WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavioral convulsant effects

  1. Convulsive and nonconvulsive epilepsy in rats: effects on behavioral response to novelty stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Midzyanovskaya, I.S.; Shatskova, A.B.; Sarkisova, K.Y.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tuomisto, L.; Kuznetsova, G.D.

    2005-01-01

    Behavioral response to a new environment of Wistar and WAG/Rij rats with absence and/or audiogenic seizures (AGSs) was investigated. Behavior was observed in open-field (OF) and light-dark choice (LD) tests. Correlations of test performance with seizure parameters were evaluated. AGS-susceptible Wis

  2. Effect of Allopregnenalone (AP and 4′-Chlorodiazepam (4′CD on the Lindane-induced acute and chronic convulsive behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Tanwar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids (NS are considered important modulators of brain functions. Lindane a pesticide has been shown to affect the nerv-ous system adversely. The present study was designed to explore the modulation of the effects of lindane on convulsions by Allopregnenalone (AP, and 4′-Chlorodiazepam (4′-CD, in both acute and chronic seizure models using Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. We used acute and chronic models. In the acute model, seizures were induced by PTZ 90mg/kg, intra-peritoneal (i.p. injection, while in the chronic model, kindling was induced by injecting PTZ 30 mg/kg sub-cutaneous(s.c on alternate days three times in a week. Lindane produced augmented effect on convulsions by decreasing the onset of preclonic convulsions and increased duration of clonic convulsions. AP (2.5mg/kg, i.p and 4′-CD (0.5mg/kg, i.p were able to attenuate the effect of acute as well as chronic exposure of lindane. They significantly increased the onset and decreased the duration of convulsions in lindane-treated rats. These results conclusively demonstrate the efficacy of the neurosteroids in lindane-induced convulsions in both acute as well as chronic models. Thus, NS have a potential role as anticonvulsant in treatment of convulsions produced by pesticides like lindane.

  3. Effect of dexmedetomidine priming on convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Feng; Luo, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Wei-Cheng; Hou, Ben-Chao; Huang, Jian; Zhan, Yan-Ping; Chen, Shi-Biao

    2016-10-01

    To study the effect of dexmedetomidine priming on convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine.The New Zealand white rabbits were applied for the mechanism study of dexmedetomidine priming for preventing convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine. The influence of dexmedetomidine priming with different doses on the time for convulsion occurrence and the duration time of convulsion induced by lidocaine, as well as contents of excitatory amino acids (aspartate [Asp], glutamate [Glu]) and inhibitory amino acids (glycine [Gly], γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA]) in the brain tissue were investigated.With 3 and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine priming, the occurrence times of convulsion were prolonged from 196 seconds to 349 and 414 seconds, respectively. With dexmedetomidine priming, the contents of excitatory amino acids (Asp, Glu) were much reduced at occurrence time of convulsion comparing with that without dexmedetomidine priming, while content of inhibitory amino acids Gly was much enhanced.The application of dexmedetomidine before local anesthetics can improve intoxication dose threshold of the lidocaine, delay occurrence of the convulsion, and helped for the recovery of convulsion induced by lidocaine. The positive effect of dexmedetomidine on preventing convulsion would owe to not only the inhibition of excitatory amino acids (Asp, Glu), but also the promotion of inhibitory amino acids Gly secretion.

  4. Misoprostol Induced Convulsion-A Rare Side Effect of Misoprostol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh; Reddy, Kalyani

    2017-01-01

    Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 has wider application in obstetrics gynaecology. It has been recommended in the prophylaxis and treatment of Post Partum Haemorrhage (PPH) by Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (FIGO), World Health Organisation (WHO) and American College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (ACOG). It is a very safe drug associated with transient side-effects like fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. In the present case report patient had an unusual side effect of hyperpyrexia and convulsion after use of misoprostol for prophylaxis against PPH.

  5. Effect of Brewer's Yeast-Induced Pyrexia on Aminophylline-Elicited Convulsions in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki,Hiroaki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline-associated convulsions have been observed most frequently in children with fever, but the mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the basic mechanism of aminophylline [theophylline-2-ethylenediamine]-induced convulsions and the effects of Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. Diazepam (5-10mg/kg, i.p., a benzodiazepine receptor agonist, significantly prolonged the onset and significantly decreased the incidence of convulsions induced by aminophylline (350mg/kg, i.p.. However, the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (1-4mg/kg, i.p., the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (2-4mg/kg, i.p. and the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist dizocilpine (0.1-0.3mg/kg, i.p. failed to protect against the convulsions. 20% Brewer's yeast (0.02ml/g, s.c. increased body temperature by 1.03, and also significantly shortened the onset and significantly increased the incidence of convulsions induced by aminophylline. The anticonvulsant action of diazepam (2.5-10mg/kg, i.p. on the convulsions induced by aminophylline was reduced by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia. The proconvulsant actions of the GABAA receptor antagonists picrotoxin (3-4mg/kg, i.p. and pentylenetetrazol (40-60mg/kg, i.p. were enhanced by Brewer's yeast. These results suggest that the anticonvulsant action of diazepam against aminophylline is reduced by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia, and that GABAA receptors are involved in the aggravation of the convulsions by Brewer's yeast in mice.

  6. Effects of ganglion blocking agents on nicotine extensor convulsions and lethality in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, M. D.; Bentley, H. C.; Dembinski, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    1. The ganglion blocking agents, chlorisondamine, pentamethonium, mecamylamine, decamethonium and hexamethonium all block nicotine extensor convulsions when administered intraventricularly in mice. Tetraethylammonium was inactive. 2. For the intraventricular route, there is a relationship between ganglionic blocking potency and blocking of nicotine extensor convulsions. Indirect evidence suggests that the site(s) of action of nicotine extensor convulsions and lethality is central in origin and associated with brain areas near the ventricles. 3. When ganglion blocking agents are given orally, subcutaneously or intravenously varying degrees of protection can be observed probably depending on factors such as whether or not the drugs cross the blood-brain barrier, absorption, etc., and the effectiveness in protecting mice from nicotine is not related to ganglionic blocking potency. 4. Atropine and morphine given intraventricularly or subcutaneously did not protect mice from the LD95 of nicotine. Chlorpromazine gave very erratic results and phenobarbitone was effective subcutaneously and to a lesser extent intraventricularly. PMID:4390479

  7. Influence of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on gerbil behavior after hyperbaric oxygen-induced convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguang Zhou; Changyun Liu; Yiqun Fang; Yingqi Zhou; Erli Xu; Jingchang Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor can prolong the latency of hyperbaric oxygen-induced convulsion (HBOC). However, there are very few reports addressing the influence of NOS inhibitor on mental behavior.OBJECTIVE: To investigate behavioral changes after HBOC in gerbils, as well as the influence of NOS inhibitor.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized experiments were performed in the Laboratory of Hyperbaric Pressure and Diving Physiology, Naval Medical Research Institute of Chinese PLA (Shanghai,China) from March 2005 to June 2007.MATERIALS: Forty male gerbils were randomly divided into five groups: HBOC, saline control, NOS inhibitor, pressure control, and normal control. Each group contained eight animals.METHODS: In the HBOC group, once depression induction ended, animals were removed from the chamber five minutes after the first appearance of generalized convulsion induced by 0.5 MPa hyperbaric oxygen. Ten minutes before entering the chamber, saline control and NOS inhibitor animals were intraperitoneally injected with 1 mL saline and 20 mg/kg NG-nitro-L-arginine, respectively. The pressure control group was only exposed to 0.5 MPa. The remaining procedures in these three groups were identical to the HBOC group. The normal control group received no intervention.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Open field test scores in gerbils prior to HBOC, as well as immediately,24 hours, and 72 hours after decompression ended.RESULTS: HBOC was not detected in either the normal control or the pressure control group, and there were no significant differences in opcn field test scores prior to and after HBOC (P > 0.05). HBOC occurred in the HBOC, saline control, and NOS inhibitor groups, with significant differences in open field test scores after decompression ended compared to normal control and pressure control groups (P < 0.05-0.01).Compared to the HBOC and saline control groups, the NOS inhibitor group exhibited a significantly lower score in

  8. Effects of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin; Cucurbitaceae) in mouse models of convulsion, muscle relaxation, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akindele, Abidemi J; Ajao, Mutiu Y; Aigbe, Flora R; Enumah, Uchenna S

    2013-09-01

    Telfairia occidentalis (Cucurbitaceae) is a leafy vegetable used in soup and folk medicine in southern Nigeria. Ethnobotanical survey revealed that preparations of the plant are used in the treatment of central nervous system-related disorders including convulsion. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of T. occidentalis in mouse models of convulsion, muscle relaxation, and depression. The strychnine and isoniazid convulsion, traction and climbing muscle relaxation, and forced swim and tail suspension depression tests were used in this study. The extract was administered orally (p.o.) at dose range of 25-800 mg/kg while distilled water (10 mL/kg p.o.) served as negative control. Diazepam (5 mg/kg p.o.) was used as positive control in the convulsion and muscle relaxation models while imipramine (64 mg/kg p.o.) served the same purpose in the depression tests. T. occidentalis significantly increased the onset (Pconvulsion (P<.05, .01) in the strychnine test and increased the time to death (P<.05, .01, .001) in the isoniazid model. The extract insignificantly increased the reaction time in the traction test while it significantly increased the time in the climbing test (P<.001). In the forced swim and tail suspension models, T. occidentalis significantly (P<.001) and dose-dependently increased the duration of immobility. The results obtained in this study suggest that the hydroethanolic leaf extract of T. occidentalis possesses anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant properties, thus justifying its folkloric use.

  9. Convulsive status epilepticus in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžek-Mudrinić Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Convulsive status epilepticus is the most urgent neurological medical emergency in children. Generalized convulsive status epilepticus is the most common and life-threatening type of status epilepticus. It is not a syndrome in the same sense as febrile convulsions, benign rolandic epilepsy, and infantile polymorphic epilepsy. These latter disorders have a tight age frame, seizure semiology, and a reasonably predictable outcome. Episodes of convulsive status epilepticus can occur in each: occasionally in symptomatic and febrile convulsions, and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, rarely in benign rolandic epilepsy, and West syndrome. Etiology of convulsive status epilepticus. Status epilepticus has many causes, which vary depending on the age and patient population. Convulsive status epileptucus continues to be associated with significant neurological morbidity and mortality, with different hazards and outcome. Although the outcome is dependent on etiology, it is known that appropriate early management may reduce mortality and some of the morbidity associated with convulsive status epilepticus. Discussion. Status epilepticus is a disorder in which the mechanisms attempting at terminating the seizure fail. Continued convulsive activity in convulsive status epilepticus results in decompensation of all organs and systems, thus being life threatening. Seizure activity in convulsive status epilepticus is associated with neuronal damage. The aim should be to halt this activity urgently, using, ideally, a 100% effective drug, administered quickly, without compromising the consciousness level or producing other negative effects on cardiovascular, respiratory function or other unexpected effects.

  10. The effect of ivermectin on convulsions in rats produced by lidocaine and strychnine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trailović, S M; Varagić, V M

    2007-10-01

    Ivermectin is one of the most commonly used drugs in pharmacotherapy of parasitic diseases in domestic and wild animals caused by parasitic nematodes and arthropods. However, ivermectin and other avermectins very often produce side-effects in hosts. The most dominant clinical symptom of ivermectin toxicity in domestic and wild animals is CNS depression. In nematodes, the target site of ivermectin's action is glutamate-gated chloride-channel receptor and GABA receptor. The depressive effect of ivermectin in mammals might include more than one mechanism; therefore, the anticonvulsive effect of ivermectin against convulsions caused by lidocaine and strychnine was evaluated. Ivermectin antagonized lidocaine- and strychnine-induced convulsions in rats, although these have different mechanisms. In the present study, the anticonvulsive ED50 ofivermectin for lidocaine-induced convulsions was 2.44 mg/kg (95% CL 1.67 to 3.57 mg/kg), whereas for convulsions induced by strychnine it was higher at 4.25 mg/kg (95% CL 2.32 to 3.78 mg/kg). At the same time, both anticonvulsive doses are significantly lower then the observed LD50 of ivermectin (18.20 mg/kg). Furthermore, flumazenil (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg), an antagonist of benzodiazepine receptors, antagonizes just one part of these anticonvulsive effects of ivermectin. Our results show the significant anticonvulsive properties of ivermectin and support the findings that ivermectin in the CNS of mammals produces multiple inhibitory effects, probably through participation in the function of GABA-sensitive and GABA-insensitive chloride channels.

  11. Effect of Amlodipine and Indomethacin in electrical and picrotoxin induced convulsions in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagathi Devi N, Prasanna V

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs are the drugs used in the treatment of epilepsy. Many AEDs have been developed, but the ideal AED which can not only prevent but also abolish seizures by correcting the underlying pathophysiology is still not in sight. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs may form such a group, as the initiation of epileptogenic activity in the neuron is connected with a phenomenon known as “intrinsic burst firing” which is activated by inward calcium current. In this study, Amlodipine, a CCB of the dihydropyridine class was evaluated for its anticonvulsant activity in mice. It was compared with Phenytoin sodium, one of the oldest anti epileptic drugs. Amlodipine was also combined with Indomethacin, a conventional NSAID, to look for any potentiating effect of this prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitor. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 adult Swiss albino mice of either sex weighing 20-30 G were used for this study; 48 were divided into 8 groups, each group containing 6 mice. Group 1-4 MES (50 m Amp for 0.1 secs induced convulsion method, Group 5-8 evaluated by using the chemo-convulsant, picrotoxin (0.7 mg / kg. Group 1, 5 are controls of MES, Picrotoxin (without treatment. Group 2 &6 administered standard drug phenytoin (0.5mg/100mg i.p, Group 3 & 7: Amlodipine group (8 mg / kg i.p and Group 4 & 8: Amlodipine (8 mg/kg and Indomethacin group (20 mg / kg. In MES method Duration of tonic hind limb extension, Clonic convulsions, Recovery period were studied. In Picrotoxin method Latent period before onset of convulsions, severity of convulsions assessed. Results: In electrically induced seizures, the 3 parameters compared are duration of tonic hind limb extension, THLE, (P0.05; duration of recovery phase (P<0.0001 and in picrotoxin-induced seizures, the 2 parameters are onset of seizures (P<0.05 and severity of seizures (P<0.05. Conclusion: The combination of Amlodipine and Indomethacin showed a superior

  12. Convulsive and Neurodegenerative Effects in Rats of Some Isolated Toxins from the Tityus bahiensis Scorpion Venom

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Despite Tityus bahiensis being one of the most dangerous scorpions in Brazil, there are few studies about the effects of its venom, which acts mainly on the central nervous system. Previous studies demonstrated the convulsive ability of this venom. The present work aimed to study the hippocampal effects in rats of some toxins isolated from pool V, which induces a pronounced epileptogenic effect. The pool was separated by reverse-phase HPLC, and the peaks with higher yield (Tb V-1, V-5, V-24, ...

  13. Proconvulsant effects of high doses of venlafaxine in pentylenetetrazole-convulsive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Santos Junior

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Venlafaxine, an atypical antidepressant drug, has been used to treat several neurological disorders, presenting excellent efficacy and tolerability. Clinical seizures after venlafaxine treatment have occasionally been reported when the drug was used at very high doses or in combination with other medications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the convulsant effects of venlafaxine in rats under controlled laboratory conditions. Adult male Wistar rats (8 per group receiving venlafaxine or saline at the doses of 25-150 mg/kg were subjected 30 min later to injections of pentylenetetrazole at the dose of 60 mg/kg. The animals receiving 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg venlafaxine presented increased severity of convulsion when compared to controls (P = 0.02, P = 0.04, and P = 0.0004, respectively. Indeed, an increased percentage of death was observed in these groups (50, 38, and 88%, respectively when compared to the percentage of death in the controls (0%. The group receiving 150 mg/kg showed an reduction in death latency (999 ± 146 s compared to controls (1800 ± 0 s; cut-off time. Indeed, in this group, all animals developed seizures prior to pentylenetetrazole administration. Surprisingly, the groups receiving venlafaxine at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg showed a tendency towards an increase in the latency to the first convulsion. These findings suggest that venlafaxine at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg has some tendency to an anticonvulsant effect in the rat, whereas doses of 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg presented clear proconvulsant effects in rats submitted to the pentylenetetrazole injection. These findings are the first report in the literature concerning the role of venlafaxine in seizure genesis in the rat under controlled conditions.

  14. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis on nicotine-induced convulsion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzi, A; Ahamehe, M; Sarahroodi, S

    2011-06-01

    Epilepsy an important CNS (central nervous system) problem that about 1% of world's population suffer of it. The aim of study was to evaluate of anticonvulsant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis. In this study, anticonvulsant activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) was studied against chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male mice. Lavandula officinalis (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1)), diazepam (0.15 mg kg(-1)) and normal saline (10 mL kg(-1)) were injected intraperitoneally, respectively in different groups of mice, 30 min before nicotine (5 mg kg(-) i.p.). The onset time intensity and duration of convulsions and the percentage of death were recorded. Also the time-response (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 min before nicotine injection) for most effective dose of plant extract (600 mg kg(-1)) was investigated. The results showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis had anticonvulsant effect. The most effective dose of plant extract was 600 mg kg(-1). In time-response study for the most effective dose of extract (600 mg kg(-1)), the onset, duration and intensity of convulsion significantly (p < 0.05) increased, decreased and decreased, respectively for all tested times. The best response observed in 30, 45 and 60 min. The results showed significant anticonvulsant effect for hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula.

  15. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures.

  16. Pharmacological and genetic manipulation of kappa opioid receptors: effects on cocaine- and pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions and seizure kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Rafal M; Witkin, Jeffrey M; Shippenberg, Toni S

    2007-03-01

    The present study used pharmacological and gene ablation techniques to examine the involvement of kappa opioid receptors (KOPr) in modulating the convulsant effects of two mechanistically different drugs: cocaine and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; GABA-A receptor antagonist) in mice. Systemic administration of the selective KOPr-1 agonist, U69593 (0.16-0.6mg/kg; s.c.), failed to modify cocaine-evoked convulsions or cocaine kindling. Similarly, no alteration in responsiveness to cocaine was observed in wild-type mice that received the selective KOPr-1 antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 5mg/kg) or in mice lacking the gene encoding KOPr-1. In contrast to cocaine, U69593 attenuated the seizures induced by acute or repeated PTZ administration. Nor-BNI decreased the threshold for PTZ-evoked seizures and increased seizure incidence during the initial induction of kindling relative to controls. Decreased thresholds for PTZ-induced seizures were also observed in KOPr-1 knock out mice. Together, these data demonstrate an involvement of endogenous KOPr systems in modulating vulnerability to the convulsant effects of PTZ but not cocaine. Furthermore, they demonstrate that KOPr-1 activation protects against acute and kindled seizures induced by this convulsant. Finally, the results of our study suggest that KOPr-1 antagonists will not have therapeutic utility against cocaine-induced seizures, while they may prove beneficial in attenuating several actions of cocaine that have been linked to its abuse.

  17. Anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects of synergetic combination of phenytoin and gastrodin on the convulsion induced by penicillin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ziqi; Lin, Yanzhu; Zheng, Hongyi; He, Yuzhong; Xu, Haohua; Zhang, Siheng; Weng, Wen; Li, Wei; Zhu, Linyan; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-08-01

    Phenytoin (PHT) is a commonly prescribed first-line antiepileptic drug. However, long-term administration of PHT can cause memory loss and balance disturbance. Gastrodin (GD) is the major bioactive component in Tianma and has sedative, anticonvulsive, memory strengthening, and neuroprotective effects. To combine the two drugs seems attractive; however, little was known about the efficacy of combination therapy. In this study, convulsive attack was successfully induced by penicillin. Isobolographic analysis, memory and balance behavior test, histopathological examination, and Western blot analysis were used to investigate whether the combination therapy of GD and PHT can enhance anticonvulsive effect and reduce the side effects associated with PHT. The GD alone (950.60 mg/kg) and the PHT alone (45.50 mg/kg) could produce an anticonvulsive effect, while comparable effect could be produced by PHT : GD = 1 : 50 (8.59 : 429.27 mg/kg), which reduce the dose of PHT by 81% and GD by 55%. After the chronic anticonvulsive experiments of 16 days, the balance disturbance and short-/long-term memory loss were observed in the PHT group, while the PHT + GD therapy can protect the normal balance and memory function. The neuron morphology of hippocampus was preserved, and the number of surviving neurons after combination therapy was more than the model group. The amount of NF-κB (p65) expression was increased in combination group. All above suggested the potential of the combination of PHT and GD enhances the anticonvulsive effect and the neuroprotective effect and reduces the PHT-associated memory and balance disturbance. The PHT + GD strategy would provide new possibilities as a novel promising methodology to treat epileptic patients.

  18. Studies on the potential neurotoxic and convulsant effects of increased blood levels of quinolinic acid in rats with altered blood-brain barrier permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vezzani, A.; Stasi, M.A.; Wu, H.Q.; Castiglioni, M.; Weckermann, B.; Samanin, R. (Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milano (Italy))

    1989-10-01

    Intravenous injection of 450 mg/kg quinolinic acid (Quin), an endogenous kynurenine metabolite with excitotoxic properties, induced only minor electroencephalographic (EEG) modifications and no neurotoxicity in rats with a mature blood-brain barrier (BBB). BBB permeability was altered in rats by focal unilateral irradiation of the cortex (7 mm in diameter and 5 mm in depth) with protons (60 Gy, 9 Gy/min). Three days after irradiation, Evans blue dye staining showed BBB breakdown in the dorsal hippocampus of the irradiated hemisphere. No neurotoxic or convulsant effects were observed as a consequence of the radiation itself. When BBB-lesioned rats were challenged with 225 mg/kg Quin iv, epileptiform activity was observed on EEG analysis. Tonic-clonic seizures were induced by 225-450 mg/kg Quin. Light microscopic analysis showed a dose-related excitotoxic type of lesion restricted to the hippocampus ipsilateral to the irradiated side. Neuro-degeneration was prevented by local injection of 120 nmol D(-)2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, a selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. No lesions or EEG or behavioral modifications occurred after 450 mg/kg nicotinic acid, an inactive analog of Quin. The potential neurotoxic and convulsant effects of increased blood levels of Quin under conditions of altered BBB permeability are discussed.

  19. Effect of zinc protoporphyrin on carbon monoxide/heme oxygenase-1 system in rats subjected to recurrent febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on febrile convulsion (FC)-caused brain injury are disputed in many aspects.How FC cause nervous system injury in the developmental period and what are the characteristics of these pathological injury are unknown. The current studies have demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-l) exerts effects on brain injury mainly by catalyzing hemoglobin to produce degradation products, and HO-1 not only has neuroprotective effects, but also has neurotoxic effects during the FC-caused brain injury. Study on the effect of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) on brain injury is still in the stage of animal experiment.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of ZnPP on carbon monoxide (CO)/HO-1 system of rats subjected to FC, and to analyze the action pathway of ZnPP in brain protective effect.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics, First Hospital Affiliated to Jiamusi University.MATERIALS: Sixty-five Wistar rats, of either gender, were involved in this study. They were randomized into normal control group( n =14, 37 ℃ water bath) and febrile treatment group (n =51, 44.5 ℃ hot water bath). Febrile treatment group was sub-divided into febrile non-convulsion group (FNC group, n =16) and FC group (n =35). FC group was further sub-divided into simple convulsion group (n =20) and ZnPP treatment group (n =15). HO-1 mRNA in situ hybridization kit was provided by Boster Bioengineering Co.,Ltd. ZnPP(dark brown powder) was the product of Jingmei Bioengineering Company.METHODS: This study was carried out in the postgraduate laboratory of Jiamusi University between January 2004 and January 2007. Rats in the febrile treatment group were placed in the 44.5 ℃ hot water bath box. If rats did not convulse in the water within 5 minutes, they were taken out, namely FNC group (n =16), and those, which were convulsed within 5 minutes, were taken out immediately when they presented such a phenomenon, namely FC group (n =35). Convulsion induction was

  20. Anticonvulsive and convulsive effects of lidocaine: comparison with those of phenytoin, and implications for mechanism of action concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W E; Javid, M J

    1988-09-01

    The anticonvulsive action of lidocaine was tested in mice against a series of convulsants, and its profile of action compared with that of phenytoin. Both agents antagonized seizures induced by ouabain or glutamate (injected i.c.b.), effects attributable to reduction of the sodium conductance of neuronal membranes. Lidocaine and phenytoin were relatively ineffective against convulsants that act on synaptic chloride channels via the GABA-ionophore receptor complex. At higher dose levels, both lidocaine and phenytoin are excitatory within limited ranges. Lidocaine-induced seizures were potentiated by phenytoin, and antagonized by chlordiazepoxide, phenobarbital, valproate, trimethadione and muscimol, but not by ethosuximide. This profile of action is similar to that of bicuculline, suggesting that lidocaine may bind to the GABA recognition site and to another site in the GABA-ionophore receptor complex. Phenytoin-induced excitation was antagonized by chlordiazepoxide, less effectively by phenobarbital or trimethadione, only minimally by valproate, and not by trimethadione or muscimol. Phenytoin is known to bind to picrotoxin and benzodiazepine receptor sites; these findings suggest that it may be excitatory at one or both of these sites.

  1. Effect of electrical convulsions on uridine labeling and activity pattern in nerve cells in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkenberg, H.; Pakkenberg, B.; Fog, R.

    1985-07-01

    Male white mice were exposed to electroshock and then injected intravenously with 5-(3H)uridine immediately after the shock. After 5, 30, or 60 min or 6, 12, or 24 h, the mice were killed, microautoradiographs were prepared, and grains were counted in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia. The results of the grain counts were compared with grain counts in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia of mice exposed to anoxia for 25 s and then treated in the same manner as the first groups. After electroshock the grain count decreased to 25% of that in control animals in the hippocampus and to 50% in the cortex but was normal in the basal ganglia. The counts returned to normal values within 6 h in the hippocampus, and within 1 h in the cortex. After anoxia, the grain counts were normal in the cortex and hippocampus but increased in the basal ganglia. The distribution of cells with a high or low grain count in vertical and horizontal columns of the cortex in control and convulsion animals was analyzed. There were random variations from column to column in both control and convulsion animals. In some anatomic layers there were significantly different grain counts, indicating differences in functional activity.

  2. Early-Onset Convulsive Seizures Induced by Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia in Aging Mice: Effects of Anticonvulsive Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Justin; Wu, Chiping; Peng, Jessie; Patel, Nisarg; Huang, Yayi; Gao, Xiaoxing; Aljarallah, Salman; Eubanks, James H; McDonald, Robert; Zhang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increased risk of seizures/epilepsy. Stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) and cardiac arrest related brain injury are two major causative factors for seizure development in this patient population. With either etiology, seizures are a poor prognostic factor. In spite of this, the underlying pathophysiology of seizure development is not well understood. In addition, a standardized treatment regimen with anticonvulsants and outcome assessments following treatment has yet to be established for these post-ischemic seizures. Previous studies have modeled post-ischemic seizures in adult rodents, but similar studies in aging/aged animals, a group that mirrors a higher risk elderly population, remain sparse. Our study therefore aimed to investigate early-onset seizures in aging animals using a hypoxia-ischemia (HI) model. Male C57 black mice 18-20-month-old underwent a unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery followed by a systemic hypoxic episode (8% O2 for 30 min). Early-onset seizures were detected using combined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring. Brain injury was assessed histologically at different times post HI. Convulsive seizures were observed in 65% of aging mice post-HI but not in control aging mice following either sham surgery or hypoxia alone. These seizures typically occurred within hours of HI and behaviorally consisted of jumping, fast running, barrel-rolling, and/or falling (loss of the righting reflex) with limb spasms. No evident discharges during any convulsive seizures were seen on cortical-hippocampal EEG recordings. Seizure development was closely associated with acute mortality and severe brain injury on brain histological analysis. Intra-peritoneal injections of lorazepam and fosphenytoin suppressed seizures and improved survival but only when applied prior to seizure onset and not after. These findings together suggest that seizures are a major contributing factor to acute mortality in aging

  3. Early-Onset Convulsive Seizures Induced by Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia in Aging Mice: Effects of Anticonvulsive Treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Wang

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with an increased risk of seizures/epilepsy. Stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic and cardiac arrest related brain injury are two major causative factors for seizure development in this patient population. With either etiology, seizures are a poor prognostic factor. In spite of this, the underlying pathophysiology of seizure development is not well understood. In addition, a standardized treatment regimen with anticonvulsants and outcome assessments following treatment has yet to be established for these post-ischemic seizures. Previous studies have modeled post-ischemic seizures in adult rodents, but similar studies in aging/aged animals, a group that mirrors a higher risk elderly population, remain sparse. Our study therefore aimed to investigate early-onset seizures in aging animals using a hypoxia-ischemia (HI model. Male C57 black mice 18-20-month-old underwent a unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery followed by a systemic hypoxic episode (8% O2 for 30 min. Early-onset seizures were detected using combined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring. Brain injury was assessed histologically at different times post HI. Convulsive seizures were observed in 65% of aging mice post-HI but not in control aging mice following either sham surgery or hypoxia alone. These seizures typically occurred within hours of HI and behaviorally consisted of jumping, fast running, barrel-rolling, and/or falling (loss of the righting reflex with limb spasms. No evident discharges during any convulsive seizures were seen on cortical-hippocampal EEG recordings. Seizure development was closely associated with acute mortality and severe brain injury on brain histological analysis. Intra-peritoneal injections of lorazepam and fosphenytoin suppressed seizures and improved survival but only when applied prior to seizure onset and not after. These findings together suggest that seizures are a major contributing factor to acute

  4. Isoniazid-induced convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, J R; Nicholson, D P

    1976-03-01

    Acute isoniazid overdose and toxicity may be complicated by convulsions and death. Six patients are reported, one of whom ingested simultaneously 15 gm of isoniazid and 5 gm of pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6); no convulsions resulted. In the light of this and other experience, suggestions are made for the use of pyridoxine in the treatment and prevention of acute isoniazid poisoning.

  5. Phosphorylation of brain proteins in generalized convulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horan, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    Phosphorylation of neuronal proteins is being proposed as a modulating influence on several aspects of neuronal function. By labeling proteins with radioactive phosphorus (/sup 32/P) and then separating these proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the author can determine what factors change the phosphorylation of these proteins. They have used such a system to analyze the effects of generalized convulsions on protein phosphorylation. Electroshock (ES) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) were utilized to produce generalized convulsions. Brain membranes, taken from rats immediately after a convulsion, exhibited an increase in protein phosphorylation in vitro. The most noticeable change took place in proteins in the 18,000-20,000 MW range. They have designated these proteins as the low molecular weight (LMW) proteins. The change in phosphorylation was basically the same after one convulsions as after six daily convulsions. Twenty-four hours after a single convulsion no change in phosphorylation was observed. When rat membranes are exposed to PTZ in vitro, phosphorylation is increased at 20 sec but has returned to control level at 90 sec of incubation. This effect is produced without a convulsion. In general, as the concentration of magnesium is increased from 5 mM to 10 mM phosphorylation is increased. Increasing the incubation time from 20 sec to 90 sec and increasing the calcium concentration to 10 mM both decrease phosphorylation of the LMW proteins. Human temporal cortex samples present with phosphorylated proteins having patterns very similar to those in rat membranes.

  6. Effects of acute hypoxia on lidocaine-induced convulsion in mice%急性缺氧对利多卡因致小鼠惊厥作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉齐; 高学慧; 叶海玲; 张辉; 陈烨; 张莹; 王丹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of acute hypoxia on lidocaine -induced convulsion in mice .Methods Kunming mice were randomly divided into two groups:a control group (Group C) and an acute hypoxia group (Group H).Lidocaine was administered intraperitoneally in the two groups of mice .Then, the convulsion number, convulsion rate, convulsion latency , convulsion duration , and convulsion level were recorded .Results Compared with Group C , there was no significant change in Group H in the convulsion rate .Group H showed slightly declined convulsion latency and level, which however were not remarkably different from the control .The convulsion duration was markedly reduced in Group H in comparison with Group C (P<0.05).Conclusion Acute hypoxia can shorten the convulsion duration of lidocaine-induced convulsion in mice .%目的:观察急性缺氧对利多卡因致小鼠惊厥作用的影响。方法将小鼠随机分为两组:对照组(C组)与急性缺氧组( H组),腹腔注射80 mg・ kg-1利多卡因,观察各组小鼠的惊厥只数、惊厥率、惊厥潜伏期、惊厥持续时间及惊厥级数。结果与C组相比,H组小鼠惊厥率无明显改变,惊厥潜伏期略缩短,惊厥级数有所下降,但差异无统计学意义,惊厥持续时间显著缩短(P<0.05)。结论急性缺氧可缩短利多卡因致小鼠惊厥的持续时间。

  7. Study on Anti - Convulsion and Anti - Inflammatory Effect of Oxysophocarine%氧化槐果碱抗惊厥和抗炎作用实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晖; 俞佳; 吕良忠

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察氧化槐果碱的抗惊厥、抗炎作用。方法构建异烟肼和尼可刹米致小鼠惊厥模型,观察氧化槐果碱的抗惊厥作用;采用二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀法和角叉菜胶致大鼠足跖肿胀法,观察氧化槐果碱的抗炎作用。结果氧化槐果碱(20,40,80 mg / kg)可显著延长异烟肼所致惊厥小鼠的惊厥潜伏时间( P ﹤0.05),减少惊厥小鼠例数与死亡小鼠例数,对尼可刹米所致的惊厥无对抗作用;氧化槐果碱(40,80 mg / kg)可显著抑制二甲苯所致小鼠耳肿胀( P ﹤0.05);氧化槐果碱(60 mg / kg)可显著抑制角叉菜胶所致大鼠足跖肿胀( P ﹤0.01),氧化槐果碱(30 mg / kg)对致炎后2~4 h 的大鼠足跖肿胀有抑制作用。结论氧化槐果碱具有抗惊厥、抗炎作用。%Objective To observe the effect of oxysophocarpine on anti - convulsion and anti - inflammatory. Methods The effect of oxysophocarpine on anti - convulsion was observed by constructing the isoniazide and carrageenin induced convulsion mouse model and the effect of oxysophocarpine on anti - inflammation was observed by the xylene - induced mouse ear swelling method and the car-rageenan induced rat toe swelling method. Results Oxysophocarpine (20, 40, 80 mg / kg) could significantly prolong the isoniazide - in-duced latent period of convulsion( P ﹤ 0. 05), reduced the death cases and convulsion cases in mice. Oxysophocarpine had no effect on nikethamide - induced convulsion. Oxysophocarpine (40, 80 mg / kg) could inhibit the xylene - induced ear swelling( P ﹤ 0. 05) . Oxysophocarpine (60 mg / kg) could inhibit the carrageenan - induced mouse toe swelling( P ﹤ 0. 01). Oxysophocarpine (30 mg / kg) had the inhibiting effect on the carrageenan - induced toe swelling at 2 - 4 h after induced inflammation. Conclusion Oxysophocarpine has certain anti - convulsion and anti - inflammatory effect.

  8. Convulsions - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100212.htm Convulsions - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... slide 2 out of 2 Overview When a seizure occurs, the main goal is to protect the ...

  9. Effects of levetiracetam, a novel antiepileptic drug, on convulsant activity in two genetic rat models of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, A J; Hirsch, E; Boehrer, A; Noyer, M; Marescaux, C

    1995-11-01

    The anticonvulsant effects of levetiracetam were assessed in two genetic rat models. In the audiogenic-seizure prone rat, levetiracetam, 5.4 to 96 mg/kg i.p. dose-dependently inhibited both wild running and tonic-clonic convulsions. In the GAERS model of petit mal epilepsy, levetiracetam markedly suppressed spontaneous spike-and-wave discharge (SWD) but left the underlying EEG trace normal. The effects were already marked at 5.4 mg/kg and did not increase significantly up to 170 mg/kg although more animals were completely protected. Levetiracetam produced no observable effects on behaviour apart from slight reversible sedation at 170 mg/kg. In contrast, piracetam, a structural analogue of levetiracetam, significantly and consistently suppressed SWD in GAERS rats only at the high dose of 1000 mg/kg with some slight effects at lower doses. The effect of piracetam appeared to be due to increased sleeping rather than to a direct antiepileptic effect. The results with levetiracetam argue for a clinical application in both petit mal, absence epilepsy and in treating generalised tonic-clonic and partial seizures.

  10. Febrile Convulsions: Their Significance for Later Intellectual Development and Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Concludes that intellectual and behavioral outcomes in children who have had febrile convulsions are dependent on preseizure status, unilaterality of the initial fit, recurrent febrile seizures, continued neurological abnormalities, the advent of fits when afebrile, and socioeconomic status. Suggests that a febrile convulsion should be followed up…

  11. Anticonvulsant Effects of Combined Treatment with Citicoline and Valproate on the Model of Acute Generalized Convulsions Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpova, M N; Kuznetsova, L V; Zin'kovskii, K A; Klishina, N V

    2016-02-01

    We studied anticonvulsant effects of combined treatment with citicoline, a nootropic substance with neuroregenerative and neuroprotective activities, and valproate, an antiepileptic agent widely used in the treatment of epilepsy, on the model of pentylenetetrazole-induced (75 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) acute generalized convulsions in male Wistar rats. Combined treatment with citicoline and valproate in minimum effective doses (70 and 300 mg/kg, respectively) potentiated the anticonvulsant properties of both agents.

  12. Repeated febrile convulsions impair hippocampal neurons and cause synaptic damage in immature rats:neuroprotective effect of fructose-1,6-diphosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Zhou; Fan Wang; Jun Zhang; Hui Gao; Yufeng Yang; Rongguo Fu

    2014-01-01

    Fructose-1,6-diphosphate is a metabolic intermediate that promotes cell metabolism. We hy-pothesize that fructose-1,6-diphosphate can protect against neuronal damage induced by febrile convulsions. Hot-water bathing was used to establish a repetitive febrile convulsion model in rats aged 21 days, equivalent to 3-5 years in humans. Ninety minutes before each seizure induc-tion, rats received an intraperitoneal injection of low- or high-dose fructose-1,6-diphosphate (500 or 1,000 mg/kg, respectively). Low- and high-dose fructose-1,6-diphosphate prolonged the latency and shortened the duration of seizures. Furthermore, high-dose fructose-1,6-di-phosphate effectively reduced seizure severity. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that 24 hours after the last seizure, high-dose fructose-1,6-diphosphate reduced mitochondrial swelling, rough endoplasmic reticulum degranulation, Golgi dilation and synaptic cleft size, and increased synaptic active zone length, postsynaptic density thickness, and synaptic interface cur-vature in the hippocampal CA1 area. The present findings suggest that fructose-1,6-diphosphate is a neuroprotectant against hippocampal neuron and synapse damage induced by repeated fe-brile convulsion in immature rats.

  13. Intracerebroventricular administration of kappa-agonists induces convulsions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansinath, M; Ramabadran, K; Turndorf, H; Shukla, V K

    1991-07-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of kappa-agonists (PD 117302, U-50488H and U-69593) induced convulsions in a dose-related manner in mice. The dose at which 50% of animals convulsed (CD50) was in nmol ranges for all opioids. Among the opioids used, PD 117302 was the most potent convulsant. ICV administration of either vehicle alone or U-53445E, a non-kappa-opioid (+) enantiomer of U-50488H did not induce convulsions. The convulsive response of kappa-agonists was differentially susceptible for antagonism by naloxone and/or MR 2266. Collectively, these findings support the view that convulsions induced by kappa-agonists in mice involve stereospecific opioid receptor mechanisms. Furthermore, the convulsant effect of kappa-agonists could not be modified by pretreatment with MK-801, ketamine, muscimol or baclofen. It is concluded that kappa-opioid but not NMDA or GABA receptor mechanisms are involved in convulsions induced by kappa-agonists. These results are the first experimental evidence implicating stereospecific kappa-receptor mechanisms in opioid-induced convulsions in mice.

  14. Comparison between the effect of propofol and midazolam on picrotoxin-induced convulsions in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zuheir A; Abdel Razzak, Rima L; Alzoubi, Karem H

    2014-04-10

    Propofol is a short acting intravenous anesthetic that has been used in the treatment of status epileptics. However, the occurrence of seizures in epileptic and non-epileptic patients during recovery from propofol induced anesthesia suggests that propofol may have proconvulsant effects. We have previously shown that propofol displays anticonvulsant effects against picrotoxin (PTX) induced seizures during its peak sedative effects. The purpose of the present study was to compare the time course of the effect of intravenous administration of various doses (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) of propofol and midazolam on PTX-induced seizures in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. The latency to onset of clonic seizures induced by intraperitoneal injection of PTX was significantly increased by the highest dose of propofol and all doses of midazolam, suggesting that both agents display anticonvulsant effects. The anticonvulsant effects of propofol (10 mg/kg) lasted about 20 min and PTX-induced clonic seizures were observed thereafter and peaked within 30 min post drug administration. Clonic seizures progressed rapidly to tonic seizures leading to high rate of PTX-induced mortality. In midazolam (10 mg/kg) treated rats, clonic seizures were observed 25 min after drug administration and the number of rats exhibiting clonic seizures was highest within 40 min. However, clonic seizures did not progress into tonic seizures and thus, PTX-induced seizure related mortality was significantly reduced. In conclusion, this study provides further evidence for the anticonvulsant effects of propofol and midazolam against PTX-induced seizures. Furthermore, the data of the current study showed that midazolam was more effective than propofol against PTX-induced tonic seizures.

  15. Effect of quercetin-3-O-sambubioside isolated from Eucommia ulmoides male flowers on spontaneous activity and convulsion rate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yang, Lipeng; Liu, Shaoyang; Fei, Dongqing; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuxian

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of quercetin-3-O-sambubioside on the neural system. Quercetin-3-O-sambubioside is a monomeric compound found in Eucommia ulmoides male flowers from which it was extracted using a system solvent method. In the experiments, spontaneous activity and convulsion rate in mice were recorded, and quercetin-3-O-sambubioside shows eminent effects similar to nikethamide on increasing spontaneous activity and stimulating the nerve center to enhance excitement. These findings are indicative of the powerful ability of quercetin-3-O-sambubioside to promote the stimulation of the nerve center.

  16. Effects of acrous gramimeus and its main component alpha-asarone on the reactivity and convulsive threshold of immature rats to electric stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin Yang; Shulei Li; Yuhong Wang; Yanzhi Huang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The traditional Chinese medicine acrous gramimeus is the dry rhizome of Acrous gramimeus Soland, a kind of Araceae familial perennial herb, which has a sedation action, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic effect. Its effective component has not been known yet, and α-asarone, the major component of the volatile oil extracted from acrous gramineus, has been supposed to play a necessary role in it.OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of acrous gramimeu and α-asarone on the reactivity and convulsive threshold to electric stimulation in immature rats, furthermore, attempt to definitize the anticonvulsant effect of α-asarone.DESIGN: A randomized controlled study.SETTINGS: Department of Pediatrics, First Hospital of Jilin University; Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences of Jilin University; Department of Neurology, First Clinical Hospital affiliated to Harbin Medical University; Department of Internal Medicine, Children's Hospital of Changchun City.MATERIALS: Seventy 3-week immature Wistar rats (either males or females) of 34-40 g were used. Acrous gramimeu (1 g/bag, the content of α-asarone was 0.046 26%-0.070 16%) with the batch number of 0307113was provided by Tianjiang Medicine Company Limited, Jiangyin City. Α-asarone tablet (60 mg per tablet) with the batch number of 030219 was provided by Tianwei Pharmaceutical Factory, Shenyang City. Α-asarone injectable preparation (2 mL per piece) with the batch number of 030105 was provided by Shuanghe Medicine Limited Company, Beijing City.METHODS:The experiments were carried out in the Neurological Laboratory of the First Hospital of Jilin University between August and October in 2004. ① The 70 rats were randomly divided into intragastric subset and intraperitoneal subset. The intragastric subset included four groups of control, phenobarbital sodium,acrous gramimeu and α-asarone; the intraperitoneal subset included three groups of control, phenobarbital sodium and

  17. Observation of curative effect by carbamazepine in the treatment of pediatric refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus%卡马西平治疗小儿难治性惊厥持续状态疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐容华; 周江堡

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate effective treatment method for pediatric refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus.MethodsA total of 14 children patients with refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus received carbamazepine after failed conventional first and second line drug, and their curative effects were observed.ResultsAmong 14 cases, there were 6 cases with obviously reduced convulsions times after 24 h of medication and controlled convulsions after 48 h, 6 cases with obviously reduced convulsions times after 48 h of medication and controlled convulsions after 72 h, and the other 2 cases with obviously reduced convulsions times after 72 h, along with 1 quit case of them due to severe raticide poisoning. There was no case with adverse drug reaction.ConclusionCarbamazepine provides remarkable effect for pediatric refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus, especially for refractory partial convulsive status epilepticus. Course of treatment requires further investigation.%目的:探讨小儿难治性惊厥持续状态的有效治疗方法。方法14例难治性惊厥持续状态患儿,在使用常规一线、二线止惊药物失败后,开始采用卡马西平治疗,观察疗效。结果14例患儿中,6例患儿在给药24 h后惊厥次数明显减少,48 h惊厥控制;6例患儿在给药48 h后惊厥次数明显减少,72 h惊厥控制;另2例患儿在给药72 h后惊厥次数明显减少,其中1例灭鼠药中毒后终因病情太重放弃治疗,自动出院。无一例出现药物不良反应。结论卡马西平对小儿难治性惊厥持续状态有明显疗效,尤其对难治性部分性惊厥持续状态效果好,其使用疗程有待进一步探索。

  18. Bufo toxin: A new testing prospect for the screening of anti-convulsant agents. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arome

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with diverse aetiology, affecting approximately 1 % of the entire population. Epilepsy present wide range of clinical manifestations, that affect the way a person feels and acts for a short time. Previous scientific investigations have indicated bufo toxin as a potential convulsant candidate that produced similar effects as other known convulsant agents. Bufo toxin has been shown to mimic or exhibit similar action as other known convulsant agent. Its biochemical components are formed as a result of the binding of bufo-fagin and a molecule arginina. There exist wide array of convulsant agents used in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The commonly used one are: bicuculline, picrotoxin, pentylene tetrazole, isonizid etc. However, these agents are expensive, not easily available and affordable. This challenge prompted the search of other alternative convulsant agents that is easily accessible for use in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The principal objective of this review paper is to suggest the possible use of bufo toxin which mimics the action of existing convulsant agents. This new testing convulsant agent (bufo toxin is inexpensive, affordable and easy to use when compared to other known convulsant agents. The experimental procedure is easy and it gives a broad spectrum in comparing the action of bufo toxin to other chemical convulsant agents. It also offers researchers broader view or options in exploring the anti-convulsant activity of test agents and the understanding of their possible mechanism of action.

  19. Convulsant bicuculline modifies CNS muscarinic receptor affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz Georgina

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work from this laboratory has shown that the administration of the convulsant drug 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP, a GAD inhibitor, modifies not only GABA synthesis but also binding of the antagonist [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB to central muscarinic receptors, an effect due to an increase in affinity without modifications in binding site number. The cholinergic system has been implicated in several experimental epilepsy models and the ability of acetylcholine to regulate neuronal excitability in the neocortex is well known. To study the potential relationship between GABAergic and cholinergic systems with seizure activity, we analyzed the muscarinic receptor after inducing seizure by bicuculline (BIC, known to antagonize the GABA-A postsynaptic receptor subtype. Results We analyzed binding of muscarinic antagonist [3H]-QNB to rat CNS membranes after i.p. administration of BIC at subconvulsant (1.0 mg/kg and convulsant (7.5 mg/kg doses. Subconvulsant BIC dose failed to develop seizures but produced binding alteration in the cerebellum and hippocampus with roughly 40% increase and 10% decrease, respectively. After convulsant BIC dose, which invariably led to generalized tonic-clonic seizures, binding increased 36% and 15% to cerebellar and striatal membranes respectively, but decreased 12% to hippocampal membranes. Kd value was accordingly modified: with the subconvulsant dose it decreased 27% in cerebellum whereas it increased 61% in hippocampus; with the convulsant dose, Kd value decreased 33% in cerebellum but increased 85% in hippocampus. No change in receptor number site was found, and Hill number was invariably close to unity. Conclusion Results indicate dissimilar central nervous system area susceptibility of muscarinic receptor to BIC. Ligand binding was modified not only by a convulsant BIC dose but also by a subconvulsant dose, indicating that changes are not attributable to the seizure process

  20. Dual effects of limbic seizures on psychosis-relevant behaviors shown by nucleus accumbens kindling in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingyi; Leung, L. Stan

    2016-01-01

    Background A paradox in epilepsy and psychiatry is that temporal lobe epilepsy is often predisposed to schizophrenic-like psychosis, whereas convulsive therapy can relieve schizophrenic symptoms. We have previously demonstrated that the nucleus accumbens is a key structure in mediating postictal psychosis induced by a hippocampal electrographic seizure. Objective/Hypothesis The purpose of this study is to test a hypothesis that accumbens kindling cumulating in a single (1-time) or repeated (5-times) convulsive seizures have different effects on animal models of psychosis. Methods Electrical stimulation at 60 Hz was applied to nucleus accumbens to evoke afterdischarges until one, or five, convulsive seizures that involved the hind limbs (stage 5 seizures) were attained. Behavioral tests, performed at 3 days after the last seizure, included gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and prepulse inhibition to an acoustic startle response (PPI), tested without drug injection or after ketamine (3 mg/kg s.c.) injection, as well as locomotion induced by ketamine or methamphetamine (1 mg/kg i.p.). Results Compared to non-kindled control rats, 1-time, but not 5-times, convulsive seizures induced PPI deficit and decreased gating of hippocampal AEP, without drug injection. Compared to non-kindled rats, 5-times, but not 1-time, convulsive seizures antagonized ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion, ketamine-induced PPI deficit and AEP gating decrease. However, both 1- and 5-times convulsive seizures, significantly enhanced methamphetamine-induced locomotion as compared to non-kindled rats. Conclusions Accumbens kindling ending with 1 convulsive seizure may induce schizophrenic-like behaviors, while repeated (≥ 5) convulsive seizures induced by accumbens kindling may have therapeutic effects on dopamine independent psychosis. PMID:27267861

  1. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuli

    2014-12-01

    Altered mental state is a very common presentation in the elderly admitted to the emergency department. It has been determined that about 16% of patients aged 60 or older with confusion of unknown origin have non-convulsive status epilepticus. The diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus is difficult in the elderly because possible aetiologies of confusion may present with the same clinical picture. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in the elderly carries major morbidity and mortality, attributable primarily to aetiology, and treatment is complex, involving treatment of the aetiology and concomitant medical illnesses, whilst balancing the side effects and drug interactions of antiepileptic drugs.

  2. Convulsive liability of bupropion hydrochloride metabolites in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Louis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that following chronic dosing with bupropion HCl active metabolites are present in plasma at levels that are several times higher than that of the parent drug, but the possible convulsive effects of the major metabolites are not known. Methods We investigated the convulsive liability and dose-response of the three major bupropion metabolites following intraperitoneal administration of single doses in female Swiss albino mice, namely erythrohydrobupropion HCl, threohydrobupropion HCl, and hydroxybupropion HCl. We compared these to bupropion HCl. The actual doses of the metabolites administered to mice (n = 120; 10 per dose group were equimolar equivalents of bupropion HCl 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg. Post treatment, all animals were observed continuously for 2 h during which the number, time of onset, duration and intensity of convulsions were recorded. The primary outcome variable was the percentage of mice in each group who had a convulsion at each dose. Other outcome measures were the time to onset of convulsions, mean convulsions per mouse, and the duration and intensity of convulsions. Results All metabolites were associated with a greater percentage of seizures compared to bupropion, but the percentage of convulsions differed between metabolites. Hydroxybupropion HCl treatment induced the largest percentage of convulsing mice (100% at both 50 and 75 mg/kg followed by threohydrobupropion HCl (50% and 100%, and then erythrohydrobupropion HCl (10% and 90%, compared to bupropion HCl (0% and 10%. Probit analysis also revealed the dose-response curves were significantly different (p 50 values of 35, 50, 61 and 82 mg/kg, respectively for the four different treatments. Cox proportional hazards model results showed that bupropion HCl, erythrohydrobupropion HCl, and threohydrobupropion HCl were significantly less likely to induce convulsions within the 2-h post treatment observation period compared to hydroxybupropion HCl. The

  3. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Randrianarivo; Filippo Maggi; Marcello Nicoletti; Philippe Rasoanaivo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus (M. moschatus) in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin in rodent models. Methods: The essential oil of the aerial parts of M. moschatus was extracted by steam distillation. Thereafter, it was injected subcutaneously to rats and mice at escalating doses (0.1–0.8 mL/kg). Ten minutes after drug injection, pentylenetetrazole was injected intraperitoneally to rats and picrotoxin was administered to mice by the same route. Diazepam served as the positive control. Every single animal was placed into transparent cage and observed for convulsive behavior for 30 min by using ordinary security cameras connected to a video recorder. Death occurring for a period of 24 h was also recorded. Results: The essential oil at 0.8 mL/kg completely arrested the pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion without any sedative effect and delayed its appearance at lower doses, but showed moderate activities on picrotoxin-induced convulsion. For the rats treated with pen-tylenetetrazole alone, the mortality was 100%within 1 h, but for the rats pre-treated with the essential oil, the mortality was 0%. For the mice treated with picrotoxin, the mortality rate was also 100%, while 20%–100%died in those that had been pre-treated with the oil. Conclusions: The results confirmed at least partly the traditional uses of the smoke of M. moschatus for the management of convulsion, and implied that the essential oil may inhibit the convulsion by GABAergic neuromodulation.

  4. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Randrianarivo; Filippo Maggi; Marcello Nicoletti; Philippe Rasoanaivo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus(M. moschatus) in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin in rodent models.Methods: The essential oil of the aerial parts of M. moschatus was extracted by steam distillation. Thereafter, it was injected subcutaneously to rats and mice at escalating doses(0.1–0.8 m L/kg). Ten minutes after drug injection, pentylenetetrazole was injected intraperitoneally to rats and picrotoxin was administered to mice by the same route.Diazepam served as the positive control. Every single animal was placed into transparent cage and observed for convulsive behavior for 30 min by using ordinary security cameras connected to a video recorder. Death occurring for a period of 24 h was also recorded.Results: The essential oil at 0.8 m L/kg completely arrested the pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion without any sedative effect and delayed its appearance at lower doses, but showed moderate activities on picrotoxin-induced convulsion. For the rats treated with pentylenetetrazole alone, the mortality was 100% within 1 h, but for the rats pre-treated with the essential oil, the mortality was 0%. For the mice treated with picrotoxin, the mortality rate was also 100%, while 20%–100% died in those that had been pre-treated with the oil.Conclusions: The results confirmed at least partly the traditional uses of the smoke of M. moschatus for the management of convulsion, and implied that the essential oil may inhibit the convulsion by GABAergic neuromodulation.

  5. Rebaudioside A inhibits pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanikgil, Yigit; Cavusoglu, Turker; Balcıoglu, Huseyin A; Gurgul, Serkan; Solmaz, Volkan; Ozlece, Hatice K; Erten, Nilgun; Erbas, Oytun

    2016-09-01

    The safety of patients with epilepsy consuming sweetening agents, which is becoming increasingly prevalent for various reasons, is a topic that should be emphasized as sensitively as it is for other diseases. Patients with epilepsy consume sweetening agents for different reasons such being diabetic or overweight. They can occasionally be exposed to sweetening agents unrestrainedly through consuming convenience food, primarily beverages. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rebaudioside A (Reb-A), which is a steviol glycoside produced from the herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), on epileptic seizures and convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Forty-eight male rats were used. Twenty-four rats were administered 35 mg/kg PTZ to trigger epileptiform activity; the remaining 24 rats were administered 70 mg/kg PTZ to trigger the convulsion model. The epileptiform activity was evaluated by spike percentage, whereas convulsion was evaluated by Racine's Convulsion Scale and the onset time of the first myoclonic jerk. Statistical analysis revealed a statistically significant decrease in the Racine's Convulsion Scale score and increase in the latency of first myoclonic jerk in a dose-dependent manner for the rat groups in which PTZ epilepsy had been induced and Reb-A had been administered. For the groups that were administered Reb-A, the spike decrease was apparent in a dose-dependent manner, based on the spike percentage calculation. These results indicated that Reb-A has positive effects on PTZ-induced convulsions.

  6. Hypothermia for Neuroprotection in Convulsive Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legriel, Stephane; Lemiale, Virginie; Schenck, Maleka; Chelly, Jonathan; Laurent, Virginie; Daviaud, Fabrice; Srairi, Mohamed; Hamdi, Aicha; Geri, Guillaume; Rossignol, Thomas; Hilly-Ginoux, Julia; Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Louart, Benjamin; Malissin, Isabelle; Mongardon, Nicolas; Planquette, Benjamin; Thirion, Marina; Merceron, Sybille; Canet, Emmanuel; Pico, Fernando; Tran-Dinh, Yves-Roger; Bedos, Jean-Pierre; Azoulay, Elie; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Cariou, Alain

    2016-12-22

    Background Convulsive status epilepticus often results in permanent neurologic impairment. We evaluated the effect of induced hypothermia on neurologic outcomes in patients with convulsive status epilepticus. Methods In a multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 270 critically ill patients with convulsive status epilepticus who were receiving mechanical ventilation to hypothermia (32 to 34°C for 24 hours) in addition to standard care or to standard care alone; 268 patients were included in the analysis. The primary outcome was a good functional outcome at 90 days, defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 5 (range, 1 to 5, with 1 representing death and 5 representing no or minimal neurologic deficit). The main secondary outcomes were mortality at 90 days, progression to electroencephalographically (EEG) confirmed status epilepticus, refractory status epilepticus on day 1, "super-refractory" status epilepticus (resistant to general anesthesia), and functional sequelae on day 90. Results A GOS score of 5 occurred in 67 of 138 patients (49%) in the hypothermia group and in 56 of 130 (43%) in the control group (adjusted common odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.99; P=0.43). The rate of progression to EEG-confirmed status epilepticus on the first day was lower in the hypothermia group than in the control group (11% vs. 22%; odds ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.79; P=0.009), but there were no significant differences between groups in the other secondary outcomes. Adverse events were more frequent in the hypothermia group than in the control group. Conclusions In this trial, induced hypothermia added to standard care was not associated with significantly better 90-day outcomes than standard care alone in patients with convulsive status epilepticus. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health; HYBERNATUS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01359332 .).

