioning, and classroom variables (teaching experience, class size.Results: Results revealed larger program effects for older children and children from highly educated families and smaller beneficial effects for children with comorbid conduct or anxiety problems.Conclusion: The intervention program seems more beneficial for highly educated families and children without comorbid problem behavior, but more intensive treatments appear necessary for children facing additional challenges.ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02518711

  3. Effect of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ranjbar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most prevalent psychotic disorder. In order to cure and prevent the recurrence of this disease, it is necessary to gain more information about remedial methods like Group Cognitive- Behavior Therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the amount of depression on the patients. Methods: This study was experimental and it included both experimental and control group with a pre test. The subjects were selected from patients with mild depression. Their Beck inventory score ranged between 17-20. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. The subjects of experimental group received eight sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. The Beck depression test was completed by the subjects in three phases before the intervention, after the intervention and one month after that. The data was transferred to SPSS program and analyzed. Results: The results indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control group after the intervention at Beck tests (P=0.043. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the experimental group between the depression score in patients before and after the intervention (p=0.033 and the score of patients before and one month after the intervention (p=0.492. Conclusion: Group Cognitive-Behavioral therapy decreases depression in patients who suffer from mild depression.

  4. De betekenis van consulieachtige verschijnselen in de eerste twee levensjaren [mportance of convulsion-like signs during the first two years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reerink, J.D.; Herngreen, W.P.; Peters, A.C.B.; Ouden, A.L. den; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Ruys, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Objective. Assessment of the prevalence of convulsion-like symptoms in 1854 children of Dutch-speaking mothers of a population-based birth cohort. Method. At each child health clinic (CHC) visit mothers were asked whether they had noted any of the following signs: loss of consciousness, involuntary

  5. Scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: sensitivity of C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enginar, Nurhan; Nurten, Asiye; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Çağla, Büyüklü

    2015-05-01

    Food intake triggers convulsions in fasted BALB/c mice and Wistar albino rats treated with antimuscarinic drugs, scopolamine or atropine. Inbred strain studies have yielded considerable information regarding genetic influences on seizure susceptibility and factors contribute to epileptogenesis in rodents. This study, therefore, investigated sensitivity to antimuscarinic-induced seizures in C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. Food deprivation for 48h in mice and 52h in rats did not produce strain differences in body weight loss. Fasted animals treated i.p. with 3mg/kg scopolamine developed convulsions after food intake. The incidence of convulsions was indifferent in comparison to BALB/c mice and Wistar albino rats. Number of animals developing stage 5 was more and onset of convulsions was longer in C57BL/6J mice than in BALB/c mice. Strain-related differences in sensitivity to seizures in C57BL/6J mice may need further evaluation for investigating genetic influences on scopolamine-induced seizures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Loss of consciousness and convulsion induced by a ventricular tachycardia mimicking epilepsy in a patient with noncompaction cardiomyopathy : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dello, S. A. W. G.; Kievit, C.; Dunselman, P. H.; Alings, M.

    Convulsions and loss of consciousness can be caused by, among other things, arrhythmias, conduction disorders or epilepsy. In clinical practice it can be difficult to distinguish between these causes of syncope, even for well-trained specialists. Patients with cardiac syncope have a substantial risk

  7. Acute Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Intranasal Methamphetamine in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Carl L; Gunderson, Erik W; Perez, Audrey; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Thurmond, Andrew; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal methamphetamine abuse has increased dramatically in the past decade, yet only one published study has investigated its acute effects under controlled laboratory conditions. Thus, the current study examined the effects of single-dose intranasal methamphetamine administration on a broad range of behavioral and physiological measures. Eleven nontreatment-seeking methamphetamine abusers (two females, nine males) completed this four-session, in-patient, within-participant, double-blind study. During each session, one of four intranasal methamphetamine doses (0, 12, 25, and 50 mg/70 kg) was administered and methamphetamine plasma concentrations, cardiovascular, subjective, and psychomotor/cognitive performance effects were assessed before drug administration and repeatedly thereafter. Following drug administration, methamphetamine plasma concentrations systematically increased for 4 h postdrug administration then declined. Methamphetamine dose dependently increased cardiovascular measures and ‘positive’ subjective effects, with peaks occurring approximately 5–15 min after drug administration, when plasma levels were still ascending. In addition, cognitive performance on less complicated tasks was improved by all active methamphetamine doses, whereas performance on more complicated tasks was improved only by the intermediate doses (12 and 25 mg). These results show that intranasal methamphetamine produced predictable effects on multiple behavioral and physiological measures before peak plasma levels were observed. Of interest is the dissociation between methamphetamine plasma concentrations with cardiovascular measures and positive subjective effects, which might have important implications for potential toxicity after repeated doses. PMID:17851535

  8. [Effects of sibling number on demographic behavior in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosima, K

    1983-05-01

    The effects of sibling numbers on demographic behavior in Japan since the middle of the 1970s are examined using data from a survey of 2,034 couples with at least one young child. The impact of sibling numbers on educational status, residence near parents, age at marriage, and fertility is considered. The author suggests that a reduction in number of siblings has been a factor affecting expansion of educational enrollment and age at marriage. The continuing effects of reductions in sibling numbers up to the 1990s are also reviewed. (summary in ENG)

  9. Effect of parity on healthy promotion lifestyle behavior in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazik, Hakan; Nazik, Evşen; Özdemir, Funda; Gül, Şule; Tezel, Ayfer; Narin, Raziye

    2015-01-01

    Health-promoting lifestyle behaviors are not only for the prevention of a disease or discomfort, but are also behaviors that aim to improve the individual's general health and well-being. Nurses have an important position in the development of healthy lifestyle behaviors in women. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parity on health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in women. This descriptive and cross-sectional survey was performed in Adana, Turkey. This study was conducted with 352 women. The questionnaire consisted of two parts; the first part consisted of questions that assessed the socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics, and the second part employed the "Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Scale" (HPLP). Data analysis included percentage, arithmetic average, and ANOVA tests. The results revealed that 24.1% of the women had no parity, 13.6% had one parity, 30.7% had two parities, 14.6% had three parities, and 17% had four and above parities. The mean total HPLP was 126.66±18.12 (interpersonal support subscale, 24.46±4.02; nutrition subscale, 21.59±3.92; self-actualization subscale, 24.42±4.30; stress management subscale, 18.73±3.81; health responsibility subscale, 21.75±4.31; and exercise subscale, 15.71±4.22). The health behavior of women was moderate. A statistically significant correlation was found between the number of parities and the Health Responsibility, Nutrition, Interpersonal Support, which is the subscale of the HPLP Scale.

  10. Investigating the Collateral Effects of Behavior Management on Early Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Nicholas A.; MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.; Prykanowski, Debra; Coyne, Michael; Scott, Terrance M.

    2015-01-01

    Effective behavior management is necessary to ensure students are engaged with instruction. Students cannot learn if they are not engaged. Although the relationship between effective behavior management and positive student behavior is well established, the relationship between behavior management and increased academic achievement, including…

  11. Effects of Nicotine Metabolites on Nicotine Withdrawal Behaviors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhassan, Sagi; Bagdas, Deniz; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-06-01

    Rodent studies suggest that nicotine metabolites and minor tobacco alkaloids such as nornicotine and cotinine may promote cigarette smoking by enhancing nicotine rewarding and reinforcing effects. However, there is little information on the effects of these minor tobacco alkaloids on nicotine withdrawal. The present studies were conducted to determine whether the minor tobacco alkaloids nornicotine and cotinine exhibit nicotine-like behavioral effects in a mouse model of spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. Mice were infused with nicotine or saline for 14 days. Experiments were conducted on day 15, 18-24 hours after minipump removal. Ten minutes prior to testing, nicotine-dependent ICR male mice received an acute injection of nicotine (0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg), nornicotine (2.5 and 25 mg/kg), or cotinine (5 and 50 mg/kg) to determine effects on somatic signs, anxiety-like behaviors, and hyperalgesia spontaneous signs of withdrawal. Nicotine and the minor tobacco alkaloid nornicotine, but not cotinine, produced dose-dependent reversal of nicotine withdrawal signs in the mouse. The minor tobacco alkaloid and nicotine metabolite nornicotine at high doses have nicotinic like effects that may contribute to tobacco consumption and dependence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  13. Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.

    2014-01-01

    Health behaviors are people’s actions, some purposefully deployed to promote or protect health; some thoughtlessly undertaken without concern for their potential risk to health; some consciously, even defiantly, deployed regardless of consequences to health. Risk behaviors are specific forms of

  14. Intergenerational continuity in parenting behavior: mediating pathways and child effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppl, Tricia K; Conger, Rand D; Scaramella, Laura V; Ontai, Lenna L

    2009-09-01

    This prospective, longitudinal investigation examined mechanisms proposed to explain continuities in parenting behavior across 2 generations (G1, G2). Data came from 187 G2 adults, their mothers (G1), and their children (G3). Prospective information regarding G2 was collected both during adolescence and early adulthood. G1 data were collected during G2's adolescence, and G3 data were generated during the preschool years. Assessments included both observational and self-report measures. The results indicated a direct relationship between G1 and G2 harsh parenting, and between G1 and G2 positive parenting. As predicted, specific mediators accounted for intergenerational continuity in particular types of parenting behavior. G2 externalizing behavior mediated the relationship between G1 and G2 harsh parenting, whereas G2 academic attainment mediated the relationship between G1 and G2 positive parenting. In addition, the hypothesized mediating pathways remained statistically significant after taking into account possible G2 effects on G1 parenting and G3 effects on G2 parenting.

  15. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Effects on Academics and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley Yeager, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Acting out behaviors is a hindrance to learning across the country. The school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) model is a behaviorally-based systems approach to addressing problem behaviors in our school today. The problem this study is designed to address is the issue that student misbehaviors and disruptions cause a loss of valuable…

  16. Behavioral effects of developmental methylmercury drinking water exposure in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen-Hersh, Emily B; Farina, Marcelo; Barbosa, Fernando; Rocha, Joao B T; Aschner, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Early methylmercury (MeHg) exposure can have long-lasting consequences likely arising from impaired developmental processes, the outcome of which has been exposed in several longitudinal studies of affected populations. Given the large number of newborns at an increased risk of learning disabilities associated with in utero MeHg exposure, it is important to study neurobehavioral alterations using ecologically valid and physiologically relevant models. This review highlights the benefits of using the MeHg drinking water exposure paradigm and outlines behavioral outcomes arising from this procedure in rodents. Combination treatments that exacerbate or ameliorate MeHg-induced effects, and possible molecular mechanisms underlying behavioral impairment are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Perceptions of Effective Behavior Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nields, Allison N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined student teachers' perceptions and knowledge of behavior management strategies. A questionnaire that included questions about broad behavior management techniques, behavioral learning theory, and behavior management strategies related to behavioral learning theory was given to sixty-one student teacher candidates at a large…

  18. Behavioral effects of urotensin-II centrally administered in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do-Rego, Jean-Claude; Chatenet, David; Orta, Marie-Hélène; Naudin, Bertrand; Le Cudennec, Camille; Leprince, Jérôme; Scalbert, Elizabeth; Vaudry, Hubert; Costentin, Jean

    2005-11-01

    Urotensin-II (U-II) receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of U-II causes hypertension and bradycardia and stimulates prolactin and thyrotropin secretion. However, the behavioral effects of centrally administered U-II have received little attention. In the present study, we tested the effects of i.c.v. injections of U-II on behavioral, metabolic, and endocrine responses in mice. Administration of graded doses of U-II (1-10,000 ng/mouse) provoked: (1) a dose-dependent reduction in the number of head dips in the hole-board test; (2) a dose-dependent reduction in the number of entries in the white chamber in the black-and-white compartment test, and in the number of entries in the central platform and open arms in the plus-maze test; and (3) a dose-dependent increase in the duration of immobility in the forced-swimming test and tail suspension test. Intracerebroventricular injection of U-II also caused an increase in: food intake at doses of 100 and 1,000 ng/mouse, water intake at doses of 100-10,000 ng/mouse, and horizontal locomotion activity at a dose of 10,000 ng/mouse. Whatever was the dose, the central administration of U-II had no effect on body temperature, nociception, apomorphine-induced penile erection and climbing behavior, and stress-induced plasma corticosterone level. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that the central injection of U-II at doses of 1-10,000 ng/mouse induces anxiogenic- and depressant-like effects in mouse. These data suggest that U-II may be involved in some aspects of psychiatric disorders.

  19. Effects of endocannabinoid system modulation on cognitive and emotional behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eZanettini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis has long been known to produce cognitive and emotional effects. Research has shown that cannabinoid drugs produce these effects by driving the brain's endogenous cannabinoid system and that this system plays a modulatory role in many cognitive and emotional processes. This review focuses on the effects of endocannabinoid-system modulation in animal models of cognition (learning and memory and emotion (anxiety and depression. We review studies in which natural or synthetic cannabinoid agonists were administered to directly stimulate cannabinoid receptors or, conversely, where cannabinoid antagonists were administered to inhibit the activity of cannabinoid receptors. In addition, studies are reviewed that involved genetic disruption of cannabinoid receptors or genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. Endocannabinoids affect the function of many neurotransmitter systems, some of which play opposing roles. The diversity of cannabinoid roles and the complexity of task-dependent activation of neuronal circuits may lead to the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation being strongly dependent on environmental conditions. Recent findings are reviewed that raise the possibility that endocannabinoid signaling may change the impact of environmental influences on emotional and cognitive behavior rather than affecting one or another specific behavior.

  20. Multiple receptors contribute to the behavioral effects of indoleamine hallucinogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Adam L.; Geyer, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Serotonergic hallucinogens produce profound changes in perception, mood, and cognition. These drugs include phenylalkylamines such as mescaline and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), and indoleamines such as (+)-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin. Despite their differences in chemical structure, the two classes of hallucinogens produce remarkably similar subjective effects in humans, and induce cross-tolerance. The phenylalkylamine hallucinogens are selective 5-HT2 receptor agonists, whereas the indoleamines are relatively non-selective for serotonin (5-HT) receptors. There is extensive evidence, from both animal and human studies, that the characteristic effects of hallucinogens are mediated by interactions with the 5-HT2A receptor. Nevertheless, there is also evidence that interactions with other receptor sites contribute to the psychopharmacological and behavioral effects of the indoleamine hallucinogens. This article reviews the evidence demonstrating that the effects of indoleamine hallucinogens in a variety of animal behavioral paradigms are mediated by both 5-HT2 and non-5-HT2 receptors. PMID:21256140

  1. Electromagnetic Field Modeling of Transcranial Electric and Magnetic Stimulation: Targeting, Individualization, and Safety of Convulsive and Subconvulsive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhi-De

    inform dosage requirements in convulsive therapies. Our results indicate that the MST electric field is more focal and more confined to the superficial cortex compared to ECT. Further, the conventional ECT current amplitude is much higher than necessary for seizure induction. One of the factors important to clinical outcome is seizure expression. However, it is unknown how the induced electric field is related to seizure onset and propagation. In this work, we explore the effect of the electric field distribution on the quantitative ictal electroencephalography and current source density in ECT and MST. We further demonstrate how the ECT electrode shape, size, spacing, and current can be manipulated to yield more precise control of the induced electric field. If desirable, ECT can be made as focal as MST while using simpler stimulation equipment. Next, we demonstrate how the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be controlled. We present the most comprehensive comparison of TMS coil electric field penetration and focality to date. The electric field distributions of more than 50 TMS coils were simulated. We show that TMS coils differ markedly in their electric field characteristics, but they all are subject to a consistent depth-focality tradeoff. Specifically, the ability to directly stimulate deeper brain structures is obtained at the expense of inducing wider electric field spread. Figure-8 type coils are fundamentally more focal compared to circular type coils. Understanding the depth-focality tradeoff can help researchers and clinicians to appropriately select coils and interpret TMS studies. This work also enables the development of novel TMS coils with electronically switchable active and sham modes as well as for deep TMS. Design considerations of these coils are extensively discussed. Part II of the dissertation aims to quantify the effect of individual, sex, and age differences in head geometry and conductivity on the induced

  2. The Effect of Self-Efficacy on Behavior and Weight in a Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezami, Brooke T.; Lang, Wei; Jakicic, John M.; Davis, Kelliann K.; Polzien, Kristen; Rickman, Amy D.; Hatley, Karen E.; Tate, Deborah F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether eating self-efficacy and physical activity self-efficacy are predictive of dietary intake, physical activity, and weight change within a behavioral weight loss intervention, and whether dietary intake and physical activity mediate relationships between self-efficacy and weight change. Methods The study sample included 246 participants from a randomized trial with complete data on study variables at 12 months. Eating self-efficacy (ESE), physical activity self-efficacy (PASE), calories consumed, minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and weight were measured at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Results ESE at baseline was associated with 12-month weight change, and was mediated by average calories consumed at 6 and 12 months. Change in ESE from baseline to 6 months was associated with calories consumed at 12 months and 12-month percent weight loss (PWL), but the mediated relationship was not significant. Baseline PASE was not associated with average MVPA at 6 and 12 months or 12-month weight change, but change in PASE from baseline to 6 months was associated with 12-month weight change through its effect on MVPA at 12 months. Conclusions Increases in eating self-efficacy and physical activity self-efficacy during the active phase of the intervention are predictive of dietary intake, physical activity and weight loss at later points, but further research should explore the reciprocal relationship between behavior and self-efficacy in order to better inform intervention strategies that target self-efficacy and promote behavior change. PMID:27183306

  3. Effects of Strategies Marketing of Collective Buying about Impulsive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Elen Ferreira Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the second largest e-commerce market in the world. One model used in this sector is "collective buying", a feature of which is impulse sales. Consumer behavior can be influenced by several factors, two of which are addressed in this article: the individual impulsivity of consumers and strategies of mix marketing. Impulsive buying is characterized by an unplanned purchase, i.e. the need to acquire the product arises just before the purchase. Consumers respond differently to mixed strategies depending on their degree of impulsivity. Thus, this article aims to analyze the efficacy of different marketing mix strategies for impulsive and non-impulsive consumer purchasing behavior. 137 participants were given a questionnaire containing the Buying Impulsiveness scale from Rook and Fisher (1995, and statements about the marketing strategies used by collective buying sites. Through a regression analysis, three strategies were found to relate more to impulsivity: search for products from well-known brands, search for deals with big discounts and confidence in receiving the product. For e-commerce and researchers, this study elucidates which strategies, from the consumer's perspective, effectively persuade purchasing behavior.

  4. Effects of habitual anger on employees' behavior during organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-11-25

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior-mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident's negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.

  5. Quinine enhances the behavioral stimulant effect of cocaine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Adriana; Wessinger, William D; Kucheryavykh, Yuri V; Sanabria, Priscila; Eaton, Misty J; Skatchkov, Serguei N; Rojas, Legier V; Maldonado-Martínez, Gerónimo; Inyushin, Mikhail Y

    2015-02-01

    The Na(+)-dependent dopamine transporter (DAT) is primarily responsible for regulating free dopamine (DA) concentrations in the brain by participating in the majority of DA uptake; however, other DA transporters may also participate, especially if cocaine or other drugs of abuse compromise DAT. Recently, such cocaine-insensitive low-affinity mono- and poly-amine OCT transporters were described in astrocytes which use DA as a substrate. These transporters are from a different transporter family and while insensitive to cocaine, they are specifically blocked by quinine and some steroids. Quinine is inexpensive and is often found in injected street drugs as an "adulterant". The present study was designed to determine the participation of OCTs in cocaine dependent behavioral and physiological changes in mice. Using FVB mice we showed, that daily single injections of quinine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) co-administered with cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) for 10 days significantly enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor behavioral sensitization. Quinine had no significant effect on the time course of behavioral activation. In astrocytes from the ventral tegmental area of mice, transporter currents of quinine-sensitive monoamine transporters were also augmented after two weeks of cocaine administration. The importance of low-affinity high-capacity transporters for DA clearance is discussed, explaining the known ability of systemically administered DAT inhibitors to anomalously increase DA clearance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethical leader behavior and leader effectiveness: the role of prototypicality and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, K.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    The study examines factors that mediate the impact of ethical leader behavior on leader effectiveness. Little is known about how ethical leadership impacts leader effectiveness. We hypothesized that prototypicality and trust sequentially mediate the relationship between ethical leader behavior and

  7. Effects of an Interdependent Group Contingency on the Transition Behavior of Middle School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Renee O.; Haydon, Todd; McCoy, Dacia; Howard, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    An ABAB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency with randomized components to improve the transition behavior of middle school students identified with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs) served in an alternative educational setting. The intervention was implemented by one teacher with three…

  8. A System of Assessment for Adaptive Behavior, Social Skills, Behavioral Function, Medication Side-Effects, and Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Stephen B.; Laud, Rinita B.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a method of assessing individuals with mental retardation that operates within financial and human constraints using informant-based measures that assess adaptive and maladaptive behaviors, psychiatric disorders, behavior function, and medication side-effects. Integrating the assessment results for treatment planning is…

  9. Systemic Effects of Testosterone: Hormonal and Behavioral Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikol'skaya, K A; Kondashevskaya, M V; Serkova, V V; Diatropov, M E

    2016-03-01

    We studied the effects of food deprivation, spatial complexity of environment, and cognitive strain on blood level of testosterone in male (C57Bl/6×DBA/2)F1 mice. Hormone concentration decreased after exposure to any factor and this decrease depended on combined impact to the factors. Testosterone concentration was most sensitive to cognitive strain against the background of food deprivation. The total response of testosterone under conditions of enriched environment and activation of social interactions in the form of neurotic and aggressive behavior provoked by food deprivation was not equal to the sum of individual effects of these factors. Testosterone response to combined exposure to external and internal factors reflected systemic effect.

