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Sample records for behavioral convulsant effects

  1. Convulsive and nonconvulsive epilepsy in rats: effects on behavioral response to novelty stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Midzyanovskaya, I.S.; Shatskova, A.B.; Sarkisova, K.Y.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tuomisto, L.; Kuznetsova, G.D.

    2005-01-01

    Behavioral response to a new environment of Wistar and WAG/Rij rats with absence and/or audiogenic seizures (AGSs) was investigated. Behavior was observed in open-field (OF) and light-dark choice (LD) tests. Correlations of test performance with seizure parameters were evaluated. AGS-susceptible Wis

  2. Effect of Allopregnenalone (AP and 4′-Chlorodiazepam (4′CD on the Lindane-induced acute and chronic convulsive behavior in rats

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    Krishna Tanwar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids (NS are considered important modulators of brain functions. Lindane a pesticide has been shown to affect the nerv-ous system adversely. The present study was designed to explore the modulation of the effects of lindane on convulsions by Allopregnenalone (AP, and 4′-Chlorodiazepam (4′-CD, in both acute and chronic seizure models using Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. We used acute and chronic models. In the acute model, seizures were induced by PTZ 90mg/kg, intra-peritoneal (i.p. injection, while in the chronic model, kindling was induced by injecting PTZ 30 mg/kg sub-cutaneous(s.c on alternate days three times in a week. Lindane produced augmented effect on convulsions by decreasing the onset of preclonic convulsions and increased duration of clonic convulsions. AP (2.5mg/kg, i.p and 4′-CD (0.5mg/kg, i.p were able to attenuate the effect of acute as well as chronic exposure of lindane. They significantly increased the onset and decreased the duration of convulsions in lindane-treated rats. These results conclusively demonstrate the efficacy of the neurosteroids in lindane-induced convulsions in both acute as well as chronic models. Thus, NS have a potential role as anticonvulsant in treatment of convulsions produced by pesticides like lindane.

  3. Toxic cocaine- and convulsant-induced modification of forced swimming behaviors and their interaction with ethanol: comparison with immobilization stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hayase, Tamaki; Yamamoto, Yoshiko; Yamamoto, Keiichi

    2002-01-01

    Background Swimming behaviors in the forced swimming test have been reported to be depressed by stressors. Since toxic convulsion-inducing drugs related to dopamine [cocaine (COC)], benzodiazepine [methyl 6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-β-carboline-carboxylate (DMCM)], γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) [bicuculline (BIC)], and glutamate [N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)] receptors can function as stressors, the present study compared their effects on the forced swimming behaviors with the effects of immobilization...

  4. Febrile Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    H. Ehsani

    1986-01-01

    Febrile convulsions occur relatively frequently in children, the age of onset being 6 months to 5 years. The diagnosis is based on the character of the convulsion, its frequency, length of the seizure, results of lumbar puncture and EEG. These convulsions have a good prognosis. Therapy consists in medical disruption of the convulsion and appropriate treatment of the fever.

  5. Effect of Brewer's Yeast-Induced Pyrexia on Aminophylline-Elicited Convulsions in Mice

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    Araki,Hiroaki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline-associated convulsions have been observed most frequently in children with fever, but the mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the basic mechanism of aminophylline [theophylline-2-ethylenediamine]-induced convulsions and the effects of Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. Diazepam (5-10mg/kg, i.p., a benzodiazepine receptor agonist, significantly prolonged the onset and significantly decreased the incidence of convulsions induced by aminophylline (350mg/kg, i.p.. However, the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (1-4mg/kg, i.p., the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (2-4mg/kg, i.p. and the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist dizocilpine (0.1-0.3mg/kg, i.p. failed to protect against the convulsions. 20% Brewer's yeast (0.02ml/g, s.c. increased body temperature by 1.03, and also significantly shortened the onset and significantly increased the incidence of convulsions induced by aminophylline. The anticonvulsant action of diazepam (2.5-10mg/kg, i.p. on the convulsions induced by aminophylline was reduced by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia. The proconvulsant actions of the GABAA receptor antagonists picrotoxin (3-4mg/kg, i.p. and pentylenetetrazol (40-60mg/kg, i.p. were enhanced by Brewer's yeast. These results suggest that the anticonvulsant action of diazepam against aminophylline is reduced by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia, and that GABAA receptors are involved in the aggravation of the convulsions by Brewer's yeast in mice.

  6. Influence of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on gerbil behavior after hyperbaric oxygen-induced convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguang Zhou; Changyun Liu; Yiqun Fang; Yingqi Zhou; Erli Xu; Jingchang Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor can prolong the latency of hyperbaric oxygen-induced convulsion (HBOC). However, there are very few reports addressing the influence of NOS inhibitor on mental behavior.OBJECTIVE: To investigate behavioral changes after HBOC in gerbils, as well as the influence of NOS inhibitor.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized experiments were performed in the Laboratory of Hyperbaric Pressure and Diving Physiology, Naval Medical Research Institute of Chinese PLA (Shanghai,China) from March 2005 to June 2007.MATERIALS: Forty male gerbils were randomly divided into five groups: HBOC, saline control, NOS inhibitor, pressure control, and normal control. Each group contained eight animals.METHODS: In the HBOC group, once depression induction ended, animals were removed from the chamber five minutes after the first appearance of generalized convulsion induced by 0.5 MPa hyperbaric oxygen. Ten minutes before entering the chamber, saline control and NOS inhibitor animals were intraperitoneally injected with 1 mL saline and 20 mg/kg NG-nitro-L-arginine, respectively. The pressure control group was only exposed to 0.5 MPa. The remaining procedures in these three groups were identical to the HBOC group. The normal control group received no intervention.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Open field test scores in gerbils prior to HBOC, as well as immediately,24 hours, and 72 hours after decompression ended.RESULTS: HBOC was not detected in either the normal control or the pressure control group, and there were no significant differences in opcn field test scores prior to and after HBOC (P > 0.05). HBOC occurred in the HBOC, saline control, and NOS inhibitor groups, with significant differences in open field test scores after decompression ended compared to normal control and pressure control groups (P < 0.05-0.01).Compared to the HBOC and saline control groups, the NOS inhibitor group exhibited a significantly lower score in

  7. Effects of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin; Cucurbitaceae) in mouse models of convulsion, muscle relaxation, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akindele, Abidemi J; Ajao, Mutiu Y; Aigbe, Flora R; Enumah, Uchenna S

    2013-09-01

    Telfairia occidentalis (Cucurbitaceae) is a leafy vegetable used in soup and folk medicine in southern Nigeria. Ethnobotanical survey revealed that preparations of the plant are used in the treatment of central nervous system-related disorders including convulsion. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of T. occidentalis in mouse models of convulsion, muscle relaxation, and depression. The strychnine and isoniazid convulsion, traction and climbing muscle relaxation, and forced swim and tail suspension depression tests were used in this study. The extract was administered orally (p.o.) at dose range of 25-800 mg/kg while distilled water (10 mL/kg p.o.) served as negative control. Diazepam (5 mg/kg p.o.) was used as positive control in the convulsion and muscle relaxation models while imipramine (64 mg/kg p.o.) served the same purpose in the depression tests. T. occidentalis significantly increased the onset (P<.001) and reduced the duration of convulsion (P<.05, .01) in the strychnine test and increased the time to death (P<.05, .01, .001) in the isoniazid model. The extract insignificantly increased the reaction time in the traction test while it significantly increased the time in the climbing test (P<.001). In the forced swim and tail suspension models, T. occidentalis significantly (P<.001) and dose-dependently increased the duration of immobility. The results obtained in this study suggest that the hydroethanolic leaf extract of T. occidentalis possesses anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant properties, thus justifying its folkloric use. PMID:24044490

  8. Convulsive status epilepticus in children

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    Redžek-Mudrinić Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Convulsive status epilepticus is the most urgent neurological medical emergency in children. Generalized convulsive status epilepticus is the most common and life-threatening type of status epilepticus. It is not a syndrome in the same sense as febrile convulsions, benign rolandic epilepsy, and infantile polymorphic epilepsy. These latter disorders have a tight age frame, seizure semiology, and a reasonably predictable outcome. Episodes of convulsive status epilepticus can occur in each: occasionally in symptomatic and febrile convulsions, and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, rarely in benign rolandic epilepsy, and West syndrome. Etiology of convulsive status epilepticus. Status epilepticus has many causes, which vary depending on the age and patient population. Convulsive status epileptucus continues to be associated with significant neurological morbidity and mortality, with different hazards and outcome. Although the outcome is dependent on etiology, it is known that appropriate early management may reduce mortality and some of the morbidity associated with convulsive status epilepticus. Discussion. Status epilepticus is a disorder in which the mechanisms attempting at terminating the seizure fail. Continued convulsive activity in convulsive status epilepticus results in decompensation of all organs and systems, thus being life threatening. Seizure activity in convulsive status epilepticus is associated with neuronal damage. The aim should be to halt this activity urgently, using, ideally, a 100% effective drug, administered quickly, without compromising the consciousness level or producing other negative effects on cardiovascular, respiratory function or other unexpected effects.

