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Sample records for behavioral convulsant effects

  1. Pharmacological evidence for GABAergic and glutamatergic involvement in the convulsant and behavioral effects of glutaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, T T; Begnini, J; de Bastiani, J; Fialho, D B; Jurach, A; Ribeiro, M C; Wajner, M; de Mello, C F

    1998-08-17

    The effect of intrastriatal administration of glutaric acid (GTR), a metabolite that accumulates in glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I), on the behavior of adult male rats was investigated. After cannula placing, rats received unilateral intrastriatal injections of GTR buffered to pH 7.4 with NaOH or NaCl. GTR induced rotational behavior toward the contralateral side of injection and clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner. Rotational behavior was prevented by intrastriatal preadministration of DNQX and muscimol, but not by the preadministration of MK-801. Convulsions were prevented by intrastriatal preinjection of muscimol. This study provides evidence for a participation of glutamatergic non-NMDA and GABAergic mechanisms in the GTR-induced behavioral alterations. These findings may be of value in understanding the physiopathology of the neurological dysfunction in glutaric acidemia.

  2. Intrastriatal methylmalonic acid administration induces rotational behavior and convulsions through glutamatergic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, C F; Begnini, J; Jiménez-Bernal, R E; Rubin, M A; de Bastiani, J; da Costa, E; Wajner, M

    1996-05-20

    The effect of intrastriatal administration of methylmalonic acid (MMA), a metabolite that accumulates in methylmalonic aciduria, on behavior of adult male Wistar rats was investigated. After cannula placing, rats received unilateral intrastriatal injections of MMA (buffered to pH 7.4 with NaOH) or NaCl. MMA induced rotational behavior toward the contralateral side of injection and clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner. Rotational behavior and convulsions were prevented by intrastriatal preadministration of MK-801 and attenuated by preadministration of succinate. This study provides evidence for a participation of NMDA receptors in the MMA-induced behavioral alterations, where succinate dehydrogenase inhibition seems to have a pivotal role.

  3. Effect of Brewer's Yeast-Induced Pyrexia on Aminophylline-Elicited Convulsions in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ochi, Rika; Suemaru, Katsuya; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Araki, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    Theophylline-associated convulsions have been observed most frequently in children with fever, but the mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the basic mechanism of aminophylline [theophylline-2-ethylenediamine]-induced convulsions and the effects of Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. Diazepam (5-10mg/kg, i.p.), a benzodiazepine receptor agonist, significantly prolonged the onset and significantly decreased the incidence of convulsions induced by aminophylline ...

  4. Toxic cocaine- and convulsant-induced modification of forced swimming behaviors and their interaction with ethanol: comparison with immobilization stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, Tamaki; Yamamoto, Yoshiko; Yamamoto, Keiichi

    2002-01-01

    Background Swimming behaviors in the forced swimming test have been reported to be depressed by stressors. Since toxic convulsion-inducing drugs related to dopamine [cocaine (COC)], benzodiazepine [methyl 6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-β-carboline-carboxylate (DMCM)], γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) [bicuculline (BIC)], and glutamate [N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)] receptors can function as stressors, the present study compared their effects on the forced swimming behaviors with the effects of immobilization stress (IM) in rats. Their interactions with ethanol (EtOH), the most frequently coabused drug with COC which also induces convulsions as withdrawal symptoms but interferes with the convulsions caused by other drugs, were also investigated. Results Similar to the IM (10 min) group, depressed swimming behaviors (attenuated time until immobility and activity counts) were observed in the BIC (5 mg/kg IP) and DMCM (10 mg/kg IP) groups at the 5 h time point, after which no toxic behavioral symptoms were observed. However, they were normalized to the control levels at the 12 h point, with or without EtOH (1.5 g/kg IP). In the COC (60 mg/kg IP) and NMDA (200 mg/kg IP) groups, the depression occurred late (12 h point), and was normalized by the EtOH cotreatment. At the 5 h point, the COC treatment enhanced the swimming behaviors above the control level. Conclusions Although the physiological stress (IM), BIC, and DMCM also depressed the swimming behaviors, a delayed occurrence and EtOH-induced recovery of depressed swimming were observed only in the COC and NMDA groups. This might be correlated with the previously-reported delayed responses of DA and NMDA neurons rather than direct effects of the drugs, which could be suppressed by EtOH. Furthermore, the characteristic psychostimulant effects of COC seemed to be correlated with an early enhancement of swimming behaviors. PMID:12425723

  5. Evaluation of pro-convulsant risk in the rat: spontaneous and provoked convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esneault, Elise; Peyon, Guillaume; Froger-Colléaux, Christelle; Castagné, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of different tests performed in the absence or presence of factors promoting seizures in order to evaluate the pro-convulsant effects of drugs. We studied the effects of theophylline in the rat since this is a well-known pro-convulsant substance in humans. The occurrence of spontaneous convulsions following administration of theophylline was evaluated by observation in the Irwin Test and by measuring brain activity using video-EEG recording in conscious telemetered animals. Theophylline was also tested in the electroconvulsive shock (ECS) threshold and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions tests, two commonly used models of provoked convulsions. In the Irwin test, theophylline induced convulsions in 1 out of 6 rats at 128 mg/kg. Paroxysmal/seizure activity was also observed by video-EEG recording in 4 out of the 12 animals tested at 128 mg/kg, in presence of clonic convulsions in 3 out of the 4 rats. Paroxysmal activity was observed in two rats in the absence of clear behavioral symptoms, indicating that some precursor signs can be detected using video-EEG. Clear pro-convulsant activity was shown over the dose-range 32-128 mg/kg in the ECS threshold and PTZ-induced convulsions tests. Evaluation of spontaneous convulsions provides information on the therapeutic window of a drug and the translational value of the approach is increased by the use of video-EEG. Tests based on provoked convulsions further complement the evaluation since they try to mimic high risk situations. Measurement of both spontaneous and provoked convulsions improves the evaluation of the pro-convulsant risk of novel pharmacological substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The novel δ opioid receptor agonist KNT-127 produces antidepressant-like and antinociceptive effects in mice without producing convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Sugiyama, Azusa; Nemoto, Toru; Fujii, Hideaki; Wada, Keiji; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Nagase, Hiroshi; Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2011-10-01

    We previously reported that the δ opioid receptor (DOP) agonists SNC80 and TAN-67 produce potent antidepressant-like and antinociceptive effects in rodents. However, SNC80 produced convulsive effects. Recently, we succeeded in synthesizing a novel DOP agonist called KNT-127. The present study examined the convulsive, antidepressant-like, and antinociceptive effects of KNT-127 in mice. In contrast to SNC80, KNT-127 produced no convulsions at doses of up to 100mg/kg. In mice subjected to the forced swim test, a screening model for antidepressants, KNT-127 (1mg/kg, s.c.) significantly decreased the duration of immobility and increased the duration of swimming without influencing spontaneous locomotor activity. These behavioral changes were similar to that observed for the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (6mg/kg). The antidepressant-like effect of KNT-127 in mice was antagonized by pretreatment with naltrindole (NTI), a selective DOP antagonist, or naltriben, a putative DOP(2) subtype antagonist. In addition, KNT-127 (3mg/kg, s.c.) significantly reduced the number of acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions and the duration of licking time, respectively, in mice subjected to a writhing test and a formalin test. These antinociceptive effects were antagonized by pretreatment with either NTI or 7-benzylidenenaltrexone, a putative DOP(1) subtype antagonist. We propose that KNT-127 should be considered as a candidate compound for the development of DOP-based antidepressants and/or analgesics that lack convulsive effects. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of harmane on the convulsive threshold in epilepsy models in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricioglu, Feyza; Yillar, Okan; Korcegez, Eylem; Berkman, Kemal

    2003-12-01

    The study investigated the activity of harmane on maximal electroshock seizures (MES) and seizures induced by pentilentetrazole (PTZ) in mice. Initial studies established convulsive current 50 (CC(50)) values or MES and effective dose 50 (ED(50)) for PTZ to produce seizures. Harmane (2.5, 5.0, or 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) increased the threshold of seizures in MES dose-dependently. The convulsions produced by PTZ were decreased by the low dose of harmane (2.5 mg/kg), but the high dose of harmane (10 mg/kg) resulted in worse grade V convulsions followed by more lethality compared with PTZ alone. Therefore, harmane seems to be protective against grand mal seizures in the MES model but not against a petit mal seizure model (PTZ) in mice.

  8. Memory and convulsive stimulation: effects of stimulus waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanis, C W; Squire, L R

    1981-09-01

    Electrical stimulation with brief pulses can produce a seizure requiring less energy than conventional sine-wave stimulation, and it has been suggested that brief-pulse stimulation might reduce the memory loss associated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The authors evaluated the effects of electroconvulsive shock (ECS) on memory in mice by using various waveforms, current intensities, training-ECS intervals, pulse widths, and stimulus durations. When equated for ability to produce seizures, low-energy, brief-pulse stimulation caused as much amnesia as sine-wave stimulation and sometimes more. In the absence of comparisons of the amnesic effects of brief-pulse and sine-wave stimulation in humans, the use of brief pulses for administering ECT is unwarranted.

  9. Proconvulsant effects of high doses of venlafaxine in pentylenetetrazole-convulsive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Santos Junior

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Venlafaxine, an atypical antidepressant drug, has been used to treat several neurological disorders, presenting excellent efficacy and tolerability. Clinical seizures after venlafaxine treatment have occasionally been reported when the drug was used at very high doses or in combination with other medications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the convulsant effects of venlafaxine in rats under controlled laboratory conditions. Adult male Wistar rats (8 per group receiving venlafaxine or saline at the doses of 25-150 mg/kg were subjected 30 min later to injections of pentylenetetrazole at the dose of 60 mg/kg. The animals receiving 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg venlafaxine presented increased severity of convulsion when compared to controls (P = 0.02, P = 0.04, and P = 0.0004, respectively. Indeed, an increased percentage of death was observed in these groups (50, 38, and 88%, respectively when compared to the percentage of death in the controls (0%. The group receiving 150 mg/kg showed an reduction in death latency (999 ± 146 s compared to controls (1800 ± 0 s; cut-off time. Indeed, in this group, all animals developed seizures prior to pentylenetetrazole administration. Surprisingly, the groups receiving venlafaxine at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg showed a tendency towards an increase in the latency to the first convulsion. These findings suggest that venlafaxine at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg has some tendency to an anticonvulsant effect in the rat, whereas doses of 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg presented clear proconvulsant effects in rats submitted to the pentylenetetrazole injection. These findings are the first report in the literature concerning the role of venlafaxine in seizure genesis in the rat under controlled conditions.

  10. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis on nicotine-induced convulsion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzi, A; Ahamehe, M; Sarahroodi, S

    2011-06-01

    Epilepsy an important CNS (central nervous system) problem that about 1% of world's population suffer of it. The aim of study was to evaluate of anticonvulsant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis. In this study, anticonvulsant activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) was studied against chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male mice. Lavandula officinalis (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1)), diazepam (0.15 mg kg(-1)) and normal saline (10 mL kg(-1)) were injected intraperitoneally, respectively in different groups of mice, 30 min before nicotine (5 mg kg(-) i.p.). The onset time intensity and duration of convulsions and the percentage of death were recorded. Also the time-response (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 min before nicotine injection) for most effective dose of plant extract (600 mg kg(-1)) was investigated. The results showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis had anticonvulsant effect. The most effective dose of plant extract was 600 mg kg(-1). In time-response study for the most effective dose of extract (600 mg kg(-1)), the onset, duration and intensity of convulsion significantly (p Lavandula.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and clinical effect of phenobarbital in children with severe falciparum malaria and convulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokwaro, Gilbert O; Ogutu, Bernhards R; Muchohi, Simon N; Otieno, Godfrey O; Newton, Charles R J C

    2003-01-01

    Aims Phenobarbital is commonly used to treat status epilepticus in resource-poor countries. Although a dose of 20 mg kg−1 is recommended, this dose, administered intramuscularly (i.m.) for prophylaxis, is associated with an increase in mortality in children with cerebral malaria. We evaluated a 15-mg kg−1 intravenous (i.v.) dose of phenobarbital to determine its pharmacokinetics and clinical effects in children with severe falciparum malaria and status epilepticus. Methods Twelve children (M/F: 11/1), aged 7–62 months, received a loading dose of phenobarbital (15 mg kg−1) as an i.v. infusion over 20 min and maintenance dose of 5 mg kg−1 at 24 and 48 h later. The duration of convulsions and their recurrence were recorded. Vital signs were monitored. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) phenobarbital concentrations were measured with an Abbott TDx FLx® fluorescence polarisation immunoassay analyser (Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic Division, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Simulations were performed to predict the optimum dosage regimen that would maintain plasma phenobarbital concentrations between 15 and 20 mg l−1 for 72 h. Results All the children achieved plasma concentrations above 15 mg l−1 by the end of the infusion. Mean (95% confidence interval or median and range for Cmax) pharmacokinetic parameters were: area under curve [AUC (0, ∞) ]: 4259 (3169, 5448) mg l−1.h, t½: 82.9 (62, 103) h, CL: 5.8 (4.4, 7.3) ml kg−1 h−1, Vss: 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) l kg −1, CSF: plasma phenobarbital concentration ratio: 0.7 (0.5, 0.8; n = 6) and Cmax: 19.9 (17.9–27.9) mg l−1. Eight of the children had their convulsions controlled and none of them had recurrence of convulsions. Simulations suggested that a loading dose of 15 mg kg−1 followed by two maintenance doses of 2.5 mg kg−1 at 24 h and 48 h would maintain plasma phenobarbital concentrations between 16.4 and 20 mg l−1 for 72 h. Conclusions Phenobarbital, given as an i.v. loading dose, 15 mg kg−1

  12. Effect of NAD on binding and liberation of 14C-GABA in administration of the convulsion producing drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, A.I.; Stepanenko, S.P.; Parkhomets, P.K.; Donchenko, G.V.

    1993-01-01

    Administration of corazole into animals led to a decrease in content of NAD and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain. Under these conditions, binding of 14 C-GABA was increased and its liberation was inhibited in the synaptosomes of the brain cortex. Additional administration of incotinamide, accompanied by considerable increase in content of NAD and GABA, caused a decrease in accumulation of exogenous GABA in the synaptosomes and removed the effects produced by the convulsant agent. Kinetics of 14 C-GABA binding in the presence of NAD demonstrated that the more effective inhibition of the binding occurred in the animals treated with the convulsant drug. NAD appears to affect the GABA-ergic transmission at the postsynaptic level

  13. Convulsions induced by centrally administered NMDA in mice: effects of NMDA antagonists, benzodiazepines, minor tranquilizers and anticonvulsants.

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    Moreau, J. L.; Pieri, L.; Prud'hon, B.

    1989-01-01

    1. Convulsions were induced reproducibly by intracerebroventricular injection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) to conscious mice. 2. Competitive (carboxypiperazine-propylphosphonic acid, CPP; 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, AP7) and non-competitive (MK801; phencyclidine, PCP; thienylcyclohexylpiperidine, TCP; dextrorphan; dextromethorphan) NMDA antagonists prevented NMDA-induced convulsions. 3. Benzodiazepine receptor agonists and partial agonists (triazolam, diazepam, clonazepam, Ro 16-6028), classical anticonvulsants (diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbitone, sodium valproate) and meprobamate were also found to prevent NMDA-induced convulsions. 4. Flumazenil (a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist) and the GABA agonists THIP and muscimol (up to subtoxic doses) were without effect. 5. Flumazenil reversed the anticonvulsant action of diazepam, but not that of MK801. 6. Results obtained in this model differ somewhat from those described in a seizure model with systemic administration of NMDA. An explanation for this discrepancy is offered. 7. This model is a simple test for assessing the in vivo activity of NMDA antagonists and also expands the battery of chemically-induced seizure models for characterizing anticonvulsants not acting at NMDA receptors. PMID:2574061

  14. MK-801, but not naloxone, attenuates high-dose dextromethorphan-induced convulsive behavior: Possible involvement of the GluN2B receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai-Quyen; Chung, Yoon Hee; Shin, Eun-Joo; Tran, The-Vinh; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Jang, Choon-Gon; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2017-11-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) is a dextrorotatory isomer of levorphanol, a typical morphine-like opioid. When administered at supra-antitussive doses, DM produces psychotoxic and neurotoxic effects in humans. Although DM abuse has been well-documented, few studies have examined the effects of high-dose DM. The present study aimed to explore the effects of a single high dose of DM on mortality and seizure occurrence. After intraperitoneal administration with a high dose of DM (80mg/kg), Sprague-Dawley rats showed increased seizure occurrence and intensity. Hippocampal expression levels of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits (GluN1effects of high-dose DM, whereas an opioid antagonist, naloxone, did not affect DM-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, pretreatment with a highly specific GluN2B subunit inhibitor, traxoprodil, was selectively effective in preventing DM-induced c-Fos expression and apoptotic changes. These results suggest that high-dose DM produces convulsive behaviors by activating GluN2B/NMDA signaling that leads to pro-apoptotic changes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Eric H; Nazzal, Yara; Hirsch, Lawrence J

    2016-03-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is a medical emergency with an associated high mortality and morbidity. It is defined as a convulsive seizure lasting more than 5 min or consecutive seizures without recovery of consciousness. Successful management of CSE depends on rapid administration of adequate doses of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). The exact choice of AED is less important than rapid treatment and early consideration of reversible etiologies. Current guidelines recommend the use of benzodiazepines (BNZ) as first-line treatment in CSE. Midazolam is effective and safe in the pre-hospital or home setting when administered intramuscularly (best evidence), buccally, or nasally (the latter two possibly faster acting than intramuscular (IM) but with lower levels of evidence). Regular use of home rescue medications such as nasal/buccal midazolam by patients and caregivers for prolonged seizures and seizure clusters may prevent SE, prevent emergency room visits, improve quality of life, and lower health care costs. Traditionally, phenytoin is the preferred second-line agent in treating CSE, but it is limited by hypotension, potential arrhythmias, allergies, drug interactions, and problems from extravasation. Intravenous valproate is an effective and safe alternative to phenytoin. Valproate is loaded intravenously rapidly and more safely than phenytoin, has broad-spectrum efficacy, and fewer acute side effects. Levetiracetam and lacosamide are well tolerated intravenous (IV) AEDs with fewer interactions, allergies, and contraindications, making them potentially attractive as second- or third-line agents in treating CSE. However, data are limited on their efficacy in CSE. Ketamine is probably effective in treating refractory CSE (RCSE), and may warrant earlier use; this requires further study. CSE should be treated aggressively and quickly, with confirmation of treatment success with epileptiform electroencephalographic (EEG), as a transition to non-convulsive status

  16. Effects of repeated anesthesia by thiopental in neonatal period on PTZ-induced convulsions and pain responses during maturation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Faghih Majidi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: General anesthetics during critical periods of brain development may cause some seriousmalformations or side effects. Anesthetic drugs can involve in the brain development and synaptogenesis atthe critical period of development. There are some controversy with regards the effects of(neurodegenerative or neuroprotective barbiturates on brain. The aim of the present study was toinvestigate the possible relation between repeated induced thiopental (a GABAA agonist anesthesia at thepostnatal period and pentylentetrazol-induced convulsions and pain responses in adult in the Wistar rats.Materials and methods: 40 male neonate rats were divided into experimental and sham groups. Theexperimental group (n=20 was deeply anesthetized with thiopental (30 mg/kg daily during 10 to 20-daysof post- natal period and physiologic serum was used for sham animals. After maturation of male rats, thePTZ-induced seizures were induced by daily interapritoneally injection of PTZ (45 mg/kg, and thelatency of the appearance of generalized epileptiform behaviors was recorded. Pain responses were alsoevaluated using tail-flick and formalin tests.Results: No significant differences were found in the lantency of the appearance of behaviouralconvulsions and pain sensitivity between experimental and sham groups.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that prior exposure to thiopental during nenonatal stage has no effectson PTZ-induced seizures and also pain responses after maturation. Developmental compensatorymechanisms may protect the brian against the possible damage that induced by repeated thipopental duringneonatal period.

  17. Evaluating acute effects of Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT) on brain perfusion with Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozguven, M.; Ozturk, E.; Gunalp, B.; Ozgen, F.; Bayhan, H.

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT in 10 schizophrenes (8 male, 2 female) undergoing electro convulsive therapy (ECT) and the results were compared to those of baseline studies performed 3 days prior to the ECT application to evaluate its acute effect on brain perfusion. ECT caused a redistribution in the tracers uptake. There was a global increase in the rCBF and the uptake became more pronounced in the basal ganglia (left: 44.4+-1.9%, right: 43.1+-19%) and to a degree in the parietal (left: 26.5+-4.1%, right: 25+-3.4%) and temporal (left: 22.9+-4.3%, right: 22.3+-3.6%) cortices. When evaluating the effects of ECT on rCBF, factors like the used perfusion agent, the injection and rCBF measurement times, clinical status of the patient, duration of the illness, used therapeutic agents and variations in the ECT application should be taken into consideration because the obtained data may reflect either the ictal or post-ictal changes on rCBF and is specific to the group of patients undergoing the study

  18. Effect of dexmedetomidine on rats with convulsive status epilepticus and association with activation of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai-Liang; Liu, Xin-Qiu; Yao, Yu-Long; Ye, Ming-Rong; Han, Yao-Guo; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Gang; Lei, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is a neurological disease with contraction and extension of limbs, leading to damage of hippocampus and cognition. This study aimed to explore the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on the cognitive function and neuroinflammation in CSE rats. All rats were divided into control group, CSE group and DEX group. Morris water maze test was used to measure cognitive function. Acute hippocampal slices were made to detect long-term potentiation (LTP). Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure serum levels of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), S-100β and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our results showed that DEX improved the memory damage caused by CSE. DEX reduced seizure severity and increased the amplitudes and sustainable time of LTP, and also inhibited the hippocampal expression of α7-nAChR and IL-1β in CSE rats. DEX treatment decreased serum IL-1β, TNF-α and S-100β levels and increased BDNF levels. The effects of DEX on seizure severity and LTP could be simulated by nicotine or attenuated by concurrent α-bungarotoxin (α-BGT) treatment. In conclusions, DEX significantly improved spatial cognitive dysfunction, reduced seizure severity and increased LTP in CSE rats. Improvements by DEX were closely related to enhancement of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The convulsive and electroencephalographic changes produced by nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonists in rats: comparison with pentylenetetrazol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Baladi, Michelle G; Folk, John E; Rice, Kenner C; Woods, James H

    2006-06-01

    delta-Opioid agonists produce convulsions and antidepressant-like effects in rats. It has been suggested that the antidepressant-like effects are produced through a convulsant mechanism of action either through overt convulsions or nonconvulsive seizures. This study evaluated the convulsive and seizurogenic effects of nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonists at doses that previously were reported to produce antidepressant-like effects. In addition, delta-opioid agonist-induced electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioral changes were compared with those produced by the chemical convulsant pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). For these studies, EEG changes were recorded using a telemetry system before and after injections of the delta-opioid agonists [(+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-[(2S,5R)-2,5-dimethyl-4-(2-propenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-(3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-N,N-diethylbenz (SNC80) and [(+)-4-[alpha(R)-alpha-[(2S,5R)-2,5-dimethyl-4-(2-propenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-(3-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide [(+)-BW373U86]. Acute administration of nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonists produced bilateral ictal and paroxysmal spike and/or sharp wave discharges. delta-Opioid agonists produced brief changes in EEG recordings, and tolerance rapidly developed to these effects; however, PTZ produced longer-lasting EEG changes that were exacerbated after repeated administration. Studies with antiepileptic drugs demonstrated that compounds used to treat absence epilepsy blocked the convulsive effects of nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonists. Overall, these data suggest that delta-opioid agonist-induced EEG changes are not required for the antidepressant-like effects of these compounds and that neural circuitry involved in absence epilepsy may be related to delta-opioid agonist-induced convulsions. In terms of therapeutic development, these data suggest that it may be possible to develop delta-opioid agonists devoid of convulsive properties.

  20. A preliminary observation of the adverse effects of phenobarbital among patients with convulsive epilepsy in rural West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yang; Liu, Ling; Tian, Linyu; Mu, Jie; Chen, Deng; Chen, Tao; Deng, Ying; He, Jun; Li, You; He, Li; Zhou, Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the adverse effect (AE) profile of phenobarbital (PB) among patients with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) from resource-poor areas. Patients with ACE were enrolled into an epilepsy management project in rural West China. Information was obtained from monthly follow-up questionnaires. The demographic and clinical features of the patients with AE were firstly described. After that, the occurrence rate was estimated for each subtype of AE at three different severity levels (mild, moderate, and serious). Survival analysis was used to determine the potential risk factors of AEs. A total of 7231 patients (3780 men) were included in the present cohort. During the follow-up time period (average 33.4months), the most common AEs were drowsiness (moderate: 4.4%, serious: 0.68%), dizziness (moderate: 3.7%, serious: 0.5%), and headache (moderate: 2.9%, serious: 0.41%). In the confirmed AE groups (moderate and serious severity levels), the symptoms tended to be transient, with durations of less than 3months. Polytherapy was an independent risk factor for AEs and had an increasing risk when the severity of the AE increased (Hazard Ratio 1.12, 1.55, and 2.52 for mild AE, moderate AE, and serious AE, respectively). Receiving a high dosage of PB (>180mg/day) indicated a slightly elevated risk (Hazard Ratio 1.22 and 1.27 for mild AE and moderate AE, respectively). Phenobarbital demonstrates overall tolerability, and serious AEs were not common. Patients receiving a high dose of PB or polytherapy are at increased risk of developing AEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Carvacrol, (-)-borneol and citral reduce convulsant activity in rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... compounds were efficient in preventing the tonic convulsions (p < 0.05) induced by MES. However, the GABAergic neurotransmitter system might be involved, at least in BOR effects. Henceforth, our results suggest that CARV, BOR and CIT possess anticonvulsant activity effect against PTZ-induced convulsions and MES.

  2. Effect of combined treatment with diuretics and gabapentin on convulsive threshold in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukawski, Krzysztof; Swiderska, Grajyna; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2013-01-01

    Research data show that diuretics can have anticonvulsant properties. This study examined effects of ethacrynic acid, a loop diuretic, and hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide-type diuretic, on the anticonvulsant activity of gabapentin, a newer antiepileptic drug, in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test in mice. Diuretics were administered intraperitoneally (ip.) both acutely (single dose) and chronically (once daily for seven days). Electroconvulsions were produced by an alternating current (50 Hz, 500 V, 0.2 s stimulus duration) delivered via ear-clip electrodes by a generator. Additionally, the influence of combined treatment with the diuretics and gabapentin on motor performance in the chimney test has been assessed. In the current study, ethacrynic acid at the chronic dose of 12.5 mg/kg and the single dose of 100 mg/kg did not affect the anticonvulsant activity of gabapentin. Similarly, hydrochlorothiazide (100 mg/kg), both in acute and chronic experiments, had no effect on the gabapentin action. On the other hand, in the chimney test, the combined treatment with ethacrynic acid (100 mg/kg) and gabapentin (50 mg/kg) significantly impaired motor performance in mice. Based on the current preclinical findings, it can be suggested that the diuretics should not affect the anticonvulsant action of gabapentin in epileptic patients. However, the combination of ethacrynic acid with gabapentin may cause neurotoxicity.

  3. Serotonin neurones have anti-convulsant effects and reduce seizure-induced mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Gordon F; Murray, Nicholas M; Hajek, Michael A; Richerson, George B

    2014-01-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in patients with refractory epilepsy. Defects in central control of breathing are important contributors to the pathophysiology of SUDEP, and serotonin (5-HT) system dysfunction may be involved. Here we examined the effect of 5-HT neurone elimination or 5-HT reduction on seizure risk and seizure-induced mortality. Adult Lmx1bf/f/p mice, which lack >99% of 5-HT neurones in the CNS, and littermate controls (Lmx1bf/f) were subjected to acute seizure induction by maximal electroshock (MES) or pilocarpine, variably including electroencephalography, electrocardiography, plethysmography, mechanical ventilation or pharmacological therapy. Lmx1bf/f/p mice had a lower seizure threshold and increased seizure-induced mortality. Breathing ceased during most seizures without recovery, whereas cardiac activity persisted for up to 9 min before terminal arrest. The mortality rate of mice of both genotypes was reduced by mechanical ventilation during the seizure or 5-HT2A receptor agonist pretreatment. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram reduced mortality of Lmx1bf/f but not of Lmx1bf/f/p mice. In C57BL/6N mice, reduction of 5-HT synthesis with para-chlorophenylalanine increased MES-induced seizure severity but not mortality. We conclude that 5-HT neurones raise seizure threshold and decrease seizure-related mortality. Death ensued from respiratory failure, followed by terminal asystole. Given that SUDEP often occurs in association with generalised seizures, some mechanisms causing death in our model might be shared with those leading to SUDEP. This model may help determine the relationship between seizures, 5-HT system dysfunction, breathing and death, which may lead to novel ways to prevent SUDEP. PMID:25107926

  4. Convulsant bicuculline modifies CNS muscarinic receptor affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz Georgina

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work from this laboratory has shown that the administration of the convulsant drug 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP, a GAD inhibitor, modifies not only GABA synthesis but also binding of the antagonist [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB to central muscarinic receptors, an effect due to an increase in affinity without modifications in binding site number. The cholinergic system has been implicated in several experimental epilepsy models and the ability of acetylcholine to regulate neuronal excitability in the neocortex is well known. To study the potential relationship between GABAergic and cholinergic systems with seizure activity, we analyzed the muscarinic receptor after inducing seizure by bicuculline (BIC, known to antagonize the GABA-A postsynaptic receptor subtype. Results We analyzed binding of muscarinic antagonist [3H]-QNB to rat CNS membranes after i.p. administration of BIC at subconvulsant (1.0 mg/kg and convulsant (7.5 mg/kg doses. Subconvulsant BIC dose failed to develop seizures but produced binding alteration in the cerebellum and hippocampus with roughly 40% increase and 10% decrease, respectively. After convulsant BIC dose, which invariably led to generalized tonic-clonic seizures, binding increased 36% and 15% to cerebellar and striatal membranes respectively, but decreased 12% to hippocampal membranes. Kd value was accordingly modified: with the subconvulsant dose it decreased 27% in cerebellum whereas it increased 61% in hippocampus; with the convulsant dose, Kd value decreased 33% in cerebellum but increased 85% in hippocampus. No change in receptor number site was found, and Hill number was invariably close to unity. Conclusion Results indicate dissimilar central nervous system area susceptibility of muscarinic receptor to BIC. Ligand binding was modified not only by a convulsant BIC dose but also by a subconvulsant dose, indicating that changes are not attributable to the seizure process

  5. Hypothermia for Neuroprotection in Convulsive Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legriel, Stephane; Lemiale, Virginie; Schenck, Maleka; Chelly, Jonathan; Laurent, Virginie; Daviaud, Fabrice; Srairi, Mohamed; Hamdi, Aicha; Geri, Guillaume; Rossignol, Thomas; Hilly-Ginoux, Julia; Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Louart, Benjamin; Malissin, Isabelle; Mongardon, Nicolas; Planquette, Benjamin; Thirion, Marina; Merceron, Sybille; Canet, Emmanuel; Pico, Fernando; Tran-Dinh, Yves-Roger; Bedos, Jean-Pierre; Azoulay, Elie; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Cariou, Alain

    2016-12-22

    Convulsive status epilepticus often results in permanent neurologic impairment. We evaluated the effect of induced hypothermia on neurologic outcomes in patients with convulsive status epilepticus. In a multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 270 critically ill patients with convulsive status epilepticus who were receiving mechanical ventilation to hypothermia (32 to 34°C for 24 hours) in addition to standard care or to standard care alone; 268 patients were included in the analysis. The primary outcome was a good functional outcome at 90 days, defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 5 (range, 1 to 5, with 1 representing death and 5 representing no or minimal neurologic deficit). The main secondary outcomes were mortality at 90 days, progression to electroencephalographically (EEG) confirmed status epilepticus, refractory status epilepticus on day 1, "super-refractory" status epilepticus (resistant to general anesthesia), and functional sequelae on day 90. A GOS score of 5 occurred in 67 of 138 patients (49%) in the hypothermia group and in 56 of 130 (43%) in the control group (adjusted common odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.99; P=0.43). The rate of progression to EEG-confirmed status epilepticus on the first day was lower in the hypothermia group than in the control group (11% vs. 22%; odds ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.79; P=0.009), but there were no significant differences between groups in the other secondary outcomes. Adverse events were more frequent in the hypothermia group than in the control group. In this trial, induced hypothermia added to standard care was not associated with significantly better 90-day outcomes than standard care alone in patients with convulsive status epilepticus. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health; HYBERNATUS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01359332 .).

  6. Rebaudioside A inhibits pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigit Uyanikgil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The safety of patients with epilepsy consuming sweetening agents, which is becoming increasingly prevalent for various reasons, is a topic that should be emphasized as sensitively as it is for other diseases. Patients with epilepsy consume sweetening agents for different reasons such being diabetic or overweight. They can occasionally be exposed to sweetening agents unrestrainedly through consuming convenience food, primarily beverages. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rebaudioside A (Reb-A, which is a steviol glycoside produced from the herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni, on epileptic seizures and convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. Forty-eight male rats were used. Twenty-four rats were administered 35 mg/kg PTZ to trigger epileptiform activity; the remaining 24 rats were administered 70 mg/kg PTZ to trigger the convulsion model. The epileptiform activity was evaluated by spike percentage, whereas convulsion was evaluated by Racine's Convulsion Scale and the onset time of the first myoclonic jerk. Statistical analysis revealed a statistically significant decrease in the Racine's Convulsion Scale score and increase in the latency of first myoclonic jerk in a dose-dependent manner for the rat groups in which PTZ epilepsy had been induced and Reb-A had been administered. For the groups that were administered Reb-A, the spike decrease was apparent in a dose-dependent manner, based on the spike percentage calculation. These results indicated that Reb-A has positive effects on PTZ-induced convulsions.

  7. Febrile convulsions and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and febrile convulsions are related aetiologically. We compared the risk of SIDS in 9877 siblings of children who had had febrile convulsions with that of 20.177 siblings of children who had never had febrile convulsions. We found...

  8. The effect of leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide-Y on serum Tnf-Α, Il-1β, Il-6, Fgf-2, galanin levels and oxidative stress in an experimental generalized convulsive seizure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Berrin; Sahin, Deniz; Kir, Hale; Eraldemir, Fatma Ceyla; Musul, Mert; Kuskay, Sevinç; Ates, Nurbay

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effects of the endogenous ligands leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) on seizure generation, the oxidant/antioxidant balance, and cytokine levels, which are a result of immune response in a convulsive seizure model. With this goal, Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups-Group 1: Saline, Group 2: Saline+PTZ (65mg/kg), Group 3: leptin (4mg/kg)+PTZ, Group 4: ghrelin (80μg/kg)+PTZ, and Group 5: NPY (60μg/kg)+PTZ. All injections were delivered intraperitoneally, and simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) records were obtained. Seizure activity was scored by observing seizure behavior, and the onset time, latency, and seizure duration were determined according to the EEG records. At the end of the experiments, blood samples were obtained in all groups to assess the serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, FGF-2, galanin, nitric oxide (NOֹ), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) levels. The electrophysiological and biochemical findings (p<0.05) of this study show that all three peptides have anticonvulsant effects in the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced generalized tonic-clonic convulsive seizure model. The reduction of the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 caused by leptin, ghrelin, and NPY shows that these peptides may have anti-inflammatory effects in epileptic seizures. Also, leptin significantly increases the serum levels of the endogenous anticonvulsive agent galanin. The fact that each one of these endogenous peptides reduces the levels of MDA and increases the serum levels of GSH leads to the belief that they may have protective effects against oxidative damage that is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Our study contributes to the clarification of the role of these peptides in the brain in seizure-induced oxidative stress and immune system physiology and also presents new approaches to the etiology and treatment of tendency to epileptic seizures. Copyright

  9. [The role of the opiate mechanisms of the hippocampus and substantia nigra in the behavioral and convulsive disorders in picrotoxin-induced kindling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzhanovskiĭ, G N; Shandra, A A; Godlevskiĭ, L S; Mazarati, A M; Nguyen, T T

    1991-03-01

    It was shown in the experiments on rats that the repeated picrotoxin administration resulted in the kindling of generalized seizures. Generalized convulsions were followed by the development of either postictal depression or explosiveness. The injection of mu-opiate agonist met-enkephalin into hippocampus of kindled rats resulted in the increase in the severity of seizure reactions which were induced by picrotoxin and also in the increase in the number of animals with postictal explosiveness. The injection of dynorphin-A-1-13 (kappa-opiate agonist) into substantia nigra reticulata induced the locomotor depression which was like one in postictal period and resulted in the decrease of picrotoxin-induced seizures severity. It was concluded that mu-opiate system of hippocampus took part in the formation of generator of pathologically enhanced excitation in the structure during kindling and the development of seizure syndrome, providing also the postictal explosiveness. Kappa-opiate system of substantia nigra plays an important role in the activation of the antiepileptic system, limitation of seizures and the development of postictal depression.

  10. Pharmacological screening of Malian medicinal plants used against epilepsy and convulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael E; Vestergaard, Henrik T; Hansen, Suzanne L

    2009-01-01

    Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants.......Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants....

  11. The relationship between iron deficiency anemia and simple febrile convulsion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Eghbali, Aziz; Rafeie, Mohammad; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Zolfi, Mohaddeseh; Firouzifar, Mohammadreza

    2014-05-01

    Simple febrile convulsion is the most common disease of the nervous system in children. There are hypotheses that iron deficiency may affect febrile convulsion and the threshold of neuron excitation. This study was conducted with the objective of finding the effects of iron deficiency anemia on simple febrile convulsion episodes. The study was conducted at AmirKabir Hospital of Arak Medical Sciences University, Arak, Iran. This is a case-control study. In this study, 382 children who were selected according to our inclusion and exclusion factors, were divided into two groups of case (febrile convulsion) and control (other factors causing fever) by their cause of hospitalization. After fever subsided, 5 ml blood sample was taken from each child and complete blood count and iron profile tests were performed. The results were interpreted using descriptive statistics and independent t-test. The prevalence of anemia in the group with febrile convulsion was significantly less than that in the control group: 22.5% of the children in the group with febrile convulsion and 34% in the control group exhibited anemia (P < 0.001). Moreover, the group with febrile convulsion had significantly higher blood indices, such as Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, and MCHC, compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Iron deficiency can prevent febrile convulsion in children and probably increases the threshold of neuron excitation in fever.

  12. Glufosinate ammonium induces convulsion through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, N; Takeuchi, C; Hishikawa, K; Fujii, T; Nakaki, T

    2001-05-18

    Glufosinate ammonium, a broad-spectrum herbicide, causes convulsion in rodents and humans. Because of the structural similarities between glufosinate and glutamate, the convulsion induced by glufosinate ammonium may be ascribed to glutamate receptor activation. Three N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, dizocilpine, LY235959, and Compound 40, and an alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist, NBQX, were coadministrated with glufosinate ammonium (80 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) in mice. Statistical analyses showed that the NMDA receptor antagonists markedly inhibited the convulsions, while the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist had no effect on the convulsion. These results suggest that the convulsion caused by glufosinate ammonium is mediated through NMDA receptors.

  13. Anti-convulsant therapy in eclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari J

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventy four patients presented with eclampsia at N.W.M. Hospital. Bombay. Among the patients with eclampsia, 64.9% were primis, 29.7% were gravida II-IV and 5.4% were grand multis. As many as 40.5% patients were less than 20 years of age, while 2.7% were over 30 years of age. 48.7% had antepartum convulsions, 40.5% had intrapartum convulsions, while 8 patients convulsed in the postpartum period. Besides standard management of eclamptic patients, 3 protocols of anticonvulsant therapy were utilised. 27% were managed with diphenyl hydantoin sodium, 43% with magnesium sulphate, and 30% by combination of diazepam and pentazocine. The maternal and perinatal outcome was evaluated. Control of convulsions was superior with magnesium sulphate while perinatal outcome was best with diphenyl hydantoin.

  14. Multicenter clinical assessment of improved wearable multimodal convulsive seizure detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Francesco; Regalia, Giulia; Caborni, Chiara; Migliorini, Matteo; Bender, Daniel; Poh, Ming-Zher; Frazier, Cherise; Kovitch Thropp, Eliana; Mynatt, Elizabeth D; Bidwell, Jonathan; Mai, Roberto; LaFrance, W Curt; Blum, Andrew S; Friedman, Daniel; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Mohammadpour-Touserkani, Fatemeh; Reinsberger, Claus; Tognetti, Simone; Picard, Rosalind W

    2017-11-01

    New devices are needed for monitoring seizures, especially those associated with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). They must be unobtrusive and automated, and provide false alarm rates (FARs) bearable in everyday life. This study quantifies the performance of new multimodal wrist-worn convulsive seizure detectors. Hand-annotated video-electroencephalographic seizure events were collected from 69 patients at six clinical sites. Three different wristbands were used to record electrodermal activity (EDA) and accelerometer (ACM) signals, obtaining 5,928 h of data, including 55 convulsive epileptic seizures (six focal tonic-clonic seizures and 49 focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures) from 22 patients. Recordings were analyzed offline to train and test two new machine learning classifiers and a published classifier based on EDA and ACM. Moreover, wristband data were analyzed to estimate seizure-motion duration and autonomic responses. The two novel classifiers consistently outperformed the previous detector. The most efficient (Classifier III) yielded sensitivity of 94.55%, and an FAR of 0.2 events/day. No nocturnal seizures were missed. Most patients had seizure frequency. When increasing the sensitivity to 100% (no missed seizures), the FAR is up to 13 times lower than with the previous detector. Furthermore, all detections occurred before the seizure ended, providing reasonable latency (median = 29.3 s, range = 14.8-151 s). Automatically estimated seizure durations were correlated with true durations, enabling reliable annotations. Finally, EDA measurements confirmed the presence of postictal autonomic dysfunction, exhibiting a significant rise in 73% of the convulsive seizures. The proposed multimodal wrist-worn convulsive seizure detectors provide seizure counts that are more accurate than previous automated detectors and typical patient self-reports, while maintaining a tolerable FAR for ambulatory monitoring. Furthermore, the multimodal system

  15. Hippocampal Abnormalities after Prolonged Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation times were determined in an MRI study of 14 children with prolonged febrile convulsions (PFC who were investigated, 1 within 5 days of a PFC, and 2 at follow-up 4-8 months after the acute study, at the Institute of Child Health, University College, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  16. Automated differentiation between epileptic and non-epileptic convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was the clinical validation of an automated algorithm based on surface electromyography (EMG) for differentiation between convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Forty-four consecutive episodes with convulsive events were automatically analyzed with the a......%) and 18 PNESs (95%). The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95%. This algorithm is useful for distinguishing between epileptic and psychogenic convulsive seizures....

  17. Some Aspects of Epilepsy and Convulsions in Childhood | Brett ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnostic and therapeutic problems of epilepsy and convulsions in childhood are reviewed. Their non-specific aetiology is stressed, particularly with neonatal convulsions and infantile spasms. The role of febrile convulsions in causing later temporal lobe epilepsy and gross neurological deficit, underlines the ...

  18. Evidence for involvement of the astrocytic benzodiazepine receptor in the mechanism of action of convulsant and anticonvulsant drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, A.S.; Hertz, L.

    1988-01-01

    The anticonvulsant drugs carbamazepine, phenobarbital, trimethadione, valproic acid and ethosuximide at pharmacologically relevant concentrations inhibit [ 3 H]diazepam binding to astrocytes in primary cultures but have much less effect on a corresponding preparation of neurons. Phenytoin as well as pentobarbital (which is not used chronically as an anticonvulsant) are equipotent in the two cell types. The convulsants picrotoxinin and pentylenetetrazol, the convulsant benzodiazepine RO 5-3663 and the two convulsant barbiturates DMBB and CHEB similarly inhibit diazepam binding to astrocytes but have little effect on neurons. On the basis of these findings it is suggested that these convulsants and anticonvulsants owe at least part of their effect to an interaction with the astrocytic benzodiazepine receptor, perhaps by interference with a calcium channel

  19. Lifelong consumption of sodium selenite: gender differences on blood-brain barrier permeability in convulsive, hypoglycemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, F Burcu; Akgul, Sibel; Oztas, Baria

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of hypoglycemia and induced convulsions on the blood-brain barrier permeability in rats with or without lifelong administration of sodium selenite. There is a significant decrease of the blood-brain barrier permeability in three brain regions of convulsive, hypoglycemic male rats treated with sodium selenite when compared to sex-matched untreated rats (p0.05). The blood-brain barrier permeability of the left and right hemispheres of untreated, moderately hypoglycemic convulsive rats of both genders was better than their untreated counterparts (peffect against blood-brain barrier permeability during convulsions and that the effects of sodium selenite are gender-dependent.

  20. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate induced convulsions by 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, P.; Marvizon, J.C.G.; Jackson, B.W.; Monn, J.A.; Rice, K.C.; Lewin, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid is a potent and selective ligand for the glycine modulatory site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex. This compound blocks the convulsions and deaths produced by N-methyl-D-aspartate in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast, 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid does not protect mice against convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole, strychnine, bicuculline, or maximal electroshock, and does not impair motor performance on either a rotarod or horizontal wire at doses of up to 2 g/kg. The methyl- and ethyl- esters of 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid are 5- and 2.3-fold more potent, respectively, than the parent compound in blocking the convulsant and lethal effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate. However, these esters are several orders of magnitude less potent than 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid as inhibitors of strychnine-insensitive [ 3 H]glycine binding, indicating that conversion to the parent compound may be required to elicit an anticonvulsant action

  1. Soman-induced convulsions: The neuropathology revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baille, Valerie; Clarke, Peter G.H.; Brochier, Guy; Dorandeu, Frederic; Verna, Jean-Marc; Four, Elise; Lallement, Guy; Carpentier, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The organophosphorus compound soman, an irreversible inhibitor of cholinesterases, produces seizure activity and related brain damage. Studies using various biochemical markers of programmed cell death (PCD) suggested that soman-induced cell damage in the brain was apoptotic rather than necrotic. However, it has recently become clear that not all PCD is apoptotic, and the unequivocal demonstration of apoptosis requires ultrastructural examination. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to reinvestigate the damage produced in the brains of mice sacrificed at various times within the first 24 h or at 7 days after a convulsive dose of soman. Classical histology and ultrastructural examination were performed. The immunohistochemical expression of proteins (p53, Bax) involved in PCD, DNA fragmentation (TUNEL method at light and electron microscopy levels) and the glial reaction were also explored. Our study confirms that the severity of lesions depended on the duration of convulsions and shows that cerebral changes were still occurring as late as 7 days after the onset of long-lasting convulsions. Our observations also establish that there was a large variety of ultrastructurally distinct types of cell damage, including hybrid forms between apoptosis and necrosis, but that pure apoptosis was very rare. A prominent expression of p53 and Bax proteins was detected indicating that PCD mechanisms were certainly involved in the morphologically diverse forms of cell death. Since purely apoptotic cells were very rare, these protein expressions were presumably involved either in nonapoptotic cell death mechanisms or in apoptotic mechanisms occurring in parallel with nonapoptotic ones. Moreover, evidence for DNA fragmentation by the TUNEL method was found in apoptotic but also in numerous other morphotypes of cell damage. Therefore, TUNEL-positivity and the expression of PCD-related proteins, in the absence of ultrastructural confirmation, were here shown not to provide

  2. Home Management of Febrile Convulsion in Under-fives: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Home Management of Febrile Convulsion in Under-fives: an Assessment of Perceptions and Practices of Caregivers in Ojokoro Local Council Development Area, Lagos. ... Of the 46 respondents that reported previous history of febrile convulsion, 39(84.8%)carried out inappropriate pre-facility management practices.

  3. Epilepsy: MRI follow-up in paediatric convulsive status epilepticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulac, Olivier; Nabbout, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE)-defined as either a single convulsive seizure or a series of seizures without recovery of consciousness lasting for over 30 min - is a common disorder with an annual incidence of 18-20 cases per 100,000 people. CSE is primarily a disorder of infancy, observed in patients up to 4 years of age. (authors)

  4. Epilepsy: MRI follow-up in paediatric convulsive status epilepticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulac, Olivier; Nabbout, Rima [Paris Descartes Univ, Necker Enfants Malades Hosp, APHP, CEA, Inserm U1129, Neuropediat Dept, Orsay, (France)

    2012-05-15

    Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE)-defined as either a single convulsive seizure or a series of seizures without recovery of consciousness lasting for over 30 min - is a common disorder with an annual incidence of 18-20 cases per 100,000 people. CSE is primarily a disorder of infancy, observed in patients up to 4 years of age. (authors)

  5. Prognosis and predictors of convulsion among pediatric lupus nephritis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Einollahi, Behzad; Taheri, Saeed; Panahi, Yunes; Maddani, Abbas; Esfahani, Taher; Sharifi-Bonab, Mir Mohsen

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to analyze features and outcome of convulsion in pediatric lupus nephritis patients. We retrospectively reviewed data of 14 Iranian children with lupus nephritis who developed seizures and compared them with a group of the same number of well matched pediatric lupus nephritis patients. Higher serum creatinine levels and higher frequencies of anemia and lymphopenia were observed in the convulsion group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the only risk factor for development of convulsion in pediatric lupus patients with nephritis was lymphopenia. Survival analysis showed that convulsion had no impact on patient and renal function outcomes in our pediatric lupus nephritis subjects. In conclusion, we found that lymphopenia is a predictive factor for convulsion occurrence in our patients and special attention to neurological status assessment may be needed in this situation. (author)

  6. Challenges in the treatment of convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccara, Gaetano; Giannasi, Gianfranco; Oggioni, Roberto; Rosati, Eleonora; Tramacere, Luciana; Palumbo, Pasquale

    2017-04-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is a medical emergency associated with high mortality and morbidity. The most recent definition of CSE is a convulsive seizure lasting more than 5min or consecutive seizures without recovery of consciousness. In adults, for the treatment of the early stages of CSE, diazepam, lorazepam or midazolam are the most common treatments, although the choice of agent seems less important than rapid treatment. Midazolam, when administered intramuscularly (best evidence), buccally, or nasally, is effective and safe in the pre-hospital setting. The antiepileptic drugs, phenytoin, valproate, levetiracetam and, more recently lacosamide, are used in CSE that persists after first-line treatments (established CSE). Phenytoin is more difficult to administer and is less well tolerated. Evidence of the efficacy of lacosamide is scarce. Anaesthetics are the drugs of choice for the treatment of refractory CSE (not responding to second-line drugs). Midazolam seems to be the best tolerated and is the most often used drug, followed by propofol and thiopental (pentobarbital in the USA). A few studies indicate that ketamine is effective with the possible advantage that it can be co-administered with other anaesthetics, such as midazolam or propofol. CSE becomes super-refractory after more than 24h of appropriate treatments and may last weeks. Several anaesthetics have been proposed but evidence is scarce. Autoimmune refractory CSE has been recently identified, and early treatment with immuno-modulatory agents (corticosteroids and IV immunoglobulins and also second-line agents such as cyclophosphamide and rituximab followed by chronic immunosuppressive treatment) is now recommended by many experts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Efficacy and safety of intravenous sodium valproate versus phenobarbital in controlling convulsive status epilepticus and acute prolonged convulsive seizures in children: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamiri, Reza Azizi; Ghaempanah, Mahdieh; Khosroshahi, Nahid; Nikkhah, Ali; Bavarian, Behrouz; Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza

    2012-09-01

    Status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures are the most commonly occurring neurological emergencies in children. Such events have high morbidity and mortality rates along with poor long-term outcomes, depending on their duration and causes. Therefore, such seizures warrant urgent treatment using appropriate doses of anticonvulsants. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, and phenytoin are the most commonly used anticonvulsants for controlling status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures. However, these medications have several well-known adverse effects. Previous studies on both adults and children have shown the efficacy and safety of rapid infusion of valproate in controlling status epilepticus. However, few well-designed randomised trials have been carried out in children, and there remains a paucity of data regarding intravenous sodium valproate use in children. Therefore, our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of rapid loading of valproate with those of intravenous phenobarbital in children with status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures. Sixty children (30 in each group) with convulsive status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either valproate or phenobarbital. The main outcome variable was termination of all convulsive activity within 20 min of starting anticonvulsant infusion. Intravenous rapid loading of valproate was successful in seizure termination in (27/30, 90%) of patients compared to phenobarbital (23/30, 77%) (p = 0.189). Clinically significant adverse effects occurred in 74% patients of the phenobarbital group and 24% patients of the valproate group (p < 0.001). In conclusion, rapid loading of valproate is effective and safe in controlling convulsive status epilepticus and acute prolonged convulsive seizures in children. Intravenous valproate should be considered as a suitable choice for terminating status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures in children. Copyright

  8. Regional changes in brain 2-14C-deoxyglucose uptake induced by convulsant and non-convulsant doses of lindane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfeliu, C.; Sola, C.; Camon, L.; Martinez, E.; Rodriguez-Farre, E.