  7. [Non-thermal electromagnetic fields and estimation of the convulsive syndrome probable development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Sidorenko, A V

    2010-01-01

    There are cases of development of a convulsive syndrome at influence of electromagnetic field (EMF) in physiotherapy practice, and in conditions of a professional work. There is a point of view that EMF can render medical effect at treatment of a epilepsy syndrome. Some publications specify on develop of epilepsy convulsions in experiment at EMF of various frequencies exposure. Four conditions which can promote development of convulsions at EMF exposure are considered.

  8. Febrile convulsions and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and febrile convulsions are related aetiologically. We compared the risk of SIDS in 9877 siblings of children who had had febrile convulsions with that of 20.177 siblings of children who had never had febrile convulsions. We found...

  9. Pharmacological screening of Malian medicinal plants used against epilepsy and convulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael E; Vestergaard, Henrik T; Hansen, Suzanne L

    2009-01-01

    Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants.......Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants....

  10. 钩藤银翘散治疗风热动风型小儿急惊风的疗效%Effect of uncaria yinqiaosan in the treatment of pediatric acute convulsion with wind stirring wind type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春梅; 刘永信; 禄林; 蒋天秀

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨钩藤银翘散治疗风热动风型小儿急惊风的疗效。方法:收治小儿急惊风患儿45例,采用钩藤银翘散治疗。结果:服药4~9剂治愈率68.89%。结论:钩藤银翘散治疗风热动风型小儿急惊风疗效显著。%Objective:To investigate the effect of uncaria yinqiaosan in the treatment of pediatric acute convulsion with wind stirring wind type.Methods:45 cases of pediatric acute convulsion were selected,and they were treated by uncaria yinqiaosan. Results:The cure rate was 68.89% after taking the medicine for 4~9 doses.Conclusion:The effect of uncaria yinqiaosan in the treatment of pediatric acute convulsion with wind stirring wind type is significant.

  11. The anti-convulsion effect of verapamil on mice model induced by pentylenetetrazol%维拉帕米抗戊四唑诱导小鼠惊厥的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珣; 柳佳利; 孙浩; 李勤; 刘洋; 林熙

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of verapamil on anti-convulsion and provide a new therapeutic method for convulsion. Methods Sixty mice were divided into 3 groups as follow, the blank group, MgSO4 group and experimental group (the low, middle, high dosage of verapamil ). Pentylenetetrazol was intraperitoneally injected into mice after medication to make the model of convulsion. The occurrence time of convulsion, survival time of mice, the incidence rate of convulsion and the mortality of mice were observed. Results Compared with the blank group, either of MgSO4 and verapamil ( low,middle or high dosage) groups had longer occurrence time of convulsion. The group of MgSO4 had significantly longer survival time and lower mortality of mice ( P < 0.01 ). The groups of verapamil ( low,middle or high dosage) had also longer living time of mice ( P < 0.01 ) and the lower mortality in the low and middle dosage groups ( P <0.01 ). Conclusion The low or middle dosages of verapamil had a better curative effect of anticonvulsion in the convulsion model mice induced with pentylenetetrazol, but the high dosage of verapamil was not suitable for the anti-convulsion therapy.%目的 研究维拉帕米抗惊厥的治疗效果,为临床治疗惊厥提供新方法.方法 将实验小鼠60只分为模型对照组、硫酸镁(MgSO)组和实验组(维拉帕米低、中、高剂量组),每组12只.预先给予相应的治疗药物之后,腹腔注射戊四唑制造惊厥模型;造模成功后观察并记录小鼠的惊厥发生时间、存活时间、惊厥发生率和死亡率等.结果 与模型对照组相比,硫酸镁组和维拉帕米各剂量组惊厥发生所需时间均有所增加(P<0.01),硫酸镁组小鼠的存活时间显著延长且死亡率降低(P<0.01);维拉帕米各剂量组小鼠的存活时间延长(P<0.01),低、中剂量组死亡率明显降低(P<0.01).结论 低、中剂量维拉帕米对于戊四唑所致的惊厥模型有较好的疗效;高剂量维拉帕米不宜用于抗惊厥治疗.

  12. Comparisons of drug efficacy and time-effect among magnesium valproate,sustained-release magnesium valproate tablet and depakine chrono for epilepsy An experiment of determining cortical convulsive threshold in rats undergoing electrical stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Scholars have investigated the differences in drug metabolism and pharmacodynamics between valproate and its sustained-release tablets only from the angle of pharmaceutical sciences or clinical practice.Whether the fact that differences in drug efficacy and time-effect of different doses of valproate and different types of sustained-release valproate tablets at the same concentration can be quantitatively reflected by determining the changes in convulsive threshold pre- and post-administration in rat models of determining the convulsive threshold developed by direct cortical electrical stimulation remains unclear.OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to compare the drug efficacy and time-effect among magnesium valproate,sustained-release magnesium valproate tablet and depakine chrono in the treatment of epilepsy by determining the convulsive threshold of rat models created by direct cortical electrical stimulation,and human serum drug concentration before and after administration.DESIGN:A controlled observational experiment.SETTING:Research Institute of Epilepsy,Shanxi Medical University.MATERIALS:Adult health male SD rats of clean grade,weighing 200 - 220 g,provided by the Laboratory Animal Center of Shanxi Medical University.The protocol was carried out in accordance with requests from Animal Ethics Committees for guidance.Magnesium valproate (Lot No.041004) and sustained-release magnesium valproate tablet (Lot No.050501) were produced in Hunan Xiangzhong Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd.METHODS:This study was carried out in the Laboratory for Epilepsy,Shanxi Medical University between June and August 2005.①All the SD rats were created into models for determining cortical convulsive threshold.They were randomly divided into 4 groups with 20 rats in each:magnesium valproate tablet group,sustained-release magnesium valproate tablet group,depakine chrono group and control group.After being modeled,the rats in the first 3 groups were intragastrically administrated with

  13. The effect of leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide-Y on serum Tnf-Α, Il-1β, Il-6, Fgf-2, galanin levels and oxidative stress in an experimental generalized convulsive seizure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Berrin; Sahin, Deniz; Kir, Hale; Eraldemir, Fatma Ceyla; Musul, Mert; Kuskay, Sevinç; Ates, Nurbay

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effects of the endogenous ligands leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) on seizure generation, the oxidant/antioxidant balance, and cytokine levels, which are a result of immune response in a convulsive seizure model. With this goal, Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups-Group 1: Saline, Group 2: Saline+PTZ (65mg/kg), Group 3: leptin (4mg/kg)+PTZ, Group 4: ghrelin (80μg/kg)+PTZ, and Group 5: NPY (60μg/kg)+PTZ. All injections were delivered intraperitoneally, and simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) records were obtained. Seizure activity was scored by observing seizure behavior, and the onset time, latency, and seizure duration were determined according to the EEG records. At the end of the experiments, blood samples were obtained in all groups to assess the serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, FGF-2, galanin, nitric oxide (NOֹ), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) levels. The electrophysiological and biochemical findings (pleptin, ghrelin, and NPY shows that these peptides may have anti-inflammatory effects in epileptic seizures. Also, leptin significantly increases the serum levels of the endogenous anticonvulsive agent galanin. The fact that each one of these endogenous peptides reduces the levels of MDA and increases the serum levels of GSH leads to the belief that they may have protective effects against oxidative damage that is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Our study contributes to the clarification of the role of these peptides in the brain in seizure-induced oxidative stress and immune system physiology and also presents new approaches to the etiology and treatment of tendency to epileptic seizures.

  14. 综合护理干预对高热惊厥患儿进行的护理效果观察%Observation of nursing effect by comprehensive nursing intervention for children with febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利霞; 黄电芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析探讨综合护理干预对高热惊厥患儿的护理效果。方法60例高热惊厥患儿采用随机数字表法分为对照组与试验组,每组30例。对照组采用常规护理方法,试验组采用综合护理干预,观察比较两组患儿护理后的临床效果。结果试验组患儿惊厥复发率3.33%明显低于对照的30.00%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论高热惊厥患儿进行综合护理干预后,惊厥复发率明显降低,可显著提高护理质量,促进患儿恢复健康,安全可靠,值得临床推广应用。%Objcetive To investigate the nursing effect by comprehensive nursing intervention for children with febrile convulsion. Methods A total of 60 children with febrile convulsion were divided by random number table into control group and experimental group, and each group contained 30 cases. The control group received conventional nursing method, and the experimental group received comprehensive nursing intervention. Clinical effects were observed and compared between the two groups after nursing. Results The relapse rate of convulsion was 3.33%in the experimental group, and that was obviously lower than 30.00%of the control group. The difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion Implememt of comprehensive nursing intervention for children with febrile convulsion can remarkably decrease relapse rate of convulsion, improve nursing quality and promote children’s rehabilitation. This method is safe and reliable, and it is worth clinical promotion and application.

  15. Management of febrile convulsion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Rogers, Eleanor; Wilkinson, Rachel; Paul, Biswajit

    2015-05-01

    The causes of febrile convulsions are usually benign. Such convulsions are common in children and their long-term consequences are rare. However, other causes of seizures, such as intracranial infections, must be excluded before diagnosis, especially in infants and younger children. Diagnosis is based mainly on history taking, and further investigations into the condition are not generally needed in fully immunised children presenting with simple febrile convulsions. Treatment involves symptom control and treating the cause of the fever. Nevertheless, febrile convulsions in children can be distressing for parents, who should be supported and kept informed by experienced emergency department (ED) nurses. This article discusses the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of children with febrile convulsion, and best practice for care in EDs. It also includes a reflective case study to highlight the challenges faced by healthcare professionals who manage children who present with febrile convulsion.

  16. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Convulsive Condition Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Rene Navarro Machado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Convulsive Condition Management. It has been redefined as the occurrence of two or more successive convulsions without conscience recuperation between them; or the occurrence of convulsive uninterrupted activity for more than 5 minutes, including focal crisis. This document includes a review and update of conceptual, etiological and classification aspects for diagnosis and treatment, stressing the various therapy trends. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  17. Nicotine Elicits Convulsive Seizures by Activating Amygdalar Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iha, Higor A.; Kunisawa, Naofumi; Shimizu, Saki; Tokudome, Kentaro; Mukai, Takahiro; Kinboshi, Masato; Ikeda, Akio; Ito, Hidefumi; Serikawa, Tadao; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders; however, the mechanisms of nACh receptors in seizure generation remain unknown. Here, we performed behavioral and immunohistochemical studies in mice and rats to clarify the mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced seizures. Treatment of animals with nicotine (1–4 mg/kg, i.p.) produced motor excitement in a dose-dependent manner and elicited convulsive seizures at 3 and 4 mg/kg. The nicotine-induced seizures were abolished by a subtype non-selective nACh antagonist, mecamylamine (MEC). An α7 nACh antagonist, methyllycaconitine, also significantly inhibited nicotine-induced seizures whereas an α4β2 nACh antagonist, dihydro-β-erythroidine, affected only weakly. Topographical analysis of Fos protein expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that a convulsive dose (4 mg/kg) of nicotine region-specifically activated neurons in the piriform cortex, amygdala, medial habenula, paratenial thalamus, anterior hypothalamus and solitary nucleus among 48 brain regions examined, and this was also suppressed by MEC. In addition, electric lesioning of the amygdala, but not the piriform cortex, medial habenula and thalamus, specifically inhibited nicotine-induced seizures. Furthermore, microinjection of nicotine (100 and 300 μg/side) into the amygdala elicited convulsive seizures in a dose-related manner. The present results suggest that nicotine elicits convulsive seizures by activating amygdalar neurons mainly via α7 nACh receptors.

  18. Etiological Analysis and Curative Effect Observation of Emergency Convul-sions in Children%小儿急诊惊厥病因分析及疗效探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雄

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿急诊惊厥病因及其治疗效果。方法整群选取于2014年9月—2015年9月在该院接受治疗的惊厥患儿共110例。了解患者疾病的相关信息,并对患者进行辅助检查,针对病因实施针对性治疗。观察小儿的惊厥病因及其治疗方法。结果惊厥病因分析中,热性惊厥占53.6%,癫痫占20.9%,颅内感染占8.2%。其中,新生儿以低血糖为主,婴幼儿与6岁以下小儿以热性惊厥为主,6岁以上小儿以癫痫为主;治疗总有效率为97.3%,不良反应率为1.8%。结论小儿急诊惊厥的病因复杂,以热性惊厥最为常见。临床治疗中,选择必要的辅助检查手段,并进行对症治疗,能够预防疾病复发,保障小儿生命安全。%Objective To discuss the etiology and treatment effect of emergency convulsions in children. Methods 110 cas-es of children with convulsions treated in our hospital from September 2014 to September 2015 were selected, the related information of the patient’s disease was known, the patients were given accessory examination, targeted treatment were im-plemented according to the etiologies, the etiology and treatment method of children were observed. Results The convul-sions etiology analysis showed that febrile convulsion accounted for 53.6%, epilepsia accounted for 20.9%, intracranial in-fection accounted for 8.2%, among them, the neonates were mainly with glucopenia, infants and children less than 6 years old were mainly with febrile convulsion, children more than 6 years old were mainly with epilepsia, the total treatment ef-fective rat e was 97.3%, the adverse reaction rate was 1.8%. Conclusion The etiology of emergency convulsions in children is complex and the febrile convulsion is most common, in clinic treatment, choosing necessary accessory examination means and symptomatic treatment can prevent disease recurrence and ensure the safety of children’s life.

  19. The effect of magnesium sulfate on the convulsion and mortality rate in lidocaine-poisoned mice%硫酸镁对利多卡因中毒小鼠惊厥和死亡率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱有波; 杨拯; 袁梦郎

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Using the model of seizure induced by lidocaine hydrochloride to investigate the effect of magnesium sulfate on the convulsions and mortality rate of mice with lidocaine poisoning. METHODS 210 Kunming mice weighing 18-25g were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group, 50mg/kg magnesium sulfate, 100mg/kg magnesium sulfate, 200mg/kg magnesium sulfate, 400mg/kg magnesium sulfate group, 42 mice in each group, and received intraperitoneal injections of magnesium sulfate of four different doses or the same volume of normal saline, respectively. 15 minutes later, all the mice received an intraperitoneal injection of 100mg/kg lidocaine hydrochloride, convulsion latency, duration, seizures incidence, death time and mortality in mice were observed. RESULTS ① Compared with control group, magnesium sulfate extended incubation period of lidocaine induced convulsions, shortened the duration of convulsions induced by lidocaine, extended the time of death of lidocaine induced convulsions. ② Magnesium sulfate could reduce the incidence of seizures induced by lidocaine, 200 and 400mg/kg magnesium group compared with the control group, the incidence of lidocaine induced convulsions had significant differences (P<0.05); could reduce mortality of convulsions induced by lidocaine, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg magnesium group compared with the control group, lidocaine induced convulsions were significant differences in mortality (P < 0.01, P< 0.05). ③ Magnesium sulfate could reduce the intensity convulsions caused by lidocaine. Increased with the dose of magnesium sulfate, the level of induced convulsions by lidocaine decreased. CONCLUSION In this experimental condition, magnesium sulfate could be antagonized by convulsive effects of lidocaine to reduce the toxicity of lidocaine.%目的 应用盐酸利多卡因致小鼠中毒惊厥模型,探讨硫酸镁对利多卡因中毒小鼠惊厥和死亡率的影响.方法 210只昆明小鼠,体重18~25 g,按照

  20. The effect of calculus bovis cultivated by glucuronidase on anti-convulsion and anti-inflammation in mice%酶促牛黄对小鼠的抗惊厥及抗炎作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许贵斌; 高允生

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of calculus bovis cultivated by glucuronidase (CBCG )on anti-convulsion and anti-inflammation in mice, evaluate the pharmaceutical value of CBCG.Methods ( 1 )Anti-convulsion experiment.Appl ying nikethamide( NTM )-induced convulsion model and maximal electroshock convulsion ( MES ) model to observe the effect of CBCG on anti-convulsion in mice.( 2 )Anti-inflammation experiment.To apply carrageenan( CGN )-induced foot inflammation model in mice and dimethyl benzene( DMB )-induced inflammation model in mice to observe the effect of CBCG on antiinflammation.Results ( 1 )The outcome of anti-convulsion experiment showed that the CBCG and pentobarbital sodium ( PBS ) could prolong the NTM-induced convulsion latent phase in mice, raised the convulsion threshold value of maximal electroshock mice and reduce convulsion cases induced by maximal electroshock( P < 0.05, P < 0.01 ).The effect of PBS was better than CBCG( P <0.01 ),no difference was found among different CBCG groups( P >0.05 ).( 2 )The results of anti-inflammatory experiments showed that the CBCG and the aspirin( ASP ) could inhibit DMB-induced ear swell and CGN induced foot swell in mice( P < 0.05, P < 0.01 ).The CBCG had dose depend trend against DMB-induced ear swell in mice, the effect was highest in CBCG high-dose group( P < 0.05, P < 0.01 ), compared with NS gorup, ASP gorup.NCB group and CBCG group could inhibit foot swell in mice 3 ~5 h after medication( P < 0.05, P < 0.01 ), the effect was highest in NCB and CBCG high-dose group.Conclusion It proved that the CBCG had the effect of anti-convulsion and anti-inflammation in mice.%目的 观察酶促牛黄(CBCG)对小鼠的抗惊厥、抗炎作用,初步评价CBCG的药用价值.方法 (1)抗惊厥实验:分2个子实验,各取50只小鼠随机分为生理盐水组(NS组)、戊巴比妥钠组(PBS组)及CBCG高、中、低剂量组各10只,分别采用尼可刹米和最大电休克法制备小鼠惊厥

  1. Evaluation of anticonvulsant effect of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor in experimentally induced convulsions in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Naseeruddin Nadeem; Maliha Maqdoom

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) exists as the inducible form of the cyclooxygenase enzyme, the levels of which are elevated in inflammatory conditions. COX-2 is located in regions of brain like hippocampus and cerebral cortex. When induced, COX-2 forms prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which is responsible for CNS excitation, in turn leading to generation of seizures. COX-2 inhibitors by preventing the formation of PGE2 may serve as effective anticonvulsants. Since none of the anti-epileptics in ...

  2. Clavulanic acid does not affect convulsions in acute seizure tests in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Maciej; Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Wlaź, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Clavulanic acid (CLAV) inhibits bacterial β-lactamases and is commonly used to aid antibiotic therapy. Prompted by the initial evidence suggestive of the potential anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties of CLAV, the present study was undertaken to systematically evaluate its acute effects on seizure thresholds in seizure tests typically used in primary screening of potential antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In the present study, 6-Hz seizure threshold, maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test, and intravenous pentylenetetrazole (i.v. PTZ) seizure tests were used to determine anticonvulsant effects of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered CLAV in mice. Acute effects on motor coordination and muscle strength were assessed in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. Doses of CLAV studied in the present study were either comparable or extended the doses reported in the literature to be effective against kainic acid-induced convulsions in mice or behaviorally active in rodents and monkeys. CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds in the 6-Hz (64 ng/kg to 1 mg/kg) and MEST (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) seizure tests. Similarly, CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds for i.v. PTZ-induced myoclonic twitch, clonic convulsions, and tonic convulsions (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg). Finally, CLAV (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) had no effect on the motor performance and muscle strength in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. In summary, CLAV failed to affect seizure thresholds in three seizure tests in mice. Although the results of the present study do not support further development of CLAV as an AED, its beneficial effects in chronic epilepsy models warrant further evaluation owing to its, for example, potential neuroprotective properties.

  3. Cannabinoid antagonist SLV326 induces convulsive seizures and changes in the interictal EEG in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Natasja; Heijink, Liesbeth; Kruse, Chris; Vinogradova, Lyudmila; Lüttjohann, Annika; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; van Rijn, Clementina M.

    2017-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 antagonists have been investigated for possible treatment of e.g. obesity-related disorders. However, clinical application was halted due to their symptoms of anxiety and depression. In addition to these adverse effects, we have shown earlier that chronic treatment with the CB1 antagonist rimonabant may induce EEG-confirmed convulsive seizures. In a regulatory repeat-dose toxicity study violent episodes of “muscle spasms” were observed in Wistar rats, daily dosed with the CB1 receptor antagonist SLV326 during 5 months. The aim of the present follow-up study was to investigate whether these violent movements were of an epileptic origin. In selected SLV326-treated and control animals, EEG and behavior were monitored for 24 hours. 25% of SLV326 treated animals showed 1 to 21 EEG-confirmed generalized convulsive seizures, whereas controls were seizure-free. The behavioral seizures were typical for a limbic origin. Moreover, interictal spikes were found in 38% of treated animals. The frequency spectrum of the interictal EEG of the treated rats showed a lower theta peak frequency, as well as lower gamma power compared to the controls. These frequency changes were state-dependent: they were only found during high locomotor activity. It is concluded that long term blockade of the endogenous cannabinoid system can provoke limbic seizures in otherwise healthy rats. Additionally, SLV326 alters the frequency spectrum of the EEG when rats are highly active, suggesting effects on complex behavior and cognition. PMID:28151935

  4. 用地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿热性惊厥的效果探讨%Curative Effect Discussion on Combination of Diazepam and Phenobarbital in the Treatment of Children Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐中贤; 许正香; 周泉良

    2016-01-01

    Objective To Discuss the Curative effect of combination of diazepam and phenobarbital in the treatment of children febrile convulsion.Methods Randomly divided 98 children with febrile convulsion from October 2013 to October 2015 into diazepam group,phenobarbital group and combined treatment group, respective intravenous with diazepam,phenobarbital and combination of diazepam and Phenobarbital.Compare the anticonvulsant effect and recurrence of convulsion rate.Results Combined treatment group anticonvulsant effect is better than that of phenobarbit al group and the recurrence rate is lower than that of diazepam group, the differences shows statis tically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Combination of diazepam and phenobarbital has a better anticonvulsant effect and low recurrence rate in treatment of children febrile convulsion,and is worth clinical application.%目的:探讨用地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿热性惊厥的临床效果。方法:将我院于2013年10月~2015年10月期间收治的98例热性惊厥患儿随机分为地西泮组、苯巴比妥组和联合用药组,为这三组患儿分别使用地西泮、苯巴比妥、地西泮和苯巴比妥进行治疗。比较三组患儿所用药物的镇惊效果及其病情的复发率。结果:经治疗,联合用药组患儿镇惊的效果、惊厥的复发率均好于苯巴比妥组和地西泮组患儿,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:用地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿热性惊厥的效果理想,而且能有效地降低此病患儿惊厥的复发率。

  5. Anticonvulsant and antioxidant activity of aqueous leaves extract of Desmodium triflorum in mice against pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock induced convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Bhosle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to study an anticonvulsant activity of aqueous extract of Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Fabaceae, in mice. Animal models of epilepsy namely the pentylenetetrazole, and maximal electroshock induced convulsion were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of the extracts. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. In the pentylenetetrazole induced convulsion, aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg significant delayed the onset of convulsion, reduced the duration of convulsion (p<0.05 and reduced mortality. The aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg dose reduced hind limb tonic extension phase of maximal electroshock induced convulsion induced convulsion in mice (p<0.05. The pretreated aqueous extract of D. triflorum showed significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increases the reduced glutathione level in mice brain tissue (p<0.001. The results revealed that D. triflorum possesses a significant dose dependent anticonvulsant activity.

  6. Pre-hospital treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei TIAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE is the most serious seizure type in status epilepticus (SE, which may cause irreversible damage of brain and other vital organs without prompt and effective treatment, and result in a high mortality. Therefore, effective pre-hospital drug therapy can ensure the success of treatment for CSE. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.004

  7. Convulsions as primary manifestation of nutritional rickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Karunakara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rickets is diagnosed based on classical clinical features like craniotabes, rachitic rosary, widening of wrist joints, pot belly, hypotonia, bowed legs and supported by the laboratory evidence of hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and raised alkaline phosphatase. Hypocalcemic convulsions are a rare manifestation of nutritional rickets. Decline in the magnitude of the rickets requires high index of suspicion to identify this treatable condition. Herewith presenting retrospective study of twelve cases of rickets who presented with hypocalcemic seizures as primary manifestation. Materials and methods: A detailed retrospective analysis of diagnosed cases of rickets presenting with convulsions was done. Children who were admitted with hypocalcemic convulsion and subsequently diagnosed to have rickets were included in the study. Children who did not fulfill the criteria for diagnosis of rickets either clinically or biochemically or radiologically were excluded from the study. Details including age at presentation, weight, sex, gestational age and other associated diseases were collected and analyzed. Rickets was diagnosed on the basis of clinical features, biochemical parameters (serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and radiological findings. Results: A Total of 12 children; 8 male and 4 females constituted the study subjects. Mean age of presentation was 6 months. All children had presented with preceding convulsions or active convulsions. One child who presented with active convulsions was treated with parenteral phenobarbitone. All 12 of them were evaluated for the cause and found to have hypocalcemia without any other cause for convulsions. Further clinical examination revealed features of rickets and were subjected to radiological and biochemical investigations. The mean calcium value was 6.3mg/dl, phosphorus -5.35mg/dl, alkaline phosphatase-890.13 units. All the cases had radiological features of rickets. All 12 were

  8. WHICH CASE OF GASTROENTERITIS ENDS IN CONVULSION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Armin MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveGastroenteritis has a diverse etiology; many pathogens can cause this condition. Of the extraintestinal manifestations, one is convulsions, which may be  attributable to fever, type of bacteria, or electrolyte imbalance. To assess the risk of occurrence of convulsions, in this study we investigated the association between the paraclinical and clinical findings of children with gastroenteritis and the risk of occurrence of convulsions.Materials & MethodsIn this prospective study, conducted between March 2004 and February 2005, we studied 50 patients admitted to the Mofid Childrens' Hospital, with gastroenteritis and convulsions.Stool samples were obtained for investigations of electrolyte imbalances and type of gastroenteritis. A control group consisting of patients admittedsimultaneously with gastroenteritis but no convulsions was selected as well.They were matched with the case group in terms of age, sex, and monthof admission and number. Data was collected using a specific checklist.ResultsThe stool exam (SE showed 31 cases (62% had inflammatory diarrhea and 19 (38% had the non-inflammatory type. In the control group, 21 cases(42% had inflammatory and 29 (58% had non-inflammatory diarrhea. Stool culture (SC results showed 11 (22% subjects had Shigella, 27 (54% revealedno organism, and 12 (24% did not have SCs in their medical records. In the control group SC results revealed Shigella in 2 cases (4%, 38 patients(76% showed no organism, and 10(20% did not have SCs. Six cases (12% had hyponatremia ranging between 125-130meq/lit. In the control group,4 (8% had electrolyte imbalances, 3 had hyponatremia ranging between 125-130meq/lit, and 1 had hypokalemia.ConclusionNo significant relation was found between inflammatory gastroenteritis and the incidence of convulsion (P value=0.0716 Although a significant relationwas found between Shigella and convulsion (P value=0.0113, no significant relation existed between electrolyte imbalance and

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practices of parents of children with febrile convulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Parental anxiety and apprehension is related to inadequate knowledge of fever and febrile convulsion. AIMS: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the parents of children with febrile convulsions. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire based study in a tertiary care centre carried over a period of one year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 140 parents of consecutive children presenting with febrile convulsion were enrolled. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test. RESULTS: 83 parents (59.3% could not recognise the convulsion; 90.7% (127 did not carry out any intervention prior to getting the child to the hospital. The commonest immediate effect of the convulsion on the parents was fear of death (n= 126, 90% followed by insomnia (n= 48, 34.3%, anorexia (n= 46, 32.9%, crying (n= 28, 20% and fear of epilepsy (n= 28, 20%. Fear of brain damage, fear of recurrence and dyspepsia were voiced by the fathers alone (n= 20, cumulative incidence 14.3%. 109 (77.9% parents did not know the fact that the convulsion can occur due to fever. The long-term concerns included fear of epilepsy (n= 64, 45.7% and future recurrence (n= 27, 19.3% in the affected child. For 56 (40% of the parents every subsequent episode of fever was like a nightmare. Only 21 parents (15% had thermometer at home and 28 (20% knew the normal range of body temperature. Correct preventive measures were known only to 41 (29.2%. Awareness of febrile convulsion and the preventive measures was higher in socio-economic grade (P< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The parental fear of fever and febrile convulsion is a major problem with serious negative consequences affecting daily familial life.

  10. Effect of Xingnaojing injection in adjuvant therapy of children with febrile convulsion%醒脑静注射液辅助治疗小儿热性惊厥的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of Xingnaojing Injection in adjuvant therapy of children with febrile convulsion. Methods 60 cases of children with febrile convulsion were randomly divided into two groups,with 30 cases in each group.Control group was given conventional symptomatic and supportive treatment,such as anti-convulsion,anti-infection,abatement of fever,oxygen uptake,and so on,on basis of which,treatment group was given Xingnaojing Injection 0.2-0.6mL/(kg·d),once a day.The course was 7 days.The observational indexes included:clinical effect;abatement time of fever,length of stay;recurrence of convulsion,epileptogenesis. Results The total effective rate of treatment group was 93.3%,which was higher than that of control group (76.7%),the difference was statistically significant(P 0.05).There were no statistically significant difference of the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups(P > 0.05). Conclusion Xingnaojing Injection in adjuvant therapy of children with febrile convulsion can improve clinical effect obviously,shorten abatement time of fever and length of stay,reduce the times of recurrence of convulsion,which is worthy of clinical promotion and application.%目的:观察醒脑静注射液辅助治疗小儿热性惊厥的效果。方法将60例热性惊厥患儿随机分为两组,各30例。对照组给予止惊、抗感染、退热、吸氧等常规对症支持治疗,治疗组在此基础上给予醒脑静注射液0.2~0.6mL/(kg·d),1次/d。7d为1个疗程。观察指标包括:临床疗效、退热时间、住院时间、惊厥复发以及癫痫发生情况、不良反应发生情况。结果治疗组总有效率达93.3%,显著高于对照组(76.7%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组退热时间(1.48±0.16)d、住院时间(2.48±0.56)d,均显著短于对照组(2.23±0.47)d、(4.97±1.34)d],差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。随访1年后,

  11. 无抽搐电休克对精神病症状的效果及治疗原理探讨%Modified Electric Convulsive Therapy treatment psychotic symptoms effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨开波

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨无抽搐电休克(Modified Electric Convulsive Therapy MECT)治疗精神病症状的效果及探讨MECT治疗原理。方法将我院2011年1月~2011年12月,在我院接受MECT治疗的86例精神病病人治疗前后的简明精神病量表(BPRS)资料进行分析。结果 MECT抑郁症的疗效最好(90.91%),其次为躁狂症(86.36%),精神分裂症(74.19%);总有效率为83.72%,尤其以敌对猜疑、激活性两因子减分显著;对不合作、兴奋、吵闹、敌对、妄想状态、拒食及木僵等症状的有较好的效果。结论 MECT治疗精神病有效;是控制精神科急、危、重、难症状的有效措施之一。MECT治疗原理,可能是影响神经元突触后膜受体的敏感性有关。%objective Modified Electric Convulsive Therapy (MECT) treatment and the effects of psychiatric symptoms related problem. Methods from 2011 years from January 2011 to December, accept MECT treatment in our hospital of 86 cases of mental ilness the patient's before treatment, after the brief psychiatric scale (BPRS) data were analyzed. Results the total effective rate was 83.72%, especialy with suspicion, activate the two hostile sexual deduction significant factor; To not cooperation, excited, noisy, hostile, state, and MuJiang delusion refusing foods such as the symptoms have better effect. Conclusion MECT treatment mental effective; Is the control psychiatric urgent, dangerous, heavy, one of the effective measures to symptoms.

  12. 中西医结合治疗小儿烧伤后惊厥的临床疗效观察%Therapeutic Effect of Combination of Traditional Chinese Medicine and West Medicine for Convulsion after Burn Injury in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of the combination of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) and west medicine for convulsion after burn injury in children. Methods 96 children with convulsion after burn injury,admitted to our hospital from January 2005 to December 2013,were randomly divided into control group and observation group with each group 48 cases. The control group was given west medicine treatment,including opening air passages,oxygen uptake,sedation, relieving convulsion and abatement of fever. While the observation group was given additional drip-feed of Qingkailing Injection, oral Bezoar Bolus,oral and packed Zixue Pellet.χ2 was used to compare the therapeutic effect of the two groups. Results After treatment,32 cases were significantly improved,14 cases were improved and 2 cases were invalid in the observation group,with a total therapeutic effect of 95. 8%;26 cases were significantly improved,8 cases were improved and 14 cases were invalid in the control group,with a total therapeutic effect of 70. 8%,which was significantly higher than the control group(χ2 =11. 56, P<0. 05). Conclusion The therapeutic effect is fairly good by combining TCM and west medicine,which is conducive to the childrenˊs immediate rehabilitation.%目的:观察中西医结合治疗小儿烧伤后惊厥的临床疗效。方法选取2005年1月-2013年12月本院烧伤科收治的烧伤后惊厥患儿96例,将其随机分为对照组和观察组,各48例。对照组患儿给予西医治疗,包括通畅呼吸道、吸氧、镇静、止痉、退热等常规治疗。观察组在对照组治疗的基础上,另给予清开灵注射液静脉滴注,安宫牛黄丸口服,紫雪丹口服、外敷。采用χ2检验比较两组患儿治疗后的总有效率。结果治疗后观察组显效32例,有效14例,无效2例,总有效率为95.8%;对照组显效26例,有效8例,无效14例,总有效率为70.8%。观察组患儿总

  13. 微量泵维持静脉注射咪达唑仑治疗惊厥持续状态疗效观察%Clinical effect of continuous infusion of midazolam in the treatment of infants' status convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹淮祥; 周瑞; 陈兰举; 陈娟娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect and safe of continuous infusion of midazolam in the treatment of infants' status convulsion. Methods 104 cases of infants with status convulsion were randomly assigned into midazolam group or diazepam group: Midazolam 59 cases in Midazolam group were initially given first-dose of midazolam 0. 1 ~0. 2 mg ·kg-1 intravenously, and after that given maintenance dose of 0.1 ~0. 2 mg · kg-1 · h-1 ,iv,continuously;45 cases in Diazepam group were initiated with a loading dose of 0.2 ~0.3 mg · kg-1. After initial dose,a maintenance dose of 0. 1 ~0. 2 mg · kg-1 · h-1 was added. Each medicine was administered with a virtual safe dose according to condition of seizures. The dose and efficacy of midazolam or diazepam were evaluated,the side effect in these infants were observed too. Results The effective rates in the midazolam group and diazepam group were 94.9% and 80% , respectively. There was a significant deviation(x2 =4.65 P 0.05) in the midazol.fim group, Conclusion Intravenous midazolam infusion may be more effective tnan diazepam infusion in controlling infants status convulsion, in addition, midazolam has minor influence on circulatorium system.%目的 研究咪达唑仑持续静脉泵入治疗小儿惊厥持续状态的临床效果及价值.方法 选择惊厥持续状态患儿104例,随机分为两组:咪达唑仑组59例,地西泮组45例.咪达唑仑组静脉注射负荷量0.1~0.2 mg·kg-1后,以0.1~0.2 mg·kg-1·h-1持续泵入;地西泮组静脉注射负荷量0.2~0.3 mg·kg-1后,以0.1~0.2 mg·kg-1·h-1持续泵入.两组均根据惊厥发作次数调整至有效安全剂量,并维持至减量停药.观察两组患儿用药剂量、治疗有效性及不良反应.结果 咪达唑仑组和地西泮组有效率分别是94.9%和80%,二组比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.65,P<0.05);咪达唑仑对心率、血压无明显影响,而地西泮组心率、血压有明显降低(P<0.05).结论 咪达唑仑比地西泮

  14. 地西泮联合苯巴比妥对小儿惊厥患者的临床效果研究%Clinical effect of diazepam and phenobarbital in children with febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴文利

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect of diazepam and phenobarbital in children with febrile convulsion.Methods Seventy cases of febrile convulsion patients were divided into control group (phenobarbital treatment,35 cases) and experiment group (diazepam combined with phenobarbital,35 cases) by random digits table method,and compared the efficacy and complications.Results Two groups were cured within 1 h.The effective rate within 30 min in experiment group was significantly higher than that in control group [88.6% (31/35) vs.74.3% (26/35)] (P < 0.05).The recurrent rate in experiment group was significantly lower than that in control group [2.9% (1/35) vs.14.3% (5/35)] (P < 0.05).The complications had no statistically significant differences between two groups(P > 0.05).Conclusions Diazepam combined with phenobarbital are very effective for children with febrile convulsion,can greatly improve clinical efficacy,decrease recurrent rate,and won't produce adverse reaction and complications,are the ideal treatment in the clinical treatment.%目的 探讨地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿惊厥患者的临床效果.方法 选取小儿惊厥患者70例,按随机数字表法分为对照组和试验组,每组35例,对照组患儿给予苯巴比妥药物治疗,试验组患儿给予地西泮联合苯巴比妥药物治疗.观察比较两组临床效果与并发症发生情况.结果 两组患儿均在1h内治愈.试验组患儿30 min内的治疗有效率为88.6%(31/35),明显高于对照组的74.3%(26/35),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).试验组患儿复发率为2.9%(1/35),明显低于对照组的14.3%(5/35),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组并发症发生情况比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 对小儿惊厥患者使用地西泮联合苯巴比妥的药物治疗,可以迅速提高临床治疗效果,降低惊厥复发的几率,并且不良反应及并发症少,是临床治疗中的理想治疗方式.

  15. 头孢曲松钠对大鼠热性惊厥的防治作用及机理研究%The Research of Mechanism and Effection in the Prevent and Therapeutic Course of Rats Febrile Convulsion with Ceftriaxone sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蕊; 李俊利

    2013-01-01

      目的研究头孢曲松钠对大鼠热性惊厥时脑内谷氨酸和谷氨酸转运体表达的影响,探讨头孢曲松钠对抗高热惊厥脑损伤的机制。方法利用热水浴惊厥模型诱导出生15d后100只Wistar大鼠发生10次热性惊厥,将其分为治疗组和对照组。治疗组大鼠每次惊厥一出现立即腹腔注射头孢曲松钠(分为50mg/kg,100mg/kg,200mg/kg),对照组大鼠仅腹腔注射等量生理盐水,利用免疫组织化学方法检测正常对照组和高热惊厥组大鼠脑内谷氨酸及谷氨酸转运体的表达,并进行定性及定量分析。结果高热惊厥时脑细胞内谷氨酸表达上升,而脑细胞膜和细胞间质中的谷氨酸转运体GLT-1表达下降;接受头孢曲松钠治疗的大鼠脑细胞谷氨酸表达降低,而GLT-1表达上升并呈剂量依赖性。结论头孢曲松钠可以上调热性惊厥大鼠皮层和海马CA1区GLT-1蛋白的表达。%Objective To study the effection to the expression of aminoglutaminic acid and aminoglutaminic acid transporter in brain of febrile convulsion rat about ceftriaxone sodium, approach the mechanism about febrile convulsion brain injured with ceftriaxone sodium . Methods:Selected only 100 maleness Wistar rats , age of 15 days,weight 30~45g. Divided the rat into 2 groups:normal control group(20) and febrile convulsion group(80). Utilized hot bath convulsion model to induce febrile convulsion 10 times with birth 15d Wistar rats, divided it into therapy group and control group. The rat of therapy group was injected with ceftriaxone sodium immediately when the convulsion had happened,(divided into 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg three doses),the rat of control group only was injected with normal saline into partes aequales,use the method of immunohistochemistry to test and analysis the express condition of aminoglutaminic acid and aminoglutaminic acid transporter about in brain of normal control and febrile convulsion group rat

  16. Recognition and management of febrile convulsion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Kirkham, Emily Natasha; Shirt, Bethany

    2015-08-26

    Febrile convulsion is characterised by convulsion associated with fever in an infant or child aged between six months and six years. The febrile illness causing the convulsion should not be secondary to an intracranial infection (meningitis or encephalitis) or acute electrolyte imbalance. Most cases of febrile convulsion are short lived and self-terminating. However, a few cases of prolonged febrile convulsion may need anticonvulsant medication to stop the seizure. Management is mainly symptomatic, although anticonvulsants may have a role in a small number of children with complex or recurrent febrile convulsion. Referral to paediatric neurologists may be necessary in cases of complex or recurrent febrile convulsion, or in those where a pre-existing neurological disorder exists. One third of children will develop a further febrile convulsion during subsequent febrile illness. Nurses have a vital role in managing children with febrile convulsion, educating parents about the condition and dispelling myths. This article outlines the presentation, management, investigations and prognosis for febrile convulsion, indicating how nurses working in different clinical areas can help to manage this common childhood condition.

  17. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate induced convulsions by 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skolnick, P.; Marvizon, J.C.G.; Jackson, B.W.; Monn, J.A.; Rice, K.C. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Lewin, A.H. (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid is a potent and selective ligand for the glycine modulatory site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex. This compound blocks the convulsions and deaths produced by N-methyl-D-aspartate in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast, 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid does not protect mice against convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole, strychnine, bicuculline, or maximal electroshock, and does not impair motor performance on either a rotarod or horizontal wire at doses of up to 2 g/kg. The methyl- and ethyl- esters of 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid are 5- and 2.3-fold more potent, respectively, than the parent compound in blocking the convulsant and lethal effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate. However, these esters are several orders of magnitude less potent than 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid as inhibitors of strychnine-insensitive ({sup 3}H)glycine binding, indicating that conversion to the parent compound may be required to elicit an anticonvulsant action.

  18. Convulsion following gastroenteritis in children without severe electrolyte imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorashi, Ziaaedin; Nezami, Nariman; Soltani-Ahari, Hassan; Ghorashi, Sona

    2010-01-01

    Three to five million children from among one billion with gastroenteritis die annually worldwide. The etiologic agent in developed countries is viral in 15-60% of cases, while in developing countries, bacteria and parasites are frequently reported as the etiologic factors. Neurologic signs including convulsion are seen in some cases of diarrhea. This study aimed to investigate the etiology, risk factors and short-term prognosis of gastroenteritis with convulsion. During a case-control study, 100 patients with gastroenteritis were enrolled into the case and control groups on the basis of convulsion or no convulsion development, respectively. This study was conducted in Tabriz Children's Hospital from March 2004 to March 2007. The age of patients ranged from 2 months to 7 years, and the groups were age- and sex-matched. Body temperature (BT), severity and type of dehydration, stool exam and culture, past history of convulsion in the patient and first-degree relatives, electrolyte imbalance, and short-term prognosis were studied and compared. The mean weight of groups was not different, while the frequency of fever at the time of admission, past history of febrile convulsion in first-degree relatives and severity of dehydration were significantly higher in the case group (p convulsion in the patient, shigellosis and antibiotic usage were also significantly higher in the case group (p = 0.025, p = 0.014 and p = 0.001). Convulsion mostly occurred in mild gastroenteritis accompanied with fever and positive history of febrile convulsion in first-degree relatives. History of febrile convulsion in the patient and shigellosis were associated with development of convulsion in patients with gastroenteritis. No significant electrolyte imbalance was observed in patients with gastroenteritis experiencing febrile convulsion.

  19. Renal Function in Children with Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan AFSHARKHAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Afsharkhas L, Tavasoli A. Renal Function in Children with Febrile Convulsions.Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4:57-61.AbstractObjectiveFebrile convulsions (FC are the most frequent seizure disorder in children.Some studies have detected serum electrolyte disturbances in patients with FC.This study determines serum electrolytes, renal function tests, and frequency of urinary tract infection in hospitalized children with FC.Materials & MethodsIn this descriptive, cross sectional study, we evaluated 291 children with FC admitted to the Neurology ward of Ali-Asghar Children’s Hospital from 2008–2013. Data was recorded on age, sex, type (simple, complex, and recurrence of seizures, family history of FC and epilepsy, serum electrolytes, renal function tests, and urinary tract infections.ResultsA total of 291 patients with diagnosis of FC were admitted to our center. Of these 291 patients, 181 (62.2% were male. The mean age was 24.4 ± 14.6 months.There were simple, complex, and recurrent FCs in 215 (73.9%, 76 (26.1% and 61 (21% of patients, respectively. Urinary tract infections (UTI were found in 13 (4.5% patients, more present in females (p-value = 0.03 and under 12 months of age (p-value = 0.003. Hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypokalemia was detected in 32 (11%, 16 (5.5%, and 4 (1.4% of cases, respectively. Twentyfour (8.2% patients had a glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2.There were no abnormalities in serum magnesium, BUN, and creatinine levels.ConclusionDuring FCs, mild changes may occur in renal function but a serum electrolyte evaluation is not necessary unless patients are dehydrated. In children with FC, urinary tract infections should be ruled out. ReferencesGhofrani M. Febrile Convulsion: Another look at an old subject. Iran J Child Neurology 2006 June:1(1:5-9.Swaiman K, Ashwal S, Ferriero D, Schor N. Swaiman’s Pediatric Neurology: Principles and Practice. 5th edition

  20. Automated differentiation between epileptic and non-epileptic convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was the clinical validation of an automated algorithm based on surface electromyography (EMG) for differentiation between convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Forty-four consecutive episodes with convulsive events were automatically analyzed...... with the algorithm: 25 generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) from 11 patients, and 19 episodes of convulsive PNES from 13 patients. The gold standard was the interpretation of the video-electroencephalographic recordings by experts blinded to the EMG results. The algorithm correctly classified 24 GTCSs (96......%) and 18 PNESs (95%). The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95%. This algorithm is useful for distinguishing between epileptic and psychogenic convulsive seizures....

  1. Involvement of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion by use of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Ryo; Kaneko, Erina; Tanaka, Yusuke; Honda, Kenji; Matsuda, Toshio; Baba, Akemichi; Komuro, Issei; Kita, Satomi; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Takano, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    Involvement of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsion by use of NCX knockout mice and the selective ligand SEA0400 to NCX was examined. In the SEA0400-administered group, the latency to clonic convulsion was extended into 210 s, although the latency to clonic convulsion was observed until 100 s in control group. SEA0400 had little effect on bicuculline-induced clonic seizure nicotine-induced wild running and 4-aminopyridine-induced tonic flexion, respectively. Tonic flexion convulsion was occurred three fifth in the wild type mice group by administration of PTZ, but tonic flexion was not observed in NCX1 knockout mice groups. These results suggest that NCX is involved in inhibitory action in PTZ-induced convulsion.

  2. Efficacy of buccal midazolam compared to intravenous diazepam in controlling convulsions in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Bibek; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop

    2009-11-01

    A study was done to examine the efficacy of buccal midazolam in controlling convulsion in children by comparing it with intravenous diazepam, a standard mode of treating convulsions. One hundred and twenty cases presenting with convulsions to emergency were treated randomly with either buccal midazolam (in a dose of 0.2mg/kg) or intravenous diazepam (in a dose of 0.3mg/kg). Partial seizures, generalized tonic, clonic and tonic-clonic convulsions were included irrespective of duration or cause. One episode per child only was included. The frequency of overall control of convulsive episodes within 5 min were 85% and 93.3% in buccal midazolam and intravenous diazepam groups, respectively; the difference was, however, not statistically significant (p=0.142). The mean time needed for controlling the convulsive episodes after administration of the drugs was significantly less with intravenous diazepam (p=diazepam (p=0.004) that is likely to be due to longer time needed for initiating treatment with intravenous diazepam in preparing the injection and establishing an IV line. There was no significant side effect in both the groups. The findings suggest that buccal midazolam can be used as an alternative to intravenous diazepam especially when getting an IV line becomes difficult. In situations where establishing an IV line is a problem, buccal midazolam may be the first choice.

  3. Prognosis and predictors of convulsion among pediatric lupus nephritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beiraghdar Fatemeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to analyze features and outcome of convulsion in pediatric lupus nephritis patients. We retrospectively reviewed data of 14 Iranian children with lupus nephritis who developed seizures and compared them with a group of the same number of well matched pe-diatric lupus nephritis patients. Higher serum creatinine levels and higher frequencies of anemia and lymphopenia were observed in the convulsion group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis re-vealed that the only risk factor for development of convulsion in pediatric lupus patients with ne-phritis was lymphopenia. Survival analysis showed that convulsion had no impact on patient and renal function outcomes in our pediatric lupus nephritis subjects. In conclusion, we found that lympho-penia is a predictive factor for convulsion occurrence in our patients and special attention to neuro-logical status assessment may be needed in this situation.

  4. Prognosis and predictors of convulsion among pediatric lupus nephritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Maddani, Abbas; Taheri, Saeed; Sharifi-Bonab, Mir Mohsen; Esfahani, Taher; Panahi, Yunes; Einollahi, Behzad

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to analyze features and outcome of convulsion in pediatric lupus nephritis patients. We retrospectively reviewed data of 14 Iranian children with lupus nephritis who developed seizures and compared them with a group of the same number of well matched pediatric lupus nephritis patients. Higher serum creatinine levels and higher frequencies of anemia and lymphopenia were observed in the convulsion group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the only risk factor for development of convulsion in pediatric lupus patients with nephritis was lymphopenia. Survival analysis showed that convulsion had no impact on patient and renal function outcomes in our pediatric lupus nephritis subjects. In conclusion, we found that lymphopenia is a predictive factor for convulsion occurrence in our patients and special attention to neurological status assessment may be needed in this situation.

  5. THE EFFECT OF ANTICONVULSANT DRUGS (PHENOBARBITAL AND VALPROIC ACID ON THE SERUM LEVEL OF CHOLESTEROL, TRIGLYCERIDE, LIPOPROTEIN AND LIVER ENZYMES IN CONVULSIVE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza SALEHIOMRAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveStudies on the effect of various antiepileptic drugs on serum lipids show contradictory results. We aimed to find the effect of Phenobarbital and Sodium Valproate monotherapy on serum lipid profile and liver function tests in epileptic children.Materials & MethodsThis cohort study was conducted in Amirkola Children Hospital. One hundred and ten children with epilepsy were included in this study. Children with hepatic or renal disease, those receiving medications which could alter liver function tests or serum lipid profile were excluded from the study. Patients were allocated into two groups. The first group, including 63 patients, received Phenobarbital and the second group, including 47 patients, received Sodium Valproate, both in divided doses. A venous blood sample was collected after overnight fasting to evaluate serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and liver function tests. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 17.ResultsIn children receiving Phenobarbital, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, ALP, SGOT and SGPT increased significantly after treatment, but TG level showed no significant changes. In children receiving Sodium Valproate, HDL, ALP, SGOT, SGPT significantly increased after treatment but there were no statistically significant changes in total cholesterol, LDL and TG. In our study, the plasma levels of LPa elevated significantly after treatment with Phenobarbital and Sodium Valproate (P Value=0.0001. This increase was more significant in patients receiving Sodium Valproate.ConclusionOur results suggested a need for monitoring serum total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG levels in patients receiving Phenobarbital and Valproic Acid.Keywords: Seizure, Phenobarbital, Sodium Valproate.

  6. [Management of convulsive status epilepticus in infants and children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, P; Parain, D; Vallée, L

    2009-04-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus in childhood is a life threatening condition with serious risk of neurological sequelae which constitutes a medical emergency. Clinical and experimental data suggest that prolonged seizures can have immediate and long-term adverse consequences on the immature and developing brain. So the child who presents with a continuous generalized convulsive seizure lasting greater than five minutes should be promptly treated. The outcome is mainly determined by the underlying etiology, age and duration of status epilepticus. In children the mortality from status epilepticus ranges from 3 to 5% and the morbidity is two-fold higher. Mortality and morbidity are highest with status epilepticus associated with central nervous system infections, which is the most important cause of status epilepticus. There are few evidence-based data to guide management decisions for the child with status epilepticus. Immediate goals are stabilization of airways, breathing and circulation and termination of seizures. Benzodiazepines remain the first-line drugs recommended for prompt termination of seizures. As intravenous lorazepam is not available in France, we suggest clonazepam as the best choice for initial therapy. Rectal diazepam or buccal midazolam remain important options. Intravenous phenytoin/fosphenytoin and phenobarbital are the second-line drugs. Phenytoin is being increasingly substituted by fosphenytoin, but pediatric data are scarce and fosphenytoin is not authorized for use in France below five years old. In children, phenytoin is often preferred to phenobarbital, even though no comparative studies have demonstrated a better efficacy. To manage status epilepticus refractory to a benzodiazepine and administration of phenytoin and/or phenobarbital, many pediatricians today prefer high-dose midazolam infusion rather than thiopental to minimize serious side effects from barbiturate anesthesia. There is no benefit/risk ratio to support the use of propofol

  7. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations.

  8. Behavioral and antiepileptic effects of acute administration of the extract of the plant Cestrum nocturnum Lin (lady of the night).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Saad, Héctor; Buznego, María T

    2008-04-01

    Cestrum nocturnum is a garden shrub from the family Solanaceae and is used as a remedy for different health disorders. The aim of the present work was to investigate the potential neuropharmacological action profile of decoctions obtained from dry leaves of the plant. Decoctions were tested in different neuropharmacological models-Irwin test, exploratory behavior, tests for analgesia, isoniazid- and picrotoxin-induced convulsions, and maximal electroshock seizures-in mice, as well as in amphetamine-induced stereotypies and penicillin epileptic foci in rats. Decoctions of 1 and 5% (D1 and D5) induced restlessness, and the 30% decoction (D30) induced passivity. D5 and D30 reduced significantly exploratory behavior and amphetamine-induced stereotypies within a 3-hour observation period. The latter effect was apparent during the second 60 minutes. Decoctions reduced the amount of writhes induced by acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner, but were not effective in the hot plate model. The decoctions were not effective against pharmacologically induced convulsions. However, repeated administration of five doses of D5, at 1-hour intervals, reduced the amplitude of penicillin-induced epileptic spikes in both primary and secondary foci, in curarized rats. Taken together, the results suggest that C. nocturnum possesses active substances with analgesic activity provided through a peripheral action mechanism, in parallel with some psychoactive activity that does not fit well the neuropharmacological action profile of known reference neurotropic drugs.

  9. Convulsive seizures with a therapeutic dose of isoniazid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Kazuya; Ikematsu, Yuuki; Hashisako, Mikiko; Harada, Eiji; Miyagi, Hiroto; Fujisawa, Nobumitsu

    2014-01-01

    An 86-year-old woman who had been treated for tuberculous peritonitis and pulmonary tuberculosis, exhibited a disturbance of consciousness and tonic-clonic convulsions seven days after the administration of the antituberculous drug isoniazid. As her serum vitamin B6 level was remarkably low, she was diagnosed with convulsive seizures due to vitamin B6 deficiency associated with isoniazid treatment. Seizures refractory to standard anticonvulsant therapy were controlled with the administration of pyridoxine. Most reported cases of isoniazid-induced convulsive seizures occurred as a result of an overdose due to attempted suicide. This report presents a case of convulsive seizures that occurred in association with the short-term administration of a therapeutic dose of isoniazid.

  10. Etiology of convulsions in neonatal and infantile period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, T; Yokata, K; Takashima, S; Nambu, Y; Hanai, T

    1976-01-01

    1) Etiology of convulsions starting prior to two years of age was discussed in 418 cases. Neonatal seizures before 30 days old appeared in 86 cases (53 boys and 33 girls). Three hundred and thirty-two patients (172 boys and 160 girls) had convulsions in infancy. Twelve patients (9 boys and 3 girls) suffered from convulsions both in neonatal and infantile period. 2)Etiology of convulsions was prenatal in 67 cases (16%), natal in 49 cases (12%), postnatal in 158 cases (38%) and unknown in 144 cases (34%). Prenatal factors consisted of cerebral malformation (23 cases, 6%), associated physical minor anomaly such as cataracta or finger abomaly (11 cases, 3%), abnormal pernatal history (8 cases, 2%), congenital heart disease 3) cases, 1%), tuberose scleorsis (7 cases, 2%) and positive family history (13 cases, 3%). Postnatal causes included hypocalcemia or hypoglycemia (7 cases, 2%), brain tumors (3 cases, 1%), breath-holding spells (21 cases, 5%), febrile convulsion (44 cases, 11%), bathing (3 cases, 1%), afebrile colds (3 cases, 1%), purulent meningitis (17 cases, 4%), DPT immunization (10 cases 2%), vaccination (7 cases, 2%) and acute hemiplegia (10 cases, 2%). The group of unknown etiology were as fns (38 cases, 9%), epilepsy associated with interictal signs (23 cases, 6%), benign infantile convulsions (57 cases, 14%), neonatal convulsion of unknown etiology (12 cases, 3%) and miscellaneous categories (4%). 3) Pregnancy was abnormal in 53% of cases with cerebral malformation. Asphyxia at birth was noted in 43% of patients with tuberose sclerosis and in 35% of congenital cerebral abomaly. 4) Pneumoencephalographic examinations revealed midline anomaly in 50% of cerebral malformation. It was abnormal in all cases with tuberose sclerosis, head injury and epilepsy with interseizure neurological signs. 5) There were no correlations between the seizure pattern and the etiology in neonatal convulsion. In infancy, focal-unilateral convulsions and infantile spasms were

  11. Relationship between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Soo Jun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants has been examined in several studies with conflicting results. Therefore, the authors aimed to evaluate the precise relationship involved. Methods : In this case-control study, the authors assessed 100 children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsion, aged between 9 months and 2 years, during January 2007 to July 2009. The control group consisted of 100 febrile children without convulsion; controls were closely matched to the cases by age, gender, and underlying disease. Results : The mean ages of the febrile convulsion and control group were 16.3¡?#?.4 ;and 15.8¡?#?.1 ;months, respectively, and the two groups had no differences in clinical features. Iron deficiency anemia (Hb &lt;10.5 gm/dL was more frequent in the febrile convulsion group than in the control group, although there was no statistical significance. Unexpectably, the RDW (red blood cell distribution width was significantly lower and the MCNC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly higher among seizure cases than among the controls (P&lt;0.05. There is no statistical difference between simple and complex febrile groups in the clinical and laboratory profiles. On multiple logistic regression analysis, iron deficiency anemia was more frequent, but the RDW was lower, among the cases with febrile convulsion, compared with the controls. Conclusions : Our study suggests that the iron deficiency anemia is associated with febrile convulsion, and screening for iron deficiency anemia should be considered in children with febrile convulsions.