  10. Moderating Effects of Trust on Environmentally Significant Behavior in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Gin Moon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To treat environmental problems and to seek sustainable development, voluntary and cooperative efforts, which is really against the traditional mentality with the emphasis on the individual competitive optimization, became the key to maintain the sustainability of complex social and ecological systems. To understand the cooperative and voluntary individual’s environmentally significant behavior (ESB, this paper focuses on the role of trust, and assesses the effect of trust on the relationship between existing factors and ESB. A structural equation model (SEM is constructed to estimate the moderating effects of trust on ESB in Korea. We found that people with a negative view on strict environmental regulations do not exhibit ESB and thus nudge policies could be much more effective than the forceful measure. It is noteworthy that public private partnership, as a kind of optimal trust, should be more promoted in the environmental protection policies.

  11. Brand priming effect on consumers’ financial risk taking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Mantovani

    Full Text Available Abstract Taking the perspective of brand priming theory, this study proposes that brands associated with an audacious personality trait may influence consumers to be take more risks in making subsequent decisions. Two experiments, run in sport brands contexts, showed that individuals exposed to brands with high (vs. low audacity traits demonstrated a higher rate of risk taking in financial decisions. The studies also showed that this effect is moderated by individuals’ experience with the financial market. This moderation suggests that there was an activation of a goal not just semantic activation, but through the brand priming. This research provides insights into how today's consumers deal with brand priming effects in risky choice settings. From a managerial perspective, it can help managers to understand the likely effects of brand priming on behavior and better predict the probability of risk aversion or risk seeking outcomes.

  12. Hydrostatic Stress Effect on the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has negligible effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of various geometries. Fatigue tests and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN100) equal-arm bend specimens and new monotonic tests and nonlinear finite element analyses of IN100 smooth tension, smooth compression, and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions were performed. A new FEA constitutive model was developed that incorporates a pressure-dependent yield function with combined multilinear kinematic and multilinear isotropic hardening using the ABAQUS user subroutine (UMAT) utility. In all monotonic tensile test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains for the DENT specimen, the Drucker-Prager FEM s predicted loads that were approximately 3% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEM s predicted strains that were up to 35% greater than the von Mises values. Both the Drucker-Prager model and the von Mises model performed equally-well in simulating the equal-arm bend fatigue test.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on the behavioral properties of crotoxin

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    E.G. Moreira

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Crotoxin has been detoxified with gamma radiation in order to improve crotalic antiserum production. Nevertheless, present knowledge of the biological characteristics of irradiated crotoxin is insufficient to propose it as an immunizing agent. Crotoxin is known to increase the emotional state of rats and to decrease their exploratory behavior (Moreira EG, Nascimento N, Rosa GJM, Rogero JR and Vassilieff VS (1996 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 29: 629-632. Therefore, we decided 1 to evaluate the effects of crotoxin in the social interaction test, which has been widely used for the evaluation of anxiogenic drugs, and 2 to determine if irradiated crotoxin induces behavioral alterations similar to those of crotoxin in the social interaction, open-field and hole-board tests. Male Wistar rats (180-220 g were used. Crotoxin (100, 250, and 500 µg/kg was injected intraperitoneally 2 h before the social interaction test. Similarly, irradiated crotoxin (2000 Gy gamma radiation from a 60Co source was administered at the doses of 100, 250, and 500 µg/kg for the hole-board test, and at the doses of 1000 and 2500 µg/kg for the open-field and social interaction tests. ANOVA complemented with the Dunnett test was used for statistical analysis (P<0.05. Crotoxin decreased the social interaction time (s at the doses of 100, 250 and 500 µg/kg (means ± SEM from 51.6 ± 4.4 to 32.6 ± 3.7, 28.0 ± 3.6 and 31.6 ± 4.4, respectively. Irradiated crotoxin did not induce behavioral alterations. These results indicate that 1 crotoxin may be an anxiogenic compound, and 2 in contrast to crotoxin, irradiated crotoxin was unable to induce behavioral alterations, which makes it a promising compound for the production of crotalic antiserum

  14. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L

    2015-11-10

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to "sex differences" in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology.

  15. Counteractive effects of cannabinoid and nicotine-addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Xia

    2011-03-09

    Our recent results suggest that cannabinoid exposure induces conditioned place preference (CPP) through facilitated induction of synaptic long-term depression at dopamine circuitry of the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA). Here, we show that chronic nicotine exposure also induces CPP, but facilitates the induction of synaptic long-term potentiation in the VTA. Coadministration of cannabinoid and nicotine leads to a blockade of facilitated long-term depression and long-term potentiation induction in these neurons and elimination of CPP. These findings point to counteractive effects of cannabinoid and nicotine-addictive behavior through opposite changes in synaptic plasticity of dopamine circuitry of the VTA.

  16. On their best behavior: how animal behavior can help determine the combined effects of species interactions and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jason P; Barton, Brandon T

    2013-09-01

    The increasingly appreciated link between climate change and species interactions has the potential to help us understand and predict how organisms respond to a changing environment. As this connection grows, it becomes even more important to appreciate the mechanisms that create and control the combined effect of these factors. However, we believe one such important set of mechanisms comes from species' behavior and the subsequent trait-mediated interactions, as opposed to the more often studied density-mediated effects. Behavioral mechanisms are already well appreciated for mitigating the separate effects of the environment and species interactions. Thus, they could be at the forefront for understanding the combined effects. In this review, we (1) show some of the known behaviors that influence the individual and combined effects of climate change and species interactions; (2) conceptualize general ways behavior may mediate these combined effects; and (3) illustrate the potential importance of including behavior in our current tools for predicting climate change effects. In doing so, we hope to promote more research on behavior and other mechanistic factors that may increase our ability to accurately predict climate change effects. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Direct Behavioral Consultation: Effects on Teachers' Praise and Student Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Lestremau, Lauren; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Direct behavioral consultation is an extension of traditional behavioral consultation and focuses on assessment and training in the classroom during ongoing classroom activities. This study evaluated direct behavioral consultation services in two elementary alternative classrooms referred following a program evaluation in which data suggested…

  18. Learning Behaviors Mediating the Effects of Behavior Problems on Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalon, Ximena Dominguez; Greenfield, Daryl

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between behavior problems, learning behaviors, and educational outcomes for at-risk preschool children. A sample of Head Start children (N = 196) was selected in the southeast United States. Behavior problems were assessed using the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (LeBuffe & Naglieri, 1999) and…

  19. Unpacking Links between Fathers' Antisocial Behaviors and Children's Behavior Problems: Direct, Indirect, and Interactive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer; Lewin-Bizan, Selva

    2011-01-01

    Building upon previous evidence for the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviors, this research assessed and compared three models seeking to explain links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. A representative sample of children from low-income families (N = 261) was followed from age 3 through age…

  20. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  1. Effects of prenatal ionizing irradiation on neural function and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizzee, K.R.; Ordy, J.M.; Pennwalt Corp., Rochester, NY

    1986-01-01

    Behavioral studies in the past decade on postnatal effects of prenatal ionizing irradiation (125-R) revealed alterations in circadian locomotor activity and modifications of duration, frequency and sequences of certain behavioral acts in irradiated rats. Other studies have shown that the effect of irradiation (150-R) and enriched environment were both significant in initial, repetitive and total error scores while at 200-R enrichment was less effective. Rats irradiated on the 13th, 14th and 15th day of gestation were born with a hopping gait, paired hind and forelimbs moving in unison. Thoracic cord section led to crossed extention hind-limb reflexes in control rats and simultaneus withdrawal of hind limbs in hopping rats, in response to pinprick. In 90 day old squirrel monkeys the percent of correct response in visual orientation, discrimination and reversal learning in 50- and 100-R offspring (Co 60 irradiation at 89-90 days gestation) were significantly lower than those of controls, and differences in reversal learning persisted undiminished at 2 years of age. Time required for body righting, head-up orientation and climbing at 45 0 incline was significantly greater in irradiated (mainly 100-R) than control animals at from 2 to 28 days of age. Visual acuity levels of 50- and 100-R 30 day old infants were significantly lower than in control infants. Stabilimeter activity in the dark was significantly higher in 50- and 100-R 30 day old infants than in controls. In the squirrel monkey studies effects of Co 60 irradiation (100-R) on postnatal development of the brain and behaviour can be identified at statistically significant levels of confidence independent of offspring nursery rearing effects. (orig.)

  2. The Effects of Function-Based Self-Management Interventions on Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard P.; Kamps, Debra M.; Greenwood, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) struggle to achieve social and academic outcomes. Many studies have demonstrated self-management interventions to be effective at reducing problem behavior and increasing positive social and academic behaviors. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) information may be used in designing…

  3. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Vukovich; John C. Kilgo

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior...

  4. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Chronic Fibromyalgia Pain: Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A multiple-baseline-across two behavior sets and positions (reclined, upright) was used to experimentally examine the effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment for Pain (BAT-P) on pain-related behavior of a 44-year-old woman with a 22-year history of fibromyalgia (FM). BAT-P, based on the matching law, is comprised of Behavioral Relaxation…

  5. Establishing a Common Vocabulary of Key Concepts for the Effective Implementation of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihon, Traci M.; Cihon, Joseph H.; Bedient, Guy M.

    2016-01-01

    The technical language of behavior analysis is arguably necessary to share ideas and research with precision among each other. However, it can hinder effective implementation of behavior analytic techniques when it prevents clear communication between the supervising behavior analyst and behavior technicians. The present paper provides a case…

  6. Effects of Continuous and Intermittent Reinforcement for Problem Behavior during Functional Communication Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsdell, April S.; Iwata, Brian A.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Kahng, Sung Woo

    2000-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) in reducing problem behavior of 5 individuals with severe mental retardation and in strengthening alternative behavior. Four participants shifted response allocation from problem to alternative behavior as the schedule of reinforcement of problem behavior became more…

  7. Effect of Solute Segregation on Fracture Behavior of Mg Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Tomoaki; Yamaguchi, Masatake; Ikeo, Naoko; Mukai, Toshiji

    Improving mechanical properties of magnesium and understanding fracture behavior under impact loading are necessary to apply magnesium alloys to structural components of automobiles. We have investigated the fracture behavior of binary magnesium alloys by three-point bending experiment and conducted a first principle calculation to estimate the effect of solute segregation on fracture energy. In this paper, we have focused on experimental result of impact three-point bending test for Mg-0.3at.%Y alloy and the results of the test were compared with that of AZ31 commercially available alloy [1]. As a result, the crack propagation speed of Mg-0.3at.%Y was found to be slower than that of AZ31 alloys. Moreover, the absorbed energy of Mg-0.3at.%Y was more than twice as high as that of AZ31 alloys. These results suggested that yttrium solute in magnesium improved the fracture toughness of magnesium under impact loading. Then, fracture surface was observed by SEM to consider the effect of microstructure on crack propagation speed.

  8. Occurrence, behavior and effects of nanoparticles in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowack, Bernd; Bucheli, Thomas D.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing use of engineered nanoparticles (NP) in industrial and household applications will very likely lead to the release of such materials into the environment. Assessing the risks of these NP in the environment requires an understanding of their mobility, reactivity, ecotoxicity and persistency. This review presents an overview of the classes of NP relevant to the environment and summarizes their formation, emission, occurrence and fate in the environment. The engineered NP are thereby compared to natural products such as soot and organic colloids. To date only few quantitative analytical techniques for measuring NP in natural systems are available, which results in a serious lack of information about their occurrence in the environment. Results from ecotoxicological studies show that certain NP have effects on organisms under environmental conditions, though mostly at elevated concentrations. The next step towards an assessment of the risks of NP in the environment should therefore be to estimate the exposure to the different NP. It is also important to notice that most NP in technical applications are functionalized and therefore studies using pristine NP may not be relevant for assessing the behavior of the NP actually used. - The behavior and the effects of natural and engineered nanoparticles in the environment are reviewed

  9. Ionizing radiation: effects upon acquisition and performance of behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Laercia Abreu

    1999-03-01

    The present study, using rats as subjects, attempted to assess the effects of multiple exposures to gamma radiation upon behavior in two procedures of a multiple schedule of repeated acquisition and performance. With an experimental chamber containing three levers displaced horizontally, left (l), center (c) and right (r), different levels of complexity were programmed for procedures A and B. In both procedures a new sequence of three responses was programmed for each session (lcr, lrc, clr, crl, rlc) for the acquisition component, whereas for the performance component the same sequence was maintained throughout the sessions. The completion of three sequences (nine responses) was followed by reinforcement and incorrect responses were followed by time-out without correction procedures. In procedure A the sequences consisted of one response in each lever (for example, crl→crl→crl→reinforcement) while in procedure B a sequence consisted of three response in the same lever, with the following three responses having to occur in a different lever (for example, ccc→rrr→lll→reinforcement). Six subjects were trained in each procedure. Base line data showed, by means of error percentage, that procedure B regardless of being more complex represented a lower difficulty level than procedure A: subjects in procedure B displayed, in general, a lower number of errors per session. After training in these procedures of repeated acquisition and performance, the subjects were exposed to doses of ionizing radiation of 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.0 Gy, with an interval of 45 days between exposures. With measurements of response rate and obtained reinforcers, the data showed a dose-response relation, with higher doses producing lower rates of responses and reinforcers. Percentage of errors was higher after doses of 6.0 and 8.0 Gy in the performance component, while changes in error patterns occurred in the acquisition component. The effects of radiation was more evident and orderly

  10. Effects of Cognitive Versus Cognitive-Behavioral Divorce-Parenting Programs on Parental Conflict, Intimate Violence, Parental Communication, Divorce-Related Parental Behaviors and Children's Behavioral Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitworth, James

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the effects of two State of Florida mandated divorce- parenting classes, one cognitive-based and the other cognitive-behavioral based, on several individual and family variables...

  11. Customer Value, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions: the Effects of Consumer Search Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuningsih

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops and tests an integrative model to examine the relationships among customer value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions based upon a typology of consumer search behaviors. The model was tested using surveyed data from 546 customers of car insurance in Melbourne, Australia. The findings demonstrate that each type of consumer (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent, performs differently on the relationships among customer value, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. The identification of value, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions within each search behavior allows managers to deliver optimal value and satisfaction to their consumers.

  12. Effects of Consumer Search Behavior Typology on the Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuningsih

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The author investigates how consumer search behavior typology affects the relationship between customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that the type of consumer as defined by whether and how they search for information (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent perceive different levels of satisfaction and performs differently on satisfaction behavioral intentions linkages. Relational-dependent and rational active consumers are found to perceive higher satisfaction levels, and to express stronger intentions to engage in positive behavioral intentions than passive consumers. The identification of satisfaction and behavioral intentions within each search type allows managers to satisfy their consumers; hence, the company will obtain higher profit.

  13. Effects of organizational justice on organizational citizenship behaviors: mediating effects of institutional trust and affective commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guh, Wei-Yuan; Lin, Shang-Ping; Fan, Chwei-Jen; Yang, Chin-Fang

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the mediating role of institutional trust and affective commitment on the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. The study participants were 315 faculty members at 67 public/private universities of technology and vocational colleges in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationships between the variables and assess the goodness of fit of the overall model. Organizational justice was positively related to institutional trust and there was an indirect effect of organizational justice on affective commitment through institutional trust. In addition, the relation between institutional trust and affective commitment was positive and affective commitment was shown to have a positive relation to organizational citizenship behaviors. Institutional trust was found to indirectly affect organizational citizenship behaviors through affective commitment. Most importantly, this study suggested a mediating effect of institutional trust and affective commitment on the relation between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. Implications, limitations, and future research were also discussed.

  14. Effect of solvent on crystallization behavior of xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hongxun; Hou, Baohong; Wang, Jing-Kang; Lin, Guangyu

    2006-04-01

    Effect of organic solvents content on crystallization behavior of xylitol was studied. Solubility and crystallization kinetics of xylitol in methanol-water system were experimentally determined. It was found that the solubility of xylitol at various methanol content all increases with increase of temperature. But it decreases when increasing methanol content at constant temperature. Based on the theory of population balance, the nucleation and growth rates of xylitol in methanol-water mixed solvents were calculated by moments method. From a series of experimental population density data of xylitol gotten from a batch-operated crystallizer, parameters of crystal nucleation and growth rate equations at different methanol content were got by the method of nonlinear least-squares. By analyzing, it was found that the content of methanol had an apparent effect on nucleation and growth rate of xylitol. At constant temperature, the nucleation and growth rate of xylitol all decrease with increase of methanol content.

  15. Peer Effects on Aggressive Behavior in Norwegian Child Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luisa A; Zachrisson, Henrik D

    2017-09-20

    This study examined whether exposure to changes in peer aggression predicted changes in child physical aggression (PA) in preschool children attending Norwegian Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) centers. Data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study were used, including 956 children. In fixed effects models, within-child changes in exposure to peer aggression predicted changes in teacher-rated child PA across ages 2, 3, and 4. Moreover, changes in exposure to a peer group with two or more externalizing children increased teacher-rated child PA over time, but only for boys. No significant peer effects on parent-rated child PA were found. Findings point to the importance of avoiding the congregation of several problematic children, particularly boys, in the same ECEC groups. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Behavior theory for dietary interventions for cancer prevention: a systematic review of utilization and effectiveness in creating behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Kerry N L; Donovan, Jenny L; Horwood, Jeremy; Lane, J Athene

    2013-03-01

    Theory-based approaches are now recommended to design and enact dietary interventions, but their use in cancer trials is unknown. This systematic review examined application of behavior theory to dietary interventions aimed at preventing cancer to improve the design and interpretation of trials. Electronic databases were searched (inception-July 2011). Data were synthesized and a theory coding scheme (TCS) used to describe and assess how behavior theory informed interventions. Studies not reporting a dietary behavior intervention informed by a specified behavior change model(s) were excluded. Of 237 potentially eligible studies, only 40 (16.9 %) were relevant, mostly RCTs (34, 85.0 %). Twenty-one interventions targeted diet alone (52.5 %) or integrated diet into a lifestyle intervention (19, 47.5 %). Most (24, 60.0 %) invoked several behavior change models, but only 10 (25.0 %) interventions were reported as explicitly theory-informed and none comprehensively targeted or measured theoretical constructs or tested theoretical assumptions. The 10 theory-informed interventions were more effective at improving diet. Dietary interventions for cancer prevention improved diet more effectively if they were informed by behavior theory. While behavior theory was often applied to these dietary interventions, they were rarely implemented or described thoroughly. Accurate intervention reporting is essential to assess theoretical quality and facilitate implementation effective behavior change techniques. Guidelines regarding the application and reporting of behavior theory for complex interventions, for example, proposed by the National Institutes of Health and Medical Research Council, should be revised accordingly. Failure to adequately ground dietary interventions in behavior theory may hinder establishing their effectiveness and relationships between diet and cancer.

  17. An Effects of Behavioral Assertiveness Training And Cognitive Assertiveness Training on Assertiveness Behavior of Elementary School Studennts in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    金, 奎卓; 野島, 一彦

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Behavioral Assertiveness Training (BAT), and those of Cognitive Assertiveness Training (CAT), also to compare the effects of these trainings accoiding to the distinction of sex. The subjects were thirty two elementary school students who voluntarily participated in this study. These thirty two subjects were randomly divided into two groups, behavioral assertiveness training group and cognitive assertiveness training group, and each group...