  9. Febrile convulsion--an overview.

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    Mukherjee, Arabinda; Mukherjee, Asha

    2002-05-01

    Febrile convulsion is the most frequently occurring epilepsy syndrome, experienced in infants/children between 6 months and 5 years of age associated with fever >38 degrees C. Children having first or second degree relative with history of febrile convulsion, neonatal nursery stay of more than 30 days, developmental delay or attendance at day care centre are at increased risk of developing febrile convulsion. Single febrile convulsion does not increase the risk of epilepsy and there is no causal relationship between febrile convulsion and subsequent epilepsy. It has been recognised that there is significant genetic component for susceptibility to febrile seizures. To make the diagnosis of febrile convulsion, meningitis, encephalitis, serious electrolyte imbalance and other acute neurologic illnesses are to be excluded. While managing acute attack the steps to be taken are--airway management, a semi-prone position to avoid aspiration, monitoring vital signs and other supportive care. Diazepam or lorazepam is the drug to be used. There is no reason to expect phenobarbitone administered at the time of fever to be effective in prevention of febrile convulsion. The parents should be counselled about the benign nature of the convulsion. Although the febrile convulsion a frightening event, still it is a benign condition. PMID:12418634

  10. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine.

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    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures. PMID:26453200

  11. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures.

  12. Pharmacological and genetic manipulation of kappa opioid receptors: effects on cocaine- and pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions and seizure kindling.

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    Kaminski, Rafal M; Witkin, Jeffrey M; Shippenberg, Toni S

    2007-03-01

    The present study used pharmacological and gene ablation techniques to examine the involvement of kappa opioid receptors (KOPr) in modulating the convulsant effects of two mechanistically different drugs: cocaine and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; GABA-A receptor antagonist) in mice. Systemic administration of the selective KOPr-1 agonist, U69593 (0.16-0.6mg/kg; s.c.), failed to modify cocaine-evoked convulsions or cocaine kindling. Similarly, no alteration in responsiveness to cocaine was observed in wild-type mice that received the selective KOPr-1 antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 5mg/kg) or in mice lacking the gene encoding KOPr-1. In contrast to cocaine, U69593 attenuated the seizures induced by acute or repeated PTZ administration. Nor-BNI decreased the threshold for PTZ-evoked seizures and increased seizure incidence during the initial induction of kindling relative to controls. Decreased thresholds for PTZ-induced seizures were also observed in KOPr-1 knock out mice. Together, these data demonstrate an involvement of endogenous KOPr systems in modulating vulnerability to the convulsant effects of PTZ but not cocaine. Furthermore, they demonstrate that KOPr-1 activation protects against acute and kindled seizures induced by this convulsant. Finally, the results of our study suggest that KOPr-1 antagonists will not have therapeutic utility against cocaine-induced seizures, while they may prove beneficial in attenuating several actions of cocaine that have been linked to its abuse.

  13. Effects of isopulegol on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice: possible involvement of GABAergic system and antioxidant activity.

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    Silva, Maria Izabel Gomes; Silva, Maria Angélica Gomes; de Aquino Neto, Manuel Rufino; Moura, Brinell Arcanjo; de Sousa, Helenira Lourenço; de Lavor, Everton Paulo Homem; de Vasconcelos, Patrícia Freire; Macêdo, Danielle Silveira; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço

    2009-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of isopulegol, a monoterpene alcohol, in PTZ-induced convulsions and verified possible involved mechanisms. Saline, isopulegol or diazepam were intraperitonealy injected 30 min before PTZ. The latency for development of convulsions and mortality, as well as the mortality protection percentage was recorded. For investigating the involvement of GABAergic system, flumazenil was utilized. The activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase as well as the levels of reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation were measured in brain hippocampus. Similarly to diazepam, isopulegol significantly prolonged the latency for convulsions and mortality of mice. All animals were protected against mortality at higher dose of isopulegol. Flumazenil pretreatment decreased the prolongation of seizure latency induced by both diazepam and isopulegol, although it was not able to reverse the latency and protection percent for mortality. Isopulegol also significantly prevented PTZ-induced increase in lipid peroxidation, preserved catalase activity in normal levels, and prevented the PTZ-induced loss of GSH in hippocampus of mice. These results suggest that the anticonvulsant and bioprotective effects of isopulegol against PTZ-induced convulsions are possibly related to positive modulation of benzodiazepine-sensitive GABA(A) receptors and to antioxidant properties. PMID:19559770

  14. Effect of zinc protoporphyrin on carbon monoxide/heme oxygenase-1 system in rats subjected to recurrent febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on febrile convulsion (FC)-caused brain injury are disputed in many aspects.How FC cause nervous system injury in the developmental period and what are the characteristics of these pathological injury are unknown. The current studies have demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-l) exerts effects on brain injury mainly by catalyzing hemoglobin to produce degradation products, and HO-1 not only has neuroprotective effects, but also has neurotoxic effects during the FC-caused brain injury. Study on the effect of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) on brain injury is still in the stage of animal experiment.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of ZnPP on carbon monoxide (CO)/HO-1 system of rats subjected to FC, and to analyze the action pathway of ZnPP in brain protective effect.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics, First Hospital Affiliated to Jiamusi University.MATERIALS: Sixty-five Wistar rats, of either gender, were involved in this study. They were randomized into normal control group( n =14, 37 ℃ water bath) and febrile treatment group (n =51, 44.5 ℃ hot water bath). Febrile treatment group was sub-divided into febrile non-convulsion group (FNC group, n =16) and FC group (n =35). FC group was further sub-divided into simple convulsion group (n =20) and ZnPP treatment group (n =15). HO-1 mRNA in situ hybridization kit was provided by Boster Bioengineering Co.,Ltd. ZnPP(dark brown powder) was the product of Jingmei Bioengineering Company.METHODS: This study was carried out in the postgraduate laboratory of Jiamusi University between January 2004 and January 2007. Rats in the febrile treatment group were placed in the 44.5 ℃ hot water bath box. If rats did not convulse in the water within 5 minutes, they were taken out, namely FNC group (n =16), and those, which were convulsed within 5 minutes, were taken out immediately when they presented such a phenomenon, namely FC group (n =35). Convulsion induction was

  15. Role of apolipoprotein E in febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giray, Ozlem; Ulgenalp, Ayfer; Bora, Elçin; Uran, Nedret; Yilmaz, Ebru; Unalp, Aycan; Erçal, Derya

    2008-10-01

    Apolipoprotein E is consistently associated with the progression of some common human neurodegenerative diseases, e.g., epilepsy. We hypothesized that genetic variations in the apolipoprotein E gene have implications for susceptibility to, and prognoses in, febrile convulsion, which plays an apparent role in the development of epilepsy. We used the polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion to characterize variations of the apolipoprotein E gene. Sixty-nine patients with febrile convulsion (simple/complex) and a corresponding cohort of healthy patients (n = 75) were used. There was no significant difference in genotypic distribution and allelic frequencies of the apolipoprotein E gene between the febrile convulsion and control groups. Comparing subpopulations of the febrile convulsion group (patients with simple and complex febrile convulsion), we noted that no patients with the epsilon3/epsilon4 genotype had complex febrile convulsions. The apolipoprotein E epsilon3/epsilon4 genotype was more frequently seen in the simple febrile than in the complicated febrile convulsion group (9 versus 0 patients, respectively). The data indicate an association with the epsilon3/epsilon4 genotype of the apolipoprotein E gene with a milder phenotype. Although apolipoprotein E4 is not a vulnerability factor regarding febrile convulsions, it seems effective in regard to prognoses. PMID:18805361

  16. Protective Effects of Breast Milk on Central Nervous System and the Incidence of Febrile Convulsion in Breast-Fed Children

    OpenAIRE

    A Tayarani Bathayi; KH Farivar

    1999-01-01

    It is known that central nervous system is well protected in breast-fed children, recognized in decreased incidence of multiple sclerosis, infectious and malignant diseases of the central nervous system, sudden infant death syndrome, 5th day convulsion, and botulism as well as an increase in IQ rates. In this retrospective study we have found also an indirect correlation between in incidence of febrile convulsion and length of breast-feeding. Among 270 cases of febrile convulsion 144 (53.3%) ...

  17. Early-Onset Convulsive Seizures Induced by Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia in Aging Mice: Effects of Anticonvulsive Treatments.

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    Justin Wang

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with an increased risk of seizures/epilepsy. Stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic and cardiac arrest related brain injury are two major causative factors for seizure development in this patient population. With either etiology, seizures are a poor prognostic factor. In spite of this, the underlying pathophysiology of seizure development is not well understood. In addition, a standardized treatment regimen with anticonvulsants and outcome assessments following treatment has yet to be established for these post-ischemic seizures. Previous studies have modeled post-ischemic seizures in adult rodents, but similar studies in aging/aged animals, a group that mirrors a higher risk elderly population, remain sparse. Our study therefore aimed to investigate early-onset seizures in aging animals using a hypoxia-ischemia (HI model. Male C57 black mice 18-20-month-old underwent a unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery followed by a systemic hypoxic episode (8% O2 for 30 min. Early-onset seizures were detected using combined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring. Brain injury was assessed histologically at different times post HI. Convulsive seizures were observed in 65% of aging mice post-HI but not in control aging mice following either sham surgery or hypoxia alone. These seizures typically occurred within hours of HI and behaviorally consisted of jumping, fast running, barrel-rolling, and/or falling (loss of the righting reflex with limb spasms. No evident discharges during any convulsive seizures were seen on cortical-hippocampal EEG recordings. Seizure development was closely associated with acute mortality and severe brain injury on brain histological analysis. Intra-peritoneal injections of lorazepam and fosphenytoin suppressed seizures and improved survival but only when applied prior to seizure onset and not after. These findings together suggest that seizures are a major contributing factor to acute

  18. Investigation of the effects of magnetic field exposure on febrile seizure latency, seizure duration, and electroencephalographic recordings in a rat febrile convulsion model

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİR, Tuncer; Gültürk, Sefa; ÇANÇALAR, Ayşe DEMİRKAZIK; Durmuş, Nedim

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a magnetic field (MF) on febrile seizure latency, seizure duration, and electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in a rat febrile convulsion model. Materials and methods: Thirty-six rats were randomly allocated into 1 of 6 groups: sham group (S), febrile convulsion (FC) group without MF exposure, MF group without FC, group exposed to MF before FC (MF + FC), group exposed to MF after FC (FC + MF), and group exposed to MF before and after FC (MF + FC + MF). The r...