    1990-01-01

    Lindane-induced dose- and time-related changes in regional 2-14C-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake were examined in 59 discrete rat brain structures using the 2-DG autoradiographic technique. At different times (0.5-144 hr) after administration of a seizure-inducing single dose of lindane (60 mg/kg), 2-DG uptake was significantly increased in 18 cortical and subcortical regions mainly related to the limbic system (e.g., Ammon's horn, dentate gyrus, septal nuclei, nucleus accumbens, olfactory cortex) and extrapyramidal and sensory-motor areas (e.g., cerebellar cortex, red nucleus, medial vestibular nucleus). There was also a significant increase in superior colliculus layer II. In addition, significant decreases occurred in a group of 6 regions (e.g., auditory and motor cortices). Non-convulsing animals treated with the same dose of lindane showed a regional pattern of 2-DG uptake less modified than the convulsant group. A non-convulsant single dose of lindane (30 mg/kg) also modified significantly the 2-DG uptake (0.5-24 hr) in some brain areas. Although the various single doses of lindane tested produced different altered patterns of brain 2-DG uptake, some structures showed a similar trend in their modification (e.g., superior colliculi and accumbens, raphe and red nuclei). Repeated non-convulsant doses of lindane produced defined and long-lasting significant elevations of 2-DG uptake in some subcortical structures. Considering the treated groups all together, 2-DG uptake increased significantly in 26 of the 59 regions examined but only decreased significantly in 9 of them during the course of lindane effects. This fact can be related to the stimulant action described for this neurotoxic agent. The observed pattern provides a descriptive approach to the functional alterations occurring in vivo during the course of lindane intoxication

  9. Gammabenzene hexachloride-induced convulsions in an HIV positive individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panvelkar V

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of chancroid with scabies with HIV positivity is being presented. The individual was treated with 1% gamma benzene hexachloride for scabies and developed convulsions.

  10. Stress-related behavioral alterations accompanying cocaine toxicity: the effects of mixed opioid drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yamamoto, K

    2000-12-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of mixed opioid drugs on the severity of cocaine (COCA) toxicity by examining stress-related behavioral alterations in mice. In order to ascertain the strength of the stress, the continuous observation of the behavioral symptoms in the cage and the forced swimming test (Porsolt test) were performed in the COCA (75 mg/kg, i.p.)-treated groups, with or without the mixed mu-kappa receptor-related opioid drugs, buprenorphine (BUP) and pentazocine (PEN). Using the high-sensitivity activity measuring instrument Supermex, both the spontaneous behaviors in the cage and the forced swimming behaviors in the water were assessed as activity counts. The behavioral alterations in the COCA-treated groups were compared with a group of mice given a 10 min immobilization stress (IM group). In the COCA-only group, a prolonged increase in the spontaneous behaviors accompanied by convulsive seizures was observed even in the surviving mice, unlike in the IM group. However, an acceleration of behavioral despair in the Porsolt test similar to that observed in the IM group was observed in the COCA group after the disappearance of the acute toxic symptoms (5 hours after the COCA treatment). Among the opioid-treated groups, the mortality rate was attenuated only in the COCA-BUP (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) group. In the COCA-BUP group, a prolonged suppression of the morbid hyperactivity in the cage except for the convulsive seizures, and a normalization of the swimming behavior in the Porsolt test were observed in the survivors. On the other hand, in the COCA-PEN (5 mg/kg, i.p.) group, the swimming behavior in the Porsolt test was abnormally increased in addition to the prolonged morbid hyperactivity in the cage. Therefore, the COCA-induced stress-related behaviors were normalized in the group of mice treated with BUP, a group with a good prognosis.

  11. Protection against cyanide-induced convulsions with alpha-ketoglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H

    1990-04-30

    Protection against convulsions induced by cyanide was observed after treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate, either alone or in combination with sodium thiosulfate, a classical antagonist for cyanide intoxication. However, sodium thiosulfate alone did not protect against cyanide (30 mg/kg)-induced convulsions. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in brain were decreased by 31% in KCN-treated mice exhibiting convulsions. The combined administration of alpha-ketoglutarate and sodium thiosulfate completely abolished the decrease of GABA levels induced by cyanide. Furthermore, sodium thiosulfate alone also completely abolished the decrease of GABA levels. These results suggest that the depletion of brain GABA levels may not directly contribute to the development of convulsions induced by cyanide. On the other hand, cyanide increased calcium levels by 32% in brain crude mitochondrial fractions in mice with convulsions. The increased calcium levels were completely abolished by the combined administration of alpha-ketoglutarate and sodium thiosulfate, but not affected by sodium thiosulfate alone. These findings support the hypothesis proposed by Johnson et al. (Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 84 (1986) 464) and Robinson et al. (Toxicology, 35 (1985) 59) that calcium may play an important role in mediating cyanide neurotoxicity.

  12. Clinical research of benign infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-bing LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cases of benign infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (BICE treated in our hospital from 2008 to 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Among the 65 cases of convulsions with acute diarrhea, there were 18 cases of BICE, 15 cases of febrile seizures, 13 cases of epilepsy, 6 cases of viral encephalitis, 6 cases of hyponatremia encephalopathy, 3 cases of hypernatremia encephalopathy, 2 cases of toxic encephalopathy, and 2 cases of hypocalcemia convulsion. The convulsion occurred mostly during the first 2 d of the illness and was in a generalized tonic or tonic-clonic form. Positive rotavirus antigens in the BICE patients were detected in 83.33% (15/18. Phenobarbital was administered after the first convulsion (5-10 mg/kg, and diazepam was given intravenously in case of recurrence (0.10-0.30 mg/kg. BICE occurs frequently in infantile and controlling relapse is the main purpose. The prognosis is good. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.019

  13. Concussive convulsions as differential diagnosis of posttraumatic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Nikola M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Concussive convulsions are motor manifestations in acute head injury. This clinical phenomenon should be distin- guished from epileptic seizures. We present two young men with motor and convulsive manifestations in acute head injury. Patient 1. A18-year old basketball player felt on the parquet during a game. Initially he was struck on the right shoulder which caused brief and vigorous twitch of the head towards the ground and additional temporal impact. At the moment of impact he lost consciousness and developed tonic leg and arm posturing with both clenched fists. His legs were extended during next 20 seconds. Thereafter he was still and his loss of consciousness lasted 3 minutes. Patient 2. A 26-year old man felt on the wooden ground from a 4 m high ferry. He got head impact and lost consciousness. In a few seconds he had tonic/clonic convulsions for the next 10-15 seconds. Ten minutes later he awaked. Results of subsequent neurological examination, electroencephalography and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging studies were normal in both patients. They returned to their occupations after four weeks without problems for a further one year. Conclusion. Described motor manifestations present concussive convulsions. These clinical features are due to transient functional decerebration and corticomedullary dissociation during cerebral concussion. Concussive convulsions are a non-epileptic phenomenon, they are not associated with structural brain injury and have good prognosis. Antiepileptic treatment is not indicated.

  14. New lessons: Classic treatments in convulsive status epilepticus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Renganathan, R

    2012-02-03

    Convulsive status epilepticus is a relatively common life-threatening illness requiring prompt intervention. There has been much debate about the appropriate protocol for management of convulsive status epilepticus. Published data on the management of this condition in Ireland is limited. Our aim was to establish if there was a structured, evidence-based or consensus-based protocol being implemented in the management of status epilepticus in our centre. We retrospectively audited all charts with a diagnosis of \\'Status Epilepticus\\' admitted to our hospital from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 95 episodes of convulsive status epilepticus were recorded. 34 charts were reviewed. Benzodiazepines were the drug class of first choice in 96% of patients. However, the doses of benzodiazepines used varied widely. The most frequent dose of phenytoin used was 1 gram. No one received continuous EEG monitoring during treatment of refractory status epilepticus. Overall mortality was 18%. The results of this study show that there is no consistent protocol was being followed for the management of convulsive status epilepticus in our centre. The drugs of first choice varied between diazepam and lorazepam in most cases. Although phenytoin was used as second line drug, the dose used was frequently suboptimal. We have developed a protocol for the management for convulsive status in our centre.

  15. Epilepsy is associated with ventricular alterations following convulsive status epilepticus in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Wail; Bubolz, Beth A; Nguyen, Linh; Castro, Danny; Coss-Bu, Jorge; Quach, Michael M; Kennedy, Curtis E; Anderson, Anne E; Lai, Yi-Chen

    2017-12-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus can exert profound cardiovascular effects in adults including ventricular depolarization-repolarization abnormalities. Whether status epilepticus adversely affects ventricular electrical properties in children is less understood. Therefore, we sought to characterize ventricular alterations and the associated clinical factors in children following convulsive status epilepticus. We conducted a 2-year retrospective, case-control study. Children between 1 month and 21 years of age were included if they were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with primary diagnosis of convulsive status epilepticus and had 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) within 24 hours of admission. Children with heart disease, ion channelopathy, or on vasoactive medications were excluded. Age-matched control subjects had no history of seizures or epilepsy. The primary outcome was ventricular abnormalities represented by ST segment changes, abnormal T wave, QRS axis deviation, and corrected QT (QTc) interval prolongation. The secondary outcomes included QT/RR relationship, beat-to-beat QTc interval variability, ECG interval measurement between groups, and clinical factors associated with ECG abnormalities. Of 317 eligible children, 59 met the inclusion criteria. History of epilepsy was present in 31 children (epileptic) and absent in 28 children (non-epileptic). Compared with the control subjects (n = 31), the status epilepticus groups were more likely to have an abnormal ECG with overall odds ratio of 3.8 and 7.0 for the non-epileptic and the epileptic groups respectively. Simple linear regression analysis demonstrated that children with epilepsy exhibited impaired dependence and adaptation of the QT interval on heart rate. Beat-to-beat QTc interval variability, a marker of ventricular repolarization instability, was increased in children with epilepsy. Convulsive status epilepticus can adversely affect ventricular electrical properties and stability in children

  16. Convulsive syncope related to a small dose of quetiapine in an adolescent with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai J

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Jianbo Lai,1,2 Qiaoqiao Lu,3 Tingting Huang,3 Shaohua Hu,1,2 Yi Xu1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 2Key Laboratory of Mental Disorder Management in Zhejiang Province, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China Abstract: Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has been extensively used in patients with bipolar disorder. Overdose of quetiapine can result in severe complications, such as coma, seizure, respiratory depression, arrhythmia, and even death. However, the paucity of toxicological evaluation in adolescence causes more potential risks in this population. Herein, we present a case of hypotension and convulsive syncope after exposure to a small dose of quetiapine in a 16-year-old who was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. After cessation of quetiapine, no additional convulsive movements were reported. This case indicates that even in young patients without predisposing factors, close monitoring of adverse effects should be warranted for safety concerns, especially at the initiation of quetiapine treatment. Keywords: quetiapine, bipolar disorder, hypotension, convulsive syncope

  17. Rocuronium and sugammadex: An alternative to succinylcholine for electro convulsive therapy in patients with suspected neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramamoorthy, Karthik G

    2012-01-31

    We report a case of presumptive neuroleptic malignant syndrome requiring muscle relaxation for electro-convulsive therapy. short acting muscle relaxation without the use of succinylcholine was achieved using rocvronivm reversed with the novel reversal agent sugammadex. We suggest that this combination is a safe and effective alternative to succinylcholine in such cases.

  18. Rocuronium and sugammadex: An alternative to succinylcholine for electro convulsive therapy in patients with suspected neuroleptic malignant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik G Ramamoorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of presumptive neuroleptic malignant syndrome requiring muscle relaxation for electro-convulsive therapy. short acting muscle relaxation without the use of succinylcholine was achieved using rocvronivm reversed with the novel reversal agent sugammadex. We suggest that this combination is a safe and effective alternative to succinylcholine in such cases.

  19. Inhibition of CD38/Cyclic ADP-ribose Pathway Protects Rats against Ropivacaine-induced Convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zou

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The CD38/cADPR pathway is activated in ropivacaine-induced convulsion. Inhibiting this pathway alleviates ropivacaine-induced convulsion and protects the brain from apoptosis and oxidative stress.

  20. Evidence-Based Guideline: Treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children and Adults: Report of the Guideline Committee of the American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnar, Shlomo; Gloss, David; Alldredge, Brian; Arya, Ravindra; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Bare, Mary; Bleck, Thomas; Dodson, W. Edwin; Garrity, Lisa; Jagoda, Andy; Lowenstein, Daniel; Pellock, John; Riviello, James; Sloan, Edward; Treiman, David M.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The optimal pharmacologic treatment for early convulsive status epilepticus is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze efficacy, tolerability and safety data for anticonvulsant treatment of children and adults with convulsive status epilepticus and use this analysis to develop an evidence-based treatment algorithm. DATA SOURCES: Structured literature review using MEDLINE, Embase, Current Contents, and Cochrane library supplemented with article reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials of anticonvulsant treatment for seizures lasting longer than 5 minutes. DATA EXTRACTION: Individual studies were rated using predefined criteria and these results were used to form recommendations, conclusions, and an evidence-based treatment algorithm. RESULTS: A total of 38 randomized controlled trials were identified, rated and contributed to the assessment. Only four trials were considered to have class I evidence of efficacy. Two studies were rated as class II and the remaining 32 were judged to have class III evidence. In adults with convulsive status epilepticus, intramuscular midazolam, intravenous lorazepam, intravenous diazepam and intravenous phenobarbital are established as efficacious as initial therapy (Level A). Intramuscular midazolam has superior effectiveness compared to intravenous lorazepam in adults with convulsive status epilepticus without established intravenous access (Level A). In children, intravenous lorazepam and intravenous diazepam are established as efficacious at stopping seizures lasting at least 5 minutes (Level A) while rectal diazepam, intramuscular midazolam, intranasal midazolam, and buccal midazolam are probably effective (Level B). No significant difference in effectiveness has been demonstrated between intravenous lorazepam and intravenous diazepam in adults or children with convulsive status epilepticus (Level A). Respiratory and cardiac symptoms are the most commonly encountered treatment-emergent adverse events

  1. Opiate-like electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of electroconvulsive shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, F C; Cowan, A; Belenky, G L; Holaday, J W

    1981-12-03

    Rats were studied (a) after a single transauricular electroshock (acute ECS) and (b) following 10 consecutive once-daily shocks (chronic ECS). ECS produced a generalized convulsion marked by a polyspike EEG seizure. The seizure was followed by a period of postictal depression (PID) characterized by EEG high-voltage synchrony, EMG quietening, and an associated stuporous behavior in the rat. Acute ECS produced a maximal of 33 +/- 8 (S.E.) percent above control in the EEG voltage output during postictus, with the PID lasting 2680 +/- 658 sec. Chronic ECS resulted in a significant enhancement of these acute responses. Pretreating rats with naloxone (0.3-10 mg/kg s.c.) antagonized the postictal effects of acute ECS, but not of chronic ECS. These naloxone-sensitive postictal EEG and behavioral changes appear to reflect a release of endogenous opioid peptides during ictus, a finding consistent with the hypothesis that electroshock activates opioid systems.

  2. Two cases of glufosinate poisoning with late onset convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, J; Yamashita, M; Yamashita, M; Matsuo, H; Yamamoto, T

    1998-08-01

    Glufosinate ammonium (GLA), the active ingredient in the non-selective herbicide BASTA (18.5% GLA), is a phosphinic acid analogue of glutamic acid. We report 2 cases of GLA poisoning with late onset convulsions and increased serum CK in spite of low blood concentrations of GLA after hemodialysis. A 69-y-old female was admitted to the emergency department after taking 500 ml of BASTA. On arrival she was conscious, and gut decontamination, hemodialysis and hemoperfusion were performed. However, 8 1/2 hours after ingestion, general convulsions occurred. Her serum OK increased to a peak of 24,900 IU/L on the third day of admission. An 87-y-old male was admitted to the emergency department 3 1/2 hours after taking 200 ml of BASTA and receiving gastric lavage at a local emergency room. On arrival he was conscious, and serial activated charcoal and hemodialysis was performed. Blood concentration of GLA after hemodialysis decreased from 1.56 micrograms/ml to 0.68 micrograms/ml. Thirty hours after admission he had general convulsions. GLA was not detected in the cerebrospinal fluid 6 h after the convulsions. His serum CK increased to a peak of 17,870 IU/L on the fifth day of admission.

  3. Electro-Convulsive Therapy (ECT): an Egyptian perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    that has stood the test of time for over six decades like ECT. ... safety of ECT in the treatment of psychiatric disorders as well as determining its ... which needs to be changed since shock and convulsion are absent when giving modified ECT.

  4. Distribution of risk factors among children with febrile convulsions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximal risk factors are male gender, age < 2 years, 2nd birth order and positive family nd history. The social status of families is a distal risk factor. The second year of life and 2 birth order are the strongest predisposing factors to the development of FC. Key words: Febrile convulsions, Risk factors, Benin City, Nigeria ...

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for Active Convulsive Epilepsy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little data in West Africa, to develop public health measures for epilepsy in this region. Methods: we conducted a three-stage cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence and risk factors for active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), and estimated the ...

  6. CONVULSIVE DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH REFERENCE TO TREATMENT WITH KETOGENIC DIET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEITH, HADDOW M.

    WRITTEN FOR THE MEDICAL PROFESSION, THIS BOOK PROVIDES INFORMATION ON CHILDHOOD CONVULSIONS (EPILEPSY) AND METHODS OF TREATMENT. VARIOUS CONVULSIVE DISORDERS, INCLUDING HYPSARHYTHMIA, AUTONOMIC SEIZURES, SYMPTOM COMPLEXES, FEBRILE CONVULSIONS, AND "PHOTOGENIC" DISORDERS, ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, AND TREATMENT.…

  7. Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Seeds of Cassia Fistula against Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh P. Sawadadkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassia Fistula is a popular Indian herb which is used as tonic, laxative, anti-pyretic, astringent, febrifuge, strong purgative etc. The aim of present study was to evaluate anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced convulsions in mice. All the animals were divided into four groups of six mice each and were injected PTZ (60mg/kg intraperitonially Group I was served as toxic control, Group II was pretreated with  Gabapentin (200mg/kg P.O.. Group III was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (100 mg/kg P.O. for 7 days. Group IV was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (200mg/kg P.O. for 7 days.The result shows that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula significantly reduced duration of clonic convulsions and also delayed the onset of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. The result was expressed as mean ± SEM and were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. It is concluded that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula can show anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions in mice.

  8. Influence of dietary zinc on convulsive seizures and hippocampal NADPH diaphorase-positive neurons in seizure susceptible EL mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, I; Akasaki, Y; Uchida, M; Kuchiiwa, S; Nakagawa, S; Takigawa, M

    1998-04-13

    Adequate, high and deficient dietary levels of zinc (Zn) were compared in seizure-susceptible EL mice with respect to convulsions and to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) diaphorase-positive hippocampal neurons. Diaphorase positivity is associated with nitric oxide (NO) production. Convulsive seizures in the EL mice given the various diets did not differ over 1-4 weeks, but convulsions in EL mice given the Zn-deficient diet for 4 weeks were more effectively suppressed by injection of zonisamide (ZNS) (75 mg/kg intraperitoneally) than in mice receiving high- or adequate-Zn diet for the same period. Numbers of NADPH diaphorase-positive neurons in the CA1/CA2 region of the hippocampal formation were significantly higher in mice given the Zn-deficient diet for 4 weeks than in mice fed adequate Zn. Mice receiving the high-Zn diet for the same period had significantly fewer NADPH diaphorase-positive neurons in the subiculum than mice with adequate Zn. These results suggest that Zn deficiency inhibits convulsive seizures of EL mice, and that dietary Zn influences numbers of NO producing neurons in the hippocampal formation. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Electro convulsive therapy in a pre-pubertal child with severe depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT in pre-pubertal children is a controversial and underreported treatment. Even though the effectiveness and side effects of ECT in adolescents are comparable with those in adults, there is a pervasive reluctance to use ECT in children and adolescents. We report the case of a pre-pubertal child in an episode of severe depression with catatonic features, where a protracted course of ECT proved life-saving in spite of prolonged duration of seizures and delayed response to treatment. The case illustrates the safety and efficacy of ECT in children. Relevant literature is also reviewed along with the case report.

  10. 5-(2-Cyclohexylideneethyl)-5-ethyl barbituric acid (CHEB): correlation of hypnotic and convulsant properties with alterations of synaptosomal 45Ca2+ influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, L.J.; Leslie, S.W.; Gonzales, R.

    1986-01-01

    Male ICR mice were given either 5-(2-cyclohexylideneethyl)-5-ethyl barbituric acid (CHEB) alone or CHEB after a 1 h pretreatment with phenobarbital CHEB alone produced excitatory behavior but not convulsive seizures. Higher doses produced convulsive seizures resulting in death. Pretreatment with phenobarbital prevented seizure activity. In vitro, CHEB significantly inhibited 'fast-phase' K + -stimulated 45 Ca 2+ uptake into cerebrocortical synaptosomes. CHEB also significantly increased basal 45 Ca 2+ uptake. The addition of CHEB or pentobarbital to striatal synaptosomes inhibited 'fast-phase' K + -stimulated 45 Ca 2+ uptake and endogenous dopamine release. CHEB, but not pentobarbital, produced a time- and dose-dependent increase in the resulting release of endogenous dopamine from striatal synaptosomes. The results of this study show that CHEB possesses hypnotic activity if its lethal convulsant actions are blocked. The hypnotic actions of CHEB appear to correlate with inhibition of voltage-dependent calcium channels in brain synaptosomes. (Auth.)

  11. Binding interactions of convulsant and anticonvulsant gamma-butyrolactones and gamma-thiobutyrolactones with the picrotoxin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, K.D.; McKeon, A.C.; Covey, D.F.; Ferrendelli, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Alkyl-substituted gamma-butyrolactones (GBLs) and gamma-thiobutyrolactones (TBLs) are neuroactive chemicals. beta-Substituted compounds are convulsant, whereas alpha-alkyl substituted GBLs and TBLs are anticonvulsant. The structural similarities between beta-alkyl GBLs and the convulsant picrotoxinin suggested that alkyl substituted GBLs and TBLs act at the picrotoxin receptor. To test this hypothesis we examined the interactions of convulsant and anticonvulsant GBLs and TBLs with the picrotoxin, benzodiazepine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding sites of the GABA receptor complex. All of these convulsants and anticonvulsants studied competitively displaced 35S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (35S-TBPS), a ligand that binds to the picrotoxin receptor. This inhibition of 35S-TBPS binding was not blocked by the GABA antagonist bicuculline methobromide. The convulsant GBLs and TBLs also partially inhibited [3H]muscimol binding to the GABA site and [3H]flunitrazepam binding to the benzodiazepine site, but they did so at concentrations substantially greater than those that inhibited 35S-TBPS binding. The anticonvulsant GBLs and TBLs had no effect on either [3H]muscimol or [3H]flunitrazepam binding. In contrast to the GBLs and TBLs, pentobarbital inhibited TBPS binding in a manner that was blocked by bicuculline methobromide, and it enhanced both [3H]flunitrazepam and [3H]muscimol binding. Both ethosuximide and tetramethylsuccinimide, neuroactive compounds structurally similar to GBLs, competitively displaced 35S-TBPS from the picrotoxin receptor and both compounds were weak inhibitors of [3H] muscimol binding. In addition, ethosuximide also partially diminished [3H]flunitrazepam binding. These data demonstrate that the site of action of alkyl-substituted GBLs and TBLs is different from that of GABA, barbiturates and benzodiazepines

  12. Intermittent diazepam prophylaxis in febrile convulsions. Pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, F U

    1991-01-01

    Major cohort studies document that the long-term prognosis for most children with febrile convulsions (FC) is excellent. The 2 main treatment alternatives so far have been long-term prophylaxis with phenobarbital or valproate or no prophylaxis at all. Phenobarbital at times of fever is ineffective and obsolete. Consensus has emerged that long-term prophylaxis with antiepileptic drugs is rarely justified in FC considering the side effects and the favourable prognosis. No treatment at all does not appear quite satisfactory either, as FC have a high recurrence rate, disrupt family life and may have emotional consequences for the family. Moreover, all FC children face a risk, although admittedly low, of subsequent long-lasting potentially central nervous system (CNS)-damaging seizures. However, 2 further options exist: treatment with rapid-acting benzodiazepines solely at times of greatest risk, i.e., at high fever or at renewed seizures. Several clinical trials have confirmed that intermittent diazepam prophylaxis by way of a few doses of the drug per year provides effective seizure control and reduces the recurrence rate by one half or two thirds. The treatment is feasible and cheap, well tolerated by the child and well accepted by the parents. Compliance problems are common and only partly abatable. Trivial side effects are frequent. Transient respiratory apnoea does occur, but 15 years' experience substantiates that serious side effects are remarkably rare. Acute anticonvulsant treatment with rectal diazepam in solution given by the parents to stop ongoing seizures and to prevent immediate recurrences is an attractive alternative. It is feasible, is probably effective and minimizes the use of drugs, but compliance problems are common and protracted seizures are not always controlled. The subsequent management should include a risk profile approach considering a combination of risk factors for new FC rather than a single factor. By means of a risk index, based on

  13. Spreading convulsions, spreading depolarization and epileptogenesis in human cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Jens P; Major, Sebastian; Pannek, Heinz-Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Spreading depolarization of cells in cerebral grey matter is characterized by massive ion translocation, neuronal swelling and large changes in direct current-coupled voltage recording. The near-complete sustained depolarization above the inactivation threshold for action potential generating...... stimulations. Eventually, epileptic field potentials were recorded during the period that had originally seen spreading depression of activity. Such spreading convulsions are characterized by epileptic field potentials on the final shoulder of the large slow potential change of spreading depolarization. We...

  14. Treatment of Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Elizabeth L.; Wheless, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is one of the most common neurologic emergencies and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality if not treated promptly and aggressively. Management of GCSE is staged and generally involves the use of life support measures, identification and management of underlying causes, and rapid initiation of anticonvulsants. The purpose of this article is to review and evaluate published reports regarding the treatment of impending, established, refractory, and super-refractory GCSE in pediatric patients. PMID:26380568

  15. Serum zinc and copper levels in children with febrile convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Febrile convulsions (FC are the most common neurologic disorder in children 6-60 months of age. Zinc (Zn and copper (Cu play role as cofactors in more than 300 enzymatic activities significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship serum levels of Zn and Cu with seizure occurrence in febrile children. In this case-control study, 270 children with 6 month to 6 years were evaluated. The patients were enrolled in three groups: a children with febrile convulsion, b febrile children without convulsion and c healthy ones. After recording of all patients’ characteristics, 5 mL blood was taken from peripheral vessels at the first 12 hours of hospitalization. Absorption of all samples was read by BRAIC (Rayleigh instrument company, WFX-130 model with calibration diagram, considering samples dilution levels. The mean of serum Zn levels in children with FC were significantly lower than other two groups. Mean serum Cu levels in children with FC and non-FC patients were significantly higher than healthy children. No meaningful differences were observed in serum levels of Zn and Cu among the girl or boy cases. This study showed significant lower serum zinc level in children with febrile seizure and meaningful higher serum copper level than control group cases. There was no significant difference in level of serum zinc and copper in term of sex.

  16. COMPROMISE EFFECT ON CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Surkamta Eric Santosa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The way consumers think about the products they will buy determines their buying behavior. The decision to buy a particular product is obviously in accordance with the buyer’s attitude. The buyers will also feel more comfortable if their behavior meets with the approval and expectations of the people close to them. While the development of a certain attitude has no effect on subjective judgment, the effect of compromise is likely to make a contribution to its development. Since it is still unclear, this study’s main purposed is to clarify this. In addition, while an attitude is theorized as being a predictor of behavior, through behavioral intention, the study’s secondary purpose is to boost the earlier findings. Likewise, in accordance with the theory of planned behavior, the study will also examine the other predictors of behavioral intention, in relation to the behavioral intention itself. A sample consisting of a 100 respondents was compiled by using the convenience and judgment technique. The data were analyzed using Amos 16.0 and SPSS 16.0. As expected, the compromise effect had a significant influence on whether the customers’ attitude or the subjective norm was the main determinant. Likewise, the customers’ attitude, the subjective norm and perceived behavioral control were confirmed as good predictors of customers’ behavioral intentions.

  17. A role for endocannabinoids in viral-induced dyskinetic and convulsive phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbrig, Marylou V; Adrian, Russell; Baratta, Janie; Piomelli, Daniele; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2005-08-01

    Dyskinesias and seizures are both medically refractory disorders for which cannabinoid-based treatments have shown early promise as primary or adjunctive therapy. Using the Borna disease (BD) virus rat, an animal model of viral encephalopathy with spontaneous hyperkinetic movements and seizure susceptibility, we identified a key role for endocannabinoids in the maintenance of a balanced tone of activity in extrapyramidal and limbic circuits. BD rats showed significant elevations of the endocannabinoid anandamide in subthalamic nucleus, a relay nucleus compromised in hyperkinetic disorders. While direct and indirect cannabinoid agonists had limited motor effects in BD rats, abrupt reductions of endocannabinoid tone by the CB1 antagonist SR141716A (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) caused seizures characterized by myoclonic jerks time-locked to periodic spike/sharp wave discharges on hippocampal electroencephalography. The general opiate antagonist naloxone (NLX) (1 mg/kg, s.c.), another pharmacologic treatment with potential efficacy in dyskinesias or L-DOPA motor complications, produced similar seizures. No changes in anandamide levels in hippocampus and amygdala were found in convulsing NLX-treated BD rats. In contrast, NLX significantly increased anandamide levels in the same areas of normal uninfected animals, possibly protecting against seizures. Pretreatment with the anandamide transport blocker AM404 (20 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented NLX-induced seizures. These findings are consistent with an anticonvulsant role for endocannabinoids, counteracting aberrant firing produced by convulsive agents, and with a functional or reciprocal relation between opioid and cannabinoid tone with respect to limbic convulsive phenomena.

  18. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Unilateral Thalamic Infarct Presenting as a Convulsive Seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Brohi, Hazim; Mughul, Afshan

    2017-09-01

    Lesions of the thalamus and those extending into midbrain can cause various types of movement disorders such as dystonia, asterixis and ballism-chorea. Seizures are rare manifestation of thalamic disorder. Occurrence of seizures in bilateral thalamic infarct has been reported; but seizures in unilateral thalamic infarct have been reported very rarely. Literature review showed only single case of perinatal unilateral thalamic infarct presenting with seizures. We are reporting a unique case of convulsive seizure at the onset of unilateral thalamic infarct in an adult male, which has never been reported to the best of our knowledge.

  20. Dentate gyrus mossy cells control spontaneous convulsive seizures and spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Anh D; Nguyen, Theresa M; Limouse, Charles; Kim, Hannah K; Szabo, Gergely G; Felong, Sylwia; Maroso, Mattia; Soltesz, Ivan

    2018-02-16

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is characterized by debilitating, recurring seizures and an increased risk for cognitive deficits. Mossy cells (MCs) are key neurons in the hippocampal excitatory circuit, and the partial loss of MCs is a major hallmark of TLE. We investigated how MCs contribute to spontaneous ictal activity and to spatial contextual memory in a mouse model of TLE with hippocampal sclerosis, using a combination of optogenetic, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches. In chronically epileptic mice, real-time optogenetic modulation of MCs during spontaneous hippocampal seizures controlled the progression of activity from an electrographic to convulsive seizure. Decreased MC activity is sufficient to impede encoding of spatial context, recapitulating observed cognitive deficits in chronically epileptic mice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  1. Assessment of the Level of GABA and Some Trace Elements in Blood in Children who Suffer from Familial Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama N. Salah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizure is one of the most common neurological problems during childhood. The etiology and pathogenesis of febrile seizure remain unknown. However, several factors such as vitamin B6 deficiency, electrolyte disturbances, and reduction in serum zinc, selenium, magnesium levels, and low gamma - aminobutyric acid (GABA levels are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of febrile seizure. The present study included twenty children from 10 families, 11 were male and 9 were female. Each family has at least 2 members with a history of febrile convulsion. All cases were subjected to the following: Determination of serum levels of copper, zinc, magnesium, selenium level in serum, and plasma level of γ-aminobytaric acid (GABA. Serum levels of selenium and GABA were statistically significantly low in comparison with controls. Serum copper was statistically significantly higher in cases than controls, while serum zinc showed no significant changes in the cases of febrile convulsion compared with the control group. The mean Zn level in the serum of febrile convulsion was found to be at lower level than in the control group. The serum magnesium was significantly low in cases than controls. The logistic regression model in our study shows that Selenium and Magnesium have protective effects, while Copper has causative effect.

  2. Soman- or kainic acid-induced convulsions decrease muscarinic receptors but not benzodiazepine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, L.; Pazdernik, T.L.; Cross, R.S.; Nelson, S.R.; Samson, F.E.

    1990-01-01

    [3H]Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding to muscarinic receptors decreased in the rat forebrain after convulsions induced by a single dose of either soman, a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, or kainic acid, an excitotoxin. A Rosenthal plot revealed that the receptors decreased in number rather than affinity. When the soman-induced convulsions were blocked, the decrease in muscarinic receptors at 3 days was less extensive than when convulsions occurred and at 10 days they approached control levels in most of the brain areas. The most prominent decrements in QNB binding were in the piriform cortex where the decline in QNB binding is probably related to the extensive convulsion-associated neuropathology. The decrements in QNB binding after convulsions suggest that the convulsive state leads to a down-regulation of muscarinic receptors in some brain areas. In contrast to the decrease in QNB binding after convulsions, [3H]flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptors did not change even in the piriform cortex where the loss in muscarinic receptors was most prominent. Thus, it appears that those neuronal processes that bear muscarinic receptors are more vulnerable to convulsion-induced change than those with benzodiazepine receptors

  3. Alcoholic epilepsy. A definition and a description of other convulsions related to alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, H; Katoh, N

    1981-01-01

    The role of alcohol intake and withdrawal in so-called alcoholic epilepsy is discussed and illustrated by case reports. A classification is made which includes definitions of withdrawal convulsions, tetany-like withdrawal convulsions and alcohol-induced epileptic fits, with or without predisposing features.

  4. Predictors of Outcome of Convulsive Status Epilepticus Among an Egyptian Pediatric Tertiary Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawa, Eman F; Draz, Iman; Ahmed, Dalia; Shaheen, Hala A

    2015-11-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus is a common neurologic emergency in pediatrics. We aimed to study the etiology, clinical features, and prognostic factors among pediatric patients with convulsive status epilepticus. Seventy patients were included in this cohort study from pediatric emergency department of the specialized Children Hospital of Cairo University. The outcome was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Score. Acute symptomatic etiology was the most common cause of convulsive status epilepticus. Refractory convulsive status epilepticus was observed more significantly in cases caused by acute symptomatic etiologies. The outcome was mortality in 26 (37.1%) patients, severe disability in 15 (21.4%), moderate disability in 17 (24.3%), and good recovery in 12 (17.1%) patients. The significant predictor of mortality was lower modified Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission, whereas lower modified Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission and refractory convulsive status epilepticus were the significant predictors for disability and mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Randrianarivo

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The results confirmed at least partly the traditional uses of the smoke of M. moschatus for the management of convulsion, and implied that the essential oil may inhibit the convulsion by GABAergic neuromodulation.

  6. Effects of Customer Engagement Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Żyminkowska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - Research addressing the customer engagement behavior (CEB has rapidly developed in the marketing discipline, contributing to the knowledge on network organization. However, insights into the specific outcomes of CEB remain largely nebulous. Few comprehensive conceptual frameworks of CEB effects exists in the literature to-date. The empirical verification of CEB outcomes, particularly at the firm level, is still missing. Design/methodology/approach - In this article we first provide an overview of the CEB conceptualizations and its effects. Next we develop the CEB firm-level performance outcomes framework. Finally we explore CEB process, forms and outcomes in Stanley Black & Decker, applying qualitative methodological approach (case research incl. participant observation. Findings - We propose the logically arranged CEB effects in the conceptual model integrated with marketing metrics which are related to the recent advances in customer equity and customer asset management. Research implications/limitations - In empirical research we focused on the CEB effects related to one type of customer behaviors, i.e. Stanley Black& Decker customers' involvement in the product development and innovation which is a limitation in obtain-ing the comprehensive empirical picture of all CEB forms and its outcomes. Further empirical research (incl. quantitative one is necessary to verify our conceptual model. Originality/value/contribution - Our model of firm-level performance effects of CEB extends existing proposals and contributes to the knowledge on effective CEB management process in network organizations.

  7. 'Infantile convulsions' in the early nineteenth century. Abnormal brain blood flow and leeches, teething and gums' scarification and food and purgatives: the historical contribution of John Clarke (1760-1815).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Lattanzi, Simona; Trinka, Eugen; Nardone, Raffaele; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Ruggieri, Martino; Vecchio, Ignazio; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-20

    In this article, we discuss on the role of the British physician and midwifery practitioner John Clarke (1760-1815) in the characterisation of the various types of seizures and epilepsy and related phenomena ('convulsions') occurring in children. In his unfinished work Commentaries on Some of the Most Important Diseases of Children (1815), Clarke discussed the pathophysiology of convulsions and was the first to describe, 12 years before the French neurologist Louis Francois Bravais (1801-1843) and more than 30 years before the Irish-born physician Robert Bentley Todd (1809-1860), the postictal paresis. He believed that convulsions originated from changes in pressure within the ventricles as a consequence of abnormal blood flow to the cerebral vessels. In keeping with the theories of his time (e.g. Baumes 1789, 1805; Brachet 1824), Clarke believed that teething was a major cause of 'infantile convulsions'. His proposed remedies ranged from scarification of the gums to ammonia, application of leeches, cold water, and purgatives. The use of antispasmodics, quite popular at the time, was instead questioned. In his Practical Observations on the Convulsions of Infants (1826), the London practitioner and midwifery John North (1790-1873) deeply criticised Clarke's view that convulsions arise inevitably as a consequence of organic brain lesions. North inferred that the results of autopsies of children who had died of convulsions revealed no brain damages, and claimed that cerebral irritation could also occur as the effect of distant lesions. Other Clarke's contemporaries (e.g. Jean Baptiste Timothée Baumes-1756-1828) inferred that all convulsions reflected a hereditary diathesis, which rendered children (especially those with softer and limper nervous and muscular tissues!) extremely sensitive to all sorts of provocation that could trigger convulsions, including bad digestion (more pronounced at the time of teething), loud noise, and bright light. Although almost every

  8. Comparison of the effects of the GABAB receptor positive modulator BHF177 and the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on anxiety-like behavior, learning, and memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Risbrough, Victoria B; Cates-Gatto, Chelsea; Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Finn, M G; Roberts, Amanda J; Markou, Athina

    2013-07-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptor activation is a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of drug addiction, pain, anxiety, and depression. However, full agonists of this receptor induce side-effects, such as sedation, muscle relaxation, tolerance, and cognitive disruption. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the GABAB receptor may have similar therapeutic effects as agonists with superior side-effect profiles. The present study behaviorally characterized N-([1R,2R,4S]-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl)-2-methyl-5-(4-[trifluoromethyl]phenyl)-4-pyrimidinamine (BHF177), a GABAB receptor PAM, in mouse models of anxiety-like behavior, learning and memory. In addition, the effects of BHF177 were compared with the agonist baclofen. Unlike the anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide, baclofen (0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and BHF177 (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, orally) had no effect on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box, or Vogel conflict test. Baclofen increased punished drinking in the Vogel conflict test, but this effect may be attributable to the analgesic actions of baclofen. At the highest dose tested (2.5 mg/kg), baclofen-treated mice exhibited sedation-like effects (i.e., reduced locomotor activity) across many of the tests, whereas BHF177-treated mice exhibited no sedation-like effects. BHF177 exhibited pro-convulsion properties only in mice, but not in rats, indicating that this effect may be species-specific. At doses that were not sedative or pro-convulsant, baclofen and BHF177 had no selective effects on fear memory retrieval in contextual and cued fear conditioning or spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze. These data suggest that BHF177 has little sedative activity, no anxiolytic-like profile, and minimal impairment of learning and memory in mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perioperative anaesthetic adverse events in Thailand (PAAd THAI) study: Incident report of perioperative convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiamcharoenwit, Jatuporn; Akavipat, Phuping; Ariyanuchitkul, Thidarat; Wirachpisit, Nichawan; Pulnitiporn, Aksorn; Pongraweewan, Orawan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of perioperative convulsion and to suggest possible correcting strategies. The multi-centre study was conducted prospectively in 22 hospitals across Thailand in 2015. The occurrences of perioperative adverse events were collected. The data was collated by site manager and forwarded to the data management unit. All perioperative convulsion incidences were enrolled and analysed. The consensus was documented for the relevant factors and the corrective strategies. Descriptive statistics were used. From 2,000 incident reports, perioperative convulsions were found in 16 patients. Six episodes (37.5%) were related to anaesthesia, 31.3% to patients, 18.8% to surgery, and 12.5% to systemic processes. The contributing factor was an inexperienced anaesthesia performer (25%), while the corrective strategy was improvements to supervision (43.8%). Incidents of perioperative convulsion were found to be higher than during the last decade. The initiation and maintenance of safe anaesthesia should be continued.

  10. Premature mortality in active convulsive epilepsy in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, Christian; Fegan, Gregory; Chengo, Eddie; Odhiambo, Rachael; Bauni, Evasius; Neville, Brian; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Sander, Josemir W.; Newton, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We estimated premature mortality and identified causes of death and associated factors in people with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) in rural Kenya. Methods: In this prospective population-based study, people with ACE were identified in a cross-sectional survey and followed up regularly for 3 years, during which information on deaths and associated factors was collected. We used a validated verbal autopsy tool to establish putative causes of death. Age-specific rate ratios and standardized mortality ratios were estimated. Poisson regression was used to identify mortality risk factors. Results: There were 61 deaths among 754 people with ACE, yielding a rate of 33.3/1,000 persons/year. Overall standardized mortality ratio was 6.5. Mortality was higher across all ACE age groups. Nonadherence to antiepileptic drugs (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] 3.37), cognitive impairment (aRR 4.55), and age (50+ years) (rate ratio 4.56) were risk factors for premature mortality. Most deaths (56%) were directly related to epilepsy, with prolonged seizures/possible status epilepticus (38%) most frequently associated with death; some of these may have been due to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Possible SUDEP was the likely cause in another 7%. Conclusion: Mortality in people with ACE was more than 6-fold greater than expected. This may be reduced by improving treatment adherence and prompt management of prolonged seizures and supporting those with cognitive impairment. PMID:24443454

  11. Consensus guidelines on management of childhood convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Devendra; Sharma, Suvasini; Sankhyan, Naveen; Konanki, Ramesh; Kamate, Mahesh; Kanhere, Sujata; Aneja, Satinder

    2014-12-01

    Status epilepticus has a wide etiological spectrum, and significant morbidity and mortality. Management using a pre-determined uniform protocol leads to better outcomes. Multiple protocols for management of childhood status epilepticus are available, without much consensus. A 'Multi-disciplinary Consensus Development Workshop on Management of Status Epilepticus in Children in India' was organized. The invited experts included Pediatricians, Pediatric neurologists, Neurologists, Epileptologists, and Pediatric intensive care specialists from India, with experience in the relevant field. Experts had previously been divided into focus groups and had interacted on telephone and e-mail regarding their group recommendations, and developed consensus on the topic. During the meeting, each group presented their recommendations, which were deliberated upon by the house and a consensus was reached on various issues; the document was finalized after incorporating suggestions of experts on the draft document. To provide consensus guidelines on evaluation and management of convulsive status epilepticus in children in India (excluding neonatal and super-refractory status epilepticus). Each institution should use a pre-determined protocol for management of status epilepticus; pre-hospital management and early stabilization is the key to a satisfactory outcome of status epilepticus. Pharmacotherapy should not be delayed for any investigations; the initial management should consist of a parenteral benzodiazepine by any route feasible. Subsequent management has been detailed. The group also felt the need for more epidemiological research on status epilepticus from India, and identified certain research areas for the purpose.

  12. Overview of developmental, reproductive, and behavioral/ neurological effects of mercury exposures in wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.; Klimstra, J.; Stebbins, K.

    2007-01-01

    We review wildlife/mercury literature and our own research findings that demonstrate the relevance of wildlife toxicity data in protecting human health. Methylmercury affects wildlife through reduced adult survival and reproduction, aberrant behavior, immune system effects, and teratogenic effects. Methylmercury can readily cross the blood-brain barrier, is excreted into eggs in birds, and is transferred to young mammals across the placenta and in milk. Its principal effect on wildlife is on neurological functions. Wild mink (Mustela vison) and otter (Lutra canadensis) have died from methylmercury poisoning, with signs of poisoning including anorexia, loss of weight, incoordination, tremors, and convulsions, which are symptoms similar to those experienced by mercury-poisoned humans. Mammals also may experience tonic and clonic convulsions and an increase in fetal anomalies, again paralleling toxic problems in people. Antibody-producing cells can be suppressed by methylmercury. Microscopically, the most notable lesions are in the cerebrum. Extensive vacuolation of hepatocytes in the liver and necrosis and other changes in the appearance of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys are often noted. When harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) were dosed with methylmercury chloride the number of circulating erythrocytes decreased and white blood cell counts greatly increased. The poisoned seals also suffered from uremia, hyperproteinemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevations in lactic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase. In birds, signs of methylmercury poisoning included emaciation and weakness in the extremities, which progressed until the birds died. Mercury poisoning in birds and mammals can be diagnosed from a combination of the signs of poisoning if the animal is still alive, the pathological effects seen in a gross necropsy, the histopathological effects seen with a microscope, and the concentrations of mercury in various tissues. Our

  13. PRRT2 links infantile convulsions and paroxysmal dyskinesia with migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloarec, Robin; Bruneau, Nadine; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Massacrier, Annick; Salmi, Manal; Bataillard, Marc; Boulay, Clotilde; Caraballo, Roberto; Fejerman, Natalio; Genton, Pierre; Hirsch, Edouard; Hunter, Alasdair; Lesca, Gaetan; Motte, Jacques; Roubertie, Agathe; Sanlaville, Damien; Wong, Sau-Wei; Fu, Ying-Hui; Rochette, Jacques; Ptáček, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Whole genome sequencing and the screening of 103 families recently led us to identify PRRT2 (proline-rich-transmembrane protein) as the gene causing infantile convulsions (IC) with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) (PKD/IC syndrome, formerly ICCA). There is interfamilial and intrafamilial variability and the patients may have IC or PKD. Association of IC with hemiplegic migraine (HM) has also been reported. In order to explore the mutational and clinical spectra, we analyzed 34 additional families with either typical PKD/IC or PKD/IC with migraine. Methods: We performed Sanger sequencing of all PRRT2 coding exons and of exon-intron boundaries in the probands and in their relatives whenever appropriate. Results: Two known and 2 novel PRRT2 mutations were detected in 18 families. The p.R217Pfs*8 recurrent mutation was found in ≈50% of typical PKD/IC, and the unreported p.R145Gfs*31 in one more typical family. PRRT2 mutations were also found in PKD/IC with migraine: p.R217Pfs*8 cosegregated with PKD associated with HM in one family, and was also detected in one IC patient having migraine with aura, in related PKD/IC familial patients having migraine without aura, and in one sporadic migraineur with abnormal MRI. Previously reported p.R240X was found in one patient with PKD with migraine without aura. The novel frameshift p.S248Afs*65 was identified in a PKD/IC family member with IC and migraine with aura. Conclusions: We extend the spectrum of PRRT2 mutations and phenotypes to HM and to other types of migraine in the context of PKD/IC, and emphasize the phenotypic pleiotropy seen in patients with PRRT2 mutations. PMID:23077017

  14. Cardiac Arrest in Patients Managed for Convulsive Status Epilepticus: Characteristics, Predictors, and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legriel, Stephane; Bresson, Edouard; Deye, Nicolas; Grimaldi, David; Sauneuf, Bertrand; Lesieur, Olivier; Lascarrou, Jean-Baptiste; Argaud, Laurent; Chelly, Jonathan; Beuret, Pascal; Schnell, David; Chateauneuf, Anne-Laure; Holleville, Mathilde; Perier, François; Lemiale, Virginie; Bruel, Cedric; Cronier, Pierrick; Pichon, Nicolas; Mongardon, Nicolas; de-Prost, Nicolas; Dumas, Florence; Cariou, Alain

    2018-05-08

    Cardiac arrest is a catastrophic event that may arise during the management of convulsive status epilepticus. We aimed to report the clinical characteristics, outcomes, and early predictors of convulsive status epilepticus-related cardiac arrest. Retrospective multicenter study. Seventeen university or university affiliated participating ICUs in France and Belgium. Consecutive patients admitted to the participating ICUs for management of successfully resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest complicating the initial management of convulsive status epilepticus between 2000 and 2015. Patients were compared with controls without cardiac arrest identified in a single-center registry of convulsive status epilepticus patients, regarding characteristics, management, and outcome. None. We included 49 cases with convulsive status epilepticus-cardiac arrest and 235 controls. In the cases, median time from medical team arrival to cardiac arrest was 25 minutes (interquartile range, 5-85 min). First recorded rhythm was asystole in 25 patients (51%) and pulseless electrical activity in 13 patients (27%). A significantly larger proportion of patients had a favorable 1-year outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 5) among controls (90/235; 38%) than among cases (10/49; 21%; p = 0.02). By multivariate analysis, independent predictors of cardiac arrest were pulse oximetry less than 97% on scene (odds ratio, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.03-7.26; p = 0.04), drug poisoning as the cause of convulsive status epilepticus (odds ratio, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.27-13.53; p = 0.02), and complications during early management (odds ratio, 11.98; 95% CI, 4.67-34.69; p status epilepticus, relative hypoxemia, on-scene management complications, and drug poisoning as the cause of convulsive status epilepticus were strong early predictors of cardiac arrest, suggesting areas for improvement.

  15. Convulsive status epilepticus and health-related quality of life in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Chin, Richard F M; Camfield, Carol S; Wiebe, Samuel; Levin, Simon D; Speechley, Kathy N

    2014-08-19

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) during a 24-month follow-up in a multisite incident cohort of children with epilepsy. Data were collected in the Health-Related Quality of Life Study in Children with Epilepsy Study from 374 families of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. The Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) Questionnaire was used to evaluate parent-reported child HRQL. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the relationship between CSE and HRQL at 24 months postepilepsy. A total of 359 families completed the 24-month assessment. Twenty-two children (6.1%) had experienced CSE during the follow-up. Children with and without CSE were similar, except a larger proportion of children with CSE had partial seizures (p QOLCE scores. The findings suggested that not only do children with CSE have significantly poorer HRQL compared with their non-CSE counterparts, but that this factor is independent of the effects of demographic and clinical features known to affect HRQL. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Convulsive status epilepticus and health-related quality of life in children with epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Richard F.M.; Camfield, Carol S.; Wiebe, Samuel; Levin, Simon D.; Speechley, Kathy N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the association between convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) during a 24-month follow-up in a multisite incident cohort of children with epilepsy. Methods: Data were collected in the Health-Related Quality of Life Study in Children with Epilepsy Study from 374 families of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. The Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) Questionnaire was used to evaluate parent-reported child HRQL. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the relationship between CSE and HRQL at 24 months postepilepsy. A total of 359 families completed the 24-month assessment. Results: Twenty-two children (6.1%) had experienced CSE during the follow-up. Children with and without CSE were similar, except a larger proportion of children with CSE had partial seizures (p children with CSE have significantly poorer HRQL compared with their non-CSE counterparts, but that this factor is independent of the effects of demographic and clinical features known to affect HRQL. PMID:25037204

  17. Anti-Convulsant Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa: Plausible Role of Calcium Channel Antagonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available “Ethnopharmacological” use of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa (B. diffusa in the treatment of epilepsy in Nigerian folk medicine and reports showing the presence of a calcium channel antagonistic compound “liriodendrin” in its roots, led us to undertake the present study. The study was designed to investigate the methanolic root extract of B. diffusa and its different fractions including liriodendrin-rich fraction for exploring the possible role of liriodendrin in its anti-convulsant activity. Air-dried roots of B. diffusa were extracted with methanol by cold maceration. The methanol soluble fraction of extract thus obtained was successively extracted to obtain liriodendrin-rich fraction and two side fractions, that is, chloroform fraction and phenolic compound fraction. Anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract (1000, 1500 and 2000 mg kg-1, intraperitoneally (i.p. and its different fractions, that is, liriodendrin-rich fraction (10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1, i.p., chloroform fraction (20 mg kg-1, i.p. and phenolic compound fraction (1 mg kg-1, i.p. were studied in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ-induced seizures (75 mg kg-1, i.p.. The crude methanolic extract of B. diffusa and only its liriodendrin-rich fraction showed a dose-dependent protection against PTZ-induced convulsions. The liriodendrin-rich fraction also showed significant protection against seizures induced by BAY k-8644. These findings reiterated the anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract of B. diffusa roots. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the observed anti-convulsant activity was due to its calcium channel antagonistic action as this activity was retained only in the liodendrin-rich fraction, which has additionally been confirmed by significant anti-convulsant activity of liriodendrin-rich fraction in BAY k-8644-induced seizures.