  12. Hashimoto's Encephalopathy Presenting with Acute Cognitive Dysfunction and Convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woo-Hyuk; Na, Ju-Young; Kim, Meyung-Kug; Yoo, Bong-Goo

    2013-12-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by acute or subacute encephalopathy related to increased anti-thyroid antibodies. Clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's encephalopathy may include stroke-like episodes, altered consciousness, psychosis, myoclonus, abnormal movements, seizures, and cognitive dysfunction. Acute cognitive dysfunction with convulsion as initial clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's encephalopathy is very rare. We report a 65-year-old man who developed acute onset of cognitive decline and convulsion due to Hashimoto's encephalopathy.

  13. Convulsion-related activities of Scutellaria flavones are related to the 5,7-dihydroxyl structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seo Young; dela Peña, Ike Campomayor; Shin, Chan Young; Son, Kun Ho; Lee, Yong Soo; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ko, Kwang Ho

    2011-06-01

    We screened the major bioactive flavones isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis (baicalin, baicalein and oroxylin A) for their convulsion related activities. In electrogenic response score system and the pentylenetetrazole seizure model, baicalein but not oroxylin A and baicalin exhibited anticonvulsant effects. In vitro studies also revealed that baicalein induced intracellular Cl(-) influx, whereas oroxylin A blocked muscimol- and baicalein-induced intracellular Cl(-) influx. The anticonvulsant effect of baicalein was inhibited by flumazenil, a benzodiazepine(BZD) receptor antagonist. Therefore, anticonvulsive effect of baicalein was mediated by the BZD binding site of GABA(A) receptor. The 5, 7-dihydroxyl group is present in the structure of the three flavones. It is postulated that this group played a key role in inducing convulsion-related activities.

  14. Effect of Health Education on Prevention of Simple Feverilsh Convulsion in Infants%健康教育对预防单纯性热性惊厥的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍世英

    2003-01-01

    @@ 热性惊厥(feverilsh convulsion,FC)多见于3岁以下婴幼儿,是儿科急性热性病高热时的合并症,其再发率高.在初次惊厥以后约25%~40%(平均33%)的患儿在以后的热性病时出现惊厥复发[1].如果反复发作,会不同程度的影响脑功能.

  15. 异丙酚预先给药对抑郁大鼠电休克后海马Glu和GABA水平的影响%Effects of propofol pretreatment on the levels of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid in hippocampus of mentally depressed rats after electro-convulsive therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永峰; 闵苏; 董军; 魏珂; 曹俊; 黎平

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of propofol pretreatment on the levels of glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobytyric acid (GABA) in hippocampus of mentally depressed rats after electro-convulsive therapy.Methods Thirty male 2-3 month old SD rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into 5 groups ( n = 6each) : group Ⅰ control (C) ; group Ⅱ mental depression (D) ; group Ⅲ propofol (P) ; group Ⅳ electric shock (E) and groupV propofol + electric shock (PE). Mental depression was induced by subjecting the animals to different kinds of stresses every day for 21 consecutive days in group Ⅱ - Ⅴ. After mental depression had been induced, the animals received intraperitoneal (IP) propofol 100 mg/kg in group P, electric shock in group E and propefol 100 mg/kg + electric shock in group PE respectively once every 2 days × 6 times. The anxiety-related behavior was assessed by open-field test and scored (the higher the score the better) on the day before induction of mental depression was started (To ,baseline), on the 1st day after mental depression had been induced (T1) and on the 2nd day after treatment (T2). The learning ability and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze at T1 and T2. The animals were killed after the last test and their brains were removed and bilateral hippocampi were isolated for determination of glutamate and GABA contents by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Results The behavior scores and learning ability and memory were significandy decreased in group Ⅱ-Ⅴ as compared with the control group (P0.05);与E组比较,PE组学习记忆功能增强,Glu含量升高,GABA含量降低,Glu/GABA比值升高(P<0.05).结论 异丙酚预先给药改善电休克治疗后学习记忆功能的机制可能与异丙酚调节Glu和GABA功能状态的平衡有关.

  16. Anticonvulsive effect of agmatine in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-QiangLu; Rui-BinSu; Xiao-LiWei; YinLiu; JinLi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The present study was designed to examine the effect of agmatine, the decarboxylated product of L-arginine by L- arginine decarboxylase, on convulsion in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES) test and mouse glutamate-induced convulsion test. METHODS: MES convulsion and glutamate convulsion were respectively induced by an electrical stimulation

  17. The novel anticonvulsant, gabapentin, protects against both convulsant and anxiogenic aspects of the ethanol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, W P; Robinson, E; Little, H J

    1997-10-01

    The effects of the anticonvulsant, gabapentin, were investigated, in mice, on the withdrawal convulsive behaviour and anxiety-related behaviour that are produced by cessation of prolonged intake of ethanol. When given at 50 or 100 mg/kg, this compound decreased the rise in handling-induced hyperexcitability which occurs during the withdrawal period; the effects were most pronounced for the first 4 hr after administration. Gabapentin also decreased the convulsive response to an audiogenic stimulus during the withdrawal period. The elevated plus-maze, with both traditional and ethological indices of activity was used as a test of anxiety-related behaviour after cessation of chronic ethanol treatment. Gabapentin, at 50 and 100 mg/kg, was found to decrease some, although not all, of the signs of withdrawal-induced anxiety. At doses up to and including 200 mg/kg, gabapentin had no effect on motor co-ordination or spontaneous locomotor activity in control animals. The results demonstrated that gabapentin has a selective action in decreasing both convulsive and anxiety-related aspects of withdrawal behaviour after chronic ethanol treatment. It is possible that further studies with this compound may shed further light on the mechanisms involved in the withdrawal syndrome.

  18. Lymphocytes subsets in children with febrile convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Oğuz; Karaman, Sait; Caksen, Hüseyin; Oner, Ahmet Faik; Odabas, Dursun; Yilmaz, Cahide; Atas, Bülent

    2007-07-01

    In this study, lymphocytes subsets including blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, and CD56 values were analyzed in children with febrile convulsion (FC) to determine whether there was the association of lymphocytes subsets in the pathogenesis of FC. The study includes 48 children with FC, and 55 healthy age matched control subjects, followed in Yüzüncü Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics between October 2003 and June 2004. Blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, and CD56 values were examined in the study and control groups. The analyses were performed in the Hematology Laboratory, Yüzüncü Yil University Faculty of Medicine, with flow cytometer device (Coulter Epics XL2, Flow Cytometer). A total of 48 children [17 girls (35.5%) and 31 boys (64.5%)], aged 6 months to 60 months (mean 22.20 +/- 13.75 months) with FC and 55 healthy children [28 girls (51%) and 27 boys (49%)], aged 6 months to 60 months (mean 28.87 +/- 17.04 months) were included in the study. When compared with the control group, the study found significantly decreased blood CD3 and CD4 values in the study group (p .05). When comparing the children with and without positive family history for FC, the study did not find any difference for all CD values between the groups (p >.05). Similarly, there was not significant difference in CD values between the children with simple and complex FC (p >.05). The findings suggested that decreased blood CD3 and CD4 values might be responsible for the infections connected with FC or that they might be related to the pathogenesis of FC in some children.

  19. Diagnosis and emergency treatment of convulsion in children%儿童惊厥的诊断与急救处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟建民

    2011-01-01

    Convulsion is a common pediatric emergency and the most frequent clinical feature among the diseases of nervous system in children.Convulsion emergencies are potèntially life-threatening events.Brief convulsions rarely produce lasting effects on the brain.Prolonged convulsions,especially status epilepticus,can lead to permanent neurologic damage.Airway management and timely termination of the convulsion are the initial priorities.Early recognition and accurate diagnosis are crucial for effective emergency treatment of convulsion.%惊厥是常见儿科急症,也是最常见的小儿神经系统症状,有些惊厥可能危及患儿生命.一般短暂的惊厥对大脑几乎没有明显影响,但长程惊厥尤其是癫(痫)持续状态则可能导致神经系统永久损害.气道管理和及时控制惊厥发作是最优先考虑的急救处理措施.小儿惊厥的早期识别和正确诊断是急诊治疗成功的关键.

  20. New lessons: Classic treatments in convulsive status epilepticus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Renganathan, R

    2012-02-03

    Convulsive status epilepticus is a relatively common life-threatening illness requiring prompt intervention. There has been much debate about the appropriate protocol for management of convulsive status epilepticus. Published data on the management of this condition in Ireland is limited. Our aim was to establish if there was a structured, evidence-based or consensus-based protocol being implemented in the management of status epilepticus in our centre. We retrospectively audited all charts with a diagnosis of \\'Status Epilepticus\\' admitted to our hospital from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 95 episodes of convulsive status epilepticus were recorded. 34 charts were reviewed. Benzodiazepines were the drug class of first choice in 96% of patients. However, the doses of benzodiazepines used varied widely. The most frequent dose of phenytoin used was 1 gram. No one received continuous EEG monitoring during treatment of refractory status epilepticus. Overall mortality was 18%. The results of this study show that there is no consistent protocol was being followed for the management of convulsive status epilepticus in our centre. The drugs of first choice varied between diazepam and lorazepam in most cases. Although phenytoin was used as second line drug, the dose used was frequently suboptimal. We have developed a protocol for the management for convulsive status in our centre.

  1. EEG disorder in patients with complex febrile convulsion and underlying risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Hemmati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile seizures are the most common convulsion disorder in childhood. The possible risk of developing epilepsy in febrile seizures is about 2-10%. EEG is helpful to diagnose epilepsy; however, there are controversies about the abnormal EEG and associated risk factors .The aim of this study was to determine EEG abnormality and effective risk factors in patients with complex febrile seizures. Methods: This study was conducted on the patients with complex febrile seizures in 2009-2010.EEG was performed on all children 6 to 10 days after seizure and reported by a neurologist. Demographic data and risk factors, including age, sex, family history of epilepsy and febrile convulsions, presentation of seizure, postictal neurological disorder were documented by a checklist and their association with EEG was analyzed. Results: 111 patients with complex febrile seizure, 70 girls and 41 boys, with the mean age of 3.4±20 months were studied. EEG was abnormal in 37.8% of patients, 9% were epileptic form abnormality and 28.8% were nonspecific abnormal. There was a statistically significant association between EEG abnormality in patients with focal seizures, family history of febrile seizures and postictal neurologic disorder (p<0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed abnormality of EEG in complex febrile convulsions in 37.8% of patients, which was significantly higher in patients with postictal neurological disorder, focal seizures and family history of febrile seizure.

  2. Investigation of phytochemicals and anti-convulsant activity of the plant Coleus amboinicus (lour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit Bhattacharjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study has been designed to evaluate the comparative anticonvulsant activity of different parts of Coleus amboinicus as it has been mentioned in the various literatures regarding the use of this plant in the treatment of epilepsy, but no specific scientific reports are available in this regard. Materials and Methods: The in vitro anticonvulsant activity of leaf, stem and roots of C. amboinicus has been evaluated by maximal electric shock-induced seizures (MES and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures models in Swiss albino mice. The drug/extracts were administered through intra-peritoneal route (100 mg/ml, in both experimental models and the effect was compared with Phenytoin in MES and PTZ-induced convulsion. Results: All the three studied extracts have shown significant anticonvulsant activity in both the models. However, the alcoholic leaf extract has shown highest activity by abolishing the MES-induced convulsions after 60 minutes of drug administration. The duration of convulsions in PTZ model was also significantly reduced (P < 0.001 compared to the control group. Conclusion: The alcoholic leaf extract of the C. amboinicus has shown the significant anticonvulsant activity in both the studied models, followed by stem and root extracts. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins in these extracts may be responsible for this activity.

  3. [Prolonged convulsion after intoxication of alachlor herbicide (Lasso): a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Hiromichi; Nagae, Masaharu; Okahara, Shuji; Maeyama, Hiroki; Okada, Daisuke; Hagioka, Shingo; Morimoto, Naoki

    2011-03-01

    We experienced a case of alachlor herbicide (Lasso) intoxication. A 57-year-old man was transported to our hospital by ambulance after ingesting 450 mL of Lasso. He was unconscious and had difficulty in breathing. Gastric lavage was performed after tracheal intubation and the patient was placed on mechanical ventilation. Activated charcoal and laxative were administrated. Even after admission, disturbance of consciousness persisted. He had liver and kidney disorders but these did not progress to multiple organ failure. He experienced convulsions from day 4 and was administered anticonvulsants. Convulsion was intractable and needed long-term treatment. His general condition improved until discharge. He was weaned from mechanical ventilation and recovered consciousness, but he still displayed tremors. The herbicide (Lasso) is a combination of alachlor and monochlorobenzene. Studies have shown that alachlor is neurotoxic and monochlorobenzene accumulates in the brain. In case of intoxication with the herbicide Lasso, treatment is required for ameliorating neurotoxic effects and intractable convulsion as well as liver and kidney disorders, gastrointestinal mucosal damage, hematopoietic disorder, and acute circulatory failure.

  4. Factors influencing mothers' role in convulsion treatment among under-five children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Ezenwa E; Awomoyi, Aanuoluwayomi O

    2009-01-01

    Convulsion among children between six months and five years is a major contributor to childhood mortality in less-developed societies, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies on under-five deaths have ignored the influence of socio-demographic and environmental factors as they relate to causes of the thematic health condition and available therapies. This study investigated mothers' perception of convulsion causation, relevant signs and symptoms, and the influence of socio-economic status on mothers' choice of remedies. The research was conducted in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria, which is densely populated with mainly Yoruba-speaking people. The study population comprised mothers who, at the time of fieldwork for the present analysis, had at least one under-five child. Five hundred questionnaire respondents were selected through a multistage sampling technique, and 14 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted among different categories of women identified through the snowball technique. Voluntary Social Action Theory and the Health Belief Model were used in explaining the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The findings show that the remedies mothers chose were strongly influenced by socio-demographic factors such as marriage type, religion, level of education, occupation and place of residence. It is strongly suggested that interventions, health policies and programs should focus on how best to empower women to effectively utilize medical information that will enable them recognize symptoms of this common health condition and/or undertake preliminary therapies that contribute positively to convulsion prevention or treatment.

  5. Rocuronium and sugammadex: An alternative to succinylcholine for electro convulsive therapy in patients with suspected neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramamoorthy, Karthik G

    2012-01-31

    We report a case of presumptive neuroleptic malignant syndrome requiring muscle relaxation for electro-convulsive therapy. short acting muscle relaxation without the use of succinylcholine was achieved using rocvronivm reversed with the novel reversal agent sugammadex. We suggest that this combination is a safe and effective alternative to succinylcholine in such cases.

  6. Rocuronium and sugammadex: An alternative to succinylcholine for electro convulsive therapy in patients with suspected neuroleptic malignant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik G Ramamoorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of presumptive neuroleptic malignant syndrome requiring muscle relaxation for electro-convulsive therapy. short acting muscle relaxation without the use of succinylcholine was achieved using rocvronivm reversed with the novel reversal agent sugammadex. We suggest that this combination is a safe and effective alternative to succinylcholine in such cases.

  7. The effects of abused inhalants on mouse behavior in an elevated plus-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, S E; Wiley, J L; Balster, R L

    1996-09-26

    Previous research has shown that abused inhalants (i.e., the volatile solvents) share some of the pharmacological properties of drugs used in the treatment of anxiety. In an attempt to further examine commonalities in the effects of inhalants and central nervous system depressant drugs, the behavioral effects of inhaled 1,1,1-trichloroethane, toluene, methoxyflurane and the convulsant vapor flurothyl were examined and compared to those of diazepam in the elevated plus-maze, a test used to predict antianxiety effects. After inhalant exposure or diazepam injection, mice were placed in the center of an elevated plus-maze and the number of entries and time spent in each type of arm (open versus closed) were measured during 5-min tests. Exposure to increasing concentrations of toluene produced concentration-related increases in the total number of open arm entries and the total time spent on the open arms, a pattern of behavioral effects similar to that produced by diazepam. A similar pattern was observed for increasing concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and methoxyflurane but changes in open arm activity were only observed at concentrations that increased locomotor activity. Conversely, only decreases in open arm time and number of entries were observed for flurothyl. The increasing evidence for commonalities in the behavioral effects of volatile solvents and depressant drugs may provide a foundation for understanding the neurobehavioral basis of inhalant abuse.

  8. Comparison of different effects of electric stimulation of vagus nerve,peripheral nerve,and motor cortex on pentylenetetrazol induced convulsion in rats%迷走神经、躯体神经与运动皮质电刺激对戊四氮点燃大鼠惊厥行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏彧; 刘玉玺

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether there are different effects of electric stimulation of vagus nerve,peripheral nerve(sciatic nerve and trigeminal nerve),and motor cortex on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)induced convulsion in rats.Methods The vagus nerve and sciatic nerve were exposed in rats.The stimulation electrodes were placed on the vagus nerve,sciatic nerve,trigeminal nerve,and motor cortex,respectively.After electric stimulation,PTZ(50 mg/kg)was intraperitoneally injected into the rats.The pattern and latency of the convulsion seizure were observed and recorded.Results Racine's grade Ⅰ-Ⅴ grade convulsion seizure Was present in 9 rats(9/10)in the control group after the injection of PTZ.However,this intensity Was reduced to Ⅰ-Ⅲ grade differentially in all the rats by electric stimulation of the vagus nerve(5/10)or peripheral nerve(6/10 and 5/10).Furthermore,in the group of rats stimulated at motor cortex,there Was completely no convulsion.On the other hand,when pathological changes appeared in cortex or hippocampus(i.e.epileptic model was set up by 7 weeks stimulation),the same stimulation of motor cortex was not able to inhibit the convulsion seizure induced by injection of PTZ and all these rats showed Ⅳ-Ⅴ grade seizure(10/10).Conclusions In physiological condition,all of the four types of stimulation differentially reduced intensity of convulsion seizure triggered by PIZ injection and motor cortex stimulation has the best effect.However.when rats were in pathological status and epileptic nidus appeared in their brains.stimulatiion of motor cortex has no effect on PTZ induced convulsion seizure.%目的 探讨迷走神经、躯体神经(坐骨神经、三叉神经)与运动皮质电刺激对戊四氮点燃大鼠惊厥行为的影响是否存在差异.方法 分别剥离大鼠迷走神经、坐骨神经(三叉神经不予以剥离)和建立运动皮质电刺激模型,给予上述4种电刺激后腹腔注射戊四氮50 mg/kg,观察

  9. PRRT2 phenotypes and penetrance of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and infantile convulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Rianne; Breedveld, Guido; de Rijk-van Andel, Johanneke; Brilstra, Eva; Verbeek, Nienke; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, Corien; Boon, Maartje; Samijn, Johnny; Diderich, Karin; van de Laar, Ingrid; Oostra, Ben; Bonifati, Vincenzo; Maat-Kievit, Anneke

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the phenotypes and penetrance of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), a movement disorder characterized by attacks of involuntary movements occurring after sudden movements, infantile convulsion and choreoathetosis (ICCA) syndrome, and benign familial infantile convulsions

  10. Differences between physiological and pathological convulsive thresholds in patients with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxi Liu; Leiyu Geng; Jiali Xu; Mingzheng Wang; Ce Zhang; Yu Zhang

    2008-01-01

    necessary to provoke convulsion of the forelimbs and/or facial muscles. Up to the TLS, if stimulation continued, the current intensity necessary to provoke the generalized seizures is called the threshold of generalized seizures (TGS). If stimulation is continued for about 2 seconds when the TGS is reached, rats still showed generalized clonic activity after stimulation ceased. When seizures stopped, a short period of immobility can be observed. The current intensity is called the threshold of prolonged seizures (TPS). The rats in the strong current group were stimulated up to the current level required to reach the TPS. In the course of stimulation, first, the TLS was recorded, then the TGS, and finally the TPS. The stimulation interval in one session was 10 minutes, repeated twice daily. The rats in the weak current group were only stimulated up to the current levels required to reach the TGS; first, the TLS was recorded and then the TGS was measured at the same time as the strong current group. Control animals were also equipped with a full electrode set and placed in the same conditions, but no stimulation took place, only electroencephalogram (EEG) recording at the same times as the experimental groups.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Stimulation of the two experimental groups lasted for 11 weeks and then observation of their behavior and electroencephalogram recording continued for 4 weeks. The control group was also observed over a total of 15 weeks. ② Observing neuronal damage/loss in the hippocampus with a light microscope using a 250× visual field.RESULTS: All 36 Wistar rats were included in the final analysis. At the beginning of the experiment, the convulsive thresholds were all above 1 100 μA, although there were significant individual variations among rats of the same group. Those thresholds quickly declined during the initial 4 weeks of repetitive electrical stimulation. The convulsive thresholds approached a constant level in the 10th week after commencement

  11. CONVULSIVE DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH REFERENCE TO TREATMENT WITH KETOGENIC DIET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEITH, HADDOW M.

    WRITTEN FOR THE MEDICAL PROFESSION, THIS BOOK PROVIDES INFORMATION ON CHILDHOOD CONVULSIONS (EPILEPSY) AND METHODS OF TREATMENT. VARIOUS CONVULSIVE DISORDERS, INCLUDING HYPSARHYTHMIA, AUTONOMIC SEIZURES, SYMPTOM COMPLEXES, FEBRILE CONVULSIONS, AND "PHOTOGENIC" DISORDERS, ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, AND TREATMENT.…

  12. Convulsion during intra-arterial infusion of fasudil hydrochloride for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Yukiko; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Iwama, Toru

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of convulsion and associated factors were retrospectively analyzed in 23 patients with symptomatic cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who underwent a total of 31 intra-arterial infusion of fasudil hydrochloride (IAFH) procedures in 49 vessels. Fasudil hydrochloride was administered by superselective infusion via a microcatheter positioned at the proximal portion of the affected artery. Thirteen procedures were performed by manually controlled infusion of 30-75 mg fasudil hydrochloride (1.2-3.75 mg/ml) for approximately 10 minutes. Eighteen procedures were performed by continuous infusion of 60 mg fasudil hydrochloride (1.2 mg/ml) by infusion pump at a constant rate of 3 mg/min. Neurological improvement was observed after 18 of 22 procedures in patients with neurological deterioration due to vasospasm. Convulsion during IAFH developed in 4 patients, all treated by manual infusion (p convulsion during IAFH. IAFH was effective for treating cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal SAH. IAFH at a constant rate of 3 mg/min delivered by infusion pump improved the symptoms of cerebral vasospasm and prevented convulsions during IAFH.

  13. Behavioral and electroencephalographic effects of delta sleep inducing peptide and its analogue on metaphit-induced audiogenic seizures in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojlović Olivera P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP is well known natural somnogenic peptide that has many other physiological functions. DSIP analogues representing hepta-and octapeptides (also known as long as well as tetrapeptide (termed short, used in our experiments were synthesized with a view to evaluate the peptide specificity in sleep. The effects of DSIP and its analogue DSIP1-4 on metaphit 1-[1(3-isothiocyanatophenyl-ciclohexyl-piperidine] induced audiogenic seizures were evaluated in rats. METHODS Male Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups: 1. Saline; 2. Metaphit; 3. Metaphit + DSIP, and 4. Metaphit + DSIP1-4. To examine the blocking effects of DSIP and its analogue on fully developed metaphit seizures, the last two groups were injected after the 8th audiogenic testing. Animals were injected with metaphit (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p. and exposed to sound stimulation (100±3 dB, 60 s at hourly intervals. The incidence and severity (running, clonus and tonus of seizures were analyzed. For electroencephalographic (EEG recordings, three gold-plated electrodes were used. Convulsive behavior was assessed by incidence of motor seizure and by seizure severity grade, determined by descriptive rating scale ranging from 0 to 3:0- no response, 1 -wild running only; 2-wild running followed by clonic seizures of all four limbs with body rollover; 3 - wild running progressing to generalized clonic convulsions followed by tonic extension of fore-and hind legs and tail. Sound onset, seizure events, and sound offset, along with the animal's behavior (convulsive or other were characterized with EEG changes. RESULTS In most animals, the administration of metaphit resulted in electroencephalographic abnormalities, elicited epileptic-form activity in the form of spikes, polyspikes and spike-wave complexes. Maximum incidence and severity of metaphit convulsions occurred 8 h after the injection (9/12, 75%, then abated gradually and disappeared 30 h

  14. Kluver-Bucy syndrome developed after convulsion: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Okur, Mesut; Yılmaz, Cahide; Epçaçan, Serdar; Üstyol, Lokman; Kaya, Avni; Çaksen, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Kluver-Bucy syndrome is characterized by increased appetite, hypersexuality, hypermetamorphosis, memory disorders, visual agnosia, stagnancy, aphasia, bulimia, polyuria, and polydipsia. A 14 year old girl had generalized tonic-clonic convulsions at admission, and an incomplete Kluver-Bucy syndrome with hypersexuality, recent memory disturbance, hypermetamorphosis, speech disturbance, hyperactivity, agitation, aggressiveness, and hallucinations, developed the following day. Here in, ...

  15. Treatment of 40 Cases of Infantile Convulsion by Tuina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Jie; ZHUANG An-shi; CUI Yi-jun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Infantile convulsion is a common disease in infants and babies and often caused by scare and improper nursing. Its main clinical manifestations are fright,crying and waking up with a start, etc. Since 1998, we have treated 40 cases by Tuina. It is summarized as follows.

  16. Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Seeds of Cassia Fistula against Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh P. Sawadadkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassia Fistula is a popular Indian herb which is used as tonic, laxative, anti-pyretic, astringent, febrifuge, strong purgative etc. The aim of present study was to evaluate anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced convulsions in mice. All the animals were divided into four groups of six mice each and were injected PTZ (60mg/kg intraperitonially Group I was served as toxic control, Group II was pretreated with  Gabapentin (200mg/kg P.O.. Group III was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (100 mg/kg P.O. for 7 days. Group IV was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (200mg/kg P.O. for 7 days.The result shows that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula significantly reduced duration of clonic convulsions and also delayed the onset of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. The result was expressed as mean ± SEM and were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. It is concluded that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula can show anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions in mice.

  17. Binding interactions of convulsant and anticonvulsant gamma-butyrolactones and gamma-thiobutyrolactones with the picrotoxin receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, K.D.; McKeon, A.C.; Covey, D.F.; Ferrendelli, J.A. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Alkyl-substituted gamma-butyrolactones (GBLs) and gamma-thiobutyrolactones (TBLs) are neuroactive chemicals. beta-Substituted compounds are convulsant, whereas alpha-alkyl substituted GBLs and TBLs are anticonvulsant. The structural similarities between beta-alkyl GBLs and the convulsant picrotoxinin suggested that alkyl substituted GBLs and TBLs act at the picrotoxin receptor. To test this hypothesis we examined the interactions of convulsant and anticonvulsant GBLs and TBLs with the picrotoxin, benzodiazepine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding sites of the GABA receptor complex. All of these convulsants and anticonvulsants studied competitively displaced 35S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (35S-TBPS), a ligand that binds to the picrotoxin receptor. This inhibition of 35S-TBPS binding was not blocked by the GABA antagonist bicuculline methobromide. The convulsant GBLs and TBLs also partially inhibited (3H)muscimol binding to the GABA site and (3H)flunitrazepam binding to the benzodiazepine site, but they did so at concentrations substantially greater than those that inhibited 35S-TBPS binding. The anticonvulsant GBLs and TBLs had no effect on either (3H)muscimol or (3H)flunitrazepam binding. In contrast to the GBLs and TBLs, pentobarbital inhibited TBPS binding in a manner that was blocked by bicuculline methobromide, and it enhanced both (3H)flunitrazepam and (3H)muscimol binding. Both ethosuximide and tetramethylsuccinimide, neuroactive compounds structurally similar to GBLs, competitively displaced 35S-TBPS from the picrotoxin receptor and both compounds were weak inhibitors of (3H) muscimol binding. In addition, ethosuximide also partially diminished (3H)flunitrazepam binding. These data demonstrate that the site of action of alkyl-substituted GBLs and TBLs is different from that of GABA, barbiturates and benzodiazepines.

  18. Effective Behavior of Composite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    7AD-A158 941 EFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR OF COMPOSITE MTERIRLS(A) NEW YORK i/i UNIV MY COURANT INST OF ATHEMATICAL SCIENCES 6CPAPANICOLAOU 23 APR 85 5274192... Courant ilfapphcabt e Instit.te of Math. Sciences AF0SR/NM 6c. ADDRESS Cit). State and ZIP Code, 7b. ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Code) 251 Mercer St Bldg...Papanicolaou Courant Institute 251 Mercer Street New York, N.Y. 10012 i~istr~utlo2 During this period two thesis ipja b&have completed ’their work and have

  19. Convulsive Movements in Bilateral Paramedian Thalamic and Midbrain Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Yamashiro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although some previous reports have described convulsive movements in bilateral paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarction, little is known about their nature. A 71-year-old man presented with impaired consciousness and clonic movements of both arms. Each series of movements lasted 10 to 20 s and occurred at 2- to 3-min intervals, which disappeared after intravenous administration of diazepam and phenytoin. Magnetic resonance imaging showed acute bilateral paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarction. A review of the literature revealed that convulsive movements were observed mostly at the onset of infarction. Clonic movements appeared frequently in the limbs, particularly in both arms. Clinical observations and results of animal experiments suggest that these seizures might originate from the mesencephalic reticular formation. Physicians should recognize this condition, because not only seizure control but also early management of ischemic stroke is required.

  20. Pediatric convulsive status epilepticus in Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero, Marco R; Holden, Kenton R; Rodriguez, Luis C; Collins, Julianne S; Samra, Jose A; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2009-10-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus (SE) in children is an important public health problem, particularly in low-resource countries. A surveillance study was performed with consecutive enrollment of all children presenting with convulsive SE to Hospital Escuela Materno-Infantil Emergency Department in Tegucigalpa, Honduras over a 13-week period in 2003. In the 47 children with SE, the mean age was 4.5 years and the median seizure duration was 95 min. Mortality and morbidity were higher in children from rural locations, with all six deaths and three cases of new neurologic abnormalities occurring in rural children who had acute symptomatic SE. We conclude that childhood SE is common in the low-resource developing country of Honduras. Given the long delays in obtaining initial treatment in pediatric emergency facilities, availability of prehospital treatment may be of particular importance in this setting.

  1. Convulsions in early post-partum period, a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil H. Inamdar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic (tapeworm infection of the brain worldwide. It presents as hydrocephalus and acute onset seizures. A 28-year-old para 3 live 3 [P3L3], post-partum [day 7], resident of Arvi, presented in casualty during emergency hours with headache and fever since 7 days. She presented with h/o convulsions 2 episodes, one on day 5 and one on day 7 of her full term vaginal home delivery. She presented to the Emergency Department on day 7 with generalised tonic-clonic seizures preceded by nausea and headache. All her blood investigations were within normal limits except an extremely surprising finding on CT scan. 40% of patients having postpartum convulsions do not experience preeclampsia, clinical awareness is essential for early treatment and care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 231-233

  2. Transient hyperammonemia associated with postictal state in generalized convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan-Ting; Yang, Shih-Chia; Yeh, I-Jeng; Lin, Tzeng-Jih; Lee, Chi-Wei

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies revealed that transient hyperammonemia was noted after generalized convulsion. This study was undertaken to analyze the association between postictal state and serum ammonia levels. Adult patients presenting to the emergency department with seizures were included. Serum ammonia and other blood tests were compared between patients with full recovery of consciousness after generalized convulsion and those who had not completely regained consciousness. Patients who had not completely regained consciousness (7 of 7, 100%) had higher rate (p=0.035) of hyperammonemia compared with patients who had fully regained consciousness (4 of 10, 40%) and higher level of serum ammonia (246 ± 96 μg/dL vs. 102 ± 99 μg/dL, p=0.006). All patients who showed postictal consciousness level impairment on arrival at the emergency department had elevated serum ammonia at that time. Transient hyperammonemia is associated with postictal confusion.

  3. Sociodemographic profile of normal EEG-dissociative disorder (convulsion) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, P; Ghosh, S; Nayak, A; Das, P; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2009-08-01

    Few Indian studies have explored the sociodemographic variables of dissociative disorder (convulsion), which may be dramatic in presentation causing significant socio-economical and emotional difficulties to patients and care-givers. This prospective study hopes to explore the sociodemographic variables in normal EEG-disssociative disorder (convulsion). The study was conducted from January 2004 to September 2004 in the psychiatry outpatients department (OPD) of Nil Ratan Sircar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata. After screening by history, astute clinical examination and application of predetermined inclusion and exclusion criterion, 41/52 patients were finally selected for the study. Written consent was taken from all the patients. They were then evaluated to elicit necessary information required in the semistructured proforma. Data were analysed by using appropriate statistical method ie, Z-test. The present study suggested that dissociative disorder (convulsion) predominantly affected females, mostly housewives and students, coming from rural, low socio-economic conditions with poor educational background. Majority of the patients presented acutely. Depressive disorder was the most common comorbid psychiatric abnormality. The findings of the present study were in tune with the findings of the few earlier studies available.

  4. 中医药防治小儿热性惊厥的研究进展%A review on treating infant febrile convulsions in TCM medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恩杰

    2014-01-01

    Febrile convulsions are a common convulsive disease in young children, and also in the pediatric emergency department. In this paper, effects of TCM medicine on febrile convulsions were summarized to apply reference for TCM clinic in the future.%热性惊厥是小儿最常见的惊厥性疾病,也是儿科门急诊常见的急症之一。本文综述了中医药在防治小儿热性惊厥所发挥的作用,为今后中医药处理该疾病提供一定的依据。

  5. Clinical analysis of 26 infantile diarrhea complicated with convulsions cases%婴幼儿腹泻合并惊厥的26例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the pathogenesis and effective treatment methods of infantile diarrhea complicated with convulsions. Methods The clinical data of 26 infantile diarrhea complicated with convulsions cases were retrospectively analyzed. Results The main pathogenic factors of the 26 infantile diarrhea complicated with convulsions cases included electrolyte disturbance as 34.6%, febrile convulsion as 30.8%, viral encephalitis as 19.2%, toxic encephalopathy as 11.5%, and hypoglycemia as 3.8%. The total effective rate was 96.2%. Conclusion Hyperpyrexia and electrolyte disturbance (hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, hyponatremia) are the main causes of infantile diarrhea complicated with convulsions. Timely clarification of pathogenesis can provide effectively symptomatic treatment for terminating convulsions.%目的:探讨婴幼儿腹泻合并惊厥的发病原因以及有效的治疗方法。方法回顾性分析26例腹泻合并惊厥患儿的临床资料。结果26例腹泻合并惊厥患儿发病因素主要有:电解质紊乱34.6%、热性惊厥30.8%、病毒性脑炎19.2%、中毒性脑病11.5%以及低血糖3.8%等。治疗总有效率为96.2%。结论高热、电解质紊乱(低血钙、低血镁、低血钠)等是导致婴幼儿腹泻伴惊厥的主要因素,及时明确病因可有效地对症治疗,终止惊厥发作。

  6. Refractory generalised convulsive status epilepticus : a guide to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälviäinen, Reetta; Eriksson, Kai; Parviainen, Ilkka

    2005-01-01

    The patient with status epilepticus has continuous or rapidly repeating seizures. Generalised convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is the most common form of the disorder and is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical management. Status epilepticus that does not respond to first-line benzodiazepines (lorazepam or diazepam) or to second-line antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin/fosphenytoin, phenobarbital or valproate) is usually considered refractory and requires more aggressive treatment. The optimal treatment of refractory GCSE has not been defined, but patients should be treated in an intensive care unit, as artificial ventilation and haemodynamic support are required. Invasive haemodynamic monitoring is often necessary and EEG monitoring is essential. The drug treatment of refractory GCSE involves general anaesthesia with continuous intravenous anaesthetics given in doses that abolish all clinical and electrographic epileptic activity, often requiring sedation to the point of burst suppression on the EEG. Barbiturate anaesthetics, pentobarbital in the US and thiopental sodium in Europe and Australia, are the most frequently used agents and are highly effective for refractory GCSE both in children and adults. Indeed, they remain the only way to stop seizure activity with certainty in severely refractory cases. Other options are midazolam for adults and children and propofol for adults only.Regardless of the drug selected, intravenous fluids and vasopressors are usually required to treat hypotension. Once seizures have been controlled for 12-24 hours, continuous intravenous therapy should be gradually tapered off if the drug being administered is midazolam or propofol. Gradual tapering is probably not necessary with pentobarbital or thiopental sodium. Continuous EEG monitoring is required during high-dose treatment and while therapy is gradually withdrawn. During withdrawal of anaesthetic therapy, intravenous phenytoin/fosphenytoin or valproate should

  7. Nursing Analysis of 57 Cases of Infantile Convulsion%57例小儿惊厥的护理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      目的:分析小儿惊厥护理的临床经验,使因惊厥给患儿带来的损伤降低,改善患儿的预后。方法:对本院2010年6月-2011年6月收治的57例惊厥患儿的护理进行回顾性分析,采取保持呼吸道畅通,吸氧,口腔、皮肤护理,高温护理,心理护理等护理措施。结果:57例患儿中,病毒性脑炎、高热、低钙伴惊厥者无一例并发症发生,全部治愈出院;缺血缺氧性脑病伴惊厥的患儿病情得到及时控制,好转出院。结论:护理操作规范、重视基础护理、保证营养供给、及时供氧、认真观察病情变化能够有效提高治愈率,改善患儿预后,减少并发症。%Objective:To analyze seizures on children nursing clinical experience,and reduce the damage caused to the children because of convulsions,and improve the prognosis of infantile convulsion.Method:Nursing care of 57 cases of children with infantile convulsion in our hospital from June 2010 to June 2011 were analyzed retrospectively,the nursing measures include taken to keep the airway open,oxygen,mouth,skin care,high temperature care,psychological care and so on.Result:In the 57 cases of children with infantile convulsion,the concomitant by viral encephalitis,fever and hypocalcaemia in patients without complications occurred,and all cured.The children of Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy with convulsion receive timely control condition,cured and discharged from hospital.Conclusion:Nursing practice,timely attention to primary care,ensure the supply of nutrients,oxygen therapy,and careful observation of the disease changes are the effectively measures to improve cure rates and the prognosis of children with convulsion,reduce complications.

  8. Evaluation of treatment effect of sodium valproate for convulsive status epilepticus of cerebral arterial thrombosis%丙戊酸钠对于缺血性脑卒中惊厥性癫痫持续状态的治疗效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇刚

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨丙戊酸钠(SV)治疗缺血性脑卒中惊厥性癫痫持续状态(CSE)的效果。方法:收治CSE患者38例,采用 SV 治疗,观察治疗效果。结果:治疗成功24例(63.15%),4例患者发生不良反应。10例(29.4%)难治性 CSE 的mRS>3;实验室检查无明显恶化。结论:SV治疗缺血性脑卒中后CSE安全有效,特别是mRS低分值患者。%Objective:To explore the treatment effect of sodium valproate(SV) for convulsive status epilepticus(CSE) of cerebral arterial thrombosis.Methods:38 patients with CSE were selected.They were treated with SV.We observed the effect of treatment. Results:24 cases(63.15% ) were treated successfully,and 4 cases had adverse reactions.The mRS was greater than 3 of 10 patients(29.4% ) with intractable CSE,and laboratory tests showed no deterioration.Conclusion:SV was safe and effective for treating CSE after cerebral arterial thrombosis,especially for patients with low mRS scores.

  9. Overview of developmental, reproductive, and behavioral/ neurological effects of mercury exposures in wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.; Klimstra, J.; Stebbins, K.

    2007-01-01

    We review wildlife/mercury literature and our own research findings that demonstrate the relevance of wildlife toxicity data in protecting human health. Methylmercury affects wildlife through reduced adult survival and reproduction, aberrant behavior, immune system effects, and teratogenic effects. Methylmercury can readily cross the blood-brain barrier, is excreted into eggs in birds, and is transferred to young mammals across the placenta and in milk. Its principal effect on wildlife is on neurological functions. Wild mink (Mustela vison) and otter (Lutra canadensis) have died from methylmercury poisoning, with signs of poisoning including anorexia, loss of weight, incoordination, tremors, and convulsions, which are symptoms similar to those experienced by mercury-poisoned humans. Mammals also may experience tonic and clonic convulsions and an increase in fetal anomalies, again paralleling toxic problems in people. Antibody-producing cells can be suppressed by methylmercury. Microscopically, the most notable lesions are in the cerebrum. Extensive vacuolation of hepatocytes in the liver and necrosis and other changes in the appearance of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys are often noted. When harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) were dosed with methylmercury chloride the number of circulating erythrocytes decreased and white blood cell counts greatly increased. The poisoned seals also suffered from uremia, hyperproteinemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevations in lactic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase. In birds, signs of methylmercury poisoning included emaciation and weakness in the extremities, which progressed until the birds died. Mercury poisoning in birds and mammals can be diagnosed from a combination of the signs of poisoning if the animal is still alive, the pathological effects seen in a gross necropsy, the histopathological effects seen with a microscope, and the concentrations of mercury in various tissues. Our

  10. Clinical Nursing Observation of Children With Febrile Convulsion%小儿高热惊厥临床护理观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡丽密

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察小儿高热惊厥的原因、探求最佳临床护理方法。方法分析我院2014年8月~2015年8月收治的100例小儿高热惊厥护理经验。结果发生小儿高热惊厥的患者年龄以1~3岁居多,占65%;发生支气管炎占15%;呼吸道感染占70%。本组100例患者中,治愈了98例,好转了2例。结论小儿高热惊厥先兆早期发现征兆的话能快速有效的治疗,控制高热、惊厥、保持呼吸道的畅通是治疗小儿高热惊厥的关键。%Objective To observe the cause of the children with febrile convulsion, ifnd the best method of clinical nursing.Methods From August 2014 to August 2015, 100 cases of children with febrile convulsion nursing experience.Results Children with febrile convulsion occurred in patients aged 1 to 3 years old, was 65%. Bronchitis (15%). Respiratory infection (70%). 100 cases of patients, 98 cases cured, 2 cases improved.ConclusionChildren with febrile convulsion aura early detection of signs can fast effective treatment, control of high fever, convulsions, keep respiratory tract clear is the key to the treatment of children with febrile convulsion.

  11. [Problems of the therapy of neonatal convulsions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, P; Chierici, R; Fortini, C

    1982-01-01

    The newborn with seizures should be treated urgently, because of the high risk of consequent brain damage. In addition to general management in order to correct metabolic and functional unbalancement, associated with the fits, specific causes of neonatal seizures (hypoglicemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesiemia, hypo-hypernatremia, pyridoxine deficiency) should be immediately removed. If neonatal seizures depend on other non specific causes (anoxia, cerebral hemorrhagy, malformation, infection or other, a symptomatic anticonvulsant treatment should be carried out without delay. Useful drugs for the newborn are phenobarbital, phenytoin and benzodiazepine e.v. or e.m. After fits have been controlled, an oral maintenance therapy has to be started with phenobarbital or phenytoin in order to avoid seizure-relaps. Clinical EEG and hematological data should be monitored to detect side effects, as well as plasma drugs levels to achieve adequate maintenance doses. Criteria for discontinuing the neonatal seizures treatment have not been well established. On the bases of the data collected through a longitudinal study of 54 newborns who developed seizures in the first day of life, clinical and EEG criteria for discontinuing anticonvulsant therapy are discussed. If the fits are rare, short, immediately controlled and EEG is mildly abnormal, we attempt to discontinuing treatment within 15 days. If fits are unfrequent, varying in length, their therapeutical control is reached within 3 days and the EEG is markedly abnormal but recovered within 1 month, treatment is discontinuing between 15 days and 3 months.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. The experience of nursing for infantile convulsion%小儿惊厥50例护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鑫

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析小儿惊厥的护理过程,总结护理体会。方法:对我院儿科2012年1月至2012年11月收治的50例惊厥患儿进行积极抢救、严密的病情观察及细致的基础护理。结果:本组50例患儿经过积极的救治和精心的护理,治愈47例(94.0%),好转2例(4.0)%,无效1例(2.0%)。结论:抢救和治疗处理恰当,护理措施科学严谨是保证惊厥患儿救治成功的关键。%Objective:To study the methods and effect of nursing for infantile convulsion. Methods:Choosed 50 infantile convulsion from Jan. 2012 to Nov. 2012 with positive rescue basis of close observation and careful nursing. Results:There were 47 cases cured (94.0%), 2 cases recovered (4.0%), and 1 cases invalid (2.0%). Conclusion:Emergence care, proper treatment and scientific nursing are important of infantile convulsion.

  13. Non-convulsive status epilepticus presenting with Wernicke's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Mashael; Khan, Sonia A; Kabiraj, Mohammed; Khoja, Waleed A

    2009-07-01

    Ictal aphasia in adults is a rare phenomenon. Most reported cases manifest with non-fluent (Broca) aphasia. Ictal fluent (Wernicke) aphasia is less common. We report a 47-year-old, right-handed woman that presented with recurrent episodes of non-convulsive seizures in the form of Wernicke's aphasia for 2 weeks. An MRI of the brain showed an old cerebral infarction in the left parieto-occipital area. Scalp EEG revealed continuous periodic sharp waves at the left temporal regions with diffusion to the whole left hemisphere and at occasions to the right. This is followed by variable periods of post ictal slowing. Recurrence of the described ictal pattern was noted. Management of status epilepticus was started in the form of intravenous diazepam and a loading dose of phenytoin and phenobarbitone. After treatment, she improved clinically and the EEG improved with disappearance of the left temporal ictal rhythm and normalization of the EEG background. Thus, establishing the diagnosis of non-convulsive partial status epilepticus manifesting as ictal aphasia.

  14. Soman- or kainic acid-induced convulsions decrease muscarinic receptors but not benzodiazepine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, L.; Pazdernik, T.L.; Cross, R.S.; Nelson, S.R.; Samson, F.E. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (USA))

    (3H)Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding to muscarinic receptors decreased in the rat forebrain after convulsions induced by a single dose of either soman, a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, or kainic acid, an excitotoxin. A Rosenthal plot revealed that the receptors decreased in number rather than affinity. When the soman-induced convulsions were blocked, the decrease in muscarinic receptors at 3 days was less extensive than when convulsions occurred and at 10 days they approached control levels in most of the brain areas. The most prominent decrements in QNB binding were in the piriform cortex where the decline in QNB binding is probably related to the extensive convulsion-associated neuropathology. The decrements in QNB binding after convulsions suggest that the convulsive state leads to a down-regulation of muscarinic receptors in some brain areas. In contrast to the decrease in QNB binding after convulsions, (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptors did not change even in the piriform cortex where the loss in muscarinic receptors was most prominent. Thus, it appears that those neuronal processes that bear muscarinic receptors are more vulnerable to convulsion-induced change than those with benzodiazepine receptors.

  15. Causes of Infectious Diseases Which Tend to Get Into Febrile Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Blouki Moghaddam; Bidabadi; Hassanzadeh Rad; Dalili

    2015-01-01

    Background Febrile convulsions are seizures associated with fever during childhood. They generally have excellent prognosis. However, as they may signify a serious underlying acute infectious disease, each case must be carefully examined and appropriately investigated. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of infectious diseases, which tend to get into febrile convulsion in patients hospitalized in 17th Sh...

  16. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Randrianarivo

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The results confirmed at least partly the traditional uses of the smoke of M. moschatus for the management of convulsion, and implied that the essential oil may inhibit the convulsion by GABAergic neuromodulation.

  17. Predictors of Outcome of Convulsive Status Epilepticus Among an Egyptian Pediatric Tertiary Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawa, Eman F; Draz, Iman; Ahmed, Dalia; Shaheen, Hala A

    2015-11-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus is a common neurologic emergency in pediatrics. We aimed to study the etiology, clinical features, and prognostic factors among pediatric patients with convulsive status epilepticus. Seventy patients were included in this cohort study from pediatric emergency department of the specialized Children Hospital of Cairo University. The outcome was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Score. Acute symptomatic etiology was the most common cause of convulsive status epilepticus. Refractory convulsive status epilepticus was observed more significantly in cases caused by acute symptomatic etiologies. The outcome was mortality in 26 (37.1%) patients, severe disability in 15 (21.4%), moderate disability in 17 (24.3%), and good recovery in 12 (17.1%) patients. The significant predictor of mortality was lower modified Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission, whereas lower modified Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission and refractory convulsive status epilepticus were the significant predictors for disability and mortality.

  18. Baccoside A suppresses epileptic-like seizure/convulsion in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rakesh; Gupta, Shipra; Tandon, Sudeep; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Vera, Julio; Gupta, Shailendra K

    2010-09-01

    The 1 mm long Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the prime research tools to study different human neurodegenerative diseases. We have considered the case in which increase in the surrounding temperature of this multicellular model leads to abnormal bursts of neuronal cells that can be linked to seizure or convulsion. The induction of such seizure/convulsion mechanism was done by gradually increasing the temperature with 1x buffer (100 mM NaCl, 50 mM MgCl(2)) in adult C. elegans. In the present experiment it is demonstrated that Baccoside A can significantly reduce the seizure/convulsion in C. elegans at higher temperatures (26-28+/-1 degrees C). Furthermore, in T-type Ca(2+) channel cca-1 mutant worms, no convulsion was recorded. Our experimental results suggest that plant molecules from Bacopa monnieri may be useful in suppressing the seizure/convulsion in worms.

  19. Vocal Emotion Expressions Effects on Cooperation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Meneses, Jonathan Azael; Menez Díaz, Judith Marina

    2017-01-01

    Emotional expressions have been proposed to be important for regulating social interaction as they can serve as cues for behavioral intentions. The issue has been mainly addressed analyzing the effects of facial emotional expressions in cooperation behavior, but there are contradictory results regarding the impact of emotional expressions on that…

  20. Efficacy of sublingual lorazepam versus intrarectal diazepam for prolonged convulsions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malu, Célestin Kaputu Kalala; Kahamba, Daniel Mukeba; Walker, Timothy David; Mukampunga, Caritas; Musalu, Eric Mafuta; Kokolomani, Jacques; Mayamba, Richard Mukendi Kavulu; Wilmshurst, Jo M; Dubru, Jean-Marie; Misson, Jean-Paul

    2014-07-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, intrarectal diazepam is the first-line anticonvulsant mostly used in children. We aimed to assess this standard care against sublingual lorazepam, a medication potentially as effective and safe, but easier to administer. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the pediatric emergency departments of 9 hospitals. A total of 436 children aged 5 months to 10 years with convulsions persisting for more than 5 minutes were assigned to receive intrarectal diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, n = 202) or sublingual lorazepam (0.1 mg/kg, n = 234). Sublingual lorazepam stopped seizures within 10 minutes of administration in 56% of children compared with intrarectal diazepam in 79% (P efficacious in stopping pediatric seizures than intrarectal diazepam, and intrarectal diazepam should thus be preferred as a first-line medication in this setting.

  1. Generalized convulsive status epilepticus in adults and children: treatment guidelines and protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Peter; Riviello, James

    2011-02-01

    Generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) has a high morbidity and mortality, such that the rapid delivery of anticonvulsant therapy should be initiated within minutes of seizure onset to prevent permanent neuronal damage. GCSE is not a specific disease but is a manifestation of either a primary central nervous system (CNS) insult or a systemic disorder with secondary CNS effects. It is mandatory to look for an underlying cause. First-line therapies for seizures and status epilepticus include the use of a benzodiazepine, followed by an infusion of a phenytoin with a possible role for intravenous valproate or phenobarbital. If these first-line medications fail to terminate the GCSE, treatment includes the continuous infusion of midazolam, pentobarbital, or propofol.

  2. Convulsion due to levobupivacaine in axillary brachial plexus block: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Düger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Axillary brachial plexus block is an effective method of anaesthesia for the surgeries performed on the hand, forearm and distal third of the arm. However it has the risk of serious complications such as cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity. Levobupivacaine is a long acting amide local anaesthetic used for epidural, caudal, spinal, infiltration and peripheral nerve blocks. Levobupivacaine is the S (- isomer of racemic bupivacaine and has a lower risk of cardiovascular, central nervous system toxicity than bupivacaine. However central system toxicity cases due to absorption of the drug into the systemic circulation has been reported. Here, we report a case having no vascular puncture during axillary brachial plexus block performance but developing convulsion due to levobupivacain after the intervention.

  3. Gentianine protects hippocampal neurons in a rat model of recurrent febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuewei Liu; Shumin Liu; Na Wang; Fang Lu; Min Cao

    2011-01-01

    Gentianine has been shown to have a protective effect on hippocampal CA1 neurons in rats subjected to recurrent febrile convulsion (FC).The present study sought to explore the possible mechanism of gentianine by intraperitoneally injecting gentianine into rats with warm water-induced FC.The results revealed that neuronal organelle injury was slightly ameliorated in the hippocampal CA1 region.The level of glutamate was decreased,but the level of γ-aminobutyric acid was increased,as detected by ninhydrin staining.In addition,glutamate acid decarboxylase expression in hippocampal CA1 was increased,as determined by immunohistochemistry.The results demonstrated that gentianine can ameliorate FC-induced neuronal injury by enhancing glutamate acid decarboxylase activity,decreasing glutamate levels and increasing γ-aminobutyric acid levels.

  4. Automated Video Detection of Epileptic Convulsion Slowing as a Precursor for Post-Seizure Neuronal Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalitzin, Stiliyan N; Bauer, Prisca R; Lamberts, Robert J; Velis, Demetrios N; Thijs, Roland D; Lopes Da Silva, Fernando H

    2016-12-01

    Automated monitoring and alerting for adverse events in people with epilepsy can provide higher security and quality of life for those who suffer from this debilitating condition. Recently, we found a relation between clonic slowing at the end of a convulsive seizure (CS) and the occurrence and duration of a subsequent period of postictal generalized EEG suppression (PGES). Prolonged periods of PGES can be predicted by the amount of progressive increase of interclonic intervals (ICIs) during the seizure. The purpose of the present study is to develop an automated, remote video sensing-based algorithm for real-time detection of significant clonic slowing that can be used to alert for PGES. This may help preventing sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The technique is based on our previously published optical flow video sequence processing paradigm that was applied for automated detection of major motor seizures. Here, we introduce an integral Radon-like transformation on the time-frequency wavelet spectrum to detect log-linear frequency changes during the seizure. We validate the automated detection and quantification of the ICI increase by comparison to the results from manually processed electroencephalography (EEG) traces as "gold standard". We studied 48 cases of convulsive seizures for which synchronized EEG-video recordings were available. In most cases, the spectral ridges obtained from Gabor-wavelet transformations of the optical flow group velocities were in close proximity to the ICI traces detected manually from EEG data during the seizure. The quantification of the slowing-down effect measured by the dominant angle in the Radon transformed spectrum was significantly correlated with the exponential ICI increase factors obtained from manual detection. If this effect is validated as a reliable precursor of PGES periods that lead to or increase the probability of SUDEP, the proposed method would provide an efficient alerting device.

  5. Cholinergic and noradrenergic triggers' in soman induced convulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipley, M.T.; Zimmer, L.; Ennis, M.; Etri, M.

    1993-05-13

    Considerable evidence suggests that soman induced seizure's are initiated in the piriform cortex (PC). Consistent with this, PC is the most frequent site of neuropathology in soman treated rats and other species. Previous studies in this laboratory have shown that convulsive doses of soman cause the rapid induction of the immediate early gene protein product, Fos, in piriform cortex (PC). Fos is known to be expressed when neurons undergo sustained excitatory activity. Following soman, Fos is selectively expressed by neurons in layers II Ill of PC. These neurons are known to send excitatory projections to the hippocampus and to thalamus and neocortex. Thus, we have suggested that soman may initially cause seizure activity in layer II-III PC neurons; this seizure activity could then spread to the hippocampus and neocortex. Consistent with this hypothesis, we have observed that Fos is expressed in hippocampus, thalamus and neocortex subsequent to its expression in PC.