  18. The Effect of Factors Affecting Social Behavior and Prosocial Behavior (Case Study: City of Steel of Mobarakeh)

    OpenAIRE

    Mashallah Valikhani; Abbasali Behzadipur

    2015-01-01

    The present paper, titled ‘A Study of the Effects of Internal Marketing on Customer-oriented Prosocial Behaviors’ investigates the important role of internal marketing on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and, finally, role-prescribed customer service and extra-role customer service (prosocial behavior) among Standard of Isfahan Steel of Mobarakeh. A main hypothesis (speculating the significant effect of internal marketing on customer-oriented prosocial behavior) and eleven sub-hypo...

  19. Effects of Consumer Search Behavior Typology on the Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuningsih Wahyuningsih

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The author investigates how consumer search behavior typology affects the relationship between customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that the type of consumer as defined by whether and how they search for information (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent perceive different levels of satisfaction and performs differently on satisfaction-behavioral intentions linkages. Relational-dependent and rational-active consumers are found to perceive higher satisfaction levels, and to express stronger intentions to engage in positive behavioral intentions than passive consumers. The identification of satisfaction and behavioral intentions within each search type allows managers to satisfy their consumers; hence, the company will obtain higher profit.Keywords: consumer behavior typology, satisfaction, behavioral intentions

  20. Behavioral, hormonal and central serotonin modulating effects of injected leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Haque, Zeba; Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Ikram, Huma; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin is viewed as an important target for developing novel therapeutics for obesity, depression/anxiety and cognitive dysfunctions. The present study therefore concerns behavioral, hormonal and central serotonin modulating effects of systemically injected leptin. Pharmacological doses (100 and 500 μg/kg) of leptin injected systemically decreased 24h cumulative food intake and body weight in freely feeding rats and improved acquisition and retention of memory in Morris water maze test. Potential anxiety reducing, hormonal and serotonin modulating effects of the peptide hormone were determined in a separate experiment. Animals injected with 100 or 500 μg/kg leptin were tested for anxiety in an elevated plus maze test 1h later. A significant increase in the number of entries and time passed in open arm of the elevated plus maze in leptin injected animals suggested pronounced anxiety reducing effect. Moreover, circulating levels of leptin correlated significantly with anxiety reducing effects of the peptide hormone. Serum serotonin increased and ghrelin decreased in leptin injected animals and correlated, positively and negatively respectively, with circulating leptin. Corticosterone increased at low dose and levels were normal at higher dose. Serotonin metabolism in the hypothalamus and hippocampus decreased only at higher dose of leptin. The results support a role of leptin in the treatment of obesity, anxiety and cognitive dysfunctions. It is suggested that hormonal and serotonin modulating effects of leptin can alter treatment efficacy in particularly comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Check and Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the effects of Check & Connect (C&C) on the attendance, behavior, and academic outcomes of at-risk youth in a field-based effectiveness trial. Method: A multisite randomized block design was used, wherein 260 primarily Hispanic (89%) and economically disadvantaged (74%) students were randomized to treatment…

  2. Behavioral effects of hashish in mice. II. Nursing behavior and development of the sucklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, H R; Sieber, B; Waser, P G

    1980-01-01

    Adult mice were treated from parturition to weaning of their first litter with a hashish extract containing 40% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), 45% cannabidiol, 9% cannabinol, and 6% other cannabinoids. Oral administrations of 20 mg delta 9-THC/kg three times a week decreased the weight gain of pups from days 3-6 and 6-10 significantly, resulting in about 15% lower body weights on days 6 and 10 compared with control sucklings. Other parameters of development such as the general appearance of the pups were little affected, except for a slight tendency by day 13, when some additional control pups already had both eyes open. The effects of hashish in sucklings might be caused by drug intake with mother's milk, as well as by a decreased lactation of drugged dams. In addition, our pup retrieving tests at the day 3, 1.5-2 h after the second application of hashish extract, showed a decrease in the mother's locomotive and nonsocial activities and pointed to at least transient impairment of the maternal behavior. By day 10, after the fifth administration of hashish extract, a partial tolerance occurred, with normal care for the young, but still decreased nonsocial activities of the drugged dams. Thus our experiments showed distinct effects of cannabis on mice litters when the parents were drugged postnatally during the period of lactation only.

  3. Synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM). Behavioral effects and radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landauer, M.R.; Mcchesney, D.G.; Ledney, G.D. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This study evaluated synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM), an immunomodulator, for its survival enhancing capacity and behavioral toxicity in B6D2F1 female mice. In survival experiments, mice were administered S-TDCM (25-400 {mu}g/mouse i.p.) 20-24 hr before 5.6 Gy mixed-field fission-neutron irradiation (n) and {gamma}-photon irradiation. The 30-day survival rates for mice treated with 100-400 {mu}g/mouse S-TDCM were significantly enhanced compared to controls. Toxicity of S-TDCM was measured in nonirradiated mice by locomotor activity, food intake, water consumption, and alterations in body weight. A dose-dependent decrease was noted in all behavioral measures in mice treated with S-TDCM. Doses of 100 and 200 {mu}g/mouse S-TDCM significantly reduced motor activity beginning 12 hr postinjection with recovery by 24 hr. A dose of 400 {mu}g/mouse significantly decreased activity within the first 4 hr after administration and returned to control levels by 32 hr following injection. Food and water intake were significantly depressed at doses of 200 and 400 {mu}g/mouse on the day following drug administration, and were recovered in 24 hr. Body weight was significantly decreased in the 200 {mu}g/mouse group for 2 days and in the 400 {mu}g/mouse group for 4 days following injection. A dose of 100 {mu}g/mouse effectively enhanced survival after fission-neutron irradiation with no adverse effect on food consumption, water intake, or body weight and a minimal, short-term effect on locomotor activity. (author)

  4. The Interaction Between Child Behavioral Inhibition and Parenting Behaviors: Effects on Internalizing and Externalizing Symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sarah M; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2018-02-20

    Both child temperament and parenting have been extensively researched as predictors of child outcomes. However, theoretical models suggest that specific combinations of temperament styles and parenting behaviors are better predictors of certain child outcomes such as internalizing and externalizing symptoms than either temperament or parenting alone. The current qualitative review examines the interaction between one childhood temperamental characteristic (child behavioral inhibition) and parenting behaviors, and their subsequent impact on child psychopathology. Specifically, the moderating role of parenting on the relationship between child behavioral inhibition and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology is examined, and the methodological variations which may contribute to inconsistent findings are explored. Additionally, support for the bidirectional relations between behavioral inhibition and parenting behaviors, as well as for the moderating role of temperament on the relationships between parenting and child outcomes, is briefly discussed. Finally, the clinical applicability of this overall conceptual model, specifically in regard to future research directions and potential clinical interventions, is considered.

  5. Effects of Habitual Anger on Employees’ Behavior during Organizational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Bönigk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees’ habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior—mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident’s negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.

  6. Effects of Habitual Anger on Employees’ Behavior during Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees’ habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior—mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident’s negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed. PMID:24287849

  7. Effects of Consumer Search Behavior Typology on the Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuningsih Wahyuningsih

    2013-01-01

    The author investigates how consumer search behavior typology affects the relationship between customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that the type of consumer as defined by whether and how they search for information (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent) perceive different levels of satisfaction and performs differently on satisfaction-behavioral intentions linkages. Relational-dependent and rational-active consumers are found to perceive higher satisfac...

  8. Effects of Consumer Search Behavior Typology on the Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuningsih Wahyuningsih

    2007-01-01

    The author investigates how consumer search behavior typology affects the relationship between customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that the type of consumer as defined by whether and how they search for information (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent) perceive different levels of satisfaction and performs differently on satisfaction behavioral intentions linkages. Relational-dependent and rational active consumers are found to perceive higher satisfac...

  9. Intranasal administration of oxytocin: behavioral and clinical effects, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veening, Jan G; Olivier, Berend

    2013-09-01

    The intranasal (IN-) administration of substances is attracting attention from scientists as well as pharmaceutical companies. The effects are surprisingly fast and specific. The present review explores our current knowledge about the routes of access to the cranial cavity. 'Direct-access-pathways' from the nasal cavity have been described but many additional experiments are needed to answer a variety of open questions regarding anatomy and physiology. Among the IN-applied substances oxytocin (OT) has an extensive history. Originally applied in women for its physiological effects related to lactation and parturition, over the last decade most studies focused on their behavioral 'prosocial' effects: from social relations and 'trust' to treatment of 'autism'. Only very recently in a microdialysis study in rats and mice, the 'direct-nose-brain-pathways' of IN-OT have been investigated directly, implying that we are strongly dependent on results obtained from other IN-applied substances. Especially the possibility that IN-OT activates the 'intrinsic' OT-system in the hypothalamus as well needs further clarification. We conclude that IN-OT administration may be a promising approach to influence human communication but that the existing lack of information about the neural and physiological mechanisms involved is a serious problem for the proper understanding and interpretation of the observed effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Check-In/Checkout on Behavioral Indices and Mathematics Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Michael D.; Johnson, Kristin N.; Mong, Kristi W.

    2011-01-01

    Check-in/checkout (CICO) is a behavioral intervention that is used to provide systematic feedback about a student's behavior at the beginning and end of each school day. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CICO on decreasing problem behaviors and the collateral effects on mathematics performance for 4 at-risk…

  11. Clinical and neuroradiological study on adult cases of familial microcephaly associated with mental retardation and convulsive seizure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Nobuyuki; Kitabayashi, Toshiko.

    1987-01-01

    Microcephaly results from various causes, some genetic and some non-genetic. Recently, we encountered two families with microcephaly, mental retardation and convulsive seizure. These conform to an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. All adult cases were analyzed to describe the characteristic neuroradiographic findings. Although each presented a similar neurologic outlook, two cases secondarily resulting from infection or injuries to the developing brain during postnatal periods showed a specific variation. Skull X-P and CT scan of these two cases showed thickening of the carvarium, predominantly fronto-parietal lobe atrophy of the cerebrum, enlargement of the ventricle, and compensatory hypertrophy of sinuses. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed severe micropolygyria and hypogenesis of corpus callosum. Abnormalities such as skull X-P, CT scan and MRI were severer in the secondary than in the primary microcephalics. Although brain volume was reduced, the volume ratio of cortex to white watter was similar to that of normal brain. MRI on severe cases of microcephaly revealed a high signal intensity in inversion-recovery images on the brain stem where markedly atrophy was noted. In adult microcephaly, the extent of cerebral development was thought to be reflected in the corpus callosum and brain stem where neuron fibers were densely gathered. (author)

  12. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this purpose, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (49% female) of which 540 played games (30% female). Our analyses indicated that higher levels of pathological gaming predicted an increase in time spent playing games 6 months later. Time spent playing violent games specifically, and not just games per se, increased physical aggression. Furthermore, higher levels of pathological gaming, regardless of violent content, predicted an increase in physical aggression among boys. That this effect only applies to boys does not diminish its importance, because adolescent boys are generally the heaviest players of violent games and most susceptible to pathological involvement. PMID:20549320

  13. Effects of a Behavior Analytic Intervention With Lovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the marital relationship and of the evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions with couples can promote communication skills, affection and problem solving. Researches with dating couples are incipient on the literature, and it is believed that extending such behaviors can help those couples. The present case study evaluates an intervention (four evaluation sessions and ten sessions of group with dating couples, in the design of a single subject, considering measures baseline, pretest, posttest and follow-up, combined with procedural measures of expectation and satisfaction with the procedure conducted. The results show satisfaction with treatment, generalization to other relationships and improvement of the relationship as communication, affection and problem solving. Implications are discussed for future prevention and researches.

  14. System size effect on the critical behavior in nuclear multifragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, B., E-mail: bb_22@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014 (India); Talukdar, R. [Department of Physics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014 (India)

    2011-08-01

    Attempt has been made to examine the role of system size on the traditional signatures of critical behavior from a comparative study of Mg-Em at 4.5 A GeV and Kr-Em at 0.95 A GeV interactions. A number of relevant observables such as fluctuation in the sizes of the largest cluster, reduced variance and the mean value of second moment of charge distribution were estimated with the experimental data. From a comparison of our results with that of EOS collaboration for Au, La and Kr on carbon at 1 A GeV, a definite systematic variation in the heights and positions of the peaks could be observed with the change of fragmenting nuclei thereby confirming the effect of system size on MF mechanism.

  15. The effects of pathological gaming on aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this purpose, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (49% female) of which 540 played games (30% female). Our analyses indicated that higher levels of pathological gaming predicted an increase in time spent playing games 6 months later. Time spent playing violent games specifically, and not just games per se, increased physical aggression. Furthermore, higher levels of pathological gaming, regardless of violent content, predicted an increase in physical aggression among boys. That this effect only applies to boys does not diminish its importance, because adolescent boys are generally the heaviest players of violent games and most susceptible to pathological involvement.

  16. Effects of Transport on Live Weight and Behavior of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Andronie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study has monitored the effects of transport stress on some biochemical indicators of stress and behavior lambs at time of slaughter. The research was carried out in the cold season, on a number of 120 lambs, transported for 6h- 16h, to be slaughtered. During our research, we followed the changes in bodyweight, behaviours expressed by sheep, and plasma cortisol levels. Bodyweight loss recorded in the slaughterhouse to 24 hours of departure transportation was of 4-5%. The behavioural manifestations of lambs were different from the destination, depending on journey duration. Lambs behaviour was different depending on the journey, the resting and watering were mostly present manifestations. Increased in cortisol levels measured at 3 h after leaving the vehicle was maintained at 9 h after the journey. Increased duration of rest before slaughter can reduce the stress of transport in case of lambs ensures obtaining good quality meat.

  17. Chronic caffeine produces sexually dimorphic effects on amphetamine-induced behavior, anxiety and depressive-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Sarah M; Townsend, Shannon E; Dixon, Rushell S; Hickman, Emma T; Lee, Sabrina M

    2016-04-01

    Caffeine consumption has been increasing rapidly in adolescents; however, most research on the behavioral effects of caffeine has been conducted in adults. Two experiments were conducted in which adolescent male and female rats were treated with a moderate dose of caffeine (0.25 g/l) in their drinking water beginning on P26-28. In the first experiment, animals were maintained on caffeinated drinking water or normal tap water for 14 days and were then tested for behavioral and striatal c-Fos response to amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg). In the second experiment, rats were maintained on caffeinated drinking water or normal tap water beginning on P28 and were tested for novel object recognition, anxiety in the light/dark test (L/D) and elevated plus maze (EPM), and depressive like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) beginning on the 14th day of caffeine exposure. Caffeine decreased amphetamine-induced rearing in males, but had no effect in females; however, this behavioral effect was not accompanied by changes in striatal c-Fos, which was increased by amphetamine but not altered by caffeine. No effects of caffeine were observed on novel object recognition or elevated plus maze behavior. However, in the L/D test, there was a sex by caffeine interaction on time spent in the light driven by a caffeine-induced increase in light time in the males but not the females. On the pretest day of the FST, sex by caffeine interactions were observed for swimming and struggling; caffeine decreased struggling behavior and increased swimming behavior in males and caffeine-treated females demonstrated significantly more struggling and significantly less swimming than caffeine-treated males. A similar pattern was observed on the test day in which caffeine decreased immobility overall and increased swimming. These data reveal sex dependent effects of caffeine on behavior in adolescent rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of synthetic cathinones contained in "bath salts" on motor behavior and a functional observational battery in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusich, Julie A; Grant, Kateland R; Blough, Bruce E; Wiley, Jenny L

    2012-10-01

    Synthetic stimulants commonly sold as "bath salts" are an emerging abuse problem in the U.S. Users have shown paranoia, delusions, and self-injury. Previously published in vivo research has been limited to only two components of bath salts (mephedrone and methylone). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in vivo effects of several synthetic cathinones found in bath salts and to compare them to those of cocaine (COC) and methamphetamine (METH). Acute effects of methylenedioxyphyrovalerone (MDPV), mephedrone, methylone, methedrone, 3-fluoromethcathinone (3-FMC), 4-fluoromethcathinone (4-FMC), COC, and METH were examined in male ICR mice on locomotor activity, rotorod, and a functional observational battery (FOB). All drugs increased locomotor activity, with different compounds showing different potencies and time courses in locomotor activity. 3-FMC and methylone decreased performance on the rotorod. The FOB showed that in addition to typical stimulant induced effects, some synthetic cathinones produced ataxia, convulsions, and increased exploration. These results suggest that individual synthetic cathinones differ in their profile of effects, and differ from known stimulants of abuse. Effects of 3-FMC, 4-FMC, and methedrone indicate these synthetic cathinones share major pharmacological properties with the ones that have been banned (mephedrone, MDPV, methylone), suggesting that they may be just as harmful. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Synthetic Cathinones Contained in “Bath Salts” on Motor Behavior and a Functional Observational Battery in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusich, Julie A.; Grant, Kateland R.; Blough, Bruce E.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic stimulants commonly sold as “bath salts” are an emerging abuse problem in the U.S. Users have shown paranoia, delusions, and self-injury. Previously published in vivo research has been limited to only two components of bath salts (mephedrone and methylone). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in vivo effects of several synthetic cathinones found in bath salts and to compare them to those of cocaine (COC) and methamphetamine (METH). Acute effects of methylenedioxyphyrovalerone (MDPV), mephedrone, methylone, methedrone, 3-fluoromethcathinone (3-FMC), 4-fluoromethcathinone (4-FMC), COC, and METH were examined in male ICR mice on locomotor activity, rotorod, and a functional observational battery (FOB). All drugs increased locomotor activity, with different compounds showing different potencies and time courses in locomotor activity. 3-FMC and methylone decreased performance on the rotorod. The FOB showed that in addition to typical stimulant induced effects, some synthetic cathinones produced ataxia, convulsions, and increased exploration. These results suggest that individual synthetic cathinones differ in their profile of effects, and differ from known stimulants of abuse. Effects of 3-FMC, 4-FMC, and methedrone indicate these synthetic cathinones share major pharmacological properties with the ones that have been banned (mephedrone, MDPV, methylone), suggesting that they may be just as harmful. PMID:22922498

  20. Effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Mulders, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (LIBT) supplementing regular treatment in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) standardized tests of cognition, adaptive behavior, interpersonal relations, play, language,

  1. The Good Behavior Game: A Classroom-Behavior Intervention Effective across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Julene D.; Houlihan, Daniel; Wanzek, Megan; Jenson, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Few classroom behavioral interventions have been thoroughly studied using culturally and linguistically diverse populations, international student populations, or those from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. Yet, having such tools for school psychologists and teachers is critical for behavior management in the classroom. One important exception…

  2. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received emotional intelligence training program in 17 sessions (2 sessions per week, 60 minutes per session and the control group received no training beyond their regular school program. After two months, in order to examine the stability (durability of training effect, the follow-up test was conducted. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimating equations. Results: The results showed that the intervention program had created a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control group (p<0.001 and the rate of behavioral problems (aggression, rule breaking occurrence has dropped. This was true for the follow-up results too. Conclusions: It can be concluded that Emotional Intelligence Training decreases the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder and helps to prevent high occurrence of these problems.