  18. Anticonvulsant and antipunishment effects of toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R W; Coleman, J B; Schuler, R; Cox, C

    1984-08-01

    Toluene can have striking acute behavioral effects and is subject to abuse by inhalation. To determine if its actions resemble those of drugs used in the treatment of anxiety ("anxiolytics"), two sets of experiments were undertaken. Inasmuch as prevention of pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions is an identifying property of this class of agents, we first demonstrated that pretreatment with injections of toluene delayed the onset of convulsive signs and prevented the tonic extension phase of the convulsant activity in a dose-related manner. Injections of another alkyl benzene, m-xylene, were of comparable potency to toluene. Inhalation of toluene delayed the time to death after pentylenetetrazol injection in a manner related to the duration and concentration of exposure; at lower convulsant doses, inhalation of moderate concentrations (EC50, 1311 ppm) prevented death. Treatment with a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist (Ro 15-1788) failed to reduce the anticonvulsant activity of inhaled toluene. Anxiolytics also attenuate the reduction in response rate produced by punishment with electric shock. Toluene increased rates of responding suppressed by punishment when responding was maintained under a multiple fixed-interval fixed-interval punishment schedule of reinforcement. Distinct antipunishment effects were observed after 2 hr of exposure to 1780 and 3000 ppm of toluene; the rate-increasing effects of toluene were related to concentration and to time after the termination of exposure. Thus, toluene and m-xylene resemble in several respects clinically useful drugs such as the benzodiazepines.

  19. Anticonvulsant activity of B2, an adenosine analog, on chemical convulsant-induced seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. However, approximately one-third of epilepsy patients still suffer from uncontrolled seizures. Effective treatments for epilepsy are yet to be developed. N (6-(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxybenzyl adenine riboside (B2 is a N(6-substitued adenosine analog. Here we describe an investigation of the effects and mechanisms of B2 on chemical convulsant-induced seizures. Seizures were induced in mice by administration of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, picrotoxin, kainite acid (KA, or strychnine. B2 has a dose-related anticonvulsant effect in these chemical-induced seizure models. The protective effects of B2 include increased latency of seizure onset, decreased seizure occurrence, shorter seizure duration and reduced mortality rate. Radioligand binding and cAMP accumulation assays indicated that B2 might be a functional ligand for both adenosine A1 and A2A receptors. Furthermore, DPCPX, a selective A1 receptor antagonist, but not SCH58261, a selective A2A receptor antagonist, blocked the anticonvulsant effect of B2 on PTZ-induced seizure. c-Fos is a cellular marker for neuronal activity. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses indicated that B2 significantly reversed PTZ-induced c-Fos expression in the hippocampus. Together, these results indicate that B2 has significant anticonvulsant effects. The anticonvulsant effects of B2 may be attributed to adenosine A1 receptor activation and reduced neuronal excitability in the hippocampus. These observations also support that the use of adenosine receptor agonist may be a promising approach for the treatment of epilepsy.

  20. Effects of departing individuals on collective behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yuta; Okuda, Shoma; Migita, Masao; Murakami, Hisashi; Tomaru, Takenori

    2017-07-01

    Utilizing living organisms' abilities is an effective approach to realize flexible and unconventional computing. One possible bio-inspired computer might be developed from animal collective research by clarifying collective behaviors. Therefore, it is important to reveal how collective animal behaviors emerge. In many studies, individuals departing from the other individualsare generally ignored. Is it not possible that such departing individuals contribute to the organization of such collectives? To investigate the effects of individuals departing from a collective against collective behaviors, we observed and analyzed the behaviors of 40 soldier crabs in four types of experimental arenas. The recorded behaviors demonstrate a temporally changing pattern and the existence of departing individuals. We analyzed the relationship between global activity and cohesion levels and verified the features of departing individuals. The results imply that departing individuals contribute to collective behaviors.

  1. Attempt of differentiation acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus from febrile convulsive status epilepticus induced by human herpesvirus 6 at early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junichi; Yamamuro, Miho; Togawa, Masao; Shiomi, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult for clinicians to predict the subsequent development of acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus (AEFCSE), when febrile convulsive status epilepticus (FCSE) develops. Comparing clinical and laboratory characteristics between patients with AEFCSE and those with FCSE, we investigated the factors which predict the later development of febrile convulsive status caused by human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6). The subjects of this study were patients treated for FCSE or AEFCSE due to HHV6 in our hospital between April 2004 and January 2008. The AEFCSE group included 5 patients, and the FCSE group included 6 patients. There were few differences in clinical characteristics or brain images on admission between the 2 groups. Disturbance of consciousness persisted for 24 hours or more in all patients in the AEFCSE group and in 2 patients in the FCSE group. The serum creatinine concentration was significantly higher in the AEFCSE group. Serum creatinine concentration could be a good indicator for the prediction of AEFCSE in patients with FCSE. (author)

  2. Attempt of differentiation acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus from febrile convulsive status epilepticus induced by human herpesvirus 6 at early stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Junichi; Yamamuro, Miho; Togawa, Masao; Shiomi, Masashi [Osaka City General Hospital, Osaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    It is difficult for clinicians to predict the subsequent development of acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus (AEFCSE), when febrile convulsive status epilepticus (FCSE) develops. Comparing clinical and laboratory characteristics between patients with AEFCSE and those with FCSE, we investigated the factors which predict the later development of febrile convulsive status caused by human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6). The subjects of this study were patients treated for FCSE or AEFCSE due to HHV6 in our hospital between April 2004 and January 2008. The AEFCSE group included 5 patients, and the FCSE group included 6 patients. There were few differences in clinical characteristics or brain images on admission between the 2 groups. Disturbance of consciousness persisted for 24 hours or more in all patients in the AEFCSE group and in 2 patients in the FCSE group. The serum creatinine concentration was significantly higher in the AEFCSE group. Serum creatinine concentration could be a good indicator for the prediction of AEFCSE in patients with FCSE. (author)

  3. Vocal Emotion Expressions Effects on Cooperation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Meneses, Jonathan Azael; Menez Díaz, Judith Marina

    2017-01-01

    Emotional expressions have been proposed to be important for regulating social interaction as they can serve as cues for behavioral intentions. The issue has been mainly addressed analyzing the effects of facial emotional expressions in cooperation behavior, but there are contradictory results regarding the impact of emotional expressions on that…

  4. Effects of Training in Functional Behavior Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Charles; Rosenberg, Howard; Brady, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of training special education teachers in the process of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and subsequent development of recommendations to promote behavior change. An original evaluation instrument was developed that included measures of special education teachers' knowledge of…

  5. Caffeine and an adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist prevent memory impairment and synaptotoxicity in adult rats triggered by a convulsive episode in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognato, Giana P; Agostinho, Paula M; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Souza, Diogo O; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2010-01-01

    Seizures early in life cause long-term behavioral modifications, namely long-term memory deficits in experimental animals. Since caffeine and adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) antagonists prevent memory deficits in adult animals, we now investigated if they also prevented the long-term memory deficits caused by a convulsive period early in life. Administration of kainate (KA, 2 mg/kg) to 7-days-old (P7) rats caused a single period of self-extinguishable convulsions which lead to a poorer memory performance in the Y-maze only when rats were older than 90 days, without modification of locomotion or anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze. In accordance with the relationship between synaptotoxicity and memory dysfunction, the hippocampus of these adult rats treated with kainate at P7 displayed a lower density of synaptic proteins such as SNAP-25 and syntaxin (but not synaptophysin), as well as vesicular glutamate transporters type 1 (but not vesicular GABA transporters), with no changes in PSD-95, NMDA receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A, NR2B) or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor subunits (GluR1, GluR2) compared with controls. Caffeine (1 g/L) or the A(2A)R antagonist, KW6002 (3 mg/kg) applied in the drinking water from P21 onwards, prevented these memory deficits in P90 rats treated with KA at P7, as well as the accompanying synaptotoxicity. These results show that a single convulsive episode in early life causes a delayed memory deficit in adulthood accompanied by a glutamatergic synaptotoxicity that was prevented by caffeine or adenosine A(2A)R antagonists.

  6. Treatment of prolonged convulsive seizures in children; a single centre, retrospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, Danique R. M.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Callenbach, Petra M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate treatment of children with Prolonged Convulsive Seizures (PCS) at the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG). Material and methods: PCS were identified from an UMCG database of children with epilepsy aged = 10 mm and occurred between January 2000 and October 2012 in

  7. Treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in the UMCG: A retrospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, D.R.M.; Brouwer, O.F.; Callenbach, P.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known about clinical practice with respect to the application of guidelines in the treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus (CSE). This retrospective, observational study evaluated treatment of episodes of CSE in children at the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG).

  8. Discovery of recurrent multiple brain states in non-convulsive status epilepticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; van Putten, Maurice H.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective We study burst-like patterns of epileptiform discharges in non-convulsive status epilepticus (SE). Methods Epileptiform burst-like transients were identified by estimating the amplitude envelope of the EEG signal, and recurrence and similarities were identified by pairwise matching in the

  9. Fluctuation effects in bulk polymer phase behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, F.S.; Rosedale, J.H.; Stepanek, P.; Lodge, T.P.; Wiltzius, P.; Hjelm R, Jr.; Fredrickson, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    Bulk polymer-polymer, and block copolymer, phase behaviors have traditionally been interpreted using mean-field theories. Recent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies of critical phenomena in model binary polymer mixtures confirm that non-mean-field behavior is restricted to a narrow range of temperatures near the critical point, in close agreement with the Ginzburg criterion. In contrast, strong derivations from mean-field behavior are evident in SANS and rheological measurements on model block copolymers more than 50C above the order-disorder transition (ODT), which can be attributed to sizeable composition fluctuations. Such fluctuation effects undermine the mean-field assumption, conventionally applied to bulk polymers, and result in qualitative changes in phase behavior, such as the elimination of a thermodynamic stability limit in these materials. The influence of fluctuation effects on block copolymer and binary mixture phase behavior is compared and contrasted in this presentation

  10. Acute Systemic Complications of Convulsive Status Epilepticus-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Raoul; Dittrich, Tolga; Semmlack, Saskia; Rüegg, Stephan; Marsch, Stephan; Kaplan, Peter W

    2018-01-01

    Status epilepticus is a neurologic emergency with high morbidity and mortality requiring neurointensive care and treatment of systemic complications. This systematic review compiles the current literature on acute systemic complications of generalized convulsive status epilepticus in adults and their immediate clinical impact along with recommendations for optimal neurointensive care. We searched PubMed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library for articles published between 1960 and 2016 and reporting on systemic complications of convulsive status epilepticus. All identified studies were screened for eligibility by two independent reviewers. Key data were extracted using standardized data collection forms. Thirty-two of 3,046 screened articles were included. Acute manifestations and complications reported in association with generalized convulsive status epilepticus can affect all organ systems fueling complex cascades and multiple organ interactions. Most reported complications result from generalized excessive muscle contractions that increase body temperature and serum potassium levels and may interfere with proper and coordinated function of respiratory muscles followed by hypoxia and respiratory acidosis. Increased plasma catecholamines can cause a decay of skeletal muscle cells and cardiac function, including stress cardiomyopathy. Systemic complications are often underestimated or misinterpreted as they may mimic underlying causes of generalized convulsive status epilepticus or treatment-related adverse events. Management of generalized convulsive status epilepticus should center on the administration of antiseizure drugs, treatment of the underlying causes, and the attendant systemic consequences to prevent secondary seizure-related injuries. Heightened awareness, systematic clinical assessment, and diagnostic workup and management based on the proposed algorithm are advocated as they are keys to optimal outcome.

  11. The effects of radionuclides on animal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnaire, B.; Adam-Guillermin, C.; Bouron, A.; Lestaevel, P.

    2011-01-01

    Concomitant with the expansion of the nuclear industry, the concentrations of several pollutants, radioactive or otherwise, including uranium, caesium, cadmium and cobalt, have increased over the last few decades. These elemental pollutants do exist in the environment and are a threat to many organisms. Behavior represents the integration of all the anatomical adaptations and physiological processes that occur within an organism. Compared to other biological endpoints, the effects of pollutants on animal behavior have been the focus of only a few studies. However, behavioral changes appear to be ideal for assessing the effects of pollutants on animal populations, because behavior links physiological functions with ecological processes. The alteration of behavioral responses can have severe implications for survival of individuals and of population of some species. Behavioral disruptions may derive from several underlying mechanisms: disruption of neuro-sensorial activity and of endocrines, or oxidative and metabolic disruptions. In this review, we presented an overview of the current literature in which the effects of radioactive pollutants on behavior in humans, rodents, fish and wildlife species are addressed. When possible, we have also indicated the potential underlying mechanisms of the behavioral alterations and parameters measured. In fried, chronic uranium contamination is associated with behavior alterations and mental disorders in humans, and cognitive deficits in rats. Comparative studies on depleted and enriched uranium effects in rats showed that chemical and radiological activities of this metal induced negative effects on several behavioral parameters and also produced brain oxidative stress. Uranium exposure also modifies feeding behavior of bivalves and reproductive behavior of fish. Studies of the effects of the Chernobyl accident shows that chronic irradiation to 137 Cs induces both nervous system diseases and mental disorders in humans leading

  12. Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunii Yasuto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

  13. Combinatorial effects of odorants on mouse behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Luis R.; Kondoh, Kunio; Ye, Xiaolan; Yoon, Kyoung-hye; Hernandez, Marcus; Buck, Linda B.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which odors induce instinctive behaviors are largely unknown. Odor detection in the mouse nose is mediated by >1, 000 different odorant receptors (ORs) and trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs). Odor perceptions are encoded combinatorially by ORs and can be altered by slight changes in the combination of activated receptors. However, the stereotyped nature of instinctive odor responses suggests the involvement of specific receptors and genetically programmed neural circuits relatively immune to extraneous odor stimuli and receptor inputs. Here, we report that, contrary to expectation, innate odor-induced behaviors can be context-dependent. First, different ligands for a given TAAR can vary in behavioral effect. Second, when combined, some attractive and aversive odorants neutralize one another’s behavioral effects. Both a TAAR ligand and a common odorant block aversion to a predator odor, indicating that this ability is not unique to TAARs and can extend to an aversive response of potential importance to survival. In vitro testing of single receptors with binary odorant mixtures indicates that behavioral blocking can occur without receptor antagonism in the nose. Moreover, genetic ablation of a single receptor prevents its cognate ligand from blocking predator odor aversion, indicating that the blocking requires sensory input from the receptor. Together, these findings indicate that innate odor-induced behaviors can depend on context, that signals from a single receptor can block innate odor aversion, and that instinctive behavioral responses to odors can be modulated by interactions in the brain among signals derived from different receptors. PMID:27208093

  14. Development, maternal effects, and behavioral plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Jill M

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral, hormonal, and genetic processes interact reciprocally, and differentially affect behavior depending on ecological and social contexts. When individual differences are favored either between or within environments, developmental plasticity would be expected. Parental effects provide a rich source for phenotypic plasticity, including anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits, because parents respond to dynamic cues in their environment and can, in turn, influence offspring accordingly. Because these inter-generational changes are plastic, parents can respond rapidly to changing environments and produce offspring whose phenotypes are well suited for current conditions more quickly than occurs with changes based on evolution through natural selection. I review studies on developmental plasticity and resulting phenotypes in Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi), an ideal species, given the competing demands to avoid predation while gaining sufficient weight to survive an upcoming hibernation, and the need for young to learn their survival behaviors. I will show how local environments and perceived risk of predation influence not only foraging, vigilance, and anti-predator behaviors, but also adrenal functioning, which may be especially important for obligate hibernators that face competing demands on the storage and mobilization of glucose. Mammalian behavioral development is sensitive to the social and physical environments provided by mothers during gestation and lactation. Therefore, maternal effects on offspring's phenotypes, both positive and negative, can be particularly strong. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. [The genotype-based haplotype relative risk and transmission disequilibrium test analyses of familial febrile convulsions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Y; Wu, X; Guo, Z; Zhang, J; Pan, H; Li, M; Bao, X; Peng, J; Zou, L; Lin, Q

    1999-10-01

    To confirm the linkage of familial febrile convulsions to the short arm of chromosome 6(6p) or the long arm of chromosome 8(8q). The authors finished genotyping of Pst I locus on the coding region of heat shock protein (HSP) 70, 5'untranslated region of HSP70-1, 3' untranslated region of HSP70-2, D8S84 and D8S85. The data were processed by the genotype-based haplotype relative risk(GHRR) and transmission disequilibrium test(TDT) methods in PPAP. Some signs of association and disequilibrium between D8S85 and FC were shown by GHRR and TDT. A suspect linkage of familial febrile convulsions to the long arm of chromosome 8 has been proposed.

  16. Bilateral recurrent anterior fracture dislocation of shoulder joint due to grand mal epileptic convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekara Chowdipalya Maliyappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral shoulder dislocation is very much common with convulsions of different etiology. Often, these dislocations are associated with fractures due to violent muscle contractions. The typical lesion is bilateral posterior dislocation or fracture dislocations. The recurrent shoulder dislocations are common with traumatic etiology. The lack of asymmetry of the shoulders is stressed as a potential pitfall in the clinical evaluation of patients with this condition. We present a rare case of bilateral recurrent anterior fracture dislocation of the shoulder sustained due to repetitive episodes of convulsive seizures. Patient was treated by close reductions and immobilization on each episode. In epilepsy although posterior dislocations are common, the rare possibility of bilateral anterior fracture dislocation should be kept in mind. Often these patients are vulnerable for recurrence, similar to traumatic cases.

  17. Epidemiology of Pediatric Convulsive Status Epilepticus With Fever in the Emergency Department: A Cohort Study of 381 Consecutive Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Miyama, Sahoko; Inoue, Nobuaki; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Hataya, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2016-09-01

    Pediatric convulsive status epilepticus with fever is common in the emergency setting but leads to severe neurological sequelae in some patients. To explore the epidemiology of convulsive status epilepticus with fever, a retrospective cohort covering all convulsive status epilepticus cases with fever seen in the emergency department of a tertiary care children's hospital were consecutively collected. Of the 381 consecutive cases gathered, 81.6% were due to prolonged febrile seizure, 6.6% to encephalopathy/encephalitis, 0.8% to meningitis, and 7.6% to epilepsy. In addition, seizures were significantly longer in encephalopathy/encephalitis cases than in prolonged febrile seizure cases (log rank test, P status epilepticus with fever in the emergency setting, and will help optimize the management of pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department with convulsive status epilepticus with fever. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. A screening questionnaire for convulsive seizures: A three-stage field-validation in rural Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Loretta; Cicero, Calogero Edoardo; Crespo Gómez, Elizabeth Blanca; Padilla, Sandra; Bruno, Elisa; Camargo, Mario; Marin, Benoit; Sofia, Vito; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases in Latin American Countries (LAC) and epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures is the most frequent type. Therefore, the detection of convulsive seizures is a priority, but a validated Spanish-language screening tool to detect convulsive seizures is not available. We performed a field validation to evaluate the accuracy of a Spanish-language questionnaire to detect convulsive seizures in rural Bolivia using a three-stage design. The questionnaire was also administered face-to-face, using a two-stage design, to evaluate the difference in accuracy. The study was carried out in the rural communities of the Gran Chaco region. The questionnaire consists of a single screening question directed toward the householders and a confirmatory section administered face-to-face to the index case. Positive subjects underwent a neurological examination to detect false positive and true positive subjects. To estimate the proportion of false negative, a random sample of about 20% of the screened negative underwent a neurological evaluation. 792 householders have been interviewed representing a population of 3,562 subjects (52.2% men; mean age 24.5 ± 19.7 years). We found a sensitivity of 76.3% (95% CI 59.8-88.6) with a specificity of 99.6% (95% CI 99.4-99.8). The two-stage design showed only a slightly higher sensitivity respect to the three-stage design. Our screening tool shows a good accuracy and can be easily used by trained health workers to quickly screen the population of the rural communities of LAC through the householders using a three-stage design.

  19. Crise convulsive chez les abuseurs de Tramadol et caféine: à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous rapportons Huit cas de crises convulsives diagnostiquées comme maladie épileptique après ingestion de Tramadol et d'autres substances psychotropes dont la Caféine dans une région ou maladie épileptique et addiction au café sont fréquentes. L'objectif de ce travail était d'informer les praticiens sur le risque de ...

  20. Automatic detection of non-convulsive seizures: A reduced complexity approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazeem Fatma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Detection of non-convulsive seizures (NCSz is a challenging task because they lack convulsions, meaning no physical visible symptoms are there to detect the presence of a seizure activity. Hence their diagnosis is not easy, also continuous observation of full length EEG for the detection of non-convulsive seizures (NCSz by an expert or a technician is a very exhaustive, time consuming job. A technique for the automatic detection of NCSz is proposed in this paper. The database used in this research was recorded at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi. 13 EEG recordings of 9 subjects consisting of a total 23 seizures of 29.42 min duration were used for analysis. Normalized modified Wilson amplitude is used as a key feature to classify between normal and seizure activity. The main advantage of this study lies in the fact that no classifier is used here and hence algorithm is very simple and computationally fast. With the use of only one feature, all of the seizures under test were detected correctly, and hence the median sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.21% were achieved respectively.

  1. Effects of heroin on rat prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Seven E; Stegmann, Gabriela M; Olive, M Foster

    2018-05-04

    Opioid use disorders are characterized in part by impairments in social functioning. Previous research indicates that laboratory rats, which are frequently used as animal models of addiction-related behaviors, are capable of prosocial behavior. For example, under normal conditions, when a 'free' rat is placed in the vicinity of rat trapped in a plastic restrainer, the rat will release or 'rescue' the other rat from confinement. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of heroin on prosocial behavior in rats. For 2 weeks, rats were given the opportunity to rescue their cagemate from confinement, and the occurrence of and latency to free the confined rat was recorded. After baseline rescuing behavior was established, rats were randomly selected to self-administer heroin (0.06 mg/kg/infusion i.v.) or sucrose pellets (orally) for 14 days. Next, rats were retested for rescuing behavior once daily for 3 days, during which they were provided with a choice between freeing the trapped cagemate and continuing to self-administer their respective reinforcer. Our results indicate that rats self-administering sucrose continued to rescue their cagemate, whereas heroin rats chose to self-administer heroin and not rescue their cagemate. These findings suggest that rats with a history of heroin self-administration show deficits in prosocial behavior, consistent with specific diagnostic criteria for opioid use disorder. Behavioral paradigms providing a choice between engaging in prosocial behavior and continuing drug use may be useful in modeling and investigating the neural basis of social functioning deficits in opioid addiction. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Reinforcement, Behavior Constraint, and the Overjustification Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bruce W.

    1980-01-01

    Four levels of the behavior constraint-reinforcement variable were manipulated: attractive reward, unattractive reward, request to perform, and a no-reward control. Only the unattractive reward and request groups showed the performance decrements that suggest the overjustification effect. It is concluded that reinforcement does not cause the…

  3. Behavioral effects of etiracetam in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, O.L.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of etiracetam, a structural analogue or piracetam, were investigated in rats on Y-maze discrimination acquisition, on open field behavior, on one-trial passive avoidance learning and on shuttlebox acquisition and extinction. The results indicate that this drug significantly enhances

  4. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  5. Short-term outcomes and major barriers in the management of convulsive status epilepticus in children: a study in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatirishvili, Teona; Kipiani, Tamar; Lomidze, Giorgi; Gabunia, Maia; Tatishvili, Nino

    2015-09-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus is the most common childhood neurological emergency in developing countries, where poor healthcare organisation could play a negative role in the management of the condition. Unavailability of second-line injectable anticonvulsants is an additional hindering factor in Georgia. This report reflects the results of the first study aimed at evaluating the epidemiological features of convulsive status epilepticus, as well as identifying obstacles influencing the management of patients with convulsive status epilepticus in Georgia. A prospective, hospital-based study was performed. Paediatric patients with convulsive status epilepticus, admitted to the emergency department of a referral academic hospital from 2007 to 2012, were included in the study. Forty-eight paediatric patients admitted to hospital met the criteria for convulsive status epilepticus. Seizure duration was significantly shorter among the group with adequate and timely pre-hospital intervention. Moreover, patients with appropriate pre-hospital treatment less frequently required mechanical ventilation (p=0.039). Four deaths were detected during the follow-up period, thus the case fatality rate was 8%. Only 31% of patients received treatment with intravenous phenytoin. The study results show that adequate and timely intervention could improve outcome of convulsive status epilepticus and decrease the need for mechanical ventilation. Mortality parameters were comparable to the results from other resource-limited countries. More than one third of patients did not receive appropriate treatment due to unavailability of phenytoin.

  6. Treatment Strategies for the NMDA Component of Organophosphorus Convulsions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peterson, Steven

    2003-01-01

    ...) induced status epilepticus (SE) used here as a model of organophosphorus nerve agents. The nonbarbiturate anesthetic propofol was found to induce significant anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant effects in Li-pilo SE...

  7. Anticonvulsant, neuroprotective and behavioral effects of organic and conventional yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Cátia Dos Santos; Scola, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Adriana Dalpicolli; Cesio, Verónica; Laprovitera, Mariajosé; Heinzen, Horacio; Dos Santos, Maitê Telles; Fank, Bruna; de Freitas, Suzana Cesa Vieira; Coitinho, Adriana Simon; Salvador, Mirian

    2013-03-01

    Epilepsy, which is one of the most common neurological disorders, involves the occurrence of spontaneous and recurrent seizures that alter the performance of the brain and affect several sensory and behavioral functions. Oxidative damage has been associated with post-seizure neuronal injury, thereby increasing an individual's susceptibility to the occurrence of neurodegenerative disorders. The present study investigated the possible anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects of organic and conventional yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a plant rich in polyphenols, on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in Wistar rats. The behavioral and polyphenolic profiles of the yerba mate samples were also evaluated. Infusions of yerba mate (50mg/kg) or distilled water were given to rats for fifteen days by oral gavage. On the 15th day the animals were subjected to open field test, and exploratory behavior was assessed. Subsequently, 60mg/kg PTZ (i.p.) was administered, and animals were observed for the appearance of convulsions for 30min. Latency for the first seizure, tonic-clonic and generalized seizures time, frequency of seizures and mortality induced by PTZ were recorded. The animals were then sacrificed, and the cerebellum, cerebral cortex and hippocampus were quickly removed and frozen to study the neuroprotective effects of yerba mate. The oxidative damage in lipids and proteins, nitric oxide levels, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (Sod) and catalase (Cat) and non-enzymatic cellular defense (sulfhydryl protein) were quantified in all the tissues. The results showed that organic and conventional yerba mate infusions were able to reduce the frequency of seizures when compared to the PTZ group. Besides, organic yerba mate infusion decreases the tonic-clonic seizures time in relation to the PTZ group. It was also shown that organic and conventional yerba mate infusions reduced the oxidative damage in lipids and proteins and nitric oxide

  8. Treatment Strategies fir the NMDA Component of Organophosphorous Convulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    28 A ppendices ............................................................ 36 INTRODUCTION This project tested novel treatment...16 Nicotinamide had no effect on neurological deficit as determined by spontaneous activity 24 hours after acute Li-pilo SE. However, repeated...unknown but it is interesting that the mediodorsal thalamus plays a critical role in the development of acute limbic SE (Zhay & Bertram, 2002) and in

  9. Effect of evaluation threat on procrastination behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Ngoc H

    2007-06-01

    The author evaluated the effects of evaluation apprehension and trait procrastination on behaviors. The author examined private university students from southern California (N = 72) on two independent variables: evaluation threat (manipulated) and trait procrastination (nonmanipulated). The author found a significant interaction effect between type of evaluation threat and level of trait procrastination on the number of days to complete an assigned essay. Post hoc analyses showed high trait procrastinators in the high evaluation threat group significantly delayed returning essays compared with those in the low evaluation threat group. Also, in the low evaluation threat group, low trait procrastinators delayed more than did high trait procrastinators. These results suggest that educators can reduce behavioral delays by increasing evaluation threat, depending on a student's level of trait procrastination.

  10. Apomorphine effects on frog locomotor behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Joanne; Wilczynski, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The neuroanatomical pathways of the DA systems have been shown to be largely conserved across many vertebrate taxa. It is less certain whether the structural similarities seen between mammals and amphibians reflect a similar functional homology. DA is well known for its role in facilitating motor behaviors in mammals. We examined whether a similar role for DA exists in amphibians using the Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens). We investigated the effects of the nonspecific DA agonist, apomorp...

  11. Symmetry behavior of the effective gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, S.

    1981-01-01

    The restoration of spontaneously broken CP invariance is investigated by using the effective QED lagrangian obtained from the standard SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory with two Higgs doublets. It is shown that the large electromagnetic field may restore CP invariance by changing the relative phase angle of Higgs vacuum expectation values even before one of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets disappears. Further large magnetic field may lead to the fine structure constant with discontinuous behavior. (orig.)

  12. Efek Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT terhadap Daya Ingat Pasien Skizofrenia di RSJ Prof. HB. Sa’anin Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikky Nabila Nandinanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak  ECT merupakan terapi kejang listrik dengan menghantarkan arus listrik pada elektroda dan dipasang pada kepala sehingga menyebabkan konvulsi. ECT terbukti dapat memperbaiki gejala skizofrenia, namun ECT juga memiliki efek samping terutama pada daya ingat. Tujuan  penelitian ini adalah mengetahui efek ECT terhadap daya ingat pasien skizofrenia. Metode : Penelitian ini menggunakan desain analitik dengan jumlah sampel 15 orang penderita skizofrenia di Rumah Sakit Jiwa (RSJ Prof. HB. Sa’anin Padang dengan teknik pengambilan consecutive sampling.Pemeriksaan daya ingat menggunakan Tes Memori Indonesia, dilakukan sehari sebelum ECT dan 2 jam sesudah ECT. Analisis data dengan uji T berpasangan. Gangguan daya ingat sebelum ECT terjadi pada 90% sampel dengan terganggu sedang pada kemampuan immediate memory, terganggu ringan pada kemampuan recent memory, dan terganggu berat pada remote memory. Gangguan daya ingat sesudah ECT terjadi pada seluruh sampel (100% dengan terganggu sedang pada immediate memory, terganggu berat pada recent memory, dan terganggu berat padaremote memory. Uji hipotesis pada nilai kemampuan immediate dan recent memory menghasilkan nilai p 0,018 dan 0,031 (p < 0,05, berarti Ho ditolak, sedangkan nilai p remote memory 0,678 (p > 0,05, berarti Ho diterima. Kesimpulan adalah perbedaan daya ingat immediate dan recent memory pada pasien skizofrenia sebelum dan sesudah ECT, sedangkan kemampuan remote memory tidak mengalami perubahan.Kata kunci: skizofrenia, ECT, daya ingat Abstract ECT is an electric convulsive therapy by delivering electrical current to electrodes and mounted on the head causing convulsions. ECT shown to improve schizophrenia symptoms, but ECT also has side effects especially on memory. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of ECT on memory schizophrenic patients. Current study was conducted with analytic design with sample size was 15 schizophrenia people at RSJ Prof. HB. Sa'anin Padang

  13. Acute and Developmental Behavioral Effects of Flame ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of acute or developmental exposure to t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), isopropylated phenyl phosphate (IPP), tricresyl phosphate (TMPP; also abbreviated TCP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP; also abbreviated TPP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP; also abbreviated TDCPP), tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), and 2,2-,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Larvae (n≈24 per dose per compound) were exposed to test compounds (0.4 - 120 µM) at sub-teratogenic concentrations either developmentally or acutely, and locomotor activity was assessed at 6 days post fertilization. When given developmentally, all chemicals except BPDP, IDDP and TBBPA produced behavioral effects. When given acutely, all chemicals produced behavioral effects, with TPHP, TBBPA, EHDP, IPP, and BPDP eliciting the most effects at the most concentrations. The results indicate that these replacement flame retardants may have developmental or pharmacological effects on the vertebrate nervous system. This study

  14. Incidence, Remission and Mortality of Convulsive Epilepsy in Rural Northeast South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ryan G.; Bottomley, Christian; Ngugi, Anthony K.; Ibinda, Fredrick; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Newton, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions globally, estimated to constitute 0.75% of the global burden of disease, with the majority of this burden found in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Few studies from LMICs, including much of sub-Saharan Africa, have described the incidence, remission or mortality rates due to epilepsy, which are needed to quantify the burden and inform policy. This study investigates the epidemiological parameters of convulsive epilepsy within a context of high HIV prevalence and an emerging burden of cardiovascular disease. Methods A cross-sectional population survey of 82,818 individuals, in the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in rural northeast South Africa was conducted in 2008, from which 296 people were identified with active convulsive epilepsy. A follow-up survey was conducted in 2012. Incidence and mortality rates were estimated, with duration and remission rates calculated using the DISMOD II software package. Results The crude incidence for convulsive epilepsy was 17.4/100,000 per year (95%CI: 13.1-23.0). Remission was 4.6% and 3.9% per year for males and females, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.6 (95%CI: 1.7-3.5), with 33.3% of deaths directly related to epilepsy. Mortality was higher in men than women (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) 2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.4)), and was significantly associated with older ages (50+ years versus those 0-5 years old (RR 4.8 (95%CI: 0.6-36.4)). Conclusions The crude incidence was lower whilst mortality rates were similar to other African studies; however, this study found higher mortality amongst older males. Efforts aimed at further understanding what causes epilepsy in older people and developing interventions to reduce prolonged seizures are likely to reduce the overall burden of ACE in rural South Africa. PMID:26053071

  15. Incidence, Remission and Mortality of Convulsive Epilepsy in Rural Northeast South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ryan G; Bottomley, Christian; Ngugi, Anthony K; Ibinda, Fredrick; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Newton, Charles R; Wagner, Ryan; Twine, Rhian; Connor, Myles; Collinson, Mark; Masanja, Honratio; Mathew, Alexander; Kakooza, Angelina; Pariyo, George; Peterson, Stefan; Ndyo-mughenyi, Donald; Odhiambo, Rachael; Chengo, Eddie; Chabi, Martin; Bauni, Evasius; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Odera, Victor Mung'ala; Mageto, James O; Ae-Ngibise, Ken; Akpalu, Bright; Akpalu, Albert; Agbokey, Francis; Adjei, Patrick; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Doku, Victor C K; Odermatt, Peter; Neville, Brian; Sander, Josemir W; White, Steve; Nutman, Thomas; Wilkins, Patricia; Noh, John

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions globally, estimated to constitute 0.75% of the global burden of disease, with the majority of this burden found in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Few studies from LMICs, including much of sub-Saharan Africa, have described the incidence, remission or mortality rates due to epilepsy, which are needed to quantify the burden and inform policy. This study investigates the epidemiological parameters of convulsive epilepsy within a context of high HIV prevalence and an emerging burden of cardiovascular disease. A cross-sectional population survey of 82,818 individuals, in the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in rural northeast South Africa was conducted in 2008, from which 296 people were identified with active convulsive epilepsy. A follow-up survey was conducted in 2012. Incidence and mortality rates were estimated, with duration and remission rates calculated using the DISMOD II software package. The crude incidence for convulsive epilepsy was 17.4/100,000 per year (95%CI: 13.1-23.0). Remission was 4.6% and 3.9% per year for males and females, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.6 (95%CI: 1.7-3.5), with 33.3% of deaths directly related to epilepsy. Mortality was higher in men than women (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) 2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.4)), and was significantly associated with older ages (50+ years versus those 0-5 years old (RR 4.8 (95%CI: 0.6-36.4)). The crude incidence was lower whilst mortality rates were similar to other African studies; however, this study found higher mortality amongst older males. Efforts aimed at further understanding what causes epilepsy in older people and developing interventions to reduce prolonged seizures are likely to reduce the overall burden of ACE in rural South Africa.

  16. Incidence, Remission and Mortality of Convulsive Epilepsy in Rural Northeast South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G Wagner

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions globally, estimated to constitute 0.75% of the global burden of disease, with the majority of this burden found in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs. Few studies from LMICs, including much of sub-Saharan Africa, have described the incidence, remission or mortality rates due to epilepsy, which are needed to quantify the burden and inform policy. This study investigates the epidemiological parameters of convulsive epilepsy within a context of high HIV prevalence and an emerging burden of cardiovascular disease.A cross-sectional population survey of 82,818 individuals, in the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS in rural northeast South Africa was conducted in 2008, from which 296 people were identified with active convulsive epilepsy. A follow-up survey was conducted in 2012. Incidence and mortality rates were estimated, with duration and remission rates calculated using the DISMOD II software package.The crude incidence for convulsive epilepsy was 17.4/100,000 per year (95%CI: 13.1-23.0. Remission was 4.6% and 3.9% per year for males and females, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.6 (95%CI: 1.7-3.5, with 33.3% of deaths directly related to epilepsy. Mortality was higher in men than women (adjusted rate ratio (aRR 2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.4, and was significantly associated with older ages (50+ years versus those 0-5 years old (RR 4.8 (95%CI: 0.6-36.4.The crude incidence was lower whilst mortality rates were similar to other African studies; however, this study found higher mortality amongst older males. Efforts aimed at further understanding what causes epilepsy in older people and developing interventions to reduce prolonged seizures are likely to reduce the overall burden of ACE in rural South Africa.

  17. Characteristic phasic evolution of convulsive seizure in PCDH19-related epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroko; Imai, Katsumi; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Shigematsu, Hideo; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Inoue, Yushi; Higurashi, Norimichi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    PCDH19-related epilepsy is a genetic disorder that was first described in 1971, then referred to as "epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females". PCDH19 has recently been identified as the responsible gene, but a detailed characterization of the seizure manifestation based on video-EEG recording is still limited. The purpose of this study was to elucidate features of the seizure semiology in children with PCDH19-related epilepsy. To do this, ictal video-EEG recordings of 26 convulsive seizures in three girls with PCDH19-related epilepsy were analysed. All seizures occurred in clusters, mainly during sleep accompanied by fever. The motor manifestations consisted of six sequential phases: "jerk", "reactive", "mild tonic", "fluttering", "mild clonic", and "postictal". Some phases were brief or lacking in some seizures, whereas others were long or pronounced. In the reactive phase, the patients looked fearful or startled with sudden jerks and turned over reactively. The tonic and clonic components were less intense compared with those of typical tonic-clonic seizures in other types of epilepsy. The fluttering phase was characterised initially by asymmetric, less rhythmic, and less synchronous tremulous movement and was then followed by the subtle clonic phase. Subtle oral automatism was observed in the postictal phase. The reactive, mild tonic, fluttering and mild clonic phases were most characteristic of seizures of PCDH19-related epilepsy. Ictal EEG started bilaterally and was symmetric in some patients but asymmetric in others. It showed asymmetric rhythmic discharges in some seizures at later phases. The electroclinical pattern of the phasic evolution of convulsive seizure suggests a focal onset seizure with secondary generalisation. Based on our findings, we propose that the six unique sequential phases in convulsive seizures suggest the diagnosis of PCDH19-related epilepsy when occurring in clusters with or without high fever in girls. [Published with

  18. Vertebral Artery Dissection Associated with Generalized Convulsive Seizures: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mohammad Amin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old male with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy was admitted to the neurological department for convulsive seizures just after lamotrigine was discontinued. On admission he was awake but had a right-sided hemiparesis with Babinski sign and ataxic finger-nose test on the left side. An MR scan showed a left-sided pontine infarction, an infarct in the left cerebellar hemisphere and a right vertebral artery dissection (VAD. The patient was treated with heparin and an oral anticoagulant for 6 months. Recovery of neurologic function was excellent. In patients with symptoms of disturbances of posterior circulation after epileptic seizures, VAD should be considered.

  19. Risk factors associated with death in in-hospital pediatric convulsive status epilepticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Loddenkemper

    Full Text Available To evaluate in-patient mortality and predictors of death associated with convulsive status epilepticus (SE in a large, multi-center, pediatric cohort.We identified our cohort from the KID Inpatient Database for the years 1997, 2000, 2003 and 2006. We queried the database for convulsive SE, associated diagnoses, and for inpatient death. Univariate logistic testing was used to screen for potential risk factors. These risk factors were then entered into a stepwise backwards conditional multivariable logistic regression procedure. P-values less than 0.05 were taken as significant.We identified 12,365 (5,541 female patients with convulsive SE aged 0-20 years (mean age 6.2 years, standard deviation 5.5 years, median 5 years among 14,965,571 pediatric inpatients (0.08%. Of these, 117 died while in the hospital (0.9%. The most frequent additional admission ICD-9 code diagnoses in addition to SE were cerebral palsy, pneumonia, and respiratory failure. Independent risk factors for death in patients with SE, assessed by multivariate calculation, included near drowning (Odds ratio [OR] 43.2; Confidence Interval [CI] 4.4-426.8, hemorrhagic shock (OR 17.83; CI 6.5-49.1, sepsis (OR 10.14; CI 4.0-25.6, massive aspiration (OR 9.1; CI 1.8-47, mechanical ventilation >96 hours (OR9; 5.6-14.6, transfusion (OR 8.25; CI 4.3-15.8, structural brain lesion (OR7.0; CI 3.1-16, hypoglycemia (OR5.8; CI 1.75-19.2, sepsis with liver failure (OR 14.4; CI 5-41.9, and admission in December (OR3.4; CI 1.6-4.1. African American ethnicity (OR 0.4; CI 0.2-0.8 was associated with a decreased risk of death in SE.Pediatric convulsive SE occurs in up to 0.08% of pediatric inpatient admissions with a mortality of up to 1%. There appear to be several risk factors that can predict mortality. These may warrant additional monitoring and aggressive management.

  20. Post-transfusion hypertension, convulsion and intracranial haemorrhage in beta-thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, S.A.; Zaidi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The haematologic disorder b-thalassemia major is common in Pakistan. We describe a patient with undiagnosed thalassemia presenting with hypertension and convulsions and found to have cerebral haemorrhage on neuro-imaging. He had been transfused 2 weeks before this illness. Our experience is similar to a few case reports described in literature that were found to have cerebral haemorrhages post-mortem after a similar clinical presentation. All patients had a blood transfusion within 2 weeks prior to the presentation so association with transfusion has been proposed. We have reviewed the several mechanisms presented and discussed the findings. (author)

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of the Salzburg EEG criteria for non-convulsive status epilepticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitinger, Markus; Trinka, Eugen; Gardella, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background Several EEG criteria have been proposed for diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), but none have been clinically validated. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the EEG criteria proposed by a panel of experts at the fourth London–Innsbruck Colloquium on Status...... Epilepticus in Salzburg, 2013 (henceforth called the Salzburg criteria). Methods We did a retrospective, diagnostic accuracy study using EEG recordings from patients admitted for neurological symptoms or signs to three centres in two countries (Danish Epilepsy Centre, Dianalund, Denmark; Aarhus University...

  2. Diagnosis and interpretation of EEG on non-convulsive status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-gang KANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to diagnose non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE clinically because of the complicated etiology and various clinical and electroencephalographic features of NCSE without a universally accepted definition. Although the diagnosis of NCSE relies largely on electroencephalogram (EEG findings, the determination of NCSE on EEG is inevitably subjective, and the EEG changes of most patients is lack of specificity. As the diagnosis of NCSE is related to clinical and electroencephalographic manifestations, diagnostic criteria for NCSE should take into account both clinical and electroencephalographic features, and their response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.005

  3. Vinpocetine inhibits glutamate release induced by the convulsive agent 4-aminopyridine more potently than several antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitges, M; Sanchez-Tafolla, B M; Chiu, L M; Aldana, B I; Guarneros, A

    2011-10-01

    4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a convulsing agent that in vivo preferentially releases Glu, the most important excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the brain. Here the ionic dependence of 4-AP-induced Glu release and the effects of several of the most common antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and of the new potential AED, vinpocetine on 4-AP-induced Glu release were characterized in hippocampus isolated nerve endings pre-loaded with labelled Glu ([3H]Glu). 4-AP-induced [3H]Glu release was composed by a tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive and external Ca2+ dependent fraction and a TTX insensitive fraction that was sensitive to the excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor, TBOA. The AEDs: carbamazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine at the highest dose tested only reduced [3H]Glu release to 4-AP between 50-60%, and topiramate was ineffective. Vinpocetine at a much lower concentration than the above AEDs, abolished [3H]Glu release to 4-AP. We conclude that the decrease in [3H]Glu release linked to the direct blockade of presynaptic Na+ channels, may importantly contribute to the anticonvulsant actions of all the drugs tested here (except topiramate); and that the significantly greater vinpocetine effect in magnitude and potency on [3H]Glu release when excitability is exacerbated like during seizures, may involve the increase additionally exerted by vinpocetine in some K+ channels permeability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the efficacy of sodium valproate in convulsive status epilepticus following to ıschemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE is very rarely observed after ischaemic stroke. Sodium valproate (SV is one of the agents used in the treatment of CSE, but its role still controversial, and its degree of efficacy in treating CSE that develops following stroke is unclear. Method : We evaluated 19 patients who were treated with intravenous (IV SV (20 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg/h-12h after diazepam. Patients’ modified Rankin scores (mRS, SE types, and changes in biochemical parameters after treatment were assessed. Results : CSE was successfully treated in 12 (63.15% patients. Side effects such as hypotension and allergic reactions were observed in two patients. Refractory SE development was observed in 5 (29.4% patients with high mRS (˃ 3. No significant deterioration in patients’ laboratory evaluations, conducted before and after status, was observed. Conclusion : SV may be safe and effective in the treatment of CSE observed after ischaemic stroke, especially in patients with low mRS.

  5. Apomorphine effects on frog locomotor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Joanne; Wilczynski, Walter

    2007-05-16

    The neuroanatomical pathways of the DA systems have been shown to be largely conserved across many vertebrate taxa. It is less certain whether the structural similarities seen between mammals and amphibians reflect a similar functional homology. DA is well known for its role in facilitating motor behaviors in mammals. We examined whether a similar role for DA exists in amphibians using the Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens). We investigated the effects of the nonspecific DA agonist, apomorphine (APO) on a complex motor task that included two distinct components known to be differentially modulated by DA in mammals: swimming and climbing. We demonstrated that a high single dose of APO (20 mg/kg, body weight) strongly increased the amount of time spent completing the motor task. Furthermore, we showed that although APO did not significantly alter several aspects of swimming behavior, two aspects of climbing behavior were disrupted. Both climbing speed and climbing ability were impaired by APO treatment. These results increase our understanding of DA function in amphibians and add to our understanding of structure-function homologies of dopamine function across vertebrate taxa.

  6. Predicting effective contraceptive behavior in college females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C B; Torre, C

    1987-09-01

    This article reports the results of a preliminary research project that explored the relationship between assertiveness, cognitive development and contraceptive behavior among single young women in their freshman and senior years at college. A total of 60 college women at a university health center volunteered to participate in this pilot study. They filled out three instruments: the Galassi College Self-Expression Scale (SES), the Measure of Intellectual Development (MID) tool and an author-developed sexuality questionnaire. Although there was a significant relationship between cognitive development and assertiveness, no significant relationships were found between cognitive development, assertiveness and use of effective contraception. Interesting descriptive characteristics were identified. Clinical implications are discussed.

  7. The effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing aggression in patients with ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on ...

  8. Unexpected Maternal Convulsion: An Idiopathic Case of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome after Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Agah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is associated with various clinical manifestations such as headache, blurred vision, confusion and tonic-clonic convulsion. Some of the predisposing factors for PRES include hypertensive encephalopathy, preeclampsia and eclampsia, lupus erythematosus, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs. This condition rarely occurs after normotensive and uneventful pregnancies. Several theories have been proposed on the etiology of PRES. For instance, endothelial injury and brain edema have been reported as possible causes of PRES. Although PRES is a temporary condition, proper and timely management of the disorder in the acute phase is critical for the prevention of permanent neurological complications. During pregnancy, PRES is normally accompanied with hypertension. In this paper, we present a rare case of PRES in a normotensive pregnancy in a 25-year-old parturient woman (Gravida 2, Ab 1. The patient unexpectedly manifested symptoms of tonic-clonic convulsion one hour after an uneventful vaginal delivery, which were successfully managed. According to our observations, PRES has various clinical manifestations with unexpected occurrence in some cases. Therefore, it is recommended that maternity centers be well-equipped with resuscitation tools, emergency drugs and expert staff so as to manage unforeseen PRES efficiently and prevent permanent maternal neurological complications and mortality.

  9. Differentiation between eclampsia and cerebrovascular disorders by brain CT scan in pregnant patients with convulsive seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Katsuto; Lin, Yaw-Tyng; Noda, Kiyofumi; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Yonezawa, Masaru; Sekiba, Kaoru; Ochiai, Youji

    1987-01-01

    Six pregnant women with convulsions between 25 to 40 weeks of gestation were experienced. Among them, 4 patients were diagnosed as having intracranial hemorrhage and two as simple eclampsia. With the aid of brain CT scan, one case of arteriovenous malformation was detected and treated surgically with good prognosis for both the mother and the fetus. Two patients were diagnosed to have cerebral hemorrhage with subsequent penetration into the lateral ventricles and were treated conservatively. Their fetuses were delivered alive by cesarean section, but the mothers expired. The other patient with cerebral hemorrhage was treated surgically, and both the mother and the fetus survived. One of the simple eclampsia patients was noted to have a growth retarded fetus at 32 weeks of pregnancy with subsequent intra-uterine death, but the mother recovered after conservative treatment. Another patient at 40 weeks of pregnancy was also treated conservatively and both the fetus and the mother survived. Brain CT scan findings differed between these two eclampsia patients; local brain edema for the second patient and generalized brain edema for the first patient. Thus more active application of brain CT scan is recommended in managing pregnant patients with convulsions. (author)

  10. Update on causes of premature death in people with convulsive epilepsy in rural West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yang; Chen, Deng; Tian, Linyu; Mu, Jie; Chen, Tao; Liu, Ling; Deng, Ying; He, Jun; Li, You; He, Li; Zhou, Dong

    2016-06-01

    This longitudinal prospective study updated a previous report on premature mortality and focused on the risk factors among patients with convulsive epilepsy in resource-poor settings. The present cohort size (7,231) and follow-up (mean 33.4 months) were expanded. The basic epidemiologic aspects of this cohort were similar to the original report (case fatality: 3.26% vs. 2.97%, respectively; injury contributed more than half of the deaths). Cox regression analysis suggested that male patients, late ages of onset (>45 years old), short duration of epilepsy (2 per month) were independent risk factors for overall premature death. Male patients with late ages of onset and high seizure frequency had a higher risk of injury-specific death. This study emphasizes the preventable nature of injuries that are leading putative causes of death among people with convulsive epilepsy in rural West China. Education on specific populations and efficient seizure control are of paramount importance in reducing the risk of premature mortality. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Differentiation between eclampsia and cerebrovascular disorders by brain CT scan in pregnant patients with convulsive seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Katsuto; Lin, Yaw-Tyng; Noda, Kiyofumi; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Yonezawa, Masaru; Sekiba, Kaoru; Ochiai, Youji

    1987-06-01

    Six pregnant women with convulsions between 25 to 40 weeks of gestation were experienced. Among them, 4 patients were diagnosed as having intracranial hemorrhage and two as simple eclampsia. With the aid of brain CT scan, one case of arteriovenous malformation was detected and treated surgically with good prognosis for both the mother and the fetus. Two patients were diagnosed to have cerebral hemorrhage with subsequent penetration into the lateral ventricles and were treated conservatively. Their fetuses were delivered alive by cesarean section, but the mothers expired. The other patient with cerebral hemorrhage was treated surgically, and both the mother and the fetus survived. One of the simple eclampsia patients was noted to have a growth retarded fetus at 32 weeks of pregnancy with subsequent intra-uterine death, but the mother recovered after conservative treatment. Another patient at 40 weeks of pregnancy was also treated conservatively and both the fetus and the mother survived. Brain CT scan findings differed between these two eclampsia patients; local brain edema for the second patient and generalized brain edema for the first patient. Thus more active application of brain CT scan is recommended in managing pregnant patients with convulsions.