  19. Febrile Convulsions: Their Significance for Later Intellectual Development and Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Concludes that intellectual and behavioral outcomes in children who have had febrile convulsions are dependent on preseizure status, unilaterality of the initial fit, recurrent febrile seizures, continued neurological abnormalities, the advent of fits when afebrile, and socioeconomic status. Suggests that a febrile convulsion should be followed up…

  20. Anticonvulsant Effects of Combined Treatment with Citicoline and Valproate on the Model of Acute Generalized Convulsions Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpova, M N; Kuznetsova, L V; Zin'kovskii, K A; Klishina, N V

    2016-02-01

    We studied anticonvulsant effects of combined treatment with citicoline, a nootropic substance with neuroregenerative and neuroprotective activities, and valproate, an antiepileptic agent widely used in the treatment of epilepsy, on the model of pentylenetetrazole-induced (75 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) acute generalized convulsions in male Wistar rats. Combined treatment with citicoline and valproate in minimum effective doses (70 and 300 mg/kg, respectively) potentiated the anticonvulsant properties of both agents. PMID:26902360

  1. Long-term effects of febrile convulsion on seizure susceptibility in P77PMC rat--resistant to acoustic stimuli but susceptible to kainate-induced seizures.

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    Zhao, D Y; Wu, X R; Pei, Y Q; Zuo, Q H

    1985-06-01

    A new audiogenic seizure (AGS)-susceptible strain of rats (P77PMC) was evaluated as a possible model of human febrile seizures. The long-term effects of experimental febrile seizures were observed. All 30-day-old rat pups exhibited clonic seizures during exposure to an ambient temperature of 45 +/- 0.5 degree C. The mean latency from the beginning of the hyperthermic stimulus to the onset of convulsion was 16.9 +/- 2.2 min. The rats survived this hyperthermic seizure, developed a resistance to acoustic stimulations, but were more susceptible at the age of 50 to 60 days to kainate-induced limbic seizures than controls. The results of this study imply that febrile seizures of developing P77PMC rats can change later seizure susceptibility, and there may be some correlation between febrile convulsion and temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:3996515

  2. Repeated febrile convulsions impair hippocampal neurons and cause synaptic damage in immature rats:neuroprotective effect of fructose-1,6-diphosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Zhou; Fan Wang; Jun Zhang; Hui Gao; Yufeng Yang; Rongguo Fu

    2014-01-01

    Fructose-1,6-diphosphate is a metabolic intermediate that promotes cell metabolism. We hy-pothesize that fructose-1,6-diphosphate can protect against neuronal damage induced by febrile convulsions. Hot-water bathing was used to establish a repetitive febrile convulsion model in rats aged 21 days, equivalent to 3-5 years in humans. Ninety minutes before each seizure induc-tion, rats received an intraperitoneal injection of low- or high-dose fructose-1,6-diphosphate (500 or 1,000 mg/kg, respectively). Low- and high-dose fructose-1,6-diphosphate prolonged the latency and shortened the duration of seizures. Furthermore, high-dose fructose-1,6-di-phosphate effectively reduced seizure severity. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that 24 hours after the last seizure, high-dose fructose-1,6-diphosphate reduced mitochondrial swelling, rough endoplasmic reticulum degranulation, Golgi dilation and synaptic cleft size, and increased synaptic active zone length, postsynaptic density thickness, and synaptic interface cur-vature in the hippocampal CA1 area. The present findings suggest that fructose-1,6-diphosphate is a neuroprotectant against hippocampal neuron and synapse damage induced by repeated fe-brile convulsion in immature rats.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid folate and cobalamin levels in febrile convulsion.

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    Osifo, B O; Lukanmbi, F A; Familusi, J B

    1985-05-01

    Folate and cobalamin parameters were studied in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of 40 febrile paediatric patients. Eighteen of these children were in a state of febrile convulsion while the remaining 22 were non-convulsing. The serum folate concentration of all the patients was higher than that of the control group but the highest value was found in the convulsing children. There was no significant difference in the CSF folate levels between the two groups of patients. The serum cobalamin levels of the patients were significantly lower than those of the control children and the lowest mean was observed in the convulsing state. On the other hand, there was no difference in the CSF cobalamin between the convulsing and non-convulsing children. These results confirm that there is an effective blood-brain barrier system for folate even when serum folate levels are higher than normal. There is also a definite decrease in serum cobalamin during pyrexia but this decrease is more apparent in the convulsing state. The role of cobalamin metabolism in convulsion is not clear. PMID:4009203

  4. The effects of early intervention on the recurrence of febrile convulsions%早期干预对高热惊厥复发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智香; 田恒峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of early intervention on controlling the recurrence of febrile convulsions.Methods The 60 hospitalized children patients of febrile convulsion seizures of due to various causes were randomly divided into observation group and control group.The control group was given routine treatment of seizures; the observation group was given early intervention treatment.Results In 1 year of follow-up,26 cases (86.7%) in the observation group and 10 cases(33.3%) in the control group had no recurrence of febrile convulsions.The observation group had better control effect than the control group,showing a significant difference between two groups (x2 =4.19,P < 0.05).Conclusions Early intervention has good effect on prevention and treatment of febrile convulsions recurrence.%目的 研究早期干预对高热惊厥复发的影响.方法 将各种原因导致的高热惊厥发作的住院患儿60例,完全随机分为观察组和对照组,各30例.对照组给予常规治疗,观察组在此基础上对发热实施早期干预治疗等措施.比较2组惊厥控制效果.结果 在随诊1年中,观察组无惊厥发作者26例,占86.7%;对照组10例,占33.3%,观察组惊厥控制效果好于对照组,2组比较差异有统计学意义(x2=4.19,P <0.05).结论 早期干预对防治高热惊厥再发有良好效果.

  5. Bufo toxin: A new testing prospect for the screening of anti-convulsant agents. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arome

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with diverse aetiology, affecting approximately 1 % of the entire population. Epilepsy present wide range of clinical manifestations, that affect the way a person feels and acts for a short time. Previous scientific investigations have indicated bufo toxin as a potential convulsant candidate that produced similar effects as other known convulsant agents. Bufo toxin has been shown to mimic or exhibit similar action as other known convulsant agent. Its biochemical components are formed as a result of the binding of bufo-fagin and a molecule arginina. There exist wide array of convulsant agents used in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The commonly used one are: bicuculline, picrotoxin, pentylene tetrazole, isonizid etc. However, these agents are expensive, not easily available and affordable. This challenge prompted the search of other alternative convulsant agents that is easily accessible for use in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The principal objective of this review paper is to suggest the possible use of bufo toxin which mimics the action of existing convulsant agents. This new testing convulsant agent (bufo toxin is inexpensive, affordable and easy to use when compared to other known convulsant agents. The experimental procedure is easy and it gives a broad spectrum in comparing the action of bufo toxin to other chemical convulsant agents. It also offers researchers broader view or options in exploring the anti-convulsant activity of test agents and the understanding of their possible mechanism of action.

  6. Dual effects of limbic seizures on psychosis-relevant behaviors shown by nucleus accumbens kindling in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingyi; Leung, L. Stan

    2016-01-01

    Background A paradox in epilepsy and psychiatry is that temporal lobe epilepsy is often predisposed to schizophrenic-like psychosis, whereas convulsive therapy can relieve schizophrenic symptoms. We have previously demonstrated that the nucleus accumbens is a key structure in mediating postictal psychosis induced by a hippocampal electrographic seizure. Objective/Hypothesis The purpose of this study is to test a hypothesis that accumbens kindling cumulating in a single (1-time) or repeated (5-times) convulsive seizures have different effects on animal models of psychosis. Methods Electrical stimulation at 60 Hz was applied to nucleus accumbens to evoke afterdischarges until one, or five, convulsive seizures that involved the hind limbs (stage 5 seizures) were attained. Behavioral tests, performed at 3 days after the last seizure, included gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and prepulse inhibition to an acoustic startle response (PPI), tested without drug injection or after ketamine (3 mg/kg s.c.) injection, as well as locomotion induced by ketamine or methamphetamine (1 mg/kg i.p.). Results Compared to non-kindled control rats, 1-time, but not 5-times, convulsive seizures induced PPI deficit and decreased gating of hippocampal AEP, without drug injection. Compared to non-kindled rats, 5-times, but not 1-time, convulsive seizures antagonized ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion, ketamine-induced PPI deficit and AEP gating decrease. However, both 1- and 5-times convulsive seizures, significantly enhanced methamphetamine-induced locomotion as compared to non-kindled rats. Conclusions Accumbens kindling ending with 1 convulsive seizure may induce schizophrenic-like behaviors, while repeated (≥ 5) convulsive seizures induced by accumbens kindling may have therapeutic effects on dopamine independent psychosis. PMID:27267861

  7. Convulsant bicuculline modifies CNS muscarinic receptor affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz Georgina