  3. The Indirect Effects of Servant Leadership Behavior on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Job Performance: Organizational Justice as a Mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Zehir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Therelationship between leader and followers plays a vital role, particularly ineducational institutions where a keen understanding of human character and highlevel of social interaction ought to be facilitated. For this reason, in starkcontrast to contemporary leaders who see people only as units of production orexpendable resources in a profit and loss statement, servant leadership focuseson meeting the needs of followers, making them reach their maximum potentialand so perform optimally in order to achieve organizational goals andobjectives. This study examines theeffects of servant leadership behaviors of private college principals onteachers’ organizationalcitizenship behavior and job performance. Using 300 respondents from theprivate education institutes in Turkey, servant leadership behavior is examinedfor its indirect effects on organizational citizenship behavior and jobperformance by its impact on organizational justice. Organizational justiceacts as a mediator between the variables in question. All the results are insupport of the studied mediation effects. Implications of the findings andsuggestions for future research are discussed

  4. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, DMAB; Wijesinghe, PS; Ratnasooriya, WD; Wimalasena, S

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. AIM: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three subsets (eight in each subset) of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively) for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. RESULTS: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47) vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66), P libido was evident in the same group, but this effect was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction. PMID:19881149

  5. A meta-analysis of single-case research on behavior contracts: effects on behavioral and academic outcomes among children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Burke, Mack D; de Marin, Sharon; Zhang, Nan; Davis, Heather

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to quantitatively summarize the single-case research (SCR) literature on the use of behavior contracts with children and youth. This study examined the efficacy of behavior contracts on problem behaviors and academic behaviors across 18 SCR studies. Academic and behavioral outcomes were examined for 58 children and youth ages 5 to 21 using the TauU effect size index. Results indicated the overall moderate effect of the use of behavior contracts was ES = .57 (95% confidence interval [CI95] = [0.55, 0.58]) with a range of effects across studies (ES = .27 to ES = 1.00). Moderator analyses indicated that behavior contracts are beneficial for students regardless of grade level, gender, or disability status. Findings suggest that the intervention is more effective in reducing inappropriate behaviors than increasing appropriate behaviors, and that academic outcomes are positively affected by behavior contracting. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Social carry-over effects on non-social behavioral variation: mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Toivo Niemelä

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of animal personality is interested in decomposing behaviors into different levels of variation, with its present focus on the ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences of expressed variation. Recently the role of the social environment, i.e. social partners, has been suggested to affect behavioral variation and induce selection on animal personality. Social partner effects exist because characters of social partners (e.g. size, behavior, affect the behavioral expression of a focal individual. Here, we 1 first review the proximate mechanisms underlying the social partner effects on behavioral expression and the timescales at which such effects might take place. We then 2 discuss how within- and among-individual variation in single behaviors and covariation between multiple behaviors, caused by social partners, can carry-over to non-social behaviors expressed outside the social context. Finally, we 3 highlight evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects to non-social behaviors and 4 suggest study designs and statistical approaches which can be applied to study the nature and evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects on non-social behaviors. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underpinning the social partner effects is important since it opens a door for deeper understanding of how social environments can affect behavioral variation and covariation at multiple levels, and the evolution of non-social behaviors (i.e. exploration, activity, boldness that are affected by social interactions.

  7. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Fadaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. Methods: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly di-vided in two groups of intervention (n = 32 and control (n = 40. The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not re-ceive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Results: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44 and control (15 95 ± 4 66 groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395. The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11 compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27 after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001. Conclusions: Since a woman′s body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman′s favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the impor-tance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  8. Effect of heat treatment on corrosion behavior of duplex coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raghu Ram Mohan Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, duplex WC-Co/NiCrAlY coating is coated onto Ti6Al4V substrate and vacuum heat treatment is employed to investigate the corrosion behavior of heat treated samples as well as Ti6Al4V substrate for comparison. In this duplex coating system, High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF process is used to deposit NiCrAlY interlayer with a constant thickness of 200 μm and WC-Co ceramic top layer with varying thickness of 250 μm, 350 μm and 450 μm deposited by Detonation Spray (DS process. Different heat treatment temperatures (600–1150 °C were employed for the coated samples to study the microstructure and the effect on corrosion resistance of the duplex coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried to investigate the corrosion performance of duplex coated heat treated samples and the substrate in Ringer’s solution at 37 °C and prepared the pH to 5.7. The microstructure upon corrosion after heat treatment was characterized by SEM analysis to understand the corrosion behavior. The results disclosed that at all heat treatment temperatures, all the coated samples exhibited better corrosion resistance than the base substrate. However, during 950 °C and 1150 °C heat treatment temperatures, it was observed highest corrosion potential than 600 °C and 800 °C. The 350 μm thickness, coated sample exhibited highest corrosion resistance compared to other two coated samples and the substrate at all heat treatment temperatures.

  9. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. RESULTS: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001). CONCLUSIONS: Since a woman's body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients. PMID:22279481

  10. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas

    2011-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001). Since a woman's body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  11. Assessing independent and interactive effects of behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for a client with dual diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W; Piazza, C C; Page, T J

    1989-09-01

    Behavior analytic methods were applied to the assessment and treatment of the problem behaviors of an 8-year-old male classified as having moderate mental retardation and atypical psychosis. Functional assessment procedures demonstrated that verbal behaviors diagnosed as hallucinatory were affected by environmental contingencies. Next, a multi-element/multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of contingency management and pharmacologic interventions on three dependent variables: (1) psychotic speech; (2) aggressive-disruptive behavior; and (3) appropriate speech. Results indicated that contingency management without haloperidol was the most effective treatment for all inappropriate and appropriate behaviors. These results are important in that behavior analytic methods were shown to have utility for: (1) assessing the functional relationship between environmental contingencies and behaviors related to differential diagnosis; and (2) evaluating the independent and interactive effects of behavioral and pharmacologic treatments.

  12. Effects of caregiver-implemented aggression reduction procedure on problem behavior of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterling-Savage, Kristyn; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D; Miller, L Keith; Savage, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Problem behavior of companion animals poses a threat to caregivers, other targets of problem behavior (e.g., strangers, other nonhuman animals), and those animals engaging in problem behavior. This study examined the effects of an aggression reduction procedure (ARP) on dog problem behavior. After a baseline condition showing caregivers were unsuccessful in reducing dog aggression and the behaviors preceding aggression, caregivers were trained to implement a procedure to address dog problem behavior in relatively simple contexts. Generalization programming then was used to target caregiver plan implementation and dog problem behavior in more complex contexts. The ARP effectively reduced dog aggression for all dogs. A slight reduction and increased variability in dog precursor behavior was observed when the ARP was implemented. In addition, caregivers and experts rated the goals, procedures, and effects as acceptable. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DMAB Dissanayake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. Results: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47 vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66, P 0.05. However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. Conclusions : Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction.

  14. Spatially quantifying the leadership effectiveness in collective behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haitao; Wang Ning; Chen, Michael Z Q; Su Riqi; Zhou Tao; Zhou Changsong

    2010-01-01

    Among natural biological flocks/swarms or mass social activities, when the collective behavior of the followers has been dominated by the direction or opinion of one leader group, it seems difficult for later-coming leaders to reverse the orientation of the mass followers, especially when they are in quantitative minority. This paper, however, reports a counter-intuitive phenomenon, i.e. Following the Later-coming Minority, provided that the later-comers obey a favorable distribution pattern that enables them to spread their influence to as many followers as possible within a given time and to be dense enough to govern these local followers they can influence directly from the beginning. We introduce a discriminant index to quantify the whole group's orientation under competing leaderships, with which the eventual orientation of the mass followers can be predicted before launching the real dynamical procedure. From the application point of view, this leadership effectiveness index also helps us to design an economical way for the minority later-coming leaders to defeat the dominating majority leaders solely by optimizing their spatial distribution pattern provided that the premeditated goal is available. Our investigation provides insights into effective leadership in biological systems with meaningful implications for social and industrial applications.

  15. Sloshing effect on the dynamic behavior of horizontal cylindrical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakis, A.A.; Bursuc, G.; Toorani, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of free surface motion of a fluid on the dynamic behavior of thin-walled cylindrical shells. This paper outlines a semi-analytical approach to dynamic analysis of a fluid-filled horizontal cylindrical shell taking into account free surface motion; sloshing. The aim of the method is to provide a general approach that can be used for both analysis and synthesis of fluid/structure interaction problems in horizontal cylindrical shells focusing on the dynamic interaction between a flexible structure and incompressible and inviscid flow. The approach is very general; it allows dynamic analysis of both uniform and non-uniform cylindrical shells and considers the fluid forces and includes the sloshing effect exerted on the structure. The hybrid method developed in this work incorporates a combination of the classic finite element approach and thin shell theory to determine the specific displacement functions. Mass and stiffness matrices of the shell are determined by precise analytical integration. A potential function is applied to develop the dynamic pressure due to the fluid. The kinetic and potential energies are evaluated for a range of fluid heights to find the influence of the fluid on the dynamic responses of the structure. The influence of physical and geometrical parameters on the fluid-structure system has been considered in the numerical solutions. When these results are compared with corresponding results available in the literature, both theoretical and experimental, very good agreement is obtained.

  16. Spatially quantifying the leadership effectiveness in collective behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haitao [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang Ning [Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Michael Z Q [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Su Riqi; Zhou Tao [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhou Changsong, E-mail: zht@mail.hust.edu.cn, E-mail: cszhou@hkbu.edu.hk, E-mail: zhutou@ustc.edu [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems (Hong Kong), Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2010-12-15

    Among natural biological flocks/swarms or mass social activities, when the collective behavior of the followers has been dominated by the direction or opinion of one leader group, it seems difficult for later-coming leaders to reverse the orientation of the mass followers, especially when they are in quantitative minority. This paper, however, reports a counter-intuitive phenomenon, i.e. Following the Later-coming Minority, provided that the later-comers obey a favorable distribution pattern that enables them to spread their influence to as many followers as possible within a given time and to be dense enough to govern these local followers they can influence directly from the beginning. We introduce a discriminant index to quantify the whole group's orientation under competing leaderships, with which the eventual orientation of the mass followers can be predicted before launching the real dynamical procedure. From the application point of view, this leadership effectiveness index also helps us to design an economical way for the minority later-coming leaders to defeat the dominating majority leaders solely by optimizing their spatial distribution pattern provided that the premeditated goal is available. Our investigation provides insights into effective leadership in biological systems with meaningful implications for social and industrial applications.

  17. Effect of alcohol on behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, C.J.; Stead, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Male, BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with ethyl alcohol (ethanol) in dosages of 0, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg and then placed in a temperature gradient that permitted the measurement of preferred ambient temperature (Ta). The 3 g/kg dosage of ethanol resulted in a slight lowering of the preferred Ta during the first 30 min of placement in the gradient. However, there was no overall statistically significant effect of alcohol dosage on preferred Ta. In another experiment, BALB/c mice were treated with the aforementioned ethanol dosages while metabolic rate (MR), evaporative water loss (EWL), and colonic temperature were measured 60 min post-injection at Ta's of 20, 30, and 35 C a dosage of 3 g/kg caused a significant decrease in MR, EWL, and colonic temperature. At a Ta of 30 C this same dosage caused significant reduction in colonic temperature, however; at Ta of 35 C ethanol had no effect on these parameters. In spite of the significant decrease in colonic temperature at a Ta of 30 C, which approximates the normal preferred Ta, the behavioral thermal preference was marginally affected. It is not clear whether or not ethanol injection results in a decrease in the set-point body temperature.

  18. The effect of laterite density on radon diffusion behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongmei; Tan, Wanyu; Tan, Kaixuan; Liu, Zehua; Fang, Qi; Lv, Junwen; Duan, Xianzhe; Liu, Zhenzhong; Guo, Yueyue

    2018-02-01

    Radon generated in porous media such as soils and rocks migrates into indoor and outdoor air mainly by diffusion, possessing significant hazards to human health. In order to reduce these hazards of radon, it is of great importance to study the diffusion behavior of radon. In this study, we systematically measured the radon diffusion coefficient of laterite with the density ranging from 0.917gcm -3 to 2.238gcm -3 , and studied the effect of laterite density on the radon diffusion. The results show that the radon diffusion coefficient of the laterite generally decreases with the increasing laterite density. In addition, three possible relationships between the radon diffusion coefficient and the laterite density are found out as follows: (1) the linear correlation with a slope of -4.48 × 10 -6 for laterite with density ranging from 0.917 to 1.095gcm -3 , (2) the exponential correlation for laterite with density from 1.095 to 1.63gcm -3 , (3) linear correlation with a slope of -3.1 × 10 -7 for laterite with density from 1.63 to 2.238gcm -3 . The complex relationship between the radon diffusion coefficient and density is caused by the change of porosity and tortuosity of the laterite. Therefore, we suggest that a suitable density should be adopted while using the laterite to effectively cover uranium tailings or economically produce building materials that can curb the radon exhalation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Children's perceptions of TV and health behavior effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christine M; Strzempko, Fran; Danford, Cynthia; Kools, Susan

    2002-01-01

    To understand and document children's stated experiences and beliefs about television and to elicit their suggestions for alternative activities. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 51 Anglo and Latino children, ages 7-10, in a large Northern California city. Philosophical underpinnings of developmental psychology were the basis for multiphase thematic analysis. Data were collected in 1998-1999. Themes were identified in five conceptual categories. Findings showed that children did not perceive many parental rules related to TV watching, rather daily routines are associated with TV viewing. Children revealed both covert and overt motivations for watching. Nearly all participants spoke of the deception of advertising, but they were unclear about the role of commercial sponsors in payment for TV shows. Children perceived both negative physical and behavioral health effects of TV and they had great difficulty imagining life without a TV. Children perceived television as providing educational and relational needs. Although they preferred alternatives to TV, they had difficulty articulating and getting those needs met. Clinicians and researchers can utilize these findings to design health interventions that attenuate the health-impairing effects of habitual sedentary activity in childhood.

  20. Effects of Check & Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of Check & Connect (C&C) in a randomly assigned sample of students who were all receiving Communities in Schools (CIS) services. The research questions for the study include: Are there differences in attendance, academics, and behavior for CIS students who also receive C&C compared to…

  1. Deep Space Spaceflight Hazards Effects on Cognition, Behavioral Health, and Behavioral Biomarkers in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. J.; Norsk, P.; Zwart, S.; Crucian, B.; Simonsen, L. C.; Antonsen, E.

    2018-02-01

    Deep Space Gateway missions provide testing grounds to identify the risk of both behavioral performance and cognitive perturbations caused by stressors of spaceflight such as radiation, fluid shifts, sleep deprivation, chronic stress, and others.

  2. Behavioral effects of congenital ventromedial prefrontal cortex malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boes Aaron D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed behavioral profile associated with focal congenital malformation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC has not been reported previously. Here we describe a 14 year-old boy, B.W., with neurological and psychiatric sequelae stemming from focal cortical malformation of the left vmPFC. Case Presentation B.W.'s behavior has been characterized through extensive review Patience of clinical and personal records along with behavioral and neuropsychological testing. A central feature of the behavioral profile is severe antisocial behavior. He is aggressive, manipulative, and callous; features consistent with psychopathy. Other problems include: egocentricity, impulsivity, hyperactivity, lack of empathy, lack of respect for authority, impaired moral judgment, an inability to plan ahead, and poor frustration tolerance. Conclusions The vmPFC has a profound contribution to the development of human prosocial behavior. B.W. demonstrates how a congenital lesion to this cortical region severely disrupts this process.

  3. Central effects of isolated fractions from the root of Petiveria alliacea L. (tipi) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Patrícia B; Noronha, Emmanuelle C; de Melo, Carla Thiciane V; Bezerra, José N S; Neto, Manoel A; Lino, Cleide S; Vasconcelos, Silvânia M M; Viana, Glauce S B; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa F

    2008-11-20

    Petiveria alliacea L. (tipi) a shrub from Phytolaccaceae family is popularly used in folk medicine for treating a wide variety of disorders in South and Central America. To investigate the neuropharmacological properties on experimental animals. The acetate (FA), hexanic (FH), hydroalcoholic (FHA) and precipitated hydroalcoholic (FHAppt) fractions from the root of tipi were studied to investigate its pharmacological properties in the classical behavioral models (open-field, elevated plus maze-EPM, rotarod, barbiturate-induced sleeping time, forced swimming and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions tests) using mice. These fractions were administered intraperitoneally and orally to female mice at single doses of 100 and 200mg/kg. All these fractions decreased the locomotor activity, rearing and grooming in the open-field test, suggesting a possible central depressant action. No significant effect was evident on motor coordination of the animals in the rotarod test. On EPM, all the fractions of tipi presented a significant reduction on the time of permanence in the open arms, indicating an absence of anxiolytic-like effect. In addition, the fractions increased the immobility time in the forced swimming test and potentiated pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice, confirmed a probable sedative and central depressant effect. Furthermore, the fractions increased the latency to the first convulsion and the lethal time of the PTZ-induced convulsions test in the animals, confirmed its popular use as anticonvulsant. Our results suggest that the fractions of P. alliacea L. contains biologically active substance(s) that might be acting in the CNS and have significant depressant and anticonvulsant potentials, supporting folk medicine use of this plant.

  4. Customer Showrooming Behavior and the Effect on Salesperson Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Sarah Astari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has become the biggest market for e-commerce as it has 250 million inhabitants. Growth of internet and online shopping has made retailers expand their businesses via smartphones. Shopping channels via the internet has given customers another channel to get information and buy products without visiting brick-and-mortar stores. This channel multiplicity potentially leads customers to do showrooming. In this research, showrooming in Indonesia will be explored with sunglasses as the research object and optic salespersons as the research subject. There are 178 samples collected in total for this research with 154 of them being used. Primary data is taken from optic salespersons at a prominent optics store in Jakarta. Partial Least Square (PLS is used as the data analysis method. The research results show that perceived showrooming behavior has a positive and significant effect on self-efficacy and salesperson performance. Moreover, salesperson self-efficacy also has a positive and significant effect on salesperson performance. Meanwhile, coping and cross-selling strategies have a moderate positive but not a significant effect.  These results reflect that salespersons do not respond negatively to customer’s showrooming behavior such as price comparison, window shopping, product information, product availability, and shopping via smartphone in front of the salesperson. Salespersons feel optimistic and confident when customers come  because they have been trained for customer orientation, availability of supervisory support, and belief that the customer will do their transaction in brick-and-mortar stores if they give a good explanation about the product. Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Indonesia telah menjadi pasar E-Commerce terbesar yang memiliki 250 Juta pengguna pertumbuhan Internet dan online shopping telah menjadikan Retailer berkembang bisnisnya melakui smart phone. Berbelanja melalui saluran Internet telah memberikan pelanggan untuk

  5. Severe Convulsions and Dysmyelination in Both Jimpy and Cx32/47-/-Mice may Associate Astrocytic L-Channel Function with Myelination and Oligodendrocytic Connexins with Internodal KvChannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Y H Gerald; Chen, Ye; Hertz, Elna; Hertz, Leif

    2017-06-01

    The Jimpy mouse illustrates the importance of interactions between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. It has a mutation in Plp coding for proteolipid protein and DM20. Its behavior is normal at birth but from the age of ~2 weeks it shows severe convulsions associated with oligodendrocyte/myelination deficits and early death. A normally occurring increase in oxygen consumption by highly elevated K + concentrations is absent in Jimpy brain slices and cultured astrocytes, reflecting that Plp at early embryonic stages affects common precursors as also shown by the ability of conditioned medium from normal astrocytes to counteract histological abnormalities. This metabolic response is now known to reflect opening of L-channels for Ca 2+ . The resulting deficiency in Ca 2+ entry has many consequences, including lack of K + -stimulated glycogenolysis and release of gliotransmitter ATP. Lack of purinergic stimulation compromises oligodendrocyte survival and myelination and affects connexins and K + channels. Mice lacking the oligodendrocytic connexins Cx32 and 47 show similar neurological dysfunction as Jimpy. This possibly reflects that K + released by intermodal axonal K v channels is transported underneath a loosened myelin sheath instead of reaching the extracellular space via connexin-mediated transport to oligodendrocytes, followed by release and astrocytic Na + ,K + -ATPase-driven uptake with subsequent Kir4.1-facilitated release and neuronal uptake.

  6. Effects of Cyclic Loading on the Uniaxial Behavior of Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlun, M.; Zipse, A.; Dreher, G.; Rebelo, N.