  12. Anticonvulsant treatment of sarin-induced seizures with nasal midazolam: An electrographic, behavioral, and histological study in freely moving rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilat, E.; Kadar, T.; Levy, A.; Rabinovitz, I.; Cohen, G.; Kapon, Y.; Sahar, R.; Brandeis, R.

    2005-01-01

    Centrally mediated seizures and convulsions are common consequences of exposure to organophosphates (OPs). These seizures rapidly progress to status epilepticus (SE) and contribute to profound brain injury. Effective management of these seizures is critical for minimization of brain damage. Nasal application of midazolam (1.5 mg/kg) after 5 min of sarin-induced electrographic seizure activity (EGSA) ameliorated EGSA and convulsive behavior (238 ± 90 s). Identical treatment after 30 min was not sufficient to ameliorate ECoG paradoxical activity and convulsive behavior. Nasal midazolam (1.5 mg/kg), together with scopolamine (1 mg/kg, im) after 5 min of EGSA, exerted a powerful and rapid anticonvulsant effect (53 ± 10 s). Delaying the same treatment to 30 min of EGSA leads to attenuation of paroxysmal ECoG activity in all cases but total cessation of paroxysmal activity was not observed in most animals tested. Cognitive tests utilizing the Morris Water Maze demonstrated that nasal midazolam alone or together with scopolamine (im), administered after 5 min of convulsions, abolished the effect of sarin on learning. Both these treatments, when given after 30 min of convulsions, only decreased the sarin-induced learning impairments. Whereas rats which were not subject to the anticonvulsant agents did not show any memory for the platform location, both treatments (at 5 min as well as at 30 min) completely abolished the memory deficits. Both treatments equally blocked the impairment of reversal learning when given at 5 min. However, when administered after 30 min, midazolam alone reversed the impairments in reversal learning, while midazolam with scopolamine did not. Rats exposed to sarin and treated with the therapeutic regimen with the exclusion of midazolam exhibited severe brain lesions that encountered the hippocampus, pyriform cortex, and thalamus. Nasal midazolam at 5 min prevented brain damage, while delaying the midazolam treatment to 30 min of EGSA resulted in

  13. Anticonvulsant treatment of sarin-induced seizures with nasal midazolam: An electrographic, behavioral, and histological study in freely moving rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilat, E [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, 74100 (Israel); Kadar, T [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, 74100 (Israel); Levy, A [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, 74100 (Israel); Rabinovitz, I [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, 74100 (Israel); Cohen, G [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, 74100 (Israel); Kapon, Y [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, 74100 (Israel); Sahar, R [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, 74100 (Israel); Brandeis, R [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, 74100 (Israel)

    2005-11-15

    Centrally mediated seizures and convulsions are common consequences of exposure to organophosphates (OPs). These seizures rapidly progress to status epilepticus (SE) and contribute to profound brain injury. Effective management of these seizures is critical for minimization of brain damage. Nasal application of midazolam (1.5 mg/kg) after 5 min of sarin-induced electrographic seizure activity (EGSA) ameliorated EGSA and convulsive behavior (238 {+-} 90 s). Identical treatment after 30 min was not sufficient to ameliorate ECoG paradoxical activity and convulsive behavior. Nasal midazolam (1.5 mg/kg), together with scopolamine (1 mg/kg, im) after 5 min of EGSA, exerted a powerful and rapid anticonvulsant effect (53 {+-} 10 s). Delaying the same treatment to 30 min of EGSA leads to attenuation of paroxysmal ECoG activity in all cases but total cessation of paroxysmal activity was not observed in most animals tested. Cognitive tests utilizing the Morris Water Maze demonstrated that nasal midazolam alone or together with scopolamine (im), administered after 5 min of convulsions, abolished the effect of sarin on learning. Both these treatments, when given after 30 min of convulsions, only decreased the sarin-induced learning impairments. Whereas rats which were not subject to the anticonvulsant agents did not show any memory for the platform location, both treatments (at 5 min as well as at 30 min) completely abolished the memory deficits. Both treatments equally blocked the impairment of reversal learning when given at 5 min. However, when administered after 30 min, midazolam alone reversed the impairments in reversal learning, while midazolam with scopolamine did not. Rats exposed to sarin and treated with the therapeutic regimen with the exclusion of midazolam exhibited severe brain lesions that encountered the hippocampus, pyriform cortex, and thalamus. Nasal midazolam at 5 min prevented brain damage, while delaying the midazolam treatment to 30 min of EGSA resulted

  14. Non-convulsive status epilepticus and consciousness disturbance after star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) ingestion in a dialysis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Hsin; Yeh, Jiann-Horng

    2004-12-01

    Star fruit ingestion may induce severe neurological complications in chronic renal failure patients. We present a case on maintenance dialysis therapy who developed a consciousness disturbance without convulsion after eating star fruit. The symptoms became aggravated after haemodialysis. The brain computed tomography scan showed no abnormal findings, but the electroencephalogram found active focal sharp waves in the left central regions and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging also showed hyperintense lesions in the left central regions that were compatible with non-convulsive status epilepticus. His condition improved dramatically after anticonvulsant therapy and regular haemodialysis. The patient was discharged 20 days later without neurological sequela.

  15. Behavioral effects of delayed timeouts from reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Tom; Poling, Alan

    2017-03-01

    Timeouts are sometimes used in applied settings to reduce target responses, and in some circumstances delays are unavoidably imposed between the onset of a timeout and the offset of the response that produces it. The present study examined the effects of signaled and unsignaled timeouts in rats exposed to concurrent fixed-ratio 1 fixed-ratio 1 schedules of food delivery, where each response on one lever, the location of which changed across conditions, produced both food and a delayed 10-s timeout. Delays of 0 to 38 s were examined. Delayed timeouts often, but not always, substantially reduced the number of responses emitted on the lever that produced timeouts relative to the number emitted on the lever that did not produce timeouts. In general, greater sensitivity was observed to delayed timeouts when they were signaled. These results demonstrate that delayed timeouts, like other delayed consequences, can affect behavior, albeit less strongly than immediate consequences. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  16. Moving Behavioral Science from Efficacy to Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallfors, Denise; Cho, Hyunsan

    2007-01-01

    The gap between scientific knowledge and real world practice continues to be a major conundrum for the behavioral sciences. This paper briefly reviews the development of behavioral research and describes problems that have arisen in meeting the goal of improving behavioral interventions through science. Based on published literature and personal…

  17. Prenatal stressors in rodents: Effects on behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Weinstock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests. Deficits were reported in social interaction that is suggestive of pathology associated with schizophrenia, and in spatial learning and memory in adult rats in the Morris water maze test, but in most studies only males were tested. There were too few studies on the novel object recognition test at different inter-trial intervals to enable a conclusion about the effect of prenatal stress and whether any deficits are more prevalent in males. Among hippocampal glutamate receptors, NR2B was the only subtype consistently reduced in association with learning deficits. However, like in humans with schizophrenia and depression, prenatal stress lowered hippocampal levels of BDNF, which were closely correlated with decreases in hippocampal long-term potentiation. In mice, down-regulation of BDNF appeared to occur through the action of gene-methylating enzymes that are already increased above controls in prenatally-stressed neonates. In conclusion, the data obtained so far from experiments in rodents lend support to a physiological basis for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and depression.

  18. [Effect of parental feeding behavior on eating behavior of children aged 1-3 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Hua; Chen, Jin-Jin

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between the eating behavior of children aged 1-3 years and parental feeding behavior and the effect of family status on feeding behavior. With stratified random sampling, 2 324 children aged 1-3 years were selected from Shanghai. Questionnaires were filled out by their parents or feeders to investigate the basic family information, parental feeding behavior, the eating behavior of children, and the basic information on children. The eating behavior of children was positively correlated with eating environment (r=0.223) and parental monitoring behavior (r=0.245) but negatively correlated with parental compulsive behavior (r=-0.264) (Pparental compulsive behavior (r=-0.569) but positively correlated with parental monitoring behavior (r=0.615) and eating environment (r=0.621). The emotional undereating of children was positively correlated with parental emotional feeding (r=0.259) and parental compulsive behavior (r=0.279). Parental monitoring behavior showed significant differences between different families (PParental feeding behavior is closely related to the eating behavior of children. Parental feeding behavior may vary across different family status.

  19. Framing effects: behavioral dynamics and neural basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongming; Wang, X T; Zhu, Liqi

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the neural basis of framing effects using life-death decision problems framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large group and small group contexts. Using functional MRI we found differential brain activations to the verbal and social cues embedded in the choice problems. In large group contexts, framing effects were significant where participants were more risk seeking under the negative (loss) framing than under the positive (gain) framing. This behavioral difference in risk preference was mainly regulated by the activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, including the homologue of the Broca's area. In contrast, framing effects diminished in small group contexts while the insula and parietal lobe in the right hemisphere were distinctively activated, suggesting an important role of emotion in switching choice preference from an indecisive mode to a more consistent risk-taking inclination, governed by a kith-and-kin decision rationality. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mutations in the Gene PRRT2 Cause Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Yang Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majority (24/25 of well-characterized families with PKD/IC. PRRT2 truncating mutations were also detected in 28 of 78 additional families. PRRT2 encodes a proline-rich transmembrane protein of unknown function that has been reported to interact with the t-SNARE, SNAP25. PRRT2 localizes to axons but not to dendritic processes in primary neuronal culture, and mutants associated with PKD/IC lead to dramatically reduced PRRT2 levels, leading ultimately to neuronal hyperexcitability that manifests in vivo as PKD/IC.

  1. Effects of light on brain and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, G.C. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    It is obvious that light entering the eye permits the sensory capacity of vision. The human species is highly dependent on visual perception of the environment and consequently, the scientific study of vision and visual mechanisms is a centuries old endeavor. Relatively new discoveries are now leading to an expanded understanding of the role of light entering the eye - in addition to supporting vision, light has various nonvisual biological effects. Over the past thirty years, animal studies have shown that environmental light is the primary stimulus for regulating circadian rhythms, seasonal cycles, and neuroendocrine responses. As with all photobiological phenomena, the wavelength, intensity, timing and duration of a light stimulus is important in determining its regulatory influence on the circadian and neuroendocrine systems. Initially, the effects of light on rhythms and hormones were observed only in sub-human species. Research over the past decade, however, has confirmed that light entering the eyes of humans is a potent stimulus for controlling physiological rhythms. The aim of this paper is to examine three specific nonvisual responses in humans which are mediated by light entering the eye: light-induced melatonin suppression, light therapy for winter depression, and enhancement of nighttime performance. This will serve as a brief introduction to the growing database which demonstrates how light stimuli can influence physiology, mood and behavior in humans. Such information greatly expands our understanding of the human eye and will ultimately change our use of light in the human environment.

  2. Effects of light on brain and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, George C.

    1994-01-01

    It is obvious that light entering the eye permits the sensory capacity of vision. The human species is highly dependent on visual perception of the environment and consequently, the scientific study of vision and visual mechanisms is a centuries old endeavor. Relatively new discoveries are now leading to an expanded understanding of the role of light entering the eye in addition to supporting vision, light has various nonvisual biological effects. Over the past thirty years, animal studies have shown that environmental light is the primary stimulus for regulating circadian rhythms, seasonal cycles, and neuroendocrine responses. As with all photobiological phenomena, the wavelength, intensity, timing and duration of a light stimulus is important in determining its regulatory influence on the circadian and neuroendocrine systems. Initially, the effects of light on rhythms and hormones were observed only in sub-human species. Research over the past decade, however, has confirmed that light entering the eyes of humans is a potent stimulus for controlling physiological rhythms. The aim of this paper is to examine three specific nonvisual responses in humans which are mediated by light entering the eye: light-induced melatonin suppression, light therapy for winter depression, and enhancement of nighttime performance. This will serve as a brief introduction to the growing database which demonstrates how light stimuli can influence physiology, mood and behavior in humans. Such information greatly expands our understanding of the human eye and will ultimately change our use of light in the human environment.

  3. Hemi-convulsion-hemiplegia syndrome revisited: longitudinal MRI findings in 10 children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcia,; Giulia,; Chemaly, Nicole; Dulac, Olivier; Nabbout, Rima [Reference Centre for Rare Epilepsies, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, APHP, Paris (France); Inserm U663, Paris [France; University Paris Descartes, CEA, Gif sur Yvette (France); Desguerre, Isabelle; Carmona, Orietta; Barnerias, Christine; Gitiaux, Cyril [Reference Centre for Rare Epilepsies, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, APHP, Paris (France); Brunelle, Francis; Boddaert, Nathalie [Paediatric Radiology Department, Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, APHP, Paris, (France)

    2013-07-01

    Hemi-convulsion-hemiplegia syndrome (HHS) is a rare severe epilepsy of infancy consisting of unilateral convulsive status epilepticus immediately followed by transient or lasting ipsilateral hemiplegia. HHS may occur either in patients with previous brain pathology or without any identified cause, so-called 'idiopathic HHS'. We retrospectively analysed clinical and MRI longitudinal findings of a series of 10 patients (six females, four males) presenting with HHS. Age at the study inclusion ranged from 2 years 6 months to 15 years (mean of 5 y 10 mo, median 4 y 2 mo). After defining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features as 'typical', i.e. strictly unilateral involvement, and 'atypical', i.e. bilateral, we compared clinical data from both groups. Cognitive level was assessed using Brunet-Lezine or Wechsler scales. HHS occurred at a mean age of 20.5 months (range 8-48 mo). In all cases, status epilepticus lasted for more than 1 hour and was characterised by unilateral clonic seizures followed by ipsilateral hemiplegia (persistent in five patients). Two patients in this series died: the first from multi-organ failure 2 weeks after the status epilepticus and the other from a second episode of ipsilateral intractable febrile status epilepticus 3 years after the first episode. Early MRI (days 1-7 from status epilepticus) showed hemispheric cytotoxic oedema in all, extending to the contralateral side for one. T2 hyperintensity in the basal ganglia was disclosed in 70% of patients and in the hippocampus in 60%. After 1 month (in intermediate and chronic phases), all surviving patients but one showed hemispheric cortical atrophy corresponding to the regions involved during the early stage. Comparing clinical features of patients presenting with 'typical' features, to those with 'atypical' findings, the second group presented psychomotor delay before status epilepticus. This series underlines the major value of early MRI for the prompt diagnosis of HHS, and shows that

  4. Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral-Theory-Based Skill Training on Academic Procrastination Behaviors of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…

  5. The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior of children using stronger statistical controls than earlier literature in this area; to examine whether the effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior is nonlinear; and to investigate whether the effects of corporal punishment on antisocial…

  6. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Time-Dependent Decline in Serum Phenytoin Concentration with Heightened Convulsive Seizure Risk by Prolonged Administration of Fosphenytoin in Japanese: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yuta; Niwa, Takashi; Hirai, Keita; Suzuki, Keiko; Yamada, Yuto; Hayashi, Yuichi; Hayashi, Hideki; Suzuki, Akio; Itoh, Yoshinori

    2018-04-20

    Because clinical data to confirm the safety and effectiveness of fosphenytoin, a prodrug of phenytoin, are insufficient, the length of administration of fosphenytoin is restricted. Nevertheless, some cases require fosphenytoin administration for more than a few days. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the serum concentration of phenytoin in adult Japanese patients who received intravenous fosphenytoin therapy for more than 3 days. Patients injected with intravenous fosphenytoin for more than 3 days at Gifu University Hospital between January 2012 and September 2014 were enrolled. Individual pharmacokinetic parameters were predicted by Bayesian estimation using NONMEM software, and the maintenance dose of fosphenytoin required to maintain the therapeutic trough concentration (10-20 μg/mL) was calculated from the parameters. Among a total of 8 patients, the serum trough concentration of phenytoin decreased with each day after repeated injection of fosphenytoin. The incidence rate of significant convulsive seizures was increased time-dependently (0% on day 1, 12.5% on day 2, 25% on day 3, and 66.7% on day 4 and after). Phenytoin clearance showed a time-dependent increase. The maintenance dose of fosphenytoin required to maintain the therapeutic trough concentration was simulated to be 779.8 ± 316.8 mg/day, a dose that was markedly higher than the actual maintenance dose (414.1 ± 55.7 mg/day). Prolonged use of fosphenytoin for such patients as those with autoimmune-mediated encephalopathy accompanied with reflux disease and/or ileus time-dependently decreased the serum concentration of phenytoin and increased the risk of convulsion. Therefore, the maintenance dose should be increased to maintain the therapeutic serum concentration.

  8. Oxytocin during Development: Possible Organizational Effects on Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Travis V; Caldwell, Heather K

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) is a neurohormone known for its physiological roles associated with lactation and parturition in mammals. Oxt can also profoundly influence mammalian social behaviors such as affiliative, parental, and aggressive behaviors. While the acute effects of Oxt signaling on adult behavior have been heavily researched in many species, including humans, the developmental effects of Oxt on the brain and behavior are just beginning to be explored. There is evidence that Oxt in early postnatal and peripubertal development, and perhaps during prenatal life, affects adult behavior by altering neural structure and function. However, the specific mechanisms by which this occurs remain unknown. Thus, this review will detail what is known about how developmental Oxt impacts behavior as well as explore the specific neurochemicals and neural substrates that are important to these behaviors.

  9. Comparison effectiveness of Dialectic Behavioral Therapy and Behavior Cognitive Therapy on Depression in the Multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Narges Zamani; Mehran Farhadi; Hosein Jenaabadi

    2017-01-01

    Balsimelli S, Mendes MF, Bertolucci PH, Tilbery CP. Attention impairment associated with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with mild incapacity. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2007;65(2A):262-7. Zamani N, Ahmadi V, Ataie Moghanloo V, Mirshekar S. Comparing the effectiveness of two therapeutic methods of dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy on the improvement of impulsive behavior in the patients suffering  from major depressive disorder (MDD) showing a t...

  10. Effects of Inconsistent Behaviors on Person Impressions: A Multidimensional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Roos

    1995-01-01

    Examined effects of unexpected behavioral information on person impressions. Inconsistency was manipulated with respect to Implicit Personality Theory. Found that behaviors with inconsistent evaluation implications did not affect impressions and that effects of inconsistent information depended on dimension of contrast, valence of initial…

  11. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus after cessation of convulsive status epilepticus in pediatric intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Xie, Lingling; Hu, Yue; Lan, Xinghui; Jiang, Li

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about pediatric patients suffering from nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) after convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) cessation. The aim of this study was to identify in pediatric patients the clinical characteristics of NCSE after CSE cessation and the factors that contribute to patient outcomes. Data from clinical features, electroencephalography (EEG) characteristics, neuroimaging findings, treatments, and prognosis were systematically summarized, and the associations between clinical characteristics and prognosis were quantified. Thirty-eight children aged 51days-14years, 2months were identified in the Chongqing Medical University pediatric intensive care unit as having experienced NCSE after CSE cessation between October 1, 2014 and April 1, 2017. All patients were comatose, 15 of whom presented subtle motor signs. The most common underlying etiology was acute central nervous system (CNS) infection. Electroencephalography (EEG) data showed that, during the NCSE period, all patients had several discrete episodes (lasting from 30s to 6h long), and the most common duration was 1-5min. The ictal onset locations were classified as focal (16 patients, 42.1%), multiregional independent (10 patients, 26.3%), and generalized (12 patients, 31.6%). Wave morphologies varied during the ictal and interictal periods. Neuroimaging detected signal abnormalities in the cerebral cortex or subcortex of 33 patients with NCSE (87%), which were classified as either multifocal and consistent with extensive cortical edema (21 patients, 55.3%) or focal (12 patients, 31.6%). Twelve patients were on continuous intravenous phenobarbital, and 31 were on continuous infusion of either midazolam (27 patients) or propofol (4 patients). At least one other antiepileptic drug was prescribed for 32 patients. Three patients were on mild hypothermia therapy. The duration of NCSE lasted 24h for 18 patients. The mortality rate was 21.1%, and half of the surviving patients had

  12. Hemi-convulsion-hemiplegia syndrome revisited: longitudinal MRI findings in 10 children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcia; Giulia; Chemaly, Nicole; Dulac, Olivier; Nabbout, Rima; Desguerre, Isabelle; Carmona, Orietta; Barnerias, Christine; Gitiaux, Cyril; Brunelle, Francis; Boddaert, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Hemi-convulsion-hemiplegia syndrome (HHS) is a rare severe epilepsy of infancy consisting of unilateral convulsive status epilepticus immediately followed by transient or lasting ipsilateral hemiplegia. HHS may occur either in patients with previous brain pathology or without any identified cause, so-called 'idiopathic HHS'. We retrospectively analysed clinical and MRI longitudinal findings of a series of 10 patients (six females, four males) presenting with HHS. Age at the study inclusion ranged from 2 years 6 months to 15 years (mean of 5 y 10 mo, median 4 y 2 mo). After defining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features as 'typical', i.e. strictly unilateral involvement, and 'atypical', i.e. bilateral, we compared clinical data from both groups. Cognitive level was assessed using Brunet-Lezine or Wechsler scales. HHS occurred at a mean age of 20.5 months (range 8-48 mo). In all cases, status epilepticus lasted for more than 1 hour and was characterised by unilateral clonic seizures followed by ipsilateral hemiplegia (persistent in five patients). Two patients in this series died: the first from multi-organ failure 2 weeks after the status epilepticus and the other from a second episode of ipsilateral intractable febrile status epilepticus 3 years after the first episode. Early MRI (days 1-7 from status epilepticus) showed hemispheric cytotoxic oedema in all, extending to the contralateral side for one. T2 hyperintensity in the basal ganglia was disclosed in 70% of patients and in the hippocampus in 60%. After 1 month (in intermediate and chronic phases), all surviving patients but one showed hemispheric cortical atrophy corresponding to the regions involved during the early stage. Comparing clinical features of patients presenting with 'typical' features, to those with 'atypical' findings, the second group presented psychomotor delay before status epilepticus. This series underlines the major value of early MRI

  13. The effect of rules on differential reinforcement of other behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Amanda C; Wilder, David A; Gregory, Meagan K; Leon, Yanerys; Ditzian, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the treatment of problem behavior has shown differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) to be an effective behavior-reduction procedure. However, the extent to which presession descriptions of the DRO contingency enhance intervention effects has not been examined. In the current study, we compared a condition in which a presession rule that described the DRO contingency was given to a condition in which no rule was given for 4 participants. The target behavior was toy play, which served as an analogue to problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. Results showed that DRO was more efficient for 1 participant and more effective for 2 participants when a rule was given. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. The Effect of Incentives on Sustainable Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Laura Rosendahl; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how children respond to different treatments aimed to fostersustainable behavior in a productive (firm like) setting. We conduct a field experiment using teams of children (aged 11 or 12) that are participating in an entrepreneurship education program in the last grade...

  15. The SAFARI Score to Assess the Risk of Convulsive Seizure During Admission for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaja, Blessing N R; Schweizer, Tom A; Claassen, Jan; Le Roux, Peter; Mayer, Stephan A; Macdonald, R Loch

    2018-06-01

    Seizure is a significant complication in patients under acute admission for aneurysmal SAH and could result in poor outcomes. Treatment strategies to optimize management will benefit from methods to better identify at-risk patients. To develop and validate a risk score for convulsive seizure during acute admission for SAH. A risk score was developed in 1500 patients from a single tertiary hospital and externally validated in 852 patients. Candidate predictors were identified by systematic review of the literature and were included in a backward stepwise logistic regression model with in-hospital seizure as a dependent variable. The risk score was assessed for discrimination using the area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC) and for calibration using a goodness-of-fit test. The SAFARI score, based on 4 items (age ≥ 60 yr, seizure occurrence before hospitalization, ruptured aneurysm in the anterior circulation, and hydrocephalus requiring cerebrospinal fluid diversion), had AUC = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.82 in the development cohort. The validation cohort had AUC = 0.65, 95% CI 0.56-0.73. A calibrated increase in the risk of seizure was noted with increasing SAFARI score points. The SAFARI score is a simple tool that adequately stratified SAH patients according to their risk for seizure using a few readily derived predictor items. It may contribute to a more individualized management of seizure following SAH.

  16. Premature mortality in active convulsive epilepsy in rural Kenya: causes and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Anthony K; Bottomley, Christian; Fegan, Gregory; Chengo, Eddie; Odhiambo, Rachael; Bauni, Evasius; Neville, Brian; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Sander, Josemir W; Newton, Charles R

    2014-02-18

    We estimated premature mortality and identified causes of death and associated factors in people with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) in rural Kenya. In this prospective population-based study, people with ACE were identified in a cross-sectional survey and followed up regularly for 3 years, during which information on deaths and associated factors was collected. We used a validated verbal autopsy tool to establish putative causes of death. Age-specific rate ratios and standardized mortality ratios were estimated. Poisson regression was used to identify mortality risk factors. There were 61 deaths among 754 people with ACE, yielding a rate of 33.3/1,000 persons/year. Overall standardized mortality ratio was 6.5. Mortality was higher across all ACE age groups. Nonadherence to antiepileptic drugs (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] 3.37), cognitive impairment (aRR 4.55), and age (50+ years) (rate ratio 4.56) were risk factors for premature mortality. Most deaths (56%) were directly related to epilepsy, with prolonged seizures/possible status epilepticus (38%) most frequently associated with death; some of these may have been due to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Possible SUDEP was the likely cause in another 7%. Mortality in people with ACE was more than 6-fold greater than expected. This may be reduced by improving treatment adherence and prompt management of prolonged seizures and supporting those with cognitive impairment.

  17. Analysis of factors influencing admission to intensive care following convulsive status epilepticus in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tirupathi, Sandya

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical features and therapeutic decisions that influence admission to the Intensive Care unit (ICU) in children presenting with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). METHODS: We evaluated 47 admissions with status epilepticus to a tertiary paediatric hospital A&E over a three year period (2003-2006). Following initial management 23 episodes required admission to ICU and 24 were managed on a paediatric ward. We compared clinical, demographic data and compliance with our CSE protocol between the ICU and ward groups. RESULTS: Median age at presentation in the ICU group was 17 months (range 3 months-11 years) compared to 46 months in the ward group (range 3 months-10 years). Fifty per cent of patients in both groups had a previous history of seizures. Median duration of pre-hospital seizure activity was 30 min in both groups. More than two doses of benzodiazepines were given as first line medication in 62% of the ICU group and 33% of the ward group. Among children admitted to ICU with CSE, 26% had been managed according to the CSE protocol, compared to 66% of children who were admitted to a hospital ward. Febrile seizures were the most common aetiology in both groups. CONCLUSION: Younger age at presentation, administration of more than two doses of benzodiazepines and deviation from the CSE protocol appear to be factors which influence admission of children to ICU. Recognition of pre-hospital administration of benzodiazepines and adherence to therapeutic guidelines may reduce the need for ventilatory support in this group.

  18. The effect of unethical behavior on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Faezeh Rezazadeh Baei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the components of ethical behavior and their impacts on life insurance companies in province of Mazandaran, Iran. There were 367 insurance representatives and the study selects a sample of 187 ones based on Cochran formula and 2 questionnaires were distributed among them. The first questionnaire, unethical behavior, includes 8 items including Bribery, Cheating, Deception, Interact with colleagues, Act as social behavior, Uncommitted to firm and Irresponsibility. In addition, the questionnaire of brand equity contains three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined that the effects of cheating and deception on unethical behaviors were not confirmed but the effects of other factors, bribery, interact with colleagues, act as social behavior, uncommitted to firm and irresponsibility on unethical behavior were confirmed. In addition, three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty had positive relationship with brand equity.

  19. Effect of information transmission on cooperative behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jintu; Wang Yinghai; Wang Shengjun; Huang Zigang; Yang Lei; Do, Younghae

    2010-01-01

    Considering the fact, in the real world, that information is transmitted with a time delay, we study an evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game where agents update strategies according to certain information that they have learned. In our study, the game dynamics are classified by the modes of information learning as well as game interaction, and four different combinations, i.e. the mean-field case, case I, case II and local case, are studied comparatively. It is found that the time delay in case II smoothes the phase transition from the absorbing states of C (or D) to their mixing state, and promotes cooperation for most parameter values. Our work provides insights into the temporal behavior of information and the memory of the system, and may be helpful in understanding the cooperative behavior induced by the time delay in social and biological systems.

  20. The effect of childhood malnutrition on externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2006-10-01

    Childhood externalizing behavior (aggression, hyperactivity, and conduct disorder) has been increasingly viewed as a public health problem because of its etiology and outcome. The association between malnutrition and externalizing behavior has begun to receive attention. This review summarizes recent empirical findings on malnutrition as a risk factor for the development of externalizing behavior, with an emphasis on micronutrient deficiency, and explores brain dysfunction as a possible mechanism. Externalizing behavior is associated with both macromalnutrition (e.g. protein) and micromalnutrition (e.g. iron and zinc). Both prenatal and postnatal malnutrition is implicated. The long-term effects of malnutrition on behavior could be reversible. The effects of docosahexaenoic acid/omega-3 long-chain essential fatty acid on externalizing behavior are more mixed. From animal and human findings, it is hypothesized that malnutrition impairs neurocognitive functioning by reducing neurons, alternating neurotransmitter functioning, and increasing neurotoxicity, and that such neurocognitive impairments predispose to externalizing behavior. Different lines of evidence support the view that poor nutrition contributes to the development of child behavior problems. More randomized, controlled trials that manipulate nutritional intake and evaluate behavior in children are needed to evaluate the etiological role of nutrition in externalizing behavior in order to inform intervention and prevention efforts.

  1. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E

    2014-09-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effects of Nonverbal Behavior on Perceptions of Power Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; Simonsen, Melissa M.; Pierce, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Manipulates three types of nonverbal behaviors and examines their effects on perceptions of power bases. Reports that a relaxed facial expression increased the ratings for five of the selected power bases; furthermore, direct eye contact yielded higher credibility ratings. Provides evidence that various nonverbal behaviors have only additive…

  3. The Casual Effects of Emotion on Couples' Cognition and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Ty; Frazier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted 2 translational studies that assessed the causal effects of emotion on maladaptive cognitions and behaviors in couples. Specifically, the authors examined whether negative emotions increased and positive emotions decreased partner attributions and demand-withdraw behaviors. Study 1 (N=164) used video clips to assess the…

  4. Changes in fire weather distributions: effects on predicted fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy A. Salazar; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1984-01-01

    Data that represent average worst fire weather for a particular area are used to index daily fire danger; however, they do not account for different locations or diurnal weather changes that significantly affect fire behavior potential. To study the effects that selected changes in weather databases have on computed fire behavior parameters, weather data for the...

  5. Teachers' ratings of disruptive behaviors: the influence of halo effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abikoff, H; Courtney, M; Pelham, W E; Koplewicz, H S

    1993-10-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of teachers' ratings and examined whether these ratings are influenced by halo effects. One hundred thirty-nine elementary school teachers viewed videotapes of what they believed were children in regular fourth-grade classrooms. In fact, the children were actors who followed prepared scripts that depicted a child engaging in behaviors characteristic of an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), an oppositional defiant disorder or a normal youngster. The findings provide support for a bias that was unidirectional in nature. Specifically, teachers rated hyperactive behaviors accurately when the child behaved like an ADHD youngster. However, ratings of hyperactivity and of ADHD symptomatic behaviors were spuriously inflated when behaviors associated with oppositional defiant disorder occurred. In contrast, teachers rated oppositional and conduct problem behaviors accurately, regardless of the presence of hyperactive behaviors. The implications of these findings regarding diagnostic practices and rating scale formats are discussed.

  6. Effective Tool to Improve Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Mass Counseling: Effective Tool to Improve Knowledge,. Attitude and Behavior ... of mobile counseling units by blood banks may help to create a voluntary blood donor. Changes in ..... How to cite this article: Kulkarni PY, Kulkarni AD.

  7. [Familial febrile convulsions is supposed to link to human chromosome 19p13.3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Y; Lü, J; Wu, X

    2001-01-10

    To localize the familial febrile convulsion (FC) genes on human chromosomes. For 63 FC pedigrees, tetranucleotide repeat markers D19S253 D19S395 and D19S591 on the short arm of chromosome 19, as well as dinucleotide repeat markers D8S84 and D8S85 on the long arm of chromosome 8 were genotyped. Transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and Lod score calculation were carried out. The data were processed by PPAP software package. All the alleles in every locus of FC probands and normal controls were in Hardy-Weinburg balance. Transmission disequilibrium was found on D8S84, D19S395 and D19S591 in FC families. chi(2) values were 4.0, 5.124 and 7.364 separately. Each P value was < 0.05, and significantly meaningful. The two-point Lod scores between D8S84 and FC, D8S85 and FC, D19S253 and FC, D19S395 and FC, D19S591 and FC are 0.00002, 0.000017, 0.58, 1.53 and 1.42 respectively. The multi-point Lod score among markers on chromosome 8q and FC was 0.88, while Lod score among markers on chromosome 19p and FC reached 2.78. The results by both the non-parameter (TDT) and parameter (Lod score) methods were consistant on a whole. FC is linked with chromosome region 19p13.3, but not with chromosome 8q.

  8. PSEUDOTUMORAL FORM OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS WITH SYMPTOMATIC CONVULSIVE SEIZURES (A CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is prominent among central nervous system diseases. It affects chiefly young people and almost inevitably results in disability. In the past decade, there has been an upward trend for the prevalence of MS worldwide; in particular, the higher prevalence of this disease has been registered in the Moscow Region, which is associated with both an objective increase in its morbidity and improvement of specialized care to the population in the region. MS is characterized by a variety of clinical manifestations. However, paroxysmal disturbances are referred to as the rare symptoms of MS: the incidence of epileptic seizures in this condition is 0.89 to 7.5% according to the literature data. In addition to the clinical form of MS, there are its rare malignant atypical forms that also include its pseudotumoral form characterized by intrinsic neuroimaging and clinical signs that are different from the classical form of MS and another abnormality of the central nervous system. The pseudotumoral form of MS is characterized by the development of acute focal demyelination that appears as a large focus of an increased magnetic resonance signal with perifocal edema as evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging. A pseudotumoral focus of demyelination can occur both at the onset of MS and during its recurrent course. The atypical onset of MS is a special challenge because of diagnostic problems, which may lead to erroneous therapeutic policy and have a negative impact on the late prognosis of the disease. The authors provide a clinical case of the pseudotumoral form of MS with convulsive seizures at the onset of demyelinating disease. The problems of diagnosis and therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  9. Phenobarbital Versus Valproate for Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Adults: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yingying; Liu, Gang; Tian, Fei; Ren, Guoping; Jiang, Mengdi; Chun, Brian; Zhang, Yunzhou; Zhang, Yan; Ye, Hong; Gao, Daiquan; Chen, Weibi

    2016-12-01

    Although generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is a life-threatening emergency, evidence-based data to guide initial drug treatment choices are lacking in the Chinese population. We conducted this prospective, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of intravenous phenobarbital and valproate in patients with GCSE. After the failure of first-line diazepam treatment, Chinese adult patients with GCSE were randomized to receive either intravenous phenobarbital (standard doses, low rate) or valproate (standard). Successful treatment was considered when clinical and electroencephalographic seizure activity ceased. Adverse events following treatment, as well as the neurological outcomes at discharge and 3 months later, were also evaluated. Overall, 73 cases were enrolled in the study. Intravenous phenobarbital was successful in 81.1% of patients, and intravenous valproate was successful in 44.4% of patients (p phenobarbital (6.7%) was significantly lower than that in patients receiving valproate (31.3%), and the total number of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups (p > 0.05). In the phenobarbital group, two patients (5.4%) required ventilation and two patients (5.4%) developed serious hypotension. The neurological outcomes of the phenobarbital group were generally better than those of the valproate group; however, no significant differences were observed between phenobarbital and valproate with respect to mortality (8.1 vs. 16.6%) at discharge, or mortality (16.2 vs. 30.5%) and post-symptomatic epilepsy (26.3 vs. 42.8%) at 3-month follow-up. Intravenous phenobarbital appears to be more effective than intravenous valproate for Chinese adult patients with GCSE. The occurrence of serious respiratory depression and hypotension caused by phenobarbital was reduced by decreasing the intravenous infusion rate; however, even at a lower infusion rate than typically used in other institutions, intravenous

  10. Modulating effect of cerulein on benzodlazepine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasar, E.E.; Marmets, M.O.; Nurk, A.M.; Rego, L.K.; Soosar, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the role of benzodiazepine receptors in the anticonvulsant action of cerulein. Parallel with the study of the behavioral reactions, the effect of cerulein binding of tritium-flunitrazepam was investtigated in vitro and in vivo. It was shown that preliminary subcutaneous injection of relatively high doses of cerulein (over 100 micro/kg) delayed the development of picrotoxin seizures; the latent period of clonic and tonic convulsions and the survival of the mice were lengthened. In doses inhibiting picrotoxen seizures, cerulein significantly inhibited binding of tritium-flunitrazepam in vitro

  11. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  12. Moral Behavior as Rule Governed Behavior: Person and System Effects on Moral Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtines, William M.; And Others

    Recent approaches to research on moral development have considered the preeminence of situational factors in moral development and moral behavior. An open systems approach emphasizes the interactive effects of person and situation variables on moral decision-making. The interactive effects of three sets of variables on moral decision-making were…

  13. Evaluation of Behavioral and Pharmacological Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Valeriana prionophylla Standl. from Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iandra Holzmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies on the pharmacological properties of Valeriana prionophylla Standl. (VP, known as “Valeriana del monte”, and used in Mesoamerican folk medicine to treat sleep disorders. This study examines the pharmacological effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of the dry rhizome using the open field, rota rod, elevated plus-maze (EPM, forced swimming (FST, strychnine- and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, PTZ-induced seizures, and the inhibitory avoidance tests. VP did not show any protective effect against PTZ-induced convulsions. In the EPM, exhibited an anxiolytic-like effect through the effective enhancement of the entries (38.5% and time spent (44.7% in the open arms, when compared with control group. Time spent and the numbers of entrances into the enclosed arms were decreased, similar to those effects observed with diazepam. In the FST, acute treatment with VP, produced a dose-dependent decrease in immobility time, similarly to imipramine. VP also produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in the latency of sleeping time, while producing an increase in total duration of sleep; influenced memory consolidation of the animals only at lower doses, unlike those that produced anti-depressant and anxiolytic effects. In summary, the results suggest that VP presents several psychopharmacological activities, including anxiolytic, antidepressant, and hypno-sedative effects.

  14. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  15. Effects of Interruptibility-Aware Robot Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Siddhartha; Silva, Andrew; Feigh, Karen; Chernova, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    As robots become increasingly prevalent in human environments, there will inevitably be times when a robot needs to interrupt a human to initiate an interaction. Our work introduces the first interruptibility-aware mobile robot system, and evaluates the effects of interruptibility-awareness on human task performance, robot task performance, and on human interpretation of the robot's social aptitude. Our results show that our robot is effective at predicting interruptibility at high accuracy, ...

  16. Peer effects in unethical behavior: standing or reputation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pascual-Ezama

    Full Text Available Recent empirical evidence shows that working in an unsupervised, isolated situation under competition, can increase dishonest behavior to achieve prestige. However, could working in a common space, in the presence of colleagues affect cheating? Here, we examine how familiar-peer influence, supervision and social incentives affect worker performance and dishonest behavior. First, we show that working in the presence of peers is an effective mechanism to constrain honest/dishonest behavior compared to an isolated work situation (experiment 1. Second, we demonstrate that the mere suspicion of dishonesty from another peer is not enough to affect individual cheating behavior (experiment 2, suggesting that reputation holds great importance in a worker's self-image acting as a strong social incentives. Third, we show that when the suspicion of dishonesty increases with multiple peers behaving dishonestly, the desire to increase standing is sufficient to nudge individuals' behavior back to cheating at the same levels as isolated situations (experiment 3.

  17. Effect of DC voltage pulses on memristor behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2013-10-01

    Current knowledge of memristor behavior is limited to a few physical models of which little comprehensive data collection has taken place. The purpose of this research is to collect data in search of exploitable memristor behavior by designing and implementing tests on a HP Labs Rev2 Memristor Test Board. The results are then graphed in their optimal format for conceptualizing behavioral patterns. This series of experiments has concluded the existence of an additional memristor state affecting the behavior of memristors when pulsed with positively polarized DC voltages. This effect has been observed across multiple memristors and data sets. The following pages outline the process that led to the hypothetical existence and eventual proof of this additional state of memristor behavior.

  18. Gravitational Effects on Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1991-01-01

    Visual, vestibular, tactile, proprioceptive, and perhaps auditory clues are combined with knowledge of commanded voluntary movement to produce a single, usually consistent, perception of spatial orientation. The recent Spacelab flights have provided especially valuable observations on the effects of weightlessness and space flight. The response of the otolith organs to weightlessness and readapting to Earth's gravitation is described. Reference frames for orientation are briefly discussed.

  19. Effect of NICU Illumination upon Behaviors in Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    白岩, 義夫; 河合, 優年; 犬飼, 和久; 鬼頭, 秀行; 小川, 次郎

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of illumination in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) on behaviors and behavioral states in preterm infants. The Ss were individually observed twice in a day for a period of one hour by a video recording system. The results showed that rates of awakening and eye-opening during the awake state were higher, and their eyes were opened more widely under the dark condition than the bright. The bright condition increased the rate of Behavior ...

  20. Influence of information on behavioral effects in decision processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelarosa Longo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rational models in decision processes are marked out by many anomalies, caused by behavioral issues. We point out the importance of information in causing inconsistent preferences in a decision process. In a single or multi agent decision process each mental model is influenced by the presence, the absence or false information about the problem or about other members of the decision making group. The difficulty in modeling these effects increases because behavioral biases influence also the modeler. Behavioral Operational Research (BOR studies these influences to create efficient models to define choices in similar decision processes.

  1. Influence of information on behavioral effects in decision processes

    OpenAIRE

    Angelarosa Longo; Viviana Ventre

    2015-01-01

    Rational models in decision processes are marked out by many anomalies, caused by behavioral issues. We point out the importance of information in causing inconsistent preferences in a decision process. In a single or multi agent decision process each mental model is influenced by the presence, the absence or false information about the problem or about other members of the decision making group. The difficulty in modeling these effects increases because behavioral biases influence also the m...

  2. Convulsant activity and neurochemical alterations induced by a fraction obtained from fruit Averrhoa carambola (Oxalidaceae: Geraniales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolino, Ruither O G; Beleboni, Renê O; Pizzo, Andrea B; Vecchio, Flavio Del; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Moyses-Neto, Miguel; Santos, Wagner F Dos; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim

    2005-06-01

    We obtained a neurotoxic fraction (AcTx) from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) and studied its effects on GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission systems. AcTx had no effect on GABA/glutamate uptake or release, or on glutamate binding. However, it specifically inhibited GABA binding in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50)=0.89muM). Video-electroencephalogram recordings demonstrated that following cortical administration of AcTx, animals showed behavioral changes, including tonic-clonic seizures, evolving into status epilepticus, accompanied by cortical epileptiform activity. Chemical characterization of AcTx showed that this compound is a nonproteic molecule with a molecular weight less than 500, differing from oxalic acid. This neurotoxic fraction of star fruit may be considered a new tool for neurochemical and neuroethological research.

  3. A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with convulsion, gait disturbance, facial palsy and with multifocal CT lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Tetsu; Kurihara, Eiji; Mizuno, Yoshihiko; Tamagawa, Kimiko; Komiya, Kazuhiko; Mizuguchi, Masashi.

    1988-01-01

    A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was presented. The patient was a 4-year-old boy with convulsion, ataxic gait, facial palsy. It was postulated that the influenza vaccine might induce the disease in this case. Cranial CT showed a low density arease in the right temporal lobe, which disappeared afterwards when other low density areas appeared in the right cerebellar hemisphere and in inner portion of the body of the left lateral ventricle. All symptoms disappeared without therapy and the CT findings improved within three months after onset. (author)

  4. [Prehospital management of febrile convulsions by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekaer, A.L.; Nielsen, S.L.; Pedersen, Ulf Gøttrup

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We conducted a quality assurance project of The Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in the Capital Region of Denmark when dispatched to febrile convulsions. The study focuses on prehospital treatment, comparison between prehospital and in-hospital diagnoses and parents' perceptions......% of cases, the prehospital and in-hospital diagnosis were identical. CONCLUSION: In general, parents appreciate the service provided by the MECU. Reasons of dissatisfaction are described. On several occasions, the prehospital physician administered intravenous anticonvulsants, but we discuss if the MECU...

  5. Clinical features, proximate causes, and consequences of active convulsive epilepsy in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Symon M; Matuja, William; Akpalu, Albert; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Chabi, Martin; Wagner, Ryan G; Connor, Myles; Chengo, Eddie; Ngugi, Anthony K; Odhiambo, Rachael; Bottomley, Christian; White, Steven; Sander, Josemir W; Neville, Brian G R; Newton, Charles R J C; Twine, Rhian; Gómez Olivé, F Xavier; Collinson, Mark; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Masanja, Honratio; Mathew, Alexander; Pariyo, George; Peterson, Stefan; Ndyomughenyi, Donald; Bauni, Evasius; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Odera, Victor Mung'ala; Mageto, James O; Ae-Ngibise, Ken; Akpalu, Bright; Agbokey, Francis; Adjei, Patrick; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Doku, Victor C K; Odermatt, Peter; Nutman, Thomas; Wilkins, Patricia; Noh, John

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the clinical features and consequences are poorly characterized. Most studies are hospital-based, and few studies have compared different ecological sites in SSA. We described active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) identified in cross-sectional community-based surveys in SSA, to understand the proximate causes, features, and consequences. We performed a detailed clinical and neurophysiologic description of ACE cases identified from a community survey of 584,586 people using medical history, neurologic examination, and electroencephalography (EEG) data from five sites in Africa: South Africa; Tanzania; Uganda; Kenya; and Ghana. The cases were examined by clinicians to discover risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of epilepsy. We used logistic regression to determine the epilepsy factors associated with medical comorbidities. Half (51%) of the 2,170 people with ACE were children and 69% of seizures began in childhood. Focal features (EEG, seizure types, and neurologic deficits) were present in 58% of ACE cases, and these varied significantly with site. Status epilepticus occurred in 25% of people with ACE. Only 36% received antiepileptic drugs (phenobarbital was the most common drug [95%]), and the proportion varied significantly with the site. Proximate causes of ACE were adverse perinatal events (11%) for onset of seizures before 18 years; and acute encephalopathy (10%) and head injury prior to seizure onset (3%). Important comorbidities were malnutrition (15%), cognitive impairment (23%), and neurologic deficits (15%). The consequences of ACE were burns (16%), head injuries (postseizure) (1%), lack of education (43%), and being unmarried (67%) or unemployed (57%) in adults, all significantly more common than in those without epilepsy. There were significant differences in the comorbidities across sites. Focal features are common in ACE, suggesting identifiable and preventable causes. Malnutrition and

  6. Clinical features, proximate causes, and consequences of active convulsive epilepsy in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Symon M; Matuja, William; Akpalu, Albert; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Chabi, Martin; Wagner, Ryan G; Connor, Myles; Chengo, Eddie; Ngugi, Anthony K; Odhiambo, Rachael; Bottomley, Christian; White, Steven; Sander, Josemir W; Neville, Brian G R; Newton, Charles R J C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the clinical features and consequences are poorly characterized. Most studies are hospital-based, and few studies have compared different ecological sites in SSA. We described active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) identified in cross-sectional community-based surveys in SSA, to understand the proximate causes, features, and consequences. Methods We performed a detailed clinical and neurophysiologic description of ACE cases identified from a community survey of 584,586 people using medical history, neurologic examination, and electroencephalography (EEG) data from five sites in Africa: South Africa; Tanzania; Uganda; Kenya; and Ghana. The cases were examined by clinicians to discover risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of epilepsy. We used logistic regression to determine the epilepsy factors associated with medical comorbidities. Key Findings Half (51%) of the 2,170 people with ACE were children and 69% of seizures began in childhood. Focal features (EEG, seizure types, and neurologic deficits) were present in 58% of ACE cases, and these varied significantly with site. Status epilepticus occurred in 25% of people with ACE. Only 36% received antiepileptic drugs (phenobarbital was the most common drug [95%]), and the proportion varied significantly with the site. Proximate causes of ACE were adverse perinatal events (11%) for onset of seizures before 18 years; and acute encephalopathy (10%) and head injury prior to seizure onset (3%). Important comorbidities were malnutrition (15%), cognitive impairment (23%), and neurologic deficits (15%). The consequences of ACE were burns (16%), head injuries (postseizure) (1%), lack of education (43%), and being unmarried (67%) or unemployed (57%) in adults, all significantly more common than in those without epilepsy. Significance There were significant differences in the comorbidities across sites. Focal features are common in ACE, suggesting identifiable and

  7. Salzburg Consensus Criteria for Non-Convulsive Status Epilepticus--approach to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitinger, M; Beniczky, S; Rohracher, A; Gardella, E; Kalss, G; Qerama, E; Höfler, J; Hess Lindberg-Larsen, A; Kuchukhidze, G; Dobesberger, J; Langthaler, P B; Trinka, E

    2015-08-01

    Salzburg Consensus Criteria for diagnosis of Non-Convulsive Status Epilepticus (SCNC) were proposed at the 4th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on status epilepticus in Salzburg (2013). We retrospectively analyzed the EEGs of 50 consecutive nonhypoxic patients with diagnoses of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) at discharge and 50 consecutive controls with abnormal EEGs in a large university hospital in Austria. We implemented the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society's Standardized Critical Care EEG Terminology, 2012 version (ACNS criteria) to increase the test performance of SCNC. In patients without preexisting epileptic encephalopathy, the following criteria were applied: (1) more than 25 epileptiform discharges (ED) per 10-second epoch, i.e., >2.5/s and (2) patients with EDs ≤ 2.5/s or rhythmic delta/theta activity (RDT) exceeding 0.5/s AND at least one of the additional criteria: (2a) clinical and EEG improvements from antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), (2b) subtle clinical phenomena, or (2c) typical spatiotemporal evolution. In case of fluctuation without evolution or EEG improvement without clinical improvement, "possible NCSE" was diagnosed. For identification of RDT, the following criteria were compared: (test condition A) continuous delta-theta activity without further rules, (B) ACNS criterion for rhythmic delta activity (RDA), and (C) ACNS criteria for RDA and fluctuation. False positive rate in controls dropped from 28% (condition A) to 2% (B) (p = 0.00039) and finally to 0% (C) (p = 0.000042). Application of test condition C in the group with NCSE gives one false negative (2%). Various EEG patterns were found in patients with NCSE: (1) 8.2%, (2a) 2%, (2b) 12.2%, and (2c) 32.7%. Possible NCSE was diagnosed based on fluctuations in 57.1% and EEG improvement without clinical improvement in 14.2%. The modified SCNC with refined definitions including the ACNS terminology leads to clinically relevant and statistically significant reduction of false

  8. Effect of EEG Biofeedback on Convulsive Response to Monomethylhydrazine in the Rhesus Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    and sterile surgical procedures. A bilateral frontal- parietal craniotomy was performed and the dura opened to identify cortical anatomy. The location...conditioning of electroencephalographic activity while awake . Science 167: 1146-1148. Sterman, M. B., LoPresti, R. W. and Fairchild, M. D., June

  9. The inhibitory effect of convulsant agents on the enzyme in brain which inactivates nerveside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, C C

    1969-07-01

    1. An enzyme which can be extracted from brain inactivates nerveside in the optimum pH range 5.8-7.0.2. The polybasic acids trypan blue and its analogue trypan red, bromphenol blue and its analogue bromthymol blue at concentrations of 0.22 mM and ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) at a concentration of 1 mM are strong inhibitors of the enzyme.3. Penicillin which is a monobasic carboxylic acid also inhibits the enzyme but only if concentrations as high as 3.6 mM are used. The antibiotic streptomycin which is a basic substance does not inhibit the enzyme.4. Caffeine at a concentration of 7.2 mM only weakly inhibits the enzyme.5. Chymotrypsin and wheat germ acid phosphatase also inactivate nerveside at pH 5.9 and are inhibited by the acidic dyes and penicillin. EDTA inhibits wheat germ phosphatase but activates chymotrypsin.6. Inactivation of nerveside by the brain enzyme and by wheat germ phosphatase is different from the action of chymotrypsin. Nerveside solutions incubated with chymotrypsin completely lose all biological activity whereas if incubation is carried out with either the brain enzyme or wheat germ acid phosphatase a residual biological activity remains even when the concentration of these two enzymes is increased. This residual biological activity is due to a peptide as it is destroyed by chymotrypsin.7. The manner in which nerveside is inactivated by the brain enzyme is uncertain as the preparation of the latter contained phosphodiesterase and protease activities which were similarly inhibited by the acid dyes, penicillin and EDTA.8. Pentylenetetrazole, picrotoxin, strychnine and tetanus toxin do not inhibit the brain enzyme.9. The nerveside-inactivating enzyme is not identical with the Substance P-inactivating enzyme in brain as the former is inhibited by EDTA while the latter is not.