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work from this laboratory has shown that the administration of the convulsant drug 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP, a GAD inhibitor, modifies not only GABA synthesis but also binding of the antagonist [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB to central muscarinic receptors, an effect due to an increase in affinity without modifications in binding site number. The cholinergic system has been implicated in several experimental epilepsy models and the ability of acetylcholine to regulate neuronal excitability in the neocortex is well known. To study the potential relationship between GABAergic and cholinergic systems with seizure activity, we analyzed the muscarinic receptor after inducing seizure by bicuculline (BIC, known to antagonize the GABA-A postsynaptic receptor subtype. Results We analyzed binding of muscarinic antagonist [3H]-QNB to rat CNS membranes after i.p. administration of BIC at subconvulsant (1.0 mg/kg and convulsant (7.5 mg/kg doses. Subconvulsant BIC dose failed to develop seizures but produced binding alteration in the cerebellum and hippocampus with roughly 40% increase and 10% decrease, respectively. After convulsant BIC dose, which invariably led to generalized tonic-clonic seizures, binding increased 36% and 15% to cerebellar and striatal membranes respectively, but decreased 12% to hippocampal membranes. Kd value was accordingly modified: with the subconvulsant dose it decreased 27% in cerebellum whereas it increased 61% in hippocampus; with the convulsant dose, Kd value decreased 33% in cerebellum but increased 85% in hippocampus. No change in receptor number site was found, and Hill number was invariably close to unity. Conclusion Results indicate dissimilar central nervous system area susceptibility of muscarinic receptor to BIC. Ligand binding was modified not only by a convulsant BIC dose but also by a subconvulsant dose, indicating that changes are not attributable to the seizure process

  8. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuli

    2014-12-01

    Altered mental state is a very common presentation in the elderly admitted to the emergency department. It has been determined that about 16% of patients aged 60 or older with confusion of unknown origin have non-convulsive status epilepticus. The diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus is difficult in the elderly because possible aetiologies of confusion may present with the same clinical picture. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in the elderly carries major morbidity and mortality, attributable primarily to aetiology, and treatment is complex, involving treatment of the aetiology and concomitant medical illnesses, whilst balancing the side effects and drug interactions of antiepileptic drugs.

  9. Convulsive liability of bupropion hydrochloride metabolites in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Louis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that following chronic dosing with bupropion HCl active metabolites are present in plasma at levels that are several times higher than that of the parent drug, but the possible convulsive effects of the major metabolites are not known. Methods We investigated the convulsive liability and dose-response of the three major bupropion metabolites following intraperitoneal administration of single doses in female Swiss albino mice, namely erythrohydrobupropion HCl, threohydrobupropion HCl, and hydroxybupropion HCl. We compared these to bupropion HCl. The actual doses of the metabolites administered to mice (n = 120; 10 per dose group were equimolar equivalents of bupropion HCl 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg. Post treatment, all animals were observed continuously for 2 h during which the number, time of onset, duration and intensity of convulsions were recorded. The primary outcome variable was the percentage of mice in each group who had a convulsion at each dose. Other outcome measures were the time to onset of convulsions, mean convulsions per mouse, and the duration and intensity of convulsions. Results All metabolites were associated with a greater percentage of seizures compared to bupropion, but the percentage of convulsions differed between metabolites. Hydroxybupropion HCl treatment induced the largest percentage of convulsing mice (100% at both 50 and 75 mg/kg followed by threohydrobupropion HCl (50% and 100%, and then erythrohydrobupropion HCl (10% and 90%, compared to bupropion HCl (0% and 10%. Probit analysis also revealed the dose-response curves were significantly different (p 50 values of 35, 50, 61 and 82 mg/kg, respectively for the four different treatments. Cox proportional hazards model results showed that bupropion HCl, erythrohydrobupropion HCl, and threohydrobupropion HCl were significantly less likely to induce convulsions within the 2-h post treatment observation period compared to hydroxybupropion HCl. The

  10. Curative effect of Xingnaojing treatment on febrile convulsion%醒脑静治疗热性惊厥的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎丽丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of Xingnaojing injection on febrile convulsion. Methods From January 2013 to January 2015,one hundrad cases of febrile convulsion were randomly divided into experiment group and control group,with 50 cases in each group. Children in the control group were given routine treatment,and those of experiment group were gievn conventional treatment based on the Xingnaojing treatment. The clinical curative effects of the two groups were ob-served. Results The defervescence time,consciousness recovery time in the experiment group were significantly shorter than those in the control group,the differences between the two groups were significant(P 0. 05). Conclusion During the clinical treatment of febrile convulsion from childhood,on the basis of routine treatment application, Xingnaojing treatment can effectively shorten the children with symptoms of fever duration and the consciousness of time to return to normal,it has significant clinical effect and can reduce the incidence and recurrence rate of epilepsy,so it is worthy of clinical popularization and application.%目的:探讨醒脑静治疗热性惊厥的临床疗效。方法选择广州市番禺区南村医院2013年1月至2015年1月收治的热性惊厥患儿100例,将其随机分成实验组和对照组,每组50例,对照组患儿给予常规治疗,实验组患儿在常规治疗的基础上给予醒脑静治疗,对两组患儿的临床疗效进行观察分析。结果实验组患儿的退热时间、意识恢复正常时间显著短于对照组患儿,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P 0.05)。结论临床治疗热性惊厥患儿时,在常规治疗的基础上应用醒脑静治疗,能有效缩短患儿的发热症状持续时间和意识恢复正常的时间,能有效降低癫痫发生率和复发率,临床治疗效果显著,值得临床推广和应用。

  11. [Effect of excitant amino acid antagonists on glutamate receptors in the locust and on convulsions induced by glutamate, aspartate, kynurenine and quinolinic acid in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, I V; Slepokurov, M V; Lapin, I P; Mandel'shtam, Iu E; Aleksandrov, V G

    1986-03-01

    All excitatory amino acid antagonists studied: diethyl esters of aspartic (DEEA) and glutamic (DEEG) acids, 2-amino-3-phosphono-propionic acid (APPA) and 2-amino-4-phosphono-butanoic acid (APBA), diminished the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPP) of the locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) muscle fibers and arbitrary blocked glutamate (GLU) and aspartate (ASP) responses. Kynurenine (KYN) and quinolinic (QUI) acid had no effect on EPP even at a concentration of 2 X 10(-2) M. The antagonists were not strictly selective against intracerebroventricularly administered endogenous convulsants: GLU, ASP, KYN and QUI and in simulation of experimental seizures in mice. The antagonists structurally similar to ASP prevented ASP- and KYN-induced seizures in lower doses than GLU derivatives. Anti-KYN, but not anti-QUI DEEA, DEEG, APPA and APBA efficacy suggests that KYN and QUI act on different structures or binding sites. PMID:2869799

  12. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Randrianarivo; Filippo Maggi; Marcello Nicoletti; Philippe Rasoanaivo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus (M. moschatus) in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin in rodent models. Methods: The essential oil of the aerial parts of M. moschatus was extracted by steam distillation. Thereafter, it was injected subcutaneously to rats and mice at escalating doses (0.1–0.8 mL/kg). Ten minutes after drug injection, pentylenetetrazole was injected intraperitoneally to rats and picrotoxin was administered to mice by the same route. Diazepam served as the positive control. Every single animal was placed into transparent cage and observed for convulsive behavior for 30 min by using ordinary security cameras connected to a video recorder. Death occurring for a period of 24 h was also recorded. Results: The essential oil at 0.8 mL/kg completely arrested the pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion without any sedative effect and delayed its appearance at lower doses, but showed moderate activities on picrotoxin-induced convulsion. For the rats treated with pen-tylenetetrazole alone, the mortality was 100%within 1 h, but for the rats pre-treated with the essential oil, the mortality was 0%. For the mice treated with picrotoxin, the mortality rate was also 100%, while 20%–100%died in those that had been pre-treated with the oil. Conclusions: The results confirmed at least partly the traditional uses of the smoke of M. moschatus for the management of convulsion, and implied that the essential oil may inhibit the convulsion by GABAergic neuromodulation.

  13. Rebaudioside A inhibits pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanikgil, Yigit; Cavusoglu, Turker; Balcıoglu, Huseyin A; Gurgul, Serkan; Solmaz, Volkan; Ozlece, Hatice K; Erten, Nilgun; Erbas, Oytun

    2016-09-01

    The safety of patients with epilepsy consuming sweetening agents, which is becoming increasingly prevalent for various reasons, is a topic that should be emphasized as sensitively as it is for other diseases. Patients with epilepsy consume sweetening agents for different reasons such being diabetic or overweight. They can occasionally be exposed to sweetening agents unrestrainedly through consuming convenience food, primarily beverages. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rebaudioside A (Reb-A), which is a steviol glycoside produced from the herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), on epileptic seizures and convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Forty-eight male rats were used. Twenty-four rats were administered 35 mg/kg PTZ to trigger epileptiform activity; the remaining 24 rats were administered 70 mg/kg PTZ to trigger the convulsion model. The epileptiform activity was evaluated by spike percentage, whereas convulsion was evaluated by Racine's Convulsion Scale and the onset time of the first myoclonic jerk. Statistical analysis revealed a statistically significant decrease in the Racine's Convulsion Scale score and increase in the latency of first myoclonic jerk in a dose-dependent manner for the rat groups in which PTZ epilepsy had been induced and Reb-A had been administered. For the groups that were administered Reb-A, the spike decrease was apparent in a dose-dependent manner, based on the spike percentage calculation. These results indicated that Reb-A has positive effects on PTZ-induced convulsions. PMID:27638403

  14. The relationship between iron deficiency anemia and simple febrile convulsion in children

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Eghbali, Aziz; Rafeie, Mohammad; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Zolfi, Mohaddeseh; Firouzifar, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Simple febrile convulsion is the most common disease of the nervous system in children. There are hypotheses that iron deficiency may affect febrile convulsion and the threshold of neuron excitation. Aims: This study was conducted with the objective of finding the effects of iron deficiency anemia on simple febrile convulsion episodes. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at AmirKabir Hospital of Arak Medical Sciences University, Arak, Iran. This is a case-control study. M...