  6. Establishment and Effects of Nursing Clinic Pathway of Modified Electric Convulsive Therapy in Psychiatric Department%精神科无抽搐电休克治疗临床护理路径的建立与实施效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐春霞; 陈海勤; 徐美英; 潘晓芳; 叶美凤; 徐伟琴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of clinical pathway on the improvement of the nursing quality of modified electric convulsive therapy (MECT) in psychiatric department. Methods Using convenience sampling, 100 patients undergoing the initial MECT in the hospital between March and August 2011 were enrolled in the study. Two male and female wards were randomly selected as control group(n=50) , while the other two male and female wards were selected as the research group(n= 50). Patients in the control group were treated with the regular nursing care, while patients in the research group were given the clinical pathway. The nursing safety, health education, basic care, complication, nursing writing time and the MECT treatment satisfaction were compared between the two groups with a self-designed nursing quality evaluation form. Results The quality of care and patient satisfaction in the research group were significantly higher than those in the control group,while the recording time and the incidence of complications in the research group were significantly lower than those in the control group(P<0. 05). Conclusion The establishment and implementation of the clinical pathway on the MECT in psychiatric department contributes to standardizing the treatment procedure, saving recording time and improving nursing quality and the satisfaction of patients' families.%目的 探讨临床路径在提高精神科无抽搐电休克治疗(modified electric convulsive therapy,MECT)护理质量中的作用.方法 方便性抽样选择2011年3-8月湖州市第三人民医院普通精神科首次入院进行MECT治疗的患者100例,各抽取男女两个病房作为对照组和观察组,每组50例,对照组采用常规护理,观察组采用临床路径进行护理;应用自制的护理质量评定表比较两组患者治疗前后的护理安全、健康宣教、基础护理、并发症、护理书写时间及MECT治疗满意度.结果 结果表明,观察组的护理质量、患者满

  7. Base deficit and serum lactate concentration in patients with post traumatic convulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Ibrahim; Parchani, Ashok; Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Alajaj, Raghad; Elazzazy, Shereen; Latifi, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and has been reported to be one of the risk factors for epileptic seizures. Abnormal blood lactate (LAC) and base deficit (BD) reflects hypoperfusion and could be used as metabolic markers to predict the outcome. The aim of this study is to assess the prognostic value of BD and LAC levels for post traumatic convulsion (PTC) in head injury patients. Materials and Methods: All head injury patients with PTC were studied for the demographics profile, mechanism of injury, initial vital signs, and injury severity score (ISS), respiratory rates, CT scan findings, and other laboratory investigations. The data were obtained from the trauma registry and medical records. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: Amongst 3082 trauma patients, 1584 were admitted to the hospital. Of them, 401 patients had head injury. PTC was observed in 5.4% (22/401) patients. Out of the 22 head injury patients, 10 were presented with the head injury alone, whereas 12 patients had other associated injuries. The average age of the patients was 25 years, comprising predominantly of male patients (77%). Neither glasgow coma scale nor ISS had correlation with BD or LAC in the study groups. The mean level of BD and LAC was not statistically different in PTC group compared to controls. However, BD was significantly higher in patients with associated injuries than the isolated head injury group. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation amongst the two groups as far as LAC levels are concerned. Conclusion: Base deficit but not lactic acid concentration was significantly higher in head injury patients with associated injuries. Early resuscitation by pre-hospital personnel and in the trauma room might have impact in minimizing the effect of post traumatic convulsion on BD and LAC. PMID:27057221

  8. Pyridoxine-dependent convulsions among children with refractory seizures: A 3-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy accounts for 1% of the global disease burden and about 8–10 million epilepsy patients live in India. About 30–40% of these patients become drug-resistant and land up with palliative or disease-modifying surgeries. This is a situation causing great concern in view of the psychosocial and economic burden on the patient and the family apart from severe cognitive and motor consequences, especially in children. Therefore, it is mandatory to have an insight into the wide spectrum of causes with reference to refractoriness to antiepileptic medications in children with epilepsy. Patients and Methods: Children admitted under our team with refractory epilepsy as per the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE criteria in the last 3 years were included in the study. Results: Refractory epilepsy constituted 13.3% of inpatients in the pediatric group. Males dominated with 68.9% of these patients. Nearly 34.4% of these patients were found to suffer from various neurometabolic diseases. Almost 3.5% were due to pyridoxine-dependent convulsions. This group of patients showed an excellent response to dietary manipulation, disease-modifying treatment for the metabolic disorder, and supportive small-dose anticonvulsants. During follow-up, they showed very good response with reference to global development and seizure control. Conclusion: Pyridoxine-dependent convulsions are relatively rare forming about 3.5% of refractory epilepsies in this series. With initiation of appropriate therapy, results with reference to seizure control as well as neurodevelopment became evident within 2 weeks, and at 1-year follow-up, complete independence for majority of the needed activities is achieved with minimum cost, almost zero side effects, and absolute elimination of the need for palliative surgery.

  9. Paraquat-induced convulsion and death: a report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changbao; Zhang, Xigang; Jiang, Yun; Li, Guang; Wang, Haochun; Tang, Xueping; Wang, Qunli

    2013-09-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a potent toxicant for humans, and poisoning with PQ is associated with high mortality. Patients with severe PQ-induced poisoning may die of multiple organ failure involving the circulatory and respiratory systems. Death resulting from epilepsy-like convulsions, which are infrequently noted reported with PQ poisoning, is observed clinically with this condition. This study presents the clinical data of five patients with severe PQ-induced poisoning who died of epilepsy-like convulsions, and related publications were reviewed in order to investigate the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and prognosis of these convulsions. Our results may help prevent this event and improve the success of treatment.

  10. The Effect of Incentives on Sustainable Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Laura Rosendahl; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how children respond to different treatments aimed to fostersustainable behavior in a productive (firm like) setting. We conduct a field experiment using teams of children (aged 11 or 12) that are participating in an entrepreneurship education program in the last grade...... of primary school in the Netherlands. Schools participating in this program are randomly assigned to one of three treatments: the first is purely financially oriented, the second promotes sustainable behavior and the third also induces sustainability by (monetary) incentives. Comparing the first twogroups we...... find that solely promoting sustainability does not lead to a change in sustainable behavior. However, once the monetary reward is linked to sustainable outcome measures, we find a significant positive effect on sustainable behavior. Inour specificsetting, the choice to behave more sustainable comes...

  11. 依达拉奉对惊厥持续状态幼年大鼠海马IL-1β、NF-κB表达及细胞凋亡的影响%Effects of edaravone on the expression of interleukin-1β,nuclear factor-κB and neuron apoptosis in juvenile rat hippocampus after status convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海萍; 邓小龙; 李光乾

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of edaravone on expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and neuron apoptosis in the juvenile rat hippocampus after status convulsion (SC). Methods One hundred and ninty-five juvenile male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into normal saline (NS) control group, status convulsive group and edaravone treatment group. Each group was further divided into five subgroups for different time points. The rats in status convulsive group were kindled into epilepsy by lithium-pilocarpine chemical method. Expressions of IL-1β and NF-κB proteins were detected with immunohistochemistry methods. Expression of NF-κB mRNA was detected with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The neuron apoptosis was observed by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL). Results (1)Measured by immunohistochemistry the value of IOD of IL-1β(30.83±3.81,41.00±5.61, 36.32±6.78 and 28.48±4.61, respectively, 12-72 h points) and NF-κB (67.60±5.81,74.61±7.94, 82.43±10.67, 70.70±5.85 and 68.22±9.67, respectively, 4-72 h points) positive cells in the SC group increased, there was significant difference compared with NS group (IL-1β: 11.74±2.32, 12.93±2.49, 13.02±2.83 and 12.98±5.29, respectively, 12-72 h points. NF-κB: 48.67±16.14, 44.62±7.82, 53.16±14.45, 54.27±5.25 and 55.56±7.56, respectively, 4-72 h points) (P<0.01, or P<0.05). By ED intervention in IL-1β (22.01±4.45, 28.28±4.50 and 26.00±5.34, respectively, 12-48 h points) and NF-κB (58.56±6.37, 59.86±6.73, 70.00±10.09, 64.78±7.56 and 64.45±6.51, respectively, 4-72 h points) positive cells value of the IOD decreased as compared with SC group(P<0.01, or P<0.05). (2) Measured by RT-PCR, the expression of NF-κB mRNA and protein trend was similar. (3) The TUNEL positive cells in hippocampns, CA1 of SC group (11.41±2.37) were more than that of NS group 12 h after the SC (P<0.01), reached its highest level at 48 h (28.78±5

  12. Effects of (60)Co gamma irradiation on behavior and gill histoarchitecture of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DE MAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-babu, P

    2013-06-01

    Present study was designed to observe the effects of (60)Co gamma radiation in behavioral and histological changes in the gills of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The adult prawns were irradiated with four different dose levels (3mGy, 30mGy, 300mGy and 3000mGy) and the control group (without irradiation) was maintained separately. Behavioral changes like hyperactivity, loss of balance, reduced swimming rate, slower rate of food intake and convulsions were observed in higher dose levels of 300mGy and 3000mGy. The histological alterations such as accumulated haemocytes in haemocoelic spaces, abnormal gill tips, lifted lamellar epithelium, swollen and fused lamellae, hyperplasic, necrotic, clavate-globate and complete disorganization of lamellae were observed in (60)Co gamma irradiated prawns. Significantly more considerable histological alterations were observed in the highest dose level of 3000mGy, but no mortality was evidenced. This study serves as biomonitoring tool to assess the radiation pollution in the aquatic environment.

  13. Anticonvulsant and antipunishment effects of toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R W; Coleman, J B; Schuler, R; Cox, C

    1984-08-01

    Toluene can have striking acute behavioral effects and is subject to abuse by inhalation. To determine if its actions resemble those of drugs used in the treatment of anxiety ("anxiolytics"), two sets of experiments were undertaken. Inasmuch as prevention of pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions is an identifying property of this class of agents, we first demonstrated that pretreatment with injections of toluene delayed the onset of convulsive signs and prevented the tonic extension phase of the convulsant activity in a dose-related manner. Injections of another alkyl benzene, m-xylene, were of comparable potency to toluene. Inhalation of toluene delayed the time to death after pentylenetetrazol injection in a manner related to the duration and concentration of exposure; at lower convulsant doses, inhalation of moderate concentrations (EC50, 1311 ppm) prevented death. Treatment with a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist (Ro 15-1788) failed to reduce the anticonvulsant activity of inhaled toluene. Anxiolytics also attenuate the reduction in response rate produced by punishment with electric shock. Toluene increased rates of responding suppressed by punishment when responding was maintained under a multiple fixed-interval fixed-interval punishment schedule of reinforcement. Distinct antipunishment effects were observed after 2 hr of exposure to 1780 and 3000 ppm of toluene; the rate-increasing effects of toluene were related to concentration and to time after the termination of exposure. Thus, toluene and m-xylene resemble in several respects clinically useful drugs such as the benzodiazepines.

  14. Quantitative analysis of surface electromyography during epileptic and nonepileptic convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of sustained muscle activation during convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), as compared to voluntary muscle activation. The main goal was to find surface electromyography (EMG) features that can distinguish between...... convulsive epileptic seizures and convulsive PNES. METHODS: In this case-control study, surface EMG was recorded from the deltoid muscles during long-term video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring in 25 patients and in 21 healthy controls. A total of 46 clinical episodes were recorded: 28 generalized...... tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) from 14 patients with epilepsy, and 18 convulsive PNES from 12 patients (one patient had both GTCS and PNES). The healthy controls were simulating GTCS. To quantitatively characterize the signals we calculated the following parameters: root mean square (RMS) of the amplitude...

  15. The overlooked side of convulsion: bilateral posterior fracture and dislocation of proximal humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Mehmet; Yaman, Asli; Yigit, Eda; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet

    2016-05-01

    Injuries after an epileptic convulsion have been seen commonly such as burns, head injury and dislocation of the extremities. But fractures of the extremities due to convulsion are rare. External trauma mechanism is not necessary for extremity fractures. Muscle contractions can cause increased load on the skeleton and it can be complicated by dislocation andor fracture of extremities. Almost 1-4% of all the shoulder dislocations are posterior. In this case report we present a 32 year old male patient who had bilateral posterior fracture and dislocation of proximal humerus after convulsion. We would like to emphasize that it is so important to make systemic examination and evaluation of the patients who were admitted to emergency department after epileptic convulsion.

  16. Effect of saponin fraction from Ficus religiosa on memory deficit, and behavioral and biochemical impairments in pentylenetetrazol kindled mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Damanpreet; Mishra, Awanish; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2013-04-01

    In our previous study, the saponin-rich fraction (SRF) of adventitious root extract of Ficus religiosa L. (Moraceae) was shown to have an anticonvulsant effect in acute animal models of convulsions. The present study was envisaged to study the effect of SRF in the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling mouse model and its associated depression and cognition deficit. Treatment with the SRF (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg; i.p.) for 15 days in kindled mice significantly decreased seizure severity on days 5, 10 and 15 when challenged with PTZ (35 mg/kg; i.p.). Marked protection against kindling-associated depression was also observed on days 10 and 15 in the SRF-treated groups when tested using the tail-suspension test. However, the SRF treatment failed to protect kindling-associated learning and memory impairments in the passive shock avoidance paradigm. The observed behavioral effects were corroborated with modulation in the levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, GABA and glutamate in discrete brain regions.

  17. Etiology and prognosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Su; Jhang, Yunsook; Kim, Young-Soo; Moon, Jangsup; Shin, Jung-Won; Moon, Hye Jin; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Chu, Kon; Park, Kyung-Il; Lee, Sang Kun

    2014-11-01

    Although non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is an important type of epilepsy, it is not often recognized. In order to analyze the clinical characteristics and outcome in patients with NCSE, we examined the medical records of patients with NCSE admitted to the Seoul National University Hospital between June 2005 and October 2008. The clinical details and electroencephalography records of 34 adult NCSE patients (aged over 16 years) were collected. Their mean age was 47 years (standard deviation 20 years, range, 16-87 years), and 20 were female. Twenty-seven patients (79.4%) showed decreased awareness with acute onset, and seven (20.6%) were obtunded or comatose. Ten patients (29.4%) had a history of epilepsy, and four (11.8%) had a history of stroke. NCSE was etiologically attributed to acute medical or neurological problems in 25 patients (73.5%), was cryptogenic in three (8.8%), and was secondary to underlying epilepsy in six (17.7%). Acute symptomatic etiology was associated with poor recovery (p=0.048), with all unresponsive patients in this acute symptomatic group. Eight (23.5%) of the 34 NCSE patients did not recover or died, whereas nine (26.5%) recovered. Our study shows that the presence of acute symptoms or central nervous system infection is associated with poor outcome, suggesting that a high level of vigilance is required to identify and prevent complications.

  18. Clinical Analysis of 80 Newborn Convulsion%新生儿惊厥80例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰泉

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨新生儿惊厥的病因、临床表现的特点和急救措施.方法 对我院80例新生儿惊厥的临床资料和急救措施的有效性进行分析总结.结果 新生儿惊厥的病因顺位依次是新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病37例、颅内出血16例、新生儿化脓性脑膜炎13例,此3种病因占全部病例的82.5%.惊厥发作类型以轻微型为主,占61%.结论 减少新生儿惊厥的关键是做好围产期保健,积极防止新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病的发生:新生儿轻微型惊厥在临床上不易被发现,需密切观察,及时诊治;止痉药首选苯巴比妥钠静脉推注,无效者改用苯妥英钠治疗.%Objective Discussing the causes of newborn convulsion, clinical manifestation and emergency rrearment. Method Analyzing and summatizing the clinical data of 80 examples of the newborn suffering from convuisions and the effectiveness of the emergency treatmont. Results The sequence of the newborn convulsion causes is following: the newborn anoxic ischemic encephalopathy is 37 examples: the intracranial hemorrhage is 16 examples: the newborn purulent meningitis is 13 examples. The three above causes count for 82.5 percent of the total examples. The type of convulsion attack remains minimai-orionted, counting for 61 percont. Conclusions The Key point to reducing the condition is serving a good pcrinatal care, try to prevent the attack of the newborn anoxic ischemic encephalopathy. It is difficult to find the newborn minimal convulsion, which needs the close observation and timely diagnose and treament. The first choice for this condition is the Phenobarbital sodium. The non-responder can use dilantin sodium instead.

  19. Effect of the good behavior game on disruptive library behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fishbein, Jill E.; Wasik, Barbara H.

    1981-01-01

    A modification of the good behavior game was used to reduce disruptive behaviors during a weekly library period of children in a fourth-grade class. Modifications included student input in designing rules, attempts to state rules in positive terms, observation of class behavior in the experimental (library) setting as well as in a comparison (classroom) setting, and librarian involvement in instituting the game coupled with teacher involvement in delivering reinforcers. Reinforcers consisted ...

  20. Study of recurrence and serum indicator change after levetiracetam treatment of children febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Qin Meng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the recurrence and serum indicator change after levetiracetam treatment of children febrile convulsion.Methods:A total of 92 cases of children with febrile convulsion who received treatment in our hospital from March 2012 to December 2014 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into observation group and control group according to different treatment methods, each group with 46 cases. Control group received conventional therapy, observation group received levetiracetam combined with conventional therapy, and then differences in recurrence of febrile convulsion, cranial nerve-related factors, contents of trace elements and iron as well as humoral and cellular immune function of two groups were compared.Results:Average number of fever, frequency of recurrence of convulsion and the proportion of developing to epilepsy of observation group after treatment were less than those of control group, and the time from the end of treatment to the first convulsive seizure was longer than that of control group; serum NSE, S-100β and BDNF levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; serum Ca2+, P, SI and SF levels of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group, and ALP level was lower than that of control group; serum IgA, IgM, IgG and CD8+ levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group, and levels of CD4+ and CD4+/ CD8+ were higher than those of control group.Conclusion:Levetiracetam therapy for children with febrile convulsion reduces convulsive seizure and meantime can optimize children’s microenvironment and enhance immune function.

  1. [Prehospital management of febrile convulsions by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekaer, A.L.; Nielsen, S.L.; Pedersen, Ulf Gøttrup

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We conducted a quality assurance project of The Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in the Capital Region of Denmark when dispatched to febrile convulsions. The study focuses on prehospital treatment, comparison between prehospital and in-hospital diagnoses and parents' perceptions...... of their child's febrile convulsions and their satisfaction with the MECU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The period of investigation was from March 1st 2004 to March 31st 2005. Children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsions or relevant differential diagnoses were eligible for inclusion. Children were excluded...... should still be dispatched primarily to febrile convulsions Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/24...

  2. Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger 3 is Downregulated in the Hippocampus and Cerebrocortex of Rats with Hyperthermia-induced Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Sun; Jun-Hua Xiao; Yan Bai; Mo-Si Chen; Jia-Sheng Hu; Ge-Fei Wu; Bing Mao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) plays a crucial role in pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion.However, it is unclear whether NCX is critically involved in hyperthermia-induced convulsion.In this study, we examined the potential changes in NCX3 in the hippocampus and cerebrocortex of rats with hyperthermia-induced convulsion.Methods: Twenty-one Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control group, convulsion-prone group and convulsion-resistant group (n =7 in each group).Whole-cell patch-clamp method was used to record NCX currents.Both the Western blotting analysis and immunofluorescence labeling techniques were used to examine the expression of NCX3.Results: NCX currents were decreased in rats after febrile convulsion.Compared to the control group, NCX3 expression was decreased by about 40% and 50% in the hippocampus and cerebrocortex of convulsion-prone rats, respectively.Furthermore, the extent of reduction in NCX3 expression seemed to correlate with the number of seizures.Conclusions: There is a significant reduction in NCX3 expression in rats with febrile convulsions.Our findings also indicate a potential link between NCX3 expression, febrile convulsion in early childhood, and adult onset of epilepsy.

  3. Efficacy and usability of buccal midazolam in controlling acute prolonged convulsive seizures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Khosroshahi, Nahid; Karimi, Parviz; Malamiri, Reza Azizi; Bavarian, Behrouz; Zarch, Anoushiravan Vakili; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Kompani, Farshid

    2010-09-01

    A Prolonged convulsive seizure is the most common neurological medical emergency with poor outcome. An ideal anticonvulsant should be easy-to-use, effective, and safe, and it should also have a long-lasting effect. Benzodiazepines, give via the intravenous or rectal route have generally been used as first-line drugs. In small children, IV access can be difficult and time consuming. Midazolam is a potent anticonvulsant and is rapidly absorbed from the rectal, nasal, and buccal mucosa. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and usability of buccal midazolam in controlling seizures in children with acute prolonged seizures, by comparing it with rectal diazepam. Ninety-eight patients were enrolled, with 49 patients in each treatment group. In the buccal midazolam group, 42 (88%) patients were controlled in less than 4 min of drug administration, and all of the patients were controlled within 5 min of drug administration. In the rectal diazepam group, 24 (49%) patients were controlled in less than 4 min and 40 (82%) patients were controlled within 5 min of drug administration. The time for drug administration and drug effect was significantly less with buccal midazolam than with rectal diazepam (p valuediazepam group, 7 (14%) parents were satisfied. Buccal midazolam was significantly more acceptable than rectal diazepam (p valuediazepam but more convenient to use in the controlling acute prolonged seizures in children, especially in situations in which there is a difficulty in gaining IV access, for example, in infants.

  4. The treatment and clinical character of infantile convulsion%小儿惊厥的临床特点及治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海英

    2013-01-01

      Objective:To explore the treatment and clinical character of infantile convulsion. Methods:To analyze retrospectively the clinical date of 75 cases of clinical character.Result: The treatment of al patients showed effective. Except of 1 case of complex febrile convulsion and 1 case of non-heat convulsions evolved to epilepsia, the other patients had no obvious sequelae. Conclusion: Induction factors of infantile convulsion are complicated, except of congenital and traumatic factors, the prognosis of the others are good generaly. The recurrent frequent is related on development degree, so, it should on the base of effective treatment, to avoid induction factors and decrease recurrent rate, and make the child grow up and pass the dangerous period smoothly.%  目的探讨小儿惊厥的临床特点和治疗体会。方法回顾性分析75例惊厥患儿的临床资料。结果75例惊厥患儿均治疗有效。除复杂性高热惊厥和无热惊厥患儿各有1例发展成为癫痫,其他患儿均无明显的后遗症。结论小儿惊厥的发病因素较为复杂,但除去先天性或外伤性因素外,一般预后较好。惊厥复发频率与发育程度有关,应该在治疗有效的基础上,避免诱发因素,降低复发率,使之能尽量顺利成长,顺利度过惊厥危险期。

  5. Electrode Evaporation Effects on Air Arc Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingwen; CHEN Degui; LI Rui; WU Yi; NIU Chunping

    2008-01-01

    A numerical study of the effects of copper and silver vapours on the air arc behavior is performed. The commercial software FLUENT is adapted and modified to develop a two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) models of arc with the thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients, net emission coefficient for the radiation model of 99% ai-1% Cu, 99% air-1% Ag, and pure air, respectively. The simulation result demonstrates that vaporization of the electrode material may cool the arc center region and reduce the arc velocity. The effects of Ag vapour are stronger compared to those of Cu vapour.

  6. From the Behavioral Pharmacology of Beta-Carbolines to Seizures, Anxiety, and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Venault

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of beta-carbolines are inverse agonists of the GABA-A receptor complex, acting on the benzodiazepine site. They show convulsive properties when administered at high doses, anxiogenic properties at moderate doses, and learning-enhancing effects at low doses. These data suggest a possible physiological relationship, through the GABA-A receptor channel, between memory processes, anxiety, and ultimately, in pathological states, epileptic seizures. This relationship seems to be confirmed partially by experiments on mouse strains selected for their resistance (BR and sensitivity (BS to a single convulsive dose of a beta-carboline. These two strains also show differences in anxiety and learning abilities. However, some opposite results found while observing the behavior of the two strains suggest that in addition to pharmacologically induced anxiety, there is spontaneous anxiety, no doubt involving other brain mechanisms.

  7. Evaluation of Serum Selenium Levels in Children with Recurrent Febril Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Berk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The febrile convulsion (FC occurs in neurologically normal children aged between six months and five years and it is defined as convulsions occurred during fever and in the absence of central nervous system (CNS infection, electrolyte imbalance, diseases affecting directly CNS, and history of afebrile convulsion. The aims of this study were to determine the serum levels of selenium in patients with recurrent FC and to compare them with those of healthy children. Materials and Methods: The study included 61 pediatric patients diagnosed with recurrent FC. At the same session, 54 healthy children who admitted to our pediatric clinic for routine controls without history of fever and convulsion, are assigned as control group. The serum level of selenium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometric method (hydride technique.Results: Mean level of selenium was determined as 67.10±8.87 µg/L in patients and 81.99±13.13 µg/L in control group; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. Discussion: The lower serum levels of selenium in patients with recurrent FC may be the cause of triggering of convulsion or may contribute to its recurrence. Further studies are necessary to clarify this relationship. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2011; 9: 110-5

  8. Effects of Aqueous Matricaria Recutita extract on anxiety-like behavior in rat’s model kindled by Pentylenetetrazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Komeili

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Kindling can increase anxiety-like behavior in rodents. Oxidative stress has an important role in arousing anxiety. It is known that Matricaria Recutita has an antioxidant effect. Thus, the present study aimed at assessing the effects of this plant’s extract. on anxiety-like behavior induced by kindling in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar Albino rats (wt:200-250 g were randomly divided into 4 equal groups; namely control (intact, kindling, diazepam (2 mg/kg, and aqueous extract of Matricaria Recutita (30 mg/kg intrapertoneally. Kindling was done by a sub-convulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 40 mg/kg, i.p. in the remainder . groups. Kindling parameters in all these animals were evaluated by a plus elevated maze. The percent of time spent in the open arms of maze (OAT % and percent of entries in the open arms (OAE % were accounted for anxiety evaluation. Increase in OAT % and OAE % indicated an anxiolytic effect. Finally,the obtained data was analyzed by means of Any-Maze software and P<0.05 was taken as the significant level. Results: Kindling significantly (P<0.05 increased anxiety response in rats for at least 24h following the last seizure (decrease in OAT % and OAE %. Administeration of diazepam and Matricaria Recutita induced a significant increase in OAT % and OAE %, thereby . displaying a decrease in the anxiety in the kindled rats (P<0.05. Activity rate of the animals increased in the extract-treated group. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that Matricaria Recutita was able to improve elevated levels of anxiety in kindled rats. Therefore, further works are needed to elucidate the extent and mechanism of these effects.

  9. Anti-convulsant action and amelioration of oxidative stress by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract in pentylenetetrazole- induced seizure in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimalendu Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Materials and Methods: The aqueous and ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was tested at three doses viz. 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg i.p. for its anti-convulsant activity using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizure in rat. The effect of EEGG (400 mg/kg, i.p. on oxidative stress markers like malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT of rat brain tissue homogenate was tested. Results: The onset of seizure was delayed (P < 0.01 by all the three doses of EEGG, but the duration of convulsion was reduced (P < 0.01 only in higher dose level (200 and 400 mg/ kg, whereas AEGG up to 400 mg/kg did not alter any of the parameters significantly. Biochemical analysis of rat brain tissue revealed that MDA was increased (P < 0.01, whereas SOD and CAT were decreased (P < 0.01 in PTZ-induced seizure rat, whereas pre-treatment with EEGG (400 mg/kg decreased (P < 0.01 the MDA and increased (P < 0.01 both SOD and CAT, indicating attenuation of lipid peroxidation due to increase in antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that EEGG poses anti-convulsant potential and ameliorates ROS induced neuronal damage in PTZ-induced seizure.

  10. 针灸治疗面肌痉挛的临床研究进展%The Clinical Research Process of Acupuncture for Mimetic Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建兰; 张芸

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the clinical research of acupuncture for mimetic convulsion has been greatly developed. By computer retrieving the VIP full text database, we had got the Chinese literatures about treating mimetic convulsion by acupuncture from 2000 to 2015, and through simply sum-marized these literatures found that the treatment of acupuncture for mimetic convulsion was effective, but was still lack of the support by a large number of repeatable, controlled, randomized evidences.%近年来,针刺治疗面肌痉挛的临床研究取得了较大进展,本文通过对维普期刊全文数据库的计算机检索,获得了2000~2015年有关针灸治疗面肌痉挛的中文文献,并对其进行简单归纳、总结,发现针灸治疗面肌痉挛疗效肯定,但尚缺乏大量重复、对照、随机的证据支持。

  11. [A case of tyrosinemia type II with convulsion and EEG abnormality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, M; Suzuki, N; Koeda, T

    1993-11-01

    A 10-year-old boy with palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and keratitis was reported. His physical development was normal and mental development was lower limit. He had also convulsions with low grade fever several times, and his EEG showed paroxysmal discharges. The plasma levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine were 5 to 10 times higher than those of controls. Tyrosinemia II was diagnosed on the low level of cytosol tyrosine aminotransferase in biopsied liver. The cases of tyrosinemia II were reviewed on the symptoms of the central nervous system. Two of twelve cases had convulsions. Adult cases demonstrated nystagmus, tremor, ataxia, and convulsion. Hyperkeratosis and corneal lesions were characteristic in symptoms of tyrosinemia II, but attention should be paid to the symptoms of the central nervous system.

  12. Reduced Penetrance of PRRT2 Mutation in a Chinese Family With Infantile Convulsion and Choreoathetosis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L M; An, Y; Pan, G; Ding, Y F; Zhou, Y F; Yao, Y H; Wu, B L; Zhou, S Z

    2015-09-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is a rare episodic movement disorder that can be isolated or associated with benign infantile seizures as part of choreoathetosis syndrome. Mutations in the PRRT2 gene have been recently identified as a cause of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and infantile convulsion and choreoathetosis (ICCA). We reported a PRRT2 heterozygous mutation (c.604-607delTCAC, p.S202Hfs*25) in a 3-generation Chinese family with infantile convulsion and choreoathetosis and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. The mutation was present in 5 family members, of which 4 were clinically affected and 1 was an obligate carrier with reduced penetrance of PRRT2. The affected carriers of this mutation presented with a similar type of infantile convulsion during early childhood and developed additional paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia symptoms later in life. In addition, they all had a dramatic clinical response to oxcarbazepine/phenytoin therapy. Reduced penetrance of the PRRT2 mutation in this family could warrant genetic counseling.

  13. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency presented with convulsion: a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alparslan Merdin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells carry oxygen in the body and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase protects these cells from oxidative chemicals. If there is a lack of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, red blood cells can go acute hemolysis. Convulsion is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency. Herein, we report a case report of a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosed patient after presentation with convulsion. A 70 year-old woman patient had been hospitalized because of convulsion and fatigue. She has not had similar symptoms before. She had ingested fava beans in the last two days. Her hypophyseal and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Blood transfusion was performed and the patient recovered.

  14. Intravenous sodium valproate in mainland China for the treatment of diazepam refractory convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Feng, Peimin; Wang, Jinghua; Liu, Ling; Zhou, Dong

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the short-term safety and efficacy of treating patients with intravenous (i.v.) sodium valproate (VPA) for diazepam (DZP) refractory convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). We prospectively registered 48 patients with refractory CSE who were treated at West China Hospital with i.v. VPA (30mg/kg, 6mg/kg per hour) after a loading dose of i.v. DZP and intramuscular phenobarbitone (PBT) failed. VPA stopped seizures in 87.5% of patients within 1h, and patients regained baseline mental status within 1h of seizure cessation. CSE did not recur in patients within the next 12h, and no significant VPA-related systemic or local side effects were found during their hospital stay. In conclusion, this study suggests that i.v. VPA is a promising option for DZP refractory CSE in mainland China, since i.v. PBT is unavailable in most hospitals, and anesthesia is unacceptable to most of the Chinese population.

  15. Framing effects: behavioral dynamics and neural basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongming; Wang, X T; Zhu, Liqi

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the neural basis of framing effects using life-death decision problems framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large group and small group contexts. Using functional MRI we found differential brain activations to the verbal and social cues embedded in the choice problems. In large group contexts, framing effects were significant where participants were more risk seeking under the negative (loss) framing than under the positive (gain) framing. This behavioral difference in risk preference was mainly regulated by the activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, including the homologue of the Broca's area. In contrast, framing effects diminished in small group contexts while the insula and parietal lobe in the right hemisphere were distinctively activated, suggesting an important role of emotion in switching choice preference from an indecisive mode to a more consistent risk-taking inclination, governed by a kith-and-kin decision rationality.

  16. Disorder effect on the traffic flow behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2008-08-01

    The effects of some disorders, on the traffic flow behavior, are studied numerically. Especially, the effect of mixture of vehicles of different velocities and/or lengths, the effects of different drivers reactions, the position and the extraction rate of off-ramp in the free way. Using a generalized optimal velocity model, for a mixture of fast and slow vehicles, we have investigated the effect of delay times τ f and τ s on the fundamental diagram. It is Found that the small delay times have almost no effect, while, for sufficiently large delay time τ s , the current profile displays qualitatively five different forms, depending on τ f , τ s and the fractions f f and f s of the fast and slow cars, respectively. The velocity (current) exhibits first-order transitions at low and/or high densities, from freely moving phase to the congested state, and from congested state to a jamming one, respectively. The minimal current appears in intermediate values of τ s . Furthermore there exist, a critical value of τ f above which the meta-stability and hysteresis appear. The effects of disorder due to drivers behaviors have been introduced through a random delay time τ allowing the car to reach its optimal velocity traffic flow models with open boundaries. In the absence of the variation of the delay time Δτ, it is found that the transition from unstable to meta-stable and from meta-stable to stable state occur under the effect of the injecting and the extracting rate probabilities α and β respectively. Moreover, the perturbation of the traffic flow behavior due to the off-ramp has been studied using numerical simulations in the one dimensional cellular automaton traffic flow model with open boundaries. When the off-ramp is located between two critical positions i c1 and i c2 the current remains constant (plateau) for β0 c1 < β0 < β0 c2, and the density undergoes two successive first order transitions: from high density to plateau current phase and from average

  17. Anti-Convulsant Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa: Plausible Role of Calcium Channel Antagonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available “Ethnopharmacological” use of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa (B. diffusa in the treatment of epilepsy in Nigerian folk medicine and reports showing the presence of a calcium channel antagonistic compound “liriodendrin” in its roots, led us to undertake the present study. The study was designed to investigate the methanolic root extract of B. diffusa and its different fractions including liriodendrin-rich fraction for exploring the possible role of liriodendrin in its anti-convulsant activity. Air-dried roots of B. diffusa were extracted with methanol by cold maceration. The methanol soluble fraction of extract thus obtained was successively extracted to obtain liriodendrin-rich fraction and two side fractions, that is, chloroform fraction and phenolic compound fraction. Anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract (1000, 1500 and 2000 mg kg-1, intraperitoneally (i.p. and its different fractions, that is, liriodendrin-rich fraction (10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1, i.p., chloroform fraction (20 mg kg-1, i.p. and phenolic compound fraction (1 mg kg-1, i.p. were studied in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ-induced seizures (75 mg kg-1, i.p.. The crude methanolic extract of B. diffusa and only its liriodendrin-rich fraction showed a dose-dependent protection against PTZ-induced convulsions. The liriodendrin-rich fraction also showed significant protection against seizures induced by BAY k-8644. These findings reiterated the anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract of B. diffusa roots. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the observed anti-convulsant activity was due to its calcium channel antagonistic action as this activity was retained only in the liodendrin-rich fraction, which has additionally been confirmed by significant anti-convulsant activity of liriodendrin-rich fraction in BAY k-8644-induced seizures.

  18. Anti-Convulsant Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa: Plausible Role of Calcium Channel Antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    "Ethnopharmacological" use of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa (B. diffusa) in the treatment of epilepsy in Nigerian folk medicine and reports showing the presence of a calcium channel antagonistic compound "liriodendrin" in its roots, led us to undertake the present study. The study was designed to investigate the methanolic root extract of B. diffusa and its different fractions including liriodendrin-rich fraction for exploring the possible role of liriodendrin in its anti-convulsant activity. Air-dried roots of B. diffusa were extracted with methanol by cold maceration. The methanol soluble fraction of extract thus obtained was successively extracted to obtain liriodendrin-rich fraction and two side fractions, that is, chloroform fraction and phenolic compound fraction. Anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract (1000, 1500 and 2000 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally (i.p.)) and its different fractions, that is, liriodendrin-rich fraction (10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1), i.p., chloroform fraction (20 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and phenolic compound fraction (1 mg kg(-1), i.p.) were studied in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures (75 mg kg(-1), i.p.). The crude methanolic extract of B. diffusa and only its liriodendrin-rich fraction showed a dose-dependent protection against PTZ-induced convulsions. The liriodendrin-rich fraction also showed significant protection against seizures induced by BAY k-8644. These findings reiterated the anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract of B. diffusa roots. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the observed anti-convulsant activity was due to its calcium channel antagonistic action as this activity was retained only in the liodendrin-rich fraction, which has additionally been confirmed by significant anti-convulsant activity of liriodendrin-rich fraction in BAY k-8644-induced seizures.

  19. Review of non-convulsive status epilepticus and an illustrative case history manifesting as delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Daniel; Diu, Eric; Abeysekera, Tamara; Kam, Daniel; Chan, Yin

    2009-09-01

    Non-convulsive status epilepticus can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The condition can be difficult to recognise, and can mimic delirium due to other underlying pathologies. There are several clinical subtypes, although these can be difficult to distinguish by their clinical features alone. Electroencephalogram is the key diagnostic tool to making the diagnosis, but this investigation is a limited resource in many institutions. In this review, we present a case of non-convulsive status epilepticus, manifesting as delirium, and then proceed to a literature review on this important diagnosis.

  20. The Longitudinal Effects of Behavioral Problems on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Phuong Anna

    2012-01-01

    Students' behavior and emotional well being are instrumental for their success in the school setting. The present study examined the effects of behavioral problems on the academic performance of students three years later. The behavioral problems consisted of individual externalizing, internalizing, and inattentive behaviors. Next, this study…

  1. Cause Analysis and Nursing Strategy of Pediatric Burn Complicated with Convulsion%小儿烧伤并发惊厥的原因分析及护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章红英; 邵蕴慧; 王冬蕾

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the related factors of pediatric burn complicated with convulsion so as to put forward the nursing intervention measures. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data and nursing intervention in 17 cases of pediatric burn and convulsion. Results Hyperthermia, hyponatremia, cerebral edema and hypocalcemia were the major causes for convulsion after pediatric burn. Of all the cases, hyperthermia induced convulsion occurred in 9 cases, hyponatremia-induced convulsion in 5,cerebral edema induced convulsion in 2,and hypocalcemia-induced convulsion in 1. Using sedatives,oxygen, cooling, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance and correcting water treatment, the convulsion was controlled within 1 min in 15 cases and within 2~5 min in 2 cases. With the remission of convulsion,the children were observed with no neurological symptoms and signs. All the 17 childrens were cured and discharged, which was followed up for 1 year without recurrence of convulsion and brain sequelae. Conclusion The occurrence of convulsions can be effectively prevented or reduced by correctly handling the wound, infection control, prevention of febrile,timely and reasonable infusion,prevention and treatment of shock, correcting water,electrolyte disturbance; prevention of cerebral edema.%目的 分析探讨小儿烧伤后惊厥的原因,以期提出相应的护理干预措施.方法 回顾性分析17例小儿烧伤后发生惊厥的临床资料和护理措施.结果 高热、低钠血症、脑水肿、低钙血症是小儿烧伤后发生惊厥的主要因素.其中,高热致惊厥9例,低钠血症引起惊厥5例,脑水肿引起惊厥2例,低钙血症引起惊厥1例.患儿经使用镇静剂、吸氧、降温、脱水、纠正水和电解质紊乱等治疗护理后,惊厥在1 min内控制的有15例,在2~5 min内控制的有2例;惊厥缓解后,患儿无神经系统症状和体征.17例患儿均治愈出院,随访1年无再发惊厥

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Sodium Valproate in Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh FALLAH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Fallah R, Yadegari Y, Salmani Nodushan M. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Sodium Valproate in Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital. Iran. J. Child. Neurol 2012;6(2:39-44. Objective Status epilepticus (SE is the most common pediatric neurologic emergency with high mortality and morbidity. There is no consensus on the drug of choice in the treatment of children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of intravenous sodium valproate as a third-line drug in the treatment of generalized convulsive SE of children. Materials & Methods In a retrospective study, medical records of those children who were admitted to Shahid Sadoughi Hospital of Yazd due to refractory generalized convulsive SE and were treated by intravenous sodium valproate as a third-line drug from 2009 to 2011 were evaluated. Results Six girls and five boys with a mean age of 5.12 ± 1.2 years (range: 3 - 9.6 years were evaluated. Intravenous valproate was effective for cessation of seizures in seven patients (63.6 %. The mean dose of valproate for stopping seizures was 27.1 ± 1.4 mg/kg/day. Children whose seizures were controlled by sodium valproate were older than non- responsive children (mean± SD: 4.8 ± 1.2 years vs. 3.1 ± 0.43 years, p= 0.03 and they also had shorter ICU stay days (mean± SD: 2.6 ± 1.4 days vs. 5.6 ± 2.8 days, p= 0.01. Two children had mild and transient nausea and vomiting. None of them had cardiopulmonary or severe paraclinical side effects. Conclusion Intravenous sodium valproate may be used as an effective and safe third-line antiepileptic drug in the treatment of pediatric generalized convulsive status epilepticus.References Raj D, Gulati S, Lodha R. Status epilepticus. Indian J Pediatr 2011;78(2:219-26. Shearer P, Riviello J. Generalized convulsive status epilepticus in adults and children: treatment guidelines and protocols. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2011

  3. The Effects of Jogging on the Rates of Selected Target Behaviors of Behaviorally Disordered Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell L.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated were the effects of a jogging program on talking out and out of seat behaviors exhibited by six elementary-aged behaviorally disordered students in a resource room setting. Results indicate a decrease in the occurrence of both behaviors following jogging for five of the six students. (Author/JDD)

  4. Impacts of Shisiwei Jianzhong Decoction on the Convulsion Latency and the Content of Cytokines in Brain Tissue of the Mice with Oxygen Convulsion%十四味建中汤对氧惊厥小鼠惊厥潜伏期及脑组织炎症细胞因子含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷箴; 王国忠

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the impacts and significance of shisiwei jianzhong decoction on convulsion latency and the content of IL - 1β and IL - 10 in brain tissue of the mice with oxygen convulsion. Methods Fifty - six mice were randomized into 7 groups,named an oxygen - convulsion 6 h group(6 h group),a 24 h group,a 48 h group,a shisiwei jianzhong decoction + oxygen - convulsion 6 h group(a therapy 6 h group),a therapy 24 h group,a therapy 48group and a normal control group. In all of the therapy groups, 2 weeks before convulsion induced by oxygen,shishiwei jianzhong decoction was used for gastric perfusion, once every day. The mice in all of the oxygen convulsion groups and the therapy groups were placed in 500 kPa oxygen environment till the seizure so as to prepare the model of oxygen convulsion. The enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the content of IL - 1β and IL - 10 in brain tissue. Results There was no significant difference in convulsion latency between the therapy groups and the oxygen convulsion groups(P ﹥ 0. 05). In the 24 h group and the 48 h group,the content of IL - 1β was higher significantly than that in the normal control group,indicating the significant difference(P ﹤ 0. 05),and that in the therapy 24 h group and the therapy 48 h group was lower significantly than that in the corresponding oxygen convulsion groups of the same time point,indicating the significant difference in the pair comparison(P ﹤ 0. 05). At the same time point,the difference in the content of IL - 10 was not significant among the oxygen convulsion groups,the therapy groups and the normal control group(P ﹥ 0. 05). Conclusion Shisiwei jianzhong decoc-tion does not significantly prolong the latency of oxygen convulsion in the mice,but it effectively reduces the content of IL - 1β,benefits the re - balance of proinflammatory cytokine and anti - inflammatory cytokine and alleviates the convulsive brain damage.%目的:探讨十四味建中汤对氧惊

  5. Prenatal stressors in rodents: Effects on behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Weinstock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests. Deficits were reported in social interaction that is suggestive of pathology associated with schizophrenia, and in spatial learning and memory in adult rats in the Morris water maze test, but in most studies only males were tested. There were too few studies on the novel object recognition test at different inter-trial intervals to enable a conclusion about the effect of prenatal stress and whether any deficits are more prevalent in males. Among hippocampal glutamate receptors, NR2B was the only subtype consistently reduced in association with learning deficits. However, like in humans with schizophrenia and depression, prenatal stress lowered hippocampal levels of BDNF, which were closely correlated with decreases in hippocampal long-term potentiation. In mice, down-regulation of BDNF appeared to occur through the action of gene-methylating enzymes that are already increased above controls in prenatally-stressed neonates. In conclusion, the data obtained so far from experiments in rodents lend support to a physiological basis for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and depression.

  6. Treatment of prolonged convulsive seizures in children; a single centre, retrospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, Danique R. M.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Callenbach, Petra M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate treatment of children with Prolonged Convulsive Seizures (PCS) at the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG). Material and methods: PCS were identified from an UMCG database of children with epilepsy aged = 10 mm and occurred between January 2000 and October 2012 in child

  7. Phase-locking of epileptic spikes to ongoing delta oscillations in non-convulsive status epilepticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Rikkert; Meijer, Hil G.E.; Gils, van Stephan A.; Putten, van Michel J.A.M

    2013-01-01

    The EEG of patients in non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) often displays delta oscillations or generalized spike-wave discharges. In some patients, these delta oscillations coexist with intermittent epileptic spikes. In this study we verify the prediction of a computational model of the thalam

  8. A Patient with Hashimoto's Encephalopathy Presenting with Convulsive Seizure Alone as the Initial Symptom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuma, Atsushi; Goto, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Wakoh; Takizawa, Shunya; Takagi, Shigeharu

    2013-01-01

    A 71-year-old Japanese woman with Sjögren syndrome, Hashimoto's disease and a 6-month history of cognitive impairment was admitted to our hospital because of consciousness disturbance and convulsion. Her convulsive seizure disappeared by intravenous administration of diazepam following carbamazepine, and conscious level became alert the next day. But, her cognitive function was persistently deteriorated, and a score of mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was 17/30 points. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain did not show any abnormal findings. The electroencephalogram showed increased slow waves in bilateral parieto-occipital regions. Serum anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were elevated (1780 U/ml), but thyroid function was within the normal range. In addition, anti-NAE (NH2-terminal of α-enolase) antibodies were positive. We diagnosed Hashimoto's encephalopathy, and started steroid therapy. Her cognitive function gradually improved after steroid therapy, and convulsive seizure did not recur until 3 months later. We emphasize that Hashimoto's encephalopathy should be considered even in patients with convulsive seizure of adult onset without thyroid dysfunction.

  9. Mutations in the Gene PRRT2 Cause Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Hsien-Yang; Huang, Yong; Bruneau, Nadine; Roll, Patrice; Roberson, Elisha D. O.; Hermann, Mark; Quinn, Emily; Maas, James; Edwards, Robert; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Baykan, Betul; Bhatia, Kailash; Bressman, Susan; Bruno, Michiko K.; Brunt, Ewout R.; Caraballo, Roberto; Echenne, Bernard; Fejerman, Natalio; Frucht, Steve; Gurnett, Christina A.; Hirsch, Edouard; Houlden, Henry; Jankovic, Joseph; Lee, Wei-Ling; Lynch, David R.; Mohammed, Shehla; Mueller, Ulrich; Nespeca, Mark P.; Renner, David; Rochette, Jacques; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Saiki, Shinji; Soong, Bing-Wen; Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Tucker, Sam; Wood, Nicholas; Hanna, Michael; Bowcock, Anne M.; Szepetowski, Pierre; Fu, Ying-Hui; Ptacek, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majorit

  10. Evaluation of Serum Sodium Levels in Simple, Multiple and Recurrent Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallah Razieh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizure is the most common form of childhood seizures that occur in 2-5% of them. The purpose of this study was to compare serum sodium level in first simple, multiple and recurrent febrile con-vulsions to answer whether serum sodium levels can predict febrile seizure recurrence in 24 hours and in other febrile episodes? In a retrospective study, sodium serum levels of all children aged 6 months to 6 years with final diagnosis of first febrile seizure admitted between March 2004 and August 2005 to Yazd Shaheed Sadoughi Hospital, were compared in simple, multiple and recurrence febrile convulsions. 139 cases with final diagnosis of first febrile seizure found among whom serum sodium checked in 112.54 girls and 58 boys with mean age of 2.01 ± 1.2 years evaluated. Type of febrile convulsions was complex in 36.6% of them. 18% had multiple (occurrence of more than one seizure during the febrile illness seizures and 35.7% showed seizure recurrence in other fever episodes among whom 88% occurred in first year. Mean survival recurrence rate was 6.7 ± 5.9 months. There is no significant differences in age and serum sodium level among the three groups. Association of relative hyponatremia and febrile seizure recurrence was not confirmed. These findings reaffirm the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics to not routinely obtain electrolytes in febrile convulsion unless clinically indicated.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of the Salzburg EEG criteria for non-convulsive status epilepticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitinger, Markus; Trinka, Eugen; Gardella, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background Several EEG criteria have been proposed for diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), but none have been clinically validated. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the EEG criteria proposed by a panel of experts at the fourth London–Innsbruck Colloquium on Status...

  12. Acute isoniazid intoxication: an uncommon cause of convulsion, coma and acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzman, Sinan; Uludağ Yanaral, Tümay; Toptaş, Mehmet; Koç, Alparslan; Taş, Aytül; Bican, Gülşen

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread use, suicidal ingestion of isoniazid is a rare condition in Turkey. We reported a case of acute isoniazid intoxication associated with alcohol intake presenting with convulsion, coma and metabolic acidosis. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous pyridoxine administration. Early recognation and appropriate treatment in the intensive care unit is very important to prevent mortality in patients with acute isoniazid toxicity.

  13. The Relationship between Zinc Deficiency and Febrile Convulsion in Isfahan,Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Modarresi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Febrile convulsion (FC is a common cause of seizure in young children, with an excellent prognosis. In addition to genetic predisposition and infections,FCs are generally thought to be induced by metabolic and elemental changes during fever such as Zinc (Zn deficiency. Regarding the high prevalence of febrile convulsions and the role of Zn deficiency, we investigated the role of Zn in FC patients in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods In a controlled cross sectional study, 90 patients aged 9 months to 5 years were studied in a period of 12 months. They were assigned to three groups. Thirty patients were included in the Febrile Seizure group, thirty febrile children without convulsion or previous history of convulsion were included in the febrile group and thirty afebrile healthy ones were enrolled as controls. Venous blood was obtained and Zn concentration in serum was measured using Graphite Furnance Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometering (GF-AAS. Results Patients and the control groups had no difference in either mean age or sex distribution. No significant relationship was observed between serum Zn level and age or sex among patients in the FC group and two other control groups. Conclusion Our findings showed that Zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to two other groups. We tried to categorize various conditions in a more practical form. Also, Zinc is in close relationship with socioeconomic level of the individuals which was well considered in the current survey.

  14. Treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in the UMCG: A retrospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, D.R.M.; Brouwer, O.F.; Callenbach, P.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known about clinical practice with respect to the application of guidelines in the treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus (CSE). This retrospective, observational study evaluated treatment of episodes of CSE in children at the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG). Mat

  15. 咪达唑仑静脉给药治疗小儿惊厥性癫痫持续状态的疗效观察%Study on the effect of midazolam intravenous therapy for children with convulsive status epilepticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马茂雷; 张丽娜; 钟家洋; 施静

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of midazolam intravenous therapy for children with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE).Methods 133 admitted CSE children were randomly divided into treatment group (n =6 8) and control group (n =6 5).Based on symptomatic treatment,the control group was given diazepam plus phenobarbital intravenous injection,the treatment group was given midazolam injection plus intravenous infusion scheme.The clinical efficacy and adverse drug reactions were observed and compared between the two groups.Results After treatment for 3h,the total effective rate of the treatment group was 91.2%,which was significantly higher than 76.9% of control group(x2 =5.078,P =0.024).Among children with markedly effective and effective effect,the mean onset time (49.3 ± 10.4)min and seizure control time (112.1 + 24.7)min of the treatment group were significantly lower than those of control group (73.8 + 15.4) min,(157.2 ± 38.4) min,the differences were statistically significant(u =9.619,7.191,P =0.000).15 ineffective cases of control group were transferred into midazolam intravenous therapy,the total effective rate after 3h was 73.3% (11/15).1 case died in both two groups.In control group,the proportion of complications such as muscle tension descending,heart rate and blood pressure variation,respiratory depression,et al.was 49.2%,which was significantly higher than 30.9% of the treatment group (x2 =4.668,P =0.31).Conclusion Compared with diazepam plus phenobarbital scheme,midazolam intravenous administration in treatment of children with CSE takes effect faster,and with higher safety.With the increasing of midazolam dosage,alert should be taken to drug influence on respiration and heart rate.%目的 观察咪达唑仑静脉给药治疗小儿惊厥性癫痫持续状态(CSE)的临床疗效.方法 将CSE患儿133例按数字表法随机分为治疗组(n=68)与对照组(n=65),在对症治疗原发病基础上,对照组予地西泮联合苯巴比

  16. 幼儿急疹合并热性惊厥的临床特征%Clinical characterstics of roseola infantum with febrile convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云峰; 周忠蜀

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of roseola infantmn with febrile convulsions.Methods All cases with roseola infantum or with febrile convulsions were retrospectively collected who were confirmed during January 2005 to February 2008. There were 31 cases of roseola infantum with febrile convulsions. Their clinical features were compared with cases of roseola infantum without febrile convulsions and eases of other febrile convulsions,respectively, and further analyzed with literature. Results There were 17.1% (3 1 / 181 ) roseola infantum with febrile convulsions among febrile convulsions and 24.4% (31/127)among febrile convulsions less than 2 years;The incidence of roseola infantum with febrile convulsions was 15.7% (31/198) among roseola infantum. The median age of roseola infantum with febrile convulsions was less than that of other febrile convulsions. There were no significant differences in sex, age, maximum body temperature, duration of fever and day of rash onset between roseola infantum with and without febrile convulsions ( P > 0.05 ), but the frequency of family history of febrile convulsions was significantly higher in roseola infantum with febrile convulsions than in those without febrile convulsions ( P 0.05),而热性惊厥家族史有显著差别(P<0.05).结论 遗传因素是导致幼儿急疹并热性惊厥发作的一个危险因素;幼儿急疹并热性惊厥时一般预后良好,但要警惕发生严重中枢神经系统损伤的可能性,如癫痫.对于1岁内初次发热并出现热性惊厥的患儿要注意幼儿急疹的可能.

  17. The anti-convulsant stiripentol acts directly on the GABA(A) receptor as a positive allosteric modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Janet L

    2009-01-01

    Stiripentol (STP) has been used as co-therapy for treatment of epilepsy for many years. Its mechanism of action has long been considered to be indirect, as it inhibits the enzymes responsible for metabolism of other anti-convulsant agents. However, a recent report suggested that STP might also act at the neuronal level, increasing inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. We examined the effect of STP on the functional properties of recombinant GABA(A) receptors (GABARs) and found that it was a positive allosteric modulator of these ion channels. Its activity showed some dependence on subunit composition, with greater potentiation of alpha3-containing receptors and reduced potentiation when the beta1 or epsilon subunits were present. STP caused a leftward shift in the GABA concentration-response relationship, but did not increase the peak response of the receptors to a maximal GABA concentration. Although STP shares some functional characteristics with the neurosteroids, its activity was not inhibited by a neurosteroid site antagonist and was unaffected by a mutation in the alpha3 subunit that reduced positive modulation by neurosteroids. The differential effect of STP on beta1- and beta2/beta3-containing receptors was not altered by mutations within the second transmembrane domain that affect modulation by loreclezole. These findings suggest that STP acts as a direct allosteric modulator of the GABAR at a site distinct from many commonly used anti-convulsant, sedative and anxiolytic drugs. Its higher activity at alpha3-containing receptors as well as its activity at delta-containing receptors may provide a unique opportunity to target selected populations of GABARs.

  18. The Relationship between Zinc Deficiency and Febrile Convulsion in Isfahan,Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MODARRESI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  Febrile convulsion (FC is a common cause of seizure in young children, with an excellent prognosis. In addition to genetic predisposition and infections,FCs are generally thought to be induced by metabolic and elemental changes during fever such as Zinc (Zn deficiency. Regarding the high prevalence of febrile convulsions and the role of Zn deficiency, we investigated the role of Zn in FC patients in Isfahan, Iran.  Materials and Methods  In a controlled cross sectional study, 90 patients aged 9 months to 5 years were studied in a period of 12 months. They were assigned to three groups. Thirty patients were included in the Febrile Seizure group, thirty febrile children without convulsion or previous history of convulsion were included in the febrile group and thirty afebrile healthy ones were enrolled as controls. Venous blood was obtained and Zn concentration in serum was measured using Graphite Furnance Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometering (GF-AAS.  Results  Patients and the control groups had no difference in either mean age or sex distribution. No significant relationship was observed between serum Zn level and age or sex among patients in the FC group and two other control groups.   Conclusion  Our findings showed that Zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to two other groups. We tried to categorize various conditions in a more practical form. Also, Zinc is in close relationship with socioeconomic level of the individuals which was well considered in the current survey.  Keywords: Zinc; Zinc deficiency; Febrile Convulsion.

  19. The effect of rules on differential reinforcement of other behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Amanda C; Wilder, David A; Gregory, Meagan K; Leon, Yanerys; Ditzian, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the treatment of problem behavior has shown differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) to be an effective behavior-reduction procedure. However, the extent to which presession descriptions of the DRO contingency enhance intervention effects has not been examined. In the current study, we compared a condition in which a presession rule that described the DRO contingency was given to a condition in which no rule was given for 4 participants. The target behavior was toy play, which served as an analogue to problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. Results showed that DRO was more efficient for 1 participant and more effective for 2 participants when a rule was given.

  20. Behavioral effects of Citrus limon in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Riaz, Azra

    2015-04-01

    Anxiety and depression are increasing worldwide, however these disorders may be managed by making healthier changes is dietary pattern, since there are evidences that diet rich in antioxidants and vitamins help reduce anxiety and depression. Hence present study was designed to evaluate the behavioral effects of Citrus limon in rats at three different doses i.e. 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ml/kg considered as low, moderate and high doses. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities were specifically assessed twice during 15 days using open field test, elevated plus maze and forced swimming test. In open field test C. limon, revealed increase in distance travelled, number of central entries and number of rearing's at moderate dose, while in the elevated plus maze, number of open arm entries were found to be increased. Whereas in forced swimming test, there was decrease in duration of immobility and increase in duration of climbing. Thus results of present study suggest that C. limon at moderate dose have anxiolytic effect.

  1. Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunii Yasuto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

  2. Effects of Certain Counselor Behaviors on Perceived Expertness and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Azy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined effects and relative contribution of three counselor behaviors (nonverbal behavior, jargon, and attire) on perceived expertise and attractiveness. Results revealed that all three independent variables significantly affected the two rated dimensions. Nonverbal behavior accounted for most of the variance and differentially affected ratings…

  3. Electroencephalographic features of convulsive epilepsy in Africa: A multicentre study of prevalence, pattern and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Symon M.; White, Steven; Chengo, Eddie; Wagner, Ryan G.; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth A.; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Masanja, Honorati; Ngugi, Anthony K.; Sander, Josemir W.; Neville, Brian G.; Newton, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the prevalence and pattern of electroencephalographic (EEG) features of epilepsy and the associated factors in Africans with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE). Methods We characterized electroencephalographic features and determined associated factors in a sample of people with ACE in five African sites. Mixed-effects modified Poisson regression model was used to determine factors associated with abnormal EEGs. Results Recordings were performed on 1426 people of whom 751 (53%) had abnormal EEGs, being an adjusted prevalence of 2.7 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.5–2.9) per 1000. 52% of the abnormal EEG had focal features (75% with temporal lobe involvement). The frequency and pattern of changes differed with site. Abnormal EEGs were associated with adverse perinatal events (risk ratio (RR) = 1.19 (95% CI, 1.07–1.33)), cognitive impairments (RR = 1.50 (95% CI, 1.30–1.73)), use of anti-epileptic drugs (RR = 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05–1.49)), focal seizures (RR = 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00–1.19)) and seizure frequency (RR = 1.18 (95% CI, 1.10–1.26) for daily seizures; RR = 1.22 (95% CI, 1.10–1.35) for weekly seizures and RR = 1.15 (95% CI, 1.03–1.28) for monthly seizures)). Conclusions EEG abnormalities are common in Africans with epilepsy and are associated with preventable risk factors. Significance EEG is helpful in identifying focal epilepsy in Africa, where timing of focal aetiologies is problematic and there is a lack of neuroimaging services. PMID:26337840

  4. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience.