  10. Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S.

    This review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) first looks at aspects of the history and prevalence of AS use in competitive sports. Research suggests that one-quarter to one-half million adolescents in the United States have used, or are currently using AS. Some effects of androgens…

  11. Antiepileptic Drug Behavioral Side Effects in Individuals with Mental Retardation and the Use of Behavioral Measurement Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachnik, John E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Behavioral psychology measurement methods helped assess antiepileptic drug behavioral side effects in five individuals with mental retardation who could not verbally communicate presence of side effects. When the suspected antiepileptic drug was altered, an 81% reduction of maladaptive behaviors occurred. The measurement methods enabled systematic…

  12. Effects of Switching Behavior for the Attraction on Pedestrian Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores.

  13. Effects of Switching Behavior for the Attraction on Pedestrian Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Kwak

    Full Text Available Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores.

  14. Beliefs and environmental behavior: the moderating effect of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Luzón, Maria Carmen; Calvo-Salguero, Antonia; Salinas, Jose Maria

    2014-12-01

    Recent decades have seen a proliferation of studies aiming to explain how pro-environmental behavior is shaped by attitudes, values and beliefs. In this study, we have included an aspect in our analysis that has been rarely touched upon until now, that is, the intelligent use of emotions as a possible component of pro-environmental behavior. We applied the Trait Meta Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) and the New Environmental Paradigm scale to a sample of 184 male and female undergraduate students. We also carried out correlation and hierarchical regression analyses of blocks. The results show the interaction effects of the system of environmental beliefs and the dimensions of emotional intelligence on glass recycling attitudes, intentions and behavior. The results are discussed from the perspective of research on how the management of emotions guides thought and behavior. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Comparison effectiveness of Dialectic Behavioral Therapy and Behavior Cognitive Therapy on Depression in the Multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Zamani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Balsimelli S, Mendes MF, Bertolucci PH, Tilbery CP. Attention impairment associated with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with mild incapacity. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2007;65(2A:262-7. Zamani N, Ahmadi V, Ataie Moghanloo V, Mirshekar S. Comparing the effectiveness of two therapeutic methods of dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy on the improvement of impulsive behavior in the patients suffering  from major depressive disorder (MDD showing a tendency to suicide. J Ilam Univ Med Sci 2014;22(5:45-54. [Full Text in Persian] Sadovnick AD. European charcot foundation lecture: The natural history of multiple sclerosis and gender. J Neurol Sci 2009;286(1-2:1-5. Robins LN. Psychiatric epidemiology. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984;41(10:931-33. Amato MP, Ponziani G, Siracusa G, Sorbi S. Cognitive dysfunction in early-onset multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 2001;58(10:1602-6.  Polman CH, Reingold SC, Banwell B, Michel Clanet M, Cohen JA, Filippi M, et al. Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: Revisions to the McDonald Criteria. Ann Neurol 2011;69(2:292–302. Zamani N, Farhadi M, Jamilian HR, Habibi M. Effectiveness of dialectical behavior group therapy on expulsive anger. J Arak Univ Med Sci 2015;8(101:35-44. [Full Text in Persian] Young JE, Klosko JS, Weishaar ME. Schema therapy: A Practitioner’s guide. Translated by: Hamidpoor H. New York: Guilford Press; 2003. Linehan M. Dialectical Behavior therapy frequently Asked Questions. Avalaible From: http://behavioraltech.org/downloads/dbtFaq_Cons.pdf. Accessed Sep, 2008. Zamani N, Habibi M, Darvishi M. To compare the effectiveness dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive-behavioral group therapy in reducing depression in mothers of children with disabilities. Arak Med Univ J 2015;18(94:32-42. [Full Text in Persian] Hawton K, Salkous K, Clarck. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for psychiatric problems, a practical guide. Translated by: Ghasemzadeh H. Tehran: Arjomand Pub; 2002

  16. Behavioral effects of nerve agents: laboratory animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse and often subtle behavioral consequences have been reported for humans exposed to nerve agents. Laboratory studies of nerve agent exposure offer rigorous control over important variables, but species other than man must be used. Nonhuman primate models offer the best means of identifying the toxic nervous system effects of nerve agent insult and the countermeasures best capable of preventing or attenuating these effects. Comprehensive behavioral models must evaluate preservation and recovery of function as well as new learning ability. The throughput and sensitivity of the tests chosen are important considerations. A few nonhuman primate studies will be discussed to elaborate recent successes, current limitations, and future directions.(author)

  17. Pressure effects on dynamics behavior of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebian, Taha [Faculty of Engineering, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The dynamic behavior of Multiwall boron nitride nanotubes (MWBNNTs) is investigated by employing multiple elastic shells model. The influences of van der Waals interactions on layers are shown as nonlinear functions of the interlayer distance of MWBNNTs. Governing equations are solved by using the developed finite element method and by employing time history diagrams. The radial wave speed from the outermost layer to the innermost layer is computed. The effects of geometrical factors such as diameter-to-thickness ratio on dynamic behavior of MWBNNTs are determined. The magnification aspects of MWBNNTs are computed, and the effects of surrounding pressures on wave speed and magnification aspect of MWBNNTs are discussed.

  18. Neighborhood Effects in a Behavioral Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pruitt, Sandi L.; Leonard, Tammy; Murdoch, James; Hughes, Amy; McQueen, Amy; Gupta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions intended to modify health behaviors may be influenced by neighborhood effects which can impede unbiased estimation of intervention effects. Examining a RCT designed to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (N=5,628), we found statistically significant neighborhood effects: average CRC test use among neighboring study participants was significantly and positively associated with individual patient’s CRC test use. This potentially import...

  19. Effects of piracetam on behavior and memory in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leah; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Utterback, Eli; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Frank, Kevin; Hart, Peter; Howard, Harry; Kalueff, Allan V

    2011-04-25

    Piracetam, a derivative of γ-aminobutyric acid, exerts memory-enhancing and mild anxiolytic effects in human and rodent studies. To examine the drug's behavioral profile further, we assessed its effects on behavioral and endocrine (cortisol) responses of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)--a novel model species rapidly gaining popularity in neurobehavioral research. Overall, acute piracetam did not affect zebrafish novel tank and light-dark box behavior at mild doses (25-400mg/L), but produced nonspecific behavioral inhibition at 700mg/L. No effects on cortisol levels or inter-/intra-session habituation in the novel tank test were observed for acute or chronic mild non-sedative dose of 200mg/L. In contrast, fish exposed to chronic piracetam at this dose performed significantly better in the cued learning plus-maze test. This observation parallels clinical and rodent literature on the behavioral profile of piracetam, supporting the utility of zebrafish paradigms for testing nootropic agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of proton exposure on neurochemistry and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Szprengiel, A.; Pluhar, J.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Future space missions will involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, where astronauts will be exposed to radiation hazards such as those that arise from galactic cosmic rays. Galactic cosmic rays are composed of protons, α particles, and particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles). Research by our group has shown that exposure to HZE particles, primarily 600 MeV/n and 1 GeV/n 56Fe, can produce significant alterations in brain neurochemistry and behavior. However, given that protons can make up a significant portion of the radiation spectrum, it is important to study their effects on neural functioning and on related performance. Therefore, these studies examined the effects of exposure to proton irradiation on neurochemical and behavioral endpoints, including dopaminergic functioning, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, and spatial learning and memory as measured by the Morris water maze. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a dose of 0, 1.5, 3.0 or 4.0 Gy of 250 MeV protons at Loma Linda University and were tested in the different behavioral tests at various times following exposure. Results showed that there was no effect of proton irradiation at any dose on any of the endpoints measured. Therefore, there is a contrast between the insignificant effects of high dose proton exposure and the dramatic effectiveness of low dose (<0.1 Gy) exposures to 56Fe particles on both neurochemical and behavioral endpoints.

  1. Effect of holding office on the behavior of politicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemark, Daniel; Gibson, Clark C.; McCubbins, Mathew D.; Seim, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges—whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth—require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity. This combination of regression discontinuity and experimental designs allows us to estimate the effect of holding office on behavior. We find that holding office increases adherence to the norm of reciprocity. This study identifies causal effects of holding office on politicians’ behavior. PMID:27856736

  2. Effect of holding office on the behavior of politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemark, Daniel; Gibson, Clark C; McCubbins, Mathew D; Seim, Brigitte

    2016-11-29

    Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges-whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth-require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity. This combination of regression discontinuity and experimental designs allows us to estimate the effect of holding office on behavior. We find that holding office increases adherence to the norm of reciprocity. This study identifies causal effects of holding office on politicians' behavior.

  3. Effect of Chronic Lead Intoxication on Risky Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mohammadyar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With industrialization of human societies, pollutants like lead have entered in the life cycle, causing harmful effects on body organs. No sufficient studies have been done on the effects of pollutants on behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of lead on some measurable behaviors of an animal model. Methods: Forty eight male adult mice were divided into 4 groups of 12 each. Lead acetate was added at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, or 500 ppm to the drinking water of the animals for 4 weeks (28 days. On day 29, animals were placed on an Elevated Plus maze (EPM for 5 min and the time in sec spent was measured on closed arms, open arms and the end 1/3rd of the open arms. Increased time on open arms, particularly the end 1/3rd was considered to reflect an enhanced risk-accepting behavior. Results: In this study, it was shown that lead exposure caused an increased number of entrance (P=0.006 and time spent (P=0.034 by mice on open arms of the EPM. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of lead acetate and those two effects. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that lead poisoning may decrease normal anxiety in mice and increase risky behavior in this species. Clinical studies on human subjects with risky behavior are strongly suggested in order to find a possible relation between chronic exposures to lead as well as plasma concentration of lead with the extent of this kind of behavior.

  4. The Effect of Training on Adopting Behaviors Preventing from Knee Osteoarthritis Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the arthritis is believed to be among common diseases which prevail in the developed and developing countries, including Iran. In demographic studies, the prevalence of knee arthritis which stands at %15/3 in the population above 15-years old was shown. Owing to the fact that societies are about to be aged than before, the issue has become a growing significance in the subject matter of public health. The present study is conducted with an aim to investigate into the effect of training based on the planned behavior model on preventing the teachers of preliminary schools from getting knee arthritis. Methods: the study as an intervention research is of quasi-experimental kind. The population in question included 114 individuals among female teachers of preliminary schools who were brought to the study randomly and divided into two groups intervention and non-intervention. Based on the primary results, the educational contents were designed and submitted in the intervention group. After two months of executing the training program, the post test was carried out. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 18. Due to the loss of normality in data distribution, non- parametric tests were used. Results: the study demonstrated that the components of the planned behavior theory (i.e. the attitudes, subjective norms and the control of perceived behavior could altogether estimate %37 of intention and %43 of behavior. Meanwhile, the role of subjective norms (β =56/0 in predicting intention was overriding, In this study,after the educational program, control of perceived behavior scores increased of 32/50 ± 4/05 to 34/82 ± 5/66. indicating that the major obstacles in adopting behaviors preventing from knee arthritis are the lack of regular physical activity (%72/4 and failure to use western-style toilet (%57. Conclusion: In this Study the effect theory of planned behavior support in predicting exercise intentions and behavior in the prevention of

  5. Effect of cognitive-behavior therapy for betrayed women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrangiz Shoaa Kazemi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Infidelity is the most frequently cited cause of divorce and is described by couple therapists as among the most difficult problems to treat.im of this study was effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy for betrayed women in Tehran city Method was pre experimental. Sampling was purposeful in which 15 wives (20-35 years old were selected. They had experienced betrayals that were participating in cognitive- behavioral therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy sessions at three stages sessions after preliminary interview they were assessed by the spouse betrayal examination questionnaire and general health questionnaire-28 in pre-training. Then they had every week 1 session of 90 minutes. After the end of session again assessed by post-test. Mean and standard deviation of mental health showed significantly difference after sessions at post-test stage. There was significant effect in cognitive -behavioral therapy of sessions for improving mental health of betrayed women. We recommend behavioral technique in similar situations for betrayed women.

  6. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbuehler, K.; Peters, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  7. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this

  8. Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this

  9. Effects of Behavioral and Social Class Information on Social Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Reuben M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the role of disconfirming behavioral information and the limits on social class schema effects. Using a Bayesian model of social perception, it was found that unambiguous, relevant stimulus information influenced judgments. Although social class information did not affect relevant stimulus information, it did sway judgments in…

  10. Ileal brake activation: Macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Aam, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of

  11. Directions of Effects between Adolescent Psychopathic Traits and Parental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihovic, Selma; Kerr, Margaret; Ozdemir, Metin; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the directions of effects between adolescent psychopathic traits and parental behaviors. The data are from a community-based cohort-sequential study. Data were collected annually over 4 years. Participants were 875 adolescents, aged 13-15 at Time 1, and we analyzed their reports of negative and positive parental…

  12. Effects of Advance Organizer Instruction on Preschool Children's Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Joseph T.; Burk, Jill

    This study investigated the effects of advanced organizer instruction on 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers' learning of general prosocial skill concepts, rules for using prosocial skills, and spontaneous prosocial behavior. The six prosocial skills considered included cooperation, sharing, taking turns, helping, demonstration of awareness of another's…

  13. Intellectual Disability Modifies Gender Effects on Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Gray, Kylie M.; Ellis, Louise A.; Taffe, John; Emerson, Eric; Tonge, Bruce J.; Horstead, Sian K.

    2010-01-01

    In typically developing children, boys are more commonly diagnosed than girls with disruptive behavior disorders, namely, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder. For children with intellectual disability (ID), the evidence for this gender effect is less clear. In this report we examine gender…

  14. Moderators influencing the effectiveness of a behavioral teacher program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, Betty; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed which moderators influenced the effectiveness of a low-intensive behavioral teacher program for children with symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods: Primary school children (N = 114) with ADHD symptoms in the classroom were randomly

  15. The Effects of a Brushing Procedure on Stereotypical Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; Durand, Shannon; Chan, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the effects of a brushing protocol on stereotyped behavior of a young boy with autism. First, a functional analysis was conducted which showed that the participant's stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Next, the Wilbarger Protocol, a brushing intervention, was implemented. An ABA design was implemented…

  16. The Behavioral Effects of Environmental Enrichment in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-30

    decrease food consumption (Rickards, Job, & Boakes, 1997; Marti, Marti, & Armario , 1994; Zylan & Brown, 1996); exposure to repeated cold stress...Behavior, 71(3-4), 329-333. 108 Marti, O., Marti, J., & Armario , A. (1994). Effects of chronic stress on food intake in rats: influence of

  17. Effects of Academic Experience and Prestige on Researchers’ Citing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a bibliometric study of the measurable effects of experience and prestige on researchers' citing behavior. All single authors from two econometrics journals over a 10-year time period form the basis of the analysis of how experience and prestige affect...

  18. Effect of Maternal Depression on Child Behavior: A Sensitive Period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maternal depression during the child's first year of life (i.e., sensitive period) on subsequent behavior problems. Method: Participants were 175 mothers participating in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) who met lifetime diagnostic criteria for major depressive…

  19. Effects of Video Modeling on Treatment Integrity of Behavioral Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGennaro-Reed, Florence D.; Codding, Robin; Catania, Cynthia N.; Maguire, Helena

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of individualized video modeling on the accurate implementation of behavioral interventions using a multiple baseline design across 3 teachers. During video modeling, treatment integrity improved above baseline levels; however, teacher performance remained variable. The addition of verbal performance feedback increased…

  20. The Causal Effects of Grade Retention on Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Paco; Mariano, Louis T.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the impact of grade retention on behavioral outcomes under a comprehensive assessment-based student promotion policy in New York City. To isolate the causal effect of grade retention, we implement a fuzzy regression discontinuity (RD) design that exploits the fact that grade retention is largely determined by whether a student…

  1. Two-Year Findings from a National Effectiveness Trial: Effectiveness of Behavioral and Non-Behavioral Parenting Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högström, Jens; Olofsson, Viveca; Özdemir, Metin; Enebrink, Pia; Stattin, Håkan

    2017-04-01

    Long-term follow-up studies of selective parent training (PT) programs are scarce, particularly in the case of effectiveness trials conducted within regular care settings. This study evaluated the 2-year effects of 4 programs: Comet, Incredible Years, Cope, and Connect and differences in the rate of change among programs were investigated using Latent Growth Modeling (LGM). Participants were parents who had sought help at 30 local service sector units (e.g., child psychiatric clinics and social services centers) for major problems in managing their children's externalizing behavior. Parents of 749 children (63 % boys) with moderate levels of externalizing behavior, aged 3-12, were randomized to one of the 4 PT programs. Assessments included parent-reported measures of child externalizing, hyperactivity and inattention, as well as parenting practices, sense of competence, and parents' stress and depressive symptoms. At 2-year follow-up, there were no differences in any of the child outcomes among the programs. All programs had reduced externalizing behaviors with large effect sizes (d = 1.21 to d = 1.32), and negative parenting practices with moderate to large effect sizes (d = 0.49 to d = 0.83). LGM analyses showed that the 2 behavioral programs, Comet and Incredible Years, produced more rapid reductions in externalizing behavior during the course of the intervention than the non-behavioral program, Connect. Connect, however, was the only program where children continued to improve after the intervention. Overall, the results indicate that the 4 programs were equally effective in a clinical setting, despite differences in their theoretical origin.

  2. Neighborhood effects in a behavioral randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Sandi L; Leonard, Tammy; Murdoch, James; Hughes, Amy; McQueen, Amy; Gupta, Samir

    2014-11-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions intended to modify health behaviors may be influenced by neighborhood effects which can impede unbiased estimation of intervention effects. Examining a RCT designed to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (N=5628), we found statistically significant neighborhood effects: average CRC test use among neighboring study participants was significantly and positively associated with individual patient's CRC test use. This potentially important spatially-varying covariate has not previously been considered in a RCT. Our results suggest that future RCTs of health behavior interventions should assess potential social interactions between participants, which may cause intervention arm contamination and may bias effect size estimation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving healthcare practice behaviors: an exploratory study identifying effective and ineffective behaviors in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Fleet, David D; Peterson, Tim O

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of exploratory research designed to develop an awareness of healthcare behaviors, with a view toward improving the customer satisfaction with healthcare services. It examines the relationship between healthcare providers and their consumers/patients/clients. The study uses a critical incident methodology, with both effective and ineffective behavioral specimens examined across different provider groups. The effects of these different behaviors on what Berry (1999) identified as the common core values of service organizations are examined, as those values are required to build a lasting service relationship. Also examined are categories of healthcare practice based on the National Quality Strategy priorities. The most obvious is the retrospective nature of the method used. How accurate are patient or consumer memories? Are they capable of making valid judgments of healthcare experiences (Berry and Bendapudi, 2003)? While an obvious limitation, such recollections are clearly important as they may be paramount in following the healthcare practitioners' instructions, loyalty for repeat business, making recommendations to others and the like. Further, studies have shown retrospective reports to be accurate and useful (Miller et al., 1997). With this information, healthcare educators should be in a better position to improve the training offered in their programs and practitioners to better serve their customers. The findings would indicate that the human values of excellence, innovation, joy, respect and integrity play a significant role in building a strong service relationship between consumer and healthcare provider. Berry (1999) has argued that the overriding importance in building a lasting service business is human values. This exploratory study has shown how critical incident analysis can be used to determine both effective and ineffective practices of different medical providers. It also provides guidelines as

  4. The Effects of Divorced Mothers' Dating Behaviors and Sexual Attitudes on the Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors of Their Adolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of effects of mothers' dating behaviors on adolescents' sexuality using reports from a sample of adolescents and their divorced mothers. Suggests mothers' dating behaviors directly influenced sexual behavior of males and indirectly influenced sexuality of females. Mothers' sexual permissiveness influenced daughters' sexual…

  5. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Play Therapy on Externalizing Behavior Problems Among Street and Working Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Ghodousi

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: It seems that one of the effective ways to lessen externalizing behavior problems among street and working children is cognitive-behavioral play therapy; therefore, coaches and teachers of such children are recommended to make use of this method to lower their behavioral problems. 

  6. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...

  7. An Investigation of the Impact of Function of Problem Behavior on Effectiveness of the Behavior Education Program (BEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; O'Neill, Robert E.; MacLeod, K. Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The Behavior Education Program (BEP) is a check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at-risk for engaging in more severe problem behavior. Previous research with middle and elementary school students found that the BEP was more effective with students who had adult attention maintained problem behavior. The purposes of this…

  8. Synchronization effects in the dynamical behavior of elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschel, Thorsten; Gallas, Jason A. C.

    1994-10-01

    We simulate the dynamical behavior of M elevators serving N floors of a building in which a Poisson distribution of persons call elevators. Our simulation reproduces the jamming effect typically seen in large buildings when a large number of persons decide to leave the building simultaneously. The collective behavior of the elevators involves characteristics similar to those observed in systems of coupled oscillators. In addition, there is an apparently rule-free critical population density above which elevators start to arrive synchronously at the ground floor.

  9. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelson Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely

  10. Perinatal stress: characteristics and effects on adult eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Cesiana da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have pointed out the importance of mother-child interaction in the early months of life. A few decades ago, a method called kangaroo care was developed and its main goal was to keep underweight or premature newborns in direct contact with the mother. This method has reduced the morbidity and mortality of these newborns, increasing their growth rate, breastfeeding time and mother-child contact. In rodents, the dam's presence is crucial for avoiding aggression factors that may trigger phenotypic adaptations in the pups with irreversible morphological, functional and behavioral consequences. Eating behavior is an adaptive response stemming from the external environment demand and modulated by opportunities and limitations imposed by the external environment. This behavior is regulated by a complex interaction of peripheral and central mechanisms that control hunger and satiety. The hypothalamus is a brain structure that integrates central and peripheral signals to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight. The hypothalamic nucleus have orexigenic peptides, such as neuropeptide Y and the Agouti-related peptide, and anorexigenic peptides, such as cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript and proopiomelanocortin. An innovative study of eating behavior in experimental models of neonatal stress separates the mother from the offspring during lactation. This review describes the effects of stress during the neonatal period on general physiological factors, particularly on the control of eating behavior.

  11. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eCelec

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences.

  12. A theoretical model on surface electronic behavior: Strain effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, W.G.; Shaw, D.

    2009-01-01

    Deformation from mechanical loading can affect surface electronic behavior. Surface deformation and electronic behavior can be quantitatively expressed using strain and work function, respectively, and their experimental relationship can be readily determined using the Kelvin probing technique. However, the theoretical correlation between work function and strain has been unclear. This study reports our theoretical exploration, for the first time, of the effect of strain on work function. We propose a simple electrostatic action model by considering the effect of a dislocation on work function of a one-dimensional lattice and further extend this model to the complex conditions for the effect of dislocation density. Based on this model, we established successfully a theoretical correlation between work function and strain.

  13. Effects of cigarette smoking on human aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherek, D R

    1984-01-01

    Nicotine administered by smoking experimental cigarettes produced decreases in two types of aggressive responses elicited by low and high frequency subtractions of money which were attributed to another "person". The suppressing effects of smoking different doses of nicotine on aggressive responses was dose-dependent, in that smoking the high dose of nicotine produced more suppression than smoking the low dose. The ostensible subtraction of money from another "person", the more aggressive response option available to research subjects, was generally more sensitive to the suppressing effects of nicotine than aggressive noise delivery responses. Although this effect could be attributed to another constituent of tobacco, the dose-dependent effect observed with these cigarettes which contained the same amount of tar suggest the effects are due to nicotine. The relatively selective suppression of aggressive behavior observed in humans in the present study is highly consistent with the effects of nicotine observed in a number of infrahuman species. Nicotine has been found to suppress aggressive behavior in ants (Kostowski 1968), rats (Silverman 1971), and cats (Berntson et. al. 1976). In addition, nicotine has been observed to suppress shock elicited fighting in rats (Driscoll, Baettig 1981; Rodgers 1979; Waldbillig 1980) as well as shock elicited biting in monkeys (Hutchinson, Emley 1973). The importance of determining specificity of drug action on aggressive behavior has been repeatedly emphasized in the field of behavioral pharmacology (Sidman 1959; Cook, Kelleher 1963; Thompson, Boren 1977; Miczek, Krsiak 1979). One method employed to evaluate drug specificity and identify a general non-specific excitatory or depressant drug effect is to determine the drug effect on more than one response option which is available to the subject (Sidman 1959). In this study, the same doses of nicotine which suppressed aggressive responding increased nonaggressive monetary

  14. Characterization of behavioral and endocrine effects of LSD on zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leah; Utterback, Eli; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Chung, Kyung Min; Suciu, Christopher; Wong, Keith; Elegante, Marco; Elkhayat, Salem; Tan, Julia; Gilder, Thomas; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Cachat, Jonathan; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-12-25

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogenic drug that strongly affects animal and human behavior. Although adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a promising neurobehavioral model, the effects of LSD on zebrafish have not been investigated previously. Several behavioral paradigms (the novel tank, observation cylinder, light-dark box, open field, T-maze, social preference and shoaling tests), as well as modern video-tracking tools and whole-body cortisol assay were used to characterize the effects of acute LSD in zebrafish. While lower doses (5-100 microg/L) did not affect zebrafish behavior, 250 microg/L LSD increased top dwelling and reduced freezing in the novel tank and observation cylinder tests, also affecting spatiotemporal patterns of activity (as assessed by 3D reconstruction of zebrafish traces and ethograms). LSD evoked mild thigmotaxis in the open field test, increased light behavior in the light-dark test, reduced the number of arm entries and freezing in the T-maze and social preference test, without affecting social preference. In contrast, LSD affected zebrafish shoaling (increasing the inter-fish distance in a group), and elevated whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our findings show sensitivity of zebrafish to LSD action, and support the use of zebrafish models to study hallucinogenic drugs of abuse. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of cage density on behavior in young adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lauren P; Chedester, Alan L; Cole, Marlene N

    2007-08-01

    Optimal housing conditions for mice can be achieved by minimizing environmental variables, such as those that may contribute to anxiety-like behavior. This study evaluated the effects of cage size on juvenile mice through assessment of differences in weaning weight, locomotor skills, and anxiety-like behavior. Eighteen pairs of male and pregnant female Swiss-Webster (Cr:SW) mice were housed in 3 different caging scenarios, providing 429, 505, or 729 cm2 of space. Litters were standardized to 10 pups per litter in each cage. Mice reared in each caging scenario were assessed with the open-field, light-dark exploration, and elevated plus-maze tests. No differences in weaning weight were noted. Mice reared in the 505- and 729-cm2 cages explored a significantly larger area of the open-field arena than did those in the 429-cm2 cages. Those reared in the 505-cm2 cages spent more time in the center of the open field than did those in the 729-cm2 cages, suggesting that anxiety-like behavior may be increased in the animals housed in the larger cages. This study did not establish a consistent link between decreased floor space and increased anxiety-like behavior; neither does there appear to be a consistent effect of available floor area on the development of locomotor skills on mouse pups.

  16. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boon-How; Chew; Sazlina; Shariff-Ghazali; Aaron; Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus(DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal contro of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications,causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient’s psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation,self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors,coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relationto DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  17. Collisional redistribution effects on x-ray laser saturation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.J.; Lee, R.W.; London, R.A.; Mrowka, S.; Underwood, J.H.; Batson, P.J.

    1994-06-01

    We recently published a detailed summary of our experimental and theoretical research on Ne-like Se x-ray laser line widths, and one of our conclusions was that collisional redistribution rates are likely to have an effect on the saturation behavior of the 206.4 angstrom Se x-ray laser. In this paper we focus on the effects of collisional redistribution on x-ray laser gain coefficients, and discuss ways of including these effects in existing laser line- transfer models

  18. De betekenis van consulieachtige verschijnselen in de eerste twee levensjaren [mportance of convulsion-like signs during the first two years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reerink, J.D.; Herngreen, W.P.; Peters, A.C.B.; Ouden, A.L. den; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Ruys, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Objective. Assessment of the prevalence of convulsion-like symptoms in 1854 children of Dutch-speaking mothers of a population-based birth cohort. Method. At each child health clinic (CHC) visit mothers were asked whether they had noted any of the following signs: loss of consciousness, involuntary

  19. Loss of consciousness and convulsion induced by a ventricular tachycardia mimicking epilepsy in a patient with noncompaction cardiomyopathy : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dello, S. A. W. G.; Kievit, C.; Dunselman, P. H.; Alings, M.

    Convulsions and loss of consciousness can be caused by, among other things, arrhythmias, conduction disorders or epilepsy. In clinical practice it can be difficult to distinguish between these causes of syncope, even for well-trained specialists. Patients with cardiac syncope have a substantial risk

  20. Behavioral effects of ketamine and toxic interactions with psychostimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Keiichi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anesthetic drug ketamine (KT has been reported to be an abused drug and fatal cases have been observed in polydrug users. In the present study, considering the possibility of KT-enhanced toxic effects of other drugs, and KT-induced promotion of an overdose without making the subject aware of the danger due to the attenuation of several painful subjective symptoms, the intraperitoneal (i.p. KT-induced alterations in behaviors and toxic interactions with popular co-abused drugs, the psychostimulants cocaine (COC and methamphetamine (MA, were examined in ICR mice. Results A single dose of KT caused hyperlocomotion in a low (30 mg/kg, i.p. dose group, and hypolocomotion followed by hyperlocomotion in a high (100 mg/kg, i.p. dose group. However, no behavioral alterations derived from enhanced stress-related depression or anxiety were observed in the forced swimming or the elevated plus-maze test. A single non-fatal dose of COC (30 mg/kg, i.p. or MA (4 mg/kg, i.p. caused hyperlocomotion, stress-related depression in swimming behaviors in the forced swimming test, and anxiety-related behavioral changes (preference for closed arms in the elevated plus-maze test. For the COC (30 mg/kg or MA (4 mg/kg groups of mice simultaneously co-treated with KT, the psychostimulant-induced hyperlocomotion was suppressed by the high dose KT, and the psychostimulant-induced behavioral alterations in the above tests were reversed by both low and high doses of KT. For the toxic dose COC (70 mg/kg, i.p.- or MA (15 mg/kg, i.p.-only group, mortality and severe seizures were observed in some animals. In the toxic dose psychostimulant-KT groups, KT attenuated the severity of seizures dose-dependently. Nevertheless, the mortality rate was significantly increased by co-treatment with the high dose KT. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that, in spite of the absence of stress-related depressive and anxiety-related behavioral alterations following a single

  1. Self-reported impulsivity, but not behavioral choice or response impulsivity, partially mediates the effect of stress on drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Ansell, Emily B; Reynolds, Brady; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Stress and impulsivity contribute to alcohol use, and stress may also act via impulsivity to increase drinking behavior. Impulsivity represents a multi-faceted construct and self-report and behavioral assessments may effectively capture distinct clinically relevant factors. The present research investigated whether aspects of impulsivity mediate the effect of stress on alcohol use. A community-based sample of 192 men and women was assessed on measures of cumulative stress, alcohol use, self-reported impulsivity, and behavioral choice and response impulsivity. Data were analyzed using regression and bootstrapping techniques to estimate indirect effects of stress on drinking via impulsivity. Cumulative adversity exhibited both direct effects and indirect effects (via self-reported impulsivity) on drinking behavior. Additional models examining specific types of stress indicated direct and indirect effects of trauma and recent life events, and indirect effects of major life events and chronic stressors on drinking behavior. Overall, cumulative stress was associated with increased drinking behavior, and this effect was partially mediated by self-reported impulsivity. Self-reported impulsivity also mediated the effects of different types of stress on drinking behavior. These findings highlight the value of mediation models to examine the pathways through which different types of stress increase drinking behavior. Treatment and prevention strategies should focus on enhancing stress management and self-control.

  2. Effects of elastic anisotropy on mechanical behavior of intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of the deformation and fracture behavior of ordered intermetallic compounds are examined within the framework of linear anisotropic elasticity theory of dislocations and cracks. The orientation dependence and the tension/compression asymmetry of yield stress are explained in terms of the anisotropic coupling effect of non-glide stresses to the glide strain. The anomalous yield behavior is related to the disparity (edge/screw) of dislocation mobility and the critical stress required for the dislocation multiplication mechanism of Frank-Read type. The slip-twin conjugate relationship, extensive faulting, and pseudo-twinning (martensitic transformation) at a crack tip can be enhanced also by the anisotropic coupling effect, which may lead to transformation toughening of shear type

  3. Effect of sludge behavior on performance of centrifugal contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, A.; Sano, Y.; Takeuchi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA, 4-33 Muramatsu Tokai-mura Naka-gun Ibaraki-pref. 319-1194 (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been developing an annular centrifugal contactor for solvent extraction in spent fuel reprocessing, which allows the mixing of aqueous and organic phases in the annular area and their separation from the mixed phase in the rotor. The effects of sludge behavior on the performance of a centrifugal contactor were investigated. Sludge accumulation during the operation of the centrifugal contactor was observed only in the rotor. Based on the sludge accumulation behavior, the effects of rotor sludge accumulation on the performance of phase separation and extraction were investigated using several types of rotors, which simulated different sludge accumulation levels in the separation area. It was confirmed that rotor sludge accumulation would affect the phase separation performance but not the extraction performance. This can be explained by the structure of the centrifugal contactor, wherein the extraction reaction and phase separation mainly proceed in the housing and rotor, respectively.

  4. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, B S; Pitts, M M; Maclean, R; Cangialose, C; Kishel, M; Imai, H; Etchason, J

    2001-05-28

    Managed care organizations use explicit financial incentives to influence physicians' use of resources. This has contributed to concerns regarding conflicts of interest for physicians and adverse effects on the quality of patient care. In light of recent publicized legislative and legal battles about this issue, we reviewed the literature and analyzed studies that examine the effect of these explicit financial incentives on the behavior of physicians. The method used to undertake the literature review followed the approach set forth in the Cochrane Collaboration handbook. Our literature review revealed a paucity of data on the effect of explicit financial incentives. Based on this limited evidence, explicit incentives that place individual physicians at financial risk appear to be effective in reducing physician resource use. However, the empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of bonus payments on physician resource use is mixed. Similarly, our review revealed mixed effects of the influence of explicit financial incentives on the quality of patient care. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior is complicated by a lack of understanding of the incentive structure by the managed care organization and the physician. The lack of a universally acceptable definition of quality renders it important that future researchers identify the term explicitly.

  5. Differential Effectiveness of Interdependent and Dependent Group Contingencies in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…

  6. Effects of consumer motives on search behavior using internet advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kenneth C C

    2004-08-01

    Past studies on uses and gratifications theory suggested that consumer motives affect how they will use media and media contents. Recent advertising research has extended the theory to study the use of Internet advertising. The current study explores the effects of consumer motives on their search behavior using Internet advertising. The study employed a 2 by 2 between-subjects factorial experiment design. A total of 120 subjects were assigned to an experiment condition that contains an Internet advertisement varying by advertising appeals (i.e., rational vs. emotional) and product involvement levels (high vs. low). Consumer search behavior (measured by the depth, breadth, total amount of search), demographics, and motives were collected by post-experiment questionnaires. Because all three dependent variables measuring search behavior were conceptually related to each other, MANCOVA procedures were employed to examine the moderating effects of consumer motives on the dependent variables in four product involvement-advertising appeal conditions. Results indicated that main effects for product involvements and advertising appeals were statistically significant. Univariate ANOVA also showed that advertising appeals and product involvement levels influenced the total amount of search. Three-way interactions among advertising appeals, product involvement levels, and information motive were also statistically significant. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  7. Moderators Influencing the Effectiveness of a Behavioral Teacher Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Veenman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study assessed which moderators influenced the effectiveness of a low-intensive behavioral teacher program for children with symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD.Methods: Primary school children (N = 114 with ADHD symptoms in the classroom were randomly assigned to the intervention program (n = 58; 91% male or control group (n = 56; 77% male. Multilevel regression analyses assessed differential treatment gains of the intervention program in terms of ADHD symptoms and social skills. Moderators included demographic characteristics (gender, age, parental educational level, severity and comorbidity of problem behavior (ADHD symptoms, conduct and internalizing problems, social functioning, and classroom variables (teaching experience, class size.Results: Results revealed larger program effects for older children and children from highly educated families and smaller beneficial effects for children with comorbid conduct or anxiety problems.Conclusion: The intervention program seems more beneficial for highly educated families and children without comorbid problem behavior, but more intensive treatments appear necessary for children facing additional challenges.ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02518711

  8. Mechanical behavior and stress effects in hard superconductors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C.C.; Easton, D.S.

    1977-11-01

    The mechanical properties of type II superconducting materials are reviewed as well as the effect of stress on the superconducting properties of these materials. The bcc alloys niobium-titanium and niobium-zirconium exhibit good strength and extensive ductility at room temperature. Mechanical tests on these alloys at 4.2 0 K revealed serrated stress-strain curves, nonlinear elastic effects and reduced ductility. The nonlinear behavior is probably due to twinning and detwinning or a reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation. The brittle A-15 compound superconductors, such as Nb 3 Sn and V 3 Ga, exhibit unusual elastic properties and structural instabilities at cryogenic temperatures. Multifilamentary composites consisting of superconducting filaments in a normal metal matrix are generally used for superconducting devices. The mechanical properties of alloy and compound composites, tapes, as well as composites of niobium carbonitride chemically vapor deposited on high strength carbon fibers are presented. Hysteretic stress-strain behavior in the metal matrix composites produces significant heat generation, an effect which may lead to degradation in the performance of high field magnets. Measurements of the critical current density, J/sub c/, under stress in a magnetic field are reported. Modest stress-reversible degradation in J/sub c/ was observed in niobium-titanium composites, while more serious degradation was found in Nb 3 Sn samples. The importance of mechanical behavior to device performance is discussed

  9. On effective temperature in network models of collective behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porfiri, Maurizio; Ariel, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Collective behavior of self-propelled units is studied analytically within the Vectorial Network Model (VNM), a mean-field approximation of the well-known Vicsek model. We propose a dynamical systems framework to study the stochastic dynamics of the VNM in the presence of general additive noise. We establish that a single parameter, which is a linear function of the circular mean of the noise, controls the macroscopic phase of the system—ordered or disordered. By establishing a fluctuation–dissipation relation, we posit that this parameter can be regarded as an effective temperature of collective behavior. The exact critical temperature is obtained analytically for systems with small connectivity, equivalent to low-density ensembles of self-propelled units. Numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate the applicability of this new notion of effective temperature to the Vicsek model. The identification of an effective temperature of collective behavior is an important step toward understanding order–disorder phase transitions, informing consistent coarse-graining techniques and explaining the physics underlying the emergence of collective phenomena.

  10. Effect of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ranjbar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most prevalent psychotic disorder. In order to cure and prevent the recurrence of this disease, it is necessary to gain more information about remedial methods like Group Cognitive- Behavior Therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the amount of depression on the patients. Methods: This study was experimental and it included both experimental and control group with a pre test. The subjects were selected from patients with mild depression. Their Beck inventory score ranged between 17-20. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. The subjects of experimental group received eight sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. The Beck depression test was completed by the subjects in three phases before the intervention, after the intervention and one month after that. The data was transferred to SPSS program and analyzed. Results: The results indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control group after the intervention at Beck tests (P=0.043. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the experimental group between the depression score in patients before and after the intervention (p=0.033 and the score of patients before and one month after the intervention (p=0.492. Conclusion: Group Cognitive-Behavioral therapy decreases depression in patients who suffer from mild depression.

  11. Memory Effects on Movement Behavior in Animal Foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracis, Chloe; Gurarie, Eliezer; Van Moorter, Bram; Goodwin, R Andrew

    2015-01-01

    An individual's choices are shaped by its experience, a fundamental property of behavior important to understanding complex processes. Learning and memory are observed across many taxa and can drive behaviors, including foraging behavior. To explore the conditions under which memory provides an advantage, we present a continuous-space, continuous-time model of animal movement that incorporates learning and memory. Using simulation models, we evaluate the benefit memory provides across several types of landscapes with variable-quality resources and compare the memory model within a nested hierarchy of simpler models (behavioral switching and random walk). We find that memory almost always leads to improved foraging success, but that this effect is most marked in landscapes containing sparse, contiguous patches of high-value resources that regenerate relatively fast and are located in an otherwise devoid landscape. In these cases, there is a large payoff for finding a resource patch, due to size, value, or locational difficulty. While memory-informed search is difficult to differentiate from other factors using solely movement data, our results suggest that disproportionate spatial use of higher value areas, higher consumption rates, and consumption variability all point to memory influencing the movement direction of animals in certain ecosystems.

  12. Memory Effects on Movement Behavior in Animal Foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracis, Chloe; Gurarie, Eliezer; Van Moorter, Bram; Goodwin, R. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    An individual’s choices are shaped by its experience, a fundamental property of behavior important to understanding complex processes. Learning and memory are observed across many taxa and can drive behaviors, including foraging behavior. To explore the conditions under which memory provides an advantage, we present a continuous-space, continuous-time model of animal movement that incorporates learning and memory. Using simulation models, we evaluate the benefit memory provides across several types of landscapes with variable-quality resources and compare the memory model within a nested hierarchy of simpler models (behavioral switching and random walk). We find that memory almost always leads to improved foraging success, but that this effect is most marked in landscapes containing sparse, contiguous patches of high-value resources that regenerate relatively fast and are located in an otherwise devoid landscape. In these cases, there is a large payoff for finding a resource patch, due to size, value, or locational difficulty. While memory-informed search is difficult to differentiate from other factors using solely movement data, our results suggest that disproportionate spatial use of higher value areas, higher consumption rates, and consumption variability all point to memory influencing the movement direction of animals in certain ecosystems. PMID:26288228

  13. Social network effects in contraceptive behavior among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Dwyer, Debra S

    2011-10-01

    To quantify empirically the role of peer social networks in contraceptive behavior among adolescents. Using longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents, the authors use a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects, and peer selection to reduce the potential impact of biases from the estimates of peer influence. The peer group measures are drawn not only from the nominations of close friends but also from classmates. Contraception use among the peer groups was constructed using the peers' own reports of their contraceptive behavior. Controlling for parental characteristics and other demographic variables, the authors find that a 10% increase in the proportion of classmates who use contraception increases the likelihood of individual contraception use by approximately 5%. They also find evidence that the influence of close friends diminishes after accounting for unobserved environmental confounders. The findings of this study support the findings in the literature that peer effects are important determinants of contraception use even after controlling for potential biases in the data. Effective policy aimed at increasing contraception use among adolescents should consider these peer effects.

  14. Behavioral effects of antiepileptic drugs in rats: Are the effects on mood and behavior detectable in open-field test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimcikova, Eva; Simko, Julius; Karesova, Iva; Kremlacek, Jan; Malakova, Jana

    2017-11-01

    Behavioral side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are common including both positive and negative effects on mood, anxiety, depression, and psychosis. We aimed to evaluate behavioral patterns in rats after administration of lamotrigine, levetiracetam, phenytoin, topiramate, carbamazepine, gabapentin, pregabalin, and zonisamide. The open-field test was performed and locomotion, rearing, grooming, central latency and defecation were recorded over a 5min interval for each rat (8 rats in each group receiving AED and 16 controls). Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test or ANOVA were used to assess differences among the groups. The experimental groups did not differ in latency to enter the center compartment, neither in the decline of locomotor activity in the 1st and the 5th minute of the observation, nor in number of rears. Significant differences among groups were observed in the total number of lines crossed, grooming, as well in the number of fecal pellets. Locomotor activity was significantly increased in lamotrigine, if compared with gabapentin and pregabalin (ANOVA; p <0.05). Rats exposed to topiramate displayed a significantly increased number of grooming (when compared to pregabalin: p<0.01). Defecation (the number of fecal pellets) significantly increased in the gabapentin and carbamazepine group. There are significant differences between AEDs in terms of their behavioral profile. It is of great importance to evaluate these effects in clinical practice to bring more clear insight into these positive or negative side effects of AEDs. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alteration of striatal dopamine levels under various partial pressure of oxygen in pre-convulsive and convulsive phases in freely-moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoute, Cécile; Weiss, Michel; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Rostain, Jean-Claude

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in the striatal dopamine (DA) level in freely-moving rat exposed to different partial pressure of oxygen (from 1 to 5 ATA). Some works have suggested that DA release by the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neurons in the striatum could be disturbed by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) exposure, altering therefore the basal ganglia activity. Such changes could result in a change in glutamatergic and GABAergic control of the dopaminergic neurons into the SNc. Such alterations could provide more information about the oxygen-induced seizures observed at 5 ATA in rat. DA-sensitive electrodes were implanted into the striatum under general anesthesia. After 1 week rest, awaked rats were exposed to oxygen-nitrogen mixture at a partial pressure of oxygen of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ATA. DA level was monitored continuously (every 3 min) by in vivo voltammetry before and during HBO exposure. HBO induced a decrease in DA level in relationship to the increase in partial pressure of oxygen from 1 ATA to 4 ATA (-15 % at 1 ATA, -30 % at 2 ATA, -40 % at 3 ATA, -45 % at 4 ATA), without signs of oxygen toxicity. At 5 ATA, DA level strongly decreases (-75 %) before seizure which occurred after 27 min ± 7 HBO exposure. After the epileptic seizure the decrease in DA level disappeared. These changes and the biphasic effect of HBO were discussed in function of HBO action on neurochemical regulations of the nigro striatal pathway.

  16. Effect of parity on healthy promotion lifestyle behavior in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazik, Hakan; Nazik, Evşen; Özdemir, Funda; Gül, Şule; Tezel, Ayfer; Narin, Raziye

    2015-01-01

    Health-promoting lifestyle behaviors are not only for the prevention of a disease or discomfort, but are also behaviors that aim to improve the individual's general health and well-being. Nurses have an important position in the development of healthy lifestyle behaviors in women. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parity on health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in women. This descriptive and cross-sectional survey was performed in Adana, Turkey. This study was conducted with 352 women. The questionnaire consisted of two parts; the first part consisted of questions that assessed the socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics, and the second part employed the "Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Scale" (HPLP). Data analysis included percentage, arithmetic average, and ANOVA tests. The results revealed that 24.1% of the women had no parity, 13.6% had one parity, 30.7% had two parities, 14.6% had three parities, and 17% had four and above parities. The mean total HPLP was 126.66±18.12 (interpersonal support subscale, 24.46±4.02; nutrition subscale, 21.59±3.92; self-actualization subscale, 24.42±4.30; stress management subscale, 18.73±3.81; health responsibility subscale, 21.75±4.31; and exercise subscale, 15.71±4.22). The health behavior of women was moderate. A statistically significant correlation was found between the number of parities and the Health Responsibility, Nutrition, Interpersonal Support, which is the subscale of the HPLP Scale.

  17. The effect of color priming on infant brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Hawkins, Laura; Boas, David A

    2014-01-15

    Behavioral studies have identified select experiences that can prime infants to attend to color information as the basis for individuating objects prior to the time they do so spontaneously. For example, viewing pretest events in which the color of an object predicts the function in which it will engage leads 9-month-olds (who typically do not attend to color differences) to demonstrate increased sensitivity to color information in a subsequent individuation task (Wilcox and Chapa, 2004). In contrast, viewing pretest events in which the color of an object predicts distinct object motions, but the motions are not functionally relevant, does not produce color priming. The purpose of the present research was to identify the cortical underpinnings of these behavioral effects. Infants aged 8 and 9 months viewed function or motion pretest events and then their capacity to individuate-by-color was assessed in an object individuation task. Behavioral and neuroimaging data were collected. Two main findings emerged. First, as predicted, the infants who viewed the function but not the motion pretest events showed prolonged looking to the test event, a behavioral indicator of object individuation. In addition, they evidenced increased activation in anterior temporal cortex, thought to be a cortical signature of object individuation. A second and unexpected finding was that viewing either type of pretest events led to increased activation in the posterior temporal cortex, as compared to infants who did not see pretest events, revealing that prior exposure to the motion pretest events does influence infants' processing of the test event, even though it is not evident in the behavioral results. The cognitive processes involved, and the cortical structures that mediate these processes, are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Nicotine Metabolites on Nicotine Withdrawal Behaviors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhassan, Sagi; Bagdas, Deniz; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-06-01

    Rodent studies suggest that nicotine metabolites and minor tobacco alkaloids such as nornicotine and cotinine may promote cigarette smoking by enhancing nicotine rewarding and reinforcing effects. However, there is little information on the effects of these minor tobacco alkaloids on nicotine withdrawal. The present studies were conducted to determine whether the minor tobacco alkaloids nornicotine and cotinine exhibit nicotine-like behavioral effects in a mouse model of spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. Mice were infused with nicotine or saline for 14 days. Experiments were conducted on day 15, 18-24 hours after minipump removal. Ten minutes prior to testing, nicotine-dependent ICR male mice received an acute injection of nicotine (0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg), nornicotine (2.5 and 25 mg/kg), or cotinine (5 and 50 mg/kg) to determine effects on somatic signs, anxiety-like behaviors, and hyperalgesia spontaneous signs of withdrawal. Nicotine and the minor tobacco alkaloid nornicotine, but not cotinine, produced dose-dependent reversal of nicotine withdrawal signs in the mouse. The minor tobacco alkaloid and nicotine metabolite nornicotine at high doses have nicotinic like effects that may contribute to tobacco consumption and dependence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Electromagnetic Field Modeling of Transcranial Electric and Magnetic Stimulation: Targeting, Individualization, and Safety of Convulsive and Subconvulsive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhi-De

    inform dosage requirements in convulsive therapies. Our results indicate that the MST electric field is more focal and more confined to the superficial cortex compared to ECT. Further, the conventional ECT current amplitude is much higher than necessary for seizure induction. One of the factors important to clinical outcome is seizure expression. However, it is unknown how the induced electric field is related to seizure onset and propagation. In this work, we explore the effect of the electric field distribution on the quantitative ictal electroencephalography and current source density in ECT and MST. We further demonstrate how the ECT electrode shape, size, spacing, and current can be manipulated to yield more precise control of the induced electric field. If desirable, ECT can be made as focal as MST while using simpler stimulation equipment. Next, we demonstrate how the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be controlled. We present the most comprehensive comparison of TMS coil electric field penetration and focality to date. The electric field distributions of more than 50 TMS coils were simulated. We show that TMS coils differ markedly in their electric field characteristics, but they all are subject to a consistent depth-focality tradeoff. Specifically, the ability to directly stimulate deeper brain structures is obtained at the expense of inducing wider electric field spread. Figure-8 type coils are fundamentally more focal compared to circular type coils. Understanding the depth-focality tradeoff can help researchers and clinicians to appropriately select coils and interpret TMS studies. This work also enables the development of novel TMS coils with electronically switchable active and sham modes as well as for deep TMS. Design considerations of these coils are extensively discussed. Part II of the dissertation aims to quantify the effect of individual, sex, and age differences in head geometry and conductivity on the induced

  20. Blending Effective Behavior Management and Literacy Strategies for Preschoolers Exhibiting Negative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Sometimes students will exhibit various aggressive behaviors in the preschool classroom. Early childhood educators need to have behavior management strategies to manage the students' negative behaviors within the classroom setting. This article will provide a rationale for embedding literacy instruction within behavior management strategies to…

  1. Investigating the Collateral Effects of Behavior Management on Early Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Nicholas A.; MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.; Prykanowski, Debra; Coyne, Michael; Scott, Terrance M.