    2011-07-01

    The widespread development and use of implants made from NiTi is accompanied by the publication of many NiTi material characterization studies. These publications have increased significantly the knowledge about the mechanical properties of NiTi. However, this knowledge also increased the complexity of the numerical simulation of NiTi implants or devices. This study is focused on the uniaxial behavior of NiTi tubing due to cyclic loading and had the goal to deliver both precise and application-oriented results. Single aspects of this study have already been published (Wagner in Ein Beitrag zur strukturellen und funktionalen Ermüdung von Drähten und Federn aus NiTi-Formgedaechtnislegierungen, Ph.D. Thesis, 2005; Eucken and Duerig in Acta Metall 37:2245-2252, 1989; Yawny et al. in Z Metallkd 96:608-618, 2005); however, there is no publication known that shows all the single effects combined in a "duty cycle case." It was of particular importance to summarize the main effects of pre-strain and subsequent small or large strain amplitudes on the material properties. The phenomena observed were captured in an extended Abaqus® Nitinol material model, presented by Rebelo et al. (A Material Model for the Cyclic Behavior of Nitinol, SMST Extended Abstracts 2010). The cyclic tensile tests were performed using a video extensometer to obtain accurate strain measurement on small electro-polished dog-bone specimen that were incorporated into a stent framework so that standard manufacturing methods could be used for the fabrication. This study indicates that a prestrain beyond 6% strain alters the transformation plateaus and if the cyclic displacement amplitude is large enough, additional permanent deformations are observed, the lower plateau and most notably the upper plateau change. The changes to the upper plateau are very interesting in the sense that an additional stress plateau develops: its "start stress" is lowered thereby creating a new plateau up to the highest level

  7. Thermal Effects on the Bearing Behavior of Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sandra Polesky

    2001-01-01

    Thermal effects on the pin-bearing behavior of an IM7/PET15 composite laminate are studied comprehensively. A hypothesis presents factors influencing a change in pin-bearing strength with a change in temperature for a given joint design. The factors include the change in the state of residual cure stress, the material properties, and the fastener fit with a change in temperature. Experiments are conducted to determine necessary lamina and laminate material property data for the IM7/PET15 being utilized in this study. Lamina material properties are determined between the assumed stress free temperature of 460 F down to -200 F. Laminate strength properties are determined for several lay-ups at the operating temperatures of 350 F, 70 F, and -200 F. A three-dimensional finite element analysis model of a composite laminate subject to compressive loading is developed. Both the resin rich layer located between lamina and the thermal residual stresses present in the laminate due to curing are determined to influence the state of stress significantly. Pin-bearing tests of several lay-ups were conducted to develop an understanding on the effect of temperature changes on the pin-bearing behavior of the material. A computational study investigating the factors influencing pin-bearing strength was performed. A finite element model was developed and used to determine the residual thermal cure stresses in the laminate containing a hole. Very high interlaminar stress concentrations were observed two elements away from the hole boundary at all three operating temperatures. The pin-bearing problem was modeled assuming a rigid frictionless pin and restraining only radial displacements at the hole boundary. A uniform negative pressure load was then applied to the straight end of the model. A solution, where thermal residual stresses were combined with the state of stress due to pin-bearing loads was evaluated. The presence of thermal residual stresses intensified the interlaminar

  8. The Effects of Utilitarian and Hedonic Values on Young Consumers’ Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit BASARAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of utilitarian and hedonic values on young consumers’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions in fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors comparatively. Also this study investigates which value component (utilitarian or hedonic is more effective on satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that utilitarian and hedonic values have significant effects on satisfaction and behavioral intentions for both fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors. Additionally, satisfaction has an influence on behavioral intentions in fast-food restaurant sector, but does not have a significant effect in fast-casual restaurant sector. Moreover, associations between hedonic value with satisfaction and behavioral intentions are significantly different between fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors. On the other hand, associations between utilitarian value with satisfaction and behavioral intentions and association between satisfactions with behavioral intentions are not significantly different between fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors.

  9. [Effectiveness of an online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friðgeirsdóttir, Guðlaug; Jóhannsson, Gunnar; Ellertsson, Steindór; Björnsdóttir, Erla

    2015-04-01

    Insomnia is a common health problem with serious mental and physical consequences as well as increased economical costs. The use of hypnotics in Iceland is immense in spite of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) being recommended as the first choice treatment of chronic insomnia. To meet the needs of more individuals suffering from insomnia, online CBT-I was established at betrisvefn.is. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of this internet-based CBT-I. One hundred seventy-five users (mean age 46 y (18-79 y)) started a 6 week online intervention for insomnia. The drop-out rate was 29%, leaving a final sample of 125 users. The intervention is based on well-established face-to-face CBT-I. Sleep diaries were used to determine changes in sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset. Treatment effects were assesed after 6 weeks of treatment and at the 6 week follow-up. Significant improvement was found in all main sleep variables except for 5% decrease in total sleep time (TST). Effects were sustained at 6 week follow-up and TST increased. The use of hypnotics decreased significantly. This form of treatment seems to suit its users very well and over 94% would recommend the treatment. Internet interventions for insomnia seem to have good potential. CBT-I will hopefully be offered as the first line treatment for chronic insomnia in Iceland instead of hypnotics as the availability of the CBT-I is growing. Thus, the burden on health care clinics might reduce along with the hypnotics use and the considerable costs of insomnia.

  10. Behavioral effects of type II pyrethroid cyhalothrin in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righi, D. Abbud; Palermo-Neto, J.

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids such as cyhalothrin are extensively used in agriculture for the control of a broad range of ectoparasites in farm animals. It has been suggested that type II pyrethroids might induce anxiogenic-like effects in laboratory animals. The present study was undertaken to investigate a possible anxiogenic-like outcome of cyhalothrin in rats. Adult male rats were orally dosed for 7 days with 1.0, 3.0, or 7.0 mg/kg/day of cyhalothrin, present in a commercial formulation (Grenade Coopers do Brazil S.A.). The neurobehavioral changes induced by cyhalothrin as well as those produced on corticosterone serum levels were measured 24 h after the last treatment. Picrotoxin (1.0 mg/kg) was also acutely used as a positive control for anxiety. Results showed that cyhalothrin: (1) induced some signs and symptoms of intoxication that included salivation, tremors, and liquid feces; (2) reduced total locomotor activity in the open-field; (3) reduced the percentage of time spent in open-field central zones; (4) increased immobility time in the open-field; (5) reduced the percentage of time spent in plus-maze open arms exploration; (6) reduced the time spent in social interactions, and (7) increased the levels of serum corticosterone. The behavioral changes reported for cyhalothrin (3.0 mg/kg/day) were similar of those induced by picrotoxin. The no effect level dose obtained for cyhalothrin in this study was 1.0 mg/kg/day. These results provide experimental evidence that cyhalothrin induces anxiety-like symptoms, with this effect being dose-related. Thus, anxiety must be included among the several signs and symptoms of pesticide intoxication

  11. The administration of rescue medication to children with prolonged acute convulsive seizures in the community: what happens in practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wait, Suzanne; Lagae, Lieven; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Beghi, Ettore; Bennett, Christine; Cross, J Helen; Mifsud, Janet; Schmidt, Dieter; Harvey, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a review of existing clinical and non-clinical guidance on the management of children with prolonged acute convulsive seizures (PCS) and the administration of rescue medication in community settings. Findings are based on desk- and web-based research in 6 countries. Published clinical guidelines are mostly limited to the hospital setting and offer few explicit recommendations for community settings. Non-clinical guidance on the management of medicines at school exists at the national or regional level in all 6 countries, however rescue epilepsy medication is often not mentioned specifically. Existing legal frameworks are vague and open to interpretation. As a result, whether a child receives rescue medication at school depends primarily on the availability of a willing teacher who accepts responsibility for administering it to that child during school hours. Comprehensive guidelines are clearly needed that provide practical guidance to ensure that children with PCS are treated as quickly as possible in all community settings. Recommendations for future action include: providing clearer information on PCS and rescue medication to parents and schools; putting in place an individual healthcare plan for every child with a history of PCS at his or her school; collecting more empirical data to gain a better understanding of the experience of children with PCS at school, their parents and teachers; and finally, implementing systematic training for all carers of children with PCS. The epilepsy specialist may play an important role in ensuring that these recommendations are put into place for their patients. Copyright © 2012 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Clinical investigation and mutation analysis of a child with citrin deficiency complicated with purpura, convulsive seizures and methioninemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Peng-qiang; Wang, Guo-bing; Chen, Zhan-ling; Liu, Xiao-hong; Cui, Dong; Shang, Yue; Li, Cheng-rong

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the clinical features and SLC25A13 gene mutations of a child with citrin deficiency complicated with purpura, convulsive seizures and methioninemia. The patient was subjected to physical examination and routine laboratory tests. Blood amino acids and acylcarnitines, and urine organic acids and galactose were analyzed respectively with tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatographic mass spectrometry. SLC25A13 gene mutation screening was conducted by high resolution melt (HRM) analysis. The petechiae on the patient's face and platelet count (27×10(9)/L, reference range 100×10(9)/L-300×10(9)/L) supported the diagnosis of immunologic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Laboratory tests found that the patient have abnormal coagulation, cardiac enzyme, liver function and liver enzymes dysfunction. Tandem mass spectrometry also found methionine to be increased (286 μmol/L, reference ranges 8-35 μmol/L). The patient did not manifest any galactosemia, citrullinemia and tyrosinemia. Analysis of SLC25A13 gene mutation found that the patient has carried IVS16ins3kb, in addition with abnormal HRM result for exon 6. Direct sequencing of exon 6 revealed a novel mutation c.495delA. The same mutation was not detected in 100 unrelated healthy controls. Further analysis of her family has confirmed that the c.495delA mutation has derived from her farther, and that the IVS16ins3kb was derived from her mother. The clinical features and metabolic spectrum of citrin deficiency can be variable. The poor prognosis and severity of clinical symptoms of the patient may be attributed to the novel c.495delA mutation.

  13. Effects of the "Behavior Education Program" (BEP) on Office Discipline Referrals of Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; Sandra MacLeod, K.; Rawlings, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The "Behavior Education Program" (BEP; Crone et al., 2004) is a modified check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at risk for more severe problem behaviors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the BEP on problem behavior with 12 elementary school students. Results indicated that the BEP was…

  14. Effective elements of school health promotion across behavioral domains: A systematic review of reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L.W.H.; Kok, G.; Ten Dam, G.T.M.; Buijs, G.J.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements

  15. Spontaneous Recovery of Previously Extinguished Behavior as an Alternative Explanation for Extinction-Related Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Raymond J.; Mays, Nicole M.

    2007-01-01

    Extinction is accepted as a viable intervention for behaviors that are hypothesized to be maintained by contingent attentional reinforcement. However, it is frequently acknowledged that extinction has potential numerous side effects, including the generation of aggressive behavior. This explanation does not provide a behavioral conceptualization…

  16. Teacher Classroom Management Practices: Effects on Disruptive or Aggressive Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Regina M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large research base grounded in behavioral theory for strategies to increase appropriate behavior and prevent or decrease inappropriate behavior in the classroom, a systematic review of multi-component universal classroom management research is necessary to establish the effects of teachers' universal classroom management approaches.…

  17. The Effects of a Buddy Bench on Elementary Students' Solitary Behavior during Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Andrew A., Jr.; Caldarella, Paul; Sabey, Christian V.; Heath, Melissa A.

    2017-01-01

    Social skill instruction and school-wide positive behavior support have been found to be effective in treating students with emotional and behavioral disorders. However, students with internalizing behavior are often overlooked for interventions that could improve academic outcomes and prevent problems that might have serious implications,…

  18. Improving Classroom Behavior through Effective Instruction: An Illustrative Program Example Using "SRA FLEX Literacy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Ronald C.; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated a strong positive correlation between behavior problems and low academic achievement. Student success and/or failures are in large part determined by how well teachers provide effective instruction to their students. This article overviews key behavior-management approaches related to academic and behavioral success that…

  19. The Effects of Child Behavior Problems on the Maintenance of Intervention Fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnachie, Gene; Carr, Edward G.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the effects of child behavior problems on teachers' (N=3) intervention fidelity across two intervention protocols: escape extinction and functional communication training. Results indicate that a high rate of behavior problems during escape extinction appeared to punish teachers' efforts. A low rate of behavior problems was evident…

  20. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...

  1. An effective algorithm for approximating adaptive behavior in seasonal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainmont, Julie; Andersen, Ken Haste; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2015-01-01

    -annual variations, aspects that can only be accessed in dynamic programming approaches with escalating computational costs. Furthermore, the explanatory power of the myopic approximation is notably higher than when behavior is not implemented, highlighting the importance for adaptive DVM behavior in ecological...

  2. The Effect of Individual Differences on Adolescents' Impulsive Buying Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Chuang, Shin-Chieh

    2005-01-01

    This study posits a relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Impulsive Buying Tendency (IBT). A survey of 574 adolescents found that high-EI adolescents manifested less impulsive behavior than did low-EI adolescents, and high-IBT adolescents were more likely to engage in more impulsive buying behavior than were low-IBT adolescents.…

  3. Emotional and Behavioral Effects of Romantic Relationships in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyan; Guo, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Li, Xinying; Duan, Qing; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' romantic relationships have been associated with higher levels of depression, although their links with externalizing behavioral problems remain unclear. The present study examined the impact of adolescent romantic relationships on depression and externalizing behaviors in a large sample of 10,509 Chinese secondary school students…

  4. Ethical leader behavior and leader effectiveness: the role of prototypicality and trust

    OpenAIRE

    Kalshoven, K.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    The study examines factors that mediate the impact of ethical leader behavior on leader effectiveness. Little is known about how ethical leadership impacts leader effectiveness. We hypothesized that prototypicality and trust sequentially mediate the relationship between ethical leader behavior and perceived leader effectiveness. The group prototype forms an ideal representation of the group’s identity, prescribing appropriate attitudes and behaviors. Ethical leaders are role models and thus a...

  5. Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports and fidelity of implementation on problem behavior in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, K B; Fenning, P; Kato, M McGrath; McIntosh, K

    2014-06-01

    High school is an important time in the educational career of students. It is also a time when adolescents face many behavioral, academic, and social-emotional challenges. Current statistics about the behavioral, academic, and social-emotional challenges faced by adolescents, and the impact on society through incarceration and dropout, have prompted high schools to direct their attention toward keeping students engaged and reducing high-risk behavioral challenges. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS) on the levels of individual student problem behaviors during a 3-year effectiveness trial without random assignment to condition. Participants were 36,653 students in 12 high schools. Eight schools implemented SW-PBIS, and four schools served as comparison schools. Results of a multilevel latent growth model showed statistically significant decreases in student office discipline referrals in SW-PBIS schools, with increases in comparison schools, when controlling for enrollment and percent of students receiving free or reduced price meals. In addition, as fidelity of implementation increased, office discipline referrals significantly decreased. Results are discussed in terms of effectiveness of a SW-PBIS approach in high schools and considerations to enhance fidelity of implementation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Risky behaviors: effects of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) predator on the behavior of three mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik; Yusof, Nur Aishah; Dieng, Hamady

    2015-01-01

    Viable biocontrol agents for mosquito control are quite rare, therefore improving the efficacy of existing biological agents is an important study. We need to have a better understanding of the predation-risk behavioral responses toward prey. This research examined prey choices by Toxorhynchites splendens by monitoring the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles sinensis larvae when exposed to the predator. The results show that Tx. splendens prefers to consume Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvae exhibited different behavioral responses when Tx. splendens was present which suggest vulnerability in the presence of predators. "Thrashing" and "browsing" activities were greater in Ae. aegypti larvae. Such active and risky movements could cause vulnerability for the Ae. aegypti larvae due to increasing of water disturbance. In contrast, Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis larvae exhibited passive, low-risk behaviors, spending most of the time on the "wall" position near the edges of the container. We postulated that Ae. aegypti has less ability to perceive cues from predation and could not successfully alter its behavior to reduce risk of predation risk compared with Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis. Our results suggest that Tx. splendens is a suitable biocontrol agent in controlling dengue hemorrhagic vector, Ae. aegypti. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. PMID:19594263

  8. The Effect of Gender on Health Related Attitudes and Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulbu Tanriverdi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of gender on health related behaviors and health attitudes. This research was a cross-sectional study’ s population of the research is formed by the 15 year old and over 221.557 individuals of the sample formula of the density, which the condition of the known of universe is used and universe is determined as 383. To increase the general ability of sample to universe the sample which determined with the formula is studied two times namely it’s studied with 766 individuals. In the statistical evaluation of the data; descriptive statistics, independent samples t test analyses and chi square test were used in the SPSS 10.0 program. According to the results of the research more female have used herbal treatment than male, believed in glance, didn’t want to take health care from opposite sex. It has been also reported that more male than female accepted organ transplantation. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 435-440

  9. Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Bargh, John A; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-07-01

    Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during TV viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-age children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a TV program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits, or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone.

  10. [Analysis mediating effect of self-efficacy between diet-related cognitive and behavioral].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Min; Tuo, Anxie; Gan, Chunfang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the influence of self-efficacy between diet-related cognitive and behavioral by introducing the concept of mediating effect in children and adolescents. Using multistage cluster sampling, 9 middle and primary school at 1 downtown area and 2 county areas in Guizhou province were selected. Referencing to the foreign-related research and design of the questionnaire, 1398 students were included. The general survey and the correlation analysis about the cognition and self-efficacy of related diet, the favorable behavior related health and the unfavorable behavior related health were conducted. Using the regression analysis and building the modeling to test the mediating effect of self-efficacy of related diet. The average scores of the cognition, self-efficacy and beneficial health's behavior of related diet were not high. There were significant correlation between the cognition and self-efficacy, the cognition and favorable behavior, the self-efficacy and favorable behavior, the favorable behavior and unfavorable behavior. The correlation coefficients were 0.292, 0.248, 0.228 and -0.102 (P self-efficacy had significant indirect mediating effect between diet-related cognitive and beneficial health's behavior, the indirect mediating effect was 24.52% of the total effect. Bringing into the structural equation model to test, the indirect effect of self-efficacy (namely mediating effect) was more obvious (beta = 0.39, P self-efficacy can increase the degree of changing in behavior which acted by the cognition.

  11. Speed and Convulsive Beauty: Trains and the Historic Avant-garde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylaura Papalas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The train, an invention and evocative symbol of the 19th century, somewhat ironically continued to fascinate avant-garde artists and writers of the 20th century, when faster and more exciting modes of transportation were in use. Locomotive imagery in Italian futurism and French surrealism, however, demonstrates a lasting fascination with speed, locomotive space, and their effect on perceptions of reality. Considering the work of more recent theorists like Paul Virilio, Michel Foucault, and various others who have contributed to the growing field of mobility studies, this paper aims to understand the persisting presence of the train as a symbol of an alternative reality in historic avant-garde work, particularly that of the Italian Futurists and the French Surrealists.

  12. gross behavioral effects of acute doses of artesunate in wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grooming, rearing and feeding behaviors. Sedative effects were observed in locomotor, sniffing, climbing and scratching activities and these later effects were also seen at the lower doses of the drug. Meanwhile, sedative effects were seen in all the behavioral parameters at the higher doses. It was concluded that artesunate ...

  13. Establishing a Common Vocabulary of Key Concepts for the Effective Implementation of Applied Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Traci M. CIHON; Joseph H. CIHON; Guy M. BEDIENT

    2016-01-01

    The technical language of behavior analysis is arguably necessary to share ideas and research with precision among each other. However, it can hinder effective implementation of behavior analytic techniques when it prevents clear communication between the supervising behavior analyst and behavior technicians. The present paper provides a case example of the development of a shared vocabulary, using plain English when possible, among supervisors and supervisees at a large public school distric...

  14. Effects of various music conditions on multiple dimensions of behavior of emotionally disturbed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, T; Cowell, K

    1991-12-01

    The effects of music on the behaviors of 5 to 8 emotionally disturbed adolescents were investigated. Six behavioral categories of aggressive motor, aggressive verbal, disruptive motor, disruptive verbal, nondisruptive/off task, and on task, were monitored in class daily for 40 min. for 12 wk. to assess whether three conditions of "sedative," "stimulating," and "no music" influenced the frequency of these behaviors. Analysis indicated no significant differences in frequencies of any of the six behavior categories among music conditions.