  5. Sex, Task, and Behavioral Flexibility Effects on Leadership Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall; Workman; Marchioro

    1998-04-01

    The effects of sex and behavioral flexibility on leader perceptions were examined in small groups performing under two task conditions. We predicted, based on theory and previous empirical research, that leadership perceptions would be higher for: (1) persons higher in three indicators of behavioral flexibility (self-monitoring, self-reported behavioral capabilities, and androgyny), (2) males in general, and (3) tasks that were sex-congruent. Results showed significant, strong support for behavioral flexibility and sex effects and weak support for the effects of sex-congruent tasks. Exploratory analyses showed that perceived target capabilities mediated the effects of sex and behavioral flexibility. The discussion is organized around a theoretical model which suggests that target behavior and sex-based cues leading to leader categorization are in part mediated by inferred target capabilities. These capabilities show parallels to leadership-relevant traits such as masculinity, dominance, extroversion, and adjustment, identified in early leadership research. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  6. Effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia

    2010-02-01

    Previous research has documented that playing violent video games has various negative effects on social behavior in that it causes an increase in aggressive behavior and a decrease in prosocial behavior. In contrast, there has been much less evidence on the effects of prosocial video games. In the present research, 4 experiments examined the hypothesis that playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video game increases helping behavior. In fact, participants who had played a prosocial video game were more likely to help after a mishap, were more willing (and devoted more time) to assist in further experiments, and intervened more often in a harassment situation. Results further showed that exposure to prosocial video games activated the accessibility of prosocial thoughts, which in turn promoted prosocial behavior. Thus, depending on the content of the video game, playing video games not only has negative effects on social behavior but has positive effects as well.

  7. Oxytocin during development: possible organizational effects on behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather K Caldwell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (Oxt is a neurohormone known for its physiological roles associated with lactation and parturition in mammals. Oxt can also profoundly influence mammalian social behaviors such as affiliative, parental, and aggressive behaviors. While the acute effects of Oxt signaling on adult behavior have been heavily researched in many species, including humans, the developmental effects of Oxt on the brain and behavior is just beginning to be explored. There is evidence that Oxt in early postnatal and peripubertal development, and perhaps during prenatal life, affects adult behavior by altering neural structure and function. However, the specific mechanisms by which this occurs remain unknown. Thus, this review will detail what is known about how developmental Oxt impacts behavior as well as specific neurochemicals and neural substrates that are important to these behaviors.

  8. On the Nursing of Children with Febrile Convulsion%关于小儿热惊厥护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷婷

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the nursing of children with febrile convulsion, including the causes, treatment, family nursing and post-illness observation of febrile convulsion. Ob-jective:The nursing of children with febrile convulsion. Method:The obtained data and materials. Reason: To strengthen child nursing. Result: The process of the nursing of children with febrile convulsion is obtained.%关于小儿热惊厥的护理,其中包括小儿热惊厥的病因、治疗、家庭护理以及病后观察。研究目的:小儿热惊厥的护理。研究方法:已经得出的数据资料。研究原因:加强对小儿的护理。研究结果:得出小儿热惊厥的护理过程。

  9. Acceptability – a neglected dimension of access to health care: findings from a study on childhood convulsions in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillip Angel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acceptability is a poorly conceptualized dimension of access to health care. Using a study on childhood convulsion in rural Tanzania, we examined social acceptability from a user perspective. The study design is based on the premise that a match between health providers’ and clients’ understanding of disease is an important dimension of social acceptability, especially in trans-cultural communication, for example if childhood convulsions are not linked with malaria and local treatment practices are mostly preferred. The study was linked to health interventions with the objective of bridging the gap between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions. Methods The study combined classical ethnography with the cultural epidemiology approach using EMIC (Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue tool. EMIC interviews were conducted in a 2007/08 convulsion study (n = 88 and results were compared with those of an earlier 2004/06 convulsion study (n = 135. Earlier studies on convulsion in the area were also examined to explore longer-term changes in treatment practices. Results The match between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions was already high in the 2004/06 study. Specific improvements were noted in form of (1 46% point increase among those who reported use of mosquito nets to prevent convulsion (2 13% point decrease among caregivers who associated convulsion with ‘evil eye and sorcery’, 3 14% point increase in prompt use of health facility and 416% point decrease among those who did not use health facility at all. Such changes can be partly attributed to interventions which explicitly aimed at increasing the match between local and biomedical understanding of malaria. Caregivers, mostly mothers, did not seek advice on where to take an ill child. This indicates that treatment at health facility has become socially acceptable for severe febrile with convulsion. Conclusion As an important dimension

  10. Identifying Effective Behavior Management in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Kelly Rae

    2005-01-01

    Every educator has a dream to maintain a classroom free from disruptions; one in which each child is being molded, shaped, and corrected in a loving and caring environment that inspires appropriate behavior. The purpose of this research project was to determine how to create an effective behavior management plan and effectively teach classroom…

  11. [Patient with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with prolonged disturbance of consciousness and convulsion after cerebral aneurysm surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kayo; Hoshi, Takuo; Yorozu, Shinko; Okazaki, Junko; Motomura, Yuji; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Tanaka, Makoto

    2011-02-01

    A 73-year-old patient developed convulsion and prolonged disturbance of consciousness after clipping surgery for unruptured cerebral aneurysm. The patient's consciousness improved four days after surgery, and radiological findings suggested posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). The cause of PRES is thought to be dysfunction of blood brain barrier by a sudden increase in blood pressure. In case of unexplained convulsion and decreased level of consciousness, PRES should be considered with radiographic examinations including CT and MRI.

  12. Using the Effective Behavior Supports Survey to Guide Development of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    As the use of school-based positive behavior support (PBS) spreads nationwide, the development of assessment strategies to identify intervention priorities becomes more critical. This study addresses the validity of the Effective Behavior Supports Survey (Lewis & Sugai, 1999) by examining reliability, determining whether rating differences exist…

  13. Effectiveness of a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment on the Social Behaviors of Children with Asperger Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Volker, Martin A.; Nida, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The current study presents preliminary data from an ongoing research project evaluating a summer treatment program for children with Asperger disorder (AD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment program on the social behaviors of 6- to 13-year-old children with AD. Overall program…

  14. Anti-Convulsant Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa: Plausible Role of Calcium Channel Antagonism

    OpenAIRE

    Mandeep Kaur; Rajesh Kumar Goel

    2011-01-01

    “Ethnopharmacological” use of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa (B. diffusa) in the treatment of epilepsy in Nigerian folk medicine and reports showing the presence of a calcium channel antagonistic compound “liriodendrin” in its roots, led us to undertake the present study. The study was designed to investigate the methanolic root extract of B. diffusa and its different fractions including liriodendrin-rich fraction for exploring the possible role of liriodendrin in its anti-convulsant activity. A...

  15. Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Presenting with Acute Cognitive Dysfunction and Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Woo-Hyuk; Na, Ju-Young; Kim, Meyung-Kug; Yoo, Bong-Goo

    2013-01-01

    Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by acute or subacute encephalopathy related to increased anti-thyroid antibodies. Clinical manifestations of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy may include stroke-like episodes, altered consciousness, psychosis, myoclonus, abnormal movements, seizures, and cognitive dysfunction. Acute cognitive dysfunction with convulsion as initial clinical manifestations of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is very rare. We report a 65-year-old man wh...

  16. A screening questionnaire for convulsive seizures: A three-stage field-validation in rural Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Gómez, Elizabeth Blanca; Padilla, Sandra; Bruno, Elisa; Camargo, Mario; Marin, Benoit; Sofia, Vito; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases in Latin American Countries (LAC) and epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures is the most frequent type. Therefore, the detection of convulsive seizures is a priority, but a validated Spanish-language screening tool to detect convulsive seizures is not available. We performed a field validation to evaluate the accuracy of a Spanish-language questionnaire to detect convulsive seizures in rural Bolivia using a three-stage design. The questionnaire was also administered face-to-face, using a two-stage design, to evaluate the difference in accuracy. Methods The study was carried out in the rural communities of the Gran Chaco region. The questionnaire consists of a single screening question directed toward the householders and a confirmatory section administered face-to-face to the index case. Positive subjects underwent a neurological examination to detect false positive and true positive subjects. To estimate the proportion of false negative, a random sample of about 20% of the screened negative underwent a neurological evaluation. Results 792 householders have been interviewed representing a population of 3,562 subjects (52.2% men; mean age 24.5 ± 19.7 years). We found a sensitivity of 76.3% (95% CI 59.8–88.6) with a specificity of 99.6% (95% CI 99.4–99.8). The two-stage design showed only a slightly higher sensitivity respect to the three-stage design. Conclusion Our screening tool shows a good accuracy and can be easily used by trained health workers to quickly screen the population of the rural communities of LAC through the householders using a three-stage design. PMID:28301557

  17. 惊厥持续状态幼年大鼠海马CHOP水平的动态变化及依达拉奉对其表达的影响%Dynamic Changes in Expression of CHOP in Juvenile Rat Hippocampus after Status Convulsion and Effects of Edaravone on Its Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷婷; 王海萍; 李光乾

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察惊厥持续状态(SC)幼年大鼠海马前凋亡因子CHOP 动态表达及神经细胞凋亡的变化,探讨依达拉奉(ED)对二者的影响.方法 将195只SD幼年雄性大鼠随机分为9 g·L-1盐水对照组(NS组)、SC组和ED组,每组65只,各组均按SC后处死时间点分为2 h、12 h、24 h、48 h、72 h 5个亚组,每组13只.应用氯化锂-毛果芸香碱建立大鼠SC模型,用半定量反转录-PCR(RT-PCR)动态观察SC后大鼠海马CHOP mRNA的表达,采用免疫组织化学SABC法检测海马CA1区CHOP蛋白表达;并用HE染色观察海马CA1区病理改变,原位细胞凋亡检测法(TUNEL)观察海马CA1区神经元凋亡细胞数.结果 1.RT-PCR法:SC组幼年大鼠海马CHOP mRNA表达于2 h开始增加,于12 h达高峰,之后开始下降;与NS组各时间点比较差异均有统计学意义(Pa<0.01);与SC组比较,ED组(2 h,12 h,48 h)CHOP mRNA表达均明显下降(Pa<0.05,0.01).2.免疫组织化学结果:SC组幼年大鼠海马CHOP蛋白表达于2 h开始增加,12 h明显增加,24 h达高峰;与NS组各时间点比较差异均有统计学意义(Pa<0.01);ED组各时间点均较SC组明显降低(Pa<0.01,0.05).3.TUNEL结果:SC组海马CA1区TUNEL阳性细胞数于惊厥后24 h迅速增加,48 h达高峰(Pa<0.05,0.01);与NS组比较,12~72 h时间点组均明显高于NS组(Pa<0.01);与SC组比较,ED组12~72 h CA1区TUNEL阳性细胞数明显减少(P<0.05,0.01).4.HE染色:SC后出现神经元变性及丢失,48 h组病理改变最显著,与TUNEL表达一致;而ED组病理改变减轻.结论 SC后早期幼年大鼠可能触发了内质网应激中CHOP介导的凋亡信号途径,从而引起了脑损伤;而ED可能通过下调其表达,从而缓解惊厥后脑损伤.%Objective To investigate the dynamic expressions of CHOP in juvenile rat hippocampus alter status convulsion, and the changes in apoptosis of nerve cells,and to explore the effects of edaravone( ED) on them. Methods One hundred and ninety - five juvenile male Sprague

  18. Evidence that limbic neural plasticity in the right hemisphere mediates partial kindling induced lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior: effects of low frequency stimulation (quenching?) on long term potentiation of amygdala efferents and behavior following kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R E

    1999-08-21

    Behavioral and physiological effects of partial kindling of the right ventral hippocampus by perforant path (PP) stimulation were investigated in the cat. Partial kindling produced lasting changes in affect (increased defensive response to rats) and predatory attack (decreased pawing and biting attack). Partial kindling also induced long term potentiation (LTP) of amygdala efferent transmission to ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and periaqueductal gray (PAG) in left and right hemispheres. LTP of field population spikes evoked in area CA3 by PP stimulation was also observed. LTP was detected using evoked potential methods. These findings parallel previous studies of left PP-CA3 partial kindling. Analysis of covariance removing effects of LTP from behavioral changes suggests that initiation of increased defensiveness at 2 days after completion of partial kindling depended on LTP of left and right amygdalo-VMH and right amygdalo-PAG transmission. From 6 days after kindling onward, increased defensiveness depended on LTP of right amygdalo-PAG transmission. Depotentiation of amygdala efferent LTP by bilateral low frequency amygdala stimulation (LFS) (900 pulses at 1 Hz, once daily for 7 days) selectively reduced LTP in right amygdala efferents. At the same time, defensive, but not predatory attack behavior, was returned to levels seen prior to partial kindling. Both depotentiation and reduction of defensiveness were transient. Defensiveness increased to post-kindling levels by 76 days after LFS. At the same time, LTP was restored in the right amygdalo-PAG pathway. In contrast LTP in the right amygdalo-VMH pathway remained depotentiated. Effects of LFS were not due to damage, as thresholds to evoke amygdala efferent response were unchanged. These findings suggest that lasting change in affect following partial hippocampal kindling depends on LTP of right amygdala efferent transmission to PAG. The findings parallel studies of non-convulsant pharmacological induction of

  19. [Convulsive seizures and polyneuritis in a patient with lupus treated with metronidazole (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreman, G; Krainik, F; Betous, F; Nicolas, M O; Mundler, B

    1981-01-01

    A 20-year-old patient with biologically-confirmed lupus developed a perirenal abscess following puncture biopsy of the kidney. Postoperative treatment included metronidazole at a mean dose of 2.5 g daily for 68 days (total dose : 165 g). Generalised convulsive seizures occurred on four occasions, associated with paresthesia of the four limbs, but without loss of motor or reflex activity, though some distal hypoesthesia was detected. An acute lupus attack was eliminated, the convulsive seizures not recurring after discontinuation of treatment, and the paresthesias diminishing progressively over a period of three months. Electrical investigations showed lack of motor anomalies but a marked reduction in sensory conduction. This is the 13th reported case of polyneuritis due to metronidazole, the 4th case of convulsive seizures, and the first case in which both manifestations occurred. The plasma concentration curve after oral administration of 1 g of the product to this patient demonstrated that the product was not being metabolised in a pathological manner.

  20. Automatic detection of non-convulsive seizures: A reduced complexity approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazeem Fatma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Detection of non-convulsive seizures (NCSz is a challenging task because they lack convulsions, meaning no physical visible symptoms are there to detect the presence of a seizure activity. Hence their diagnosis is not easy, also continuous observation of full length EEG for the detection of non-convulsive seizures (NCSz by an expert or a technician is a very exhaustive, time consuming job. A technique for the automatic detection of NCSz is proposed in this paper. The database used in this research was recorded at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi. 13 EEG recordings of 9 subjects consisting of a total 23 seizures of 29.42 min duration were used for analysis. Normalized modified Wilson amplitude is used as a key feature to classify between normal and seizure activity. The main advantage of this study lies in the fact that no classifier is used here and hence algorithm is very simple and computationally fast. With the use of only one feature, all of the seizures under test were detected correctly, and hence the median sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.21% were achieved respectively.

  1. Clinical Exploration of Factors Related to Recurrence of Febrile Convulsion in Children%小儿热性惊厥复发相关因素的临床探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晓文

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the factors related to the recurrence of febrile convulsion in children. Methods:Select 6 9 cases of child patient in relapse of febrile convulsion as the treatment group and 6 9 cases of concurrent non-recurrent child patient as the control group.Compare their differences on gender ,age,the condition and temperature when convulsion recurs,anomalies during perinatal period ,family history, weight,preictal complications and otherwise.Results:Compare some of the factors of the patients in the two groups,the number of male,age,weight,convulsion times,EEG anomaly,convulsion duration,family his-tory and complications and other factors in treatment group was found to be obviously different from that in the control group,P0.05.Conclusion:The recurrence rate of febrile convulsion is quite high,some may even transform to epilepsia,scientific and effective measures would prevent sequela in nervous system and lower the recurrence effectively.%目的::对小儿热性惊厥复发相关因素进行研究分析。方法:从某院小儿热性惊厥复发患者中选取69例为治疗组,选取同期没有复发的69例小儿热性惊厥患者为对照组,对比分析两组患者在性别、年龄、惊厥发作情况、体温、围生期异常、家族史、体重和发作前合并症等因素之间的差异性。结果:对比两组患者部分因素,治疗组患者男性比率、年龄、体温、惊厥次数、复杂型、脑电图异常、惊厥发作时间、家族史和合并症等因素同对照组患者间存在显著差异性,P0.05。结论:热性惊厥疾病具有较高复发率,部分患者会转化为癫痫,科学有效的处理措施可有效避免患者出现神经系统后遗症,降低患者出现复发现象发生率。

  2. Effects of Conceptual Complexity on Assertive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Monroe A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compared the assertive behavior of two groups differing in information-processing style. In experiment one, high conceptual-complexity (CC) subjects demonstrated greater content knowledge, direct delivery skill, and fewer negative self-statements. In experiment two, high versus low CC females were more assertive in difficult situations. (Author/RC)

  3. The effect of unethical behavior on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Faezeh Rezazadeh Baei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the components of ethical behavior and their impacts on life insurance companies in province of Mazandaran, Iran. There were 367 insurance representatives and the study selects a sample of 187 ones based on Cochran formula and 2 questionnaires were distributed among them. The first questionnaire, unethical behavior, includes 8 items including Bribery, Cheating, Deception, Interact with colleagues, Act as social behavior, Uncommitted to firm and Irresponsibility. In addition, the questionnaire of brand equity contains three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined that the effects of cheating and deception on unethical behaviors were not confirmed but the effects of other factors, bribery, interact with colleagues, act as social behavior, uncommitted to firm and irresponsibility on unethical behavior were confirmed. In addition, three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty had positive relationship with brand equity.

  4. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E

    2014-09-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed.

  5. Hematological, biochemical, and behavioral responses of Oncorhynchus mykiss to dimethoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Demet; Can, Canan

    2011-12-01

    The effects of dimethoate on hematological, biochemical parameters, and behavior were investigated in Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to sublethal concentrations of 0.0735, 0.3675, and 0.7350 mg/l for 5, 15, and 30 days. Significant decrease was determined in erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and MCH, which was pronounced after prolonged exposure indicating the appearance of microcytic hypochromic anemia. There were no prominent changes in thrombocyte and MCHC. The glucose concentration showed an ascending pattern that proved to be positively correlated with duration. The protein concentration declined in higher dimethoate concentrations following 15 and 30 days. Negative and significant correlation was detected between glucose and protein concentrations. The fish showed remarkable behavioral abnormality such as loss of balance, erratic swimming, and convulsion. Present findings revealed that dimethoate exerts its toxic action even in sublethal concentrations and hematological parameters and abnormal behavior may be sensitive indicators to evaluate pesticide intoxication.

  6. The effects of emotional intelligence on counterproductive work behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Morteza Emami

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of emotional intelligence on counterproductive work behavior. The study uses a questionnaire for measuring the effects of emotional intelligence, which consists of four components including self-awareness, self-control, self-motivation and empathy. In addition, the study uses another questionnaire to measure the effects of counterproductive work behavior. The study has accomplished among full time employees who work for Indus...

  7. Effects of Nonverbal Behavior on Perceptions of Power Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; Simonsen, Melissa M.; Pierce, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Manipulates three types of nonverbal behaviors and examines their effects on perceptions of power bases. Reports that a relaxed facial expression increased the ratings for five of the selected power bases; furthermore, direct eye contact yielded higher credibility ratings. Provides evidence that various nonverbal behaviors have only additive…

  8. Effects of Behavior and Family Structure on Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Effects of information about an adolescent's family structure and behavior on perceptions of education majors were studied for 45 male and 98 female college students. College students made subtle judgments based on this minimal information, but how strongly such judgments affect perceptions and behavior toward adolescents is not known. (SLD)

  9. The Effects of an Empathy Building Program on Bullying Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbury, Stacey; Bruce, Mary Alice; Jain, Sachin; Stellern, John

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the development, implementation, and effects of a middle school empathy building program that was designed to reduce bullying behavior. Results show that participants in the intervention group reported engaging in significantly less bullying behavior as compared to the control group, and the program was particularly…

  10. Anticonvulsant and antipunishment effects of toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, R.W.; Coleman, J.B.; Schuler, R.; Cox, C.

    1984-01-01

    Toluene can have striking acute behavioral effects and is subject to abuse by inhalation. To determine if its actions resemble those of drugs used in the treatment of anxiety (anxiolytics), two sets of experiments were undertaken. Inasmuch as prevention of pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions is an identifying property of this class of agents, the authors first demonstrated that pretreatment of mice with injections of toluene delayed the onset of convulsive signs and prevented the tonic extension phase of the convulsant activity in a dose-related manner. Injections of another alkyl benzene, m-xylene, were of comparable potency to toluene. Inhalation of toluene delayed the time of death after pentylenetetrazol injection in a manner related to the duration and concentration of exposure; at lower convulsant doses, inhalation of moderate concentrations (EC/sub 58/, 1300 ppm) prevented death. Treatment with a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist (Ro 15-1788) failed to reduce the anticonvulsant activity of inhaled toluene. Anxiolytics also attenuate the reduction in response rate produced by punishment with electric shock. Toluene increased rates of responding suppressed by punishment when responding was maintained under a multiple fixed-interval fixed-interval punishment schedule of reinforcement. Distinct antipunishment effects were observed in rats after 2 hr of exposure to 1780 and 3000 ppm of toluene; the rate-increasing effects of toluene were related to concentration and to time after the termination of exposure. Thus, toluene and m-xylene resemble in several respects clinically useful drugs such as the benzodiazepines. 51 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Cognitive and Behavioral Effects of Topiramate Versus Carbamazepine Monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive and behavioral effects of topiramate (TPM versus carbamazepine (CBZ were evaluated in a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial at Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, and other university centers in Korea.

  12. The Unconsidered Ballot: How Design Effects Voting Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Susan King

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a preliminary study of the effect of ballot interface design on voting behavior. Finds significant problems related to human factors and the organization of information on the ballot on mechanical and electronic voting machines. (RS)

  13. 小儿高热惊厥的治疗及护理%The Nursing and Treatment of Children With Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林英兰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿高热惊厥的原因及主要表现,实施有效的护理,在医护紧密配合下获得满意的效果。方法回顾性分析我院接诊的14例高热惊厥患儿的临床资料。结果经及时止惊,降温,保持呼吸道通畅,吸氧,加强监护等综合治疗,患儿均转为为安。结论及时迅速控制惊厥,降温,加强护理,降低高热惊厥患儿的意外伤害率,减少惊厥的复发。%Objective To explore the causes and the main performance of high fever convulsion in children, and implement effective nursing care to obtain satisfactory results in close cooperation with medical care.Methods Retrospective analyzed of 14 cases of febrile convulsion in children in our hospital.Results The patients were treated with the combined therapy of respiratory tract, keeping the respiratory tract unobstructed, oxygen inhalation, strengthening the monitoring, et al, all of them were safe. Conclusion Prompt control of seizures, cooling, enhanced care, reduce the rate of accidental injury in children with high fever and recurrence of seizures.

  14. Rapid Amygdala Kindling Causes Motor Seizure and Comorbidity of Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wang, Yu-Lin; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding. In the present study, 40 amygdala stimulations given within 2 days were applied in adult Wistar rats. Afterdischarge (AD) and seizure stage were recorded throughout the amygdala kindling. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and open field (OF) test, whereas depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swim (FS) and sucrose consumption (SC) tests. A tonic-clonic convulsion was provoked in the kindle group. Rapid amygdala kindling resulted in a significantly lower frequency entering an open area of either open arms of the EPM or the central zone of an OF, lower sucrose intake, and longer immobility of the FS test in the kindle group. Our results suggest that rapid amygdala kindling elicited severe motor seizures comorbid with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. PMID:27445726

  15. Rapid Amygdala Kindling Causes Motor Seizure and Comorbidity of Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wang, Yu-Lin; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding. In the present study, 40 amygdala stimulations given within 2 days were applied in adult Wistar rats. Afterdischarge (AD) and seizure stage were recorded throughout the amygdala kindling. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and open field (OF) test, whereas depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swim (FS) and sucrose consumption (SC) tests. A tonic-clonic convulsion was provoked in the kindle group. Rapid amygdala kindling resulted in a significantly lower frequency entering an open area of either open arms of the EPM or the central zone of an OF, lower sucrose intake, and longer immobility of the FS test in the kindle group. Our results suggest that rapid amygdala kindling elicited severe motor seizures comorbid with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors.

  16. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  17. Convulsions and inhibition of glutamate decarboxylase by pyridoxal phosphate-gamma-glutamyl hydrazone in the developing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massieu, L; Rivera, A; Tapia, R

    1994-02-01

    We have previously shown that in the adult rat the inhibition of brain glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity by pyridoxal phosphate-gamma-glutamyl hydrazone (PLPGH) administration does not result in convulsions, whereas in the adult mouse intense convulsions invariably occur. In the present study we report that, surprisingly, immature rats from 2 to 20 days of age treated with PLPGH (80 mg/kg) showed generalized tonic-clonic convulsions, whereas no convulsions at all were present in 30 days-old or older rats. GAD activity, measured by enzymic determination of GABA formed in forebrain homogenates, was inhibited by about 60% at the time of convulsions in 15 days-old and younger rats, whereas the inhibition was between 40 and 50% in older animals. The addition of the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate to the incubation medium completely reversed this inhibition. In all treated animals GABA levels were lower compared to controls. The results indicate that the susceptibility of GAD in vivo to a diminished cofactor concentration decreases with age. It seems possible that changes in the expression of enzyme forms are reflected in developmental variations in the susceptibility to seizures induced by vitamin B6 depletion, but alterations of other B6-dependent biochemical pathways cannot be discarded.

  18. 小儿高热惊厥的护理体会%Nursing Experience of Febrile Convulsion in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟芬芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿高热性惊厥的原因及急救措施和护理。方法对我院儿科2014年1月~2015年1月收治的30例高热性惊厥患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果30例小儿高热惊厥的快速抽搐,及时冷却,保持呼吸道通畅,吸氧,加强监控等一系列综合治疗和护理后全部转危为安。结论对高热惊厥患儿的治疗关键是高热,惊厥,迅速控制迅速冷却,加强综合护理。%Objective To investigate the cause of febrile convulsion in children and the emergency treatment and nursing. Methods The clinical data of 30 cases of febrile convulsion in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Results 30 cases of children with febrile convulsion of fast twitch, timely cooling, maintain respiratory tract unobstructed, oxygen, strengthen monitoring and so on a series of comprehensive treatment and nursing after turning the corner. Conclusion The key to the treatment of children with high fever convulsion is high fever, convulsion, rapid control rapid cooling, strengthen comprehensive nursing.

  19. 疫苗反应与急性惊厥或癫(癎)发作%Vaccination reactions and acute convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination is a milestone in the history of modern medicine. It has played a major role to prevent infectious diseases and to reduce mortality. However, the vaccine or vaccination-induced side effects, especially neurological disorders, such as seizures are also increasingly attracted concerns of the community. Seizures and side effects of vaccination are two separate medical problems that are parallel to the occasional cross. This paper will discuss the relationship between vaccine reactions and acute convulsions or seizures based on the latest research results.%疫苗在现代医学发展史上具有里程碑的意义.疫苗接种为预防和控制传染病、降低传染病病死率起了重大的作用.同时由于疫苗或预防接种引起的不良反应也日益受到社会各界的关注,特别是其神经系统不良反应,如惊厥等的发生更是受到普遍关注.惊厥和预防接种不良反应是两个独立的医学问题,平行而偶有交叉.文章结合最新研究,阐述疫苗反应与急性惊厥或癫(癎)发作的相关性.

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy of sodium valproate in convulsive status epilepticus following to ıschemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE is very rarely observed after ischaemic stroke. Sodium valproate (SV is one of the agents used in the treatment of CSE, but its role still controversial, and its degree of efficacy in treating CSE that develops following stroke is unclear. Method : We evaluated 19 patients who were treated with intravenous (IV SV (20 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg/h-12h after diazepam. Patients’ modified Rankin scores (mRS, SE types, and changes in biochemical parameters after treatment were assessed. Results : CSE was successfully treated in 12 (63.15% patients. Side effects such as hypotension and allergic reactions were observed in two patients. Refractory SE development was observed in 5 (29.4% patients with high mRS (˃ 3. No significant deterioration in patients’ laboratory evaluations, conducted before and after status, was observed. Conclusion : SV may be safe and effective in the treatment of CSE observed after ischaemic stroke, especially in patients with low mRS.

  1. Characteristic phasic evolution of convulsive seizure in PCDH19-related epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroko; Imai, Katsumi; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Shigematsu, Hideo; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Inoue, Yushi; Higurashi, Norimichi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    PCDH19-related epilepsy is a genetic disorder that was first described in 1971, then referred to as "epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females". PCDH19 has recently been identified as the responsible gene, but a detailed characterization of the seizure manifestation based on video-EEG recording is still limited. The purpose of this study was to elucidate features of the seizure semiology in children with PCDH19-related epilepsy. To do this, ictal video-EEG recordings of 26 convulsive seizures in three girls with PCDH19-related epilepsy were analysed. All seizures occurred in clusters, mainly during sleep accompanied by fever. The motor manifestations consisted of six sequential phases: "jerk", "reactive", "mild tonic", "fluttering", "mild clonic", and "postictal". Some phases were brief or lacking in some seizures, whereas others were long or pronounced. In the reactive phase, the patients looked fearful or startled with sudden jerks and turned over reactively. The tonic and clonic components were less intense compared with those of typical tonic-clonic seizures in other types of epilepsy. The fluttering phase was characterised initially by asymmetric, less rhythmic, and less synchronous tremulous movement and was then followed by the subtle clonic phase. Subtle oral automatism was observed in the postictal phase. The reactive, mild tonic, fluttering and mild clonic phases were most characteristic of seizures of PCDH19-related epilepsy. Ictal EEG started bilaterally and was symmetric in some patients but asymmetric in others. It showed asymmetric rhythmic discharges in some seizures at later phases. The electroclinical pattern of the phasic evolution of convulsive seizure suggests a focal onset seizure with secondary generalisation. Based on our findings, we propose that the six unique sequential phases in convulsive seizures suggest the diagnosis of PCDH19-related epilepsy when occurring in clusters with or without high fever in girls. [Published with

  2. Nursing Experience of Infantile Convulsion%小儿惊厥的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勤

    2012-01-01

      Objective Research and Discussion on the causes and nursing  of infantile convulsion. Methods Retrospective analysis of children convulsion cases in Third People's Hospital emergency department in recent years. Results Cases of Infantile convulsion are multiple in infants and young children age group. Common etiology with febrile seizures, epilepsy, hypocalcemia, meningitis and brain trauma .Conclusion Infantile convulsion is a common emergency in emergency department,mainly with febrile convulsions,a timely manner to identify the reasons, timely communication with children and parents, and correct and effective emergency care can reduce the occurrence of convulsions, reducing infantile convulsion in children with damage.%  目的研究与探讨小儿惊厥的相关病因及护理。方法 回顾性分析我院急诊科近年来小儿惊厥的病例。结果 小儿惊厥病例中以婴幼儿为高发年龄组。常见的病因有高热惊厥、脑膜炎、癫痫、低血钙、脑外伤等。结论 小儿惊厥是急诊科常见的急症,以高热惊厥为主,及时查明原因,及时与患儿及家长沟通,并进行正确有效的急救护理可以减少惊厥的发生,降低小儿惊厥对患儿的伤害程度。

  3. Diagnosis and interpretation of EEG on non-convulsive status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-gang KANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to diagnose non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE clinically because of the complicated etiology and various clinical and electroencephalographic features of NCSE without a universally accepted definition. Although the diagnosis of NCSE relies largely on electroencephalogram (EEG findings, the determination of NCSE on EEG is inevitably subjective, and the EEG changes of most patients is lack of specificity. As the diagnosis of NCSE is related to clinical and electroencephalographic manifestations, diagnostic criteria for NCSE should take into account both clinical and electroencephalographic features, and their response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.005

  4. Vertebral Artery Dissection Associated with Generalized Convulsive Seizures: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mohammad Amin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old male with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy was admitted to the neurological department for convulsive seizures just after lamotrigine was discontinued. On admission he was awake but had a right-sided hemiparesis with Babinski sign and ataxic finger-nose test on the left side. An MR scan showed a left-sided pontine infarction, an infarct in the left cerebellar hemisphere and a right vertebral artery dissection (VAD. The patient was treated with heparin and an oral anticoagulant for 6 months. Recovery of neurologic function was excellent. In patients with symptoms of disturbances of posterior circulation after epileptic seizures, VAD should be considered.

  5. Case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with convulsion, gait disturbance, facial palsy and with multifocal CT lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, Tetsu; Kurihara, Eiji; Mizuno, Yoshihiko; Tamagawa, Kimiko; Komiya, Kazuhiko; Mizuguchi, Masashi.

    1988-07-01

    A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was presented. The patient was a 4-year-old boy with convulsion, ataxic gait, facial palsy. It was postulated that the influenza vaccine might induce the disease in this case. Cranial CT showed a low density arease in the right temporal lobe, which disappeared afterwards when other low density areas appeared in the right cerebellar hemisphere and in inner portion of the body of the left lateral ventricle. All symptoms disappeared without therapy and the CT findings improved within three months after onset.

  6. Peer Effects in Unethical Behavior: Standing or Reputation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence shows that working in an unsupervised, isolated situation under competition, can increase dishonest behavior to achieve prestige. However, could working in a common space, in the presence of colleagues affect cheating? Here, we examine how familiar-peer influence, supervision and social incentives affect worker performance and dishonest behavior. First, we show that working in the presence of peers is an effective mechanism to constrain honest/dishonest behavior compared to an isolated work situation (experiment 1). Second, we demonstrate that the mere suspicion of dishonesty from another peer is not enough to affect individual cheating behavior (experiment 2), suggesting that reputation holds great importance in a worker’s self-image acting as a strong social incentives. Third, we show that when the suspicion of dishonesty increases with multiple peers behaving dishonestly, the desire to increase standing is sufficient to nudge individuals’ behavior back to cheating at the same levels as isolated situations (experiment 3). PMID:25853716

  7. Peer effects in unethical behavior: standing or reputation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pascual-Ezama

    Full Text Available Recent empirical evidence shows that working in an unsupervised, isolated situation under competition, can increase dishonest behavior to achieve prestige. However, could working in a common space, in the presence of colleagues affect cheating? Here, we examine how familiar-peer influence, supervision and social incentives affect worker performance and dishonest behavior. First, we show that working in the presence of peers is an effective mechanism to constrain honest/dishonest behavior compared to an isolated work situation (experiment 1. Second, we demonstrate that the mere suspicion of dishonesty from another peer is not enough to affect individual cheating behavior (experiment 2, suggesting that reputation holds great importance in a worker's self-image acting as a strong social incentives. Third, we show that when the suspicion of dishonesty increases with multiple peers behaving dishonestly, the desire to increase standing is sufficient to nudge individuals' behavior back to cheating at the same levels as isolated situations (experiment 3.

  8. Peer effects in unethical behavior: standing or reputation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Ezama, David; Dunfield, Derek; Gil-Gómez de Liaño, Beatriz; Prelec, Drazen

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence shows that working in an unsupervised, isolated situation under competition, can increase dishonest behavior to achieve prestige. However, could working in a common space, in the presence of colleagues affect cheating? Here, we examine how familiar-peer influence, supervision and social incentives affect worker performance and dishonest behavior. First, we show that working in the presence of peers is an effective mechanism to constrain honest/dishonest behavior compared to an isolated work situation (experiment 1). Second, we demonstrate that the mere suspicion of dishonesty from another peer is not enough to affect individual cheating behavior (experiment 2), suggesting that reputation holds great importance in a worker's self-image acting as a strong social incentives. Third, we show that when the suspicion of dishonesty increases with multiple peers behaving dishonestly, the desire to increase standing is sufficient to nudge individuals' behavior back to cheating at the same levels as isolated situations (experiment 3).

  9. Effects of switching behavior for the attraction on pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2014-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk i...

  10. Stimulating cost effective behavior in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, D

    1987-04-01

    Types of influence on the delivery of medical care are divided into monetary and other. These incentives effect care at the system, hospital, care team, physician and patient levels. Selected examples, primarily from the USA, are discussed.

  11. Effects of rubberized flooring on Asian elephant behavior in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Camie L; Croney, Candace C; Shepherdson, David

    2007-01-01

    Six Asian elephants at the Oregon Zoo were observed to determine the effects of a poured rubber flooring substrate on captive Asian elephant behavior. Room utilization also was evaluated in seven rooms used for indoor housing, including Front and Back observation areas. Data were collected in three phases. Phase I (Baseline Phase) examined elephant behavior on old concrete floors. In Phase II (Choice Phase), elephant behavior was observed in the Back observation area where room sizes were comparable and when a choice of flooring substrates was available. Phase III (Final Phase) examined elephant behavior when all rooms in both observation areas, Front and Back, were converted to rubberized flooring. Room use in both observation areas remained stable throughout the study, suggesting that flooring substrate did not affect room use choice. However, there was a clear pattern of decreased discomfort behaviors on the new rubber flooring. Normal locomotion as well as stereotypic locomotion increased on the new rubber flooring. In addition, resting behavior changed to more closely reflect the resting behavior of wild elephants, which typically sleep standing up, and spend very little time in lateral recumbence. Overall, these findings suggest that the rubber flooring may have provided a more comfortable surface for locomotion as well as standing resting behavior. It is suggested that poured rubber flooring may be a beneficial addition to similar animal facilities. Zoo Biol 0:1-11, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Effective viscoelastic behavior of particulate polymer composites at finite concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dan; HU Geng-kai

    2007-01-01

    Polymeric materials usually present some viscoelastic behavior. To improve the mechanical behavior of these materials, ceramics materials are often filled into the polymeric materials in form of fiber or particle. A micromechanical model was proposed to estimate the overall viscoelastic behavior for particulate polymer composites, especially for high volume concentration of filled particles. The method is based on Laplace transform technique and an elastic model including two-particle interaction. The effective creep compliance and the stress and strainrelation at a constant loading rate are analyzed. The results show that the proposed method predicts a significant stiffer response than those based on Mori-Tanaka's method at high volume concentration of particles.

  13. Effect of Teaching Behavior on Study Motivation in Generative Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉梅; 薛小莹

    2014-01-01

    Teaching behavior plays a vital role in students’study and has a great effect on their academic achievement.Study moti-vation is one of key essentials for students to focus themselves on their study. As a teacher,how to arouse students ’motivation and inspire students to study actively is a critical teaching behavior.How to change default teaching into generative teaching is al-so one of necessary teaching behaviors in English teaching.This paper will illustrate what measures should be taken and what prin-ciples should be followed in generative teaching.

  14. Effects of logging on orangutan behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardus, M.E.; Lameira, A.R.; Menken, S.B.J.; Wich, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The human footprint is increasing across the world’s natural habitats, causing large negative impacts on the survival of many species. In order to successfully mitigate the negative effects on species’ survival, it is crucial to understand their responses to human-induced changes. This paper examine

  15. The effects of music sound levels on restaurant customer's behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Geerdes, Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Restaurant attributes influence the perceptions and behaviors of restaurant customers. Among these attributes are music and its sound level. Sound level has been known to affect people's behaviors and judgments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music sound level on customers in a restaurant, specifically, where they sit and how long they stay. The study took place in a restaurant where customers seat themselves and music sound levels vary across ta...

  16. Maternal effects in quail and zebra finches: Behavior and hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Sunayana B; Correa, Stephanie M; Schweitzer, Cécile

    2013-09-01

    Maternal effects are influences of parents on offspring phenotype occurring through pathways other than inherited DNA. In birds, two important routes for such transmission are parental behavior and non-DNA egg constituents such as yolk hormones. Offspring traits subject to parental effects include behavior and endocrine function. Research from the Adkins-Regan lab has used three avian species to investigate maternal effects related to hormones and behavior. Experiments with chickens and Japanese quail have shown that maternal sex steroids can influence sex determination to produce biased offspring sex ratios. Because all birds have a ZZ/ZW chromosomal sex determining system in which the female parent determines the sex of the offspring, these results raise the possibility that maternal steroids can influence the outcome of sex chromosome meiosis. Learning has been shown to influence egg investment by female quail in ways that are likely to alter offspring phenotype. In quail, embryonic and exogenous sex steroids have well established and long-lasting effects on sexual differentiation of behavior during a critical period in ovo, but elevated yolk testosterone has long-term effects on behavior that do not seem to be occurring through an alteration in sexual differentiation. In biparental zebra finches, removal of mothers alters not only later behavior, but also the adult response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to an environmental stressor, as indicated by plasma corticosterone. Birds raised only by fathers have lower levels of mRNA for both glucocorticoid receptors in several brain regions as adults. These studies add to the evidence that one generation influences the behavioral or endocrine phenotype of the next through routes other than transmission of DNA. Additional research will be required to understand the adaptive significance of these effects.

  17. Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S.

    This review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) first looks at aspects of the history and prevalence of AS use in competitive sports. Research suggests that one-quarter to one-half million adolescents in the United States have used, or are currently using AS. Some effects of androgens…

  18. Differentiation between eclampsia and cerebrovascular disorders by brain CT scan in pregnant patients with convulsive seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Katsuto; Lin, Yaw-Tyng; Noda, Kiyofumi; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Yonezawa, Masaru; Sekiba, Kaoru; Ochiai, Youji

    1987-06-01

    Six pregnant women with convulsions between 25 to 40 weeks of gestation were experienced. Among them, 4 patients were diagnosed as having intracranial hemorrhage and two as simple eclampsia. With the aid of brain CT scan, one case of arteriovenous malformation was detected and treated surgically with good prognosis for both the mother and the fetus. Two patients were diagnosed to have cerebral hemorrhage with subsequent penetration into the lateral ventricles and were treated conservatively. Their fetuses were delivered alive by cesarean section, but the mothers expired. The other patient with cerebral hemorrhage was treated surgically, and both the mother and the fetus survived. One of the simple eclampsia patients was noted to have a growth retarded fetus at 32 weeks of pregnancy with subsequent intra-uterine death, but the mother recovered after conservative treatment. Another patient at 40 weeks of pregnancy was also treated conservatively and both the fetus and the mother survived. Brain CT scan findings differed between these two eclampsia patients; local brain edema for the second patient and generalized brain edema for the first patient. Thus more active application of brain CT scan is recommended in managing pregnant patients with convulsions.

  19. ucb L059, a novel anti-convulsant drug: pharmacological profile in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, A J; Noyer, M; Verloes, R; Gobert, J; Wülfert, E

    1992-11-10

    The anticonvulsant activity of ucb L059 ((S)-alpha-ethyl-2-oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide) was evaluated in a range of animal models. ucb L059 was active after oral and intraperitoneal administration in both rats and mice, with a unique profile of action incorporating features in common with several different types of antiepileptic drugs. The compound was active, with ED50 values generally within the range of 5.0-30.0 mg/kg, in inhibiting audiogenic seizures, electrically induced convulsions and convulsions induced chemically by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), bicuculline, picrotoxin and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). ucb L059 retarded the development of PTZ-induced kindling in mice and reduced PTZ-induced EEG spike wave discharge in rats. The R enantiomer, ucb L060, had low intrinsic anticonvulsant activity, showing the stereospecificity of action of the molecule although the actual mechanism of action remains unknown. Neurotoxicity, evaluated with an Irwin-type observation test, the rotarod test and open-field exploration, was minimal, with only mild sedation being observed, even at doses 50-100 times higher than the anticonvulsant doses; at pharmacologically active doses, the animals appeared calm but slightly more active. ucb L059 thus presents as an orally active, safe, broad-spectrum anticonvulsant agent, with potential antiepileptogenic and anti-absence actions.

  20. Continuous EEG monitoring in the evaluation of non-convulsive seizures and status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-convulsive seizures (NCSzs and non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE occur in a substantial proportion of patients with acute brain injury. These acute seizure disorders are often unrecognized and under-diagnosed. Seizure semiology of NCSz is too subtle clinically to be noticed. Most often, mental status impairment is the presenting feature. Changes in the functions of the thalamo-cortical system in patients with impaired consciousness can be detected by continuous EEG (cEEG monitoring. cEEG monitoring allows detection of the changes at a reversible stage, often when there are no clinical indications of such phenomena. In addition EEG provides reasonable spatial resolution and excellent temporal resolution. This makes cEEG an excellent method for supplementing single or serial recordings in the detection of NCSzs and NCSE. Recent advances in digital EEG have made cEEG monitoring in the neurological intensive care unit (NICU technically feasible. Current evidence suggests that the common clinical denominator associated with electrographic seizures or NCSzs is mental status impairment. In NCSE, the duration of ictal activity and the time of delay to diagnosis are independent predictors of poor outcome. It will be prudent to do cEEG monitoring in any patient with impaired consciousness either in the setting of acute brain injury or with no clear explanation to detect NCSzs/NCSE. Early recognition and timely intervention is likely to be associated with good outcomes.

  1. Acute fracture of the acetabulum secondary to a convulsive seizure 3 years after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilla, Bulent; Caglar, Omur; Akgun, Rahmi Can

    2008-03-01

    While aseptic loosening, osteolysis, and infection are the most common causes of failure after total hip arthroplasty (THA), late hip pain can also be the result of acetabular fracture related to trauma and resultant prosthetic failure. However, atraumatic fracture of the acetabulum around a well-fixed acetabular component is unusual. We present a patient with an acetabular fracture resulting from a generalized convulsive attack 3 years after an uncomplicated primary THA. A 33-year-old man presented with acute left hip pain. He had chronic renal insufficiency and had undergone bilateral THA due to avascular necrosis. The night prior to his admission, he suffered a generalized convulsive attack with severe extremity contractions. Afterwards, he had acute left groin pain and had difficulty walking. Physical examination revealed moderate left hip pain as well as a 1-cm shortening of the affected limb. Radiological examination demonstrated an acetabular fracture with medial wall comminution. The acetabular component had migrated medially and rotated horizontally. Revision of the acetabular component with a reinforcement ring and implantation of a cemented acetabular component was realized. Severe muscle spasms during generalized seizures are known to lead to various musculoskeletal injuries (fractures of the proximal humerus, femur, acetabulum, and dislocation of the shoulder). Seizures could also lead to acute periprosthetic fracture of the acetabulum in patients with osteopenia. Therefore careful reaming is required to avoid overmedialization of the acetabular component in those patients.

  2. Leukocyte Count and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate as Diagnostic Factors in Febrile Convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Rahbarimanesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "nFebrile convulsion (FC is the most common seizure disorder in childhood. white blood cell (WBC and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR are commonly measured in FC. Trauma, vomiting and bleeding can also lead to WBC and ESR so the blood tests must carefully be interpreted by the clinician. In this cross sectional study 410 children(163 with FC, aged 6 months to 5 years, admitted to Bahrami Children hospital in the first 48 hours of their febrile disease, either with or without seizure, were evaluated over an 18 months period. Age, sex, temperature; history of vomiting, bleeding or trauma; WBC, ESR and hemoglobin were recorded in all children. There was a significant increase of WBC (P<0.001 in children with FC so we can deduct that leukocytosis encountered in children with FC can be due to convulsion in itself. There was no significant difference regarding ESR (P=0.113 between the two groups. In fact, elevated ESR is a result of underlying pathology. In stable patients who don't have any indication of lumbar puncture, there's no need to assess WBC and ESR as an indicator of underlying infection. If the patient is transferred to pediatric ward and still there's no reason to suspect a bacterial infection, there is no need for WBC test.

  3. [Brain abscess due to Fusobacterium necrophorum in a patient with convulsion and no signs of meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimohata, Mitsuteru; Naruse, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yumiko; Koyama, Miyako; Ito, Yasushi; Tanaka, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report brain abscess due to Fusobacterium necrophorum (F. necrophorum) in a 78-year-old healthy man. He developed convulsion and did not have any signs of meningitis. Although the brain magnetic resonance imaging findings of the left occipital lobe were typical of a brain abscess, his cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed only slight pleocytosis and mild increase in protein levels. Thus, it was difficult to rule out the possibility of metastatic brain tumor; the patient's condition was provisionally diagnosed as symptomatic epilepsy secondary to brain abscess. His convulsion disappeared soon after administration of antiepileptic, antibacterial, and steroid agents. A craniotomy was performed to evacuate the abscess, and F. necrophorum was identified by culturing the abscess contents. After the operation, he was treated with appropriate antibacterial agents, which resulted in resolution of the brain abscess. Although Fusobacterium species are gram-negative anaerobic bacilli commensal of the human oropharynx, we need to recognize that Fusobacterium species can be a primary pathogen causing brain abscesses and may leave residual neurological sequelae without early appropriate treatment.

  4. Cerebral blood perfusion in febrile convulsions with sup 123 -IMP SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michihiro, Narumi; Ariizumi, Motomizu; Shiihara, Hiroaki; Suemitsu, Tomoko; Kurosawa, Yumiko; Egami, Yuriko (Dokkyo University Hospital, Saitama (Japan))

    1990-04-01

    Twenty-five pediatric patients with febrile convulsions underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine. Nineteen patients (76%) had a localized, decreased blood flow on early images, 12 of whom had it in the temporal region. According to seizure type, the abnormality was seen in 85% (17/20) for complex type, in contrast to 40% (2/5) for simple type. This finding has implications for pathological similarities between epilepsy and febrile convulsion. Delayed imaging performed on 12 patients showed redistribution in 5 of 9 patients having a decreased blood flow on early images. In the other 3 patients having normal findings on early images, however, different findings were seen on delayed images - normal, increased or decreased blood flow. There was no correlation between SPECT and encephalographic findings. A localized, decreased blood flow on SPECT seemed to reflect the risk for developing epilepsy. A follow-up care for preventing epilepsy is mandatory when there are abnormal findings on SPECT. (N.K.).

  5. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist: A Behavior Rating Scale for the Assessment of Treatment Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development of a scale to assess drug and other treatment effects on severely mentally retarded individuals is described. Separate factor analyses of the data from two samples resulted in a five-factor scale: (1) Irritability, Agitation, Crying; (2) Lethargy, Social Withdrawal; (3) Stereotypic Behavior; (4) Hyperactivity, Noncompliance; and…

  6. Evaluation of Behavioral and Pharmacological Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Valeriana prionophylla Standl. from Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iandra Holzmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies on the pharmacological properties of Valeriana prionophylla Standl. (VP, known as “Valeriana del monte”, and used in Mesoamerican folk medicine to treat sleep disorders. This study examines the pharmacological effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of the dry rhizome using the open field, rota rod, elevated plus-maze (EPM, forced swimming (FST, strychnine- and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, PTZ-induced seizures, and the inhibitory avoidance tests. VP did not show any protective effect against PTZ-induced convulsions. In the EPM, exhibited an anxiolytic-like effect through the effective enhancement of the entries (38.5% and time spent (44.7% in the open arms, when compared with control group. Time spent and the numbers of entrances into the enclosed arms were decreased, similar to those effects observed with diazepam. In the FST, acute treatment with VP, produced a dose-dependent decrease in immobility time, similarly to imipramine. VP also produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in the latency of sleeping time, while producing an increase in total duration of sleep; influenced memory consolidation of the animals only at lower doses, unlike those that produced anti-depressant and anxiolytic effects. In summary, the results suggest that VP presents several psychopharmacological activities, including anxiolytic, antidepressant, and hypno-sedative effects.

  7. The effects of emotional intelligence on counterproductive work behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Emami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of emotional intelligence on counterproductive work behavior. The study uses a questionnaire for measuring the effects of emotional intelligence, which consists of four components including self-awareness, self-control, self-motivation and empathy. In addition, the study uses another questionnaire to measure the effects of counterproductive work behavior. The study has accomplished among full time employees who work for Industrial Projects Management of Iran (IPMI, as a general contractor, undertakes EPC projects in field of oil, gas and petrochemical industries in Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined a negative and meaningful relationship between various components of emotional intelligence and counterproductive work behavior.

  8. Effects of Switching Behavior for the Attraction on Pedestrian Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores.

  9. Beliefs and environmental behavior: the moderating effect of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Luzón, Maria Carmen; Calvo-Salguero, Antonia; Salinas, Jose Maria

    2014-12-01

    Recent decades have seen a proliferation of studies aiming to explain how pro-environmental behavior is shaped by attitudes, values and beliefs. In this study, we have included an aspect in our analysis that has been rarely touched upon until now, that is, the intelligent use of emotions as a possible component of pro-environmental behavior. We applied the Trait Meta Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) and the New Environmental Paradigm scale to a sample of 184 male and female undergraduate students. We also carried out correlation and hierarchical regression analyses of blocks. The results show the interaction effects of the system of environmental beliefs and the dimensions of emotional intelligence on glass recycling attitudes, intentions and behavior. The results are discussed from the perspective of research on how the management of emotions guides thought and behavior.

  10. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare.

  11. Pressure effects on dynamics behavior of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebian, Taha [Faculty of Engineering, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The dynamic behavior of Multiwall boron nitride nanotubes (MWBNNTs) is investigated by employing multiple elastic shells model. The influences of van der Waals interactions on layers are shown as nonlinear functions of the interlayer distance of MWBNNTs. Governing equations are solved by using the developed finite element method and by employing time history diagrams. The radial wave speed from the outermost layer to the innermost layer is computed. The effects of geometrical factors such as diameter-to-thickness ratio on dynamic behavior of MWBNNTs are determined. The magnification aspects of MWBNNTs are computed, and the effects of surrounding pressures on wave speed and magnification aspect of MWBNNTs are discussed.

  12. Conduta no primeiro episódio de crise convulsiva Management of the first convulsive seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Nicole-Carvalho

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudar a grande variação dos prognósticos relatados após a primeira crise convulsiva não provocada e dos fatores de risco que são associados com recorrência, estabelecendo uma conduta uniforme. Fontes dos dados: revisão sistemática das citações do banco de dados da Bireme. Síntese dos dados: a taxa de recorrência difere nos estudos de primeira crise em conseqüência dos diferentes critérios de inclusão. O eletrencefalograma (EEG é particularmente útil na determinação da natureza epiléptica de um evento nos pacientes mais jovens e naqueles com crises de origem desconhecida. Um EEG anormal, particularmente com descargas de ponta-onda generalizadas, tem sido relatado como um preditor de recorrência consistente. Embora não seja um substituto para o exame clínico, o EEG é parte integral do processo diagnóstico após a primeira crise afebril, e deve ser solicitado. A decisão quanto tratar ou não os pacientes que apresentaram uma crise única depende fortemente do conhecimento do médico da potencial morbidade de uma outra crise versus a potencial morbidade da terapia com drogas antiepilépticas (DAEs. Conclusões: em crianças, efeitos colaterais das DAEs são comuns, e o risco de injúria após uma crise geralmente é mínimo, já que elas não se expõem a situações de extremo risco, como a condução de automóveis ou a operação de máquinas, além do fato de geralmente estarem em ambiente supervisionado. Em adultos, esta unanimidade é pequena.Objective: to observe the wide variety of reported prognosis after a first unprovoked convulsion and of risk factors that are associated with recurrence, and a uniform conduct. Sources: systematic review of Bireme. Summary of the findings: recurrence rates differ from a first seizure study because of different inclusion criteria. The EEG is particularly helpful to support the epileptic nature of the event in younger patients and in those with seizures of unknown

  13. Inhibitor effect of paricalcitol in rat model of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanıkgil, Yiğit; Solmaz, Volkan; Çavuşoğlu, Türker; Çınar, Bilge Piri; Çetin, Emel Öykü; Sur, Halil Yılmaz; Erbaş, Oytun

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D has various systemic effects on bone metabolism, modulation of the immune system, stabilization of the cell membrane, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and various other hormones. Differing from active vitamin D, paricalcitol is a relatively safe VDR agonist due to its relatively few side effects. This study has investigated the anticonvulsant effect of paricalcitol in convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into two groups: 18 for EEG recording (PTZ 35 mg/kg) and 18 for behavioral studies (PTZ 70 mg/kg). Forty-five minutes before the PTZ injection, both groups of rats were given 5 and 10 μg/kg of paricalcitol i.p., respectively. Racine convulsion scores, first myoclonic jerk time, spike percentages, and antioxidant status were evaluated in the groups. Our results showed that the Racine's Convulsion Scale (RCS) score significantly dropped in the paricalcitol-treated group, analysis of the first myoclonic jerk (FMJ) latencies demonstrated a significantly longer latency in the paricalcitol-applied group, and spike percentages at EEG recordings significantly decreased with paricalcitol. Moreover, MDA levels were lower and SOD activity were higher in the 5 μg/kg paricalcitol group compared to the saline group; these results were more prominent in 10 μg/kg paricalcitol group. Our study has demonstrated that paricalcitol has protective effects on PTZ-induced convulsions. Based on the SOD and MDA levels in our study, these effects may result from the antioxidant characteristics of paricalcitol.

  14. Effects of piracetam on behavior and memory in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leah; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Utterback, Eli; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Frank, Kevin; Hart, Peter; Howard, Harry; Kalueff, Allan V

    2011-04-25

    Piracetam, a derivative of γ-aminobutyric acid, exerts memory-enhancing and mild anxiolytic effects in human and rodent studies. To examine the drug's behavioral profile further, we assessed its effects on behavioral and endocrine (cortisol) responses of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)--a novel model species rapidly gaining popularity in neurobehavioral research. Overall, acute piracetam did not affect zebrafish novel tank and light-dark box behavior at mild doses (25-400mg/L), but produced nonspecific behavioral inhibition at 700mg/L. No effects on cortisol levels or inter-/intra-session habituation in the novel tank test were observed for acute or chronic mild non-sedative dose of 200mg/L. In contrast, fish exposed to chronic piracetam at this dose performed significantly better in the cued learning plus-maze test. This observation parallels clinical and rodent literature on the behavioral profile of piracetam, supporting the utility of zebrafish paradigms for testing nootropic agents.