    2015-01-01

    Effective behavior management is necessary to ensure students are engaged with instruction. Students cannot learn if they are not engaged. Although the relationship between effective behavior management and positive student behavior is well established, the relationship between behavior management and increased academic achievement, including…

  2. Behavioral effects of developmental methylmercury drinking water exposure in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen-Hersh, Emily B; Farina, Marcelo; Barbosa, Fernando; Rocha, Joao B T; Aschner, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Early methylmercury (MeHg) exposure can have long-lasting consequences likely arising from impaired developmental processes, the outcome of which has been exposed in several longitudinal studies of affected populations. Given the large number of newborns at an increased risk of learning disabilities associated with in utero MeHg exposure, it is important to study neurobehavioral alterations using ecologically valid and physiologically relevant models. This review highlights the benefits of using the MeHg drinking water exposure paradigm and outlines behavioral outcomes arising from this procedure in rodents. Combination treatments that exacerbate or ameliorate MeHg-induced effects, and possible molecular mechanisms underlying behavioral impairment are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  4. Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Perceptions of Effective Behavior Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nields, Allison N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined student teachers' perceptions and knowledge of behavior management strategies. A questionnaire that included questions about broad behavior management techniques, behavioral learning theory, and behavior management strategies related to behavioral learning theory was given to sixty-one student teacher candidates at a large…

  5. The effects of environmental resource and security on aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Henry Kin Shing; Chow, Tak Sang

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to different environments has been reported to change aggressive behavior, but previous research did not consider the underlying elements that caused such an effect. Based on previous work on environmental perception, we examined the role of environmental resource and security in altering aggression level. In three experiments, participants were exposed to environments that varied in resource (High vs. Low) and security (High vs. Low) levels, after which aggression was measured. The environments were presented through visual priming (Experiments 1-2) and a first-person gameplay (Experiment 3). We observed a consistent resource-security interaction effect on aggression, operationalized as the level of noise blast (Experiment 1) and number of unpleasant pictures (Experiments 2-3) delivered to strangers by the participants. High resource levels associated with higher aggression in insecure conditions, but lower aggression in secure conditions. The findings suggest that the adaptive value of aggression varies under different environmental constraints. Implications are discussed in terms of the effects of adverse environments on aggression, and the nature's effects on social behavior. Aggr. Behav. 43:304-314, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effects of Strategies Marketing of Collective Buying about Impulsive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Elen Ferreira Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the second largest e-commerce market in the world. One model used in this sector is "collective buying", a feature of which is impulse sales. Consumer behavior can be influenced by several factors, two of which are addressed in this article: the individual impulsivity of consumers and strategies of mix marketing. Impulsive buying is characterized by an unplanned purchase, i.e. the need to acquire the product arises just before the purchase. Consumers respond differently to mixed strategies depending on their degree of impulsivity. Thus, this article aims to analyze the efficacy of different marketing mix strategies for impulsive and non-impulsive consumer purchasing behavior. 137 participants were given a questionnaire containing the Buying Impulsiveness scale from Rook and Fisher (1995, and statements about the marketing strategies used by collective buying sites. Through a regression analysis, three strategies were found to relate more to impulsivity: search for products from well-known brands, search for deals with big discounts and confidence in receiving the product. For e-commerce and researchers, this study elucidates which strategies, from the consumer's perspective, effectively persuade purchasing behavior.

  7. Effects of habitual anger on employees' behavior during organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-11-25

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior-mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident's negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.

  8. Moderating Effects of Trust on Environmentally Significant Behavior in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Gin Moon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To treat environmental problems and to seek sustainable development, voluntary and cooperative efforts, which is really against the traditional mentality with the emphasis on the individual competitive optimization, became the key to maintain the sustainability of complex social and ecological systems. To understand the cooperative and voluntary individual’s environmentally significant behavior (ESB, this paper focuses on the role of trust, and assesses the effect of trust on the relationship between existing factors and ESB. A structural equation model (SEM is constructed to estimate the moderating effects of trust on ESB in Korea. We found that people with a negative view on strict environmental regulations do not exhibit ESB and thus nudge policies could be much more effective than the forceful measure. It is noteworthy that public private partnership, as a kind of optimal trust, should be more promoted in the environmental protection policies.

  9. Brand priming effect on consumers’ financial risk taking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Mantovani

    Full Text Available Abstract Taking the perspective of brand priming theory, this study proposes that brands associated with an audacious personality trait may influence consumers to be take more risks in making subsequent decisions. Two experiments, run in sport brands contexts, showed that individuals exposed to brands with high (vs. low audacity traits demonstrated a higher rate of risk taking in financial decisions. The studies also showed that this effect is moderated by individuals’ experience with the financial market. This moderation suggests that there was an activation of a goal not just semantic activation, but through the brand priming. This research provides insights into how today's consumers deal with brand priming effects in risky choice settings. From a managerial perspective, it can help managers to understand the likely effects of brand priming on behavior and better predict the probability of risk aversion or risk seeking outcomes.

  10. The disposition and behavioral effects of methadone in Greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KuKanich, Butch; Borum, Stacy L

    2008-05-01

    To determine the behavioral effects and pharmacokinetics of methadone in healthy Greyhounds. Prospective experimental study. Three male and three female healthy Greyhounds. Methadone hydrochloride, 0.5 mg kg(-1) IV (equivalent to 0.45 mg kg(-1) methadone base), was administered as an IV bolus. Trained observers subjectively assessed the behavioral effects of methadone. Blood samples were obtained at predetermined time points and plasma methadone concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic variables were estimated with computer software. Methadone was well tolerated by the dogs with panting and defecation observed as adverse effects. Mild sedation was present, but no vomiting, excitement, or dysphoria was observed. The elimination half-life, volume of distribution, and plasma clearance were 1.53 +/- 0.18 hours, 7.79 +/- 1.87 L kg(-1), and 56.04 +/- 9.36 mL minute(-1) kg(-1), respectively. Methadone was well tolerated by Greyhounds. The volume of distribution was larger than expected, with resultant lower plasma concentrations than expected. Higher doses may need to be administered to Greyhounds in comparison with non-Greyhound dogs in order to achieve similar plasma drug concentrations. A dosage of 1-1.5 mg kg(-1) every 3-4 hours is suggested for future studies of analgesic efficacy of methadone in Greyhounds.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the behavioral properties of crotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Moreira

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Crotoxin has been detoxified with gamma radiation in order to improve crotalic antiserum production. Nevertheless, present knowledge of the biological characteristics of irradiated crotoxin is insufficient to propose it as an immunizing agent. Crotoxin is known to increase the emotional state of rats and to decrease their exploratory behavior (Moreira EG, Nascimento N, Rosa GJM, Rogero JR and Vassilieff VS (1996 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 29: 629-632. Therefore, we decided 1 to evaluate the effects of crotoxin in the social interaction test, which has been widely used for the evaluation of anxiogenic drugs, and 2 to determine if irradiated crotoxin induces behavioral alterations similar to those of crotoxin in the social interaction, open-field and hole-board tests. Male Wistar rats (180-220 g were used. Crotoxin (100, 250, and 500 µg/kg was injected intraperitoneally 2 h before the social interaction test. Similarly, irradiated crotoxin (2000 Gy gamma radiation from a 60Co source was administered at the doses of 100, 250, and 500 µg/kg for the hole-board test, and at the doses of 1000 and 2500 µg/kg for the open-field and social interaction tests. ANOVA complemented with the Dunnett test was used for statistical analysis (P<0.05. Crotoxin decreased the social interaction time (s at the doses of 100, 250 and 500 µg/kg (means ± SEM from 51.6 ± 4.4 to 32.6 ± 3.7, 28.0 ± 3.6 and 31.6 ± 4.4, respectively. Irradiated crotoxin did not induce behavioral alterations. These results indicate that 1 crotoxin may be an anxiogenic compound, and 2 in contrast to crotoxin, irradiated crotoxin was unable to induce behavioral alterations, which makes it a promising compound for the production of crotalic antiserum

  12. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L

    2015-11-10

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to "sex differences" in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology.

  13. Inhibition of eating behavior: negative cognitive effects of dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K E; Chiovari, P

    1998-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that dieters would score higher than nondieters in terms of food rumination. Two hundred and thirty one college undergraduates completed the Eating Obsessive-Compulsiveness Scale (EOCS) and responded to a questionnaire that inquired about dieting status. Subjects also completed measures that tapped neuroticism and social desirability. Results showed that current dieters were significantly more obsessed with thoughts of eating and food than were nondieters. Neither dieting status nor EOCS scale scores were related to neuroticism or social desirability. These results are consistent with previous theory and research suggesting that inhibition of appetitive behaviors can have negative cognitive effects. Moreover, they indicate a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  14. Excited states rotational effects on the behavior of excited molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    Excited States, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that discusses the excited states of molecules. The first paper reviews the rotational involvement in intra-molecular in vibrational redistribution. This paper analyzes the vibrational Hamiltonian as to its efficacy in detecting the manifestations of intra-molecular state-mixing in time-resolved and time-averaged spectroscopic measurements. The next paper examines the temporal behavior of intra-molecular vibration-rotation energy transfer (IVRET) and the effects of IVRET on collision, reaction, and the decomposition processes. This paper also

  15. Ethical leader behavior and leader effectiveness: the role of prototypicality and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, K.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    The study examines factors that mediate the impact of ethical leader behavior on leader effectiveness. Little is known about how ethical leadership impacts leader effectiveness. We hypothesized that prototypicality and trust sequentially mediate the relationship between ethical leader behavior and

  16. Effects of an Interdependent Group Contingency on the Transition Behavior of Middle School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Renee O.; Haydon, Todd; McCoy, Dacia; Howard, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    An ABAB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency with randomized components to improve the transition behavior of middle school students identified with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs) served in an alternative educational setting. The intervention was implemented by one teacher with three…

  17. Differentiating social and personal power: opposite effects on stereotyping, but parallel effects on behavioral approach tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Joris; Stoker, Janka I; Stapel, Diederik A

    2009-12-01

    How does power affect behavior? We posit that this depends on the type of power. We distinguish between social power (power over other people) and personal power (freedom from other people) and argue that these two types of power have opposite associations with independence and interdependence. We propose that when the distinction between independence and interdependence is relevant, social power and personal power will have opposite effects; however, they will have parallel effects when the distinction is irrelevant. In two studies (an experimental study and a large field study), we demonstrate this by showing that social power and personal power have opposite effects on stereotyping, but parallel effects on behavioral approach.

  18. Artificial emotion triggered stochastic behavior transitions with motivational gain effects for multi-objective robot tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents artificial emotional system based autonomous robot control architecture. Hidden Markov model developed as mathematical background for stochastic emotional and behavior transitions. Motivation module of architecture considered as behavioral gain effect generator for achieving multi-objective robot tasks. According to emotional and behavioral state transition probabilities, artificial emotions determine sequences of behaviors. Also motivational gain effects of proposed architecture can be observed on the executing behaviors during simulation.

  19. Effects of prenatal ionizing irradiation on neural function and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizzee, K.R.; Ordy, J.M.; Pennwalt Corp., Rochester, NY

    1986-01-01

    Behavioral studies in the past decade on postnatal effects of prenatal ionizing irradiation (125-R) revealed alterations in circadian locomotor activity and modifications of duration, frequency and sequences of certain behavioral acts in irradiated rats. Other studies have shown that the effect of irradiation (150-R) and enriched environment were both significant in initial, repetitive and total error scores while at 200-R enrichment was less effective. Rats irradiated on the 13th, 14th and 15th day of gestation were born with a hopping gait, paired hind and forelimbs moving in unison. Thoracic cord section led to crossed extention hind-limb reflexes in control rats and simultaneus withdrawal of hind limbs in hopping rats, in response to pinprick. In 90 day old squirrel monkeys the percent of correct response in visual orientation, discrimination and reversal learning in 50- and 100-R offspring (Co 60 irradiation at 89-90 days gestation) were significantly lower than those of controls, and differences in reversal learning persisted undiminished at 2 years of age. Time required for body righting, head-up orientation and climbing at 45 0 incline was significantly greater in irradiated (mainly 100-R) than control animals at from 2 to 28 days of age. Visual acuity levels of 50- and 100-R 30 day old infants were significantly lower than in control infants. Stabilimeter activity in the dark was significantly higher in 50- and 100-R 30 day old infants than in controls. In the squirrel monkey studies effects of Co 60 irradiation (100-R) on postnatal development of the brain and behaviour can be identified at statistically significant levels of confidence independent of offspring nursery rearing effects. (orig.)

  20. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  1. The Sensorial Effect: Dynamics of Emotion in Pro-Environmental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipolito, Joana

    2011-01-01

    In this article, sensorial effects are introduced as emotional stimuli for shaping environmentally significant behaviors. This research provides a link between sensorial effect as ubiquitous environmental behavior feedback and the effect of sensorial stimuli on emotions that trigger individuals' pro-environment behavior. A case study of using…

  2. Occurrence, behavior and effects of nanoparticles in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowack, Bernd; Bucheli, Thomas D.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing use of engineered nanoparticles (NP) in industrial and household applications will very likely lead to the release of such materials into the environment. Assessing the risks of these NP in the environment requires an understanding of their mobility, reactivity, ecotoxicity and persistency. This review presents an overview of the classes of NP relevant to the environment and summarizes their formation, emission, occurrence and fate in the environment. The engineered NP are thereby compared to natural products such as soot and organic colloids. To date only few quantitative analytical techniques for measuring NP in natural systems are available, which results in a serious lack of information about their occurrence in the environment. Results from ecotoxicological studies show that certain NP have effects on organisms under environmental conditions, though mostly at elevated concentrations. The next step towards an assessment of the risks of NP in the environment should therefore be to estimate the exposure to the different NP. It is also important to notice that most NP in technical applications are functionalized and therefore studies using pristine NP may not be relevant for assessing the behavior of the NP actually used. - The behavior and the effects of natural and engineered nanoparticles in the environment are reviewed

  3. Antibacterial effects and dissolution behavior of six bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Leppäranta, Outi; Munukka, Eveliina; Ylänen, Heimo; Viljanen, Matti K; Eerola, Erkki; Hupa, Mikko; Hupa, Leena

    2010-05-01

    Dissolution behavior of six bioactive glasses was correlated with the antibacterial effects of the same glasses against sixteen clinically important bacterial species. Powdered glasses (<45 microm) were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 48 h. The pH in the solution inside the glass powder was measured in situ with a microelectrode. After 2, 4, 27, and 48 h, the pH and concentration of ions after removing the particles and mixing the SBF were measured with a normal glass pH electrode and ICP-OES. The bacteria were cultured in broth with the glass powder for up to 4 days, after which the viability of the bacteria was determined. The antibacterial effect of the glasses increased with increasing pH and concentration of alkali ions and thus with increased dissolution tendency of the glasses, but it also depended on the bacterium type. The changes in the concentrations of Si, Ca, Mg, P, and B ions in SBF did not show statistically significant influence on the antibacterial property. Bioactive glasses showed strong antibacterial effects for a wide selection of aerobic bacteria at a high sample concentration (100 mg/mL). The antibacterial effects increased with glass concentration and a concentration of 50 mg/mL (SA/V 185 cm(-1)) was required to generate the bactericidal effects. Understanding the dissolution mechanisms of bioactive glasses is essential when assessing their antibacterial effects. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ionizing radiation: effects upon acquisition and performance of behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Laercia Abreu

    1999-03-01

    The present study, using rats as subjects, attempted to assess the effects of multiple exposures to gamma radiation upon behavior in two procedures of a multiple schedule of repeated acquisition and performance. With an experimental chamber containing three levers displaced horizontally, left (l), center (c) and right (r), different levels of complexity were programmed for procedures A and B. In both procedures a new sequence of three responses was programmed for each session (lcr, lrc, clr, crl, rlc) for the acquisition component, whereas for the performance component the same sequence was maintained throughout the sessions. The completion of three sequences (nine responses) was followed by reinforcement and incorrect responses were followed by time-out without correction procedures. In procedure A the sequences consisted of one response in each lever (for example, crl→crl→crl→reinforcement) while in procedure B a sequence consisted of three response in the same lever, with the following three responses having to occur in a different lever (for example, ccc→rrr→lll→reinforcement). Six subjects were trained in each procedure. Base line data showed, by means of error percentage, that procedure B regardless of being more complex represented a lower difficulty level than procedure A: subjects in procedure B displayed, in general, a lower number of errors per session. After training in these procedures of repeated acquisition and performance, the subjects were exposed to doses of ionizing radiation of 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.0 Gy, with an interval of 45 days between exposures. With measurements of response rate and obtained reinforcers, the data showed a dose-response relation, with higher doses producing lower rates of responses and reinforcers. Percentage of errors was higher after doses of 6.0 and 8.0 Gy in the performance component, while changes in error patterns occurred in the acquisition component. The effects of radiation was more evident and orderly

  5. Effects of Consumer Search Behavior Typology on the Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuningsih

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The author investigates how consumer search behavior typology affects the relationship between customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that the type of consumer as defined by whether and how they search for information (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent perceive different levels of satisfaction and performs differently on satisfaction behavioral intentions linkages. Relational-dependent and rational active consumers are found to perceive higher satisfaction levels, and to express stronger intentions to engage in positive behavioral intentions than passive consumers. The identification of satisfaction and behavioral intentions within each search type allows managers to satisfy their consumers; hence, the company will obtain higher profit.

  6. Customer Value, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions: the Effects of Consumer Search Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuningsih

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops and tests an integrative model to examine the relationships among customer value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions based upon a typology of consumer search behaviors. The model was tested using surveyed data from 546 customers of car insurance in Melbourne, Australia. The findings demonstrate that each type of consumer (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent, performs differently on the relationships among customer value, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. The identification of value, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions within each search behavior allows managers to deliver optimal value and satisfaction to their consumers.

  7. [Undesired treatment effects in behavior group therapy: Frequency and spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, M; Walter, M; Fritz, K; Muschalla, B

    2015-11-01

    Psychotherapy not only has positive but also negative effects, which is especially true for group psychotherapy due to psychodynamic and interactional processes. Using the UE-G questionnaire 71 patients who participated in cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy reported on negative experiences in the context of the group therapy. The answers were then validated in a qualitative interview. Of the patients 98.6% reported about at least one negative experience and 43.7% about severe or extremely severe negative experiences. Most prominent was the induction of hopelessness and demoralization by what patients saw and heard from other patients in the group. Burdensome and therefore undesired treatment effects are regularly seen in group psychotherapy, because of treatment or patient related factors. In any case they must be taken into account during treatment, in the training of group psychotherapists and in quality control.

  8. Effect of solvent on crystallization behavior of xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hongxun; Hou, Baohong; Wang, Jing-Kang; Lin, Guangyu

    2006-04-01

    Effect of organic solvents content on crystallization behavior of xylitol was studied. Solubility and crystallization kinetics of xylitol in methanol-water system were experimentally determined. It was found that the solubility of xylitol at various methanol content all increases with increase of temperature. But it decreases when increasing methanol content at constant temperature. Based on the theory of population balance, the nucleation and growth rates of xylitol in methanol-water mixed solvents were calculated by moments method. From a series of experimental population density data of xylitol gotten from a batch-operated crystallizer, parameters of crystal nucleation and growth rate equations at different methanol content were got by the method of nonlinear least-squares. By analyzing, it was found that the content of methanol had an apparent effect on nucleation and growth rate of xylitol. At constant temperature, the nucleation and growth rate of xylitol all decrease with increase of methanol content.

  9. Effects of Website Interactivity on Online Retail Shopping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Hafizul

    Motivations to engage in retail online shopping can include both utilitarian and hedonic shopping dimensions. To cater to these consumers, online retailers can create a cognitively and esthetically rich shopping environment, through sophisticated levels of interactive web utilities and features, offering not only utilitarian benefits and attributes but also providing hedonic benefits of enjoyment. Since the effect of interactive websites has proven to stimulate online consumer’s perceptions, this study presumes that websites with multimedia rich interactive utilities and features can influence online consumers’ shopping motivations and entice them to modify or even transform their original shopping predispositions by providing them with attractive and enhanced interactive features and controls, thus generating a positive attitude towards products and services offered by the retailer. This study seeks to explore the effects of Web interactivity on online consumer behavior through an attitudinal model of technology acceptance.

  10. Effects of organizational justice on organizational citizenship behaviors: mediating effects of institutional trust and affective commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guh, Wei-Yuan; Lin, Shang-Ping; Fan, Chwei-Jen; Yang, Chin-Fang

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the mediating role of institutional trust and affective commitment on the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. The study participants were 315 faculty members at 67 public/private universities of technology and vocational colleges in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationships between the variables and assess the goodness of fit of the overall model. Organizational justice was positively related to institutional trust and there was an indirect effect of organizational justice on affective commitment through institutional trust. In addition, the relation between institutional trust and affective commitment was positive and affective commitment was shown to have a positive relation to organizational citizenship behaviors. Institutional trust was found to indirectly affect organizational citizenship behaviors through affective commitment. Most importantly, this study suggested a mediating effect of institutional trust and affective commitment on the relation between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. Implications, limitations, and future research were also discussed.

  11. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Chronic Fibromyalgia Pain: Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A multiple-baseline-across two behavior sets and positions (reclined, upright) was used to experimentally examine the effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment for Pain (BAT-P) on pain-related behavior of a 44-year-old woman with a 22-year history of fibromyalgia (FM). BAT-P, based on the matching law, is comprised of Behavioral Relaxation…

  12. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Vukovich; John C. Kilgo

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior...

  13. Establishing a Common Vocabulary of Key Concepts for the Effective Implementation of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihon, Traci M.; Cihon, Joseph H.; Bedient, Guy M.

    2016-01-01

    The technical language of behavior analysis is arguably necessary to share ideas and research with precision among each other. However, it can hinder effective implementation of behavior analytic techniques when it prevents clear communication between the supervising behavior analyst and behavior technicians. The present paper provides a case…

  14. The Effects of Function-Based Self-Management Interventions on Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard P.; Kamps, Debra M.; Greenwood, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) struggle to achieve social and academic outcomes. Many studies have demonstrated self-management interventions to be effective at reducing problem behavior and increasing positive social and academic behaviors. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) information may be used in designing…

  15. Effects of Cognitive Versus Cognitive-Behavioral Divorce-Parenting Programs on Parental Conflict, Intimate Violence, Parental Communication, Divorce-Related Parental Behaviors and Children's Behavioral Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitworth, James

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the effects of two State of Florida mandated divorce- parenting classes, one cognitive-based and the other cognitive-behavioral based, on several individual and family variables...

  16. Effects of Consumer Search Behavior Typology on the Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuningsih Wahyuningsih

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The author investigates how consumer search behavior typology affects the relationship between customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that the type of consumer as defined by whether and how they search for information (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent perceive different levels of satisfaction and performs differently on satisfaction-behavioral intentions linkages. Relational-dependent and rational-active consumers are found to perceive higher satisfaction levels, and to express stronger intentions to engage in positive behavioral intentions than passive consumers. The identification of satisfaction and behavioral intentions within each search type allows managers to satisfy their consumers; hence, the company will obtain higher profit.Keywords: consumer behavior typology, satisfaction, behavioral intentions

  17. An Effects of Behavioral Assertiveness Training And Cognitive Assertiveness Training on Assertiveness Behavior of Elementary School Studennts in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    金, 奎卓; 野島, 一彦

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Behavioral Assertiveness Training (BAT), and those of Cognitive Assertiveness Training (CAT), also to compare the effects of these trainings accoiding to the distinction of sex. The subjects were thirty two elementary school students who voluntarily participated in this study. These thirty two subjects were randomly divided into two groups, behavioral assertiveness training group and cognitive assertiveness training group, and each group...

  18. The Effect of Factors Affecting Social Behavior and Prosocial Behavior (Case Study: City of Steel of Mobarakeh)

    OpenAIRE

    Mashallah Valikhani; Abbasali Behzadipur

    2015-01-01

    The present paper, titled ‘A Study of the Effects of Internal Marketing on Customer-oriented Prosocial Behaviors’ investigates the important role of internal marketing on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and, finally, role-prescribed customer service and extra-role customer service (prosocial behavior) among Standard of Isfahan Steel of Mobarakeh. A main hypothesis (speculating the significant effect of internal marketing on customer-oriented prosocial behavior) and eleven sub-hypo...

  19. Clinical and neuroradiological study on adult cases of familial microcephaly associated with mental retardation and convulsive seizure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Nobuyuki; Kitabayashi, Toshiko.

    1987-01-01

    Microcephaly results from various causes, some genetic and some non-genetic. Recently, we encountered two families with microcephaly, mental retardation and convulsive seizure. These conform to an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. All adult cases were analyzed to describe the characteristic neuroradiographic findings. Although each presented a similar neurologic outlook, two cases secondarily resulting from infection or injuries to the developing brain during postnatal periods showed a specific variation. Skull X-P and CT scan of these two cases showed thickening of the carvarium, predominantly fronto-parietal lobe atrophy of the cerebrum, enlargement of the ventricle, and compensatory hypertrophy of sinuses. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed severe micropolygyria and hypogenesis of corpus callosum. Abnormalities such as skull X-P, CT scan and MRI were severer in the secondary than in the primary microcephalics. Although brain volume was reduced, the volume ratio of cortex to white watter was similar to that of normal brain. MRI on severe cases of microcephaly revealed a high signal intensity in inversion-recovery images on the brain stem where markedly atrophy was noted. In adult microcephaly, the extent of cerebral development was thought to be reflected in the corpus callosum and brain stem where neuron fibers were densely gathered. (author)

  20. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  1. Synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM). Behavioral effects and radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landauer, M.R.; Mcchesney, D.G.; Ledney, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM), an immunomodulator, for its survival enhancing capacity and behavioral toxicity in B6D2F1 female mice. In survival experiments, mice were administered S-TDCM (25-400 μg/mouse i.p.) 20-24 hr before 5.6 Gy mixed-field fission-neutron irradiation (n) and γ-photon irradiation. The 30-day survival rates for mice treated with 100-400 μg/mouse S-TDCM were significantly enhanced compared to controls. Toxicity of S-TDCM was measured in nonirradiated mice by locomotor activity, food intake, water consumption, and alterations in body weight. A dose-dependent decrease was noted in all behavioral measures in mice treated with S-TDCM. Doses of 100 and 200 μg/mouse S-TDCM significantly reduced motor activity beginning 12 hr postinjection with recovery by 24 hr. A dose of 400 μg/mouse significantly decreased activity within the first 4 hr after administration and returned to control levels by 32 hr following injection. Food and water intake were significantly depressed at doses of 200 and 400 μg/mouse on the day following drug administration, and were recovered in 24 hr. Body weight was significantly decreased in the 200 μg/mouse group for 2 days and in the 400 μg/mouse group for 4 days following injection. A dose of 100 μg/mouse effectively enhanced survival after fission-neutron irradiation with no adverse effect on food consumption, water intake, or body weight and a minimal, short-term effect on locomotor activity. (author)

  2. Validation of the French national health insurance information system as a tool in vaccine safety assessment: application to febrile convulsions after pediatric measles/mumps/rubella immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Quantin, Catherine; Farrington, Paddy; Benzenine, Eric; Hocine, N Mounia; Velten, Michel; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Escolano, Sylvie

    2013-12-02

    In the French national health insurance information system (SNIIR-AM), routine records of health claimed reimbursements are linked to hospital admissions for the whole French population. The main focus of this work is the usability of this system for vaccine safety assessment programme. Self-controlled case series analyses were performed using an exhaustive SNIIR-AM extraction of French children aged less than 3 years, to investigate the relationship between MMR immunization and children hospitalizations for febrile convulsions, a well-documented rare adverse event, over 2009-2010. The results suggest a significant increase of febrile convulsions during the 6-11 days period following any MMR immunization (IRR=1.49, 95% CI=1.22, 1.83; p=0.0001) and no increase 15-35 days post any MMR immunization (IRR=1.03, 95% CI=0.89, 1.18; p=0.72). These results are in accordance with other results obtained from large epidemiologic studies, which suggest the usability of the SNIIR-AM as a relevant database to study the occurrence of adverse events associated with immunization. For future use, results associated with risk of convulsion during the day of vaccination should nevertheless be considered with particular caution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phase behavior and radiation effects in high level waste class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.

    1977-02-01

    Results are presented that demonstrate that detailed and reproducible data can be obtained for complex waste glasses. For the major glass composition examined, thermal treatment was shown to cause formation of several crystalline phases which contribute to an increased leachability. Although not discussed in detail here, Zn 2 SiO 4 formation results in microcracking due to a thermal expansion mismatch with the glass matrix, and SrMoO 4 has a higher leachability than the glass matrix. The temperature dependence describing equilibrium concentrations of these two phases and a qualitative understanding of ingrowth kinetics have been established, hence conditions necessary to eliminate their formation during processing and early storage, are known. Radiation damage effects, when extrapolated to long times, suggest energy storage of approximately 50 cal/gram and either positive or negative density changes occur (depending on the glass composition) in the 1 percent range. No radiation damage-related changes of serious concern have been found for homogeneous glasses by 244 Cm doping experiments now approaching a simulated damage time of approximately 10 3 years (for UO 2 fuel wastes). More work is needed concerning heterogeneous damage which will occur in devitrified glasses. As a final point, the complications with respect to understanding behavior of polyphase systems with respect to either radiation damage or leaching behavior, are self evident. Homogeneous glasses with improved leach resistance, and thermal and radiation stability are clear objectives for future glass development

  4. Molecular Mechanism: ERK Signaling, Drug Addiction, and Behavioral Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Quizon, Pamela M; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants has been considered as a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by craving and compulsive drug seeking and use. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that repeated drug exposure causes long-lasting neurochemical and cellular changes that result in enduring neuroadaptation in brain circuitry and underlie compulsive drug consumption and relapse. Through intercellular signaling cascades, drugs of abuse induce remodeling in the rewarding circuitry that contributes to the neuroplasticity of learning and memory associated with addiction. Here, we review the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and its related intracellular signaling pathways in drug-induced neuroadaptive changes that are associated with drug-mediated psychomotor activity, rewarding properties and relapse of drug seeking behaviors. We also discuss the neurobiological and behavioral effects of pharmacological and genetic interferences with ERK-associated molecular cascades in response to abused substances. Understanding the dynamic modulation of ERK signaling in response to drugs may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies to drug addiction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas

    2011-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  6. The Interaction Between Child Behavioral Inhibition and Parenting Behaviors: Effects on Internalizing and Externalizing Symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sarah M; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2018-02-20

    Both child temperament and parenting have been extensively researched as predictors of child outcomes. However, theoretical models suggest that specific combinations of temperament styles and parenting behaviors are better predictors of certain child outcomes such as internalizing and externalizing symptoms than either temperament or parenting alone. The current qualitative review examines the interaction between one childhood temperamental characteristic (child behavioral inhibition) and parenting behaviors, and their subsequent impact on child psychopathology. Specifically, the moderating role of parenting on the relationship between child behavioral inhibition and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology is examined, and the methodological variations which may contribute to inconsistent findings are explored. Additionally, support for the bidirectional relations between behavioral inhibition and parenting behaviors, as well as for the moderating role of temperament on the relationships between parenting and child outcomes, is briefly discussed. Finally, the clinical applicability of this overall conceptual model, specifically in regard to future research directions and potential clinical interventions, is considered.

  7. Effects of Consumer Search Behavior Typology on the Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuningsih

    2007-01-01

    The author investigates how consumer search behavior typology affects the relationship between customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that the type of consumer as defined by whether and how they search for information (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent) perceive different levels of satisfaction and performs differently on satisfaction-behavioral intentions linkages. Relational-dependent and rational-active consumers are found to perceive higher satisfac...

  8. Effects of Consumer Search Behavior Typology on the Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuningsih Wahyuningsih

    2013-01-01

    The author investigates how consumer search behavior typology affects the relationship between customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that the type of consumer as defined by whether and how they search for information (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent) perceive different levels of satisfaction and performs differently on satisfaction-behavioral intentions linkages. Relational-dependent and rational-active consumers are found to perceive higher satisfac...

  9. Effects of a Behavior Analytic Intervention With Lovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the marital relationship and of the evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions with couples can promote communication skills, affection and problem solving. Researches with dating couples are incipient on the literature, and it is believed that extending such behaviors can help those couples. The present case study evaluates an intervention (four evaluation sessions and ten sessions of group with dating couples, in the design of a single subject, considering measures baseline, pretest, posttest and follow-up, combined with procedural measures of expectation and satisfaction with the procedure conducted. The results show satisfaction with treatment, generalization to other relationships and improvement of the relationship as communication, affection and problem solving. Implications are discussed for future prevention and researches.

  10. The effects of pathological gaming on aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this purpose, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (49% female) of which 540 played games (30% female). Our analyses indicated that higher levels of pathological gaming predicted an increase in time spent playing games 6 months later. Time spent playing violent games specifically, and not just games per se, increased physical aggression. Furthermore, higher levels of pathological gaming, regardless of violent content, predicted an increase in physical aggression among boys. That this effect only applies to boys does not diminish its importance, because adolescent boys are generally the heaviest players of violent games and most susceptible to pathological involvement.

  11. Effects of Dark Brooders on Behavior and Fearfulness in Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Guzman, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    to the novel object at age 15 weeks (p open-field test at age 28 weeks (p ...Chicks require heat to maintain body temperature during the first weeks after hatch. This may be provided by dark brooders; i.e., horizontal heating elements equipped with curtains. The objective was to test effects of rearing layer chicks with dark brooders on time budget and fearfulness....... Behavioral observations were performed during the first six weeks of age. Three different fear tests were conducted when the birds were age 3–6, 14–15 and 26–28 weeks. During the first four days, brooder chicks rested more than control chicks whereas they spent less time drinking, feather pecking...

  12. Effects of Transport on Live Weight and Behavior of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Andronie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study has monitored the effects of transport stress on some biochemical indicators of stress and behavior lambs at time of slaughter. The research was carried out in the cold season, on a number of 120 lambs, transported for 6h- 16h, to be slaughtered. During our research, we followed the changes in bodyweight, behaviours expressed by sheep, and plasma cortisol levels. Bodyweight loss recorded in the slaughterhouse to 24 hours of departure transportation was of 4-5%. The behavioural manifestations of lambs were different from the destination, depending on journey duration. Lambs behaviour was different depending on the journey, the resting and watering were mostly present manifestations. Increased in cortisol levels measured at 3 h after leaving the vehicle was maintained at 9 h after the journey. Increased duration of rest before slaughter can reduce the stress of transport in case of lambs ensures obtaining good quality meat.

  13. Moving beyond a limited follow-up in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Hendrikje Cornelia; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Christenhusz, Lieke C.A.; Seydel, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions typically use a dichotomous outcome criterion. However, achieving behavioral change is a complex process involving several steps towards a change in behavior. Delayed effects may occur after an intervention period ends, which can

  14. Effects of Check-In/Checkout on Behavioral Indices and Mathematics Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Michael D.; Johnson, Kristin N.; Mong, Kristi W.

    2011-01-01

    Check-in/checkout (CICO) is a behavioral intervention that is used to provide systematic feedback about a student's behavior at the beginning and end of each school day. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CICO on decreasing problem behaviors and the collateral effects on mathematics performance for 4 at-risk…

  15. The effects of Nitinol phases on corrosion and fatigue behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Melissa

    The purpose of these studies was to provide a detailed understanding of Nitinol phases and their effects on corrosion and fatigue life. The two primary phases, austenite and martensite, were carefully evaluated with respect to material geometry, corrosion behavior, wear, and fatigue life. Material characterization was performed using several techniques that include metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties such as elongation, ultimate tensile strength, modulus, transformation strain, and plateau stress. In addition, accelerated wear testing and four point bend fatigue testing were completed to study the fatigue life and durability of the material. The corrosion of Nitinol was found to be dependent on various surface conditions. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of each phase was investigated using cyclic potentiodyamic polarization testing. The corrosion response of electropolished Nitinol was found to be acceptable, even after durability testing. Stress-induced martensite had a lower breakdown potential due to a rougher surface morphology, while thermally induced martensite and austenite performed similarly well. The surface conditioning also had a significant effect on Nitinol mechanical properties. Electropolishing provided a smooth mirror finish that reduced localized texture and enhanced the ductility of the material. Quasi-static mechanical properties can be good indicators of fatigue life, but further fatigue testing revealed that phase transformations had an important role as well. The governing mechanisms for the fatigue life of Nitinol were determined to be both martesitic phase transformations and surface defects. A new ultimate dislocation strain model was proposed based on specific accelerated step-strain testing.

  16. Developmental and behavioral effects of postnatal amitraz exposure in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Palermo-Neto

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of postnatal amitraz exposure on physical and behavioral parameters were studied in Wistar rats, whose lactating dams received the pesticide (10 mg/kg orally on days 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 and 19 of lactation; control dams received distilled water (1 ml/kg on the same days. A total of 18 different litters (9 of them control and 9 experimental born after a 21-day gestation were used. The results showed that the median effective time (ET50 for fur development, eye opening, testis descent and onset of the startle response were increased in rats postnatally exposed to amitraz (2.7, 15.1, 21.6 and 15.3 days, respectively compared to those of the control pups (1.8, 14.0, 19.9 and 12.9 days, respectively. The ages of incisor eruption, total unfolding of the external ears, vaginal and ear opening and the time taken to perform the grasping hindlimb reflex were not affected by amitraz exposure. Pups from dams treated with amitraz during lactation took more time (in seconds to perform the surface righting reflex on postnatal days (PND 3 (25.0 ± 2.0, 4 (12.3 ± 1.2 and 5 (8.7 ± 0.9 in relation to controls (10.6 ± 1.2; 4.5 ± 0.6 and 3.4 ± 0.4, respectively; the climbing response was not changed by amitraz. Postnatal amitraz exposure increased spontaneous motor activity of male and female pups in the open-field on PND 16 (140 ± 11 and 17 (124 ± 12, and 16 (104 ± 9, 17 (137 ± 9 and 18 (106 ± 8, respectively. Data on spontaneous motor activity of the control male and female pups were 59 ± 11 and 69 ± 10 for days 16 and 17 and 49 ± 9, 48 ± 7 and 56 ± 7 for days 16, 17 and 18, respectively. Some qualitative differences were also observed in spontaneous motor behavior; thus, raising the head, shoulder and pelvis matured one or two days later in the amitraz-treated offspring. Postnatal amitraz exposure did not change locomotion and rearing frequencies or immobility time in the open-field on PND 30, 60 and 90. The present findings indicate

  17. [Effects of community identity and topophilia on environmentally-conscious behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonami, Hiroshi; Kato, Junzo

    2009-04-01

    This study classified environmentally-conscious behaviors of residents (n = 335) along Lake Biwa as a common goods into personal and group behavioral intentions, and examined the determinants of these intentions. Identification with the community was a social identity, and differed from attachment to Lake Biwa, which was defined as topophilia. The results indicated that group behavior was affected by topophilia, while personal behavior was influenced by general attitudes about the environmental problems of the lake and evaluations of the cost for the behavior. Community identity had a significant effect on both personal and group behavior. Rational or emotional decision making processes resulted in two different types of environmentally-conscious behaviors.

  18. Carvacrol, (−)-borneol and citral reduce convulsant activity in rodents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... Carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol present in essential oils of the Labiatae family, has been used .... (GABAA-BZD) receptor antagonist, flumazenil (File and Pellow, ..... Effects of borneol on the level of DNA damage induced in.

  19. The Good Behavior Game: A Classroom-Behavior Intervention Effective across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Julene D.; Houlihan, Daniel; Wanzek, Megan; Jenson, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Few classroom behavioral interventions have been thoroughly studied using culturally and linguistically diverse populations, international student populations, or those from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. Yet, having such tools for school psychologists and teachers is critical for behavior management in the classroom. One important exception…

  20. Cardiovascular risk after preeclampsia : The effect of communicating risk factors on intended healthy behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokslag, Anouk; Kroeze, Willemieke; de Groot, Christianne J.M.; Teunissen, Pim W.

    Objective: We studied the effect of communicating cardiovascular risk factors on intended healthy behavior in women with a history of preeclampsia or uncomplicated pregnancy. Methods: Intention for healthy behavior was assessed before and after cardiovascular risk assessment. Changes were calculated

  1. Effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Mulders, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (LIBT) supplementing regular treatment in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) standardized tests of cognition, adaptive behavior, interpersonal relations, play, language,

  2. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received emotional intelligence training program in 17 sessions (2 sessions per week, 60 minutes per session and the control group received no training beyond their regular school program. After two months, in order to examine the stability (durability of training effect, the follow-up test was conducted. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimating equations. Results: The results showed that the intervention program had created a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control group (p<0.001 and the rate of behavioral problems (aggression, rule breaking occurrence has dropped. This was true for the follow-up results too. Conclusions: It can be concluded that Emotional Intelligence Training decreases the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder and helps to prevent high occurrence of these problems.

  3. The Indirect Effects of Servant Leadership Behavior on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Job Performance: Organizational Justice as a Mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Zehir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Therelationship between leader and followers plays a vital role, particularly ineducational institutions where a keen understanding of human character and highlevel of social interaction ought to be facilitated. For this reason, in starkcontrast to contemporary leaders who see people only as units of production orexpendable resources in a profit and loss statement, servant leadership focuseson meeting the needs of followers, making them reach their maximum potentialand so perform optimally in order to achieve organizational goals andobjectives. This study examines theeffects of servant leadership behaviors of private college principals onteachers’ organizationalcitizenship behavior and job performance. Using 300 respondents from theprivate education institutes in Turkey, servant leadership behavior is examinedfor its indirect effects on organizational citizenship behavior and jobperformance by its impact on organizational justice. Organizational justiceacts as a mediator between the variables in question. All the results are insupport of the studied mediation effects. Implications of the findings andsuggestions for future research are discussed

  4. Central effects of isolated fractions from the root of Petiveria alliacea L. (tipi) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Patrícia B; Noronha, Emmanuelle C; de Melo, Carla Thiciane V; Bezerra, José N S; Neto, Manoel A; Lino, Cleide S; Vasconcelos, Silvânia M M; Viana, Glauce S B; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa F

    2008-11-20

    Petiveria alliacea L. (tipi) a shrub from Phytolaccaceae family is popularly used in folk medicine for treating a wide variety of disorders in South and Central America. To investigate the neuropharmacological properties on experimental animals. The acetate (FA), hexanic (FH), hydroalcoholic (FHA) and precipitated hydroalcoholic (FHAppt) fractions from the root of tipi were studied to investigate its pharmacological properties in the classical behavioral models (open-field, elevated plus maze-EPM, rotarod, barbiturate-induced sleeping time, forced swimming and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions tests) using mice. These fractions were administered intraperitoneally and orally to female mice at single doses of 100 and 200mg/kg. All these fractions decreased the locomotor activity, rearing and grooming in the open-field test, suggesting a possible central depressant action. No significant effect was evident on motor coordination of the animals in the rotarod test. On EPM, all the fractions of tipi presented a significant reduction on the time of permanence in the open arms, indicating an absence of anxiolytic-like effect. In addition, the fractions increased the immobility time in the forced swimming test and potentiated pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice, confirmed a probable sedative and central depressant effect. Furthermore, the fractions increased the latency to the first convulsion and the lethal time of the PTZ-induced convulsions test in the animals, confirmed its popular use as anticonvulsant. Our results suggest that the fractions of P. alliacea L. contains biologically active substance(s) that might be acting in the CNS and have significant depressant and anticonvulsant potentials, supporting folk medicine use of this plant.

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of behavior change techniques in health-related behavior: a scoping review of methods used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; West, Robert; Sheals, Kate; Godinho, Cristina A

    2018-03-01

    Behavior change interventions typically contain multiple potentially active components: behavior change techniques (BCTs). Identifying which specific BCTs or BCT combinations have the potential to be effective for a given behavior in a given context presents a major challenge. The aim of this study was to review the methods that have been used to identify effective BCTs for given behaviors in given contexts and evaluate their strengths and limitations. A scoping review was conducted of studies that had sought to identify effective BCTs. Articles referring to "behavio(u)r change technique(s)" in the abstract/text were located, and ones that involved identification of effective BCTs were selected. The methods reported were coded. The methods were analyzed in general terms using "PASS" criteria: Practicability (facility to apply the method appropriately), Applicability (facility to generalize from findings to contexts and populations of interest), Sensitivity (facility to identify effective BCTs), and Specificity (facility to rule out ineffective BCTs). A sample of 10% of the studies reviewed was then evaluated using these criteria to assess how far the strengths and limitations identified in principle were borne out in practice. One hundred and thirty-five studies were identified. The methods used in those studies were experimental manipulation of BCTs, observational studies comparing outcomes in the presence or absence of BCTs, meta-analyses of BCT comparisons, meta-regressions evaluating effect sizes with and without specific BCTs, reviews of BCTs found in effective interventions, and meta-classification and regression trees. The limitations of each method meant that only weak conclusions could be drawn regarding the effectiveness of specific BCTs or BCT combinations. Methods for identifying effective BCTs linked to target behavior and context all have important inherent limitations. A strategy needs to be developed that can systematically combine the strengths of

  6. The effect of (negative) emotion on pro-environmental behavior : an application of the theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    With climate change becoming ever-present as a huge environmental issue for the modern era to address, pro-environmental behavior (PEB) is becoming an increasingly relevant area. There seems to be a divergence between how different actors try and encourage PEB when using emotion as the motivational tool. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore this effect of (negative) emotion on decision making. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as the theoretical framework, with the primar...

  7. Social carry-over effects on non-social behavioral variation: mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Toivo Niemelä

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of animal personality is interested in decomposing behaviors into different levels of variation, with its present focus on the ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences of expressed variation. Recently the role of the social environment, i.e. social partners, has been suggested to affect behavioral variation and induce selection on animal personality. Social partner effects exist because characters of social partners (e.g. size, behavior, affect the behavioral expression of a focal individual. Here, we 1 first review the proximate mechanisms underlying the social partner effects on behavioral expression and the timescales at which such effects might take place. We then 2 discuss how within- and among-individual variation in single behaviors and covariation between multiple behaviors, caused by social partners, can carry-over to non-social behaviors expressed outside the social context. Finally, we 3 highlight evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects to non-social behaviors and 4 suggest study designs and statistical approaches which can be applied to study the nature and evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects on non-social behaviors. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underpinning the social partner effects is important since it opens a door for deeper understanding of how social environments can affect behavioral variation and covariation at multiple levels, and the evolution of non-social behaviors (i.e. exploration, activity, boldness that are affected by social interactions.

  8. Freestall maintenance: effects on lying behavior of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissler, M; Gaworski, M; Tucker, C B; Weary, D M

    2005-07-01

    In a series of 3 experiments, we documented how sand-bedding depth and distribution changed within freestalls after new bedding was added and the effect of these changes on lying behavior. In experiment 1, we measured changes in bedding depth over a 10-d period at 43 points in 24 freestalls. Change in depth of sand was the greatest the day after new sand was added and decreased over time. Over time, the stall surface became concave, and the deepest part of the stall was at the center. Based on the results of experiment 1, we measured changes in lying behavior when groups of cows had access to freestalls with sand bedding that was 0, 3.5, 5.2, or 6.2 cm at the deepest point, below the curb, while other dimensions remained fixed. We found that daily lying time was 1.15 h shorter in stalls with the lowest levels of bedding compared with stalls filled with bedding. Indeed, for every 1-cm decrease in bedding, cows spent 11 min less time lying down during each 24-h period. In a third experiment, we imposed 4 treatments that reflected the variation in sand depth within stalls: 0, 6.2, 9.9, and 13.7 cm below the curb. Again, lying times reduced with decreasing bedding, such that cows using the stalls with the least amount of bedding (13.7 cm below curb) spent 2.33 h less time per day lying down than when housed with access to freestalls filled with sand (0 cm below curb).

  9. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Fadaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. Methods: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly di-vided in two groups of intervention (n = 32 and control (n = 40. The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not re-ceive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Results: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44 and control (15 95 ± 4 66 groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395. The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11 compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27 after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001. Conclusions: Since a woman′s body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman′s favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the impor-tance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  10. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DMAB Dissanayake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. Results: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47 vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66, P 0.05. However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. Conclusions : Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction.

  11. Children's perceptions of TV and health behavior effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christine M; Strzempko, Fran; Danford, Cynthia; Kools, Susan

    2002-01-01

    To understand and document children's stated experiences and beliefs about television and to elicit their suggestions for alternative activities. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 51 Anglo and Latino children, ages 7-10, in a large Northern California city. Philosophical underpinnings of developmental psychology were the basis for multiphase thematic analysis. Data were collected in 1998-1999. Themes were identified in five conceptual categories. Findings showed that children did not perceive many parental rules related to TV watching, rather daily routines are associated with TV viewing. Children revealed both covert and overt motivations for watching. Nearly all participants spoke of the deception of advertising, but they were unclear about the role of commercial sponsors in payment for TV shows. Children perceived both negative physical and behavioral health effects of TV and they had great difficulty imagining life without a TV. Children perceived television as providing educational and relational needs. Although they preferred alternatives to TV, they had difficulty articulating and getting those needs met. Clinicians and researchers can utilize these findings to design health interventions that attenuate the health-impairing effects of habitual sedentary activity in childhood.

  12. Spatially quantifying the leadership effectiveness in collective behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haitao [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang Ning [Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Michael Z Q [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Su Riqi; Zhou Tao [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhou Changsong, E-mail: zht@mail.hust.edu.cn, E-mail: cszhou@hkbu.edu.hk, E-mail: zhutou@ustc.edu [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems (Hong Kong), Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2010-12-15

    Among natural biological flocks/swarms or mass social activities, when the collective behavior of the followers has been dominated by the direction or opinion of one leader group, it seems difficult for later-coming leaders to reverse the orientation of the mass followers, especially when they are in quantitative minority. This paper, however, reports a counter-intuitive phenomenon, i.e. Following the Later-coming Minority, provided that the later-comers obey a favorable distribution pattern that enables them to spread their influence to as many followers as possible within a given time and to be dense enough to govern these local followers they can influence directly from the beginning. We introduce a discriminant index to quantify the whole group's orientation under competing leaderships, with which the eventual orientation of the mass followers can be predicted before launching the real dynamical procedure. From the application point of view, this leadership effectiveness index also helps us to design an economical way for the minority later-coming leaders to defeat the dominating majority leaders solely by optimizing their spatial distribution pattern provided that the premeditated goal is available. Our investigation provides insights into effective leadership in biological systems with meaningful implications for social and industrial applications.

  13. Infrared photometric behavior and opposition effect of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erard, S.; Bibring, J-P.; Drossart, P.

    1992-01-01

    Although the instrument wasn't designed for this purpose, data from the imaging spectrometer ISM may be used for studying photometric variations of Mars reflectance, that are related to the surface materials and aerosols physical properties. ISM flew aboard the Phobos-2 spacecraft which orbited Mars from January to March, 1989. About 40,000 spectra were acquired in 128 channels ranging from 0.76 to 3.16 micro-m, with a spatial resolution of 25 km and a signal-to-noise ratio ranging up to 1000. Analysis of the results leads to the following conclusions: width variations of the opposition surge can be related to differences in porosity or grain size distribution on the various domains, with little or no effect from suspended dust. As the biggest effects are observed on dark and bright materials, intermediate behaviors on average-bright regions cannot result from a mixing process, but are more likely to come from either cementation processes or modification of the grain size distribution under the influence of wind, which under Martian conditions preferentially removes the biggest particles. Thus, a surface dust consisting in big bright and small dark grains could explain the observations.

  14. Spatially quantifying the leadership effectiveness in collective behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haitao; Wang Ning; Chen, Michael Z Q; Su Riqi; Zhou Tao; Zhou Changsong

    2010-01-01

    Among natural biological flocks/swarms or mass social activities, when the collective behavior of the followers has been dominated by the direction or opinion of one leader group, it seems difficult for later-coming leaders to reverse the orientation of the mass followers, especially when they are in quantitative minority. This paper, however, reports a counter-intuitive phenomenon, i.e. Following the Later-coming Minority, provided that the later-comers obey a favorable distribution pattern that enables them to spread their influence to as many followers as possible within a given time and to be dense enough to govern these local followers they can influence directly from the beginning. We introduce a discriminant index to quantify the whole group's orientation under competing leaderships, with which the eventual orientation of the mass followers can be predicted before launching the real dynamical procedure. From the application point of view, this leadership effectiveness index also helps us to design an economical way for the minority later-coming leaders to defeat the dominating majority leaders solely by optimizing their spatial distribution pattern provided that the premeditated goal is available. Our investigation provides insights into effective leadership in biological systems with meaningful implications for social and industrial applications.