  15. Febrile convulsions and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine Brink;

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and febrile convulsions are related aetiologically. We compared the risk of SIDS in 9877 siblings of children who had had febrile convulsions with that of 20.177 siblings of children who had never had febrile convulsions. We found...

  16. Comparative Study between Febrile Convulsions and Benign Convulsions Associated with Viral Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jaesung; Jung, Keeyoon; Kang, Hoseok

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: This study was performed to compare the clinical features between febrile convulsions and benign convulsions associated with viral gastroenteritis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 706 children admitted to the Sunlin Hospital for either febrile convulsions or benign convulsions with viral gastroenteritis, between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2009. We classified them into group A for febrile convulsions (N = 631), group B for non-rotaviru...

  17. Pharmacological screening of Malian medicinal plants used against epilepsy and convulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael E; Vestergaard, Henrik T; Hansen, Suzanne L;

    2009-01-01

    Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants.......Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants....

  18. Comparisons of drug efficacy and time-effect among magnesium valproate,sustained-release magnesium valproate tablet and depakine chrono for epilepsy An experiment of determining cortical convulsive threshold in rats undergoing electrical stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Scholars have investigated the differences in drug metabolism and pharmacodynamics between valproate and its sustained-release tablets only from the angle of pharmaceutical sciences or clinical practice.Whether the fact that differences in drug efficacy and time-effect of different doses of valproate and different types of sustained-release valproate tablets at the same concentration can be quantitatively reflected by determining the changes in convulsive threshold pre- and post-administration in rat models of determining the convulsive threshold developed by direct cortical electrical stimulation remains unclear.OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to compare the drug efficacy and time-effect among magnesium valproate,sustained-release magnesium valproate tablet and depakine chrono in the treatment of epilepsy by determining the convulsive threshold of rat models created by direct cortical electrical stimulation,and human serum drug concentration before and after administration.DESIGN:A controlled observational experiment.SETTING:Research Institute of Epilepsy,Shanxi Medical University.MATERIALS:Adult health male SD rats of clean grade,weighing 200 - 220 g,provided by the Laboratory Animal Center of Shanxi Medical University.The protocol was carried out in accordance with requests from Animal Ethics Committees for guidance.Magnesium valproate (Lot No.041004) and sustained-release magnesium valproate tablet (Lot No.050501) were produced in Hunan Xiangzhong Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd.METHODS:This study was carried out in the Laboratory for Epilepsy,Shanxi Medical University between June and August 2005.①All the SD rats were created into models for determining cortical convulsive threshold.They were randomly divided into 4 groups with 20 rats in each:magnesium valproate tablet group,sustained-release magnesium valproate tablet group,depakine chrono group and control group.After being modeled,the rats in the first 3 groups were intragastrically administrated with

  19. Neuroprotective effect of therapeutic hypothermia versus standard care alone after convulsive status epilepticus: protocol of the multicentre randomised controlled trial HYBERNATUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legriel, Stephane; Pico, Fernando; Tran-Dinh, Yves-Roger; Lemiale, Virginie; Bedos, Jean-Pierre; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Cariou, Alain

    2016-12-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is a major medical emergency associated with a 50 % morbidity rate. CSE guidelines have recommended prompt management for many years, but there is no evidence to date that they have significantly improved practices or outcomes. Developing neuroprotective strategies for use after CSE holds promise for diminishing morbidity and mortality rates. Hypothermia has been shown to afford neuroprotection in various health conditions. We therefore designed a trial to determine whether 90-day outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients with CSE requiring management in the intensive care unit (ICU) are improved by early therapeutic hypothermia (32-34 °C) for 24 h with propofol sedation. We are conducting a multicentre, open-label, parallel-group, randomised, controlled trial (HYBERNATUS) of potential neuroprotective effects of therapeutic hypothermia and routine propofol sedation started within 8 h after CSE onset in ICU patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Included patients are allocated to receive therapeutic hypothermia (32-34 °C) plus standard care or standard care alone. We plan to enrol 270 patients in 11 ICUs. An interim analysis is scheduled after the inclusion of 135 patients. The main study objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia (32-34 °C) for 24 h in diminishing 90-day morbidity and mortality (defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale score <5). The HYBERNATUS trial is expected to a decreased proportion of patients with a Glasgow Outcome Scale score lower than 5 after CSE requiring ICU admission and mechanical ventilation. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01359332 (registered on 23 May 2011). PMID:27325409

  20. Management of febrile convulsion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Rogers, Eleanor; Wilkinson, Rachel; Paul, Biswajit

    2015-05-01

    The causes of febrile convulsions are usually benign. Such convulsions are common in children and their long-term consequences are rare. However, other causes of seizures, such as intracranial infections, must be excluded before diagnosis, especially in infants and younger children. Diagnosis is based mainly on history taking, and further investigations into the condition are not generally needed in fully immunised children presenting with simple febrile convulsions. Treatment involves symptom control and treating the cause of the fever. Nevertheless, febrile convulsions in children can be distressing for parents, who should be supported and kept informed by experienced emergency department (ED) nurses. This article discusses the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of children with febrile convulsion, and best practice for care in EDs. It also includes a reflective case study to highlight the challenges faced by healthcare professionals who manage children who present with febrile convulsion. PMID:25952398

  1. [Treatment of non-convulsive status epilepticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Ollikainen, Jyrki; Peltola, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    Non-convulsive status epilepticus is an insidious condition and a challenging diagnosis for neurologists on call. The condition must, however, be recognized, since it constitutes a neurological emergency. Non-convulsive status epilepticus may also be associated as an additional complication with an acute neurologic disease, in which case an EEG recording is usually required. In addition, non-convulsive status epilepticus can be found in a significant proportion of patients with unconsciousness of unknown origin. PMID:21995129

  2. Hypozincemia during fever may trigger febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Y; Ishii, K; Akiba, K; Hayashi, T

    1990-05-01

    Febrile convulsions are generally thought to be induced by metabolic changes during the rise-phase of body temperature. The mechanism by which convulsions are induced, however, is not fully elucidated. In this article, we propose a new hypothesis about the induction mechanism of febrile convulsions that takes into account the hypozincemia during fever. This hypozincemia activates the NMDA receptor, one of the glutamate family of receptors, which may play an important role in the induction of epileptic discharge. PMID:2190072

  3. Etiological Analysis and Curative Effect Observation of Emergency Convul-sions in Children%小儿急诊惊厥病因分析及疗效探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雄

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿急诊惊厥病因及其治疗效果。方法整群选取于2014年9月—2015年9月在该院接受治疗的惊厥患儿共110例。了解患者疾病的相关信息,并对患者进行辅助检查,针对病因实施针对性治疗。观察小儿的惊厥病因及其治疗方法。结果惊厥病因分析中,热性惊厥占53.6%,癫痫占20.9%,颅内感染占8.2%。其中,新生儿以低血糖为主,婴幼儿与6岁以下小儿以热性惊厥为主,6岁以上小儿以癫痫为主;治疗总有效率为97.3%,不良反应率为1.8%。结论小儿急诊惊厥的病因复杂,以热性惊厥最为常见。临床治疗中,选择必要的辅助检查手段,并进行对症治疗,能够预防疾病复发,保障小儿生命安全。%Objective To discuss the etiology and treatment effect of emergency convulsions in children. Methods 110 cas-es of children with convulsions treated in our hospital from September 2014 to September 2015 were selected, the related information of the patient’s disease was known, the patients were given accessory examination, targeted treatment were im-plemented according to the etiologies, the etiology and treatment method of children were observed. Results The convul-sions etiology analysis showed that febrile convulsion accounted for 53.6%, epilepsia accounted for 20.9%, intracranial in-fection accounted for 8.2%, among them, the neonates were mainly with glucopenia, infants and children less than 6 years old were mainly with febrile convulsion, children more than 6 years old were mainly with epilepsia, the total treatment ef-fective rat e was 97.3%, the adverse reaction rate was 1.8%. Conclusion The etiology of emergency convulsions in children is complex and the febrile convulsion is most common, in clinic treatment, choosing necessary accessory examination means and symptomatic treatment can prevent disease recurrence and ensure the safety of children’s life.

  4. Chronic administration of citalopram inhibited El mouse convulsions and decreased monoamine oxidase-A activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Kabuto, Hideaki; Yokoi, Isao; Endo, Atsushi; Takei, Mineo; Kurimoto, Tadashi; Mori, Akitane

    1994-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is thought to play an important role in the seizures of El mice because the seizure threshold of El mice correlates with the 5-HT concentration in the central nervous system. In this study, the anticonvulsant effect of a 5-HT reuptake blocker, citalopram, was evaluated behaviorally and biochemically. El mouse convulsions were inhibited by chronic administration of citalopram (80 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 2 weeks), but were not inhibited by acute administration of citalopram (80 mg/...