  15. 咪达唑仑在窒息后惊厥新生儿中的应用%Application of midazolam in convulsion newborn after asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫; 杨志雄

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the anticonvulsant action of midazolam in perinatal severe asphyxia.Methods:21 cases of convulsion newborns after severe asphyxia were selected.They were randomly divided into the experimental group with 11 cases and the control group with 10 cases.The experimental group was given midazolam treatment,and the control group was given phenobarbital treatment.The anticonvulsant effects and respiratory inhibition effects of two groups were compared.Results:The anticonvulsant effect of the experimental group was better than that of the control group.There was no respiratory inhibition in the experimental group,and the control group had 1 case of respiratory inhibition.Conclusion:The effect of midazolam in the treatment of convulsion after newborn asphyxia is much better than that of phenobarbital.%目的:探讨咪达唑仑在新生儿重度窒息中抗惊厥作用。方法:收治重度窒息后惊厥新生儿21例,随机分为试验组11例和对照组10例。试验组给予咪达唑仑治疗,对照组给予苯巴比妥治疗。比较两组抗惊厥效果及呼吸抑制作用。结果:试验组抗惊厥效果优于对照组,试验组中未见呼吸抑制,对照组中1例发生呼吸抑制。结论:咪达唑仑在新生儿窒息后惊厥治疗中效果明显优于苯巴比妥。

  16. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R.; Worden, Lee; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors’ behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually the square lattice), and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously by picking a random individual and we either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in the case of finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of this manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing-rate effects, which have qualitatively similar effects. Both of these effects increase the tendency of the system to move from a less-desired equilibrium to the “ground state.” Our findings can be used to probe shifts in behavioral norms and have implications for the role of information flow in determining when social norms that have become unpopular in particular communities (such as foot binding or female genital cutting) persist or vanish.

  17. The effects of proton exposure on neurochemistry and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Szprengiel, A.; Pluhar, J.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Future space missions will involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, where astronauts will be exposed to radiation hazards such as those that arise from galactic cosmic rays. Galactic cosmic rays are composed of protons, α particles, and particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles). Research by our group has shown that exposure to HZE particles, primarily 600 MeV/n and 1 GeV/n 56Fe, can produce significant alterations in brain neurochemistry and behavior. However, given that protons can make up a significant portion of the radiation spectrum, it is important to study their effects on neural functioning and on related performance. Therefore, these studies examined the effects of exposure to proton irradiation on neurochemical and behavioral endpoints, including dopaminergic functioning, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, and spatial learning and memory as measured by the Morris water maze. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a dose of 0, 1.5, 3.0 or 4.0 Gy of 250 MeV protons at Loma Linda University and were tested in the different behavioral tests at various times following exposure. Results showed that there was no effect of proton irradiation at any dose on any of the endpoints measured. Therefore, there is a contrast between the insignificant effects of high dose proton exposure and the dramatic effectiveness of low dose (<0.1 Gy) exposures to 56Fe particles on both neurochemical and behavioral endpoints.

  18. Effects of alternative responses on behavior exposed to noncontingent reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Iwata, Brian A; Fahmie, Tara A; Harper, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) may decrease the frequency of behavior by either inducing satiation or terminating the response-reinforcer contingency (extinction). Another possibility is that the target behavior is replaced by other behaviors maintained by preexisting contingencies. We conducted 2 experiments in which we allowed access to a target response and several alternatives. In Experiment 1, NCR, preceded by contingent reinforcement (CR) for the target, produced a reduction in the target and an increase in the alternatives in 2 subjects with intellectual disabilities. To separate the effects of NCR from the availability of alternative responses, we presented CR conditions to 4 subjects in Experiment 2 with and without the availability of alternatives. The availability of alternatives decreased the target in only 1 subject. Subsequent manipulations showed that reductions in the target were solely a function of NCR for the other 3 subjects. Thus, response competition may have marginal effects on response suppression during NCR.

  19. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors' behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually, the square lattice) and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously either by picking a random individual and either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in case of a finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing...

  20. Description and effects of sequential behavior practice in teacher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, T; Lounsbery, M; Bahls, V

    1997-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a sequential behavior feedback protocol on the practice-teaching experiences of undergraduate teacher trainees. The performance competencies of teacher trainees were analyzed using an alternative opportunities for appropriate action measure. Data support the added utility of sequential (Sharpe, 1997a, 1997b) behavior analysis information in systematic observation approaches to teacher education. One field-based undergraduate practicum using sequential behavior (i.e., field systems analysis) principles was monitored. Summarized are the key elements of the (a) classroom instruction provided as a precursor to the practice teaching experience, (b) practice teaching experience, and (c) field systems observation tool used for evaluation and feedback, including multiple-baseline data (N = 4) to support this approach to teacher education. Results point to (a) the strong relationship between sequential behavior feedback and the positive change in four preservice teachers' day-to-day teaching practices in challenging situational contexts, and (b) the relationship between changes in teacher practices and positive changes in the behavioral practices of gymnasium pupils. Sequential behavior feedback was also socially validated by the undergraduate participants and Professional Development School teacher supervisors in the study.

  1. Effect of Chronic Lead Intoxication on Risky Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mohammadyar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With industrialization of human societies, pollutants like lead have entered in the life cycle, causing harmful effects on body organs. No sufficient studies have been done on the effects of pollutants on behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of lead on some measurable behaviors of an animal model. Methods: Forty eight male adult mice were divided into 4 groups of 12 each. Lead acetate was added at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, or 500 ppm to the drinking water of the animals for 4 weeks (28 days. On day 29, animals were placed on an Elevated Plus maze (EPM for 5 min and the time in sec spent was measured on closed arms, open arms and the end 1/3rd of the open arms. Increased time on open arms, particularly the end 1/3rd was considered to reflect an enhanced risk-accepting behavior. Results: In this study, it was shown that lead exposure caused an increased number of entrance (P=0.006 and time spent (P=0.034 by mice on open arms of the EPM. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of lead acetate and those two effects. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that lead poisoning may decrease normal anxiety in mice and increase risky behavior in this species. Clinical studies on human subjects with risky behavior are strongly suggested in order to find a possible relation between chronic exposures to lead as well as plasma concentration of lead with the extent of this kind of behavior.

  2. Investigating the Anticonvulsant Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Perforant Path Kindling Model in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yadollahpour

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Almost 20% of epileptics are drug resistant. Studies have shown that low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is with therapeutic effects on epilepsy-affected laboratory models. Anticonvulsant effects of rTMS depend on several parameters among which radiation frequency is the most important one. In this study, the therapeutic impacts of 1 and 2 Hz rTMS on convulsing parameters in epileptic model of electrical kindling stimulation of the perforant path were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 21 rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely ‘1 Hz treatment group’ and ‘2 Hz treatment group’ and ‘kindling group’. The kindling group only received kindling stimulations for seven days. One Hz and 2 Hz frequency treatment groups received maximally 5 min rTMS after termination of kindling stimulation per day for a week. Stimulation and stability electrodes had been placed, in turn, on perforant path and dentate gyrus. For quantifying the duration of the subsequent discharge waves, two-way ANOVA test and Bonferroni post-test were employed. In addition, for quantifying the convulsive behaviors, Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U tests were used. Results: The results showed that 1 Hz and 2 Hz frequency rTMS have considerable inhibitory impact on the development of convulsive phases. Anticonvulsive effect was observed from the first day after rTMS was undertaken. In addition, the animals did not show fourth and fifth convulsive stages, and a significant reduction was evident in their recorded peak discharge waves compared with kindle group. Conclusion: Low frequency rTMS possesses significant anticonvulsive effects which depend upon sTMS stimulation frequency.

  3. Prevalence of HHV-6 in cerebrospinal fluid of children younger than 2 years of age with febrile convulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Mamishi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Febrile convulsion is a common disorder in children. Viral infections such as human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6 which results in roseola infantum may contribute to developing seizure. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HHV-6 by detecting DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of children with febrile convulsion and without any rash of roseola infantum.In this descriptive cross-sectional study, CSF of 100 children younger than 2 years of age with febrile convulsion was evaluated for detecting HHV-6 DNA by PCR. All of them were referred to emergency ward in Pediatric Medical Center from March 2010 to March 2011. General information, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and outcomes were collected in the questionnaires.One hundred children including 59 males and 41 females were evaluated. HHV-6 was detected from CSF in six patients (6% by PCR. Mean age was 8 months old. All children were younger than 12 months old. The most common primary manifestation was fever alone. None of them had rash. Majority of cases occurred in winter. All patients recovered without any encephalitis.These findings showed that primary infection with HHV-6 is frequently associated with febrile convulsion in infants which may be at risk for subsequent development of epilepsy.

  4. Progress in studies on the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor in convulsion: a short review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-fang; LIU Li-qun

    2012-01-01

    Convulsion is the medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly,resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.The impaired inhibition of electrical activity in the brain is one of leading causes of convulsion.y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS).GABA acts at inhibitory synapses in the brain by binding to specific transmembrane receptors in the plasma membrane of both pre- and post-synaptic neuronal processes.GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is the most important inhibitory receptor,and is the target receptor of anticonvulsant drugs in the clinic.In this review,we describe GABAergic signaling mediated by GABAAR,the mechanisms of GABAAR and their expression,and the progress being made on understanding the role of GABAAR in convulsion with emphasis on the association between GABAAR mutations or GABAAR subunit expression and convulsion.We also describe progress of anticonvulsant drugs based on the GABAAR.

  5. Effects of Academic Experience and Prestige on Researchers’ Citing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a bibliometric study of the measurable effects of experience and prestige on researchers' citing behavior. All single authors from two econometrics journals over a 10-year time period form the basis of the analysis of how experience and prestige affect the num...

  6. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbuehler, K.; Peters, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  7. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this e

  8. The Behavioral Effects of Crowding: Definitions and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Larry M.; And Others

    Crews of 18 U.S. Navy combat vessels rated their living and working conditions aboard ship, including degree of crowding. In order to better understand the behavioral effects of crowding, three different types of measures, corresponding to different definitions of crowding, were constructed. These separate crowding measures correlated uniquely…

  9. Ileal brake activation: Macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Aam, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of t

  10. Preventing Challenging Behaviors in Preschool: Effective Strategies for Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Janelle C.; Crosby, Megan G.; Irwin, Heather K.; Dennis, Lindsay R.; Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides practical strategies and techniques that early childhood educators can implement in their classrooms to effectively manage challenging behaviors. The specific strategies addressed fall under the following categories: (a) classroom management, (b) reinforcement, and (c) communication. Suggestions are made for how parents can…

  11. Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this

  12. Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Behavior Problems and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Parents and children completed measures that assessed children's behavior problems and depression. Children had experienced abuse, witnessed spouse abuse, experienced and witnessed abuse, or experienced no domestic violence. Reports of effects of domestic violence on children varied, depending on the type of violence and the person reporting it.…

  13. Feingold Diet Effect on Reading Achievement and Classroom Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernick, Eleanor

    The effect of the Feingold diet (elimination of artificial colors, flavors, or foods with natural salicylates to reduce hyperactivity) on the reading achievement scores, behavior, and impulsivity/reflectivity of 13 children (ages 6 to 12 years) was evaluated. Six months after the experimental group adopted the Feingold diet there were no…

  14. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...

  15. An Investigation of the Impact of Function of Problem Behavior on Effectiveness of the Behavior Education Program (BEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; O'Neill, Robert E.; MacLeod, K. Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The Behavior Education Program (BEP) is a check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at-risk for engaging in more severe problem behavior. Previous research with middle and elementary school students found that the BEP was more effective with students who had adult attention maintained problem behavior. The purposes of this…

  16. Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, D.R. (State Univ. of New York, Oswego (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were tested for five minutes per day in a modified open field for one or three days. Lake Ontario salmon diets consistently produced significantly lower activity, rearing, and nosepoke behaviors in comparison with ocean salmon or rat chow diet conditions. A dose-response effect for concentration of lake salmon was obtained, and the attenuation effect occurred in males, females, adult or young animals, and postweaning females, with fish sampled over a five-year period. While only two of several potential contaminants were tested, both fish and brain analyses of mirex and PCBs relate to the behavioral effects.

  17. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR; ADIBSERESHKI, Narges; Masome POURMOHAMADREZA-TAJRISHI; Samaneh HOSSEINZADEH

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were chosen and randomly divided into two ...

  18. Phase-locking of epileptic spikes to ongoing delta oscillations in non-convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, Rikkert; Meijer, Hil G E; van Gils, Stephan A; van Putten, Michel J A M

    2013-01-01

    The EEG of patients in non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) often displays delta oscillations or generalized spike-wave discharges. In some patients, these delta oscillations coexist with intermittent epileptic spikes. In this study we verify the prediction of a computational model of the thalamo-cortical system that these spikes are phase-locked to the delta oscillations. We subsequently describe the physiological mechanism underlying this observation as suggested by the model. It is suggested that the spikes reflect inhibitory stochastic fluctuations in the input to thalamo-cortical relay neurons and phase-locking is a consequence of differential excitability of relay neurons over the delta cycle. Further analysis shows that the observed phase-locking can be regarded as a stochastic precursor of generalized spike-wave discharges. This study thus provides an explanation of intermittent spikes during delta oscillations in NCSE and might be generalized to other encephathologies in which delta activity can be observed.

  19. Mutations in the Gene PRRT2 Cause Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Yang Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majority (24/25 of well-characterized families with PKD/IC. PRRT2 truncating mutations were also detected in 28 of 78 additional families. PRRT2 encodes a proline-rich transmembrane protein of unknown function that has been reported to interact with the t-SNARE, SNAP25. PRRT2 localizes to axons but not to dendritic processes in primary neuronal culture, and mutants associated with PKD/IC lead to dramatically reduced PRRT2 levels, leading ultimately to neuronal hyperexcitability that manifests in vivo as PKD/IC.

  20. [Analysis of the blood and serum biochemistry findings in patients demonstrating convulsion with mild gastroenteritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, Yuki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasuko; Nonoyama, Shigeaki

    2011-07-01

    We analyzed the blood cell count and serum biochemistry findings in patients demonstrating convulsion with mild gastroenteritis (CwG). As a control group, age matched patients presenting with only gastroenteritis during the same period were compared. The results showed significant differences between the two groups regarding such factors as the sex ratio, serum uric acid, and serum chloride levels. All CwG patients showed hyperuricemia (10.0 +/- 2.2 mg/dL, mean +/- SD). The patients in both groups showed similar levels of metabolic acidosis. The patients with CwG therefore have both hyperuricemia and metabolic acidosis, which may contribute to the pathogenic mechanism of CwG.

  1. Clinical and genetic analysis of two Chinese families with benign familial neonatal convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Haiyan; TANG Beisha; XIA Kun; CAO Guifang; SHEN Lu; JIANG Hong; PAN Qian; SONG Yanmin; CAI Fang

    2005-01-01

    Benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited epilepsy syndrome. Two voltagegated potassium channel genes, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, have been identified as the genes responsible for BFNC. Here we report two Chinese families with clinical histories of typical BFNC. Using six microsatellite markers, two located at KCNQ2 locus and four at KCNQ3 locus, linkage analysis was performed in the two families, which excluded the linkage of BFNC to KCNQ3, but could not exclude the linkage to KCNQ2. Direct DNA sequencing of the KCNQ2 gene in the two families was performed, and two formerly unknown polymorphisms were identified, but no KCNQ2 mutation was found in the two families. Our study suggests the genetic heterogeneity in Chinese families with BFNC and proves the existence of a new gene locus for BFNC.

  2. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelson Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely

  3. Anticonvulsant Effect of Ferula Assa-Foetida Oleo Gum Resin on Chemical and Amygdala-Kindled Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Rezvani, Mohamad Ebrahim; Vahidi, Ali Reza; Esmaili, Mansur

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Iranian traditional medicine, Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin (asafoetida) have been used as anti-convulsant agents. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-convulsant effect of asafoetida on chemical and amygdala -kindled rats. Materials and Methods: In chemical model, rats received orally asafoetida at dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg 90 minutes prior to Pentylenetetrazol injection in dose of 35 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) and control group received normal saline. Convulsive behavior was recorded for 30 minutes. For amygdala kindle model, bipolar stimulating and monopolar recording electrodes were implanted stereotaxically. After kindling, the effect of asafoetida (50 and 100mg/kg) on after discharge duration, duration of stage 5 seizure and latency to the onset of bilateral forelimb clonuses was measured. Results: Pretreatment animals with asafoetida significantly reduced the mean seizure stage during the 20 kindling injection of Pentylenetetrazol. Seizure parameters in amigdala kindle model improved in treatment animals at both dose 50 and 100 mg/kg. The number of stimulations in stage 3, 4, and 5 in asafoetida-treated rats at both doses significantly increased. Conclusions: These results showed that asafoetida could prevent seizure in both chemical and electrical kindling model and this effect may partially be related to the terpenoids compounds. PMID:25210675

  4. Anticonvulsant effect of ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin on chemical and amygdala-kindled rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Majid Bagheri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Iranian traditional medicine, Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin (asafoetida have been used as anti-convulsant agents. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-convulsant effect of asafoetida on chemical and amygdala -kindled rats. Materials and Methods: In chemical model, rats received orally asafoetida at dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg 90 minutes prior to Pentylenetetrazol injection in dose of 35 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p. and control group received normal saline. Convulsive behavior was recorded for 30 minutes. For amygdala kindle model, bipolar stimulating and monopolar recording electrodes were implanted stereotaxically. After kindling, the effect of asafoetida (50 and 100mg/kg on after discharge duration, duration of stage 5 seizure and latency to the onset of bilateral forelimb clonuses was measured. Results: Pretreatment animals with asafoetida significantly reduced the mean seizure stage during the 20 kindling injection of Pentylenetetrazol. Seizure parameters in amigdala kindle model improved in treatment animals at both dose 50 and 100 mg/kg. The number of stimulations in stage 3, 4, and 5 in asafoetida-treated rats at both doses significantly increased. Conclusions: These results showed that asafoetida could prevent seizure in both chemical and electrical kindling model and this effect may partially be related to the terpenoids compounds.

  5. Perinatal stress: characteristics and effects on adult eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Cesiana da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have pointed out the importance of mother-child interaction in the early months of life. A few decades ago, a method called kangaroo care was developed and its main goal was to keep underweight or premature newborns in direct contact with the mother. This method has reduced the morbidity and mortality of these newborns, increasing their growth rate, breastfeeding time and mother-child contact. In rodents, the dam's presence is crucial for avoiding aggression factors that may trigger phenotypic adaptations in the pups with irreversible morphological, functional and behavioral consequences. Eating behavior is an adaptive response stemming from the external environment demand and modulated by opportunities and limitations imposed by the external environment. This behavior is regulated by a complex interaction of peripheral and central mechanisms that control hunger and satiety. The hypothalamus is a brain structure that integrates central and peripheral signals to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight. The hypothalamic nucleus have orexigenic peptides, such as neuropeptide Y and the Agouti-related peptide, and anorexigenic peptides, such as cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript and proopiomelanocortin. An innovative study of eating behavior in experimental models of neonatal stress separates the mother from the offspring during lactation. This review describes the effects of stress during the neonatal period on general physiological factors, particularly on the control of eating behavior.

  6. Effects of tourists on behavior and demography of Olympic marmots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Suzanne C; Valois, Tanguy; Taper, Mark L; Scott Mills, L

    2007-08-01

    If changes in animal behavior resulting from direct human disturbance negatively affect the persistence of a given species or population, then these behavioral changes must necessarily lead to reduced demographic performance. We tested for the effects of human disturbance on Olympic marmots (Marmota olympus), a large ground-dwelling squirrel that has disappeared from several areas where recreation levels are high. We assessed the degree to which antipredator and foraging behavior and demographic rates (survival and reproduction) differed between sites with high recreation levels (high use) and those with little or no recreation (low use). Compared with the marmots at low-use sites, marmots at high-use sites displayed significantly reduced responses to human approach, which could be construed as successful accommodation of disturbance or as a decrease in predator awareness. The marmots at high-use sites also looked up more often while foraging, which suggests an increased wariness. Marmots at both types of sites had comparable reproductive and survival rates and were in similar body condition. Until now, the supposition that marmots can adjust their behavior to avoid negative demographic consequences when confronted with heavy tourism has been based on potentially ambiguous behavioral data. Our results support this hypothesis in the case of Olympic marmots and demonstrate the importance of considering demographic data when evaluating the impacts of recreation on animal populations.

  7. Voluntary exercise produces antidepressant and anxiolytic behavioral effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Catharine H; Schlesinger, Lee; Russell, David S; Duman, Ronald S

    2008-03-14

    Reports of beneficial effects of exercise on psychological health in humans are increasingly supported by basic research studies. Exercise is hypothesized to regulate antidepressant-related mechanisms and we therefore characterized the effects of chronic exercise in mouse behavioral paradigms relevant to antidepressant actions. Mice given free access to running wheels showed antidepressant-like behavior in learned helplessness, forced-swim (FST) and tail suspension paradigms. These responses were similar to responses of antidepressant drug-treated animals. When tested under conditions where locomotor activity was not altered, exercising mice also showed reduced anxiety compared to sedentary control mice. In situ hybridization analysis showed that BDNF mRNA was increased in specific subfields of hippocampus after wheel running. We chose one paradigm, the FST, in which to investigate a functional role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the behavioral response to exercise. We tested mice heterozygous for a deletion of the BDNF gene in the FST after wheel-running. Exercising wild-type mice showed the expected antidepressant-like behavioral response in the FST but exercise was ineffective in improving FST performance in heterozygous BDNF knockout mice. A possible functional contribution of a BDNF signaling pathway to FST performance in exercising mice was investigated using the specific MEK inhibitor PD184161 to block the MAPK signaling pathway. Subchronic administration of PD184161 to exercising mice blocked the antidepressant-like behavioral response seen in vehicle-treated exercising mice in the FST. In summary, chronic wheel-running exercise in mice results in antidepressant-like behavioral changes that may involve a BDNF related mechanism similar to that hypothesized for antidepressant drug treatment.

  8. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eCelec

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences.

  9. Ferromagnetic behavior and exchange bias effect in akaganeite nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadic, Marin, E-mail: marint@vinca.rs [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Science, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Milosevic, Irena; Motte, Laurence [Laboratoire CSPBAT, UMR 7244 CNRS Université Paris 13, 93017 Bobigny Cedex (France); Kralj, Slavko [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Saboungi, Marie-Louise [CNRS, University of Orleans, F-45071 Orleans 2 (France); IMPMC, Sorbonne Univ-UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR CNRS 7590, Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, IRD UMR 206, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-05-04

    We report ferromagnetic-like properties and exchange bias effect in akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanorods. They exhibit a Néel temperature T{sub N} = 259 K and ferromagnetic-like hysteresis behavior both below and above T{sub N}. An exchange bias effect is observed below T{sub N} and represents an interesting behavior for akaganeite nanorods. These results are explained on the basis of a core-shell structure in which the core has bulk akaganeite magnetic properties (i.e., antiferromagnetic ordering) while the shell exhibits a disordered spin state. Thus, the nanorods show ferromagnetic properties and an exchange bias effect at the same time, increasing their potential for use in practical applications.

  10. Mental and behavioral effects of parasitic infections: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Anisha; Ojha, Suvash Chandra; Singh, Yengkokpam Ibotomba

    2007-03-01

    Whether parasitic diseases-and in particular helminth infections because they are extensive and widespread--have an effect on mental functions and educational attainment is by no mean a new question. Concern about the possibility was evident in the early decades of the century, and the results of investigations designed to discover whether the effects of parasite infections had consequences on school children. Many species of helminth have been reported as causing infections in humans. Of the nematode infections, both soil transmitted helminthiasis and lymphatic filariasis are public health problem in the country. Any of these infections may result in morbidity, malnutrition, and iron-deficiency anaemia. Their possible contribution to impaired cognitive function and educational achievement is by the association between iron deficiency anaemia and malnutrition. Research on the effects of parasitic infection has focused on school-age children. Not only are these children the most vulnerable to parasitic infections--they are also the population group most likely to experience the impact of infection on cognitive function. This review paper discusses the mental and behavioral effects of parasitic infection on child's health. Infected children are less active; their behavior is said to be sluggish and both mental and physical activities and processes appear dulled and slow. A reduction in available energy is likely to cause a cascade of effects running through most aspects of the host's daily mental life and behavior.

  11. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Shariff-Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron

    2014-12-15

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient's adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal control of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications, causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient's psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation, self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors, coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relation to DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  12. Characterization of behavioral and endocrine effects of LSD on zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leah; Utterback, Eli; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Chung, Kyung Min; Suciu, Christopher; Wong, Keith; Elegante, Marco; Elkhayat, Salem; Tan, Julia; Gilder, Thomas; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Cachat, Jonathan; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-12-25

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogenic drug that strongly affects animal and human behavior. Although adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a promising neurobehavioral model, the effects of LSD on zebrafish have not been investigated previously. Several behavioral paradigms (the novel tank, observation cylinder, light-dark box, open field, T-maze, social preference and shoaling tests), as well as modern video-tracking tools and whole-body cortisol assay were used to characterize the effects of acute LSD in zebrafish. While lower doses (5-100 microg/L) did not affect zebrafish behavior, 250 microg/L LSD increased top dwelling and reduced freezing in the novel tank and observation cylinder tests, also affecting spatiotemporal patterns of activity (as assessed by 3D reconstruction of zebrafish traces and ethograms). LSD evoked mild thigmotaxis in the open field test, increased light behavior in the light-dark test, reduced the number of arm entries and freezing in the T-maze and social preference test, without affecting social preference. In contrast, LSD affected zebrafish shoaling (increasing the inter-fish distance in a group), and elevated whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our findings show sensitivity of zebrafish to LSD action, and support the use of zebrafish models to study hallucinogenic drugs of abuse.

  13. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boon-How; Chew; Sazlina; Shariff-Ghazali; Aaron; Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus(DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal contro of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications,causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient’s psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation,self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors,coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relationto DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  14. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel blockers prevent pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions and morphological changes in rat brain neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Aleksey V; Kim, Kira Kh; Vasilev, Dmitry S; Lukomskaya, Nera Ya; Lavrentyeva, Valeria V; Tumanova, Natalia L; Zhuravin, Igor A; Magazanik, Lev G

    2015-03-01

    Alterations in inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission play a central role in the etiology of epilepsy, with overstimulation of glutamate receptors influencing epileptic activity and corresponding neuronal damage. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which belong to a class of ionotropic glutamate receptors, play a primary role in this process. This study compared the anticonvulsant properties of two NMDA receptor channel blockers, memantine and 1-phenylcyclohexylamine (IEM-1921), in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model of seizures in rats and investigated their potencies in preventing PTZ-induced morphological changes in the brain. The anticonvulsant properties of IEM-1921 (5 mg/kg) were more pronounced than those of memantine at the same dose. IEM-1921 and memantine decreased the duration of convulsions by 82% and 37%, respectively. Both compounds were relatively effective at preventing the tonic component of seizures but not myoclonic seizures. Memantine significantly reduced the lethality caused by PTZ-induced seizures from 42% to 11%, and all animals pretreated with IEM-1921 survived. Morphological examination of the rat brain 24 hr after administration of PTZ revealed alterations in the morphology of 20-25% of neurons in the neocortex and the hippocampus, potentially induced by excessive glutamate. The expression of the excitatory amino acid transporter 1 protein was increased in the hippocampus of the PTZ-treated rats. However, dark neurons did not express caspase-3 and were immunopositive for the neuronal nuclear antigen protein, indicating that these neurons were alive. Both NMDA antagonists prevented neuronal abnormalities in the brain. These results suggest that NMDA receptor channel blockers might be considered possible neuroprotective agents for prolonged seizures or status epilepticus leading to neuronal damage.

  15. INSTITUTIONS AND BEHAVIOR: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE ON THE EFFECTS OF DEMOCRACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bó, Pedro Dal; Foster, Andrew; Putterman, Louis

    2013-01-01

    A novel experiment is used to show that the effect of a policy on the level of cooperation is greater when it is chosen democratically by the subjects than when it is exogenously imposed. In contrast to the previous literature, our experimental design allows us to control for selection effects (e.g. those who choose the policy may be affected differently by it). Our finding implies that democratic institutions may affect behavior directly in addition to having effects through the choice of policies. Our findings have implications for the generalizability of the results of randomized policy interventions. PMID:25076785

  16. Behavioral effects of subchronic inhalation of toluene in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Gilbert, Mary E; Bushnell, Philip J

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the acute neurobehavioral effects of toluene are robust and well characterized, evidence for persistent effects of repeated exposure to this industrial solvent is less compelling. The present experiment sought to determine whether subchronic inhalation of toluene caused persistent behavioral changes in rats. Adult male Long-Evans rats inhaled toluene vapor (0, 10, 100, or 1000 ppm) for 6h/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks and were evaluated on a series of behavioral tests beginning 3 days after the end of exposure. Toluene delayed appetitively-motivated acquisition of a lever-press response, but did not affect motor activity, anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze, trace fear conditioning, acquisition of an appetitively-motivated visual discrimination, or performance of a visual signal detection task. Challenges with acute inhalation of toluene vapor (1200-2400 ppm for 1 h) and injections of quinpirole (0.01-0.03 mg/kg) and raclopride (0.03-0.10 mg/kg) revealed no toluene-induced latent impairments in visual signal detection. These results are consistent with a pattern of subtle and inconsistent long-term effects of daily exposure to toluene vapor, in contrast to robust and reliable effects of acute inhalation of the solvent.

  17. Behavioral effects of ketamine and toxic interactions with psychostimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Keiichi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anesthetic drug ketamine (KT has been reported to be an abused drug and fatal cases have been observed in polydrug users. In the present study, considering the possibility of KT-enhanced toxic effects of other drugs, and KT-induced promotion of an overdose without making the subject aware of the danger due to the attenuation of several painful subjective symptoms, the intraperitoneal (i.p. KT-induced alterations in behaviors and toxic interactions with popular co-abused drugs, the psychostimulants cocaine (COC and methamphetamine (MA, were examined in ICR mice. Results A single dose of KT caused hyperlocomotion in a low (30 mg/kg, i.p. dose group, and hypolocomotion followed by hyperlocomotion in a high (100 mg/kg, i.p. dose group. However, no behavioral alterations derived from enhanced stress-related depression or anxiety were observed in the forced swimming or the elevated plus-maze test. A single non-fatal dose of COC (30 mg/kg, i.p. or MA (4 mg/kg, i.p. caused hyperlocomotion, stress-related depression in swimming behaviors in the forced swimming test, and anxiety-related behavioral changes (preference for closed arms in the elevated plus-maze test. For the COC (30 mg/kg or MA (4 mg/kg groups of mice simultaneously co-treated with KT, the psychostimulant-induced hyperlocomotion was suppressed by the high dose KT, and the psychostimulant-induced behavioral alterations in the above tests were reversed by both low and high doses of KT. For the toxic dose COC (70 mg/kg, i.p.- or MA (15 mg/kg, i.p.-only group, mortality and severe seizures were observed in some animals. In the toxic dose psychostimulant-KT groups, KT attenuated the severity of seizures dose-dependently. Nevertheless, the mortality rate was significantly increased by co-treatment with the high dose KT. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that, in spite of the absence of stress-related depressive and anxiety-related behavioral alterations following a single

  18. Differential Effectiveness of Interdependent and Dependent Group Contingencies in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…

  19. Effects of Supervisor Performance Feedback on Increasing Preservice Teachers' Positive Communication Behaviors with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathel, Jeanna Marie; Drasgow, Erik; Christle, Christine C.

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of supervisor performance feedback on preservice teachers' rates of positive and negative communication behaviors with students with emotional and behavioral disorders and the effects of the intervention on the preservice teachers' perceptions of classroom management and climate. The authors…

  20. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) effects on behavioral thermoregulation with microwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitulli, W F; Laconsay, K L; Agnew, A C; Henderson, M E; Quinn, J M; Holland, B E; DePace, A N

    1993-08-01

    Aspirin is a widely used over-the-counter drug in our society which has wide therapeutic value, yet not all of the behavioral side effects have been studied. Different doses of aspirin solutions were administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold environment. Four Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement. Friedman's nonparametric test showed significant differences among aspirin and saline-control doses. Post hoc sign tests showed that a moderate dose of aspirin increased operant behavior reinforced by MW radiation, yet lower and higher doses decreased and then increased the rate of responding which resulted in an inverted U-shaped trend. Possible multiple effects of aspirin in terms of its thermoregulatory as well as its pain-tolerance properties, and implications for hypothalamic "set point" are discussed.

  1. The Effect of Labor Supply Shortages on Asymmetric Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    This study examines the effect of shortages in labor supply on asymmetric cost behavior. Building on the labor demand literature, it is argued that labor supply shortages increase adjustment costs for hiring new employees. Consistent with this explanation, results provide evidence that companies...... facing restrictions in labor supply increase costs (and resources) less than companies operating with sufficient access to additional personnel. This leads to a more symmetrical cost behavior for increasing activity compared to decreasing activity. Additional analyses show that shortages in labor supply...... induce firms to increase selling prices but also to temporarily expect more effort from their current employees. The effect decreases with the length of the labor supply shock and is more pronounced for companies located in less populated regions. Results are robust to alternative explanations...

  2. The effects of music on animal physiology, behavior and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Leanne C; Buerkle, Shawna C

    2013-02-01

    Physiological and psychological effects of listening to music have been documented in humans. The changes in physiology, cognition and brain chemistry and morphology induced by music have been studied in animal models, providing evidence that music may affect animals similarly to humans. Information about the potential benefits of music to animals suggests that providing music may be used as a means of improving the welfare of laboratory animals, such as through environmental enrichment, stress relief and behavioral modification. The authors review the current research on music's effect on animals' physiology and behavior and discuss its potential for improving animal welfare. They conclude that the benefits of providing music to laboratory animals depend on the species and the type of music.

  3. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  4. Mechanical behavior and stress effects in hard superconductors: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, C. C.; Easton, D. S.

    1977-11-01

    The mechanical properties of type II superconducting materials are reviewed as well as the effect of stress on the superconducting properties of these materials. The bcc alloys niobium-titanium and niobium-zirconium exhibit good strength and extensive ductility at room temperature. Mechanical tests on these alloys at 4.2/sup 0/K revealed serrated stress-strain curves, nonlinear elastic effects and reduced ductility. The nonlinear behavior is probably due to twinning and detwinning or a reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation. The brittle A-15 compound superconductors, such as Nb/sub 3/Sn and V/sub 3/Ga, exhibit unusual elastic properties and structural instabilities at cryogenic temperatures. Multifilamentary composites consisting of superconducting filaments in a normal metal matrix are generally used for superconducting devices. The mechanical properties of alloy and compound composites, tapes, as well as composites of niobium carbonitride chemically vapor deposited on high strength carbon fibers are presented. Hysteretic stress-strain behavior in the metal matrix composites produces significant heat generation, an effect which may lead to degradation in the performance of high field magnets. Measurements of the critical current density, J/sub c/, under stress in a magnetic field are reported. Modest stress-reversible degradation in J/sub c/ was observed in niobium-titanium composites, while more serious degradation was found in Nb/sub 3/Sn samples. The importance of mechanical behavior to device performance is discussed.

  5. Behavioral and social effects of family violence in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was tome asure effects of domestic violence on children, both child abuse and exposure to marital violence. 300 families were randomly selected in Hermosillo, Sonora, a northwestern Mexican city. Two members of each family were interviewed: the mother anda minor randomly selected among all their children. The research instrument collected demographicinformation, and information regarding mother's and parent's alcohol consumption, marital violence,child abuse, and child misconduct. A structural model was tested which estimated the effects ofchild abuse and exposure to marital violence on child problems. Results showed that the two forms of violence had repercussions on delinquent and antisocial behavior, produced attention problems,depression, anxiety, sadness and the manifestation of somatic symptoms. In addition, mother's education a level had a significant and negative effect on children's behavioral and social problemsand father's educational level inhibited their aggression against their wives. Alcohol consumption was positively related to child abuse. These results seems to indicate that both child abuse andexposure to marital violence rcsult in harmful consequences on children's behavior and well-being.

  6. Effect of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ranjbar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most prevalent psychotic disorder. In order to cure and prevent the recurrence of this disease, it is necessary to gain more information about remedial methods like Group Cognitive- Behavior Therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the amount of depression on the patients. Methods: This study was experimental and it included both experimental and control group with a pre test. The subjects were selected from patients with mild depression. Their Beck inventory score ranged between 17-20. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. The subjects of experimental group received eight sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. The Beck depression test was completed by the subjects in three phases before the intervention, after the intervention and one month after that. The data was transferred to SPSS program and analyzed. Results: The results indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control group after the intervention at Beck tests (P=0.043. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the experimental group between the depression score in patients before and after the intervention (p=0.033 and the score of patients before and one month after the intervention (p=0.492. Conclusion: Group Cognitive-Behavioral therapy decreases depression in patients who suffer from mild depression.

  7. Aspen shaving versus chip bedding: effects on breeding and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E; Demarest, K; Eckert, W J; Cates-Gatto, C; Nadav, T; Cates, L N; Howard, H; Roberts, A J

    2015-01-01

    The choice of laboratory cage bedding material is often based on both practical and husbandry issues, whereas behavioral outcomes rarely appear to be considered. It has been noted that a breeding success difference appears to be associated with the differential use of aspen chip and aspen shaving bedding in our facility; therefore, we sought to analyze breeding records maintained over a 20-month period. In fact, in all four mouse strains analyzed, shaving bedding was associated with a significant increase in average weanlings per litter relative to chip bedding. To determine whether these bedding types also resulted in differences in behaviors associated with wellbeing, we examined nest building, anxiety-like, depressive-like (or helpless-like), and social behavior in mice housed on chip versus shaving bedding. We found differences in the nests built, but no overall effect of bedding type on the other behaviors examined. Therefore, we argue that breeding success, perhaps especially in more challenging strains, is improved on shaving bedding and this is likely due to improved nest-building potential. For standard laboratory practices, however, these bedding types appear equivalent.

  8. The Effect of Behavioral Family Intervention on Knowledge of Effective Parenting Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Leanne; Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of research considering the effect of behavioral family intervention (BFI) on parenting knowledge and the relative importance of both knowledge and parent confidence in reducing parenting dysfunction and problematic child behavior is unclear. In this study ninety-one parents (44 mothers, 47 fathers) of children aged 2-10 years…

  9. Investigating the Collateral Effects of Behavior Management on Early Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Nicholas A.; MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.; Prykanowski, Debra; Coyne, Michael; Scott, Terrance M.

    2015-01-01

    Effective behavior management is necessary to ensure students are engaged with instruction. Students cannot learn if they are not engaged. Although the relationship between effective behavior management and positive student behavior is well established, the relationship between behavior management and increased academic achievement, including…

  10. Blending Effective Behavior Management and Literacy Strategies for Preschoolers Exhibiting Negative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Sometimes students will exhibit various aggressive behaviors in the preschool classroom. Early childhood educators need to have behavior management strategies to manage the students' negative behaviors within the classroom setting. This article will provide a rationale for embedding literacy instruction within behavior management strategies to…

  11. The effect of color priming on infant brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Hawkins, Laura; Boas, David A

    2014-01-15

    Behavioral studies have identified select experiences that can prime infants to attend to color information as the basis for individuating objects prior to the time they do so spontaneously. For example, viewing pretest events in which the color of an object predicts the function in which it will engage leads 9-month-olds (who typically do not attend to color differences) to demonstrate increased sensitivity to color information in a subsequent individuation task (Wilcox and Chapa, 2004). In contrast, viewing pretest events in which the color of an object predicts distinct object motions, but the motions are not functionally relevant, does not produce color priming. The purpose of the present research was to identify the cortical underpinnings of these behavioral effects. Infants aged 8 and 9 months viewed function or motion pretest events and then their capacity to individuate-by-color was assessed in an object individuation task. Behavioral and neuroimaging data were collected. Two main findings emerged. First, as predicted, the infants who viewed the function but not the motion pretest events showed prolonged looking to the test event, a behavioral indicator of object individuation. In addition, they evidenced increased activation in anterior temporal cortex, thought to be a cortical signature of object individuation. A second and unexpected finding was that viewing either type of pretest events led to increased activation in the posterior temporal cortex, as compared to infants who did not see pretest events, revealing that prior exposure to the motion pretest events does influence infants' processing of the test event, even though it is not evident in the behavioral results. The cognitive processes involved, and the cortical structures that mediate these processes, are discussed.

  12. Varenicline effects on cocaine self administration and reinstatement behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillem, Karine; Peoples, Laura L

    2010-03-01

    This study tested the effects of the nicotine addiction treatment varenicline on cocaine self administration (SA) and reinstatement. In one SA experiment, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/infusion). Thereafter, daily SA sessions continued as before except that every fourth session was preceded by a presession injection of varenicline (0.0, 0.3, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg, SC, 50-min presession). In three reinstatement experiments, animals were exposed sequentially to SA training, extinction training, and several reinstatement test sessions. In two of the reinstatement experiments, cocaine-seeking was reinstated by presentation of cocaine-predictive cues at the onset of the test session (cue reinstatement). In a third reinstatement experiment, cocaine-seeking was reinstated by a presession injection of cocaine (drug reinstatement). Each reinstatement session was preceded by an injection of either vehicle or varenicline (dose range of 0.1-2.0 mg/kg). The SA and reinstatement experiments showed that low-dose varenicline decreases reinstatement behavior, without significantly affecting cocaine SA. In contrast, high-dose varenicline increases reinstatement of cocaine-directed behavior and decreases cocaine SA. A control study showed that sucrose-directed behavior is unaltered by varenicline. On the basis of these findings, low-varenicline doses might decrease relapse in cocaine-addicted individuals, but high doses of varenicline might have the opposite effect.

  13. Intergenerational continuity in parenting behavior: mediating pathways and child effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppl, Tricia K; Conger, Rand D; Scaramella, Laura V; Ontai, Lenna L

    2009-09-01

    This prospective, longitudinal investigation examined mechanisms proposed to explain continuities in parenting behavior across 2 generations (G1, G2). Data came from 187 G2 adults, their mothers (G1), and their children (G3). Prospective information regarding G2 was collected both during adolescence and early adulthood. G1 data were collected during G2's adolescence, and G3 data were generated during the preschool years. Assessments included both observational and self-report measures. The results indicated a direct relationship between G1 and G2 harsh parenting, and between G1 and G2 positive parenting. As predicted, specific mediators accounted for intergenerational continuity in particular types of parenting behavior. G2 externalizing behavior mediated the relationship between G1 and G2 harsh parenting, whereas G2 academic attainment mediated the relationship between G1 and G2 positive parenting. In addition, the hypothesized mediating pathways remained statistically significant after taking into account possible G2 effects on G1 parenting and G3 effects on G2 parenting.

  14. Clinical Study on Diazepam Combined with Phenobarbital in Treatment of Children Patients with Convulsions%地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿惊厥的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵剑峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinical study on diazepam combined with Phenobarbital in treatment of children patients with convulsions is to be investigated. Methods Choose 43 children patients with convulsions who are treated in hospital from October 2013 to November 2014 and separate them into two groups according to their hospitalization sequence with 23 patients in study group and 20 patients in control group;patients in control group are given diazepam medication treatment only,while patients in study group are given diazepam combined with Phenobarbital medication treatment; and then compare treatment effects between two groups. Results Patients’treatment efficacy,complication incidence and il ness reoccurrence rate in study group are much better than counterparts in control group;there is a treatment differential between two groups,and such a differential has statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Diazepam combined with Phenobarbital medication is quite effective in treatment of children patients with convulsions; it is conducive to increasing treatment efficacy,reducing complication incidence and decreasing convulsion attack times; thus,such an effective treatment is quite worthwhile to be promoted clinical y.%目的:探讨地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿惊厥的临床研究。方法选取2013年10月到2014年11月我院接诊的43例小儿惊厥患者,按照入院的先后顺序分为两组,实验组23例和对照组20例,对照组采用单纯地西泮药物,实验组采用地西泮联合苯巴比妥,观察两组患者的治疗效果。结果实验组患者的治疗总有效率、并发症的发生率及总复发率明显优于对照组,差异显著,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿惊厥的临床效果显著,能够有效提高患儿的治愈率,降低并发症的发生率,减少复发次数,值得临床推广。

  15. Manipulating the behavior-altering effect of the motivating operation: examination of the influence on challenging behavior during leisure activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell; Chan, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Langthorne, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We examined the behavior-altering effect of the motivating operation on challenging behavior during leisure activities for three individuals with severe disabilities. Prior functional analyses indicated that challenging behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention or tangible items for all participants. During leisure sessions, each participant played preferred games (cards, jigsaws) with two individuals without disabilities. The discriminative stimuli for challenging behavior were present during leisure sessions but challenging behavior was never reinforced. Immediately prior to leisure sessions, the participants received either access to the reinforcers that maintained challenging behavior or no access. Access versus no access to reinforcers for challenging behavior prior to leisure sessions was alternated in a multi-element design. Results demonstrated higher levels of challenging behavior during leisure sessions when the participants did not have access to the reinforcers prior to the sessions. Little challenging behavior occurred during leisure sessions when the participants had prior access to the reinforcers. Arguments for further examining the behavior-altering effects of the motivating operation in future applied research are presented.

  16. Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Perceptions of Effective Behavior Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nields, Allison N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined student teachers' perceptions and knowledge of behavior management strategies. A questionnaire that included questions about broad behavior management techniques, behavioral learning theory, and behavior management strategies related to behavioral learning theory was given to sixty-one student teacher candidates at a large…

  17. Size effect on the static behavior of electrostatically actuated microbeams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yin; Qin Qian; Lin Wang

    2011-01-01

    We present a new analytical model for electrostatically actuated microbeams to explore the size effect by using the modified couple stress theory and the minimum total potential energy principle. A material length scale parameter is introduced to represent the size-dependent characteristics of microbeams. This model also accounts for the nonlinearities associated with the mid-plane stretching force and the electrostatical force. Numerical analysis for microbeams with clamped-clamped and cantilevered conditions has been performed. It is found that the intensity of size effect is closely associated with the thickness of the microbeam, and smaller beam thickness displays stronger size effect and hence yields smaller deflection and larger pull-in voltage. When the beam thickness is comparable to the material length scale parameter, the size effect is significant and the present theoretical model including the material length scale parameter is adequate for predicting the static behavior of microbeam-based MEMS.

  18. Evidence-Based Guideline: Treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children and Adults: Report of the Guideline Committee of the American Epilepsy Society

    OpenAIRE

    Glauser, Tracy; Shinnar, Shlomo; Gloss, David; Alldredge, Brian; Arya, Ravindra; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Bare, Mary; Bleck, Thomas; Dodson, W. Edwin; Garrity, Lisa; Jagoda, Andy; Lowenstein, Daniel; Pellock, John; Riviello, James; Sloan, Edward

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The optimal pharmacologic treatment for early convulsive status epilepticus is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze efficacy, tolerability and safety data for anticonvulsant treatment of children and adults with convulsive status epilepticus and use this analysis to develop an evidence-based treatment algorithm. DATA SOURCES: Structured literature review using MEDLINE, Embase, Current Contents, and Cochrane library supplemented with article reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized cont...

  19. Mephedrone: Public health risk, mechanisms of action, and behavioral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybdal-Hargreaves, Nicholas F; Holder, Nicholas D; Ottoson, Paige E; Sweeney, Melanie D; Williams, Tyisha

    2013-08-15

    The recent shortage of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) has led to an increased demand for alternative amphetamine-like drugs such as the synthetic cathinone, 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone). Despite the re-classification of mephedrone as a Class B restricted substance by the United Kingdom and restrictive legislation by the United States, international policy regarding mephedrone control is still developing and interest in synthetic amphetamine-like drugs could drive the development of future mephedrone analogues. Currently, there is little literature investigating the mechanism of action and long-term effects of mephedrone. As such, we reviewed the current understanding of amphetamines, cathinones, and cocaine emphasizing the potentially translational aspects to mephedrone, as well as contrasting with the work that has been done specifically on mephedrone in order to present the current state of understanding of mephedrone in terms of its risks, mechanisms, and behavioral effects. Emerging research suggests that while there are structural and behavioral similarities of mephedrone with amphetamine-like compounds, it appears that serotonergic signaling may mediate more of mephedrone's effects unlike the more dopaminergic dependent effects observed in traditional amphetamine-like compounds. As new designer drugs are produced, current and continuing research on mephedrone and other synthetic cathinones should help inform policymakers' decisions regarding the regulation of novel 'legal highs.'

  20. Effects of endocannabinoid system modulation on cognitive and emotional behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eZanettini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis has long been known to produce cognitive and emotional effects. Research has shown that cannabinoid drugs produce these effects by driving the brain's endogenous cannabinoid system and that this system plays a modulatory role in many cognitive and emotional processes. This review focuses on the effects of endocannabinoid-system modulation in animal models of cognition (learning and memory and emotion (anxiety and depression. We review studies in which natural or synthetic cannabinoid agonists were administered to directly stimulate cannabinoid receptors or, conversely, where cannabinoid antagonists were administered to inhibit the activity of cannabinoid receptors. In addition, studies are reviewed that involved genetic disruption of cannabinoid receptors or genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. Endocannabinoids affect the function of many neurotransmitter systems, some of which play opposing roles. The diversity of cannabinoid roles and the complexity of task-dependent activation of neuronal circuits may lead to the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation being strongly dependent on environmental conditions. Recent findings are reviewed that raise the possibility that endocannabinoid signaling may change the impact of environmental influences on emotional and cognitive behavior rather than affecting one or another specific behavior.

  1. Predictors of anti-convulsant treatment failure in children presenting with malaria and prolonged seizures in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byarugaba Justus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In endemic areas, falciparum malaria remains the leading cause of seizures in children presenting to emergency departments. In addition, seizures in malaria have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality in these patients. The management of seizures in malaria is sometimes complicated by the refractory nature of these seizures to readily available anti-convulsants. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence after initial control among children with malaria. Methods In a previous study, the efficacy and safety of buccal midazolam was compared to that of rectal diazepam in the treatment of prolonged seizures in children aged three months to 12 years in Kampala, Uganda. For this study, predictive models were used to determine risk factors for anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence among the 221 of these children with malaria. Results Using predictive models, focal seizures (OR 3.21; 95% CI 1.42–7.25, p = 0.005, cerebral malaria (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.20–4.91, p = 0.01 and a blood sugar ≥200 mg/dl at presentation (OR 2.84; 95% CI 1.11–7.20, p = 0.02 were independent predictors of treatment failure (seizure persistence beyond 10 minutes or recurrence within one hour of treatment. Predictors of seizure recurrence included: 1 cerebral malaria (HR 3.32; 95% CI 1.94–5.66, p Conclusion Specific predictors, including cerebral malaria, can identify patients with malaria at risk of anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence.

  2. Selective behavioral alterations on addition of a 4'-phenyl group to cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, T W; Niekrasz, I; Chang, F; Singh, S; Basmadjian, G P

    1996-01-31

    We synthesized a cocaine analog in which a phenyl group was added at the para-position of the benzene ring of cocaine. This substitution caused a modest reduction (four-fold compared with cocaine) in binding potency for the primate (Papio) dopamine transporter as judged by displacement of [3H]WIN 35,428 binding from caudate/putamen membranes. Behavioral effects of this structural modification in the mouse were complex and selective, comprising absence of stimulation of locomotor activity, enhanced inhibition of locomotion and reduced lethal potency. Convulsant potency was unaltered. Substituents at the 4'-position of cocaine are important in its actions. Simple changes in the chemical structure of this drug may produce complex and selective changes in its neurochemical and behavioral actions.

  3. Benign Infantile Convulsions with Mild Gastroenteritis:Report of 42 Cases%婴幼儿良性惊厥并轻度胃肠炎42例报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青; 宋元华

    2015-01-01

    worse. Rotavirus antigen: stool positive in 23 cases. After the ifrst injection of phenobarbital to prevent sexual convulsion recurrence rate was 79.2%.Conclusion BICE infant digestive system manifestations, convulsion attack in clusters. The intramuscular injection of pentobarbital convulsion antispasmodic effect is not obvious, the probability is very small after epilepsy BICE.

  4. The incidence of human herpesvirus 6 infection in children with febrile convulsion admitted to the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, K B; Lam, S K; AbuBakar, S; Koh, M T; Lee, W S

    1997-12-01

    From October 1996 to March 1997, 31 children with febrile convulsions were admitted to the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV 6) was virologically and/or serologically confirmed to be the cause of the febrile episode in 5 of these children (16.1%). Age, sex and other associated clinical features (diarrhoea, cough, running nose and type of seizure) were not useful in differentiating cases of febrile convulsion due to HHV 6 from those of other aetiology. However, uvulo-palatoglossal junctional ulcers were noted in children in whom the cause of the seizure could be attributed to HHV 6 but not in the remaining cases in the study group. HHV 6 DNA was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from all patients with febrile convulsions attributed to HHV6, and in patients shown serologically to have already been exposed to the virus by nested polymerase chain reaction amplification. Only genotype HHV 6B was detected from patients with seizure due to HHV 6 but both genotype 6A and 6B were detected in the remaining cases studied.

  5. Generalized Models for the Classification of Abnormal Movements in Daily Life and its Applicability to Epilepsy Convulsion Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, José R; Vergara, Paula; Menéndez, Manuel; de la Cal, Enrique; González, Víctor M; Sedano, Javier

    2016-09-01

    The identification and the modeling of epilepsy convulsions during everyday life using wearable devices would enhance patient anamnesis and monitoring. The psychology of the epilepsy patient penalizes the use of user-driven modeling, which means that the probability of identifying convulsions is driven through generalized models. Focusing on clonic convulsions, this pre-clinical study proposes a method for generating a type of model that can evaluate the generalization capabilities. A realistic experimentation with healthy participants is performed, each with a single 3D accelerometer placed on the most affected wrist. Unlike similar studies reported in the literature, this proposal makes use of [Formula: see text] cross-validation scheme, in order to evaluate the generalization capabilities of the models. Event-based error measurements are proposed instead of classification-error measurements, to evaluate the generalization capabilities of the model, and Fuzzy Systems are proposed as the generalization modeling technique. Using this method, the experimentation compares the most common solutions in the literature, such as Support Vector Machines, [Formula: see text]-Nearest Neighbors, Decision Trees and Fuzzy Systems. The event-based error measurement system records the results, penalizing those models that raise false alarms. The results showed the good generalization capabilities of Fuzzy Systems.

  6. Effect of magnesium sulfate on hyperthermia and pentylen-tetrazol-induced seizure in developing rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadimkhani, Maryam; Saboory, Ehsan; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Mohammdi, Sedra; Rasmi, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common type of convulsive events among children. Its prevalence has been estimated to be 2-5% in children between 3 months and 5 years old. Also, blood and CSF magnesium levels have been demonstrated to be reduced in children with FS. This study investigates the effect of MgSo4 pretreatment on the behaviors caused by hyperthermia (HT) and effect of these two on pentylen-tetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure later in life. Materials and Methods: Thirty two Wistar rats were assigned to 2 groups: saline-hyperthermia-pentylentetrazol (SHP) and magnesium-hyperthermia-pentylentetrazol (MHP). In both groups, HT was induced at the age of 18-19 days old. Before the HT, MHP group received MgSo4 and SHP group received normal saline intraperitoneally (IP). Behaviors of the rats were recorded during the HT. Then, in half of each group (n=8) at the age of 25-26 days old and in other half at the age of 78-79 days, seizure was induced by PTZ. Results: The HT successfully caused convulsive behaviors in the rats and pretreatment with MgSo4 before HT attenuated HT-induced convulsive behaviors. PTZ-induced seizures a week later was more severe than those of 2 months later. Conclusion: It can be concluded that pretreatment with MgSO4 inhibits HT-induced seizure and, in a long run, this intervention reduced PTZ-induced seizure later in life. PMID:27482341

  7. Addressing Disruptive Behaviors in an after School Program Classroom: The Effects of the Daily Behavior Report Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorvey, Zamecia J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to address behavior discipline problems in special and general education setting classrooms. Disruptive behaviors are a major concern as they create excessive stress and demands for classroom teachers and school administrators to address them. Effective interventions are needed to properly address them. Moreover, classroom…

  8. Effects of a Rational-Emotive Treatment Program on Type A Behavior Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Christopher W.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of rational-emotive therapy in treating Type A behavior in college students (N=22). Results showed the RET program was significantly more effective than no treatment in reducing Type A behavior, irrational beliefs, and anxiety. (JAC)

  9. Fabrication of biomimetic nanomaterials and their effect on cell behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porri, Teresa Jane

    Cells in vivo respond to an intricate combination of chemical and mechanical signals. The corneal epithelium, a structure which prevents the admission of bacteria and undesirable molecules into the eye, grows on a basement membrane which presents both nanoscale topographic and adhesive chemical signals. An effective approach to biomaterials design takes advantage of the synergistic effects of the multiple cellular inputs which are available to engineer cell-substrate interactions. We have previously demonstrated the effects of nanoscale topography on a variety of corneal epithelial cell behaviors. To gain a better understanding of cell-level control in vivo, we employ a systems-level approach which looks at the effect of nanoscale topography in conjunction with a biomimetic surface chemistry. First, we discuss a novel method of fabricating nanoscale topography through templated electroless deposition of gold into PVP-coated polycarbonate membranes. This technique creates nanowires of gold with an uniform outer diameter that is dependent upon the size of the pores in the membrane used, and a nanowire length that is dependent upon the extent of etching into the polymer membrane. The gold nanowires can be modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols. Using these substrates, we study the effect of topographic length scale and surface chemistry on cells attached to a discontinuous nanoscale topography, and find a transition in cellular behavior at a length scale (between 600 and 2000 nm inter-wire spacing) that is commensurate with the transition length scale seen on surfaces presenting continuous grooves and ridges. Secondly, we study the effect of non-fouling peptide-modified SAMs on cellular behavior. We examine the effect of co-presented RGD and AG73 peptides and show that cell spreading is a function of the relative ratios of RGD and AG73 present on the surface. Finally, we explore the combinatorial effects of biologically relevant chemistry with

  10. Creative behavior: Effects of the verbal consequences type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpio, Claudio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different types of verbal consequences were evaluated in second order conditional discrimination tasks on creative behavior emergence in four experimental groups. In the first group, it was specified only if the responses were correct or incorrect. For the second group, it was specified the particular stimulus selected and if that response was correct or incorrect. For the third group, it was specified the relationship between selected comparative stimulus (CoS and the matching stimulus (MS and if the answer was correct or incorrect. For the fourth group, it was specified if the relation MS-CoS was equal or not to the relation between the selector stimuli (SS and if the response was correct or incorrect. Post- training transference and creative behavior tests were performed. The results showed that the different types of verbal consequences promoted contact with different aspects of the performance in the task, being partially relational consequences which promoted higher percentages in transference and creative behavior tests. The conceptual status of the verbal consequences is discussed.