  15. The effect of laterite density on radon diffusion behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongmei; Tan, Wanyu; Tan, Kaixuan; Liu, Zehua; Fang, Qi; Lv, Junwen; Duan, Xianzhe; Liu, Zhenzhong; Guo, Yueyue

    2018-02-01

    Radon generated in porous media such as soils and rocks migrates into indoor and outdoor air mainly by diffusion, possessing significant hazards to human health. In order to reduce these hazards of radon, it is of great importance to study the diffusion behavior of radon. In this study, we systematically measured the radon diffusion coefficient of laterite with the density ranging from 0.917gcm -3 to 2.238gcm -3 , and studied the effect of laterite density on the radon diffusion. The results show that the radon diffusion coefficient of the laterite generally decreases with the increasing laterite density. In addition, three possible relationships between the radon diffusion coefficient and the laterite density are found out as follows: (1) the linear correlation with a slope of -4.48 × 10 -6 for laterite with density ranging from 0.917 to 1.095gcm -3 , (2) the exponential correlation for laterite with density from 1.095 to 1.63gcm -3 , (3) linear correlation with a slope of -3.1 × 10 -7 for laterite with density from 1.63 to 2.238gcm -3 . The complex relationship between the radon diffusion coefficient and density is caused by the change of porosity and tortuosity of the laterite. Therefore, we suggest that a suitable density should be adopted while using the laterite to effectively cover uranium tailings or economically produce building materials that can curb the radon exhalation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. La doping effect on TZM alloy oxidation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Kuai-She; Hu, Ping; He, Huan-Cheng; Kang, Xuan-Qi; Wang, Hua; Liu, Ren-Zhi; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The oxidation can be resisted by doping La into TZM alloy. • La doped TZM alloy has more compact organization. • It can rise the starting temperature of severe oxidation reaction by more than 50 °C. • Effectively slow down the oxidation rate. • Provide guidance for experiments of improving high-temperature oxidation resistance. - Abstract: Powder metallurgy methods were utilized to prepare lanthanum-doped (La-TZM) and traditional TZM alloy plates. High temperature oxidation experiments along with the differential thermal analysis were employed to study the oxidation behavior of the two kinds of TZM alloys. An extremely volatile oxide layer was generated on the surface of traditional TZM alloy plates when the oxidation started. Molybdenum oxide volatilization exposed the alloy matrix, which was gradually corroded by oxygen, losing its quality with serious surface degradation. The La-TZM alloy has a more compact structure due to the lanthanum doping. The minute lanthanum oxide particles are pinned at the grain boundaries and refine the grains. Oxide layer generated on the matrix surface can form a compact coating, which effectively blocks the surface from being corroded by oxidation. The oxidation resistance of La-TZM alloys has been enhanced, expanding its application range

  17. Behavioral effects of congenital ventromedial prefrontal cortex malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boes Aaron D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed behavioral profile associated with focal congenital malformation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC has not been reported previously. Here we describe a 14 year-old boy, B.W., with neurological and psychiatric sequelae stemming from focal cortical malformation of the left vmPFC. Case Presentation B.W.'s behavior has been characterized through extensive review Patience of clinical and personal records along with behavioral and neuropsychological testing. A central feature of the behavioral profile is severe antisocial behavior. He is aggressive, manipulative, and callous; features consistent with psychopathy. Other problems include: egocentricity, impulsivity, hyperactivity, lack of empathy, lack of respect for authority, impaired moral judgment, an inability to plan ahead, and poor frustration tolerance. Conclusions The vmPFC has a profound contribution to the development of human prosocial behavior. B.W. demonstrates how a congenital lesion to this cortical region severely disrupts this process.

  18. An effective algorithm for approximating adaptive behavior in seasonal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainmont, Julie; Andersen, Ken Haste; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2015-01-01

    Behavior affects most aspects of ecological processes and rates, and yet modeling frameworks which efficiently predict and incorporate behavioral responses into ecosystem models remain elusive. Behavioral algorithms based on life-time optimization, adaptive dynamics or game theory are unsuited...... for large global models because of their high computational demand. We compare an easily integrated, computationally efficient behavioral algorithm known as Gilliam's rule against the solution from a life-history optimization. The approximation takes into account only the current conditions to optimize...... behavior; the so-called "myopic approximation", "short sighted", or "static optimization". We explore the performance of the myopic approximation with diel vertical migration (DVM) as an example of a daily routine, a behavior with seasonal dependence that trades off predation risk with foraging...

  19. [Clinical investigation and mutation analysis of a child with citrin deficiency complicated with purpura, convulsive seizures and methioninemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Peng-qiang; Wang, Guo-bing; Chen, Zhan-ling; Liu, Xiao-hong; Cui, Dong; Shang, Yue; Li, Cheng-rong

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the clinical features and SLC25A13 gene mutations of a child with citrin deficiency complicated with purpura, convulsive seizures and methioninemia. The patient was subjected to physical examination and routine laboratory tests. Blood amino acids and acylcarnitines, and urine organic acids and galactose were analyzed respectively with tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatographic mass spectrometry. SLC25A13 gene mutation screening was conducted by high resolution melt (HRM) analysis. The petechiae on the patient's face and platelet count (27×10(9)/L, reference range 100×10(9)/L-300×10(9)/L) supported the diagnosis of immunologic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Laboratory tests found that the patient have abnormal coagulation, cardiac enzyme, liver function and liver enzymes dysfunction. Tandem mass spectrometry also found methionine to be increased (286 μmol/L, reference ranges 8-35 μmol/L). The patient did not manifest any galactosemia, citrullinemia and tyrosinemia. Analysis of SLC25A13 gene mutation found that the patient has carried IVS16ins3kb, in addition with abnormal HRM result for exon 6. Direct sequencing of exon 6 revealed a novel mutation c.495delA. The same mutation was not detected in 100 unrelated healthy controls. Further analysis of her family has confirmed that the c.495delA mutation has derived from her farther, and that the IVS16ins3kb was derived from her mother. The clinical features and metabolic spectrum of citrin deficiency can be variable. The poor prognosis and severity of clinical symptoms of the patient may be attributed to the novel c.495delA mutation.

  20. Convulsive status epilepticus in a quaternary hospital paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in South Africa: An 8 year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Yavini; Balakrishna, Yusentha; Mubaiwa, Lawrence

    2017-10-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to describe the clinical profile, aetiology, neuroimaging and EEG findings as well as outcome of children with CSE in Sub-Saharan Africa. This was a retrospective analysis of electronic records of children with CSE admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) over an 8-year period from January 2007 to December 2014. Seventy six patients were admitted to the PICU with CSE and 55(72%) had refractory status epilepticus. The median age at presentation was 15 months (IQR 6-37 months). The main aetiologies were meningoencephalitis and gastroenteritis in 33(43%) and 19(25%) patients respectively. The most frequently used antiepileptic drugs for CSE in PICU consisted of infusions of midazolam (96%) and thiopentone (22%). Neuroimaging findings were abnormal in 53(75%) patients with hypoxic changes in 17 patients. On multivariable regression, the predictors of poor outcome included the use of more than 3 antiepileptic drugs in PICU(RR-1.41(1.12-1.78), p=0.003), duration of mechanical ventilation for more than 3days (RR 1.98(1.22-3.20), p=0.005) and abnormal neuroimaging findings (RR 3.21(1.53-6.72), p=0.002). The mortality rate was 24%(n=18). Persistent seizures or a new neurological deficit occurred in 58%(n=44). The main cause of mortality was CSE related diffuse cortical and brainstem injury. Predominant neurological sequelae were cerebral palsy and persistent epilepsy. The high burden of infection related CSE is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in contrast to the rates in developed countries. This highlights the need for early recognition and treatment of underlying conditions. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Deep Space Spaceflight Hazards Effects on Cognition, Behavioral Health, and Behavioral Biomarkers in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. J.; Norsk, P.; Zwart, S.; Crucian, B.; Simonsen, L. C.; Antonsen, E.

    2018-02-01

    Deep Space Gateway missions provide testing grounds to identify the risk of both behavioral performance and cognitive perturbations caused by stressors of spaceflight such as radiation, fluid shifts, sleep deprivation, chronic stress, and others.

  2. The effect of unethical behavior on brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedeh Faezeh Rezazadeh Baei; Zeinolabedin Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    This study explains the components of ethical behavior and their impacts on life insurance companies in province of Mazandaran, Iran. There were 367 insurance representatives and the study selects a sample of 187 ones based on Cochran formula and 2 questionnaires were distributed among them. The first questionnaire, unethical behavior, includes 8 items including Bribery, Cheating, Deception, Interact with colleagues, Act as social behavior, Uncommitted to firm and Irresponsibility. In additio...

  3. Customer Showrooming Behavior and the Effect on Salesperson Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Sarah Astari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has become the biggest market for e-commerce as it has 250 million inhabitants. Growth of internet and online shopping has made retailers expand their businesses via smartphones. Shopping channels via the internet has given customers another channel to get information and buy products without visiting brick-and-mortar stores. This channel multiplicity potentially leads customers to do showrooming. In this research, showrooming in Indonesia will be explored with sunglasses as the research object and optic salespersons as the research subject. There are 178 samples collected in total for this research with 154 of them being used. Primary data is taken from optic salespersons at a prominent optics store in Jakarta. Partial Least Square (PLS is used as the data analysis method. The research results show that perceived showrooming behavior has a positive and significant effect on self-efficacy and salesperson performance. Moreover, salesperson self-efficacy also has a positive and significant effect on salesperson performance. Meanwhile, coping and cross-selling strategies have a moderate positive but not a significant effect.  These results reflect that salespersons do not respond negatively to customer’s showrooming behavior such as price comparison, window shopping, product information, product availability, and shopping via smartphone in front of the salesperson. Salespersons feel optimistic and confident when customers come  because they have been trained for customer orientation, availability of supervisory support, and belief that the customer will do their transaction in brick-and-mortar stores if they give a good explanation about the product. Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Indonesia telah menjadi pasar E-Commerce terbesar yang memiliki 250 Juta pengguna pertumbuhan Internet dan online shopping telah menjadikan Retailer berkembang bisnisnya melakui smart phone. Berbelanja melalui saluran Internet telah memberikan pelanggan untuk

  4. On-farm euthanasia of broiler chickens: effects of different gas mixtures on behavior and brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritzen, M A; Lambooij, B; Reimert, H; Stegeman, A; Spruijt, B

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of gas mixtures for euthanasia of groups of broilers in their housing by increasing the percentage of CO2. The suitability was assessed by the level of discomfort before loss of consciousness, and the killing rate. The gas mixtures injected into the housing were 1) 100% CO2, 2) 50% N2 + 50% CO2, and 3) 30% O2 + 40% CO2 + 30% N2, followed by 100% CO2. At 2 and 6 wk of age, groups of 20 broiler chickens per trial were exposed to increasing CO2 percentages due to the injection of these gas mixtures. Behavior and killing rate were examined. At the same time, 2 broilers per trial equipped with brain electrodes were observed for behavior and brain activity. Ten percent of the 2-wk-old broilers survived the increasing CO2 percentage due to the injection of 30% O2 + 40% CO2 + 30% N2 mixture, therefore this mixture was excluded for further testing at 6 wk of age. At 6 wk of age, 30% of the broilers survived in the 50% N2 + 50% CO2 group. The highest level of CO2 in the breathing air (42%) was reached by the injection of the 100% CO2 mixture, vs. 25% for the other 2 mixtures. In all 3 gas mixtures, head shaking, gasping, and convulsions were observed before loss of posture. Loss of posture and suppression of electrical activity of the brain (n = 7) occurred almost simultaneously. The results of this experiment indicate that euthanasia of groups of 2- and 6-wk-old broilers by gradually increasing the percentage of CO2 in the breathing air up to 40% is possible.

  5. Effects of carbon dioxide on turkey poult performance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândido, M G L; Xiong, Y; Gates, R S; Tinôco, I F F; Koelkebeck, K W

    2018-04-14

    Appropriate ventilation of poultry facilities is critical for achieving optimum performance. Ventilation promotes good air exchange to remove harmful gases, excessive heat, moisture, and particulate matter. In a turkey brooder barn, carbon dioxide (CO2) may be present at higher levels during the winter due to reduced ventilation rates to maintain high temperatures. This higher CO2 may negatively affect turkey poult performance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of subjecting tom turkey poults (commercial Large White Hybrid Converters) to different constant levels of atmospheric CO2 on their growth performance and behavior. In three consecutive replicate trials, a total of 552 poults were weighed post-hatch and randomly placed in 3 environmental control chambers, with 60 (Trial 1) and 62 (Trials 2 and 3) poults housed per chamber. They were reared with standard temperature and humidity levels for 3 wks. The poults were exposed to 3 different fixed CO2 concentrations of 2,000, 4,000, and 6,000 ppm throughout each trial. Following each trial (replicate), the CO2 treatments were switched and assigned to a different chamber in order to expose each treatment to each chamber. At the end of each trial, all poults were sent to a local turkey producer to finish growout. For each trial, individual body weight and group feed intake were measured, and mortality and behavioral movement were recorded. Wk 3 and cumulative body weight gain of poults housed at 2,000 ppm CO2 was greater (P < 0.05) than those exposed to 4,000 and 6,000 ppm CO2. Feed intake and feed conversion were unaffected by the different CO2 concentrations. No significant difference in poult mortality was found between treatments. In addition, no effect of CO2 treatments was evident in the incidence of spontaneous turkey cardiomyopathy for turkeys processed at 19 wk of age. Poults housed at the lower CO2 level (2,000 ppm) demonstrated reduced movement compared with those exposed to

  6. [Effectiveness of an online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friðgeirsdóttir, Guðlaug; Jóhannsson, Gunnar; Ellertsson, Steindór; Björnsdóttir, Erla

    2015-04-01

    Insomnia is a common health problem with serious mental and physical consequences as well as increased economical costs. The use of hypnotics in Iceland is immense in spite of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) being recommended as the first choice treatment of chronic insomnia. To meet the needs of more individuals suffering from insomnia, online CBT-I was established at betrisvefn.is. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of this internet-based CBT-I. One hundred seventy-five users (mean age 46 y (18-79 y)) started a 6 week online intervention for insomnia. The drop-out rate was 29%, leaving a final sample of 125 users. The intervention is based on well-established face-to-face CBT-I. Sleep diaries were used to determine changes in sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset. Treatment effects were assesed after 6 weeks of treatment and at the 6 week follow-up. Significant improvement was found in all main sleep variables except for 5% decrease in total sleep time (TST). Effects were sustained at 6 week follow-up and TST increased. The use of hypnotics decreased significantly. This form of treatment seems to suit its users very well and over 94% would recommend the treatment. Internet interventions for insomnia seem to have good potential. CBT-I will hopefully be offered as the first line treatment for chronic insomnia in Iceland instead of hypnotics as the availability of the CBT-I is growing. Thus, the burden on health care clinics might reduce along with the hypnotics use and the considerable costs of insomnia.

  7. Behavioral effects of type II pyrethroid cyhalothrin in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righi, D. Abbud; Palermo-Neto, J.

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids such as cyhalothrin are extensively used in agriculture for the control of a broad range of ectoparasites in farm animals. It has been suggested that type II pyrethroids might induce anxiogenic-like effects in laboratory animals. The present study was undertaken to investigate a possible anxiogenic-like outcome of cyhalothrin in rats. Adult male rats were orally dosed for 7 days with 1.0, 3.0, or 7.0 mg/kg/day of cyhalothrin, present in a commercial formulation (Grenade Coopers do Brazil S.A.). The neurobehavioral changes induced by cyhalothrin as well as those produced on corticosterone serum levels were measured 24 h after the last treatment. Picrotoxin (1.0 mg/kg) was also acutely used as a positive control for anxiety. Results showed that cyhalothrin: (1) induced some signs and symptoms of intoxication that included salivation, tremors, and liquid feces; (2) reduced total locomotor activity in the open-field; (3) reduced the percentage of time spent in open-field central zones; (4) increased immobility time in the open-field; (5) reduced the percentage of time spent in plus-maze open arms exploration; (6) reduced the time spent in social interactions, and (7) increased the levels of serum corticosterone. The behavioral changes reported for cyhalothrin (3.0 mg/kg/day) were similar of those induced by picrotoxin. The no effect level dose obtained for cyhalothrin in this study was 1.0 mg/kg/day. These results provide experimental evidence that cyhalothrin induces anxiety-like symptoms, with this effect being dose-related. Thus, anxiety must be included among the several signs and symptoms of pesticide intoxication

  8. Effects of the Good Behavior Game on classwide off-task behavior in a high school basic algebra resource classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Andrea; McKenna, John; Muething, Colin S; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) on classwide off-task behavior in two ninth-grade basic algebra resource classes. Ten students with a variety of disabilities, in two classrooms, and their special education resource teacher participated in this study. A reversal design was employed, in which the special education teacher implemented GBG compared to typical practice-algebra readiness instruction. Results showed that classwide off-task behavior decreased in the GBG conditions compared to the baseline and reversal conditions. Fidelity measures indicated that the teacher implemented GBG with fidelity. Students and the teacher rated GBG favorably. Overall findings support the use of GBG for reducing classwide off-task behavior. Implications for practice and future research directions are presented.

  9. Effect of Theory of Planned Behavior-based Educational Intervention on Breastfeeding Behavior in Pregnant Women in Fasa City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Marjan Arshad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Breastfeeding is a matter of significant importance. Given the role of such factors as attitude and subjective norms on the behavior of mothers and the low level of exclusive breastfeeding, the present study aimed to determine the effect of educational program based on the theory of planned behavior on breastfeeding behavior among the pregnant women in Fasa, Iran. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 pregnant women with the gestational age of 30-35 weeks who referred to the health care centers of Fasa, Iran, in 2017. The study population was selected using random sampling technique, and then assigned into two groups of control (n=50 and intervention (n=50. The data were collected using a demographic form, components of the theory of planned behavior questionnaire, and a breastfeeding checklist. The intervention group received three 55-to-60-minute training sessions. The mothers' breastfeeding behavior was evaluated before the training sessions and 40 days post-delivery in both groups. The data were analyzed in SPSS software, version 22, using Chi-square test, independent t-test, and paired sample t-test. Results: According to the results, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the components of the theory of planned behavior before the educational intervention (P=0.208. However, after the training sessions, the intervention group showed a significant improvement in all components of the theory of planned behavior, including intention and breastfeeding behavior, compared to the control group (P=0.001. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, appropriate training programs, social network support, and suitable conditions for breastfeeding in the community are among the effective factors that can change the mothers’ attitudes towards lactation and result in successful breastfeeding in the first three months after childbirth.

  10. The Effect of Individual Differences on Adolescents' Impulsive Buying Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Chuang, Shin-Chieh

    2005-01-01

    This study posits a relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Impulsive Buying Tendency (IBT). A survey of 574 adolescents found that high-EI adolescents manifested less impulsive behavior than did low-EI adolescents, and high-IBT adolescents were more likely to engage in more impulsive buying behavior than were low-IBT adolescents.…

  11. Effective Resources Supporting Healthy Sexual Behavior in Formerly Incarcerated Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senteio, Charles; Collins, Summer Wright; Jackson, Rachael; Welk, Stacy; Zhang, Shun

    2010-01-01

    The sexual health behavior of formerly incarcerated persons (FIPs) not only affects the FIP, their sex partners, and their significant others, but also affects their families and the communities in which they live. Certain health conditions, which are overrepresented in incarcerated populations, are directly impacted by sexual health behavior.…

  12. Substantive and relational effectiveness of organizational conflict behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euwema, M C; Van de Vliert, E; Bakker, A B

    2003-01-01

    In this observation study the theory of conglomerated conflict behavior is tested. The impact of seven conflict behaviors on substantive and relational conflict outcomes is examined through multiple independent observations of 103 Dutch nurse managers handling a standardized conflict. Results show

  13. Preschool Children's Sleep and Wake Behavior: Effects of Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Preschool children received twice-weekly massages for five weeks. Compared to control children, the massaged children had better behavior ratings on mood state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation following massage on day one and throughout the study. Teachers rated their behavior more optimally, and their parents rated them as having less…

  14. The Relationship between Neighborhood Characteristics and Effective Parenting Behaviors: The Role of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been linked to healthy behavior, including effective parenting behaviors. This may be partially explained through the neighborhood's relation to parents' access to social support from friends and family. The current study examined associations of neighborhood characteristics with parenting behaviors indirectly…

  15. Behavior Bingo: The Effects of a Culturally Relevant Group Contingency Intervention for Students with EBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tai A.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Flowers, Emily M.; Kalra, Hilary D.; Richard, Jessie; Haas, Lauren E.

    2018-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) have difficulty with academic engagement during independent seatwork tasks. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Behavior Bingo, a novel interdependent group contingency intervention, on the academic engagement, off-task, and disruptive behavior of students with…

  16. Effects of high magnetic field on martensitic transformation behavior and structure in Fe-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, H.; Wada, H.; Ghosh, G.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of magnetic field on lath-type martensitic transformation behavior and the reverse transformation behavior from lath math martensite to austenite have been investigated in 18Ni maraging steel. It was found that the reverse transformation temperature during heating is increased by magnetic field. Reverse transformation behavior during isothermal holding was also found to be retarded by magnetic field. (orig.)

  17. Teacher Classroom Management Practices: Effects on Disruptive or Aggressive Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Regina M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large research base grounded in behavioral theory for strategies to increase appropriate behavior and prevent or decrease inappropriate behavior in the classroom, a systematic review of multi-component universal classroom management research is necessary to establish the effects of teachers' universal classroom management approaches.…

  18. Informant Effects on Behavioral and Academic Associations: A Latent Variable Longitudinal Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Timothy R.; Shukla, Kathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies among informants' ratings of a given child's behavior complicate the study of linkages between child behavior and academic achievement. In the current study, we examined the potential moderating effect of informant type on associations between behavior and two types of achievement in a longitudinal growth model that…

  19. Effect of downed woody debris on small mammal anti-predator behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis M. Hinkelman; John L. Orrock; Susan C Loeb

    2011-01-01

    Anti-Predator behavior can affect prey growth, reproduction, survival, and generate emergent effects in food webs. Small mammals often lower the cost of predation by altering their behavior in response to shrubs, but the importance of other microhabitat features, such as downed woody debris, for anti-predator behavior is unknown. We used giving-up densities to quantify...

  20. Effects of the "Behavior Education Program" (BEP) on Office Discipline Referrals of Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; Sandra MacLeod, K.; Rawlings, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The "Behavior Education Program" (BEP; Crone et al., 2004) is a modified check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at risk for more severe problem behaviors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the BEP on problem behavior with 12 elementary school students. Results indicated that the BEP was…

  1. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...

  2. Effects of leader contingent and noncontingent reward and punishment behaviors on subordinate performance and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, P M; Todor, W D; Skov, R

    1982-12-01

    This study investigated the nature of the relationships between leader reward and punishment behaviors and subordinate performance and satisfaction. Only performance-contingent reward behavior was found to affect subordinate performance significantly. Positive relationships were found between leader contingent reward behavior and employee satisfaction. Contingent punishment had no effects on subordinate performance or satisfaction.

  3. Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. PMID:19594263

  4. Stroking and tapping the skin: behavioral and electrodermal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzi, Roberta; Carta, Carlotta; Gallace, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Being caressed represents one of the most typical expressions of affection conveyed by touch. Converging evidence suggests that the pleasant perception of gentle and slow stroking delivered to the hairy skin is mediated by C-Tactile afferents (CTs). While behavioral and neural responses to CT-optimal touch have been moderately explored so far, less is known about the autonomic reaction to different kinds of touch (both CT-optimal and not). Here, we investigated whether physiological arousal varies as a function of the specific tactile stimulation provided. Stroking (slow: 3 cm/s 'CT-optimal'; or fast: 30 cm/s) and tapping (random or fixed spatial order) stimulations were delivered to the participants' forearm with a brush, for durations of 9 or 60 s. Participants' skin conductance response (SCR) and level (SCL), as well as subjective evaluations, were recorded. The results revealed that being stroked (at both the velocities) induced higher SCR and SCL than being tapped. Moreover, while higher SCR was elicited by CT-suboptimal stroking compared to CT-optimal stroking, SCL was not affected differently by CT-optimal touch. No differences were found between the effects of 9 and 60 s stimulations. Slow stroking was evaluated as the most pleasant, relaxing and 'social' type of touch compared to the other tactile stimulations. Taken together, these findings shed light on the psychophysiological responses to stroking (including CT-optimal touch) and tapping, and contribute to elucidate the mechanisms underlying hedonic tactile perception.

  5. Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Bargh, John A; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-07-01

    Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during TV viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-age children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a TV program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits, or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone.

  6. Risky behavior and its effect on survival: snowshoe hare behavior under varying moonlight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Laura C.; Diefenbach, Duane R.

    2018-01-01

    Predation and predation risk can exert strong influences on the behavior of prey species. However, risk avoidance behaviors may vary among populations of the same species. We studied a population of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) near the southern edge of their range, in Pennsylvania. This population occupies different habitat types, experiences different environmental conditions, and are exposed to different predator species and densities than northern hare populations; therefore, they might exhibit differences in risk avoidance behaviors. We analyzed hare survival, movement rates, and habitat use under different levels of predation risk, as indexed by moonlight. Similar to previous work, we found snowshoe hare survival decreased with increased moon illumination during the winter, but we found differences in behavioral responses to increased predation risk. We found that snowshoe hares did not reduce movement rates during high‐risk nights, but instead found that hares selected areas with denser canopy cover, compared to low‐risk nights. We suggest that behavioral plasticity in response to predation risk allows populations of the same species to respond to localized conditions.

  7. The effect of altering self-descriptive behavior on self-concept and classroom behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J; Muller, D

    1977-09-01

    This research examined the impact of operant reinforcement of positive self-descriptive behavior on the self-concepts and classroom behavior of 60 fifth-grade students. Three groups of 10 male and 10 female low self-concept students wrote a series of eight essays describing their school performance. The first group (P) received written reinforcement for positive self-descriptions of their school performance. The second group (G) received an equal number of reinforcements for general statements. The third group (C) received no reinforcement for written statements. Three areas of self-concept were measured with the Primary Self-Concept Inventory: personal-self, social-self, and intellectual-self. A frequency count was also made of nine classroom behaviors thought to be influenced by self-concept. The P group displayed increases in the frequency of positive self-descriptive statement and in intellectual self-concept but no changes in personal self-concept, social self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors. The G and C groups showed no change in self-description, self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors.

  8. Ethical leader behavior and leader effectiveness: the role of prototypicality and trust

    OpenAIRE

    Kalshoven, K.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    The study examines factors that mediate the impact of ethical leader behavior on leader effectiveness. Little is known about how ethical leadership impacts leader effectiveness. We hypothesized that prototypicality and trust sequentially mediate the relationship between ethical leader behavior and perceived leader effectiveness. The group prototype forms an ideal representation of the group’s identity, prescribing appropriate attitudes and behaviors. Ethical leaders are role models and thus a...

  9. Frequency effects on the scale and behavior of acoustic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentry, Michael B; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic streaming underpins an exciting range of fluid manipulation phenomena of rapidly growing significance in microfluidics, where the streaming often assumes the form of a steady, laminar jet emanating from the device surface, driven by the attenuation of acoustic energy within the beam of sound propagating through the liquid. The frequencies used to drive such phenomena are often chosen ad hoc to accommodate fabrication and material issues. In this work, we seek a better understanding of the effects of sound frequency and power on acoustic streaming. We present and, using surface acoustic waves, experimentally verify a laminar jet model that is based on the turbulent jet model of Lighthill, which is appropriate for acoustic streaming seen at micro- to nanoscales, between 20 and 936 MHz and over a broad range of input power. Our model eliminates the critically problematic acoustic source singularity present in Lighthill's model, replacing it with a finite emission area and enabling determination of the streaming velocity close to the source. At high acoustic power P (and hence high jet Reynolds numbers ReJ associated with fast streaming), the laminar jet model predicts a one-half power dependence (U∼P1/2∼ ReJ) similar to the turbulent jet model. However, the laminar model may also be applied to jets produced at low powers-and hence low jet Reynolds numbers ReJ-where a linear relationship between the beam power and streaming velocity exists: U∼P∼ReJ2. The ability of the laminar jet model to predict the acoustic streaming behavior across a broad range of frequencies and power provides a useful tool in the analysis of microfluidics devices, explaining peculiar observations made by several researchers in the literature. In particular, by elucidating the effects of frequency on the scale of acoustically driven flows, we show that the choice of frequency is a vitally important consideration in the design of small-scale devices employing acoustic streaming

  10. Advance Organizers in Secondary Special Education Resource Classrooms: Effects on Student Engagement Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Student engagement and appropriate behaviors are essential for effective instruction in secondary special education classrooms. Research suggests that proactive engagement strategies and interventions can have a greater effect on overall classroom behaviors than negative consequences. A single case experiment measured the effects of…

  11. Modeling the Longitudinal Direct and Indirect Effects of Attitudes, Self-Efficacy, and Behavioral Intentions on Practice Behavior Outcomes of Suicide Intervention Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteen, Philip; Frey, Jodi M; Woods, MaKenna N; Ko, Jungyai; Shipe, Stacey

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a longitudinal path analysis to test attitudes toward suicide prevention, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions as mediators/moderators of clinical skill development over time following suicide intervention training. Results support a direct effect of attitudes on practice behaviors and self-efficacy, but no moderating effect. Self-efficacy performed as a mediator of practice behaviors over time. Behavioral intention had a direct effect on practice behaviors and mediated the relationship between attitudes and practice behaviors. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  12. Establishing a Common Vocabulary of Key Concepts for the Effective Implementation of Applied Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Traci M. CIHON; Joseph H. CIHON; Guy M. BEDIENT

    2016-01-01

    The technical language of behavior analysis is arguably necessary to share ideas and research with precision among each other. However, it can hinder effective implementation of behavior analytic techniques when it prevents clear communication between the supervising behavior analyst and behavior technicians. The present paper provides a case example of the development of a shared vocabulary, using plain English when possible, among supervisors and supervisees at a large public school distric...

  13. Interpreting the Effects of Pulse Remagnetization on Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Wang, C. X.; Golash, H. N.; Hilburn, I. A.; Wu, D. A.; Crucilla, S. J.; Badal, Y. D.; Shimojo, S.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of geomagnetic sensitivity by migratory and homing animals have puzzled biophysicists for over 70 years. Widely dismissed as biophysically implausible due to the lack of physiological ferromagnetic materials [e.g., D.R. Griffin, 1944, 1952], clear and reproducible responses to earth-strength magnetic fields is now firmly established in organisms ranging from Bacteria, Protists, and Animals from numerous phyla, including mollusks, arthropods, and the chordates. Behavior demands sensory transduction, as external stimuli only `get into the nervous system' through sensory cells specialized to transduce the physical stimulus into a modulated stream of action potentials in neurons. Three basic biophysical mechanisms could plausibly explain the biophysical transduction of geomagnetic cues, including electrical induction, hyperfine magnetic field effects on photo-activated free radicals (the `Quantum Compass'), or receptor cells containing biologically-precipitated crystals of a ferromagnetic mineral like magnetite (Fe3O4). The definitive test of a ferromagnetic receptor is the pulse-remagnetization experiment, in which you apply a brief, unidirectional magnetic pulse of about 1 mS in duration, configured to exceed the coercive force of the SD particles and reverse the orientation of the magnetic moment wrt to the crystal axis (typically, a pulse few tens of mT is adequate). A pulse configured in this fashion can be well below the dB/dt level needed to fire a sensory nerve through the induced electric fields. The pulse produces a permanent flip in magnetization direction, the same way information is coded on magnetic tape. Magnetotactic bacteria, exposed to such a pulse, reverse their magnetic swimming directions passively. There are now over 16 peer-reviewed papers in which this experiment has been applied to animals, including birds, all of which show clear and long-lasting effects of the pulse. Such a pulse would have no lasting effect on a quantum compass

  14. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson-Hanley C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function

  15. The lack of behavioral effects of fenbendazole: a medication for pinworm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Richard; Macinnis, Mika; Guilhardi, Paulo; Chamberland, Karen; Church, Russell

    2005-03-01

    Pinworm infection in rodent laboratories is common and often treated with fenbendazole, which is effective and has a low toxicity level. However, very little is known about the behavioral effects of the drug. The purpose of this study was to determine the behavioral effects of fenbendazole on rats tested by using various conditioning and timing procedures. These behavioral effects were examined both between animals (i.e., control versus medicated treatments) and within animals (baseline-treatment-baseline design). Fenbendazole reduced the detection of pinworm eggs, and it had no significant behavioral effects across multiple levels of analysis (e.g., from overall response rates to response patterns to interresponse intervals). All behavioral differences (e.g., discrimination ratios) were a result of task variables. These results suggest that behavioral studies are unlikely to be influenced by fenbendazole treatment given before or during a study.

  16. Programming effects of antenatal corticosteroids exposure in male sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mário; Leão, Pedro; Rodrigues, Ana-João; Pêgo, José-Miguel; Cerqueira, João-José; Sousa, Nuno

    2011-07-01

    Brain regions implicated in sexual behavior begin to differentiate in the last trimester of gestation. Antenatal therapy with corticosteroids is often used in clinical practice during this period to accelerate lung maturation in preterm-risk pregnancies. Clinical and animal studies highlighted major behavioral impairments induced later in life by these treatments, especially when synthetic corticosteroids are used. To evaluate the implications of acute prenatal treatment with natural vs. synthetic corticosteroids on adult male rat sexual behavior and its neurochemical correlates. Twelve pregnant Wistar rats were injected with dexamethasone (DEX-1 mg/kg), corticosterone (CORT-25 mg/kg), or saline on late gestation (pregnancy days 18 and 19). Following this brief exposure to corticosteroids, we assessed the sexual behavior of the adult male progeny and subsequently associated these behaviors with the levels of catecholamines and mRNA of dopamine and androgen receptors (AR) in brain regions relevant for sexual behavior. Sexual behavior of adult male offspring was assessed by exposure to receptive females. This was associated with serum testosterone levels and levels of catecholamines (determined by high-performance liquid chromatography) and dopamine and AR mRNA expression (real-time polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) in brain regions implicated in sexual behavior. Prenatal DEX exposure resulted in a decreased number and increased mounts and intromissions latencies in adulthood. These findings were associated with decreased levels of serum testosterone and increased hypothalamic expression of AR mRNA. DEX animals also displayed lower dopamine levels and higher dopamine receptor mRNA expression both in hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The milder phenotype of CORT animals was associated only with decreased dopamine levels in NAcc. Antenatal corticotherapy programs adult male sexual behavior through changes in specific neuronal and endocrine mediators

  17. An analysis of valve train behavior considering stiffness effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Dong Joon; Lee, Jin Kab

    2000-01-01

    To maintain the specific volumetric efficiency of a heavy-duty diesel engine, an understanding of the behavior of each part of the valve train system is very important. The stiffness of the valve train system has a strong influence on the behavior of the valve train than value clearance, heat-resistance, or the durability of parts. In this study, a geometrical cam design profile using a finite element model of the valve train system is suggested. The results of the valve behavior according to the change in stiffness is analyzed for further tuning of the valve train system

  18. The role of cognition in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prenger Rilana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral interventions typically focus on objective behavioral endpoints like weight loss and smoking cessation. In reality, though, achieving full behavior change is a complex process in which several steps towards success are taken. Any progress in this process may also be considered as a beneficial outcome of the intervention, assuming that this increases the likelihood to achieve successful behavior change eventually. Until recently, there has been little consideration about whether partial behavior change at follow-up should be incorporated in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs. The aim of this explorative review is to identify CEAs of behavioral interventions in which cognitive outcome measures of behavior change are analyzed. Methods Data sources were searched for publications before May 2011. Results Twelve studies were found eligible for inclusion. Two different approaches were found: three studies calculated separate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for cognitive outcome measures, and one study modeled partial behavior change into the final outcome. Both approaches rely on the assumption, be it implicitly or explicitly, that changes in cognitive outcome measures are predictive of future behavior change and may affect CEA outcomes. Conclusion Potential value of cognitive states in CEA, as a way to account for partial behavior change, is to some extent recognized but not (yet integrated in the field. In conclusion, CEAs should consider, and where appropriate incorporate measures of partial behavior change when reporting effectiveness and hence cost-effectiveness.

  19. Adverse consequences of glucocorticoid medication: psychological, cognitive, and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, L.L.; Schettler, P.J.; Brown, E.S.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Sternberg, E.M.; Bender, B.G.; Bulloch, K.; Cidlowski, J.A.; Kloet, E.R. de; Fardet, L.; Joels, M.; Leung, D.Y.; McEwen, B.S.; Roozendaal, B.; Rossum, E.F. van; Ahn, J.; Brown, D.W.; Plitt, A.; Singh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as

  20. The Effects of Marginal Deviations on Behavioral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pastorelli, Concetta; Zelli, Arnaldo

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was conceptually framed within the theory of marginal deviations (Caprara & Zimbardo, 1996) and sought evidence for the general hypothesis that some children who initially show marginal behavioral problems may, over time, develop more serious problems depending partly on other personal and behavioral characteristics. To this end, the findings of two studies conducted, respectively, with American elementary school children and Italian middle school students are reviewed. These two studies show that hyperactivity, cognitive difficulties, low special preference, and lack of prosocial behavior increase a child's risk for growth in aggressive behavior over several school years. More importantly, they also show that equivalent levels of these risk factors have a greater impact on the development of children who, early on, were marginally aggressive.

  1. Adverse Consequences of Glucocorticoid Medication : Psychological, Cognitive, and Behavioral Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, Lewis L.; Schettler, Pamela J.; Brown, E. Sherwood; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Sternberg, Esther M.; Bender, Bruce G.; Bulloch, Karen; Cidlowski, John A.; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Fardet, Laurence; Joëls, Marian; Leung, Donald Y. M.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Roozendaal, Benno; Van Rossum, Elisabeth F. C.; Ahn, Junyoung; Brown, David W.; Plitt, Aaron; Singh, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as

  2. Hesperidin effects on behavior and locomotor activity of diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... Today, there are sufficient validated scientific data that support the existence of relations between diabetes and certain ... disorders, such as behavioral disorders, anxiety, cognitive decline and depression.

  3. Determining Effective Leadership Behaviors for USAF Company Grade Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berry, Warren

    1998-01-01

    ... (Yukl and Van Fleet, 1986). The purpose of this investigation is to determine the critical leadership behaviors required by junior officers at the direct level of responsibility in the USAF, and to determine differences...

  4. Rodent Habitat On ISS: Spaceflight Effects On Mouse Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, A. E.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Padmanabhan, S.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Decadal Survey (2011), Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era, emphasized the importance of expanding NASA life sciences research to long duration, rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities supporting mouse studies in space were developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The first flight experiment carrying mice, Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1), was launched on Sept 21, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, SpaceX4, exposing the mice to a total of 37 days in space. Ground control groups were maintained in environmental chambers at Kennedy Space Center. Mouse health and behavior were monitored for the duration of the experiment via video streaming. Here we present behavioral analysis of two groups of five C57BL/6 female adult mice viewed via fixed camera views compared with identically housed Ground Controls. Flight (Flt) and Ground Control (GC) mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploratory behavior, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Mice propelled themselves freely and actively throughout the Habitat using their forelimbs to push off or by floating from one cage area to another, and they quickly learned to anchor themselves using tails and/or paws. Overall activity was greater in Flt as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior including the development of organized ‘circling’ or ‘race-tracking’ behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight and encompassed the primary dark cycle activity for the remainder of the experiment. We quantified the bout frequency, duration and rate of circling with respect to characteristic behaviors observed in the varying stages of the progressive development of circling: flipping utilizing two sides of the

  5. Effects of Network Performance on Smartphone User Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Örblom, Markus

    2015-01-01

    While the relation between smartphone user behavior and contextual factors have been explored in previous research, the mobile networks’ influence on the smartphone user behavior is largely unknown. Through statistical analysis of a data set collected globally from ˜ 1000 users by an Android app called Ericsson Apps, this study investigates how the users’ app choices and app usage depend on the network performance. The results show, for instance, that the choice of app depends strongly on the...

  6. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum.

  7. [Effects of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Social Anxiety Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Chen; Meng, Ya-Jing; Yuan, Min-Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ru; Ren, Zheng-Jia; Qiu, Chang-Jian; Zhang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) on social anxiety disorders (SAD). A total of 50 patients with SAD were recruited in this study. A survey containing the Liebowitz social anxiety scale (LSAS),the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ),the fear of negative evaluation questionnaire (FNE),the social support rating scale (SSRS),the tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ),and the egna minnen barndoms uppfostran (EMBU) was administered before and (one week) after the GCBT,including in the 50 healthy controls. About 21 patients completed the eight-week GCBT (once a week,2 h a session). Follow-up surveys were conducted on 40 patients (22 patients treated with GCBT and 18 untreated) over a 1-5 year period. Significant differences were found between the SAD patients and healthy controls in thinking mode,personality characteristics,social support,parental rearing styles,and social anxiety symptoms. Significant decrease in social anxiety symptom ( t =4.06, P =0.000) , negative automatic thoughts ( t =4.58, P =0.000) and fear for rejection ( t =3.85, P =0.000) were observed after the GCBT therapy. Such improvement was positively correlated with subjective social support ( r =0.361, P =0.022) ,and negatively correlated with rejection of father ( r =-0.431, P =0.005) . There was also statistical difference between the patients with and without the GCBT therapy ( P =0.033) . GCBT treatment can relieve SAD symptoms by changing the negative cognitive of SAD patients. Social support and rejection of father affects the prognosis of SAD.

  8. The Emperor Dom Pedro II: his convulsive seizures when a boy O imperador Dom Pedro II: as suas crises convulsivas quando menino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dom Pedro II, the Prince Heir and Emperor under regency, in a delicate period of the construction of the Brazilian nation, had convulsive seizures. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the convulsive seizures and related syndromes of Dom Pedro II and his family, besides the physicians in charge of the health care. METHOD: Narrative review based on primary and secondary sources. CONCLUSION: The scattered and self-limited convulsive seizures associated with physical and mental integrity favored a benign prognosis. Dom Pedro and his family presented rich history of epileptic seizures and febrile convulsion. This variety resembles the diagnosis of generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus that seems to be a combination of several syndromes with shared genetic susceptibility.INTRODUÇÃO: Dom Pedro, o príncipe herdeiro e imperador sob regência, em período delicado da formação da nação brasileira, apresentou crises convulsivas que geraram preocupação para o país. OBJETIVO: Investigar a história da epilepsia de Dom Pedro II e da sua família e procurar identificar quais tipos de crises epilépticas estavam presentes, além dos médicos envolvidos com os cuidados de saúde. MÉTODO: Revisão narrativa baseada em fontes primárias e secundárias. CONCLUSÃO: As crises convulsivas esparsas e auto-limitadas associadas a higidez física e mental de Dom Pedro II sugerem um prognóstico benigno. A história de epilepsia idiopática e convulsões febris no imperador e em outros membros da sua família aponta para o diagnóstico mais provável de Epilepsia Generalizada com Convulsões Febris Plus que é determinada por uma combinação de alguns tipos de manifestações epilépticas com suscetibilidade genética compartilhada.

  9. Prevalence and Incidence of Epilepsy Associated with Convulsive Seizures in Rural Bolivia. A Global Campaign against Epilepsy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Elisa; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Crespo Gómes, Elizabeth Blanca; Sofia, Vito; Padilla, Sandra; Camargo, Mario; Zappia, Mario; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    we performed a three-stages door-to-door survey to estimate incidence and prevalence of epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures (EACS) in a rural area of Bolivia. the study was carried out in the Cordillera Province, southern-eastern Bolivia. One hundred fourteen rural communities with a total population of 18,907 inhabitants were included in the survey. In order to identify subjects with EACS, trained fieldworkers administered a validated single screening question to the householders (stage I). A second face-to-face questionnaire was administered to each positive subject (stage II) that, in case of positive answer, underwent a complete neurological examination to confirm the diagnosis (stage III). We estimated age and sex specific life-time and active EACS prevalence at the prevalence day (30th June 2010). Incidence risk was evaluated for the 10-year period between January 2000 and December 2010. on prevalence day we identified 136 subjects with EACS, 124 of whom had active epilepsy. The life-time prevalence of EACS was 7.2/1,000 (7.6/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population) while the prevalence of active EACS was 6.6/1,000 (6.7/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Both life-time and active prevalence showed a peak (10.3/1,000) in the 15-24 years age group and, overall, were higher among women. During the incidence study period, 105 patients living in the study area had the onset of EACS. The crude incidence risk was 55.4/100,000 (49.5/100,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Incidence was slightly but not significantly higher among women (58.9/100,000 versus 51.9/100,000). the present study demonstrated a considerable burden of EACS in the Bolivian Chaco, showing prevalence and incidence estimates close to those reported for low and middle- income countries and underlying the need of treatment programs.

  10. Prevalence and Incidence of Epilepsy Associated with Convulsive Seizures in Rural Bolivia. A Global Campaign against Epilepsy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Gómes, Elizabeth Blanca; Sofia, Vito; Padilla, Sandra; Camargo, Mario; Zappia, Mario; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective we performed a three-stages door-to-door survey to estimate incidence and prevalence of epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures (EACS) in a rural area of Bolivia. Methods the study was carried out in the Cordillera Province, southern-eastern Bolivia. One hundred fourteen rural communities with a total population of 18,907 inhabitants were included in the survey. In order to identify subjects with EACS, trained fieldworkers administered a validated single screening question to the householders (stage I). A second face-to-face questionnaire was administered to each positive subject (stage II) that, in case of positive answer, underwent a complete neurological examination to confirm the diagnosis (stage III). We estimated age and sex specific life-time and active EACS prevalence at the prevalence day (30th June 2010). Incidence risk was evaluated for the 10-year period between January 2000 and December 2010. Results on prevalence day we identified 136 subjects with EACS, 124 of whom had active epilepsy. The life-time prevalence of EACS was 7.2/1,000 (7.6/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population) while the prevalence of active EACS was 6.6/1,000 (6.7/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Both life-time and active prevalence showed a peak (10.3/1,000) in the 15–24 years age group and, overall, were higher among women. During the incidence study period, 105 patients living in the study area had the onset of EACS. The crude incidence risk was 55.4/100,000 (49.5/100,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Incidence was slightly but not significantly higher among women (58.9/100,000 versus 51.9/100,000). Conclusions the present study demonstrated a considerable burden of EACS in the Bolivian Chaco, showing prevalence and incidence estimates close to those reported for low and middle- income countries and underlying the need of treatment programs. PMID:26427017

  11. Effect of I125 on oxidation behavior of lipoprotein subpopulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majtenyi, S.

    2002-07-01

    Lipoproteins play a central role in lipid metabolism. They serve as a transport vehicle for cholesterol and triglycerides keeping them in plasma in solution. Lipoproteins are characterized by the content of specific apoproteins and differences in the hydrated density ranges. Moreover, they are distinguished by electrophoretic mobility and other characteristics as high and low-density lipoproteins, respectively lipoprotein (a). More specifically, HDL is classified into HDL 2 and HDL 3 . In atherogenesis, lipoproteins are considered to play a key-role. Oxidatively modified LDL is selectively taken up via scavenger receptors of the macrophage-monocyte system. These cells are transformed into foam cells promoting atherogenesis in vessels in the subendothelial space. Oxidized HDL essentially appears to loose its protective effects on LDL and its beneficial function in reverse cholesterol transport. Thus, it turns proatherogenic. The effects various species of free radicals exert on lipoproteins are the reason for this oxidative modification. Thyroid function also influences lipoproteins in a complex manner. Based on their hydrated density ranges, lipoprotein subpopulations were fractionated and isolated via isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation. After investigation of the general oxidation behavior, initiated by addition of CuSO 4 to the isolated samples of HDL 3 , HDL 2 , LDL and Lp(a), the influence of different activities of radioiodine-125 on the kinetics of the formation of conjugated dienes was assessed. This was achieved by coincubation of plasma with I 125 . The spectrophotometrical measurement of the concentration of conjugated dienes in the course of CuSO 4 -induced lipid peroxidation leads to measurable changes in absorption at 234 nm. These changes in absorption over time result in a characteristically shaped curve graphically plotted. The shape of these curves mirrors different indicators of lipid peroxidation. Therefrom lag time, maximal

  12. Effects of everolimus on macrophage-derived foam cell behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Steven; Koren, Eugen; Chan, Yen; Koscec, Mirna; Sheehy, Alexander; Kolodgie, Frank; Virmani, Renu; Feder, Debra

    2014-01-01

    by everolimus (10 -5 M) in FC. Percentage of RAM-11 positive area exhibited a reduction trend within sections stented with EES compared to unstented proximal sections at 60 days (p = 0.09). Conclusion: Everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents and bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of FC, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Executive Summary: We explored the effects of everolimus on the behavior of human THP1 macrophage-derived foam cells in culture, including cell viability, mRNA levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We conclude that everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents/bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may potentially inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of foam cells, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion

  13. Effects of everolimus on macrophage-derived foam cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Steven, E-mail: steven.hsu@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Koren, Eugen; Chan, Yen; Koscec, Mirna; Sheehy, Alexander [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Kolodgie, Frank; Virmani, Renu [CVPath Institute, Inc., 19 Firstfield Road, Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (United States); Feder, Debra [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    expression was significantly decreased by everolimus (10{sup -5} M) in FC. Percentage of RAM-11 positive area exhibited a reduction trend within sections stented with EES compared to unstented proximal sections at 60 days (p = 0.09). Conclusion: Everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents and bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of FC, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Executive Summary: We explored the effects of everolimus on the behavior of human THP1 macrophage-derived foam cells in culture, including cell viability, mRNA levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We conclude that everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents/bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may potentially inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of foam cells, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion.

  14. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to 15 years in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity-score-matched sample of children from intact families, according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents' separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 years for teacher reports, or 15 years for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of predivorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their postdivorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Establishing a Common Vocabulary of Key Concepts for the Effective Implementation of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traci M. CIHON

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The technical language of behavior analysis is arguably necessary to share ideas and research with precision among each other. However, it can hinder effective implementation of behavior analytic techniques when it prevents clear communication between the supervising behavior analyst and behavior technicians. The present paper provides a case example of the development of a shared vocabulary, using plain English when possible, among supervisors and supervisees at a large public school district in which behavior analytic services were provided for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. A list of terms and definitions are provided as well as suggestions on how to develop shared vocabularies within the readers’ own service provision context.