  15. Frequency effects on the scale and behavior of acoustic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentry, Michael B; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic streaming underpins an exciting range of fluid manipulation phenomena of rapidly growing significance in microfluidics, where the streaming often assumes the form of a steady, laminar jet emanating from the device surface, driven by the attenuation of acoustic energy within the beam of sound propagating through the liquid. The frequencies used to drive such phenomena are often chosen ad hoc to accommodate fabrication and material issues. In this work, we seek a better understanding of the effects of sound frequency and power on acoustic streaming. We present and, using surface acoustic waves, experimentally verify a laminar jet model that is based on the turbulent jet model of Lighthill, which is appropriate for acoustic streaming seen at micro- to nanoscales, between 20 and 936 MHz and over a broad range of input power. Our model eliminates the critically problematic acoustic source singularity present in Lighthill's model, replacing it with a finite emission area and enabling determination of the streaming velocity close to the source. At high acoustic power P (and hence high jet Reynolds numbers ReJ associated with fast streaming), the laminar jet model predicts a one-half power dependence (U∼P1/2∼ ReJ) similar to the turbulent jet model. However, the laminar model may also be applied to jets produced at low powers-and hence low jet Reynolds numbers ReJ-where a linear relationship between the beam power and streaming velocity exists: U∼P∼ReJ2. The ability of the laminar jet model to predict the acoustic streaming behavior across a broad range of frequencies and power provides a useful tool in the analysis of microfluidics devices, explaining peculiar observations made by several researchers in the literature. In particular, by elucidating the effects of frequency on the scale of acoustically driven flows, we show that the choice of frequency is a vitally important consideration in the design of small-scale devices employing acoustic streaming

  16. Interpreting the Effects of Pulse Remagnetization on Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Wang, C. X.; Golash, H. N.; Hilburn, I. A.; Wu, D. A.; Crucilla, S. J.; Badal, Y. D.; Shimojo, S.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of geomagnetic sensitivity by migratory and homing animals have puzzled biophysicists for over 70 years. Widely dismissed as biophysically implausible due to the lack of physiological ferromagnetic materials [e.g., D.R. Griffin, 1944, 1952], clear and reproducible responses to earth-strength magnetic fields is now firmly established in organisms ranging from Bacteria, Protists, and Animals from numerous phyla, including mollusks, arthropods, and the chordates. Behavior demands sensory transduction, as external stimuli only `get into the nervous system' through sensory cells specialized to transduce the physical stimulus into a modulated stream of action potentials in neurons. Three basic biophysical mechanisms could plausibly explain the biophysical transduction of geomagnetic cues, including electrical induction, hyperfine magnetic field effects on photo-activated free radicals (the `Quantum Compass'), or receptor cells containing biologically-precipitated crystals of a ferromagnetic mineral like magnetite (Fe3O4). The definitive test of a ferromagnetic receptor is the pulse-remagnetization experiment, in which you apply a brief, unidirectional magnetic pulse of about 1 mS in duration, configured to exceed the coercive force of the SD particles and reverse the orientation of the magnetic moment wrt to the crystal axis (typically, a pulse few tens of mT is adequate). A pulse configured in this fashion can be well below the dB/dt level needed to fire a sensory nerve through the induced electric fields. The pulse produces a permanent flip in magnetization direction, the same way information is coded on magnetic tape. Magnetotactic bacteria, exposed to such a pulse, reverse their magnetic swimming directions passively. There are now over 16 peer-reviewed papers in which this experiment has been applied to animals, including birds, all of which show clear and long-lasting effects of the pulse. Such a pulse would have no lasting effect on a quantum compass

  17. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson-Hanley C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function

  18. The role of cognition in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prenger Rilana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral interventions typically focus on objective behavioral endpoints like weight loss and smoking cessation. In reality, though, achieving full behavior change is a complex process in which several steps towards success are taken. Any progress in this process may also be considered as a beneficial outcome of the intervention, assuming that this increases the likelihood to achieve successful behavior change eventually. Until recently, there has been little consideration about whether partial behavior change at follow-up should be incorporated in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs. The aim of this explorative review is to identify CEAs of behavioral interventions in which cognitive outcome measures of behavior change are analyzed. Methods Data sources were searched for publications before May 2011. Results Twelve studies were found eligible for inclusion. Two different approaches were found: three studies calculated separate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for cognitive outcome measures, and one study modeled partial behavior change into the final outcome. Both approaches rely on the assumption, be it implicitly or explicitly, that changes in cognitive outcome measures are predictive of future behavior change and may affect CEA outcomes. Conclusion Potential value of cognitive states in CEA, as a way to account for partial behavior change, is to some extent recognized but not (yet integrated in the field. In conclusion, CEAs should consider, and where appropriate incorporate measures of partial behavior change when reporting effectiveness and hence cost-effectiveness.

  19. The Effects of Severe Behavior Problems in Children on the Teaching Behavior of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Edward G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Twelve adults were asked to teach four pairs of preschool children in which one member of the pair exhibited problem behavior. Results indicated that the adults engaged in teaching activities with nonproblem children more often than with problem children. When an adult worked with a problem child, the breadth of instruction was more limited.…

  20. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  1. Determining Effective Leadership Behaviors for USAF Company Grade Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berry, Warren

    1998-01-01

    ... (Yukl and Van Fleet, 1986). The purpose of this investigation is to determine the critical leadership behaviors required by junior officers at the direct level of responsibility in the USAF, and to determine differences...

  2. Adverse consequences of glucocorticoid medication: psychological, cognitive, and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, L.L.; Schettler, P.J.; Brown, E.S.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Sternberg, E.M.; Bender, B.G.; Bulloch, K.; Cidlowski, J.A.; Kloet, E.R. de; Fardet, L.; Joels, M.; Leung, D.Y.; McEwen, B.S.; Roozendaal, B.; Rossum, E.F. van; Ahn, J.; Brown, D.W.; Plitt, A.; Singh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as

  3. The effects of harvest regulations on behaviors of duck hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Matthew T.; Powell, Larkin A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to how duck harvest regulations influence waterfowl hunter behavior. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Parts Collection Survey to examine how harvest regulations affected behaviors of Central Flyway duck hunters. We stratified hunters into ranked groups based on seasonal harvest and identified three periods (1975–1984, 1988–1993, 2002–2011) that represented different harvest regulations (moderate, restrictive, and liberal, respectively; season length and daily bag limits smallest in restrictive seasons and largest in liberal seasons). We examined variability of seven measures of duck hunter behaviors across the periods: days harvesting ducks, daily harvest, hunter mobility, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) selectivity, gender selectivity, daily female mallard harvest, and timing of harvest. Hunters reported harvesting ducks on more days, at a higher efficiency, and in slightly more counties during liberal seasons relative to restrictive and moderate seasons. We provide evidence to suggest that future regulation change will affect hunter behaviors.

  4. Rodent Habitat On ISS: Spaceflight Effects On Mouse Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, A. E.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Padmanabhan, S.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Decadal Survey (2011), Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era, emphasized the importance of expanding NASA life sciences research to long duration, rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities supporting mouse studies in space were developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The first flight experiment carrying mice, Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1), was launched on Sept 21, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, SpaceX4, exposing the mice to a total of 37 days in space. Ground control groups were maintained in environmental chambers at Kennedy Space Center. Mouse health and behavior were monitored for the duration of the experiment via video streaming. Here we present behavioral analysis of two groups of five C57BL/6 female adult mice viewed via fixed camera views compared with identically housed Ground Controls. Flight (Flt) and Ground Control (GC) mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploratory behavior, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Mice propelled themselves freely and actively throughout the Habitat using their forelimbs to push off or by floating from one cage area to another, and they quickly learned to anchor themselves using tails and/or paws. Overall activity was greater in Flt as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior including the development of organized ‘circling’ or ‘race-tracking’ behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight and encompassed the primary dark cycle activity for the remainder of the experiment. We quantified the bout frequency, duration and rate of circling with respect to characteristic behaviors observed in the varying stages of the progressive development of circling: flipping utilizing two sides of the

  5. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Ex...

  6. The Effect of Abortion Liberalization on Sexual Behavior: International Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Klick; Sven Neelsen; Thomas Stratmann

    2009-01-01

    Most industrialized countries have increased access to abortion over the past 30 years. Economic theory predicts that abortion laws affect sexual behavior since they change the marginal cost of having risky sex. We use gonorrhea incidence as a metric of risky sexual behavior. Using a panel of 41 North American, European and Central Asian countries over the period 1980-2000, we estimate the impact of abortion law reform on risky sex. Compared to the most restrictive legislation that permits ab...

  7. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum.

  8. [Effects of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Social Anxiety Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Chen; Meng, Ya-Jing; Yuan, Min-Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ru; Ren, Zheng-Jia; Qiu, Chang-Jian; Zhang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) on social anxiety disorders (SAD). A total of 50 patients with SAD were recruited in this study. A survey containing the Liebowitz social anxiety scale (LSAS),the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ),the fear of negative evaluation questionnaire (FNE),the social support rating scale (SSRS),the tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ),and the egna minnen barndoms uppfostran (EMBU) was administered before and (one week) after the GCBT,including in the 50 healthy controls. About 21 patients completed the eight-week GCBT (once a week,2 h a session). Follow-up surveys were conducted on 40 patients (22 patients treated with GCBT and 18 untreated) over a 1-5 year period. Significant differences were found between the SAD patients and healthy controls in thinking mode,personality characteristics,social support,parental rearing styles,and social anxiety symptoms. Significant decrease in social anxiety symptom ( t =4.06, P =0.000) , negative automatic thoughts ( t =4.58, P =0.000) and fear for rejection ( t =3.85, P =0.000) were observed after the GCBT therapy. Such improvement was positively correlated with subjective social support ( r =0.361, P =0.022) ,and negatively correlated with rejection of father ( r =-0.431, P =0.005) . There was also statistical difference between the patients with and without the GCBT therapy ( P =0.033) . GCBT treatment can relieve SAD symptoms by changing the negative cognitive of SAD patients. Social support and rejection of father affects the prognosis of SAD.

  9. Dual effects of sodium sulfide on the flotation behavior of chalcopyrite: I. Effect of pulp potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Bijan; Abdollahy, Mahmoud; Tonkaboni, Sied Ziaedin Shafaei; Javadian, Soheyla; Yarahmadi, Mohammadreza

    2014-05-01

    This study explores the flotation behavior of chalcopyrite in the presence of different concentrations of sodium sulfide (Na2S·9H2O) at pH 12 under controlled potential conditions. It was observed that the flotation of chalcopyrite is not depressed completely when the pulp potential is low, even at high concentrations of sodium sulfide, i.e., 10-1-10-2 mol/L. However, a partial and controlled oxidation of pulp does enhance the effectiveness of sodium sulfide on the depression of chalcopyrite. Characterization of the chalcopyrite particle surface by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy allowed the identification of hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface species, which are responsible for the depression and flotation of chalcopyrite. Changes in pulp potential were found to be an effective float controlling parameter, by which Na2S can be used to initiate or depress the flotation behavior of chalcopyrite.

  10. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Cheatham, Rachel A; Das, Sai Krupa; Hyatt, Raymond R; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Pittas, Anastassios G; Lieberman, Harris R; Lerner, Debra; Roberts, Susan B; Saltzman, Edward

    2014-09-01

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the effects of dietary glycemic load (GL) on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss, body weight and eating behavior self-efficacy were measured every six months in overweight adults participating in a 12-mo randomized trial testing energy-restricted diets differing in GL. All food was provided during the first six months and self-selected thereafter. Total mean weight loss did not differ between groups, and GL-level had no significant effect on eating behavior self-efficacy. In the combined cohort, individuals losing the most weight reported improvements in eating behavior self-efficacy, whereas those achieving less weight loss reported decrements in eating behavior self-efficacy. Decrements in eating behavior self-efficacy were associated with subsequent weight regain when diets were self-selected. While GL does not appear to influence eating behavior self-efficacy, lesser amounts of weight loss on provided-food energy restricted diets may deter successful maintenance of weight loss by attenuating improvements in eating behavior self-efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Convulsions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vince, J D

    1992-06-01

    Classification, management and prevention of seizures in children are summarized for clinicians in Papua New Guinea. Seizures are classified as febrile with or without underlying brain pathology, and afebrile, including neonatal fits, infantile spasms, myoclonic jerks, akinetic seizures, tonic clonic fits, petit mal, benign focal, and psychomotor seizures. In all cases the first step is to secure the airway, then do a fingerstick and treat hypoglycemia, and finally stop the fit if it is prolonged with paraldehyde, diazepam, phenobarbitone or phenytoin. A cause for the seizure should be sought: physical exam, especially tympanic membranes and throat, blood slide for malaria, lumbar puncture for signs of meningitis, blood culture, serum calcium, and other chemistries. Some empirical treatments to use for negative findings include: dextrose, calcium gluconate, magnesium SO4, pyridoxine, quinine and Fansidar. Hyperthermia in a febrile child can be reversed with cool sponging. The author recommends prescribing phenobarbitone to prevent subsequent simple febrile seizures if the child has 3 or more, then slowly withdrawing the drug if the child is seizure free for a year. Drug therapy for the various other types of seizures available in Papua New Guinea include sodium valproate by special order, and phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, nitrazepam, ethosuximide, and prednisolone. A table is provided to help select the drug for each seizure type, e.g. ethosuximide for petit mal, prednisolone for infantile spasms, and carbamazepine for various types of focal and psychomotor seizures.

  12. Establishing a Common Vocabulary of Key Concepts for the Effective Implementation of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traci M. CIHON

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The technical language of behavior analysis is arguably necessary to share ideas and research with precision among each other. However, it can hinder effective implementation of behavior analytic techniques when it prevents clear communication between the supervising behavior analyst and behavior technicians. The present paper provides a case example of the development of a shared vocabulary, using plain English when possible, among supervisors and supervisees at a large public school district in which behavior analytic services were provided for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. A list of terms and definitions are provided as well as suggestions on how to develop shared vocabularies within the readers’ own service provision context.

  13. Prevalence and Incidence of Epilepsy Associated with Convulsive Seizures in Rural Bolivia. A Global Campaign against Epilepsy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Gómes, Elizabeth Blanca; Sofia, Vito; Padilla, Sandra; Camargo, Mario; Zappia, Mario; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective we performed a three-stages door-to-door survey to estimate incidence and prevalence of epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures (EACS) in a rural area of Bolivia. Methods the study was carried out in the Cordillera Province, southern-eastern Bolivia. One hundred fourteen rural communities with a total population of 18,907 inhabitants were included in the survey. In order to identify subjects with EACS, trained fieldworkers administered a validated single screening question to the householders (stage I). A second face-to-face questionnaire was administered to each positive subject (stage II) that, in case of positive answer, underwent a complete neurological examination to confirm the diagnosis (stage III). We estimated age and sex specific life-time and active EACS prevalence at the prevalence day (30th June 2010). Incidence risk was evaluated for the 10-year period between January 2000 and December 2010. Results on prevalence day we identified 136 subjects with EACS, 124 of whom had active epilepsy. The life-time prevalence of EACS was 7.2/1,000 (7.6/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population) while the prevalence of active EACS was 6.6/1,000 (6.7/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Both life-time and active prevalence showed a peak (10.3/1,000) in the 15–24 years age group and, overall, were higher among women. During the incidence study period, 105 patients living in the study area had the onset of EACS. The crude incidence risk was 55.4/100,000 (49.5/100,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Incidence was slightly but not significantly higher among women (58.9/100,000 versus 51.9/100,000). Conclusions the present study demonstrated a considerable burden of EACS in the Bolivian Chaco, showing prevalence and incidence estimates close to those reported for low and middle- income countries and underlying the need of treatment programs. PMID:26427017

  14. Prevalence and Incidence of Epilepsy Associated with Convulsive Seizures in Rural Bolivia. A Global Campaign against Epilepsy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Elisa; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Crespo Gómes, Elizabeth Blanca; Sofia, Vito; Padilla, Sandra; Camargo, Mario; Zappia, Mario; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    we performed a three-stages door-to-door survey to estimate incidence and prevalence of epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures (EACS) in a rural area of Bolivia. the study was carried out in the Cordillera Province, southern-eastern Bolivia. One hundred fourteen rural communities with a total population of 18,907 inhabitants were included in the survey. In order to identify subjects with EACS, trained fieldworkers administered a validated single screening question to the householders (stage I). A second face-to-face questionnaire was administered to each positive subject (stage II) that, in case of positive answer, underwent a complete neurological examination to confirm the diagnosis (stage III). We estimated age and sex specific life-time and active EACS prevalence at the prevalence day (30th June 2010). Incidence risk was evaluated for the 10-year period between January 2000 and December 2010. on prevalence day we identified 136 subjects with EACS, 124 of whom had active epilepsy. The life-time prevalence of EACS was 7.2/1,000 (7.6/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population) while the prevalence of active EACS was 6.6/1,000 (6.7/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Both life-time and active prevalence showed a peak (10.3/1,000) in the 15-24 years age group and, overall, were higher among women. During the incidence study period, 105 patients living in the study area had the onset of EACS. The crude incidence risk was 55.4/100,000 (49.5/100,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Incidence was slightly but not significantly higher among women (58.9/100,000 versus 51.9/100,000). the present study demonstrated a considerable burden of EACS in the Bolivian Chaco, showing prevalence and incidence estimates close to those reported for low and middle- income countries and underlying the need of treatment programs.

  15. Web-Based Instruction, Learning Effectiveness and Learning Behavior: The Impact of Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Chich-Jen; Liao, Ying; Hu, Ridong

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the effects of Web-based Instruction and Learning Behavior on Learning Effectiveness. Web-based Instruction contains the dimensions of Active Learning, Simulation-based Learning, Interactive Learning, and Accumulative Learning; and, Learning Behavior covers Learning Approach, Learning Habit, and Learning Attitude. The…

  16. Effects of Interventions Based in Behavior Analysis on Motor Skill Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Kang, Minsoo; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2013-01-01

    Techniques based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be useful across a variety of settings to improve numerous behaviors. Specifically within physical activity settings, several studies have examined the effect of interventions based in ABA on a variety of motor skills, but the overall effects of these interventions are unknown.…

  17. Which Combinations of Techniques in Internet Based Interventions Effectively Change Health Behavior? a Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genugten, L. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Webb, T.L.; Empelen, P. van

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many online interventions designed to promote health behaviors combine multiple behavior change techniques (BCTs) and additional modes of delivery (MoD, e.g. text messages) to maximize effectiveness. Also, usability factors may influence effectiveness. This study aims to identify

  18. Effects of Vibroacoustic Music on Challenging Behaviors in Individuals with Autism and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Andersson, Gunilla; Viding, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Vibroacoustic music has been proposed to be an effective treatment for individuals with developmental disorders and challenging behaviors. The present study experimentally tested the effects of vibroacoustic music on self-injurious, stereotypical, and aggressive destructive behaviors in 20 individuals with autism spectrum disorders and…

  19. Teenage Pregnancy and Neonatal Behavior: Effects in Puerto Rico and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A multiple regression analysis studied additive effects of maternal age and prenatal and perinatal factors in relation to neonatal behavior. Analysis indicated that the combination of biomedical variables significantly predicted neonatal behavior, in both cultures (Florida and Puerto Rico), suggesting that age effects increased in the presence of…

  20. Effects of Caffeine on Classroom Behavior, Sustained Attention, and a Memory Task in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Ruth A.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation of the effect of normative amounts of caffeine on the behavior of six normal kindergarten children found that caffeine exerted only small and inconsistent effects on such classroom behaviors as time off-task and gross motor activity. (Author/DB)

  1. Effects of Decision-Making Styles of School Administrators on General Procrastination Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Celai Teyyar

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Lack of habits such as effective time management, determination of priorities, and effective and productive use of time is one of several reasons for procrastination behaviors. Personality traits along with incorrect cognitive loads about the self and the environment are other reasons for procrastination behaviors. At this…

  2. The Moderating Effects of Parenting Styles on African-American and Caucasian Children's Suicidal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of…

  3. Forward-Thinking Teens: The Effects of College Costs on Adolescent Risky Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Benjamin W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of college costs on teenagers' engagement in risky behaviors before they are old enough to attend college. Individuals with brighter prospects for future schooling attainment may engage in less drug and alcohol use and risky sexual activity because they have more to lose if such behaviors have harmful effects in…

  4. The Emperor Dom Pedro II: his convulsive seizures when a boy O imperador Dom Pedro II: as suas crises convulsivas quando menino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dom Pedro II, the Prince Heir and Emperor under regency, in a delicate period of the construction of the Brazilian nation, had convulsive seizures. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the convulsive seizures and related syndromes of Dom Pedro II and his family, besides the physicians in charge of the health care. METHOD: Narrative review based on primary and secondary sources. CONCLUSION: The scattered and self-limited convulsive seizures associated with physical and mental integrity favored a benign prognosis. Dom Pedro and his family presented rich history of epileptic seizures and febrile convulsion. This variety resembles the diagnosis of generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus that seems to be a combination of several syndromes with shared genetic susceptibility.INTRODUÇÃO: Dom Pedro, o príncipe herdeiro e imperador sob regência, em período delicado da formação da nação brasileira, apresentou crises convulsivas que geraram preocupação para o país. OBJETIVO: Investigar a história da epilepsia de Dom Pedro II e da sua família e procurar identificar quais tipos de crises epilépticas estavam presentes, além dos médicos envolvidos com os cuidados de saúde. MÉTODO: Revisão narrativa baseada em fontes primárias e secundárias. CONCLUSÃO: As crises convulsivas esparsas e auto-limitadas associadas a higidez física e mental de Dom Pedro II sugerem um prognóstico benigno. A história de epilepsia idiopática e convulsões febris no imperador e em outros membros da sua família aponta para o diagnóstico mais provável de Epilepsia Generalizada com Convulsões Febris Plus que é determinada por uma combinação de alguns tipos de manifestações epilépticas com suscetibilidade genética compartilhada.