  11. Quinine enhances the behavioral stimulant effect of cocaine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Adriana; Wessinger, William D; Kucheryavykh, Yuri V; Sanabria, Priscila; Eaton, Misty J; Skatchkov, Serguei N; Rojas, Legier V; Maldonado-Martínez, Gerónimo; Inyushin, Mikhail Y

    2015-02-01

    The Na(+)-dependent dopamine transporter (DAT) is primarily responsible for regulating free dopamine (DA) concentrations in the brain by participating in the majority of DA uptake; however, other DA transporters may also participate, especially if cocaine or other drugs of abuse compromise DAT. Recently, such cocaine-insensitive low-affinity mono- and poly-amine OCT transporters were described in astrocytes which use DA as a substrate. These transporters are from a different transporter family and while insensitive to cocaine, they are specifically blocked by quinine and some steroids. Quinine is inexpensive and is often found in injected street drugs as an "adulterant". The present study was designed to determine the participation of OCTs in cocaine dependent behavioral and physiological changes in mice. Using FVB mice we showed, that daily single injections of quinine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) co-administered with cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) for 10 days significantly enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor behavioral sensitization. Quinine had no significant effect on the time course of behavioral activation. In astrocytes from the ventral tegmental area of mice, transporter currents of quinine-sensitive monoamine transporters were also augmented after two weeks of cocaine administration. The importance of low-affinity high-capacity transporters for DA clearance is discussed, explaining the known ability of systemically administered DAT inhibitors to anomalously increase DA clearance.

  12. Effects of habitual anger on employees' behavior during organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-11-25

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior-mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident's negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.

  13. Effects of Strategies Marketing of Collective Buying about Impulsive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Elen Ferreira Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the second largest e-commerce market in the world. One model used in this sector is "collective buying", a feature of which is impulse sales. Consumer behavior can be influenced by several factors, two of which are addressed in this article: the individual impulsivity of consumers and strategies of mix marketing. Impulsive buying is characterized by an unplanned purchase, i.e. the need to acquire the product arises just before the purchase. Consumers respond differently to mixed strategies depending on their degree of impulsivity. Thus, this article aims to analyze the efficacy of different marketing mix strategies for impulsive and non-impulsive consumer purchasing behavior. 137 participants were given a questionnaire containing the Buying Impulsiveness scale from Rook and Fisher (1995, and statements about the marketing strategies used by collective buying sites. Through a regression analysis, three strategies were found to relate more to impulsivity: search for products from well-known brands, search for deals with big discounts and confidence in receiving the product. For e-commerce and researchers, this study elucidates which strategies, from the consumer's perspective, effectively persuade purchasing behavior.

  14. Canine parvovirus type 2c infection in a kitten associated with intracranial abscess and convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Desario, Costantina; Amorisco, Francesca; Losurdo, Michele; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Greco, Maria Fiorella; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2011-04-01

    A case of canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) infection in a 3-month-old feral kitten with a cerebral abscess and neurological disease is reported. The cat displayed ataxia and convulsions together with signs of gastroenteritis and profound alteration of the total and differential white blood cell counts. A parvovirus strain was detected by a TaqMan assay in the blood and faeces of the affected kitten, which was characterised as CPV by means of molecular assays but did not react with any of the CPV type-specific probes. By sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the VP2-protein gene, the CPV-2c strain displayed a non-coding mutation in the probe-binding region. Although the role of CPV-2c in this particular case is unclear, it is possible that it predisposed the kitten to the clinical signs seen. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor future spreading of this CPV-2c mutant, and any associated clinical signs, in the dog and cat population.

  15. A tautology in the classification of generalized non-convulsive epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, M; Fujiwara, T; Miyakoshi, M; Yagi, K

    1980-01-01

    Five patients with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome who have shown generalized nonconvulsive seizures were presented. The seizure manifestations which occurred spontaneously were documented by simultaneous recording and analyzed in terms of clinical and electroencephalographic correlates. According to the diagnostic criteria of the International Classification, it was possible, on the one hand, to regard them as "atypical complex absences" in which the impairment of consciousness is accompanied by other symptoms, which tend to dominate the clinical picture. They were: hypotonic, hypertonic, myoclonic and akinetic components, respectively. On the other hand, if we give a special weight to the accompanying symptoms, it is entirely possible that they are at the same time diagnosed atonic, axial tonic, bilateral myoclonic and akinetic seizures. The initial impairment of consciousness is common to all the seizure manifestations, and the ictal and interictal EEG expressions are not of diagnostic significance. A question arises as to whether two different nomenclatures were arbitrarily given to a unique ictal manifestation or not as far as the generalized non-convulsive seizures were concerned.

  16. Analysis of factors influencing admission to intensive care following convulsive status epilepticus in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tirupathi, Sandya

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical features and therapeutic decisions that influence admission to the Intensive Care unit (ICU) in children presenting with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). METHODS: We evaluated 47 admissions with status epilepticus to a tertiary paediatric hospital A&E over a three year period (2003-2006). Following initial management 23 episodes required admission to ICU and 24 were managed on a paediatric ward. We compared clinical, demographic data and compliance with our CSE protocol between the ICU and ward groups. RESULTS: Median age at presentation in the ICU group was 17 months (range 3 months-11 years) compared to 46 months in the ward group (range 3 months-10 years). Fifty per cent of patients in both groups had a previous history of seizures. Median duration of pre-hospital seizure activity was 30 min in both groups. More than two doses of benzodiazepines were given as first line medication in 62% of the ICU group and 33% of the ward group. Among children admitted to ICU with CSE, 26% had been managed according to the CSE protocol, compared to 66% of children who were admitted to a hospital ward. Febrile seizures were the most common aetiology in both groups. CONCLUSION: Younger age at presentation, administration of more than two doses of benzodiazepines and deviation from the CSE protocol appear to be factors which influence admission of children to ICU. Recognition of pre-hospital administration of benzodiazepines and adherence to therapeutic guidelines may reduce the need for ventilatory support in this group.

  17. Artificial emotion triggered stochastic behavior transitions with motivational gain effects for multi-objective robot tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents artificial emotional system based autonomous robot control architecture. Hidden Markov model developed as mathematical background for stochastic emotional and behavior transitions. Motivation module of architecture considered as behavioral gain effect generator for achieving multi-objective robot tasks. According to emotional and behavioral state transition probabilities, artificial emotions determine sequences of behaviors. Also motivational gain effects of proposed architecture can be observed on the executing behaviors during simulation.

  18. Brand priming effect on consumers’ financial risk taking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Mantovani

    Full Text Available Abstract Taking the perspective of brand priming theory, this study proposes that brands associated with an audacious personality trait may influence consumers to be take more risks in making subsequent decisions. Two experiments, run in sport brands contexts, showed that individuals exposed to brands with high (vs. low audacity traits demonstrated a higher rate of risk taking in financial decisions. The studies also showed that this effect is moderated by individuals’ experience with the financial market. This moderation suggests that there was an activation of a goal not just semantic activation, but through the brand priming. This research provides insights into how today's consumers deal with brand priming effects in risky choice settings. From a managerial perspective, it can help managers to understand the likely effects of brand priming on behavior and better predict the probability of risk aversion or risk seeking outcomes.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on the behavioral properties of crotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Moreira

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Crotoxin has been detoxified with gamma radiation in order to improve crotalic antiserum production. Nevertheless, present knowledge of the biological characteristics of irradiated crotoxin is insufficient to propose it as an immunizing agent. Crotoxin is known to increase the emotional state of rats and to decrease their exploratory behavior (Moreira EG, Nascimento N, Rosa GJM, Rogero JR and Vassilieff VS (1996 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 29: 629-632. Therefore, we decided 1 to evaluate the effects of crotoxin in the social interaction test, which has been widely used for the evaluation of anxiogenic drugs, and 2 to determine if irradiated crotoxin induces behavioral alterations similar to those of crotoxin in the social interaction, open-field and hole-board tests. Male Wistar rats (180-220 g were used. Crotoxin (100, 250, and 500 µg/kg was injected intraperitoneally 2 h before the social interaction test. Similarly, irradiated crotoxin (2000 Gy gamma radiation from a 60Co source was administered at the doses of 100, 250, and 500 µg/kg for the hole-board test, and at the doses of 1000 and 2500 µg/kg for the open-field and social interaction tests. ANOVA complemented with the Dunnett test was used for statistical analysis (P<0.05. Crotoxin decreased the social interaction time (s at the doses of 100, 250 and 500 µg/kg (means ± SEM from 51.6 ± 4.4 to 32.6 ± 3.7, 28.0 ± 3.6 and 31.6 ± 4.4, respectively. Irradiated crotoxin did not induce behavioral alterations. These results indicate that 1 crotoxin may be an anxiogenic compound, and 2 in contrast to crotoxin, irradiated crotoxin was unable to induce behavioral alterations, which makes it a promising compound for the production of crotalic antiserum

  20. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L

    2015-11-10

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to "sex differences" in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology.

  1. Understanding and Promoting Effective Engagement With Digital Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Lucy; Spring, Bonnie J; Riper, Heleen; Morrison, Leanne G; Crane, David H; Curtis, Kristina; Merchant, Gina C; Naughton, Felix; Blandford, Ann

    2016-11-01

    This paper is one in a series developed through a process of expert consensus to provide an overview of questions of current importance in research into engagement with digital behavior change interventions, identifying guidance based on research to date and priority topics for future research. The first part of this paper critically reflects on current approaches to conceptualizing and measuring engagement. Next, issues relevant to promoting effective engagement are discussed, including how best to tailor to individual needs and combine digital and human support. A key conclusion with regard to conceptualizing engagement is that it is important to understand the relationship between engagement with the digital intervention and the desired behavior change. This paper argues that it may be more valuable to establish and promote "effective engagement," rather than simply more engagement, with "effective engagement" defined empirically as sufficient engagement with the intervention to achieve intended outcomes. Appraisal of the value and limitations of methods of assessing different aspects of engagement highlights the need to identify valid and efficient combinations of measures to develop and test multidimensional models of engagement. The final section of the paper reflects on how interventions can be designed to fit the user and their specific needs and context. Despite many unresolved questions posed by novel and rapidly changing technologies, there is widespread consensus that successful intervention design demands a user-centered and iterative approach to development, using mixed methods and in-depth qualitative research to progressively refine the intervention to meet user requirements.

  2. Effect of Copper Addition on Electromigration Behavior of Silver Metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Shekhar; Theodore, N. David; Chenna, Santhosh; Alford, Terry

    2009-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of Cu alloying on electromigration behavior of Ag metallization. Electromigration tests are performed on pure Ag and Ag (1.5% Cu) samples deposited by e-beam evaporation. The experiments show that Ag (Cu) alloy interconnect has superior elctromigration resistance compared to pure Ag interconnect. X-ray diffraction, four point probe measurements and electron microscopy were used to investigate the test structures and corresponding thin film samples. The Cu improves the lifetime of interconnect test structures by hindering Ag diffusion and increasing 111 texture of Ag. Also, Cu addition seemingly reduces the agglomeration in Ag.

  3. THE EFFECT OF ASTROLOGY ON YOUNG CUSTOMER BEHAVIORS

    OpenAIRE

    Gulmez Mustafa; Kitapci Olgun; Dortyol Ibrahim Taylan

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of date-of-birth on consumption behaviors of young people. A face-to-face interview survey is conducted to collect data. SPSS 18.0 for Windows was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics such as means, frequencies, ANOVA tests and Chi-square tests were calculated. The findings pointed out that the young consumers on fire group (Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius) take more instant and impulsive purchase actions. It is a new study about ...

  4. Excited states rotational effects on the behavior of excited molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    Excited States, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that discusses the excited states of molecules. The first paper reviews the rotational involvement in intra-molecular in vibrational redistribution. This paper analyzes the vibrational Hamiltonian as to its efficacy in detecting the manifestations of intra-molecular state-mixing in time-resolved and time-averaged spectroscopic measurements. The next paper examines the temporal behavior of intra-molecular vibration-rotation energy transfer (IVRET) and the effects of IVRET on collision, reaction, and the decomposition processes. This paper also

  5. Inhibition of eating behavior: negative cognitive effects of dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K E; Chiovari, P

    1998-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that dieters would score higher than nondieters in terms of food rumination. Two hundred and thirty one college undergraduates completed the Eating Obsessive-Compulsiveness Scale (EOCS) and responded to a questionnaire that inquired about dieting status. Subjects also completed measures that tapped neuroticism and social desirability. Results showed that current dieters were significantly more obsessed with thoughts of eating and food than were nondieters. Neither dieting status nor EOCS scale scores were related to neuroticism or social desirability. These results are consistent with previous theory and research suggesting that inhibition of appetitive behaviors can have negative cognitive effects. Moreover, they indicate a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  6. On their best behavior: how animal behavior can help determine the combined effects of species interactions and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jason P; Barton, Brandon T

    2013-09-01

    The increasingly appreciated link between climate change and species interactions has the potential to help us understand and predict how organisms respond to a changing environment. As this connection grows, it becomes even more important to appreciate the mechanisms that create and control the combined effect of these factors. However, we believe one such important set of mechanisms comes from species' behavior and the subsequent trait-mediated interactions, as opposed to the more often studied density-mediated effects. Behavioral mechanisms are already well appreciated for mitigating the separate effects of the environment and species interactions. Thus, they could be at the forefront for understanding the combined effects. In this review, we (1) show some of the known behaviors that influence the individual and combined effects of climate change and species interactions; (2) conceptualize general ways behavior may mediate these combined effects; and (3) illustrate the potential importance of including behavior in our current tools for predicting climate change effects. In doing so, we hope to promote more research on behavior and other mechanistic factors that may increase our ability to accurately predict climate change effects.

  7. Unpacking Links between Fathers' Antisocial Behaviors and Children's Behavior Problems: Direct, Indirect, and Interactive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer; Lewin-Bizan, Selva

    2011-01-01

    Building upon previous evidence for the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviors, this research assessed and compared three models seeking to explain links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. A representative sample of children from low-income families (N = 261) was followed from age 3 through age…

  8. Direct Behavioral Consultation: Effects on Teachers' Praise and Student Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Lestremau, Lauren; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Direct behavioral consultation is an extension of traditional behavioral consultation and focuses on assessment and training in the classroom during ongoing classroom activities. This study evaluated direct behavioral consultation services in two elementary alternative classrooms referred following a program evaluation in which data suggested…

  9. Different effects of valproate on methamphetamine-and cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-XuLi; Jian-HuiLiang

    2004-01-01

    Multiple intermittent administration of psychostimulants induces a behavioral sensitization, which is characterized by the augmentation of locomotor activity and stereotyped behavior, even after their long-term withdrawal. This kind of behavioral effects is thought to serve as a useful animal model that mimics the behavioral responses in drug craving. Dopamine

  10. The Effects of Function-Based Self-Management Interventions on Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard P.; Kamps, Debra M.; Greenwood, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) struggle to achieve social and academic outcomes. Many studies have demonstrated self-management interventions to be effective at reducing problem behavior and increasing positive social and academic behaviors. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) information may be used in designing…

  11. Toward Proper Specification of the Effects of Leader Punitive Behavior: A Research Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Thomas S.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Tested the impact of leader punitive behavior on employee satisfaction in 457 hospital employees. Controlling for leader reward behavior, there was no direct positive effect of leader punitive behavior, and no moderating impact of role ambiguity. Discusses the importance of considering spuriousness in leader punitive behavior research. (WAS)

  12. Gateway Health Behaviors in College Students: Investigating Transfer and Compensation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Claudio Renato; Lee, Hye-ryeon; Hubbard, Amy E.; Min-Sun, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of studies on the mechanisms of multiple risk behaviors, even though these behaviors are significant public health issues. The authors investigated whether health behavior interventions have transfer or compensatory effects on other health behaviors. Participants and Methods: The authors looked at transfer and…

  13. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Chronic Fibromyalgia Pain: Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A multiple-baseline-across two behavior sets and positions (reclined, upright) was used to experimentally examine the effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment for Pain (BAT-P) on pain-related behavior of a 44-year-old woman with a 22-year history of fibromyalgia (FM). BAT-P, based on the matching law, is comprised of Behavioral Relaxation…

  14. Effects of Consumer Search Behavior Typology on the Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuningsih

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The author investigates how consumer search behavior typology affects the relationship between customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that the type of consumer as defined by whether and how they search for information (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent perceive different levels of satisfaction and performs differently on satisfaction behavioral intentions linkages. Relational-dependent and rational active consumers are found to perceive higher satisfaction levels, and to express stronger intentions to engage in positive behavioral intentions than passive consumers. The identification of satisfaction and behavioral intentions within each search type allows managers to satisfy their consumers; hence, the company will obtain higher profit.

  15. An Investigation of the Effective Leadership Behaviors of School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Gündüz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the level of display of effective leadership behaviors by school principals. Descriptive design was used in this research. The target population of the study is the teachers who work in primary and high schools in Kartal, Maltepe and Üsküdar located in İstanbul, The sample consists of 703 primary and high school teachers randomly selected from the population. The study was carried out quantitatively and data were gathered through the 30-item 5-point Likert-type scale developed by the researchers. Data were analyzed by percentages, frequencies, means and crosstabs. In order to find out sources of differences and do pair comparisons, Mann-Whitney U tests were employed while Kruskal-Wallis H tests were used to do comparisons of variables having more than three levels. According to the results obtained from this research, teachers stated that principals “sometimes” demonstrate effective leadership behaviors. When mean scores of all the items were checked, the highest score was earned by the item, “The principal plans the future of the school” and the lowest score by “Principals are open to be criticized.” There were significant differences based on gender and teaching experience of teachers and school types.

  16. Effect of fault jogs on frictional behavior: An experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA ShengLi; CHEN ShunYun; LIU PeiXun; HU XiaoYan; WANG KaiYing; HUANG YuanMin

    2008-01-01

    Studying the effect of geometrically irregular bodies on the mechanical behavior of fault activity is of significance in understanding the seismic activity along a fault zone. By using rock mechanics experiment with medium-scale samples, we have studied the effect of fault jogs, the most common irregularity along fault zones, on frictional behavior. The research indicates that extensional fault jog can be easily fractured because of its low strength and the fractured jog has no obvious resistance to fault sliding, and the micro-fractures occurring in the jog are indicative of stick-slip along the faults. The fault zone containing extensional jogs is characterized by velocity weakening and can be described by rate and state friction law. Compressional fault jog makes fault sliding more difficult because of its high fracturing strength, but the micro-fractures occurring in the tensile areas around fault ends at higher stress level can provide necessary condition for occurrence of stick-slip along the faults before the jog is fractured and thus act as precursors of fault instability. Compression jog can be taken as a stable indicator of fault segmentation until the jog is completely fractured and two faults are linked.

  17. Effect of fault jogs on frictional behavior: An experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Studying the effect of geometrically irregular bodies on the mechanical behavior of fault activity is of significance in understanding the seismic activity along a fault zone. By using rock mechanics ex- periment with medium-scale samples, we have studied the effect of fault jogs, the most common irregularity along fault zones, on frictional behavior. The research indicates that extensional fault jog can be easily fractured because of its low strength and the fractured jog has no obvious resistance to fault sliding, and the micro-fractures occurring in the jog are indicative of stick-slip along the faults. The fault zone containing extensional jogs is characterized by velocity weakening and can be described by rate and state friction law. Compressional fault jog makes fault sliding more difficult because of its high fracturing strength, but the micro-fractures occurring in the tensile areas around fault ends at higher stress level can provide necessary condition for occurrence of stick-slip along the faults before the jog is fractured and thus act as precursors of fault instability. Compression jog can be taken as a stable indicator of fault segmentation until the jog is completely fractured and two faults are linked.

  18. Effects of Website Interactivity on Online Retail Shopping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Hafizul

    Motivations to engage in retail online shopping can include both utilitarian and hedonic shopping dimensions. To cater to these consumers, online retailers can create a cognitively and esthetically rich shopping environment, through sophisticated levels of interactive web utilities and features, offering not only utilitarian benefits and attributes but also providing hedonic benefits of enjoyment. Since the effect of interactive websites has proven to stimulate online consumer’s perceptions, this study presumes that websites with multimedia rich interactive utilities and features can influence online consumers’ shopping motivations and entice them to modify or even transform their original shopping predispositions by providing them with attractive and enhanced interactive features and controls, thus generating a positive attitude towards products and services offered by the retailer. This study seeks to explore the effects of Web interactivity on online consumer behavior through an attitudinal model of technology acceptance.

  19. Effects of cooperative atomic behavior on lasers. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senitzky, I.R.

    1980-09-01

    The effect of cooperative behavior, both with respect to pumping and relaxation, on a number of three-level atomic systems - which are assumed to have a dipole moment at all three transition frequencies - is analyzed. The atoms are coupled to two cavity modes resonant at the two intermediate frequencies and pumped coherently at the highest frequency. For sufficiently strong pumping, three steady states are shown to exist, the stability of which depends on the pumping strength and the cavity losses. Transition from one steady state to another produces modulated field pulses in both modes, with the phase of the modulation envelopes as well as the phase of the fields being synchronized. Conditions for the generation of various types of pulses are investigated. A generalization that takes into account pump losses due to atomic reaction is introduced and the effect of these losses is studied.

  20. Effects of organizational justice on organizational citizenship behaviors: mediating effects of institutional trust and affective commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guh, Wei-Yuan; Lin, Shang-Ping; Fan, Chwei-Jen; Yang, Chin-Fang

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the mediating role of institutional trust and affective commitment on the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. The study participants were 315 faculty members at 67 public/private universities of technology and vocational colleges in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationships between the variables and assess the goodness of fit of the overall model. Organizational justice was positively related to institutional trust and there was an indirect effect of organizational justice on affective commitment through institutional trust. In addition, the relation between institutional trust and affective commitment was positive and affective commitment was shown to have a positive relation to organizational citizenship behaviors. Institutional trust was found to indirectly affect organizational citizenship behaviors through affective commitment. Most importantly, this study suggested a mediating effect of institutional trust and affective commitment on the relation between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. Implications, limitations, and future research were also discussed.

  1. Behavioral, hormonal and central serotonin modulating effects of injected leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Haque, Zeba; Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Ikram, Huma; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin is viewed as an important target for developing novel therapeutics for obesity, depression/anxiety and cognitive dysfunctions. The present study therefore concerns behavioral, hormonal and central serotonin modulating effects of systemically injected leptin. Pharmacological doses (100 and 500 μg/kg) of leptin injected systemically decreased 24h cumulative food intake and body weight in freely feeding rats and improved acquisition and retention of memory in Morris water maze test. Potential anxiety reducing, hormonal and serotonin modulating effects of the peptide hormone were determined in a separate experiment. Animals injected with 100 or 500 μg/kg leptin were tested for anxiety in an elevated plus maze test 1h later. A significant increase in the number of entries and time passed in open arm of the elevated plus maze in leptin injected animals suggested pronounced anxiety reducing effect. Moreover, circulating levels of leptin correlated significantly with anxiety reducing effects of the peptide hormone. Serum serotonin increased and ghrelin decreased in leptin injected animals and correlated, positively and negatively respectively, with circulating leptin. Corticosterone increased at low dose and levels were normal at higher dose. Serotonin metabolism in the hypothalamus and hippocampus decreased only at higher dose of leptin. The results support a role of leptin in the treatment of obesity, anxiety and cognitive dysfunctions. It is suggested that hormonal and serotonin modulating effects of leptin can alter treatment efficacy in particularly comorbid conditions.

  2. Effects of Check and Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the effects of Check & Connect (C&C) on the attendance, behavior, and academic outcomes of at-risk youth in a field-based effectiveness trial. Method: A multisite randomized block design was used, wherein 260 primarily Hispanic (89%) and economically disadvantaged (74%) students were randomized to treatment…

  3. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  4. Molecular Mechanism: ERK Signaling, Drug Addiction, and Behavioral Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Quizon, Pamela M; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants has been considered as a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by craving and compulsive drug seeking and use. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that repeated drug exposure causes long-lasting neurochemical and cellular changes that result in enduring neuroadaptation in brain circuitry and underlie compulsive drug consumption and relapse. Through intercellular signaling cascades, drugs of abuse induce remodeling in the rewarding circuitry that contributes to the neuroplasticity of learning and memory associated with addiction. Here, we review the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and its related intracellular signaling pathways in drug-induced neuroadaptive changes that are associated with drug-mediated psychomotor activity, rewarding properties and relapse of drug seeking behaviors. We also discuss the neurobiological and behavioral effects of pharmacological and genetic interferences with ERK-associated molecular cascades in response to abused substances. Understanding the dynamic modulation of ERK signaling in response to drugs may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies to drug addiction.

  5. Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Brady, J V; Fischman, M W

    1986-09-01

    Nine male research volunteers, in three groups of three subjects each, resided in a residential laboratory for up to 25 days. All contact with the experimenter was through a networked computer system and subjects' behaviors including food intake were continuously recorded. Subjects brought their own activities such as model-making, and these in combination with those provided by the laboratory resulted in rich behavior repertoires. During the first part of the day, subjects remained in their private rooms doing planned work activities, and during the remainder of the day, they were allowed to socialize. Cigarettes containing active marijuana (1.84% THC) or placebo were smoked prior to the private work period and during the social access period. A single active marijuana cigarette prior to the private work period had no effect on food intake. The administration of two or three active marijuana cigarettes during the social access period increased average daily caloric intake. The increased intake was due to an augmentation of calories consumed as between-meal snack items rather than an increase in meal size per se.

  6. Annealing effects on deuterium retention behavior in damaged tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sakurada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of annealing after/under iron (Fe ion irradiation on deuterium (D retention behavior in tungsten (W were studied. The D2 TDS spectra as a function of heating temperature for 0.1dpa damaged W showed that the D retention was clearly decreased as the annealing temperature was increased. In particular, the desorption of D trapped by voids was largely reduced by annealing at 1173K. The TEM observation indicated that the size of dislocation loops was clearly grown, and its density was decreased by the annealing above 573K. After annealing at 1173K, almost all the dislocation loops were recovered. The results of positron annihilation spectroscopy suggested that the density of vacancy-type defects such as voids, was decreased as the annealing temperature was increased, while its size was increased, indicating that the D retention was reduced by the recovery of the voids. Furthermore, it was found that the desorption temperature of D trapped by the voids for damaged W above 0.3dpa was shifted toward higher temperature side. These results lead to a conclusion that the D retention behavior is controlled by defect density. The D retention in the samples annealed during irradiation was less than that annealed after irradiation. This result shows that defects would be quickly annihilated before stabilization by annealing during irradiation.

  7. Molecular mechanism: ERK signaling, drug addiction and behavioral effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Quizon, Pamela M.; Zhu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants has been considered as a chronic psychiatric disorder, characterized by craving and compulsive drug seeking and use. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that repeated drug exposure causes long-lasting neurochemical and cellular changes that results in enduring neuroadaptation in brain circuitry and underlie compulsive drug consumption and relapse. Through intercellular signaling cascades, drugs of abuse induce remodeling in the rewarding circuitry that contributes to the neuroplasticity of learning and memory associated with addiction. Here, we review the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and its related intracellular signaling pathways in drug-induced neuroadaptive changes that are associated with drug-mediated psychomotor activity, rewarding properties and relapse of drug seeking behaviors. We also discuss the neurobiological and behavioral effects of pharmacological and genetic interferences with ERK-associated molecular cascades in response to abused substances. Understanding the dynamic modulation of ERK signaling in response to drugs may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies to drug addiction. PMID:26809997

  8. PSEUDOTUMORAL FORM OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS WITH SYMPTOMATIC CONVULSIVE SEIZURES (A CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is prominent among central nervous system diseases. It affects chiefly young people and almost inevitably results in disability. In the past decade, there has been an upward trend for the prevalence of MS worldwide; in particular, the higher prevalence of this disease has been registered in the Moscow Region, which is associated with both an objective increase in its morbidity and improvement of specialized care to the population in the region. MS is characterized by a variety of clinical manifestations. However, paroxysmal disturbances are referred to as the rare symptoms of MS: the incidence of epileptic seizures in this condition is 0.89 to 7.5% according to the literature data. In addition to the clinical form of MS, there are its rare malignant atypical forms that also include its pseudotumoral form characterized by intrinsic neuroimaging and clinical signs that are different from the classical form of MS and another abnormality of the central nervous system. The pseudotumoral form of MS is characterized by the development of acute focal demyelination that appears as a large focus of an increased magnetic resonance signal with perifocal edema as evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging. A pseudotumoral focus of demyelination can occur both at the onset of MS and during its recurrent course. The atypical onset of MS is a special challenge because of diagnostic problems, which may lead to erroneous therapeutic policy and have a negative impact on the late prognosis of the disease. The authors provide a clinical case of the pseudotumoral form of MS with convulsive seizures at the onset of demyelinating disease. The problems of diagnosis and therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  9. Non-convulsive status epilepticus after ischemic stroke: a hospital-based stroke cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Vincenzo; Vidale, Simone; Gorgone, Gaetano; Pisani, Laura Rosa; Sironi, Luigi; Arnaboldi, Marco; Pisani, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate in the setting of a stroke unit ward the usefulness of a prolonged (>6 h) video-EEG recording (PVEEG) in identifying non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in patients with an acute ischemic stroke. Predictors of NCSE were also evaluated. Patients with an acute ischemic stroke, referred to our unit, were included in this prospective observational study. A PVEEG recording was implemented after stroke in all patients during the first week: (a) promptly in those exhibiting a clear or suspected epileptic manifestation; (b) at any time during the routine activity in the remaining patients. After the first week, a standard EEG/PVEEG recording was hooked up only in presence of an evident or suspected epileptic manifestation or as control of a previous epileptic episode. NCSE was identified in 32 of the 889 patients (3.6 %) included in the study. It occurred early (within the first week) in 20/32 (62.5 %) patients and late in the remaining 12. Diagnosis was made on the basis of a specific clinical suspect (n = 19, 59.4 %) or without any suspect (n = 13, 40.6 %). In a multivariate analysis, a significant association of NCSE was observed with NIHSS score, infarct size and large atherothrombotic etiology. NCSE is not a rare event after an acute ischemic stroke and a delayed diagnosis could worsen patient prognosis. Since NCSE can be difficult to be diagnosed only on clinical grounds, implementation of a prompt PVEEG should be kept available in a stroke unit whenever a patient develop signs, although subtle, consistent with NCSE.

  10. The Frequency of Urinary Tract Infection among Children with Febrile Convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Momen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available objectiveThis study was conducted to determine the frequency of urinary tract infection(UTI among children with febrile convulsion (FC.Materials & MethodsWe analyzed the hospital records of 137 children who had been admitted to thepediatric ward from March 2004 to February 2007 because of FC. Informationsuch as age, sex, developmental status, type of FC, family history of seizure,urine sampling method, and the results of antibiograms were recorded.ResultsThe age distribution of 137 patients (82 boys, 55 girls was as follows: 1-6 monthsof age, 1 infant (0.7%; 6-12 months, 21 infants (15.3%; 1-3 years, 75 (54.8%;3-5 years, 30 (21.9%; and more than 5 years, 10 (7.3%. Three out of the 82boys and 6 out of the 55 girls had UTI (3.7% vs. 10.9%, total, 6.6%. The agedistribution of these 9 patients was as follows: 1-6 months, 1 patient (11.1%;7-12 months, 5 (55.6%; and 1-3 years, 3 (33.3%. The relative incidence of UTIwas 6.6%. The most common organisms causing infections were Escherichiacoli in 8 and Proteus spp., in 1 patient (88.8% vs. 11.1%. Simple FC was seenin all 9 patients with UTI.ConclusionIn this study, the relative frequency of UTI among children with FC was 6.6%and this frequency was higher that the incidence of UTI in girls and boys(3-5% and 1%, respectively. Therefore, we recommend that UTI should beconsidered as an important cause of FC in children.

  11. Effect of size on the chaotic behavior of nano resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemansour, Hamed; Miandoab, Ehsan Maani; Pishkenari, Hossein Nejat

    2017-03-01

    Present study is devoted to investigate the size effect on chaotic behavior of a micro-electro-mechanical resonator under external electrostatic excitation. Using Galerkin's decomposition method, approximating the actuation force with a new effective lumped model, and neglecting higher order terms in the Taylor-series expansion, a simplified model of the main system is developed. By utilizing the Melnikov's method and based on the new form of the electrostatic force, an expression in terms of the system parameters is developed which can be used to rapidly estimate the chaotic region of the simplified system. Based on the analysis of the simple proposed model, it is shown that the effect of size on chaotic region varies significantly depending on bias voltage. By considering the size effect, it is demonstrated that chaotic vibration initiates at much higher constant voltages than predicted by classical theories; and, in high constant voltages, it is shown that strain gradient theory predicts occurrence of chaos at much lower amplitudes.

  12. Effect of different management systems on rutting behavior and behavioral repertoire of housed Maghrebi male camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Monaco, Davide; Aubé, Lydiane; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Mohamed, Hammadi

    2014-06-01

    Camel management has been changing in recent years from an extensive to a semi-intensive or intensive system, particularly for breeding bulls and dairy dromedary camels. Captivity may affect animal welfare, and low libido is the major complaint for housed breeding bulls. Since welfare status could also affect reproductive performance, the aim of this study was to evaluate different management practices on behavior, particularly on sexual behavior, and to identify some behavioral needs of male dromedary camels reared for semen collection. The effects of the following management systems on their behavior were compared: (i) traditional: housing in a single stall for 24 h (H24), (ii) housing in a single stall for 23 h with 1 h free in the paddock (H23), and (iii) housing in a single stall for 22 h and 30 min with 1 h paddock time and 30 min exposure to a female camel herd (ExF). During the trial, blood cortisol concentrations were assessed and camels were filmed daily for 30 min in the mornings and during a female passage in the evenings. Videos were analyzed in order to fill out a focal sampling ethogram and to score sexual behavior. As a result, there were no differences between the H24 and H23 systems, whereas ExF had a significant positive impact on their sexual behavior score and behavioral repertoire, further reducing cortisol levels. Overall, it seems that male dromedary camel welfare status improves when their behavioral needs for social interaction and movement are satisfied.

  13. Effects of Transport on Live Weight and Behavior of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Andronie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study has monitored the effects of transport stress on some biochemical indicators of stress and behavior lambs at time of slaughter. The research was carried out in the cold season, on a number of 120 lambs, transported for 6h- 16h, to be slaughtered. During our research, we followed the changes in bodyweight, behaviours expressed by sheep, and plasma cortisol levels. Bodyweight loss recorded in the slaughterhouse to 24 hours of departure transportation was of 4-5%. The behavioural manifestations of lambs were different from the destination, depending on journey duration. Lambs behaviour was different depending on the journey, the resting and watering were mostly present manifestations. Increased in cortisol levels measured at 3 h after leaving the vehicle was maintained at 9 h after the journey. Increased duration of rest before slaughter can reduce the stress of transport in case of lambs ensures obtaining good quality meat.

  14. Effects of torrefaction on hemicellulose structural characteristics and pyrolysis behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shurong; Dai, Gongxin; Ru, Bin; Zhao, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoliu; Zhou, Jinsong; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2016-10-01

    The effects of torrefaction on hemicellulose characteristics and its pyrolysis behaviors were studied in detail. The oxygen content decreased significantly after torrefaction, leading to the increase of high heating value. Two-dimensional perturbation correlation analysis based on diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was performed to characterize the structural evolutions. It was found the dehydration of hydroxyls and the dissociation of branches were the main reactions at low torrefaction temperature. When the temperature further increased, the depolymerization of hemicellulose and the fragmentation of monosaccharide residues occurred. The distributed activation energy model with double Gaussian functions based on reaction-order model was used to investigate the pyrolysis kinetics. The results showed that torrefaction enhanced the activation energy for degradation reactions while lowered that for condensation reactions, and increased the devolatilization contribution of condensation reactions. Besides, torrefaction decreased the yields of typical pyrolytic products, such as acids, furans, alicyclic ketones and so on.

  15. Effect of Surface Modification on Behaviors of Cerium Oxide Nanopowders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Mei; Shi Zhenxue; Liu Zhaogang; Hu Yanhong; Wang Mitang; Li Hangquan

    2007-01-01

    Study was made on the effect of surface modification on the behaviors of cerium oxide nanopowders. A surfactant-sodium dodecyl sulfate(C12H25SO4Na) was used to modify the surface of CeO2 powder particles. The unmodified and modified CeO2 powders were characterized by using a powder comprehensive characteristic tester, laser particle size analyzer, specific surface area tester, X-ray diffraction tester, and a scanning electron microscope. The testing and analysis results showed that C12H25SO4Na surface modification might increase the flowability and dispersity, and decrease the specific surface area and agglomeration of CeO2 powders. The mechanism of the surface modification of CeO2 powder particles was also discussed.

  16. Autism and Externalizing Behaviors: Buffering Effects of Parental Emotion Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Berg, Jessica L.; Zurawski, Megan E.; King, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between parental emotion coaching and externalizing behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD often exhibit externalizing behaviors, particularly emotionally driven externalizing behaviors, at a higher rate than their typically developing peers. An…

  17. Effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Mulders, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (LIBT) supplementing regular treatment in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) standardized tests of cognition, adaptive behavior, interpersonal relations, play, language, characterist

  18. The effects of behavioral modification based on client center program to health behaviors among obese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarakamhang, Ungsinun; Malarat, Anan

    2013-10-08

    The objectives of this research were to examine the effectiveness of Health Behavioral Modification based on the Client Center Program (HBMCCP) and to study behavioral change in relation to self - efficacy, self- regulation, self-care behaviors and body weight. The sample was 59 undergraduate students, who were selected by cluster random sampling. 29 participated in the HBMCCP for 8 weeks, and were followed up 4 weeks after the program, and 30 students in the control group. Data was collected 3 times, before, immediately after and 4 weeks after the program, by 6 scale - questionnaires which had high reliability of Cronbach's alpha-coefficient between .81 to.94. The stratified variables were psycho-social variables, being a positive attitude towards health behavior and social support. Data were analyzed by MANOVA and ANCOVA. Results showed that 1) Obese students in the experimental group with HBMCCP had self - efficacy, self- regulation and self-care behavior at immediately after and 4 weeks later program significantly higher scores than before the program (pbehavior scores at immediately after and 4 weeks after the program significantly higher than obese students in the control group (p=0.009) and significantly lower body weights than obese students in the control group (p=0.026), and 3) No three - way interaction among positive attitude towards health behavior, social support and the program was found, although there was a two- way interaction between positive attitude towards health behavior and the program (p=0.001) and effect size=0.272.

  19. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received emotional intelligence training program in 17 sessions (2 sessions per week, 60 minutes per session and the control group received no training beyond their regular school program. After two months, in order to examine the stability (durability of training effect, the follow-up test was conducted. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimating equations. Results: The results showed that the intervention program had created a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control group (p<0.001 and the rate of behavioral problems (aggression, rule breaking occurrence has dropped. This was true for the follow-up results too. Conclusions: It can be concluded that Emotional Intelligence Training decreases the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder and helps to prevent high occurrence of these problems.

  20. The Effect of Parenting Behaviors on Subsequent Child Behavior Problems in Autistic Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The current research explored the relationship between parenting behaviors in parents of children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and subsequent child behavior problems. The sample consisted of 72 children (aged 5-16 years) and their parents, who were assessed over a period of 9-10 months. There was a relationship between parenting…

  1. Bauschinger effect and springback behavior of dual phase sheet steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongwei

    2007-09-01

    the three-point bending tests, an FE model was effectively established to simulate the springback under different pin sizes. In order to investigate the Bauschinger effect on springback behavior, the deep-draw bending test was simulated using finite element method and showed improvement of simulation accuracy with the incorporation of the Bauschinger effect.

  2. The Indirect Effects of Servant Leadership Behavior on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Job Performance: Organizational Justice as a Mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Zehir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Therelationship between leader and followers plays a vital role, particularly ineducational institutions where a keen understanding of human character and highlevel of social interaction ought to be facilitated. For this reason, in starkcontrast to contemporary leaders who see people only as units of production orexpendable resources in a profit and loss statement, servant leadership focuseson meeting the needs of followers, making them reach their maximum potentialand so perform optimally in order to achieve organizational goals andobjectives. This study examines theeffects of servant leadership behaviors of private college principals onteachers’ organizationalcitizenship behavior and job performance. Using 300 respondents from theprivate education institutes in Turkey, servant leadership behavior is examinedfor its indirect effects on organizational citizenship behavior and jobperformance by its impact on organizational justice. Organizational justiceacts as a mediator between the variables in question. All the results are insupport of the studied mediation effects. Implications of the findings andsuggestions for future research are discussed

  3. Developmental and behavioral effects of postnatal amitraz exposure in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Palermo-Neto

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of postnatal amitraz exposure on physical and behavioral parameters were studied in Wistar rats, whose lactating dams received the pesticide (10 mg/kg orally on days 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 and 19 of lactation; control dams received distilled water (1 ml/kg on the same days. A total of 18 different litters (9 of them control and 9 experimental born after a 21-day gestation were used. The results showed that the median effective time (ET50 for fur development, eye opening, testis descent and onset of the startle response were increased in rats postnatally exposed to amitraz (2.7, 15.1, 21.6 and 15.3 days, respectively compared to those of the control pups (1.8, 14.0, 19.9 and 12.9 days, respectively. The ages of incisor eruption, total unfolding of the external ears, vaginal and ear opening and the time taken to perform the grasping hindlimb reflex were not affected by amitraz exposure. Pups from dams treated with amitraz during lactation took more time (in seconds to perform the surface righting reflex on postnatal days (PND 3 (25.0 ± 2.0, 4 (12.3 ± 1.2 and 5 (8.7 ± 0.9 in relation to controls (10.6 ± 1.2; 4.5 ± 0.6 and 3.4 ± 0.4, respectively; the climbing response was not changed by amitraz. Postnatal amitraz exposure increased spontaneous motor activity of male and female pups in the open-field on PND 16 (140 ± 11 and 17 (124 ± 12, and 16 (104 ± 9, 17 (137 ± 9 and 18 (106 ± 8, respectively. Data on spontaneous motor activity of the control male and female pups were 59 ± 11 and 69 ± 10 for days 16 and 17 and 49 ± 9, 48 ± 7 and 56 ± 7 for days 16, 17 and 18, respectively. Some qualitative differences were also observed in spontaneous motor behavior; thus, raising the head, shoulder and pelvis matured one or two days later in the amitraz-treated offspring. Postnatal amitraz exposure did not change locomotion and rearing frequencies or immobility time in the open-field on PND 30, 60 and 90. The present findings indicate

  4. Lack of association between TNF-α gene polymorphisms at position -308 A, -850T and risk of simple febrile convulsion in pediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Kheiri, Soleman; Habibian, Roya; Nozari, Ahora; Baradaran, Azar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Febrile convulsions (FCs), occurring between 6 months and 6 years of age is the most common seizure disorder during childhood. The febrile response is thought to be mediated by the release of pyrogenic cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 (IL-1). There is a significant relationship between genetic components for susceptibility of FCs and different report mutation. We investigated association between two polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α promoter region (G-308A, C-850T) and FCs in the southwest area of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this matched case–control study, 100 patients with febrile convulsion as case group and 130 healthy children as control group were enrolled in the study. Peripheral blood samples were collected and DNA was extracted by standard phenol–chloroform method. The genotype and allele frequencies of TNF- α polymorphisms in case and control groups were determined by using PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism) method. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. Results: The average age of case and control groups were 3.4 ± 1.4 and 3.4 ± 1.2 years, respectively. There was no significant difference between age and sex in both the groups (P > 0.05). A family history of febrile convulsion was detected in 44% of patients. Moreover, the simple febrile convulsion was detected in 85% of the case group. Conclusion: RFLP analysis of TNF- α promoter region polymorphisms, considering P = 0.146 and P = 0.084 for G-308A and C-850T, respectively, showed no correlation between TNF- α polymorphisms and predisposition to simple febrile, based on the kind of convulsion (atypical and simple febrile convulsion). We found a significant relation between genotype distribution of G-308A and atypical febrile convulsion in case group (P = 0.04). A significant correlation between genotype distribution of G-308A and atypical febrile convulsion in the case group was

  5. Different behavioral effects of maprotiline and fluxilan in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Nataša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin and noradrenaline are involved in the mechanisms of action of most antidepressant drugs. We examined the effects of chronic treatment with maprotiline, a selective inhibitor of noradrenaline reuptake, and fluxilan, a selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake, on the behavior of unstressed controls and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS model rats in the forced swim test (FST and elevated plus maze test. Both selective reuptake inhibitors resulted in a significant reduction of time spent in immobility. Climbing was significantly increased in maprotiline- and swimming was exclusively elicited in the fluxilan-treated unstressed control and CUMS rats. Maprotiline-treated ani­mals displayed decreased anxiety and fluxilan-treated rats enhanced anxiety. The obtained results suggest that central noradrenergic and serotonergic systems might be affected differently during FST. The results also demonstrate that the anxiogenic effects of chronic fluxilan treatment are similar to those reported by many other studies. These differences observed for the effects of fluxilan in relation to those reported for maprotiline and probably due to the different phar­macological profiles of these drugs.

  6. 小儿热性惊厥的动态脑电图分析%Analysis on ambulatory electroencephalogram of children with febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江涛; 辛翠娟; 梁东; 贾飞勇; 丁臻博

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿热性惊厥的动态脑电图变化.方法:对167例热性惊厥患儿的动态脑电图进行回顾性对比分析.结果:小儿热性惊厥动态脑电图异常改变与年龄、体温、家族遗传史、出生史、发作持续时间、反复发作密切相关,均具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:动态脑电图改变对小儿热性惊厥的预后评价具有重要意义.%Objective: To explore the changes of ambulatory electroencephalogram (AEEG) of children with febrile convulsion. Methods: The AEEG of 167 children with febrile convulsion were compared and analyzed retrospectively. Results: The abnormal changes of AEEG in children with febrile convulsion were related to age, temperature, history of family heredity, history of birth, duration of febrile convulsion and repeated onset closely, there was significant difference (P <0. 0l ) . Conclusion: The changes of AEEG has important value in evaluation of prognosis of children with febrile convulsion.

  7. Evaluation of Magnesium Levels in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Febrile Convulsion Hospitalized in Bahrami Hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahi, Nahid; Ghadirian, Laleh; Kamrani, Kamyar

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of magnesium levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with febrile convulsion (FC) hospitalized in Bahrami hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011. In the past, decreased levels of magnesium in serum and CSF of patients with FC were reported. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible role of magnesium in febrile seizures in children. Identifying this condition, we may control seizures and also prevent subsequent convulsion. In this cross-sectional study, inclusion criteria were the existence of convulsion due to fever and exclusion criteria were having a known neurological disease which could induce a seizure, and children younger than one month. In each group (cases include children with febrile convulsion and controls include febrile children without convulsion), Mg was measured in blood, and cerebrospinal fluid of 90 children and then they were compared. The data were analyzed by SPSS (α=0.05). The mean serum and CSF levels of Mg in case and control groups were equal (P<0.87 and P<0.22 respectively). There was no difference between two groups in terms of sex, but mean age was significantly different (P<0.003). There was not an association between serum and CSF levels of magnesium and the presence of FC. Therefore, it's not suggested to measure the level of magnesium in serum or CSF in children with fever routinely.

  8. Effects of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure and age on social behavior, spatial response perseveration errors and motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A; Barto, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-08-01

    Persistent deficits in social behavior are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked deficits in social behavior following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to functional alterations in the ventrolateral frontal cortex [21]. In addition to social behaviors, the regions comprising the ventrolateral frontal cortex are critical for diverse processes ranging from orofacial motor movements to flexible alteration of behavior in the face of changing consequences. The broader behavioral implications of altered ventrolateral frontal cortex function following moderate PAE have, however, not been examined. In the present study we evaluated the consequences of moderate PAE on social behavior, tongue protrusion, and flexibility in a variant of the Morris water task that required modification of a well-established spatial response. PAE rats displayed deficits in tongue protrusion, reduced flexibility in the spatial domain, increased wrestling, and decreased investigation, indicating that several behaviors associated with ventrolateral frontal cortex function are impaired following moderate PAE. A linear discriminant analysis revealed that measures of wrestling and tongue protrusion provided the best discrimination of PAE rats from saccharin-exposed control rats. We also evaluated all behaviors in young adult (4-5 months) or older (10-11 months) rats to address the persistence of behavioral deficits in adulthood and possible interactions between early ethanol exposure and advancing age. Behavioral deficits in each domain persisted well into adulthood (10-11 months), however, there was no evidence that aging enhances the effects of moderate PAE within the age ranges that were studied.

  9. [The receptors involved in the excitatory effects of kynurenines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, I P; Ryzhov, I V

    1989-01-01

    There is presented a brief review of the authors' and literature data on the excitatory and convulsant effects of kynurenines, mainly 1-kynurenine and quinolinic acid. Particular attention is given to the interactions of kynurenines with the excitatory and inhibitory amino acids, their receptors, benzodiazepine receptor complex, catecholamines, serotonin, acetylcholine. The following trends of studies on the neuroactivity of kynurenines seem to be promising: isolation of specific binding sites for the most active kynurenines--kynurenine, quinolinic and kynurenic acids, the interaction with other endogenous convulsants like beta-carbolines, endorphines, folates, etc., the search of the brain structures triggering or deferring the excitatory and convulsant effects of kynurenines.

  10. Adult tonic-clonic convulsive status epilepticus over the last 11 years in a resource-poor country: a tertiary referral centre study from southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phabphal, Kanitpong; Geater, Alan; Limapichart, Kitti; Sathirapanya, Pornchai; Setthawatcharawanich, Suwanna

    2013-09-01

    Status epilepticus is a common condition in patients admitted to hospital in resource-poor countries and reports indicate that aetiology, factors of poor outcome, and treatment strategies are variable. To date, there is no report of a prospective study in Thai adults. Herein, we investigated the aetiology, clinical features, factors of predicted poor outcome, and treatment strategies in Thai adult patients who presented with convulsive status epilepticus. A total of 180 patients, whose ages ranged from 15 to 106 years, were included. Of these, 121 patients (67.2%) had acute symptomatic aetiology. The most common aetiology of status epilepticus was encephalitis (36.1%), followed by scarring of the cerebral hemisphere (15%). The median duration of status epilepticus before treatment was three hours. The rate of mortality in the study was 26.7%. Poor outcome was identified in 112 (62.2%) patients. For referral patients, all received only intravenous drugs before referral. The variables that correlated with poor outcome were aetiology and duration of status epilepticus. An approach to incorporate improved prevention of encephalitis, a more effective transportation system, and provision of the essential intravenous antiepileptic drugs would effectively increase the response to treatment.

  11. Social carry-over effects on non-social behavioral variation: mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Toivo Niemelä

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of animal personality is interested in decomposing behaviors into different levels of variation, with its present focus on the ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences of expressed variation. Recently the role of the social environment, i.e. social partners, has been suggested to affect behavioral variation and induce selection on animal personality. Social partner effects exist because characters of social partners (e.g. size, behavior, affect the behavioral expression of a focal individual. Here, we 1 first review the proximate mechanisms underlying the social partner effects on behavioral expression and the timescales at which such effects might take place. We then 2 discuss how within- and among-individual variation in single behaviors and covariation between multiple behaviors, caused by social partners, can carry-over to non-social behaviors expressed outside the social context. Finally, we 3 highlight evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects to non-social behaviors and 4 suggest study designs and statistical approaches which can be applied to study the nature and evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects on non-social behaviors. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underpinning the social partner effects is important since it opens a door for deeper understanding of how social environments can affect behavioral variation and covariation at multiple levels, and the evolution of non-social behaviors (i.e. exploration, activity, boldness that are affected by social interactions.

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Sodium Valproate in Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Razieh FALLAH; Yaser YADEGARI; Mahdi SALMANI NODOUSHAN

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Fallah R, Yadegari Y, Salmani Nodushan M. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Sodium Valproate in Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital. Iran. J. Child. Neurol 2012;6(2):39-44. Objective Status epilepticus (SE) is the most common pediatric neurologic emergency with high mortality and morbidity. There is no consensus on the drug of choice in the treatment of children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and sa...

  13. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. RESULTS: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001). CONCLUSIONS: Since a woman's body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients. PMID:22279481

  14. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Fadaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. Methods: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly di-vided in two groups of intervention (n = 32 and control (n = 40. The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not re-ceive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Results: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44 and control (15 95 ± 4 66 groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395. The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11 compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27 after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001. Conclusions: Since a woman′s body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman′s favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the impor-tance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  15. Effect of heat treatment on corrosion behavior of duplex coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raghu Ram Mohan Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, duplex WC-Co/NiCrAlY coating is coated onto Ti6Al4V substrate and vacuum heat treatment is employed to investigate the corrosion behavior of heat treated samples as well as Ti6Al4V substrate for comparison. In this duplex coating system, High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF process is used to deposit NiCrAlY interlayer with a constant thickness of 200 μm and WC-Co ceramic top layer with varying thickness of 250 μm, 350 μm and 450 μm deposited by Detonation Spray (DS process. Different heat treatment temperatures (600–1150 °C were employed for the coated samples to study the microstructure and the effect on corrosion resistance of the duplex coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried to investigate the corrosion performance of duplex coated heat treated samples and the substrate in Ringer’s solution at 37 °C and prepared the pH to 5.7. The microstructure upon corrosion after heat treatment was characterized by SEM analysis to understand the corrosion behavior. The results disclosed that at all heat treatment temperatures, all the coated samples exhibited better corrosion resistance than the base substrate. However, during 950 °C and 1150 °C heat treatment temperatures, it was observed highest corrosion potential than 600 °C and 800 °C. The 350 μm thickness, coated sample exhibited highest corrosion resistance compared to other two coated samples and the substrate at all heat treatment temperatures.

  16. Effect of Reduced Brace Section on Behavior of SCBF Bracings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghaderi, Rasoul; Ahlehagh, Sanaz

    2008-07-01

    Energy dissipation in concentrically braced frames is achieved by successive cycles of inelastic buckling in compression and yielding in tension and force controlled elements, such as beams, columns and connections should remain elastic to ensure the gravity load resistance of the frame. Braces are usually designed for compression which results section areas that are more than required by tension, while due to tension action of brace the connections and other members should be designed for tensile strength of brace element. In chevron braced frames, the beams in bracing frame should possess adequate strength to resist the unbalanced vertical forces due to unequal axial capacity of braces in tension and compression. This result in very big size beams, much stronger than would be required for other brace configurations. In this paper effect of Reduced Brace Section on behavior of displacement control braces, which intend to decrease the difference between tensile and post-buckling strength of braces, is described. Decreasing area of the steel section in a limited length and at a specific location will result in a reduction in tensile yielding capacity of the brace while it's buckling load and post buckling behavior is not affected significantly. Tensile yielding force is related to the reduced area of the brace while its post yielding tensile capacity is also related to the length of the reduced section. Minimum change in buckling and post buckling response was derived from the proposed arrangements of reduced sections. Linear and nonlinear response of the reduced section braces in tension and compression is studied by analytical methods under monotonic and cyclic loading. Braces with reduced section are considered as a type of balanced bracing which results smaller design forces for gusset plates and beams in chevron bracings.

  17. Effects of exposure to different types of radiation on behaviors mediated by peripheral or central systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Erat, S.

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on behavior may result from effects on peripheral or on central systems. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by peripheral systems (e.g., radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion or vomiting), the behavioral effects of exposure to heavy particles (^56Fe, 600 MeV/n) are qualitatively similar to the effects of exposure to gamma radiation (^60Co) and to fission spectrum neutrons. For these endpoints, the only differences between the different types of radiation are in terms of relative behavioral effectiveness. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by central systems (e.g., amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning), the effects of exposure to ^56Fe particles are not seen following exposure to lower LET gamma rays or fission spectrum neutrons. These results indicate that the effects of exposure to heavy particles on behavioral endpoints cannot necessarily be extrapolated from studies using gamma rays, but require the use of heavy particles.

  18. Testing Causal Effects of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring's Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, C V; Geels, L; Vink, J M; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Neale, M C; Bartels, M; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2016-05-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is associated with increased risk of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in offspring. Two explanations (not mutually exclusive) for this association are direct causal effects of maternal SDP and the effects of genetic and environmental factors common to parents and offspring which increase smoking as well as problem behaviors. Here, we examined the associations between parental SDP and mother rated offspring externalizing and internalizing behaviors (rated by the Child Behavior Checklist/2-3) at age three in a population-based sample of Dutch twins (N = 15,228 pairs). First, as a greater effect of maternal than of paternal SDP is consistent with a causal effect of maternal SDP, we compared the effects of maternal and paternal SDP. Second, as a beneficial effect of quitting smoking before pregnancy is consistent with the causal effect, we compared the effects of SDP in mothers who quit smoking before pregnancy, and mothers who continued to smoke during pregnancy. All mothers were established smokers before their pregnancy. The results indicated a greater effect of maternal SDP, compared to paternal SDP, for externalizing, aggression, overactive and withdrawn behavior. Quitting smoking was associated with less externalizing, overactive behavior, aggression, and oppositional behavior, but had no effect on internalizing, anxious depression, or withdrawn behavior. We conclude that these results are consistent with a causal, but small, effect of smoking on externalizing problems at age 3. The results do not support a causal effect of maternal SDP on internalizing behaviors.