  5. Clavulanic acid does not affect convulsions in acute seizure tests in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Maciej; Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Wlaź, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Clavulanic acid (CLAV) inhibits bacterial β-lactamases and is commonly used to aid antibiotic therapy. Prompted by the initial evidence suggestive of the potential anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties of CLAV, the present study was undertaken to systematically evaluate its acute effects on seizure thresholds in seizure tests typically used in primary screening of potential antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In the present study, 6-Hz seizure threshold, maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test, and intravenous pentylenetetrazole (i.v. PTZ) seizure tests were used to determine anticonvulsant effects of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered CLAV in mice. Acute effects on motor coordination and muscle strength were assessed in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. Doses of CLAV studied in the present study were either comparable or extended the doses reported in the literature to be effective against kainic acid-induced convulsions in mice or behaviorally active in rodents and monkeys. CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds in the 6-Hz (64 ng/kg to 1 mg/kg) and MEST (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) seizure tests. Similarly, CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds for i.v. PTZ-induced myoclonic twitch, clonic convulsions, and tonic convulsions (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg). Finally, CLAV (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) had no effect on the motor performance and muscle strength in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. In summary, CLAV failed to affect seizure thresholds in three seizure tests in mice. Although the results of the present study do not support further development of CLAV as an AED, its beneficial effects in chronic epilepsy models warrant further evaluation owing to its, for example, potential neuroprotective properties.

  6. Anticonvulsant and antioxidant activity of aqueous leaves extract of Desmodium triflorum in mice against pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock induced convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Bhosle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to study an anticonvulsant activity of aqueous extract of Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Fabaceae, in mice. Animal models of epilepsy namely the pentylenetetrazole, and maximal electroshock induced convulsion were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of the extracts. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. In the pentylenetetrazole induced convulsion, aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg significant delayed the onset of convulsion, reduced the duration of convulsion (p<0.05 and reduced mortality. The aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg dose reduced hind limb tonic extension phase of maximal electroshock induced convulsion induced convulsion in mice (p<0.05. The pretreated aqueous extract of D. triflorum showed significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increases the reduced glutathione level in mice brain tissue (p<0.001. The results revealed that D. triflorum possesses a significant dose dependent anticonvulsant activity.

  7. Effect Evaluation of Clinical Nursing Intervention in Children With Febrile Convulsion%高热惊厥患儿的临床护理干预效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安丽梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effect of clinical nursing intervention research on children with febrile convulsions to explore. MethodsSelection the children with febrile convulsion of 64 cases,all of them were randomly divided into control group and observation group with 32 cases in each group, the control group received routine nursing care, observation group on the basis of the control group using clinical nursing intervention. Results The observation group patients with seizure duration and hospitalization time was shorter than the control group (P<0.05),nursing satisfaction is higher than that of control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Using clinical nursing intervention on the patients with febrile convulsion, nursing satisfaction high, nursing effect is remarkable.%目的:探究高热惊厥患儿的临床护理干预效果。方法选取高热惊厥患儿64例,随机分为对照组和观察组各32例,对照组采用常规护理,观察组在对照组基础上采用临床护理干预。结果观察组患儿抽搐时间和住院时间短于对照组(P<0.05),护理满意度高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论对高热惊厥患儿采用临床护理干预,护理满意度高,护理效果显著。

  8. Lower degree of fever at the initial febrile convulsion is associated with increased risk of subsequent convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Radhi, A S

    1998-01-01

    We studied 132 children admitted consecutively with their first febrile convulsion to assess whether the degree of fever at the onset of the convulsion can predict the risk of subsequent convulsions. The children studied were reviewed at least 2 years after the initial febrile convulsion to determine the number of children who had recurrences of febrile convulsions and/or afebrile convulsions. Children with body temperatures below 39 degrees C at the onset of their initial febrile convulsion (Group 1) were two and half times more likely to experience multiple convulsions within the same illness than those with body temperatures above 39 degrees C (Group 2). This occurred when the body temperature rose above that which had triggered the initial febrile convulsion. Children in Group 1 were also over three times more likely to experience recurrent febrile convulsion in subsequent illnesses than those in Group 2. As for subsequent development of afebrile convulsion or epilepsy, although the risk was low, it only occurred in Group 1. It is suggested that the known association between multiple convulsions, recurrent febrile convulsions and epilepsy may be due to the single predisposing factor of a low degree of fever at the onset of febrile convulsion. Each child with febrile convulsion may have his own threshold for eliciting a convulsion with fever; the lower this threshold is, the more likely are subsequent convulsions. PMID:10724102

  9. Arginine vasopressin in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsion and temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulec, Guldal; Noyan, Behzat

    2002-11-15

    We aimed to investigate the possible convulsant action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in both a febrile convulsion model in rat pups and a temporal lobe epilepsy model in adult rats and to define the receptor type which mediates this effect. In rat pups, 125 ng V2 receptor antagonist significantly prevented hyperthermic seizures, but did not affect seizure latency. In adult rats, the only effective dose and agent was 125 ng V2 receptor antagonist, which prevented pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, extended the status epilepticus latency and improved the 24 h survival rate. These data suggest that AVP has a convulsant activity in febrile convulsions and also in seizures independent of fever, and this effect is mediated by V2 receptors. PMID:12438923

  10. [Complicated febrile convulsion vs herpes-encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, M

    1993-01-01

    Since Acyclovir is available a sufficient treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis exists. Febrile convulsions may occur as the initial manifestation of an encephalitis, particularly of an HSV encephalitis. Within 25 months out of 151 children with febrile convulsions five children with complicated febrile convulsions were admitted at the pediatric department of Graz. In all children HSV antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were negative and the diagnosis of an HSV encephalitis was made by positive CSF HSV polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Therefore, in any suspected case, i.e. in any case of a complicated febrile convulsion, CSF should be investigated including a HSV PCR to rapidly confirm or exclude HSV encephalitis. PMID:8386831

  11. Serum trace element levels in febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mojtaba; Farzin, Leila; Moassesi, Mohammad Esmail; Sajadi, Fattaneh

    2010-06-01

    Febrile convulsion is the most common disorder in childhood with good prognosis. There are different hypotheses about neurotransmitters and trace element changes in biological fluids which can have a role in pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. In this study, serum selenium, zinc, and copper were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in the children with febrile convulsion (n = 30) and in the control group (n = 30). The age and sex of the subjects were registered. Selenium and zinc were found to be significantly lower in febrile convulsion cases than in the control group (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the value of copper between the two groups (p = 0.16). While selenium and zinc levels were 44.92 +/- 10.93 microg/l and 66.13 +/- 18.97 microg/dl in febrile convulsion, they were found to be 62.98 +/- 9.80 microg/l and 107.87 +/- 28.79 microg/dl in healthy children. Meanwhile, copper levels were 146.40 +/- 23.51 microg/dl in the patients and 137.63 +/- 24.19 microg/dl in the control group, respectively. This study shows that selenium and zinc play an important role in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. PMID:19669113

  12. Curative Effect Observation of Bezoar Sedative Pill on Preventing and Treating Pediatric Febrile Convulsion%牛黄清心丸防治小儿热性惊厥疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of the therapy of Bezoar Sedative Pill on children with febrile convulsion.Methods:60 children with febrile convulsion participated in the study.30 cases were randomly assigned into therapy group (Bezoar Sedative Pill add conventional therapy) and 30 cases were in controlled group (conventional therapy).All patients were followed up for one year after discharge.During follow up,children in treatment group were given oral antipyretics add Bezoar Sedative Pill when they got fever again; while children in controlled group were given oral antipyretics alone when they got fever.Then the time of continued fever during hospital and the cases of recurrent febrile convulsion within one year after discharge were compared between the two groups.Results:The time of continued fever of patients in therapy group during hospital was significantly shorter than those in controlled group (P<0.05),and the cases of recurrent febrile convulsion in therapy group within one year after discharge was significantly less than recurrent cases in controlled group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Bezoar Sedative Pill can shorten the time of continued fever during hospital and decreases the cases of recurrent febrile convulsion within one year after discharge.%目的:观察牛黄清心丸辅助治疗小儿热性惊厥的疗效.方法:选取热性惊厥患儿60例,随机分为牛黄清心丸治疗组和对照组各30例,两组均给予常规治疗,治疗组加用口服牛黄清心丸(3g/天,3~5天).出院后所有患儿随访1年.随访期间患儿如再次出现发热,治疗组予口服退热药加牛黄清心丸(3g/天,3~5天),对照组仅口服退热药.比较两组住院期间发热持续时间、出院后1年内各组热性惊厥复发病例数.结果:治疗组患儿住院期间发热持续时间较对照组缩短,两组间比较有统计学意义(P<0.05);随访1年期间,治疗组热性惊厥复发例数低于对照组,两组

  13. Characteristics and treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of complicated febrile convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Kanemoto, K.; Takuji, N.; Kawasaki, J.; Kawai, I.

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the close correlation between complicated febrile convulsions (CFC) and medial temporal lobe epilepsy and to delineate characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with CFC. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were divided into those with a prior episode of CFC (n=52), those with febrile convulsions other than CFC, and those witout either (n=345). Clinical constellations, neuroimaging, drug resistance, and effects of temporal lobectomy of the three gro...