  5. A Computerized Lifestyle Application to Promote Multiple Health Behaviors at the Workplace: Testing Its Behavioral and Psychological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippke, Sonia; Fleig, Lena; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    Preventive health behaviors, such as regular physical activity and healthy nutrition, are recommended to maintain employability and to facilitate the health of employees. Theory-based workplace health promotion needs to include psychological constructs and consider the motivational readiness (so-called stages of change) of employees. According to the stages, people can be grouped as nonintenders (not motivated to change and not performing the goal behavior), intenders (decided to adopt the goal behavior but not started yet), or actors (performing the goal behavior already). The tailoring to these stages can be done computer based and should make workplace health promotion more effective. It was tested whether a parsimonious computer-based health promotion program implemented at the workplace was effective in terms of lifestyle changes and psychological outcomes as well as body weight. We hypothesized that the stage-matched intervention would outperform the one-size-fits-all active control condition (standard care intervention). In a randomized controlled trial, a total of 1269 employees were recruited by a trained research assistant at their workplace during a routine medical examination. After excluding noneligible employees, 560 completed Time 1 (T1), and 384 also completed Time 2 (T2), achieving a retention rate of 68.6%. Two fully automated computer-based treatments were adopted: (1) an active control condition with information about benefits of exercise and healthy nutrition (n=52), or (2) a stage-matched multiple-behavior intervention that provided different psychological treatments to 9 subgroups, addressing stages of change (nonintenders, intenders, and actors per behavior; n=332). Baseline assessments (T1) on behavior, psychological constructs, and body weight were repeated after 4 weeks (T2). The stage-matched intervention outperformed the active control condition for lifestyle changes containing physical activity and nutrition (χ(2) 1=3.5; P=.04, for N

  6. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to 15 years in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity-score-matched sample of children from intact families, according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents' separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 years for teacher reports, or 15 years for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of predivorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their postdivorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Effects of everolimus on macrophage-derived foam cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Steven, E-mail: steven.hsu@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Koren, Eugen; Chan, Yen; Koscec, Mirna; Sheehy, Alexander [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Kolodgie, Frank; Virmani, Renu [CVPath Institute, Inc., 19 Firstfield Road, Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (United States); Feder, Debra [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    expression was significantly decreased by everolimus (10{sup -5} M) in FC. Percentage of RAM-11 positive area exhibited a reduction trend within sections stented with EES compared to unstented proximal sections at 60 days (p = 0.09). Conclusion: Everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents and bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of FC, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Executive Summary: We explored the effects of everolimus on the behavior of human THP1 macrophage-derived foam cells in culture, including cell viability, mRNA levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We conclude that everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents/bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may potentially inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of foam cells, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion.

  8. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Moo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment.

  9. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun; Dong, Kyung Rae; Han, Seung Moo

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment

  10. The effect of learning styles and study behavior on success of preclinical students in pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asci, Halil; Kulac, Esin; Sezik, Mekin; Cankara, F Nihan; Cicek, Ekrem

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of learning styles and study behaviors on preclinical medical students' pharmacology exam scores in a non-Western setting. Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Study Scale and a modified Study Behavior Inventory were used to assess learning styles and study behaviors of preclinical medical students (n = 87). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent effect of gender, age, learning style, and study behavior on pharmacology success. Collaborative (40%) and competitive (27%) dominant learning styles were frequent in the cohort. The most common study behavior subcategories were study reading (40%) and general study habits (38%). Adequate listening and note-taking skills were associated with pharmacology success, whereas students with adequate writing skills had lower exam scores. These effects were independent of gender. Preclinical medical students' study behaviors are independent predictive factors for short-term pharmacology success.

  11. Low-dose alcohol effects on human behavior and performance: a review of post 1984 research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this review was to survey the literature examining alcohol effects on human behavior and performance, especially low alcohol dose effects. Other comprehensive reviews on this topic from 1975 to 1990 found that alcohol could affect all ...

  12. Analysis of Army Transformation and the Effects on Customer Ordering Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colacicco, Joseph M

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis provides an in-process review of the effects of the current transformation efforts on supply effectiveness and attempts to determine factors that influence customer ordering behavior...

  13. Multiple-phase behavior and memory effect of polymer gel

    CERN Document Server

    Annaka, M; Nakahira, T; Sugiyama, M; Hara, K; Matsuura, T

    2002-01-01

    A poly(4-acrylamidosalicylic acid) gel (PASA gel) exhibits multiple phases as characterized by distinct degrees of swelling; the gel can take one of four different swelling values, but none of the intermediate values. The gel has remarkable memory: the phase behavior of the gel depends on whether the gel has experienced the most swollen phase or the most collapsed phase in the immediate past. The information is stored and reversibly erased in the form of a macroscopic phase transition behavior. The structure factors corresponding to these four phases were obtained by SANS, which indicated the presence of characteristic structures depending on pH and temperature, particularly in the shrunken state. (orig.)

  14. Examining the effects of turnover intentions on organizational citizenship behaviors and deviance behaviors: A psychological contract approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ke Michael; Ellis, Aleksander P J; Christian, Jessica Siegel; Porter, Christopher O L H

    2016-08-01

    Although turnover intentions are considered the most proximal antecedent of organizational exit, there is often temporal separation between thinking about leaving and actual exit. Using field data from 2 diverse samples of working adults, we explore a causal model of the effects of turnover intentions on employee behavior while they remain with the organization, focusing specifically on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and deviance behaviors (DBs). Utilizing expectancy theory as an explanatory framework, we argue that turnover intentions result in high levels of transactional contract orientation and low levels of relational contract orientation, which in turn lead to a decrease in the incidence of OCBs and an increase in the incidence of DBs. We first used a pilot study to investigate the direction of causality between turnover intentions and psychological contract orientations. Then, in Study 1, we tested our mediated model using a sample of employees from a large drug retailing chain. In Study 2, we expanded our model by arguing that the mediated effects are much stronger when the organization is deemed responsible for potential exit. We then tested our full model using a sample of employees from a large state-owned telecommunications corporation in China. Across both studies, results were generally consistent and supportive of our hypotheses. We discuss the implications of our findings for future theory, research, and practice regarding the management of both the turnover process and discretionary behaviors at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Effects of Education on Preventive Behaviors toward Osteoporosis Based on Behavior Intention Model (BIM on Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Mahamed

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Osteoporosis is one of the most prevalent diseases which leave noticeable effects on the health. Life style plays an important role in determining the level of the disease. According to the statistics, two women out of three over 50 years of age and one man out of two of the same age suffer from osteoporosis or have low bone compression. The present study was conducted on female students of Health School of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 1386 (2007 and aimed to view the effects of education on preventive behaviors from osteoporosis based ( BIM. Materials & Methods: This is a semi- experimental study and the population were all of the female students of the health school who attended in Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 1384 (2005. Eighty two respondents randomly placed in two groups of case & control (42 in case group and 40 in control group. Questionnaires were designed based on BIM. The samples were studied by educating program according to BIM and implemented in the form of lecture and group discussion over 3 months and 4 meetings in each month. Each meeting took an hour and half. The questionnaires were completed by both groups and analyzed by the SPSS software. Results: Based on the results, according to behavior intention model the average score of students above osteoporosis was 65.48 prior to intervention and it reached 90.24 after intervention which showed significant improvements. Conclusion: With regard to the results of the current study, special education based on behavior intention model is effective in improving the attitude and behavior intention of female students. Therefore it is highly recommended that BIM education be used for familiarizing osteoporosis to female students. Keywords: Behavior intention, Osteoporosis, Female students

  16. Gender-specific effects of depression and suicidal ideation in prosocial behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cáceda

    Full Text Available Prosocial behaviors are essential to the ability to relate to others. Women typically display greater prosocial behavior than men. The impact of depression on prosocial behaviors and how gender interacts with those effects are not fully understood. We explored the role of gender in the potential effects of depression on prosocial behavior.We examined prosocial behaviors using a modified version of the Trust Game in a clinical population and community controls. Study participants were characterized on the severity of depression and anxiety, presence of suicidal ideation, history of childhood trauma, recent stressful life events, and impulsivity. We correlated behavioral outcomes with gender and clinical variables using analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis.The 89 participants comprised four study groups: depressed women, depressed men, healthy women and healthy men (n = 16-36. Depressed men exhibited reciprocity more frequently than healthy men. Depression induced an inversion of the gender-specific pattern of self-centered behavior. Suicidal ideation was associated with increased reciprocity behavior in both genders, and enhancement of the effect of depression on gender-specific self-centered behavior.Depression, particularly suicidal ideation, is associated with reversal of gender-specific patterns of prosocial behavior, suggesting abnormalities in sexual hormones regulation. This explanation is supported by known abnormalities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axes found in depression.

  17. Physical and behavioral development in rats after late prenatal exposure to diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, S B; Sahoo, R N

    1990-01-01

    The effect of late prenatal exposure to diazepam (DZP) on physical and behavioral development of rat pups was investigated. Prenatal exposure to DZP (20 mg/kg, sc, in last week of pregnancy) did not alter litter size and no gross malformations were noted at birth. Body weight at birth and subsequent weight gain was significantly less in these animals. The development of reflexes and neuromuscular maturation was normal. Open field locomotor activity and rearing scores were significantly decreased. Test of social play in juvenile rats revealed normal pattern of sexual dimorphism with increased masculinized behavior. Acquisition and retention of passive avoidance task was not affected by DZP exposure, however, retention of brightness discrimination task was significantly decreased. The hypnotic effect of a challenge dose of DZP and convulsive effect of pentylene tetrazole remained unaltered. Open field activity test in adult animals revealed increased ambulation. Probe dose of amphetamine in these animals caused paradoxical decrease in activity. It is concluded that exposure to high dose of DZP during late prenatal period may not manifest in physical or neuromuscular impairment during early development period, except for weight loss, however, it may have long term effects on behavior becoming manifest in adolescence and at maturity.

  18. Moderating effect of nurses' customer-oriented perception between organizational citizenship behaviors and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching Sheng; Chang, Hae Ching

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates whether organizational citizenship behaviors enhance job satisfaction among nursing personnel, while exploring whether customer-oriented perception has a moderating effect between nursing personnel's organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction.The authors used a cross-sectional survey sent to 500 nurses with 232 valid responses. According to the research findings, nurses' organizational citizenship behaviors have a positive and significant influence on job satisfaction. Results also indicated that the moderating effect of nurses' customer-oriented perception on the relationship between their organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction was stronger for high customer-oriented perception than it was low customer-oriented perception.

  19. Modeling of strain effects on the device behaviors of ferroelectric memory field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Feng; Hu, Guangda; Wu, Weibing; Yang, Changhong; Wu, Haitao; Tang, Minghua

    2013-01-01

    The influence of strains on the channel current–gate voltage behaviors and memory windows of ferroelectric memory field-effect transistors (FeMFETs) were studied using an improved model based on the Landau–Devonshire theory. ‘Channel potential–gate voltage’ ferroelectric polarization and silicon surface potential diagrams were constructed for strained single-domain BaTiO 3 FeMFETs. The compressive strains can increase (or decrease) the amplitude of transistor currents and enlarge memory windows. However, tensile strains only decrease the maximum value of transistor currents and compress memory windows. Mismatch strains were found to have a significant influence on the electrical behaviors of the devices, therefore, they must be considered in FeMFET device designing. (fast track communication)

  20. The effects of pathological gaming on aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may

  1. The Effects of Social Influence on Nurses' Hand Hygiene Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Susan E; Minnick, Ann; Lauderdale, Jana; Dietrich, Mary S; Vogus, Timothy J

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the associations of nurses' hand hygiene (HH) attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control with observed and self-reported HH behavior. Hand hygiene is an essential strategy to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Despite tremendous efforts, nurses' HH adherence rates remain suboptimal. This quantitative descriptive study of ICU nurses in the southeastern United States was guided by the theory of planned behavior. The self-administered Patient Safety Opinion Survey and iScrub application, which facilitates observation, comprised the data set. Nurses' observed HH median was 55%; tendency to self-report was a much higher 90%. Subjective norm and perceived control scores were associated with observed and self-reported HH (P < .05) but not attitude scores or reports of intention. Nurses' subjective norm and perceived control are associated with observed and self-reported HH performance. Healthcare workers overestimate their HH performance. Findings suggest future research to explore manipulators of these variables to change nurses' HH behavior.

  2. The Effect of Brand Identification on Alumni Supportive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Amber L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of brand identification and supportive behaviors for alumni of a medium-sized state-run public institution of higher education in the mid-Atlantic region of the US. The research examined the perceptions of donor and non-donor alumni of a state-run public institution of higher education to…

  3. Effectiveness of Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Behavioral Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolocofsky, David N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Subjects (N=109) completed a behavioral weight-management program either with or without the addition of hypnosis. Both interventions resulted in significant weight reduction. At the eight-month and two-year follow-ups, the hypnosis clients showed significant additional weight loss and were more likely to have achieved and maintained their…

  4. Spillover Effects of Drug Safety Warnings on Health Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meltem Daysal, N.; Orsini, C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We examine the impact of new medical information on drug safety on preventive health behavior. We exploit the release of the findings of the Women's Health Initiative Study (WHIS) -the largest randomized controlled trial of women's health- which demonstrated in 2002 that long-term Hormone

  5. The Effects of Peer Influence on Disordered Eating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tiffany A.; Gast, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Peer influence has been found to be correlated with a host of harmful health behaviors. However, little research has been conducted investigating the relationship between peer influence and disordered eating. The present study surveyed 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade girls and boys using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and Inventory of Peer…

  6. Effects of vasopressin on active and passive avoidance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohus, B.; Ader, R.; Wied, D. de

    Male rats were trained in an active avoidance and/or a “step-through” type of passive avoidance situation. Lysine vasopressin administration resulted in resistance to extinction of active avoidance behavior if it was injected 1 hr prior to the third and final acquisition session; peptide treatment 6

  7. Effect of Permeation Enhancers on the Release Behavior and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this research work was to formulate, characterize and evaluate the in vitro permeation behavior of tramadol lotion containing propylene glycol (PG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as permeation enhancers. Methods: The permeation experiments were conducted in vitro using full thickness rabbit skin in ...

  8. Effect of Permeation Enhancers on the Release Behavior and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    permeation behavior of tramadol lotion containing propylene glycol (PG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as permeation enhancers. Methods: The permeation experiments were conducted in vitro using full thickness rabbit skin in Franz diffusion cells. The donor compartment was filled with PBS (phosphate buffered saline) at ...

  9. Effects of Dark Brooders on Behavior and Fearfulness in Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Guzman, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    . Behavioral observations were performed during the first six weeks of age. Three different fear tests were conducted when the birds were age 3–6, 14–15 and 26–28 weeks. During the first four days, brooder chicks rested more than control chicks whereas they spent less time drinking, feather pecking...

  10. Genetic variation and effects on human eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Krom, Mariken; Bauer, Florianne; Collier, David; Adan, R A H; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2009-01-01

    Feeding is a physiological process, influenced by genetic factors and the environment. In recent years, many studies have been performed to unravel the involvement of genetics in both eating behavior and its pathological forms: eating disorders and obesity. In this review, we provide a condensed introduction on the neurological aspects of eating and we describe the current status of research into the genetics of eating behavior, primarily focused on specific traits such as taste, satiation, and hunger. This is followed by an overview on the genetic studies done to unravel the heritable background of obesity and eating disorders. We examine the discussion currently taking place in the field of genetics of complex disorders and phenotypes on how to perform good and powerful studies, with the use of large-scale whole-genome association studies as one of the possible solutions. In the final part of this review, we give our view on the latest developments, including endophenotype approaches and animal studies. Studies of endophenotypes of eating behavior may help to identify core traits that are genetically influenced. Such studies would yield important knowledge on the underlying biological scaffold on which diagnostic criteria for eating disorders could be based and would provide information to influence eating behavior toward healthier living.

  11. Davis Fire: Fire behavior and fire effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen T. Hollingsworth

    2010-01-01

    The Davis Fire presents an interesting example of fire behavior in subalpine fir, partially dead lodgepole pine with multiple age classes, and moist site Douglas-fir vegetation types. This has been summer of moderate temperatures and intermittent moisture that has kept live herbaceous and live woody moistures fairly high and dead fuel moistures at a moderate level....

  12. Effects of Behavioral History on Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Adam H.; Cirino, Sergio; Mayfield, Kristin H.; da Silva, Stephanie P.; Okouchi, Hiroto; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether differential resistance to change would occur under identical variable-interval schedules as a function of a differential behavioral history. In Experiment 1, each of 3 pigeons first pecked at different rates under a multiple variable-ratio differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule. In a subsequent condition,…

  13. Effects of Early Seizures on Later Behavior and Epileptogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Gregory L.

    2004-01-01

    Both clinical and laboratory studies demonstrate that seizures early in life can result in permanent behavioral abnormalities and enhance epileptogenicity. Understanding the critical periods of vulnerability of the developing nervous system to seizure-induced changes may provide insights into parallel or divergent processes in the development of…

  14. The Effect of Multiple Interventions on Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    energy conservation. Journal of Environmental Psychology , 25, 273-291. Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior... environmental psychology . New York: Wiley. Watson, J. B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 20, 158-177. Watson, J. B

  15. Needed Research on the Effect of Buildings on Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Benjamin

    Building Research is urged to expand into areas concerned with human behavior, and a need for information on how people react physically and mentally, and how they perform their various tasks in environment created for them by the design professions, is cited. A research project at the University of Michigan is described, aimed at measuring the…

  16. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…

  17. Tourism Ethnocentrism and its Effects on Tourist and Resident Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Florian; Josiassen, Alexander; Assaf, A. George

    2018-01-01

    People often demonstrate a home country bias toward their own nation over other nations. This bias is an important determinant of their behavior. Drawing on seminal research from marketing and psychology, the authors provide the first investigation of the tourism ethnocentrism (TE) phenomenon tha...

  18. Genetic variation and effects on human eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Krom, Mariken; Bauer, Florianne; Collier, David; Adan, R. A. H.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Feeding is a physiological process, influenced by genetic factors and the environment. In recent years, many studies have been performed to unravel the involvement of genetics in both eating behavior and its pathological forms: eating disorders and obesity. In this review, we provide a condensed

  19. Effects of Early-Life Stress on Social and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Adult Mice: Sex-Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya P. Bondar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stressful events in an early postnatal period have critical implications for the individual’s life and can increase later risk for psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of early-life stress on the social behavior of adult male and female mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to maternal separation (MS, 3 h once a day or handling (HD, 15 min once a day on postnatal day 2 through 14. Adult male and female mice were tested for social behavior in the social interaction test and for individual behavior in the plus-maze and open-field tests. Female mice exposed to maternal separation had increased social behavior and increased anxiety. MS male mice had no changes in social behavior but had significantly disrupted individual behavior, including locomotor and exploratory activity. Handling had positive effects on social behavior in males and females and decreased anxiety in males. Our results support the hypothesis that brief separation of pups from their mothers (handling, which can be considered as moderate stress, may result in future positive changes in behavior. Maternal separation has deleterious effects on individual behavior and significant sex-specific effects on social behavior.