  19. Effects of a group rational-emotive behavior therapy program on the Type A behavior pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A T; Botha, H C

    1996-06-01

    A sample of 44 male Type A insurance representatives, selected by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview, were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 22) and a delayed treatment control group (n = 22). The treatment group participated in 9 weekly sessions of group Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy and were followed up after 10 weeks. After the control period, the delayed treatment control group received the same treatment program. Repeated measurements were obtained by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview, Jenkins Activity Survey, Cook-Medley Hostility Scale, and Type A Cognitive Questionnaire. Self and spouse/friend ratings of Type A behavior were obtained by means of the Bortner Rating Scale. Analysis indicated that, compared to the control condition, the therapy significantly reduced the intensity of Type A behavior and its time urgency component. These improvements were maintained at follow-up and were accompanied by self-reports of significant positive changes in Type A behavior and irrational beliefs.

  20. Effects of prepartal stress on postpartal nursing behavior, litter development and adult sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, L R; Whitney, J B

    1976-12-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to the stress of restraint, heat and bright lights three times daily from Days 14 to 22 of gestation. Because prepartal stress did not markedly disturb the mother's retrieving and crouching behavior, disturbances in postpartal nursing behavior do not seem to account for the abnormal sexual behavior of male offspring as adults. The most significant finding was that litter weights were reduced, not only at birth, but for 3 weeks thereafter, suggesting that prepartal stress not only altered the pups in utero but also affected postpartal milk synthesis. The possibility emerges that prepartal stress may alter adult sexual behavior in males by modifications in fetal and/or maternal pituitary glands.

  1. Effects of pterostilbene and resveratrol on brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M; Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Age is the greatest universal risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. During aging, these conditions progress from minor loss of function to major disruptions in daily life, loss of independence and ultimately death. Because approximately 25% of the world population is expected to be older than age 65 by 2050, and no treatments exist to halt or reverse ongoing neurodegeneration, the need for effective prevention strategies is more pressing that ever before. A growing body of research supports the role of diet in healthy aging, particularly diets rich in bioactive phytochemical compounds. Recently, stilbenes such as resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trans-trihydroxystilbene) and its analogue, pterostilbene, have gained a significant amount of attention for their potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. However, evidence for the beneficial effects of stilbenes on cerebral function is just beginning to emerge. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of resveratrol and pterostilbene in improving brain health during aging, with specific focus on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory signaling and behavioral outcomes.

  2. Multistress effects on goldfish (Carassius auratus) behavior and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandar, Allison; Jean, Séverine; Canal, Julie; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Gilbert, Franck; Laffaille, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Crossed effects between climate change and chemical pollutions were identified on community structure and ecosystem functioning. Temperature rising affects the toxic properties of pollutants and the sensitiveness of organisms to chemicals stress. Inversely, chemical exposure may decrease the capacity of organisms to respond to environmental changes. The aim of our study was to assess the individual and crossed effects of temperature rising and pesticide contamination on fish. Goldfish, Carassius auratus, were exposed during 96 h at two temperatures (22 and 32 °C) to a mixture of common pesticides (S-metolachlor, isoproturon, linuron, atrazine-desethyl, aclonifen, pendimethalin, and tebuconazol) at two environmentally relevant concentrations (total concentrations MIX1 = 8.4 μg L(-1) and MIX2 = 42 μg L(-1)). We investigated the sediment reworking behavior, which has a major ecological functional role. We also focused on three physiological traits from the cellular up to the whole individual level showing metabolic status of fish (protein concentration in liver and muscle, hepatosomatic index, and Fulton's condition factor). Individual thermal stress and low concentrations of pesticides decreased the sediment reworking activity of fish and entrained metabolic compensation with global depletion in energy stores. We found that combined chemical and thermal stresses impaired the capacity of fish to set up an efficient adaptive response. Our results strongly suggest that temperature will make fish more sensitive to water contamination by pesticides, raising concerns about wild fish conservation submitted to global changes.

  3. Electroencephalogram effects of armodafinil: comparison with behavioral alertness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrado, Daniela J; Bewernitz, Michael; Ding, Mingzhou; Cibula, Jean; Seubert, Christoph; Sy, Sherwin K B; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2013-10-01

    Development of central nervous system-acting drugs would be enhanced by suitable biomarkers that reflect the targeted pathophysiologic brain state. The electroencephalogram (EEG) has several characteristics of an ideal biomarker and can be promptly adapted to pre-clinical and clinical testing. The aim of this study was to evaluate EEG as a measure of the wakefulness-promoting effect of armodafinil in sleep deprived healthy subjects. Armodafinil pharmacodynamics were simultaneously assessed by EEG- and behavioral-based measures including a well-established measure of alertness. Using two quantitative EEG-based measures-power spectral and event-related brain activity analyses-we observed that armodafinil mitigated the slowing of brain activity and the decrease of the event-related brain activity caused by sleep deprivation. Armodafinil-induced changes in EEG are in agreement and explain up to 73.1% of the armodafinil-induced changes in alertness. Our findings suggest that EEG can serve as a marker of the wakefulness-promoting drug effect.

  4. Aging and the Effects of Exploratory Behavior on Spatial Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Kaitlin M; Dopkins, Stephen; Philbeck, John W

    2016-03-01

    The present research examined the effect of encoding from multiple viewpoints on scene recall in a group of younger (18-22 years) and older (65-80 years) adults. Participants completed a visual search task, during which they were given the opportunity to examine a room using two sets of windows that partitioned the room differently. Their choice of window set was recorded, to determine whether an association between these choices and spatial memory performance existed. Subsequently, participants were tested for spatial memory of the domain in which the search task was completed. Relative to younger adults, older adults demonstrated an increased tendency to use a single set of windows as well as decreased spatial memory for the domain. Window-set usage was associated with spatial memory, such that older adults who relied more heavily on a single set of windows also had better performance on the spatial memory task. These findings suggest that, in older adults, moderation in exploratory behavior may have a positive effect on memory for the domain of exploration.

  5. Effects of Rat's Licking Behavior on Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Esmaeili

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sWound licking has been shown to advance wound healing among humans and many other animals. The present study evaluates the licking effects on healing of skin wound in rats. Materials and MethodsTwenty four rats were assigned to 4 different groups randomly and two 3 cm longitudinal full thickness incisions were made on each dorsal and ventral side of rats. The ventral incisions were considered as treated wounds because of contact to saliva as rats lick them easily and dorsal incisions as control wounds. Clinical changes and histopathological effects of rat saliva on wound healing were evaluated every day and on 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post-operation respectively. ResultsHistologic and clinical evaluation of treated wounds showed better healing than control wounds. ConclusionThis study showed that licking behavior can promote wound healing. Thus salivary compounds could be isolated, be mass produced and may have potential to become as common as antibiotic cream.

  6. La doping effect on TZM alloy oxidation behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan [School of Metallurgy Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Wang, Kuai-She, E-mail: wangkuaishe888@126.com [School of Metallurgy Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Hu, Ping; He, Huan-Cheng; Kang, Xuan-Qi [School of Metallurgy Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Wang, Hua [Xi’an Electric Furnace Institute Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710061 (China); Liu, Ren-Zhi [School of Metallurgy Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Jinduicheng Molybdenum Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710068 (China); Volinsky, Alex A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa FL 33620 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The oxidation can be resisted by doping La into TZM alloy. • La doped TZM alloy has more compact organization. • It can rise the starting temperature of severe oxidation reaction by more than 50 °C. • Effectively slow down the oxidation rate. • Provide guidance for experiments of improving high-temperature oxidation resistance. - Abstract: Powder metallurgy methods were utilized to prepare lanthanum-doped (La-TZM) and traditional TZM alloy plates. High temperature oxidation experiments along with the differential thermal analysis were employed to study the oxidation behavior of the two kinds of TZM alloys. An extremely volatile oxide layer was generated on the surface of traditional TZM alloy plates when the oxidation started. Molybdenum oxide volatilization exposed the alloy matrix, which was gradually corroded by oxygen, losing its quality with serious surface degradation. The La-TZM alloy has a more compact structure due to the lanthanum doping. The minute lanthanum oxide particles are pinned at the grain boundaries and refine the grains. Oxide layer generated on the matrix surface can form a compact coating, which effectively blocks the surface from being corroded by oxidation. The oxidation resistance of La-TZM alloys has been enhanced, expanding its application range.

  7. Effect of Surface Nanocrystallization on Fatigue Behavior of Pure Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Sun, Qiaoyan; Xiao, Lin; Sun, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The high-cycle fatigue behavior was investigated in pure titanium after surface nanocrystallization (SNC Ti). Compared with the coarse-grained titanium (CG Ti) samples, the SNC Ti samples exhibit an improved fatigue life. The SNC has a remarkable influence on the fatigue cracks initiation and growth of pure titanium. The results show that, because the free-surface cracking is suppressed by the surface nanogradient structure in the SNC Ti, the fatigue cracks initiation sites change from the free surface to the subsurface. Meanwhile, the fatigue crack growth rate decreases due to the microstructural feature and residual compressive stress. The deformation twins in the subsurface of SNC Ti have a marked effect on the fatigue crack initiation and the crack growth. The former effect is due to the twin boundaries being preferential sites for crack initiation, while the latter is associated with the barriers that the twin boundaries pose to the propagation of dislocations. Furthermore, microstructural analysis indicates that the dislocation distribution in SNC Ti gradually becomes homogenous as fatigue processes. This homogeneous microstructure is also beneficial to the improvement of fatigue life.

  8. Behavioral effects of congenital ventromedial prefrontal cortex malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boes Aaron D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed behavioral profile associated with focal congenital malformation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC has not been reported previously. Here we describe a 14 year-old boy, B.W., with neurological and psychiatric sequelae stemming from focal cortical malformation of the left vmPFC. Case Presentation B.W.'s behavior has been characterized through extensive review Patience of clinical and personal records along with behavioral and neuropsychological testing. A central feature of the behavioral profile is severe antisocial behavior. He is aggressive, manipulative, and callous; features consistent with psychopathy. Other problems include: egocentricity, impulsivity, hyperactivity, lack of empathy, lack of respect for authority, impaired moral judgment, an inability to plan ahead, and poor frustration tolerance. Conclusions The vmPFC has a profound contribution to the development of human prosocial behavior. B.W. demonstrates how a congenital lesion to this cortical region severely disrupts this process.

  9. Effects of Check & Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of Check & Connect (C&C) in a randomly assigned sample of students who were all receiving Communities in Schools (CIS) services. The research questions for the study include: Are there differences in attendance, academics, and behavior for CIS students who also receive C&C compared to…

  10. Effects of the Good Behavior Game on classwide off-task behavior in a high school basic algebra resource classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Andrea; McKenna, John; Muething, Colin S; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) on classwide off-task behavior in two ninth-grade basic algebra resource classes. Ten students with a variety of disabilities, in two classrooms, and their special education resource teacher participated in this study. A reversal design was employed, in which the special education teacher implemented GBG compared to typical practice-algebra readiness instruction. Results showed that classwide off-task behavior decreased in the GBG conditions compared to the baseline and reversal conditions. Fidelity measures indicated that the teacher implemented GBG with fidelity. Students and the teacher rated GBG favorably. Overall findings support the use of GBG for reducing classwide off-task behavior. Implications for practice and future research directions are presented.

  11. Clinical features, proximate causes, and consequences of active convulsive epilepsy in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Symon M; Matuja, William; Akpalu, Albert; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Chabi, Martin; Wagner, Ryan G; Connor, Myles; Chengo, Eddie; Ngugi, Anthony K; Odhiambo, Rachael; Bottomley, Christian; White, Steven; Sander, Josemir W; Neville, Brian G R; Newton, Charles R J C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the clinical features and consequences are poorly characterized. Most studies are hospital-based, and few studies have compared different ecological sites in SSA. We described active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) identified in cross-sectional community-based surveys in SSA, to understand the proximate causes, features, and consequences. Methods We performed a detailed clinical and neurophysiologic description of ACE cases identified from a community survey of 584,586 people using medical history, neurologic examination, and electroencephalography (EEG) data from five sites in Africa: South Africa; Tanzania; Uganda; Kenya; and Ghana. The cases were examined by clinicians to discover risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of epilepsy. We used logistic regression to determine the epilepsy factors associated with medical comorbidities. Key Findings Half (51%) of the 2,170 people with ACE were children and 69% of seizures began in childhood. Focal features (EEG, seizure types, and neurologic deficits) were present in 58% of ACE cases, and these varied significantly with site. Status epilepticus occurred in 25% of people with ACE. Only 36% received antiepileptic drugs (phenobarbital was the most common drug [95%]), and the proportion varied significantly with the site. Proximate causes of ACE were adverse perinatal events (11%) for onset of seizures before 18 years; and acute encephalopathy (10%) and head injury prior to seizure onset (3%). Important comorbidities were malnutrition (15%), cognitive impairment (23%), and neurologic deficits (15%). The consequences of ACE were burns (16%), head injuries (postseizure) (1%), lack of education (43%), and being unmarried (67%) or unemployed (57%) in adults, all significantly more common than in those without epilepsy. Significance There were significant differences in the comorbidities across sites. Focal features are common in ACE, suggesting identifiable and

  12. 天麻素对利多卡因致惊厥作用的影响%The influence of Gastrodin on lidocaine-induced convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素玲; 胡秋梅; 周新巧; 孙白云; 樊虹; 董娟娟; 李丽娜; 王丹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the influences ofGastrodin abne and combined with diazepam on lidocaine- induced convulsbn Methods Convulsant dose of lidocaine was administered intraperitoneally l0 minutes after Gas trod in orGastrod in and diazepam had been administered intraperitoneally The convulsion latency, convulsion duration and convulsion numberwere observed R esu lts Gastrodin(100 mg· kg-1, 200 mg· kg-1, 400 mg ·kg-1) could extend the convulsion latency(P <0.05, P <0.05, P <0.01); Gastrodin(50 mg· kg-1) alone could extend the convulsbn latency (P <0.05) , but had no significant differences on the convulsion duration and convulsion number, diazepam(l. 5 mg· kg-1 ) alone had no significant differences on the convulsbn latency, convulsion duratbn and convulsbn number However, Gastrodin combinedwith diazepam could extend the convulsion latency(P <0.01) , shorten the convulsion duration (P <0.01) , and reduce the convulsion number(P <0.01) significantly C onclusion Gastrodin alone can antagonize lidocaine- induced convulsion, and smail does ofGastrodin combined with diazepam reveal a synergistic influence%目的 观察天麻素单用及其与地西泮合用对利多卡因所致惊厥作用的影响.方法 腹腔注射不同剂量天麻素或天麻素和地西泮合用,10 min后,腹腔注射致惊厥剂量的利多卡因,观察小鼠惊厥潜伏期、持续时间和惊厥只数.结果 天麻素100 mg·kg-1、200 mg·kg-1、400 mg·kg-1能延长惊厥潜伏期(P<0.05,P<0.05,P<0.01);单独使用天麻素50 mg·kg-1可延长惊厥潜伏期(P<0.05),对惊厥持续时间和惊厥只数则无明显影响,单独使用地西泮1.5 mg·kg-1对惊厥潜伏期、持续时间和惊厥只数均无明显影响,二者合用则能明显延长惊厥潜伏期(P<0.01),缩短惊厥持续时间(P<0.01),减少惊厥只数(P<0.01).结论 单用天麻素可拮抗利多卡因的致惊厥作用,小剂量天麻素与地西泮合用能协同拮抗利多卡因所致惊厥作用.

  13. Teacher Classroom Management Practices: Effects on Disruptive or Aggressive Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Regina M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large research base grounded in behavioral theory for strategies to increase appropriate behavior and prevent or decrease inappropriate behavior in the classroom, a systematic review of multi-component universal classroom management research is necessary to establish the effects of teachers' universal classroom management approaches.…

  14. Documenting the Implementation and Effects of Positive Behavior Support in an Alternative Educational Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphson, S. Lillian

    2013-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) is a preventative and proactive system of managing behavior that is being used in the United States and other countries. Positive behavior support has been successfully implemented in typical school settings for students with and without disabilities. However, research documenting the implementation and effects of…

  15. Effectiveness of Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Judith A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated effects of group behavioral therapy including aerobic exercise, behavioral therapy alone, and aerobic exercise alone on pain and physical and psychological disability among mildly disabled chronic low-back-pain patients (n=96). The combined behavioral therapy and exercise group improved significantly more pretreatment to posttreatment…

  16. Improving Classroom Behavior through Effective Instruction: An Illustrative Program Example Using "SRA FLEX Literacy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Ronald C.; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated a strong positive correlation between behavior problems and low academic achievement. Student success and/or failures are in large part determined by how well teachers provide effective instruction to their students. This article overviews key behavior-management approaches related to academic and behavioral success that…

  17. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...

  18. The effects of differential negative reinforcement of other behavior and noncontingent escape on compliance.

    OpenAIRE

    Kodak, Tiffany; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Romaniuk, Cathryn

    2003-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of noncontingent escape and differential negative reinforcement of other behavior in reducing problem behaviors and increasing compliance in 2 children with disabilities. Results showed that both methods reduced problem behavior and increased compliance for both children.

  19. Effects of the "Behavior Education Program" (BEP) on Office Discipline Referrals of Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; Sandra MacLeod, K.; Rawlings, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The "Behavior Education Program" (BEP; Crone et al., 2004) is a modified check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at risk for more severe problem behaviors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the BEP on problem behavior with 12 elementary school students. Results indicated that the BEP was…

  20. Spontaneous Recovery of Previously Extinguished Behavior as an Alternative Explanation for Extinction-Related Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Raymond J.; Mays, Nicole M.

    2007-01-01

    Extinction is accepted as a viable intervention for behaviors that are hypothesized to be maintained by contingent attentional reinforcement. However, it is frequently acknowledged that extinction has potential numerous side effects, including the generation of aggressive behavior. This explanation does not provide a behavioral conceptualization…

  1. Effects of high magnetic field on martensitic transformation behavior and structure in Fe-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, H.; Wada, H. [Tsukuba Labs., Ibaraki (Japan). Nat. Res. Inst. for Metals; Ghosh, G. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Effects of magnetic field on lath-type martensitic transformation behavior and the reverse transformation behavior from lath math martensite to austenite have been investigated in 18Ni maraging steel. It was found that the reverse transformation temperature during heating is increased by magnetic field. Reverse transformation behavior during isothermal holding was also found to be retarded by magnetic field. (orig.)

  2. Effects of leader contingent and noncontingent reward and punishment behaviors on subordinate performance and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, P M; Todor, W D; Skov, R

    1982-12-01

    This study investigated the nature of the relationships between leader reward and punishment behaviors and subordinate performance and satisfaction. Only performance-contingent reward behavior was found to affect subordinate performance significantly. Positive relationships were found between leader contingent reward behavior and employee satisfaction. Contingent punishment had no effects on subordinate performance or satisfaction.

  3. Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports and fidelity of implementation on problem behavior in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, K B; Fenning, P; Kato, M McGrath; McIntosh, K

    2014-06-01

    High school is an important time in the educational career of students. It is also a time when adolescents face many behavioral, academic, and social-emotional challenges. Current statistics about the behavioral, academic, and social-emotional challenges faced by adolescents, and the impact on society through incarceration and dropout, have prompted high schools to direct their attention toward keeping students engaged and reducing high-risk behavioral challenges. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS) on the levels of individual student problem behaviors during a 3-year effectiveness trial without random assignment to condition. Participants were 36,653 students in 12 high schools. Eight schools implemented SW-PBIS, and four schools served as comparison schools. Results of a multilevel latent growth model showed statistically significant decreases in student office discipline referrals in SW-PBIS schools, with increases in comparison schools, when controlling for enrollment and percent of students receiving free or reduced price meals. In addition, as fidelity of implementation increased, office discipline referrals significantly decreased. Results are discussed in terms of effectiveness of a SW-PBIS approach in high schools and considerations to enhance fidelity of implementation.

  4. Ethical leader behavior and leader effectiveness: the role of prototypicality and trust

    OpenAIRE

    Kalshoven, K.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    The study examines factors that mediate the impact of ethical leader behavior on leader effectiveness. Little is known about how ethical leadership impacts leader effectiveness. We hypothesized that prototypicality and trust sequentially mediate the relationship between ethical leader behavior and perceived leader effectiveness. The group prototype forms an ideal representation of the group’s identity, prescribing appropriate attitudes and behaviors. Ethical leaders are role models and thus a...

  5. 热性惊厥与缺铁性贫血的关系%Relationship between Febrile Convulsion and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何梅玲; 彭丰

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨热性惊厥与缺铁性贫血的关系。方法检测104例热性惊厥患儿的红细胞计数(RBC)、血红蛋白(Hb)、红细胞平均容积(MCV)、红细胞平均血红蛋白(MCH)、红细胞平均血红蛋白浓度(MCHC)、SI,并以同期98例呼吸道、肠道感染而无惊厥患儿为对照组,分析其结果。结果惊厥组贫血发生率明显高于对照组,且多为小细胞性贫血(符合缺铁性贫血的血液特征)。结论小儿热性惊厥与血清铁有着密切的联系,缺铁性贫血可能是引起小儿热性惊厥的重要原因之一。%Objective To investigate the correlation of febrile convulsion and iron deficiency anemia. Methods Mesured the RBC,Hb,MCV,MCH,MCHC,SI in 104 children of Upper respiratory tract infection, and recorded children of febrile convulsion with Iron deficiency anemia, and children of febrile convulsion without iron deficiency anemia,children of febrile convulsion without deficiency anemia. The rest 2 groups of children are as control group. Results Which is significantly higher than the control group. And anemin in which the average size of erythrocytes is smal er than normal. Conclusion Children febrile convulsion could be highly correlated, and the iron deficiency anemia maybe one of the cause of children febrile convulsion.

  6. 58例小儿高热惊厥的临床治疗体会%Experience in Treatment of 58 Cases of Infantile Hyperpyretic Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任伍魁

    2014-01-01

    目的小儿高热惊厥的临床治疗。方法我院儿科2010.3~2012.3收治住院FC患儿58例的诊治体会。结果经过有效治疗58例患儿均痊愈出院,随访1年,1例出院后反复多次抽搐脑电图诊断为癫痫,1例抽搐持续时间较长半小时以上,出院后38摄氏度以内发生多次抽搐出现智力低下,余预后良好。结论在小儿发热还未引发惊厥之前,要密切观察,及时控制体温,防患于未然,一旦出现高热惊厥,给予最及时的抢救,将疾病对小儿大脑的损伤降到最低限度。%Objective The clinical treatment of children with febrile convulsion. Methods The diagnosis and treatment of 58 cases of FC patients who were admit ed to pediatric 2010.3~2012.3. Results After treatment 58 cases were cured, 1 cases were fol owed up for 1 years, after repeated convulsions EEG in diagnosis of epilepsy, 1 cases with convulsions of longer duration more than half an hour, after 38 degrees Celsius occurred repeatedly convulsive mental retardation, Yu good prognosis. Conclusion In children with fever has not initiated before the convulsion, to close observation, timely control of temperature, nip in the bud, once appear, febrile convulsion, to rescue the most timely, the disease on children with brain damage to a minimum.

  7. The effect of altering self-descriptive behavior on self-concept and classroom behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J; Muller, D

    1977-09-01

    This research examined the impact of operant reinforcement of positive self-descriptive behavior on the self-concepts and classroom behavior of 60 fifth-grade students. Three groups of 10 male and 10 female low self-concept students wrote a series of eight essays describing their school performance. The first group (P) received written reinforcement for positive self-descriptions of their school performance. The second group (G) received an equal number of reinforcements for general statements. The third group (C) received no reinforcement for written statements. Three areas of self-concept were measured with the Primary Self-Concept Inventory: personal-self, social-self, and intellectual-self. A frequency count was also made of nine classroom behaviors thought to be influenced by self-concept. The P group displayed increases in the frequency of positive self-descriptive statement and in intellectual self-concept but no changes in personal self-concept, social self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors. The G and C groups showed no change in self-description, self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors.

  8. USSR Report, Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-20

    of the gram-positive bacteria Bacillus oligonitrophilus in rocking flasks. The method of "dialysis" of cultures was used, allowing a comparison to...male white mice and rats. The anticonvulsive effect of the compounds was studied by their antagonism to the convulsive effect of corazol

  9. Effects of Positive Unified Behavior Support on Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John S.; White, Richard; Algozzine, Bob; Algozzine, Kate

    2009-01-01

    "Positive Unified Behavior Support" (PUBS) is a school-wide intervention designed to establish uniform attitudes, expectations, correction procedures, and roles among faculty, staff, and administration. PUBS is grounded in the general principles of positive behavior support and represents a straightforward, practical implementation model. When…

  10. Emotional and Behavioral Effects of Romantic Relationships in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyan; Guo, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Li, Xinying; Duan, Qing; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' romantic relationships have been associated with higher levels of depression, although their links with externalizing behavioral problems remain unclear. The present study examined the impact of adolescent romantic relationships on depression and externalizing behaviors in a large sample of 10,509 Chinese secondary school students…

  11. Substantive and relational effectiveness of organizational conflict behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euwema, M C; Van de Vliert, E; Bakker, A B

    2003-01-01

    In this observation study the theory of conglomerated conflict behavior is tested. The impact of seven conflict behaviors on substantive and relational conflict outcomes is examined through multiple independent observations of 103 Dutch nurse managers handling a standardized conflict. Results show t

  12. Preschool Children's Sleep and Wake Behavior: Effects of Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Preschool children received twice-weekly massages for five weeks. Compared to control children, the massaged children had better behavior ratings on mood state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation following massage on day one and throughout the study. Teachers rated their behavior more optimally, and their parents rated them as having less…

  13. How the cascading effects of a single behavioral trait can generate personality

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Frédérique; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain

    2014-01-01

    Individuals from the same population generally vary in suites of correlated behavioral traits: personality. Yet, the strength of the behavioral correlations sometimes differs among populations and environmental conditions, suggesting that single underlying mechanisms, such as genetic constraints, cannot account for them. We propose, instead, that such suites of correlated traits may arise when a single key behavior has multiple cascading effects on several other behaviors through affecting th...

  14. Extinction of Chained Instrumental Behaviors: Effects of Procurement Extinction on Consumption Responding

    OpenAIRE

    Thrailkill, Eric A.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental behavior often consists of sequences or chains of responses that minimally include procurement behaviors that enable subsequent consumption behaviors. In such chains, behavioral units are linked by access to one another and eventually to a primary reinforcer, such as food or a drug. The present experiments examined the effects of extinguishing procurement responding on consumption responding after training of a discriminated heterogeneous instrumental chain. Rats learned to make ...

  15. EFFECTS OF ROCK BEHAVIOR AND STRESS CONDITIONON FIELD STRESS DETERMINATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.H.(Steve)Zou

    1995-01-01

    Non-consistency of stress results is often observed during field measurements. In some cases, even the measurements are made at the same location in a massive rockmass, the results can vary widely. In order to solve the problem, extensive research has been carried out to study the major factors which may affect stress determination. They include the rock behaviour and the stress state. For rocks showing non-isotropic behaviour, the values of Young's modulus and Poisson ratio vary with the orientation of loading and measurement. Stress condition in the rock affects the rock behaviour. Furthermore, the loading condition on rock samples during laboratory tests is different from in the field and therefore the determined elastic constants may not represent the field condition. In general, the Young's modulus may depend on the orientation, the loading path, the stress magnitude and the stress ratio. This paper examines in detail the effects of those factors, especially for rocks showing transversely isotropic behaviour. It is found that the discrepancy of stress results from fieldts in this type of rock is mainly due to over simplification of the rock behavior and inadequate use of elastic constants of the rock during stress calculation. A case study is given, which indicates the significance of these factors and demonstrates the proper procedure for stress calculation from

  16. Effect of behavior modification on patient compliance in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D D; Nanda, R S; Sinha, P K; Smith, D W; Currier, G F

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a reward system for improving patient compliance in orthodontic treatment. The sample consisted of 144 orthodontic patients (63 male, 81 female, average age 12.8 years), 6 to 12 months into their treatment. The sample was divided into above-average and below-average compliers, based on the orthodontic patient cooperation scale (OPCS). Each group was further divided into three subgroups: (a) a control group, which received only standard instructions; (b) an award group, which received compliance instructions and a written evaluation of compliance; and (c) a reward group, which received compliance instructions, a report card, and eligibility to receive rewards for adherent behavior. Two measurements of patient compliance were used: (1) the OPCS, which divided the sample into high and low compliers and was used to compare compliance before and after the 6-month experimental period; and (2) a clinical evaluation of compliance that was based on oral hygiene, appointment punctuality, appliance wear, and appliance maintenance. Evaluations were completed at each monthly appointment. Average compliance scores of above-average compliers showed no significant improvement with rewards. The average scores of patients with below-average compliance did not improve significantly. Only oral hygiene scores in the low compliance reward group were better than in the low compliance control group. Academic performance in school was found to be correlated (p reward system may help motivate below-average compliers to comply with prescribed instructions.

  17. Analysis the Reason of Infantile Diarrhea and Convulsion%小儿腹泻并惊厥病因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红星

    2013-01-01

    Objective to study the reason of disease of children with infantile diarrhea and convulsions. Methods 38 cases of children with both the conventional stool, blood biochemistry, cerebrospinal fluid, electroencephalogram (eeg) examination. Results found tic 13 cases with a high fever, blood sodium reduce 8 cases, blood calcium to reduce the 7 cases, 4 cases were blood magnesium reduce, low blood sugar in 2 cases, 11 cases of abnormal eeg examination, cerebrospinal fluid to check pressure slightly higher in 3 cases, al normal. Conclusion children with infantile diarrhea and convulsion consider related to high fever, electrolyte metabolic disorders, viral encephalitis.%目的:探讨小儿腹泻并惊厥患儿发病原因。方法38例患儿均予大便常规、血生化、脑脊液、脑电图检查。结果发现抽搐时伴高热13例,血钠降低8例,血钙降低7例,血镁降低4例,低血糖2例,11例脑电图检查异常,脑脊液检3例压力稍高外,余均正常。结论小儿腹泻并惊厥患儿考虑与高热、电解质代谢紊乱、病毒性脑炎有关。

  18. The lack of behavioral effects of fenbendazole: a medication for pinworm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Richard; Macinnis, Mika; Guilhardi, Paulo; Chamberland, Karen; Church, Russell

    2005-03-01

    Pinworm infection in rodent laboratories is common and often treated with fenbendazole, which is effective and has a low toxicity level. However, very little is known about the behavioral effects of the drug. The purpose of this study was to determine the behavioral effects of fenbendazole on rats tested by using various conditioning and timing procedures. These behavioral effects were examined both between animals (i.e., control versus medicated treatments) and within animals (baseline-treatment-baseline design). Fenbendazole reduced the detection of pinworm eggs, and it had no significant behavioral effects across multiple levels of analysis (e.g., from overall response rates to response patterns to interresponse intervals). All behavioral differences (e.g., discrimination ratios) were a result of task variables. These results suggest that behavioral studies are unlikely to be influenced by fenbendazole treatment given before or during a study.

  19. Frequency effects on the scale and behavior of acoustic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentry, Michael B; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic streaming underpins an exciting range of fluid manipulation phenomena of rapidly growing significance in microfluidics, where the streaming often assumes the form of a steady, laminar jet emanating from the device surface, driven by the attenuation of acoustic energy within the beam of sound propagating through the liquid. The frequencies used to drive such phenomena are often chosen ad hoc to accommodate fabrication and material issues. In this work, we seek a better understanding of the effects of sound frequency and power on acoustic streaming. We present and, using surface acoustic waves, experimentally verify a laminar jet model that is based on the turbulent jet model of Lighthill, which is appropriate for acoustic streaming seen at micro- to nanoscales, between 20 and 936 MHz and over a broad range of input power. Our model eliminates the critically problematic acoustic source singularity present in Lighthill's model, replacing it with a finite emission area and enabling determination of the streaming velocity close to the source. At high acoustic power P (and hence high jet Reynolds numbers ReJ associated with fast streaming), the laminar jet model predicts a one-half power dependence (U∼P1/2∼ ReJ) similar to the turbulent jet model. However, the laminar model may also be applied to jets produced at low powers-and hence low jet Reynolds numbers ReJ-where a linear relationship between the beam power and streaming velocity exists: U∼P∼ReJ2. The ability of the laminar jet model to predict the acoustic streaming behavior across a broad range of frequencies and power provides a useful tool in the analysis of microfluidics devices, explaining peculiar observations made by several researchers in the literature. In particular, by elucidating the effects of frequency on the scale of acoustically driven flows, we show that the choice of frequency is a vitally important consideration in the design of small-scale devices employing acoustic streaming

  20. Fever,poor response, convulsions, and hepatomegaly%发热,反应差,抽搐,肝大

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱乔乔; 刘智胜; 张芙蓉; 李瑞珍; 王宝香

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differential diagnosis of Reye syndrome and the characteristics of primary carnitine deficiency,and to provide diagnostic strategy for similar cases.Methods There was a case presented with fever,poor response,convulsions and hepatomegaly hospitalized in Wuhan Children's Hospital,and the clinical manifestations were described,the physical examination was comprehensively conducted,the auxiliary examination results were recorded,some pediatric specialists from ICU,neurology department,genetic metabolic department,digestive system department were invited to discuss the case.The treatment was adjusted according to the suggested opinions;the treatment effects and the final diagnosis were tracked.Results The primary diagnosis of the case was central nervous system infection or toxic encephalopathy at the time of admission,but Reye syndrome could not be excluded.Although the cerebrospinal fluid test and brain MRI examination detected nothing abnormal,liver function suggested alanine aminotrans ferase ALT increase,blood sugar decrease,the liver volume increase,which was detected by liver ultrasound.Blood amino acids examination revealed the carnitine level decreased,and it was confirmed as primary carnitine deficiency in the end.L-carnitine was used to treat the disease,and its effect was good.Conclusions Great importance should be attached to children with onset age,physical check-up,and multidisciplinary cooperation.Use monism to explain the illness and the auxiliary inspection as far as possible,so that it can get early diagnosis and treatment,and the outcome is good.%目的 探讨瑞氏综合征的鉴别诊断及原发性肉碱缺乏症特点,并为类似病例提供诊断思路.方法 对武汉市儿童医院收治的1例临床表现为发热、反应差、抽搐、肝脏增大的患儿,总结其临床表现,全面进行体格检查,记录其辅助检查结果,并请小儿重症医学科、神经内科、遗传代谢科、消化内科专

  1. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson-Hanley C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function

  2. Behavioral Parent Training Effect on Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Varnado

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and other disorders affecting central nervous system functioning leading to disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents seldom include an adjunctive psychosocial intervention. Objective: The purpose of this quality improvement study was to implement Behavioral Parent Training (BPT in an outpatient private practice setting to improve outcomes in home, school, and social settings for children and adolescents. Method: Parent(s/guardian(s of ten (n=10 children ages seven through 12. The study utilized the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale, Home Situations Questionnaire, and Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale – Parent Form as well as Teacher Rating Scale and School Questionnaires for measurement of behaviours prior to BPT. The standardized ADHD parent and teacher rating scales along with the questionnaires for both were again completed at the conclusion of the BPT sessions for comparison. Results: Findings indicated significant improvements in disruptive behaviour. Conclusion: Psychosocial interventions such as BPT can be a powerful adjunct to pharmacotherapy in ADHD and behavior disorders for this population. Providing such intervention in a routine practice setting offers the potential for improved outcomes in the child/adolescent’s home, school, and social setting.

  3. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  4. An effective algorithm for approximating adaptive behavior in seasonal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainmont, Julie; Andersen, Ken Haste; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2015-01-01

    for large global models because of their high computational demand. We compare an easily integrated, computationally efficient behavioral algorithm known as Gilliam's rule against the solution from a life-history optimization. The approximation takes into account only the current conditions to optimize......-annual variations, aspects that can only be accessed in dynamic programming approaches with escalating computational costs. Furthermore, the explanatory power of the myopic approximation is notably higher than when behavior is not implemented, highlighting the importance for adaptive DVM behavior in ecological...

  5. Adverse consequences of glucocorticoid medication: psychological, cognitive, and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, L.L.; Schettler, P.J.; Brown, E.S.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Sternberg, E.M.; Bender, B.G.; Bulloch, K.; Cidlowski, J.A.; Kloet, E.R. de; Fardet, L.; Joels, M.; Leung, D.Y.; McEwen, B.S.; Roozendaal, B.; Rossum, E.F. van; Ahn, J.; Brown, D.W.; Plitt, A.; Singh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as

  6. Adverse Consequences of Glucocorticoid Medication : Psychological, Cognitive, and Behavioral Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, Lewis L.; Schettler, Pamela J.; Brown, E. Sherwood; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Sternberg, Esther M.; Bender, Bruce G.; Bulloch, Karen; Cidlowski, John A.; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Fardet, Laurence; Joëls, Marian; Leung, Donald Y. M.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Roozendaal, Benno; Van Rossum, Elisabeth F. C.; Ahn, Junyoung; Brown, David W.; Plitt, Aaron; Singh, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as

  7. Main and interaction effects of metallic toxins on classroom behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, M; Cossairt, A; Moon, C; Errera, J; MacNeel, A; Peak, R; Ray, J; Schroeder, C

    1985-06-01

    This study investigated the relationships of metal levels and metal combinations to children's classroom behavior. Hair-metal concentrations of lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, and aluminum were determined in 80 randomly selected elementary-age children, who were also rated by their classroom teacher on the Walker Problem Behavior Identification Checklist (WPBIC). Parents were interviewed to control for confounding variables that may have affected behavioral development. Regression analysis indicated that the set of metals was significantly related to increased scores on four of the five WPBIC subscales and on the total scale, with lead being a major contributor to four of the six dependent measures. Metal combinations were significantly related to increased scores on the WPBIC subscales measuring acting-out, disturbed peer relations, and immaturity, and on the total scale. A continuing reexamination of metal poisoning concentrations is needed because metal levels and metal combinations previously thought harmless may be associated with nonadaptive classroom behavior.

  8. A detailed analysis of threshold behavior for the Efimov effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, R.; Simbotin, I.; Shu, D.

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the energy dependence of the three-body recombination rate K3 for systems which possess Efimov states, and we identify a new regime of energies, characterized by a simple behavior of K3(E) . Using a model which captures the key features of the Efimov problem, we confirm the oscillatory behavior at high energy found by Esry et al. However, we find that in the ultracold limit, the oscillatory behavior does not transition directly into the Wigner type behavior. We uncovered a domain of intermediate energies between the Wigner and the oscillatory regimes. The extent of the new energy regime is determined by the Efimov state nearest to the threshold, or by an Efimov resonance just above the threshold. Partial support from the US Army Research Office (Grant No. W911NF-13-1-0213).

  9. The effects of harvest regulations on behaviors of duck hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Matthew T.; Powell, Larkin A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to how duck harvest regulations influence waterfowl hunter behavior. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Parts Collection Survey to examine how harvest regulations affected behaviors of Central Flyway duck hunters. We stratified hunters into ranked groups based on seasonal harvest and identified three periods (1975–1984, 1988–1993, 2002–2011) that represented different harvest regulations (moderate, restrictive, and liberal, respectively; season length and daily bag limits smallest in restrictive seasons and largest in liberal seasons). We examined variability of seven measures of duck hunter behaviors across the periods: days harvesting ducks, daily harvest, hunter mobility, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) selectivity, gender selectivity, daily female mallard harvest, and timing of harvest. Hunters reported harvesting ducks on more days, at a higher efficiency, and in slightly more counties during liberal seasons relative to restrictive and moderate seasons. We provide evidence to suggest that future regulation change will affect hunter behaviors.

  10. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson-Hanley C; Tureck K; Schneiderman RL

    2011-01-01

    Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Ex...

  11. 新生儿低钠血症致惊厥的发生率及原因分析%Analysis of the incidence and causes of con-vulsion induced by neonatal hyponatremia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛荣利

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析新生儿低钠血症致惊厥的发生率及原因.方法:选取2014-02/2015-02我院收治的84例惊厥新生儿作为研究对象,其中有36例伴低钠血症,分析其发病原因,并采取有效的治疗措施.结果:36例惊厥伴低钠血症患儿平均住院时间(9.12±1.24)d;随访3个月,有2例患儿失访,其余34例患儿中有1例因原发病为重度缺血缺氧性脑病而出现脑瘫外,其余患儿均正常,无神经系统后遗症发生.结论:临床医生必需给予低钠血症并发惊厥以足够的重视,通过早期诊断与治疗,可减少并发症的发生.%AIM: To analyze the incidence and causes of convulsion induced by neonatal hyponatremia. METHODS: A total of 84 cases of neonatal convulsion admitted into our hospital from February 2014 to February 2015 were selected as the research object, including 36 cases with hyponatremia. The causes of the disease were analyzed, and effective measures should be adopted to raise the treatment effect. RESULTS: The average hospital stay of 36 cases of children with convulsion and hyponatremia was ( 9. 12+1. 24 ) d. They were followed up in 3 months, and 2 cases of patients lost to follow⁃up, 1 case occurred cerebral palsy because of the primary disease named severe hypoxic⁃ischemic encephalopathy, the rest of the children were normal, and no neurological sequelae occurred. CONCLU⁃SION:It is necessary to pay enough attention to the complication caused by hyponatremia, which can reduce the incidence of com⁃plications by early diagnosis and treatment.

  12. 固本防惊汤预防小儿高热惊厥复发的疗效观察%Clinical Observation of Guben Fangjing Decoction on preventing recurrence of infantile febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董幼祺; 董继业; 郑含笑

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨固本防惊汤防治小儿高热惊厥(FC)复发的疗效,评价该方防治小儿FC复发的综合临床效应及应用前景.方法:将易发高热惊厥患儿272例随机分成治疗组138例,对照组134例.治疗组给予固本防惊汤治疗,对照组给予地西泮短期间歇治疗.随访1年,比较治疗组与对照组的总疗效、中医症候疗效以及各项检测指标有无差异.结果:治疗组的总疗效和中医症候疗效均明显优于对照组(P<0.01);治疗组的体质量、脑电图、免疫功能与对照组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:固本防惊汤能有效降低小儿FC复发率(1年复发率降至20.3%)、改善患儿体质,是防治小儿FC复发的有效汤剂.%Objective: To investigate the curative effect of Guben Fangjing Decoction on preventing the recurrence of Infantile Febrile Convulsion (FC), together with its evaluation of comprehensive clinic results and the anticipation of application. Methods: 272 FC susceptible subjects are divided into treatment group (n=138) and control group (n=134). The treatment group subjects receive the Guben Fangjing Decoction therapy while the control group is intermittently treated with diazepam in short-terms. The general efficacy, TCM symptom efficacy and other detection indices between the two groups are compared to reveal discrepancy after one year's follow-up. Results: The outcome manifests that the general efficacy and TCM symptom efficacy of treatment group significantly excel the control group (P<0.01), while the comparison of weight, electroencephalogram and immune function between the two groups shows statistical significance (P<0.05) as well. Conclusion: Guben Fangjing Decoction improves patients' constitution and effectively reduces the recurrence rate of Infantile Febrile Convulsion (lower to 20.3% within one year), which proves to be an efficacious decoction against the recurrence of Infantile Febrile Convulsion.

  13. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF FIXED-TIME ESCAPE ON INAPPROPRIATE AND APPROPRIATE CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Rachael D; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have explored the effects of fixed-time (FT) reinforcement on escape-maintained behavior of students in a classroom setting. We measured the effects of an FT schedule on the disruptive and appropriate academic behaviors of 2 junior high students in a public school setting. Results demonstrated that FT escape from tasks resulted in a substantial decrease in disruptive behavior and an increase in time engaged in tasks for both participants.

  15. Is there life after DEBI? Examining health behavior maintenance in the diffusion of effective behavioral interventions initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Matthew B; Silapaswan, Andrew; Schaefer, Nathan; Schermele, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    The evidence-based interventions that are identified, packaged, and disseminated by the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as part of the Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions (DEBI) initiative-commonly referred to the "DEBIs"-currently represent a primary source of HIV prevention interventions for community-based providers. To date, little attention has focused on whether the intended outcomes of the DEBIs, i.e., reductions in HIV-related risk behaviors, are maintained over time. This review summarized evidence for the sustainability of the effects of the DEBIs on HIV sexual risk behavior and intravenous drug use from studies of original and adapted DEBIs. Evidence of intervention decay or a lack of any intervention effect was identified in several original and adapted versions of the DEBIs included in this review. Recommendations include modifications to current criteria for inclusion in the DEBI portfolio, in addition to the development of remediation strategies to address intervention decay. Further, theoretical models that specify the processes that underlie the maintenance of health behaviors over time should be used in developing HIV prevention interventions.

  16. Establishing a Common Vocabulary of Key Concepts for the Effective Implementation of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traci M. CIHON

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The technical language of behavior analysis is arguably necessary to share ideas and research with precision among each other. However, it can hinder effective implementation of behavior analytic techniques when it prevents clear communication between the supervising behavior analyst and behavior technicians. The present paper provides a case example of the development of a shared vocabulary, using plain English when possible, among supervisors and supervisees at a large public school district in which behavior analytic services were provided for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. A list of terms and definitions are provided as well as suggestions on how to develop shared vocabularies within the readers’ own service provision context.

  17. Web-Based Instruction, Learning Effectiveness and Learning Behavior: The Impact of Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Chich-Jen; Liao, Ying; Hu, Ridong

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the effects of Web-based Instruction and Learning Behavior on Learning Effectiveness. Web-based Instruction contains the dimensions of Active Learning, Simulation-based Learning, Interactive Learning, and Accumulative Learning; and, Learning Behavior covers Learning Approach, Learning Habit, and Learning Attitude. The…

  18. Ethical leader behavior and leader effectiveness: the role of prototypicality and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, K.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    The study examines factors that mediate the impact of ethical leader behavior on leader effectiveness. Little is known about how ethical leadership impacts leader effectiveness. We hypothesized that prototypicality and trust sequentially mediate the relationship between ethical leader behavior and p

  19. The Effects of Fixed-Time Escape on Inappropriate and Appropriate Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rachael D.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have explored the effects of fixed-time (FT) reinforcement on escape-maintained behavior of students in a classroom setting. We measured the effects of an FT schedule on the disruptive and appropriate academic behaviors of 2 junior high students in a public school setting. Results demonstrated that FT escape from tasks resulted in a…

  20. Effects of Decision-Making Styles of School Administrators on General Procrastination Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Celai Teyyar

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Lack of habits such as effective time management, determination of priorities, and effective and productive use of time is one of several reasons for procrastination behaviors. Personality traits along with incorrect cognitive loads about the self and the environment are other reasons for procrastination behaviors. At this…

  1. Comparing Main and Collateral Effects of Extinction and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petscher, Erin Seligson; Bailey, Jon S.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects and collateral effects of extinction (EXT) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) interventions with inappropriate vocalizations and work refusal. Both interventions have been used frequently to reduce problem behaviors. The benefits of these interventions have been established yet may be…

  2. The Moderating Effects of Parenting Styles on African-American and Caucasian Children's Suicidal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of…

  3. Effects of Vibroacoustic Music on Challenging Behaviors in Individuals with Autism and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Andersson, Gunilla; Viding, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Vibroacoustic music has been proposed to be an effective treatment for individuals with developmental disorders and challenging behaviors. The present study experimentally tested the effects of vibroacoustic music on self-injurious, stereotypical, and aggressive destructive behaviors in 20 individuals with autism spectrum disorders and…

  4. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Moo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment.

  5. The effect of learning styles and study behavior on success of preclinical students in pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asci, Halil; Kulac, Esin; Sezik, Mekin; Cankara, F. Nihan; Cicek, Ekrem

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of learning styles and study behaviors on preclinical medical students’ pharmacology exam scores in a non-Western setting. Materials and Methods: Grasha–Reichmann Student Learning Study Scale and a modified Study Behavior Inventory were used to assess learning styles and study behaviors of preclinical medical students (n = 87). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent effect of gender, age, learning style, and study behavior on pharmacology success. Results: Collaborative (40%) and competitive (27%) dominant learning styles were frequent in the cohort. The most common study behavior subcategories were study reading (40%) and general study habits (38%). Adequate listening and note-taking skills were associated with pharmacology success, whereas students with adequate writing skills had lower exam scores. These effects were independent of gender. Conclusions: Preclinical medical students’ study behaviors are independent predictive factors for short-term pharmacology success. PMID:26997716

  6. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to 15 years in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity-score-matched sample of children from intact families, according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents' separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 years for teacher reports, or 15 years for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of predivorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their postdivorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families.

  7. Effects of everolimus on macrophage-derived foam cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Steven, E-mail: steven.hsu@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Koren, Eugen; Chan, Yen; Koscec, Mirna; Sheehy, Alexander [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Kolodgie, Frank; Virmani, Renu [CVPath Institute, Inc., 19 Firstfield Road, Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (United States); Feder, Debra [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    expression was significantly decreased by everolimus (10{sup -5} M) in FC. Percentage of RAM-11 positive area exhibited a reduction trend within sections stented with EES compared to unstented proximal sections at 60 days (p = 0.09). Conclusion: Everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents and bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of FC, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Executive Summary: We explored the effects of everolimus on the behavior of human THP1 macrophage-derived foam cells in culture, including cell viability, mRNA levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We conclude that everolimus, a potent anti-proliferative agent used in drug-eluting stents/bioresorbable vascular scaffolds, may potentially inhibit atheroma progression and/or promote atheroma stabilization through diminished viability of foam cells, decreased matrix degradation, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion.

  8. Loss of consciousness and convulsion induced by a ventricular tachycardia mimicking epilepsy in a patient with noncompaction cardiomyopathy : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dello, S. A. W. G.; Kievit, C.; Dunselman, P. H.; Alings, M.

    2014-01-01

    Convulsions and loss of consciousness can be caused by, among other things, arrhythmias, conduction disorders or epilepsy. In clinical practice it can be difficult to distinguish between these causes of syncope, even for well-trained specialists. Patients with cardiac syncope have a substantial risk

  9. Seemingly irrational driving behavior model: The effect of habit strength and anticipated affective reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yi-Shih

    2015-09-01

    An increasing amount of evidence suggests that aberrant driving behaviors are not entirely rational. On the basis of the dual-process theory, this study postulates that drivers may learn to perform irrational aberrant driving behaviors, and these behaviors could be derived either from a deliberate or an intuitive decision-making approach. Accordingly, a seemingly irrational driving behavior model is proposed; in this model, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was adopted to represent the deliberate decision-making mechanism, and habit strength was incorporated to reflect the intuitive decision process. A multiple trivariate mediation structure was designed to reflect the process through which driving behaviors are learned. Anticipated affective reactions (AARs) were further included to examine the effect of affect on aberrant driving behaviors. Considering the example of speeding behaviors, this study developed scales and conducted a two-wave survey of students in two departments at a university in Northern Taiwan. The analysis results show that habit strength consists of multiple aspects, and frequency of past behavior cannot be a complete repository for accumulating habit strength. Habit strength appeared to be a crucial mediator between intention antecedents (e.g., attitude) and the intention itself. Including habit strength in the TPB model enhanced the explained variance of speeding intention by 26.7%. In addition, AARs were different from attitudes; particularly, young drivers tended to perform speeding behaviors to reduce negative feelings such as regret. The proposed model provides an effective alternative approach for investigating aberrant driving behaviors; corresponding countermeasures are discussed.

  10. Alcohol effects on behavioral thermoregulation with microwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitulli, W F; Rust, M L; Mortellaro, P M; Quinn, J M; Barbin, J M; DePace, A N

    1992-06-01

    Ethanol may play an active role in modifying "set point" levels in conjunction with behavioral thermoregulation. A geometric series of doses of ethanol solutions was administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold environment. Four Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement. Friedman's nonparametric test showed significant differences between ethanol doses, and Sign tests showed that moderate and high doses of ethanol suppressed operant behavior reinforced by MW radiation. Interactions between changes in "set-point" and discriminative properties of ethanol are discussed.

  11. Multiple-phase behavior and memory effect of polymer gel

    CERN Document Server

    Annaka, M; Nakahira, T; Sugiyama, M; Hara, K; Matsuura, T

    2002-01-01

    A poly(4-acrylamidosalicylic acid) gel (PASA gel) exhibits multiple phases as characterized by distinct degrees of swelling; the gel can take one of four different swelling values, but none of the intermediate values. The gel has remarkable memory: the phase behavior of the gel depends on whether the gel has experienced the most swollen phase or the most collapsed phase in the immediate past. The information is stored and reversibly erased in the form of a macroscopic phase transition behavior. The structure factors corresponding to these four phases were obtained by SANS, which indicated the presence of characteristic structures depending on pH and temperature, particularly in the shrunken state. (orig.)

  12. Moderating effect of nurses' customer-oriented perception between organizational citizenship behaviors and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching Sheng; Chang, Hae Ching

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates whether organizational citizenship behaviors enhance job satisfaction among nursing personnel, while exploring whether customer-oriented perception has a moderating effect between nursing personnel's organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction.The authors used a cross-sectional survey sent to 500 nurses with 232 valid responses. According to the research findings, nurses' organizational citizenship behaviors have a positive and significant influence on job satisfaction. Results also indicated that the moderating effect of nurses' customer-oriented perception on the relationship between their organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction was stronger for high customer-oriented perception than it was low customer-oriented perception.

  13. The effects of goal involvement on moral behavior in an experimentally manipulated competitive setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Luke; Kavussanu, Maria

    2007-04-01

    In this experiment we examined the effects of task and ego involvement on three measures of moral behavior--prosocial choice, observed prosocial behavior, and observed antisocial behavior--in a competitive setting. We also investigated sex differences in moral behavior. Male (n = 48) and female (n = 48) college students were randomly assigned to a task-involving, an ego-involving, or a control condition. Participants played two 10-min games of table soccer and completed measures of prosocial choice, goal involvement, goal orientation, and demographics. The two games were recorded, and frequencies of prosocial and antisocial behavior were coded. Players assigned to the task-involving condition were higher in prosocial choice than those in the ego-involving or control conditions. Individuals in the ego-involving condition displayed more antisocial behaviors than those in the task-involving or control conditions. Finally, females displayed more prosocial behaviors than males.

  14. Effect of playing violent video games cooperatively or competitively on subsequent cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewoldsen, David R; Eno, Cassie A; Okdie, Bradley M; Velez, John A; Guadagno, Rosanna E; DeCoster, Jamie

    2012-05-01

    Research on video games has yielded consistent findings that violent video games increase aggression and decrease prosocial behavior. However, these studies typically examined single-player games. Of interest is the effect of cooperative play in a violent video game on subsequent cooperative or competitive behavior. Participants played Halo II (a first-person shooter game) cooperatively or competitively and then completed a modified prisoner's dilemma task to assess competitive and cooperative behavior. Compared with the competitive play conditions, players in the cooperative condition engaged in more tit-for-tat behaviors-a pattern of behavior that typically precedes cooperative behavior. The social context of game play influenced subsequent behavior more than the content of the game that was played.

  15. 咪达唑仑鼻腔滴入控制小儿热性惊厥的探讨%Clinical study on treating children’s febrile convulsion with midazolam nasal drip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝栋; 江从春; 唐建宁; 王小春

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of midazolam nasal drip in the treatment of children’s febrile convulsion. Methods 42 children who suffered from febrile convulsion were randomly divided into two groups(the treament group and the control group). 0.2 mg/kg midazolam nasal drip was delivered to each member of the treament group,while 0.3~0.5 mg/kg diazepam was given to each member of the control group by intravenous injection. Compared and evaluated the control time,effective rate and safefy regarding treament of children’s febrile convulsion with midazolam nasal drip. Results Effective rate of treament group was 85.7%,while the control group was 90.5%. These weren’t significantly different from each other(P > 0.05). The control time of the treament group was(6.2 ±1.6)min,while the control group was(8.10 ±0.9)min(P<0.05). Both groups showed no obvious adverse reacitons. Conclusion It is effective and convenient to treat children’s febrile convulsion with midazolam nasal drip.%目的:探讨咪达唑仑鼻腔给药治疗小儿高热惊厥的有效性和安全性。方法选取小儿热性惊厥患儿42例,随机分为治疗组和对照组各21例。治疗组鼻腔内滴入咪达唑仑0.2 mg/kg,对照组给予地西泮0.3~0.5 mg/kg静脉缓慢推注。比较分析两组患儿的惊厥控制时间、有效率及安全性。结果治疗组和对照组有效率分别为85.7%和90.5%,组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗组患儿从到达医院急诊科至惊厥控制所用时间为(6.2±1.6)min,对照组为(8.1±0.9)min,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组均未发现明显不良反应。结论咪达唑仑鼻腔滴入可以有效地控制小儿热性惊厥,且更方便快捷。

  16. Intergenerational Continuity in Parenting Behavior: Mediating Pathways and Child Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppl, Tricia K.; Conger, Rand D.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ontai, Lenna L.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal investigation examined mechanisms proposed to explain continuities in parenting behavior across 2 generations (G1, G2). Data came from 187 G2 adults, their mothers (G1), and their children (G3). Prospective information regarding G2 was collected both during adolescence and early adulthood. G1 data were collected…

  17. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…

  18. THE EFFECTS OF SOME FACTORS ON THE INNOVATIVE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkh-Otgon, D.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the impact of the need for achievement that moderates the climate of silence and job complexity factors involved in innovative behavior. The paper adopts a quantitative approach. After analyzing construct validity and reliability, the study empirically tests its hypotheses by performing a hierarchical regression analysis with a sample of 394 individuals.

  19. The Effects of Noise Reduction on Social Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Vincent J.; Duncan, Phillip K.

    1986-01-01

    The study found no relationship between improved social behavior in a group of juveniles residing at a county shelter care facility and decreased frequency and duration of disruptions above 85 decibels. Subjects did reduce noise levels when stereo listening was made contingent on reduced noise. (Author/DB)

  20. The effects of pathological gaming on aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Lemmens; P.M. Valkenburg; J. Peter

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may ca