  14. Assessments of blood lead levels in children with febrile convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Khosravi, Nastaran; Izadi, Anahita; Noorbakhsh, Samileh; Javadinia, Shima; Tabatabaei, Azardokht; Ashouri, Sarvenaz; Asgarian, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead elements have an adverse effect on human health. The most important complications of lead poisoning are disorders of nervous system particularly seizure .This study aimed to evaluate the blood lead levels and its association with convulsion in a group of hospitalized febrile children. Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study, 60 hospitalized febrile children with 1- 60 month old participated in the study via non-probability convenience sampling method. All of the infor...

  15. Hyponatraemic convulsion secondary to desmopressin treatment for primary enuresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Apakama, D C; Bleetman, A

    1999-01-01

    The case of a 6 year old child who presented with convulsions and coma after unsupervised self administration of intranasal desmopressin (DDAVP) for nocturnal enuresis is presented. Children with enuresis can be embarassed by their condition and may believe that multiple doses of their nasal spray may bring about a rapid resolution. Water intoxication is an uncommon but serious adverse effect of treatment with intranasal DDAVP. These patients may present with seizure, mental state changes, or...

  16. Convulsions as primary manifestation of nutritional rickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Karunakara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rickets is diagnosed based on classical clinical features like craniotabes, rachitic rosary, widening of wrist joints, pot belly, hypotonia, bowed legs and supported by the laboratory evidence of hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and raised alkaline phosphatase. Hypocalcemic convulsions are a rare manifestation of nutritional rickets. Decline in the magnitude of the rickets requires high index of suspicion to identify this treatable condition. Herewith presenting retrospective study of twelve cases of rickets who presented with hypocalcemic seizures as primary manifestation. Materials and methods: A detailed retrospective analysis of diagnosed cases of rickets presenting with convulsions was done. Children who were admitted with hypocalcemic convulsion and subsequently diagnosed to have rickets were included in the study. Children who did not fulfill the criteria for diagnosis of rickets either clinically or biochemically or radiologically were excluded from the study. Details including age at presentation, weight, sex, gestational age and other associated diseases were collected and analyzed. Rickets was diagnosed on the basis of clinical features, biochemical parameters (serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and radiological findings. Results: A Total of 12 children; 8 male and 4 females constituted the study subjects. Mean age of presentation was 6 months. All children had presented with preceding convulsions or active convulsions. One child who presented with active convulsions was treated with parenteral phenobarbitone. All 12 of them were evaluated for the cause and found to have hypocalcemia without any other cause for convulsions. Further clinical examination revealed features of rickets and were subjected to radiological and biochemical investigations. The mean calcium value was 6.3mg/dl, phosphorus -5.35mg/dl, alkaline phosphatase-890.13 units. All the cases had radiological features of rickets. All 12 were

  17. The curative effect of Xingnaojing injection in the treatment of children febrile convulsion%醒脑静治疗小儿热性惊厥的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀颖

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of Xingnaojing injection on the duration of fever,convulsions and rate of relapse in the treatment of children with febrile convulsion.Methods Reviewed the medical records of 157 patients with febrile convulsion.Patients were assigned to Xingnaojin treatment (n =68) and conventional therapy group according to whether Xingnaojing injection was added in the conventional treatment(n =89).Collected the duration of fever since they accepted treatment in hospital,whether occurred convulsion again and untoward effect,had a follow -up of 6 months,in order to record whether they had relapse.Results In Xingnaojing group,the duration of fever was (2.43 ±1.38)d,which was shorter than (3.75 ±2.24)d of the control group(t =4.28,P <0.05).The occurrence rate of convulsion again in Xingnaojing group was 11.76%,which was lower than 25.83% of the control group(χ2 =4.821,P <0.05).Following -up for 6 months,Xingnaojing group had better rate of relapse (7.35%) than the control group(20.22%) (χ2 =5.108,P <0.05).No untoward effect was observed.Conclusion Xingnao-jing injection can shorter the duration of fever and prevent convulsion,while without obvious untoward effect,could apply to the treatment of children febrile convulsion.%目的:探讨醒脑静注射液对小儿热性惊厥发热的持续时间、止惊作用及复发率的影响。方法回顾性分析157例上呼吸道感染合并热性惊厥患儿的临床资料,根据治疗期间在常规治疗的基础上是否使用醒脑静将患儿分为醒脑静治疗组(68例)及常规治疗组(89例)。统计所有患儿入院治疗起至体温恢复正常所持续的时间、入院治疗起是否再次发生惊厥、在醒脑静治疗过程中是否发生不良反应及患儿出院6个月内有无再次出现热性惊厥。结果醒脑静治疗组的发热持续时间为(2.43±1.38)d,比常规治疗的患儿的发热时间(3.75±2.24)d 明显缩短(t =4.28,P

  18. Seizure recurrence after a first febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditan, A A

    1994-01-01

    In this study, 140 children aged from 6 months to 6 years who presented with a first febrile convulsion at the King Fahad Hofuf Hospital, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia were retrospectively identified. Information about these children was obtained from their medical records covering a follow-up period of 3 years from July 1989 to June 1992. Recurrent febrile convulsions occurred in 60 of them (43%). Relevant risk factors that were observed to be significantly associated with seizure recurrence included an age of less than 18 months (odds ratio [OR] = 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.26, 1.58), an initial febrile convulsion that was complex (OR = 4.41; CI = 9.50, 2.05) and a positive family history of febrile convulsions (OR = 4.12; CI = 10.74; 1.58), while a decreased risk of recurrence occurred with a temperature of over 39 degrees C (OR = 4.60; CI = 9.44; 2.24). There was no association between seizure recurrence and the duration of the initial febrile convulsion (OR = 0.93; CI = 2.33; -2.04) or family history of epilepsy (OR = 0.88; CI = 4.22, -3.27). An important observation in the present study is the close association (ORM-H = 2.36; X2M-H = 9.65) between the development of an afebrile convulsion and seizure recurrence among the group of children with CFC. Anticonvulsant prophylaxis should therefore be considered for children whose initial febrile convulsions are complex in nature. PMID:7880092

  19. Knowledge, attitude and practices of parents of children with febrile convulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Parental anxiety and apprehension is related to inadequate knowledge of fever and febrile convulsion. AIMS: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the parents of children with febrile convulsions. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire based study in a tertiary care centre carried over a period of one year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 140 parents of consecutive children presenting with febrile convulsion were enrolled. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test. RESULTS: 83 parents (59.3% could not recognise the convulsion; 90.7% (127 did not carry out any intervention prior to getting the child to the hospital. The commonest immediate effect of the convulsion on the parents was fear of death (n= 126, 90% followed by insomnia (n= 48, 34.3%, anorexia (n= 46, 32.9%, crying (n= 28, 20% and fear of epilepsy (n= 28, 20%. Fear of brain damage, fear of recurrence and dyspepsia were voiced by the fathers alone (n= 20, cumulative incidence 14.3%. 109 (77.9% parents did not know the fact that the convulsion can occur due to fever. The long-term concerns included fear of epilepsy (n= 64, 45.7% and future recurrence (n= 27, 19.3% in the affected child. For 56 (40% of the parents every subsequent episode of fever was like a nightmare. Only 21 parents (15% had thermometer at home and 28 (20% knew the normal range of body temperature. Correct preventive measures were known only to 41 (29.2%. Awareness of febrile convulsion and the preventive measures was higher in socio-economic grade (P< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The parental fear of fever and febrile convulsion is a major problem with serious negative consequences affecting daily familial life.

  20. 中医护理干预对小儿热性惊厥急救的作用%Effect of Chinese Medicine Nursing Intervention on Emergency Treatment of Children With Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晗

    2016-01-01

    Objective TCM nursing intervention in children with febrile seizures emergency role.Methods 70 cases of febrile seizures in children are divided into two groups, the implementation of routine ifrst aid and care, the experimental group received traditional Chinese medicine care aid and intervention.Results The experimental group seizures to stop the interval, convulsions to awake interval and hospital stay were signiifcantly less than the control group, no complications, the chance of complications in the control group was 11.4%.Conclusion The implementation of the TCM nursing intervention can get a good ifrst aid for febrile convulsions effect and reduce complications.%目的:探讨中医护理干预对小儿热性惊厥急救的作用。方法选取70例热性惊厥患儿分为两组,对照组实施常规急救与护理,实验组采用中医护理急救与干预。结果实验组抽搐至停止间隔时间、抽搐至清醒间隔时间以及住院时间均少于对照组,无人出现并发症,对照组并发症几率为11.4%。结论针对热性惊厥患儿实施中医护理干预可以获得良好的急救效果,减少并发症。

  1. Seasonal variation of febrile convulsion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, T; Okada, S

    1984-05-01

    The 6-year incidence rates of febrile convulsions in all 3-year-old children in Fuchu (covering 95% of children, number examined 17,044) was 8.2%. The incidence was higher in boys than in girls (9.0%: 7.5%, P less than 0.001). The incidence rates varied with the month and year of birth, but the variations observed were slight. Two peak appearances of seasonal variation of the first febrile convulsion were found in November-January and in June-August. The former could be interpreted as a tendency to winter virus infection of the upper respiratory tract in children. The other peak in summer could be explained as a tendency to gastrointestinal infection. Liability to febrile convulsion was influenced by the age of children and by the seasonal variations of febrile illness, but not by the season of birth. PMID:6464667