  16. Forward-Thinking Teens: The Effects of College Costs on Adolescent Risky Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Benjamin W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of college costs on teenagers' engagement in risky behaviors before they are old enough to attend college. Individuals with brighter prospects for future schooling attainment may engage in less drug and alcohol use and risky sexual activity because they have more to lose if such behaviors have harmful effects in…

  17. Effect of temperature upon the fatigue-crack propagation behavior of Hastelloy X-280

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1976-05-01

    The techniques of linear-elastic fracture mechanics were employed to characterize the effect of temperature upon the fatigue-crack propagation behavior of Hastelloy X-280 in an air environment. Also included in this study are survey tests to determine the effects of thermal aging and stress ratio upon crack growth behavior in this alloy

  18. Effects of Vibroacoustic Music on Challenging Behaviors in Individuals with Autism and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Andersson, Gunilla; Viding, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Vibroacoustic music has been proposed to be an effective treatment for individuals with developmental disorders and challenging behaviors. The present study experimentally tested the effects of vibroacoustic music on self-injurious, stereotypical, and aggressive destructive behaviors in 20 individuals with autism spectrum disorders and…

  19. Effects of Interventions Based in Behavior Analysis on Motor Skill Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Kang, Minsoo; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2013-01-01

    Techniques based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be useful across a variety of settings to improve numerous behaviors. Specifically within physical activity settings, several studies have examined the effect of interventions based in ABA on a variety of motor skills, but the overall effects of these interventions are unknown.…

  20. The Effects of Video Self-Modeling on High School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Szu-Yin; Baker, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Video self-modeling has been proven to be effective with other populations with challenging behaviors, but only a few studies of video self-modeling have been conducted with high school students with emotional and behavioral disorders. This study aimed to focus on analyzing the effects of video self-modeling on four high school students with…

  1. Effects of Decision-Making Styles of School Administrators on General Procrastination Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Celai Teyyar

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Lack of habits such as effective time management, determination of priorities, and effective and productive use of time is one of several reasons for procrastination behaviors. Personality traits along with incorrect cognitive loads about the self and the environment are other reasons for procrastination behaviors. At this…

  2. A Comparative Effectiveness Education Trial for Lifestyle Health Behavior Change in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Bellamy, Scarlett; Briggs, Vanessa; Delmoor, Ernestine; Purnell, Joseph; Rogers, Rodney; Weathers, Benita; Johnson, Jerry C.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and excess weight are significant clinical and public health issues that disproportionately affect African Americans because of physical inactivity and unhealthy eating. We compared the effects of alternate behavioral interventions on obesity-related health behaviors. We conducted a comparative effectiveness education trial in a…

  3. Web-Based Instruction, Learning Effectiveness and Learning Behavior: The Impact of Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Chich-Jen; Liao, Ying; Hu, Ridong

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the effects of Web-based Instruction and Learning Behavior on Learning Effectiveness. Web-based Instruction contains the dimensions of Active Learning, Simulation-based Learning, Interactive Learning, and Accumulative Learning; and, Learning Behavior covers Learning Approach, Learning Habit, and Learning Attitude. The…

  4. Effects of Caffeine on Classroom Behavior, Sustained Attention, and a Memory Task in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Ruth A.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation of the effect of normative amounts of caffeine on the behavior of six normal kindergarten children found that caffeine exerted only small and inconsistent effects on such classroom behaviors as time off-task and gross motor activity. (Author/DB)

  5. The Moderating Effects of Parenting Styles on African-American and Caucasian Children's Suicidal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of…

  6. A Computerized Lifestyle Application to Promote Multiple Health Behaviors at the Workplace: Testing Its Behavioral and Psychological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippke, Sonia; Fleig, Lena; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    Preventive health behaviors, such as regular physical activity and healthy nutrition, are recommended to maintain employability and to facilitate the health of employees. Theory-based workplace health promotion needs to include psychological constructs and consider the motivational readiness (so-called stages of change) of employees. According to the stages, people can be grouped as nonintenders (not motivated to change and not performing the goal behavior), intenders (decided to adopt the goal behavior but not started yet), or actors (performing the goal behavior already). The tailoring to these stages can be done computer based and should make workplace health promotion more effective. It was tested whether a parsimonious computer-based health promotion program implemented at the workplace was effective in terms of lifestyle changes and psychological outcomes as well as body weight. We hypothesized that the stage-matched intervention would outperform the one-size-fits-all active control condition (standard care intervention). In a randomized controlled trial, a total of 1269 employees were recruited by a trained research assistant at their workplace during a routine medical examination. After excluding noneligible employees, 560 completed Time 1 (T1), and 384 also completed Time 2 (T2), achieving a retention rate of 68.6%. Two fully automated computer-based treatments were adopted: (1) an active control condition with information about benefits of exercise and healthy nutrition (n=52), or (2) a stage-matched multiple-behavior intervention that provided different psychological treatments to 9 subgroups, addressing stages of change (nonintenders, intenders, and actors per behavior; n=332). Baseline assessments (T1) on behavior, psychological constructs, and body weight were repeated after 4 weeks (T2). The stage-matched intervention outperformed the active control condition for lifestyle changes containing physical activity and nutrition (χ(2) 1=3.5; P=.04, for N

  7. Effect of Undergraduates’ Emotional Intelligence on Information Search Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haocheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] Information search capability is the focus of information literacy education. This paper explores the relationship between emotional intelligence and information search behavior. [Method/process] Based on the data from the questionnaires by 250 undergraduates, this paper used IBM SPSS Statistics 19.0 for statistical data analysis. [Result/conclusion]The correlation between emotional intelligence and information search capability is positively obvious. When it comes to all variables in the regression equation, information search behavior is mainly affected by regulation and utilization of the dimension of emotion. Utilization of emotion mainly affects retrieval strategies, information evaluation, behavior adjustment and total score; regulation of emotions mainly affects the information reference.

  8. The effect of learning styles and study behavior on success of preclinical students in pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asci, Halil; Kulac, Esin; Sezik, Mekin; Cankara, F Nihan; Cicek, Ekrem

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of learning styles and study behaviors on preclinical medical students' pharmacology exam scores in a non-Western setting. Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Study Scale and a modified Study Behavior Inventory were used to assess learning styles and study behaviors of preclinical medical students (n = 87). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent effect of gender, age, learning style, and study behavior on pharmacology success. Collaborative (40%) and competitive (27%) dominant learning styles were frequent in the cohort. The most common study behavior subcategories were study reading (40%) and general study habits (38%). Adequate listening and note-taking skills were associated with pharmacology success, whereas students with adequate writing skills had lower exam scores. These effects were independent of gender. Preclinical medical students' study behaviors are independent predictive factors for short-term pharmacology success.

  9. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun; Dong, Kyung Rae; Han, Seung Moo

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment

  10. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Moo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment.

  11. Physical and behavioral development in rats after late prenatal exposure to diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, S B; Sahoo, R N

    1990-01-01

    The effect of late prenatal exposure to diazepam (DZP) on physical and behavioral development of rat pups was investigated. Prenatal exposure to DZP (20 mg/kg, sc, in last week of pregnancy) did not alter litter size and no gross malformations were noted at birth. Body weight at birth and subsequent weight gain was significantly less in these animals. The development of reflexes and neuromuscular maturation was normal. Open field locomotor activity and rearing scores were significantly decreased. Test of social play in juvenile rats revealed normal pattern of sexual dimorphism with increased masculinized behavior. Acquisition and retention of passive avoidance task was not affected by DZP exposure, however, retention of brightness discrimination task was significantly decreased. The hypnotic effect of a challenge dose of DZP and convulsive effect of pentylene tetrazole remained unaltered. Open field activity test in adult animals revealed increased ambulation. Probe dose of amphetamine in these animals caused paradoxical decrease in activity. It is concluded that exposure to high dose of DZP during late prenatal period may not manifest in physical or neuromuscular impairment during early development period, except for weight loss, however, it may have long term effects on behavior becoming manifest in adolescence and at maturity.

  12. Multiple-phase behavior and memory effect of polymer gel

    CERN Document Server

    Annaka, M; Nakahira, T; Sugiyama, M; Hara, K; Matsuura, T

    2002-01-01

    A poly(4-acrylamidosalicylic acid) gel (PASA gel) exhibits multiple phases as characterized by distinct degrees of swelling; the gel can take one of four different swelling values, but none of the intermediate values. The gel has remarkable memory: the phase behavior of the gel depends on whether the gel has experienced the most swollen phase or the most collapsed phase in the immediate past. The information is stored and reversibly erased in the form of a macroscopic phase transition behavior. The structure factors corresponding to these four phases were obtained by SANS, which indicated the presence of characteristic structures depending on pH and temperature, particularly in the shrunken state. (orig.)

  13. Analysis of Army Transformation and the Effects on Customer Ordering Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colacicco, Joseph M

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis provides an in-process review of the effects of the current transformation efforts on supply effectiveness and attempts to determine factors that influence customer ordering behavior...

  14. Examining the effects of turnover intentions on organizational citizenship behaviors and deviance behaviors: A psychological contract approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ke Michael; Ellis, Aleksander P J; Christian, Jessica Siegel; Porter, Christopher O L H

    2016-08-01

    Although turnover intentions are considered the most proximal antecedent of organizational exit, there is often temporal separation between thinking about leaving and actual exit. Using field data from 2 diverse samples of working adults, we explore a causal model of the effects of turnover intentions on employee behavior while they remain with the organization, focusing specifically on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and deviance behaviors (DBs). Utilizing expectancy theory as an explanatory framework, we argue that turnover intentions result in high levels of transactional contract orientation and low levels of relational contract orientation, which in turn lead to a decrease in the incidence of OCBs and an increase in the incidence of DBs. We first used a pilot study to investigate the direction of causality between turnover intentions and psychological contract orientations. Then, in Study 1, we tested our mediated model using a sample of employees from a large drug retailing chain. In Study 2, we expanded our model by arguing that the mediated effects are much stronger when the organization is deemed responsible for potential exit. We then tested our full model using a sample of employees from a large state-owned telecommunications corporation in China. Across both studies, results were generally consistent and supportive of our hypotheses. We discuss the implications of our findings for future theory, research, and practice regarding the management of both the turnover process and discretionary behaviors at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Modeling of strain effects on the device behaviors of ferroelectric memory field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Feng; Hu, Guangda; Wu, Weibing; Yang, Changhong; Wu, Haitao; Tang, Minghua

    2013-01-01

    The influence of strains on the channel current–gate voltage behaviors and memory windows of ferroelectric memory field-effect transistors (FeMFETs) were studied using an improved model based on the Landau–Devonshire theory. ‘Channel potential–gate voltage’ ferroelectric polarization and silicon surface potential diagrams were constructed for strained single-domain BaTiO 3 FeMFETs. The compressive strains can increase (or decrease) the amplitude of transistor currents and enlarge memory windows. However, tensile strains only decrease the maximum value of transistor currents and compress memory windows. Mismatch strains were found to have a significant influence on the electrical behaviors of the devices, therefore, they must be considered in FeMFET device designing. (fast track communication)

  16. A Computerized Lifestyle Application to Promote Multiple Health Behaviors at the Workplace: Testing Its Behavioral and Psychological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventive health behaviors, such as regular physical activity and healthy nutrition, are recommended to maintain employability and to facilitate the health of employees. Theory-based workplace health promotion needs to include psychological constructs and consider the motivational readiness (so-called stages of change) of employees. According to the stages, people can be grouped as nonintenders (not motivated to change and not performing the goal behavior), intenders (decided to adopt the goal behavior but not started yet), or actors (performing the goal behavior already). The tailoring to these stages can be done computer based and should make workplace health promotion more effective. Objective It was tested whether a parsimonious computer-based health promotion program implemented at the workplace was effective in terms of lifestyle changes and psychological outcomes as well as body weight. We hypothesized that the stage-matched intervention would outperform the one-size-fits-all active control condition (standard care intervention). Methods In a randomized controlled trial, a total of 1269 employees were recruited by a trained research assistant at their workplace during a routine medical examination. After excluding noneligible employees, 560 completed Time 1 (T1), and 384 also completed Time 2 (T2), achieving a retention rate of 68.6%. Two fully automated computer-based treatments were adopted: (1) an active control condition with information about benefits of exercise and healthy nutrition (n=52), or (2) a stage-matched multiple-behavior intervention that provided different psychological treatments to 9 subgroups, addressing stages of change (nonintenders, intenders, and actors per behavior; n=332). Baseline assessments (T1) on behavior, psychological constructs, and body weight were repeated after 4 weeks (T2). Results The stage-matched intervention outperformed the active control condition for lifestyle changes containing physical activity and

  17. Gender-specific effects of depression and suicidal ideation in prosocial behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cáceda

    Full Text Available Prosocial behaviors are essential to the ability to relate to others. Women typically display greater prosocial behavior than men. The impact of depression on prosocial behaviors and how gender interacts with those effects are not fully understood. We explored the role of gender in the potential effects of depression on prosocial behavior.We examined prosocial behaviors using a modified version of the Trust Game in a clinical population and community controls. Study participants were characterized on the severity of depression and anxiety, presence of suicidal ideation, history of childhood trauma, recent stressful life events, and impulsivity. We correlated behavioral outcomes with gender and clinical variables using analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis.The 89 participants comprised four study groups: depressed women, depressed men, healthy women and healthy men (n = 16-36. Depressed men exhibited reciprocity more frequently than healthy men. Depression induced an inversion of the gender-specific pattern of self-centered behavior. Suicidal ideation was associated with increased reciprocity behavior in both genders, and enhancement of the effect of depression on gender-specific self-centered behavior.Depression, particularly suicidal ideation, is associated with reversal of gender-specific patterns of prosocial behavior, suggesting abnormalities in sexual hormones regulation. This explanation is supported by known abnormalities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axes found in depression.

  18. Effects of a cognitive-behavioral pain-management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, C; Dahl, J; Jannert, M; Melin, L; Andersson, G

    1998-10-01

    A cognitive behavioral multidisciplinary pain management program was evaluated in two separate outcome studies; one controlled study (study I) and one study conducted on a consecutive sample with a long-term follow-up (study II). The 4-week inpatient treatment program included education sessions, goal setting, graded activity training, pacing, applied relaxation, cognitive techniques, social skills training, drug reduction methods, contingency management of pain behaviors, and planning of work return. The outcome of study I showed significant between-group differences in favor of the treatment group on measures of occupational training at 1-month follow-up, activity level in the sparetime at post-treatment and at follow-up, and decreased catastrophizing and pain behaviors at post-treatment. In study II significant improvements over time were found on measures of sick leave, pain intensity, pain interference, life control, affective distress, activity level in the sparetime, physical fitness and use of analgetics at 2-month follow-up and at 1-year follow-up. The results of the two outcome studies reported show that cognitive behavioral multidisciplinary pain management programs can successfully be applied to Swedish musculoskeletal pain patients.

  19. Effect of Permeation Enhancers on the Release Behavior and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this research work was to formulate, characterize and evaluate the in vitro permeation behavior of tramadol lotion containing propylene glycol (PG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as permeation enhancers. Methods: The permeation experiments were conducted in vitro using full thickness rabbit skin in ...

  20. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…

  1. Hesperidin effects on behavior and locomotor activity of diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-09

    Nov 9, 2016 ... causing behavioral disorders, depression and cognitive dysfunction .... to control which was analysed using Student's t-test, at P<0.05. RESULTS .... music is used as a therapy that modulates a combined predator and noise ...

  2. The Effects of Peer Influence on Disordered Eating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tiffany A.; Gast, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Peer influence has been found to be correlated with a host of harmful health behaviors. However, little research has been conducted investigating the relationship between peer influence and disordered eating. The present study surveyed 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade girls and boys using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and Inventory of Peer…

  3. The Effects of Social Influence on Nurses' Hand Hygiene Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Susan E; Minnick, Ann; Lauderdale, Jana; Dietrich, Mary S; Vogus, Timothy J

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the associations of nurses' hand hygiene (HH) attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control with observed and self-reported HH behavior. Hand hygiene is an essential strategy to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Despite tremendous efforts, nurses' HH adherence rates remain suboptimal. This quantitative descriptive study of ICU nurses in the southeastern United States was guided by the theory of planned behavior. The self-administered Patient Safety Opinion Survey and iScrub application, which facilitates observation, comprised the data set. Nurses' observed HH median was 55%; tendency to self-report was a much higher 90%. Subjective norm and perceived control scores were associated with observed and self-reported HH (P < .05) but not attitude scores or reports of intention. Nurses' subjective norm and perceived control are associated with observed and self-reported HH performance. Healthcare workers overestimate their HH performance. Findings suggest future research to explore manipulators of these variables to change nurses' HH behavior.

  4. The Effect of Brand Identification on Alumni Supportive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Amber L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of brand identification and supportive behaviors for alumni of a medium-sized state-run public institution of higher education in the mid-Atlantic region of the US. The research examined the perceptions of donor and non-donor alumni of a state-run public institution of higher education to…

  5. The effects of pathological gaming on aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may

  6. Genetic variation and effects on human eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Krom, Mariken; Bauer, Florianne; Collier, David; Adan, R. A. H.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Feeding is a physiological process, influenced by genetic factors and the environment. In recent years, many studies have been performed to unravel the involvement of genetics in both eating behavior and its pathological forms: eating disorders and obesity. In this review, we provide a condensed

  7. The Effect of Labor Supply Shortages on Asymmetric Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    facing restrictions in labor supply increase costs (and resources) less than companies operating with sufficient access to additional personnel. This leads to a more symmetrical cost behavior for increasing activity compared to decreasing activity. Additional analyses show that shortages in labor supply......, such as prior period slack creation or pessimistic managerial expectations with respect to future demand....

  8. Effects of Behavioral History on Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Adam H.; Cirino, Sergio; Mayfield, Kristin H.; da Silva, Stephanie P.; Okouchi, Hiroto; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether differential resistance to change would occur under identical variable-interval schedules as a function of a differential behavioral history. In Experiment 1, each of 3 pigeons first pecked at different rates under a multiple variable-ratio differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule. In a subsequent condition,…

  9. Effectiveness of Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Behavioral Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolocofsky, David N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Subjects (N=109) completed a behavioral weight-management program either with or without the addition of hypnosis. Both interventions resulted in significant weight reduction. At the eight-month and two-year follow-ups, the hypnosis clients showed significant additional weight loss and were more likely to have achieved and maintained their…

  10. Moderating effect of nurses' customer-oriented perception between organizational citizenship behaviors and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching Sheng; Chang, Hae Ching

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates whether organizational citizenship behaviors enhance job satisfaction among nursing personnel, while exploring whether customer-oriented perception has a moderating effect between nursing personnel's organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction.The authors used a cross-sectional survey sent to 500 nurses with 232 valid responses. According to the research findings, nurses' organizational citizenship behaviors have a positive and significant influence on job satisfaction. Results also indicated that the moderating effect of nurses' customer-oriented perception on the relationship between their organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction was stronger for high customer-oriented perception than it was low customer-oriented perception.

  11. Monetary reward magnitude effects on behavior and brain function during goal-directed behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell-Negre, P; Bustamante, J C; Fuentes-Claramonte, P; Costumero, V; Benabarre, S; Barrós-Loscertales, A

    2017-08-01

    Reward may modulate the cognitive processes required for goal achievement, while individual differences in personality may affect reward modulation. Our aim was to test how different monetary reward magnitudes modulate brain activation and performance during goal-directed behavior, and whether individual differences in reward sensitivity affect this modulation. For this purpose, we scanned 37 subjects with a parametric design in which we varied the magnitude of monetary rewards (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5) in a blocked fashion while participants performed an interference counting-Stroop condition. The results showed that the brain activity of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the striatum were modulated by increasing and decreasing reward magnitudes, respectively. Behavioral performance improved as the magnitude of monetary reward increased while comparing the non reward (€0) condition to any other reward condition, or the lower €0.01 to any other reward condition, and this improvement was related with individual differences in reward sensitivity. In conclusion, the locus of influence of monetary incentives overlaps the activity of the regions commonly involved in cognitive control.

  12. Effects of Early-Life Stress on Social and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Adult Mice: Sex-Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya P. Bondar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stressful events in an early postnatal period have critical implications for the individual’s life and can increase later risk for psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of early-life stress on the social behavior of adult male and female mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to maternal separation (MS, 3 h once a day or handling (HD, 15 min once a day on postnatal day 2 through 14. Adult male and female mice were tested for social behavior in the social interaction test and for individual behavior in the plus-maze and open-field tests. Female mice exposed to maternal separation had increased social behavior and increased anxiety. MS male mice had no changes in social behavior but had significantly disrupted individual behavior, including locomotor and exploratory activity. Handling had positive effects on social behavior in males and females and decreased anxiety in males. Our results support the hypothesis that brief separation of pups from their mothers (handling, which can be considered as moderate stress, may result in future positive changes in behavior. Maternal separation has deleterious effects on individual behavior and significant sex-specific effects on social behavior.

  13. Effect of playing violent video games cooperatively or competitively on subsequent cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewoldsen, David R; Eno, Cassie A; Okdie, Bradley M; Velez, John A; Guadagno, Rosanna E; DeCoster, Jamie

    2012-05-01

    Research on video games has yielded consistent findings that violent video games increase aggression and decrease prosocial behavior. However, these studies typically examined single-player games. Of interest is the effect of cooperative play in a violent video game on subsequent cooperative or competitive behavior. Participants played Halo II (a first-person shooter game) cooperatively or competitively and then completed a modified prisoner's dilemma task to assess competitive and cooperative behavior. Compared with the competitive play conditions, players in the cooperative condition engaged in more tit-for-tat behaviors-a pattern of behavior that typically precedes cooperative behavior. The social context of game play influenced subsequent behavior more than the content of the game that was played.

  14. The effects of goal involvement on moral behavior in an experimentally manipulated competitive setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Luke; Kavussanu, Maria

    2007-04-01

    In this experiment we examined the effects of task and ego involvement on three measures of moral behavior--prosocial choice, observed prosocial behavior, and observed antisocial behavior--in a competitive setting. We also investigated sex differences in moral behavior. Male (n = 48) and female (n = 48) college students were randomly assigned to a task-involving, an ego-involving, or a control condition. Participants played two 10-min games of table soccer and completed measures of prosocial choice, goal involvement, goal orientation, and demographics. The two games were recorded, and frequencies of prosocial and antisocial behavior were coded. Players assigned to the task-involving condition were higher in prosocial choice than those in the ego-involving or control conditions. Individuals in the ego-involving condition displayed more antisocial behaviors than those in the task-involving or control conditions. Finally, females displayed more prosocial behaviors than males.

  15. Effects of Prosocial, Neutral, and Violent Video Games on Children's Helpful and Hurtful Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muniba; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A

    2012-01-01

    Recent research reveals that playing prosocial video games increases prosocial cognitions, positive affect, and helpful behaviors [Gentile et al., 2009; Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2009, 2010, 2011]. These results are consistent with the social-cognitive models of social behavior such as the general learning model [Buckley and Anderson, 2006]. However, no experimental studies have examined such effects on children. Previous research on violent video games suggests that short-term effects of video games are largely based on priming of existing behavioral scripts. Thus, it is unclear whether younger children will show similar effects. This research had 9-14 years olds play a prosocial, neutral, or violent video game, and assessed helpful and hurtful behaviors simultaneously through a new tangram measure. Prosocial games increased helpful and decreased hurtful behavior, whereas violent games had the opposite effects. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Prosocial Behavior Mitigates the Negative Effects of Stress in Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Laws, Holly B; Ansell, Emily B

    2016-07-01

    Recent theories of stress reactivity posit that, when stressed, individuals tend to seek out opportunities to affiliate with and nurture others in order to prevent or mitigate the negative effects of stress. However, few studies have tested empirically the role of prosocial behavior in reducing negative emotional responses to stress. The current analyses used daily diary data to investigate whether engaging in prosocial behavior buffered the negative effects of naturally-occurring stressors on emotional well-being. Results showed that on a given day, prosocial behavior moderated the effects of stress on positive affect, negative affect, and overall mental health. Findings suggest that affiliative behavior may be an important component of coping with stress, and indicate that engaging in prosocial behavior might be an effective strategy for reducing the impact of stress on emotional functioning.

  17. Effects of Nicotine on the Neurophysiological and Behavioral Effects of Ketamine in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Mathalon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor hypofunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its associated neurocognitive impairments. The high rate of cigarette smoking in schizophrenia raises questions about how nicotine modulates putative NMDA receptor hypofunction in the illness. Accordingly, we examined the modulatory effects of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR stimulation on NMDA receptor hypofunction by examining the interactive effects of nicotine, a nAChR agonist, and ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, on behavioral and neurophysiological measures in healthy human volunteers.Methods: From an initial sample of 17 subjects (age range 18 - 55 years, 8 subjects successfully completed 4 test sessions, each separated by at least 3 days, during which they received ketamine or placebo and two injections of nicotine or placebo in a double-blind, counterbalanced manner. Schizophrenia-like effects (PANSS, perceptual alterations (CADSS, subjective effects (VAS and auditory event-related brain potentials (mismatch negativity, P300 were assessed during each test session.Results: Consistent with existing studies, ketamine induced transient schizophrenia-like behavioral effects. P300 was reduced and delayed by ketamine regardless of whether it was elicited by a target or novel stimulus, while nicotine only reduced the amplitude of P3a. Nicotine did not rescue P300 from the effects of ketamine; the interactions of ketamine and nicotine were not significant. While nicotine significantly reduced MMN amplitude, ketamine did not. Conclusion: Nicotine failed to modulate ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like effects in this preliminary study. Interestingly, ketamine reduced P3b amplitude and nicotine reduced P3a amplitude, suggesting independent roles of NMDA receptor and nAChR in the generation of P3b and P3a, respectively.

  18. Educational and experiential effects on radiographers' radiation safety behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilson, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Forty-four radiographers from 11 hospitals in Northern California were observed for radiation safety behaviors in six categories. A multiple regression analysis was performed to determine if there was a significant relationship between the six radiation safety behaviors and the radiographer's age, sex, type of professional training, years since completion of professional training, years of professional practice, time of day, and exposure frequency. The multiple regression analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between use of gonadal shielding and years since completion of professional training, years of professional practice, type of training, and age. The multiple regression analysis also showed that the number of repeated films due to technical error was significantly related to the type of professional training a radiographer received

  19. Differential Effects of TRPA and TRPV Channels on Behaviors of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Thies

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TRPA and TRPV ion channels are members of the transient receptor potential (TRP cation channel superfamily, which mediates various sensory transductions. In Caenorhabditis elegans , the TRPV channels are known to affect chemosensation, while the TRPA-1 channel is associated with thermosensation and mechanosensation. We examined thermosensation, chemosensation, and osmosensation in strains lacking TRPA-1 or TRPV channels. We found that TRPV channel knockout worms exhibited similar behavioral deficits associated with thermotaxis as the TRPA-1 channel knockout, suggesting a dual role for TRPV channels. In contrast, chemosensation responses, assessed by both avoidance reversal behavior and NaCl osmosensation, were dependent on TRPV channels but seemed independent of TRPA-1 channel. Our findings suggest that, in addition to TRPA-1 channel, TRPV channels are necessary for thermotaxis and may activate, or modulate, the function of TRPA-1 channels. In contrast, TRPA-1 channels do not have a dual responsibility, as they have no functional role in odorant avoidance or osmosensation.

  20. Stimulus threat and exposure context modulate the effect of mere exposure on approach behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Young; Heather Claypool; Isaiah Jones

    2016-01-01

    Mere-exposure research has found that initially neutral objects made familiar are preferred relative to novel objects. Recent work extends these preference judgments into the behavioral domain by illustrating that mere exposure prompts approach-oriented behavior toward familiar stimuli. However, no investigations have examined the effect of mere exposure on approach-oriented behavior toward threatening stimuli. The current work examines this issue and also explores how exposure context intera...

  1. The Effects of Moral Identity on Moral Emotion and Antisocial Behavior in Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Kavussanu, M; Stanger, N; Ring, C

    2015-01-01

    Given the prevalence and significance of antisocial behavior in sport, researchers have begun to explore the role that self conscious moral emotions play in reducing such behavior. In this research, we examined whether moral identity inhibits antisocial behaviour and whether these effects are mediated by anticipated guilt. Using a cross-sectional design, Study 1 showed that moral identity was negatively related to antisocial behavior. Study 2 found that the negative association between moral ...

  2. Effects of combat deployment on risky and self-destructive behavior among active duty military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Cynthia J; Stander, Valerie A; McWhorter, Stephanie K; Rabenhorst, Mandy M; Milner, Joel S

    2011-10-01

    Although research has documented negative effects of combat deployment on mental health, few studies have examined whether deployment increases risky or self-destructive behavior. The present study addressed this issue. In addition, we examined whether deployment effects on risky behavior varied depending on history of pre-deployment risky behavior, and assessed whether psychiatric conditions mediated effects of deployment on risky behavior. In an anonymous survey, active duty members of the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Navy (N = 2116) described their deployment experiences and their participation in risky recreational activities, unprotected sex, illegal drug use, self-injurious behavior, and suicide attempts during three time frames (civilian, military pre-deployment, and military post-deployment). Respondents also reported whether they had problems with depression, anxiety, or PTSD during the same three time frames. Results revealed that risky behavior was much more common in civilian than in military life, with personnel who had not deployed, compared to those who had deployed, reporting more risky behavior and more psychiatric problems as civilians. For the current time period, in contrast, personnel who had deployed (versus never deployed) were significantly more likely to report both risky behavior and psychiatric problems. Importantly, deployment was associated with increases in risky behavior only for personnel with a pre-deployment history of engaging in risky behavior. Although psychiatric conditions were associated with higher levels of risky behavior, psychiatric problems did not mediate associations between deployment and risky behavior. Implications for understanding effects of combat deployment on active duty personnel and directions for future research are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Perception through a Perspective-Taking Lens: Differential Effects on Judgment and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ku , Gillian; Wang , Cynthia S.; Galinsky , Adam D.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In contrast to the view that social perception has symmetric effects on judgments and behavior, the current research explored whether perspective-taking leads stereotypes to differentially affect judgments and behavior. Across three studies, perspective-takers consistently used stereotypes more in their own behavior while simultaneously using them less in their judgments of others. After writing about an African American, perspective-taking tendencies were positively c...

  4. Effective advertising and its influence on consumer buying behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Niazi, Ghulam Shabbir Khan; Siddiqui, Javaria; Shah, Burhan Ali; Hunjra, Ahmed Imran

    2011-01-01

    Advertising is a way of communication to convince an audience for taking purchase decision about a product or service and delivering information to viewers. This paper examines the relationship between environmental response and emotional response which are independent variables with dependent variable i.e. consumer buying behavior. This research investigates the relationship between the variables involved, by taking the 200 responses in twins’ cities of Pakistan. Findings of this study show ...

  5. Effect of hunting awareness on wild game meat purchase behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Marescotti

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although wild game meat constitutes a sustainable and healthy alternative to conventional meat and hunting contributes to the control of game populations, international studies on consumer attitudes towards this type of meat are still limited and no previous research has been focused on the Italian population. For the development of successful marketing strategies and/or public policy intervention, the knowledge of consumers’ purchase behavior is a key factor. Among all the determinants that can influence the behavior of consumers of hunted wild game meat (i.e. animal welfare, sustainability, ecological food choice, product safety, nutritional quality, the consumers’ awareness of hunting activity and their perceptions of wild game meat assume a crucial role. Accordingly, in this paper an online survey on a sample of 741 Italian meat consumers has been conducted to investigate the relationship between consumers’ purchase behavior and their awareness of hunted game meat and hunting practices (chi-square test, F-test. Statistically significant differences were found among segments of consumers with different levels of wild game meat consumption frequency. The analysis shows that, as expected, the highest consumption level of wild game meat relates to the highest level of general awareness of wild game meat and hunting practices. Our findings are in line with previous literature, that links positive behaviors of consumers towards wild game meat and hunting to familiarity and experience with hunting and hunters. Nonetheless, the present study provides a deeper understanding of the Italian consumers’ attitudes and perceptions of wild game meat and could suggests policy guidelines for the development of future targeted marketing strategies.

  6. Effects of apomorphine on the expression of learned helplessness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Fu; Lei, Yen-Ping; Tseng, Ting; Hsu, Wen-Yu; Wang, Ching-Fu; Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Ho, Ying-Jui

    2007-04-30

    Dopaminergic system and its D1 as well as D2 receptors are involved in the modulation of emotional behavior. This experiment investigated the role of dopaminergic activity in the inescapable stress-induced learned helplessness, a widely used depression animal model, by using the pharmacological manipulation through the apomorphine (APO), an agonist for D1 and D2 receptors, and sulpiride (SUL), a selective D2 antagonist. Male Sprague Dawley rats were used and tested in a shuttle box. In the day-1 session, the rats received a 10-trial (1 min/trial) inescapable stressor: a 3 sec conditioned stimulus (CS; 75 db sound and 250 lux red light) followed by a 10 sec unconditioned stimulus (UCS; electrical foot shock, 0.5 mA). In the day-2 session, a 15-trial active avoidance test, 3 sec CS followed by UCS, was performed 30 min after the administration of APO (0, 0.05, 0.5, 1, and 5 mg/kg, i.p.). The number of failures was counted and the UCS was stopped when the rats did not escape after 15 sec UCS. The results showed that APO at the dosage of 0.5 mg/kg had a tendency to enhance the avoidance behavior. In contrast, the treatment of higher dose of APO, 1 and 5 mg/kg, reduced the number of escape but increased the number of failure. Pretreatment of SUL (5 mg/kg, i.p.), 10 min before 1 mg/kg of APO, significantly enhanced the failure behavior. The present data suggest that the activity of D2 receptor may be associated with the adaptive or protective role in the prevention of escape deficits after exposure to inescapable stress. However, the excessive stimulation of D1 receptor may participate in the failure of coping behavior leading to learned helplessness and therefore in the pathophysiological mechanisms underling the development of depression.

  7. Are behavioral effects of early experience mediated by oxytocin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lisa Bales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Early experiences can alter adaptive emotional responses necessary for social behavior as well as physiological reactivity in the face of challenge. In the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster, manipulations in early life or hormonal treatments specifically targeted at the neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP, have long-lasting, often sexually-dimorphic, consequences for social behavior. Here we examine the hypothesis that behavioral changes associated with differential early experience, in this case handling the family during the first week of life, may be mediated by changes in OT or AVP or their brain receptors. Four early treatment groups were used, differing only in the amount of manipulation received during the first week of life. MAN1 animals were handled once on post-natal day 1; MAN1 treatment produces a pattern of behavior usually considered typical of this species, against which other groups were compared. MAN 1-7 animals were handled once a day for post-natal days 1-7, MAN 7 animals were handled once on post-natal day 7, and MAN0 animals received no handling during the first week of life. When tested following weaning, males in groups that had received manipulation during the first few days of life (MAN1 and MAN1-7 displayed higher alloparenting than other groups. Neuroendocrine measures, including OT receptor binding and OT and AVP immunoreactivity, varied by early treatment. In brain areas including the nucleus accumbens, bed nucleus of stria terminalis and lateral septum, MAN0 females showed increased OT receptor binding. MAN1 animals also displayed higher numbers of immunoreactive OT cell bodies in the supraoptic nucleus. Taken together these findings support the broader hypothesis that experiences in the first few days of life, mediated in part by sexually-dimorphic changes in neuropeptides, especially in the receptor for OT, may have adaptive consequences for sociality and emotion regulation.

  8. Effect of a perfume on prosocial behavior of pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, N

    2001-06-01

    Several studies have shown that perfumes encourage prosocial behavior of people from whom help is requested in the street. Implicit requests for help were studied. On a pedestrian walk, a woman confederate, with or without a heavy perfume, walked by the subject while dropping a packet of paper handkerchiefs or a glove apparently without noticing. Results show that the confederate was warned more often when wearing a perfume.

  9. Minimizing deviant behavior in healthcare organizations: the effects of supportive leadership and job design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, C Logan; Dunford, Benjamin B; Angermeier, Ingo; Boss, R Wayne; Boss, Alan D

    2010-01-01

    In an era when healthcare organizations are beset by intense competition, lawsuits, and increased administrative costs, it is essential that employees perform their jobs efficiently and without distraction. Deviant workplace behavior among healthcare employees is especially threatening to organizational effectiveness, and healthcare managers must understand the antecedents of such behavior to minimize its prevalence. Deviant employee behavior has been categorized into two major types, individual and organizational, according to the intended target of the behavior. Behavior directed at the individual includes such acts as harassment and aggression, whereas behavior directed at the organization includes such acts as theft, sabotage, and voluntary absenteeism, to name a few (Robinson and Bennett 1995). Drawing on theory from organizational behavior, we examined two important features of supportive leadership, leader-member exchange (LMX) and perceived organizational support (POS), and two important features of job design, intrinsic motivation and depersonalization, as predictors of subsequent deviant behavior in a sample of over 1,900 employees within a large US healthcare organization. Employees who reported weaker perceptions of LMX and greater perceptions of depersonalization were more likely to engage in deviant behavior directed at the individual, whereas employees who reported weaker perceptions of POS and intrinsic motivation were more likely to engage in deviant behavior directed at the organization. These findings give rise to specific prescriptions for healthcare managers to prevent or minimize the frequency of deviant behavior in the workplace.

  10. Mixing pleasures: review of the effects of drugs on sex behavior in humans and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohmader, Karla S; Pitchers, Kyle K; Balfour, Margaret E; Coolen, Lique M

    2010-06-01

    Drugs of abuse act on the brain circuits mediating motivation and reward associated with natural behaviors. There is ample evidence that drugs of abuse impact male and female sexual behavior. First, the current review discusses the effect of drugs of abuse on sexual motivation and performance in male and female humans. In particular, we discuss the effects of commonly abused drugs including psychostimulants, opiates, marijuana/THC, and alcohol. In general, drug use affects sexual motivation, arousal, and performance and is commonly associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. Second, studies on effects of systemic administration of drugs of abuse on sexual behavior in animals are reviewed. These studies analyze the effects on sexual performance and motivation but do not investigate the effects of drugs on risk-taking behavior, creating a disconnect between human and animal studies. For this reason, we discuss two studies that focus on the effects of alcohol and methamphetamine on inhibition of maladaptive sex-seeking behaviors in rodents. Third, this review discusses potential brain areas where drugs of abuse may be exerting their effect on sexual behavior with a focus on the mesolimbic system as the site of action. Finally, we discuss recent studies that have brought to light that sexual experience in turn can affect drug responsiveness, including a sensitized locomotor response to amphetamine in female and male rodents as well as enhanced drug reward in male rats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The sedative and behavioral effects of nalbuphine in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patrick A; Gaynor, James S; Hellyer, Peter W; Mama, Khursheed; Wagner, Ann E

    2003-07-01

    We compared the degree of sedation and frequency and intensity of adverse behaviors in dogs associated with nalbuphine when combined with acepromazine or xylazine compared with those of acepromazine or xylazine alone. Twenty-four dogs (13 female, 11 male) undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy or castration were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Group NX received 0.5 mg/kg nalbuphine and 0.5 mg/kg xylazine subcutaneously (s.c.). Group X received 0.5 mg/kg xylazine s.c. Group NA received 0.5 mg/kg nalbuphine and 0.05 mg/kg acepromazine s.c. Group A received 0.05 mg/kg acepromazine s.c. All dogs received 0.01 mg/kg glycopyrrolate s.c. All doses were administered preoperatively. Preoperative resting measurements of heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and body weight were obtained. Sedation was scored both inside and outside a kennel prior to drug administration and at 10, 20, and 30 min after drug administration. Dogs were assessed for behavioral responses (leg withdrawal, shivering, rigidity, orienting, panting, struggling, vocalization, wide-eyed facial expression, breath holding, salivating, hiding, biting, or requiring a muzzle) during three time periods: placing the dog on the table, clipping and prepping of forelimb, and intravenous catheterization. Postoperative recovery behaviors were scored. Expired halothane concentrations were recorded at 15, 30, and 45 min postinduction. Significant differences occurred in the level of sedation at 30 min between dogs receiving nalbuphine and xylazine or xylazine only compared with dogs receiving acepromazine. There was a significant difference in behavioral scores with respect to leg withdrawal and orienting during clipping/prepping between dogs receiving nalbuphine and xylazine compared with dogs receiving xylazine. The combination of nalbuphine and xylazine is a useful premedicant which provided greater sedation than acepromazine and reduced some anxiety behaviors more than did xylazine alone

  12. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Panic Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kacar Basaran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that evaluate effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for treatment for panic disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in the national and international databases. The articles that were not therapy effectiveness studies, and group therapies that not based on cognitive behavioral approach were eliminated. The remaining 19 studies that were met the criteria were introduced in terms of method, therapy characteristics and results. The results of the studies showed that cognitive behavioral group therapies have similar efficacy with individual cognitive behavioral therapy on panic disorder symptoms (panic attacks frequency, the level of agoraphobia etc. and comorbid disorders (depression, anxiety sensitivity. However, cognitive behavioral group therapy is more cost-effective. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 79-94

  13. Effect of Pediatric Behavioral Health Screening and Colocated Services on Ambulatory and Inpatient Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Karen A; Penfold, Robert B; Arsenault, Lisa N; Zhang, Fang; Soumerai, Stephen B; Wissow, Lawrence S

    2015-11-01

    The study sought to determine the impact of a pediatric behavioral health screening and colocation model on utilization of behavioral health care. In 2003, Cambridge Health Alliance, a Massachusetts public health system, introduced behavioral health screening and colocation of social workers sequentially within its pediatric practices. An interrupted time-series study was conducted to determine the impact on behavioral health care utilization in the 30 months after model implementation compared with the 18 months prior. Specifically, the change in trends of ambulatory, emergency, and inpatient behavioral health utilization was examined. Utilization data for 11,223 children ages ≥4 years 9 months to <18 years 3 months seen from 2003 to 2008 contributed to the study. In the 30 months after implementation of pediatric behavioral health screening and colocation, there was a 20.4% cumulative increase in specialty behavioral health visit rates (trend of .013% per month, p=.049) and a 67.7% cumulative increase in behavioral health primary care visit rates (trend of .019% per month, p<.001) compared with the expected rates predicted by the 18-month preintervention trend. In addition, behavioral health emergency department visit rates increased 245% compared with the expected rate (trend .01% per month, p=.002). After the implementation of a behavioral health screening and colocation model, more children received behavioral health treatment. Contrary to expectations, behavioral health emergency department visits also increased. Further study is needed to determine whether this is an effect of how care was organized for children newly engaged in behavioral health care or a reflection of secular trends in behavioral health utilization or both.

  14. “Remain calm. Be kind”: Effects of relaxing video games on aggressive and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitaker, J.L.; Bushman, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that violent video games increase aggressive behavior and decrease prosocial behavior, but could relaxing video games have the opposite effects? In two experiments, participants were randomly assigned to play a relaxing, neutral, or prosocial video game for 20 min. In Experiment 1,

  15. The Effects of Issue Investigation and Action Training on Eighth-Grade Students' Environmental Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Reports the instructional effects of a formal environmental education methodology, issue investigation and action training (IIAT), on eighth-grade students. Focuses on whether IIAT can improve responsible environmental behavior in middle school students and whether variables associated with responsible adult environmental behavior will be…

  16. Relative Effects of Daily Feedback and Weekly Feedback on Customer Service Behavior at a Gas Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Yongjoon; Lee, Kyehoon; Oah, Shezeen

    2013-01-01

    The relative effects of daily and weekly feedback on customer service behavior at a gas station were assessed using an ABC within-subjects design. Four critical service behaviors were identified and measured daily. After baseline (A), weekly feedback (B) was introduced, and daily feedback (C) was introduced in the next phase. The results indicated…

  17. Examining the Reliability and Validity of the Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Benjamin G.; Tobin, Kevin G.; Schutte, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    The Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey (SAS; Sugai, Horner, & Todd, 2003) is designed to measure perceived Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) implementation and identify priorities for improvement. Despite its longevity, little published research exists documenting its reliability or validity for these purposes.…

  18. Effects of White Noise on Off-Task Behavior and Academic Responding for Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Andrew; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon; Johnson, C. Merle

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of white noise played through headphones on off-task behavior, percentage of items completed, and percentage of items completed correctly for 3 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Headphones plus white noise were associated with decreases in off-task behavior relative to baseline and…

  19. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Fibromyalgia-Related Pain Anxiety Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Effects of Behavioral Activation Treatment (BAT) on pain anxiety, depression, and pain interference on a 43-year-old female with an 11-year history of chronic fibromyalgia pain are described. Analgesic, anxyiolytic, and antidepressant medications were stabilized prior to participation. Dependent measures were the Behavioral Relaxation Scale, a…

  20. Effect of Emotion Management Training to Mothers on the Behavioral Problems of Offspring: Parents’ View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Gowdini

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion We conclude that the training intervention (especially, emotion management training for mothers who have male offspring with behavioral problems is beneficial not only for strengthening the parents to manage their emotions effectively but also for reducing behavioral problems in their offspring.

  1. Effects of PMTO in foster families with children with behavior problems : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Overbeek, G.J.; Oort, F.J.; Arntz, M.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    The present randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of Parent Management Training Oregon for foster parents with foster children (aged 4–12) with severe externalizing behavior problems in long-term foster care arrangements. Foster children’s behavior problems are challenging for

  2. The Effect of Emotional Feedback on Behavioral Intention to Use Computer Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Vasileios; Moridis, Christos N.; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces emotional feedback as a construct in an acceptance model. It explores the effect of emotional feedback on behavioral intention to use Computer Based Assessment (CBA). A female Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) with empathetic encouragement behavior was displayed as emotional feedback. More specifically, this research aims…

  3. The effect of stress tolerance on dynamics of activity-travel behavior : numerical simulation results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psarra, I.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The primary and secondary effects of various spatial and transportation policies can be evaluated with models of activity–travel behavior. Whereas existing activity-based models of travel demand simulate a typical day, dynamic models simulate behavioral response to endogenous or exogenous change,

  4. Effects of a Snoezelen Room on the Behavior of Three Autistic Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Shari A.; Harris, Grant T.; Rice, Marnie E.; Silk, Larry

    2007-01-01

    The effect of a Snoezelen room on the disruptive and prosocial behavior of three male, autistic inpatients was examined. In an ABAB reversal design, specific disruptive and prosocial behaviors were recorded for each client throughout the four 28-day periods of the study. Results indicated that the three clients had different responses to the room,…

  5. The Effects of a School-Based Functional Analysis on Subsequent Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; Durand, Shannon; Fuentes, Lisa; Dacus, Sharon; Blenden, Kara

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the effects of conducting a school-based functional analysis on subsequent classroom behavior. Each participant was observed in the classroom during activities that were reported by teachers to result in high levels of challenging behavior. Participants were observed during (a) baseline, prior to the administration of a…

  6. Getting Acquainted: Actor and Partner Effects of Attachment and Temperament on Young Children's Peer Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Nancy L.; Holland, Ashley S.; Engle, Jennifer M.; Ogolsky, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Guided by a dyadic view of children's peer behavior, this study assessed actor and partner effects of attachment security and temperament on young children's behavior with an unfamiliar peer. At 33 months of age, child-mother attachment security was assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure, and parents reported on child temperament…

  7. Direct Behavioral Consultation in Head Start to Increase Teacher Use of Praise and Effective Instruction Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Parker, Kizzy; Menousek, Kathryn; Zhou, Qi; Harpole, Lauren Lestremau; Olmi, D. Joe

    2012-01-01

    Chronic disruptive behaviors during early childhood are associated with many poor developmental outcomes including, but not limited to, school dropout and conduct disorder during adolescence. Much is known regarding effective intervention procedures for disruptive classroom behaviors by preschool children. Unfortunately, evidence-based…

  8. The effect of cognitive behavior therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaimaat, F. W.; Brons, M. R.; Geenen, R.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    In order to examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) three patients groups were studied: a cognitive behavioral therapy group (CBT), an occupational therapy group (OT), and a waiting-list control group. The CBT received a comprehensive,

  9. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of OPAC Screen Changes on Searching Behavior and Searcher Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Deborah D.; Dorsch, Josephine L.; Koenig, Melissa H.; Bangalore, Nimala S.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a longitudinal study of four sets of OPAC (online public access catalog) transaction logs that examined the effects of screen changes in helping searchers improve their search behavior. Results show that while screen changes initially had a positive impact on search behavior, they were not always sustained over time. (Author/LRW)

  10. Effective leader behaviors in regularly held staff meetings: Surveyed vs. Videotaped and Video-Coded Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, Marcella; Hoogeboom, Marcella; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Allen, Joseph A.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Rogelberg, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we report on two studies that took an exploratory behavioral approach to leaders in regular staff meetings. The goal of both studies, which used a still rarely deployed observation method, was to identify effective behavioral repertoires of leaders in staff meetings; we specifically

  11. The Effects of Basketball Training on the Maladaptive Behaviors of Trainable Mentally Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencoz, Faruk

    1997-01-01

    The effects of basketball training on the maladaptive behaviors of 19 children (ages 10-14) with mental retardation were investigated. Results indicated the children showed a reduction in their level of maladaptive behavior at home and in school. This reduction was maintained 45 days later in a follow-up assessment. (Author/CR)

  12. Effects of Signaled Positive Reinforcement on Problem Behavior Maintained by Negative Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Romani, Patrick W.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of providing positive reinforcement for task completion, signaled via the presence of a tangible item, on escape-maintained problem behavior displayed by three typically developing children during one-time 90-min outpatient evaluations. Brief functional analyses of problem behavior, conducted within a multielement design,…

  13. Effects of Animal-Assisted Therapy on a Student with an Emotional/Behavioral Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Val Rae M.

    2008-01-01

    This single-subject action research project examines the effects of animal-assisted therapy on the self-esteem and classroom behaviors of a student with an emotional/behavioral disorder. An 18- year-old male attending a special education school in northeastern St. Paul participated in animal-assisted therapy research for four weeks. Quantitative…

  14. Effects of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors on Selection Decisions in Employment Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Nathan P.; Whiting, Steven W.; Podsakoff, Philip M.; Mishra, Paresh

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an experiment examining the effects of job candidates' propensity to exhibit organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) on selection decisions made in the context of a job interview. We developed videos that manipulated candidate responses to interview questions tapping task performance and citizenship behavior content in…

  15. The eye of the camera: effects of security cameras on pro-social behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, T.J.L.; Vonk, D.J.; Fransen, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the effects of security cameras on prosocial behavior. Results from previous studies indicate that the presence of others can trigger helping behavior, arising from the need for approval of others. Extending these findings, the authors propose that security cameras can likewise

  16. Interactive Effects of Guilt and Moral Disengagement on Bullying, Defending and Outsider Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Angela; Camodeca, Marina; Salmivalli, Christina

    2016-01-01

    We examined the moderating effect of guilt on the associations between moral disengagement and bullying, defending and outsider behaviors in a sample of 404 students (203 boys; M[subscript age] = 11.09 years; SD = 1.48). Bullying, defending and outsider behavior were assessed through peer nominations, whereas guilt and moral disengagement were…

  17. Nanosized fibers' effect on adult human articular chondrocytes behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhamre, Hanna; Thorvaldsson, Anna; Enochson, Lars; Walkenström, Pernilla; Lindahl, Anders; Brittberg, Mats; Gatenholm, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering with chondrogenic cell based therapies is an expanding field with the intention of treating cartilage defects. It has been suggested that scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering influence cellular behavior and thus the long-term clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess whether chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and post-expansion re-differentiation could be influenced by the size of the fibers presented to the cells in a scaffold. Polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with different fiber morphologies were produced, i.e. microfiber (MS) scaffolds as well as nanofiber-coated microfiber scaffold (NMS). Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in the scaffolds in vitro up to 28 days, and the resulting constructs were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Attachment of cells and serum proteins to the scaffolds was affected by the architecture. The results point toward nano-patterning onto the microfibers influencing proliferation of the chondrocytes, and the overall 3D environment having a greater influence on the re-differentiation. In the efforts of finding the optimal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, studies as the current contribute to the knowledge of how to affect and control chondrocytes behavior. - Highlights: ► Chondrocyte behavior in nanofiber-coated microfiber versus microfiber scaffolds ► High porosity (> 90%) and large pore sizes (a few hundred μm) of nanofibrous scaffolds ► Proliferation enhanced by presence of nanofibers ► Differentiation not significantly affected ► Cell attachment improved in presence of both nanofibers and serum

  18. Mediator and moderator effects in developmental and behavioral pediatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brigid M; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Coakley, Rachael Millstein; Franks, Elizabeth A

    2004-02-01

    The terms mediation and moderation are defined and clarified with particular emphasis on the role of mediational and moderational analyses in developmental and behavioral pediatric research. The article highlights the applicability of mediational and moderational analyses to longitudinal, intervention, and risk and protective factor research, and it provides basic information about how these analyses might be conducted. Also included is a discussion of various ways that both mediator and moderator variables can be incorporated into a single model. The article concludes with extended examples of both types of analyses using a longitudinal pediatric study for illustration. The article provides recommendations for applying mediational and moderational research in clinical practice.

  19. The effect of mergers and acquisitions on behavioral health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, A

    1995-01-01

    The consolidation of America's managed health care industry rivals any corporate raider scenario. Unlike previous merger booms, however, health care unions in the 1990s have been strategically planned. Particular attention is paid to merger activity in the behavioral health care field. Ultimately, the author writes, mergers will bring greater efficiency and lower costs to health care but also less choice for patients. Unless providers and payers pay close attention to the human side of mergers and acquisitions, new alliances are likely to fall short of their goals.

  20. Environmental behavior and effects of technetium-99 and iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Schreckhise, R.G.; Wildung, R.E.; Cadwell, L.L.; McFadden, K.M.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this program is to define the environmental behavior of 99 Tc and 129 I, two long-lived radioactive by-products of the nuclear fuel cycle that have received little study. The specific objectives are to (1) determine the soil physicochemical and microbiological factors and physiological parameters that govern the mobility and bioavailability of different chemical forms of 99 Tc and 129 I in terrestrial and aquatic environments and (2) validate and measure food web transport in selected field locations