  20. Antidepressant behavioral effects by dual inhibition of monoamine reuptake in the rat forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rénéric, J P; Lucki, I

    1998-03-01

    Because of clinical interest in the effects of antidepressant drugs that exert their effects on multiple neurotransmitter systems, the behavioral effects produced by combined treatment with an SSRI (fluoxetine) with a selective norepinephrine (NE; desipramine) or dopamine (DA) reuptake inhibitor (buproprion) were examined in the forced swimming test (FST), a behavioral test in rodents that predicts the clinical activity of antidepressants. Three additional compounds with mixed activity as NE-5-HT reuptake inhibitors, milnacipran, duloxetine and venlafaxine, were also examined. Desipramine and fluoxetine both reduced immobility in the FST, but desipramine increased only climbing behavior, whereas fluoxetine increased only swimming behavior. The combination of fluoxetine with desipramine or bupropion increased both climbing and swimming behaviors at certain doses, but higher doses of desipramine when combined with fluoxetine replaced swimming behavior with climbing behavior. The mixed NE-5-HT reuptake inhibitors milnacipran and duloxetine reduced immobility and increased climbing behavior, but did not alter swimming. Venlafaxine reduced immobility and increased swimming behavior, except at the highest dose tested (80 mg/kg), which increased both swimming and climbing behaviors. Thus, combining certain doses of pharmacologically selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors, or the mixed reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine, produced a pattern of mixed active behaviors in the FST (climbing and swimming) that may reflect the activity of multiple neurotransmitters, especially the combination of enhanced 5-HT and DA activity. The combination of higher doses of desipramine with fluoxetine, or compounds with mixed activity at inhibiting NE and 5-HT reuptake, demonstrated effects similar to those of desipramine alone and may reflect inhibition of the expression of serotonergic antidepressant behavioral effects by selective NE reuptake inhibitors.

  1. The effects of goal involvement on moral behavior in an experimentally manipulated competitive setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Luke; Kavussanu, Maria

    2007-04-01

    In this experiment we examined the effects of task and ego involvement on three measures of moral behavior--prosocial choice, observed prosocial behavior, and observed antisocial behavior--in a competitive setting. We also investigated sex differences in moral behavior. Male (n = 48) and female (n = 48) college students were randomly assigned to a task-involving, an ego-involving, or a control condition. Participants played two 10-min games of table soccer and completed measures of prosocial choice, goal involvement, goal orientation, and demographics. The two games were recorded, and frequencies of prosocial and antisocial behavior were coded. Players assigned to the task-involving condition were higher in prosocial choice than those in the ego-involving or control conditions. Individuals in the ego-involving condition displayed more antisocial behaviors than those in the task-involving or control conditions. Finally, females displayed more prosocial behaviors than males.

  2. Effect of playing violent video games cooperatively or competitively on subsequent cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewoldsen, David R; Eno, Cassie A; Okdie, Bradley M; Velez, John A; Guadagno, Rosanna E; DeCoster, Jamie

    2012-05-01

    Research on video games has yielded consistent findings that violent video games increase aggression and decrease prosocial behavior. However, these studies typically examined single-player games. Of interest is the effect of cooperative play in a violent video game on subsequent cooperative or competitive behavior. Participants played Halo II (a first-person shooter game) cooperatively or competitively and then completed a modified prisoner's dilemma task to assess competitive and cooperative behavior. Compared with the competitive play conditions, players in the cooperative condition engaged in more tit-for-tat behaviors-a pattern of behavior that typically precedes cooperative behavior. The social context of game play influenced subsequent behavior more than the content of the game that was played.

  3. Effects of Prosocial, Neutral, and Violent Video Games on Children's Helpful and Hurtful Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muniba; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A

    2012-01-01

    Recent research reveals that playing prosocial video games increases prosocial cognitions, positive affect, and helpful behaviors [Gentile et al., 2009; Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2009, 2010, 2011]. These results are consistent with the social-cognitive models of social behavior such as the general learning model [Buckley and Anderson, 2006]. However, no experimental studies have examined such effects on children. Previous research on violent video games suggests that short-term effects of video games are largely based on priming of existing behavioral scripts. Thus, it is unclear whether younger children will show similar effects. This research had 9-14 years olds play a prosocial, neutral, or violent video game, and assessed helpful and hurtful behaviors simultaneously through a new tangram measure. Prosocial games increased helpful and decreased hurtful behavior, whereas violent games had the opposite effects. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Individual Difference Variables and the Occurrence and Effectiveness of Faking Behavior in Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehl, Anne-Kathrin; Melchers, Klaus G.

    2017-01-01

    There is widespread fear that applicants can fake during selection interviews and that this impairs the quality of selection decisions. Several theories assume that faking occurrence is influenced by personality and attitudes, which together influence applicants’ motivation to show faking behavior. However, for faking behavior to be effective, interviewees also need certain skills and abilities. To investigate the impact of several relevant individual difference variables on faking behavior and interview success, we conducted two studies. In Study 1, we surveyed 222 individuals to assess different personality variables, attitude toward faking, cognitive ability, self-reported faking behavior, and success in previous interviews, and in Study 2, we assessed cognitive ability, social skills, faking behavior, and interview performance in an interview simulation with 108 participants. Taken together, personality, as well as attitude toward faking, influenced who showed faking behavior in an interview, but there was no evidence for the assumed moderating effect of cognitive ability or social skills on interview success. PMID:28539895

  5. General pharmacological studies on N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-8-pyrrolizidineacetamide hydrochloride hemihydrate. 1st communication: effect on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirotsu, I; Kihara, T; Nakamura, S; Hattori, Y; Hatta, M; Kitakaze, Y; Takahama, K; Hashimoto, Y; Miyata, T; Ishihara, T

    1988-10-01

    The pharmacological actions of N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-8-pyrrolizidineacetamide hydrochloride hemihydrate (SUN 1165), a new antiarrhythmic agent, on the central nervous system were studied in various experimental animals as compared with those of disopyramide, mexiletine and lidocaine, and the following results were obtained. 1. Acute toxicity of SUN 1165 in mice was similar to that of mexiletine, and twice as potent as compared with that of disopyramide and lidocaine. Main acute toxic symptoms of SUN 1165 were muscle relaxation, ataxia, clonic convulsions, tremor and a decrease in spontaneous activity in mice, rats and rabbits. In addition to these symptoms, vomiting in dogs was observed. These toxic symptoms were similar to those of lidocaine. In the case of disopyramide, ataxia, tremor and a decrease in spontaneous activity were observed in mice and rats. On the other hand, mexiletine caused central nervous excitatory symptoms, that is, tremor, Straub tail, clonic convulsions, jumping, running and opisthotonus in mice and rats, and vomiting in dogs. 2. SUN 1165 even at large doses (50-100 mg/kg p.o.) exerted no significant effects on the following changes: hexobarbital-induced induced hypnosis, oxotremorine-induced tremor, apomorphine-induced hypothermia, reserpine-induced ptosis and hypothermia, 5-hydroxytryptophan syndrome and fighting behavior in mice, and conditioned avoidance response in rats. 3. An ineffective dose of SUN 1165 (12.5 mg/kg p.o.) on spontaneous locomotor activity was lower than of disopyramide and lidocaine, however, higher than that of mexiletine. 4. SUN 1165 at large doses showed antagonistic action on toxic extensor seizures induced by maximal electroshock, picrotoxin, or strychnine in mice, but anticonvulsive effects of SUN 1165 were less potent than those of mexiletine and lidocaine. SUN 1165 had no effect on clonic convulsions induced by pentetrazol and pictrotoxin in mice, while both mexiletine and lidocaine prolonged the duration of

  6. Canine behavioral problems and their effect on relinquishment of the Jindo dog

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Mee; Kim, Sun-A; Lee, Sang-Mok; Choi, Yoon-Ju; Kim, Byung-Joo; Shin, Nam-Shik

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate behavior problems of the Jindo dog, the native dog of Korea, based on an owner's survey and their effect on pet relinquishment. To live a better life with their own pet and prevent relinquishment, it is important to understand the innate behavior characteristics of dog breed and the potential causes of relinquishment. Information concerning various factors and demonstration of the five most common behavior problems was collected via 189 completed ques...

  7. Seasonal and group effects on dairy cow behavior in large yards

    OpenAIRE

    NIKKHAH, Akbar; KOWSAR, Rasool

    2014-01-01

    In mechanized modern dairy facilities with competitive environments, monitoring behavior provides opportunities to manipulate and optimize the nutritional, health, and social status of high-merit cows. The objective of the current study was to determine seasonal and cow group effects on the eating, ruminating, standing, and lying behaviors of dairy cows in large yards. Seasonal data on various behaviors of lactating cows in different production and lactation stages were collected continuously...

  8. Differential prostaglandin formation induced by convulsions in the brain of mice susceptible (DBA/2J) and resistant (CFLP) to acoustic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seregi, A; Folly, G; Heldt, R; Vizi, E S; Hertting, G

    1990-03-01

    Endogenous cerebral prostanoids possess anticonvulsant properties. This study investigates possible age-dependent anomalies of prostanoid synthesis in the brain of seizure-prone DBA/2J (DBA2) mice as compared to sound stimulus-resistant CFLP mice. Irrespective of the age of the animals, a large increase of prostaglandin (PG) D2 and E2 in the brain of CFLP mice was observed in response to pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-, or electroshock (ES)-induced seizures. Significantly less PGD2 and PGE2 was formed in the brain of DBA2 mice at day 21 after birth when subjected to PTZ or ES convulsions. At 42 days of age, however, this deficit of cerebral PGD2 synthesis in DBA2 mice disappeared concomitantly with the age-related decrease in audiogenic seizure (AS) susceptibility, whereas the deficit of PGE2 formation persisted. These results suggest that a deficiency of cerebral PGD2 synthesis may be one of the factors responsible for the AS susceptibility of the DBA2 mice. In contrast to PTZ or ES convulsions, acoustically induced seizures of the DBA2 mice were not accompanied by cerebral prostanoid synthesis. This supports the view that the pathways involved in AS are different from those involved in PTZ or ES models of epilepsy.

  9. Effects of Nicotine on the Neurophysiological and Behavioral Effects of Ketamine in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Mathalon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor hypofunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its associated neurocognitive impairments. The high rate of cigarette smoking in schizophrenia raises questions about how nicotine modulates putative NMDA receptor hypofunction in the illness. Accordingly, we examined the modulatory effects of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR stimulation on NMDA receptor hypofunction by examining the interactive effects of nicotine, a nAChR agonist, and ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, on behavioral and neurophysiological measures in healthy human volunteers.Methods: From an initial sample of 17 subjects (age range 18 - 55 years, 8 subjects successfully completed 4 test sessions, each separated by at least 3 days, during which they received ketamine or placebo and two injections of nicotine or placebo in a double-blind, counterbalanced manner. Schizophrenia-like effects (PANSS, perceptual alterations (CADSS, subjective effects (VAS and auditory event-related brain potentials (mismatch negativity, P300 were assessed during each test session.Results: Consistent with existing studies, ketamine induced transient schizophrenia-like behavioral effects. P300 was reduced and delayed by ketamine regardless of whether it was elicited by a target or novel stimulus, while nicotine only reduced the amplitude of P3a. Nicotine did not rescue P300 from the effects of ketamine; the interactions of ketamine and nicotine were not significant. While nicotine significantly reduced MMN amplitude, ketamine did not. Conclusion: Nicotine failed to modulate ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like effects in this preliminary study. Interestingly, ketamine reduced P3b amplitude and nicotine reduced P3a amplitude, suggesting independent roles of NMDA receptor and nAChR in the generation of P3b and P3a, respectively.

  10. Minimizing deviant behavior in healthcare organizations: the effects of supportive leadership and job design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, C Logan; Dunford, Benjamin B; Angermeier, Ingo; Boss, R Wayne; Boss, Alan D

    2010-01-01

    In an era when healthcare organizations are beset by intense competition, lawsuits, and increased administrative costs, it is essential that employees perform their jobs efficiently and without distraction. Deviant workplace behavior among healthcare employees is especially threatening to organizational effectiveness, and healthcare managers must understand the antecedents of such behavior to minimize its prevalence. Deviant employee behavior has been categorized into two major types, individual and organizational, according to the intended target of the behavior. Behavior directed at the individual includes such acts as harassment and aggression, whereas behavior directed at the organization includes such acts as theft, sabotage, and voluntary absenteeism, to name a few (Robinson and Bennett 1995). Drawing on theory from organizational behavior, we examined two important features of supportive leadership, leader-member exchange (LMX) and perceived organizational support (POS), and two important features of job design, intrinsic motivation and depersonalization, as predictors of subsequent deviant behavior in a sample of over 1,900 employees within a large US healthcare organization. Employees who reported weaker perceptions of LMX and greater perceptions of depersonalization were more likely to engage in deviant behavior directed at the individual, whereas employees who reported weaker perceptions of POS and intrinsic motivation were more likely to engage in deviant behavior directed at the organization. These findings give rise to specific prescriptions for healthcare managers to prevent or minimize the frequency of deviant behavior in the workplace.

  11. Differential Effects of TRPA and TRPV Channels on Behaviors of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Thies

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TRPA and TRPV ion channels are members of the transient receptor potential (TRP cation channel superfamily, which mediates various sensory transductions. In Caenorhabditis elegans , the TRPV channels are known to affect chemosensation, while the TRPA-1 channel is associated with thermosensation and mechanosensation. We examined thermosensation, chemosensation, and osmosensation in strains lacking TRPA-1 or TRPV channels. We found that TRPV channel knockout worms exhibited similar behavioral deficits associated with thermotaxis as the TRPA-1 channel knockout, suggesting a dual role for TRPV channels. In contrast, chemosensation responses, assessed by both avoidance reversal behavior and NaCl osmosensation, were dependent on TRPV channels but seemed independent of TRPA-1 channel. Our findings suggest that, in addition to TRPA-1 channel, TRPV channels are necessary for thermotaxis and may activate, or modulate, the function of TRPA-1 channels. In contrast, TRPA-1 channels do not have a dual responsibility, as they have no functional role in odorant avoidance or osmosensation.

  12. Educational and experiential effects on radiographers' radiation safety behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilson, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Forty-four radiographers from 11 hospitals in Northern California were observed for radiation safety behaviors in six categories. A multiple regression analysis was performed to determine if there was a significant relationship between the six radiation safety behaviors and the radiographer's age, sex, type of professional training, years since completion of professional training, years of professional practice, time of day, and exposure frequency. The multiple regression analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between use of gonadal shielding and years since completion of professional training, years of professional practice, type of training, and age. The multiple regression analysis also showed that the number of repeated films due to technical error was significantly related to the type of professional training a radiographer received

  13. Behavior of charged particles in lower ionosphere with acoustical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devyaterikov, I.A.; Ivanov, Y.A.; Koslov, S.I.; Kudryavtsev, V.P.

    1984-10-01

    The behavior of charged particles (electrons and positive and negative ions) in the D-region during the passage of weak shock and acoustic waves was studied. It is shown that under such conditions the photochemical equilibrium can be disrupted in the lower part of the D-region, which results in a condition under which the electron density does not follow the variations of neutral gas density

  14. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this purpose, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (49% female) of which 540 played games (30% female). Our analyses indicated...

  15. Intergenerational Continuity in Parenting Behavior: Mediating Pathways and Child Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Neppl, Tricia K.; Conger, Rand D.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ontai, Lenna L.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal investigation examined mechanisms proposed to explain continuities in parenting behavior across two generations (G1, G2). Data came from 187 G2 adults, their mothers (G1), and their children (G3). Prospective information regarding G2 was collected both during adolescence and early adulthood. G1 data were collected during G2’s adolescence and G3 data were generated during the preschool years. Assessments included both observational and self-report measures. The r...

  16. Are behavioral effects of early experience mediated by oxytocin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lisa Bales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Early experiences can alter adaptive emotional responses necessary for social behavior as well as physiological reactivity in the face of challenge. In the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster, manipulations in early life or hormonal treatments specifically targeted at the neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP, have long-lasting, often sexually-dimorphic, consequences for social behavior. Here we examine the hypothesis that behavioral changes associated with differential early experience, in this case handling the family during the first week of life, may be mediated by changes in OT or AVP or their brain receptors. Four early treatment groups were used, differing only in the amount of manipulation received during the first week of life. MAN1 animals were handled once on post-natal day 1; MAN1 treatment produces a pattern of behavior usually considered typical of this species, against which other groups were compared. MAN 1-7 animals were handled once a day for post-natal days 1-7, MAN 7 animals were handled once on post-natal day 7, and MAN0 animals received no handling during the first week of life. When tested following weaning, males in groups that had received manipulation during the first few days of life (MAN1 and MAN1-7 displayed higher alloparenting than other groups. Neuroendocrine measures, including OT receptor binding and OT and AVP immunoreactivity, varied by early treatment. In brain areas including the nucleus accumbens, bed nucleus of stria terminalis and lateral septum, MAN0 females showed increased OT receptor binding. MAN1 animals also displayed higher numbers of immunoreactive OT cell bodies in the supraoptic nucleus. Taken together these findings support the broader hypothesis that experiences in the first few days of life, mediated in part by sexually-dimorphic changes in neuropeptides, especially in the receptor for OT, may have adaptive consequences for sociality and emotion regulation.

  17. Effect of a perfume on prosocial behavior of pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, N

    2001-06-01

    Several studies have shown that perfumes encourage prosocial behavior of people from whom help is requested in the street. Implicit requests for help were studied. On a pedestrian walk, a woman confederate, with or without a heavy perfume, walked by the subject while dropping a packet of paper handkerchiefs or a glove apparently without noticing. Results show that the confederate was warned more often when wearing a perfume.

  18. Anticonvulsant Effect of Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch. (Moraceae) Aqueous Extract in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mante, Priscilla Kolibea; Adongo, Donatus Wewura; Kukuia, Kennedy Kwami Edem; Ameyaw, Elvis Ofori

    2013-01-01

    Antiaris toxicaria (Moraceae) was evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in rodents. Animal models used include maximal electroshock test (MEST); pentylenetetrazole-induced (PTZ) convulsions; picrotoxin-induced (PCT) convulsions; strychnine- (STR-) and 4-aminopyridine-induced convulsions. Increase in latency to seizures as well as reduction in duration and frequency of seizures indicated anticonvulsant activity. The extract was more effective in all models used except the maximal electroshock test and strychnine-induced convulsions. Antiaris toxicaria aqueous extract (200, 400, and 800 mg kg−1) significantly (P < 0.05 − 0.01) shortened the duration of convulsions in PTZ- and PCT-induced seizures. Delay in the onset of convulsions in the two tests was significant (P < 0.001). Reduction in the frequency of seizures was also significant (P < 0.05 − 0.001) in both tests. Antiaris further delayed the onset of seizures in 4-aminopyridine model while producing 75% protection against death in mice. Diazepam (0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg kg−1), carbamazepine (3, 10, and 30 mg kg−1), and sodium valproate (100–400 mg kg−1) were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for various models. Flumazenil blocked the effect of the extract in the PTZ test significantly suggesting that Antiaris toxicaria may be acting by enhancing the effects of the GABAergic system. Antiaris toxicaria aqueous extract therefore possesses anticonvulsant activity. PMID:24167736

  19. Eat or heat? The effects of poverty on children's behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Marcio A

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, there were 46.2 million people in the US in poverty (15 percent of the population). The rate for children under 18 years of age was 22 percent, the highest of all age groups. Poverty is strongly linked to adverse socio-emotional outcomes and poor health in children, which influence adult socioeconomic advancement. It affects specific neurocognitive processes disproportionately such as working memory, cognitive control, and especially language and memory. Poor children are frequently exposed to household chaos, maternal depression, neighborhood violence, food insecurity and housing instability. They also experience little social support and have parents who are less responsive, more authoritarian and less involved in school activities than those of higher socioeconomic levels. Their diet is rich in sugar, which may contribute to behavioral disturbances. Children from a disadvantaged background have a poor ability to cope with stress and tend to show aggressive, withdrawn and anxious/depressive behaviors as well as poor academic outcomes. Dental professionals who care for poor children must understand they live under stressful physical and emotional conditions, which will impact their behavior in the dental office.

  20. Modeling the effects of vegetation heterogeneity on wildland fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, A. L.; Linn, R.; Sieg, C.; Middleton, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation structure and densities are known to drive fire-spread rate and burn severity. Many fire-spread models incorporate an average, homogenous fuel density in the model domain to drive fire behavior. However, vegetation communities are rarely homogenous and instead present significant heterogeneous structure and fuel densities in the fires path. This results in observed patches of varied burn severities and mosaics of disturbed conditions that affect ecological recovery and hydrologic response. Consequently, to understand the interactions of fire and ecosystem functions, representations of spatially heterogeneous conditions need to be incorporated into fire models. Mechanistic models of fire disturbance offer insight into how fuel load characterization and distribution result in varied fire behavior. Here we use a physically-based 3D combustion model—FIRETEC—that solves conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and chemical species to compare fire behavior on homogenous representations to a heterogeneous vegetation distribution. Results demonstrate the impact vegetation heterogeneity has on the spread rate, intensity, and extent of simulated wildfires thus providing valuable insight in predicted wildland fire evolution and enhanced ability to estimate wildland fire inputs into regional and global climate models.