  2. Effect of Xingnaojing injection in adjuvant therapy of children with febrile convulsion%醒脑静注射液辅助治疗小儿热性惊厥的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of Xingnaojing Injection in adjuvant therapy of children with febrile convulsion. Methods 60 cases of children with febrile convulsion were randomly divided into two groups,with 30 cases in each group.Control group was given conventional symptomatic and supportive treatment,such as anti-convulsion,anti-infection,abatement of fever,oxygen uptake,and so on,on basis of which,treatment group was given Xingnaojing Injection 0.2-0.6mL/(kg·d),once a day.The course was 7 days.The observational indexes included:clinical effect;abatement time of fever,length of stay;recurrence of convulsion,epileptogenesis. Results The total effective rate of treatment group was 93.3%,which was higher than that of control group (76.7%),the difference was statistically significant(P 0.05).There were no statistically significant difference of the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups(P > 0.05). Conclusion Xingnaojing Injection in adjuvant therapy of children with febrile convulsion can improve clinical effect obviously,shorten abatement time of fever and length of stay,reduce the times of recurrence of convulsion,which is worthy of clinical promotion and application.%目的:观察醒脑静注射液辅助治疗小儿热性惊厥的效果。方法将60例热性惊厥患儿随机分为两组,各30例。对照组给予止惊、抗感染、退热、吸氧等常规对症支持治疗,治疗组在此基础上给予醒脑静注射液0.2~0.6mL/(kg·d),1次/d。7d为1个疗程。观察指标包括:临床疗效、退热时间、住院时间、惊厥复发以及癫痫发生情况、不良反应发生情况。结果治疗组总有效率达93.3%,显著高于对照组(76.7%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组退热时间(1.48±0.16)d、住院时间(2.48±0.56)d,均显著短于对照组(2.23±0.47)d、(4.97±1.34)d],差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。随访1年后,

  3. Early Developmental Outcome Following Convulsive Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the Developmental Cognitive Neurosciences Unit, Institute of Child Health, London, other centers in the UK, and Dartmouth School of Medicine, NH, USA, prospectively recruited children aged between 1 and 42 months from North London who had at least one episode of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE and classified them as prolonged febrile seizures (PFS or nonfebrile CSE.

  4. CAN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS HELP EASE PARENTAL ANXIETY FOLLOWING THEIR CHILD FIRST FEBRILE CONVULSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Farsar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveCompared to other pediatric emergencies, febrile convulsions (FC, despite having an excellent prognosis, are a main cause of considerable anxiety among mothers of children faced with their child's first febrile convulsion.Consequently, one of the physician's most important responsibilities in the management of pediatric febrile convulsions is to educate and guide mothers on how to reduce their anxiety. This study was performed on mothers whose children had been admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital following a first febrile convulsion, to determine the effect of education on lowering the levels of maternal anxiety after their child's first febrile convulsion. Materials and MethodsIn this sequential control clinical trial, 84 volunteering mothers were divided in two matched groups, the intervention and the controls. Maternal anxiety levels were determined in both groups by the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI standard questionnaire (pretest. Following this, the intervention group of mothers underwent face-to-face education for 3 hours, whereas no intervention was used for the control group. After nine days, anxiety levels were determined in the two groups using the same questionnaire (post-test.The data was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney, the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum, and the McNemar tests, and chi-square analysis. ResultsResults show that in the intervention group, maternal anxiety decreased significantly (pConclusionThis study demonstrates that maternal education on FCs significantly reduces maternal anxiety, in coping with stress following their child's first febrile convulsion, and considering the results of similar studies, educational programs are highly recommended for mothers having children who suffer from the condition.Keywords: Febrile Convulsion, Education, Anxiety

  5. 中西医结合治疗小儿烧伤后惊厥的临床疗效观察%Therapeutic Effect of Combination of Traditional Chinese Medicine and West Medicine for Convulsion after Burn Injury in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of the combination of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) and west medicine for convulsion after burn injury in children. Methods 96 children with convulsion after burn injury,admitted to our hospital from January 2005 to December 2013,were randomly divided into control group and observation group with each group 48 cases. The control group was given west medicine treatment,including opening air passages,oxygen uptake,sedation, relieving convulsion and abatement of fever. While the observation group was given additional drip-feed of Qingkailing Injection, oral Bezoar Bolus,oral and packed Zixue Pellet.χ2 was used to compare the therapeutic effect of the two groups. Results After treatment,32 cases were significantly improved,14 cases were improved and 2 cases were invalid in the observation group,with a total therapeutic effect of 95. 8%;26 cases were significantly improved,8 cases were improved and 14 cases were invalid in the control group,with a total therapeutic effect of 70. 8%,which was significantly higher than the control group(χ2 =11. 56, P<0. 05). Conclusion The therapeutic effect is fairly good by combining TCM and west medicine,which is conducive to the childrenˊs immediate rehabilitation.%目的:观察中西医结合治疗小儿烧伤后惊厥的临床疗效。方法选取2005年1月-2013年12月本院烧伤科收治的烧伤后惊厥患儿96例,将其随机分为对照组和观察组,各48例。对照组患儿给予西医治疗,包括通畅呼吸道、吸氧、镇静、止痉、退热等常规治疗。观察组在对照组治疗的基础上,另给予清开灵注射液静脉滴注,安宫牛黄丸口服,紫雪丹口服、外敷。采用χ2检验比较两组患儿治疗后的总有效率。结果治疗后观察组显效32例,有效14例,无效2例,总有效率为95.8%;对照组显效26例,有效8例,无效14例,总有效率为70.8%。观察组患儿总

  6. The first febrile convulsion: an analysis of 108 children in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, A H; Taha, S A

    1982-09-01

    In 108 children admitted to the Maternity and Children's Hospital, Riyadh with their first febrile convulsion, clinical course, management and underlying causes were analysed. There was a preponderance of boys (69%) and a mean age of 18.6 months with a peak incidence (82%) between six months and three years. The commonest precipitating conditions were upper respiratory infection and gastroenteritis. Physical findings were confined to those of the primary disease. Routine investigations, including CSF analysis were not helpful. Convulsions were mainly of the simple type, single and symmetrical, and did not last for more than 30 minutes. Two thirds of the children reached hospital within two hours of the onset of their first convulsion, and the remainder up to ten hours after the convulsion had ceased. In only 18 patients did the parents take measures to lower the temperature or revive the child. Management of febrile convulsions is discussed. Since the condition is common and, if repeated, may have serious effects, methods of educating parents are suggested. PMID:6191623

  7. 头孢曲松钠对大鼠热性惊厥的防治作用及机理研究%The Research of Mechanism and Effection in the Prevent and Therapeutic Course of Rats Febrile Convulsion with Ceftriaxone sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蕊; 李俊利

    2013-01-01

      目的研究头孢曲松钠对大鼠热性惊厥时脑内谷氨酸和谷氨酸转运体表达的影响,探讨头孢曲松钠对抗高热惊厥脑损伤的机制。方法利用热水浴惊厥模型诱导出生15d后100只Wistar大鼠发生10次热性惊厥,将其分为治疗组和对照组。治疗组大鼠每次惊厥一出现立即腹腔注射头孢曲松钠(分为50mg/kg,100mg/kg,200mg/kg),对照组大鼠仅腹腔注射等量生理盐水,利用免疫组织化学方法检测正常对照组和高热惊厥组大鼠脑内谷氨酸及谷氨酸转运体的表达,并进行定性及定量分析。结果高热惊厥时脑细胞内谷氨酸表达上升,而脑细胞膜和细胞间质中的谷氨酸转运体GLT-1表达下降;接受头孢曲松钠治疗的大鼠脑细胞谷氨酸表达降低,而GLT-1表达上升并呈剂量依赖性。结论头孢曲松钠可以上调热性惊厥大鼠皮层和海马CA1区GLT-1蛋白的表达。%Objective To study the effection to the expression of aminoglutaminic acid and aminoglutaminic acid transporter in brain of febrile convulsion rat about ceftriaxone sodium, approach the mechanism about febrile convulsion brain injured with ceftriaxone sodium . Methods:Selected only 100 maleness Wistar rats , age of 15 days,weight 30~45g. Divided the rat into 2 groups:normal control group(20) and febrile convulsion group(80). Utilized hot bath convulsion model to induce febrile convulsion 10 times with birth 15d Wistar rats, divided it into therapy group and control group. The rat of therapy group was injected with ceftriaxone sodium immediately when the convulsion had happened,(divided into 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg three doses),the rat of control group only was injected with normal saline into partes aequales,use the method of immunohistochemistry to test and analysis the express condition of aminoglutaminic acid and aminoglutaminic acid transporter about in brain of normal control and febrile convulsion group rat

  8. Recognition and management of febrile convulsion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Kirkham, Emily Natasha; Shirt, Bethany

    2015-08-26

    Febrile convulsion is characterised by convulsion associated with fever in an infant or child aged between six months and six years. The febrile illness causing the convulsion should not be secondary to an intracranial infection (meningitis or encephalitis) or acute electrolyte imbalance. Most cases of febrile convulsion are short lived and self-terminating. However, a few cases of prolonged febrile convulsion may need anticonvulsant medication to stop the seizure. Management is mainly symptomatic, although anticonvulsants may have a role in a small number of children with complex or recurrent febrile convulsion. Referral to paediatric neurologists may be necessary in cases of complex or recurrent febrile convulsion, or in those where a pre-existing neurological disorder exists. One third of children will develop a further febrile convulsion during subsequent febrile illness. Nurses have a vital role in managing children with febrile convulsion, educating parents about the condition and dispelling myths. This article outlines the presentation, management, investigations and prognosis for febrile convulsion, indicating how nurses working in different clinical areas can help to manage this common childhood condition. PMID:26307316

  9. Anticonvulsant and antioxidant activity of aqueous leaves extract of Desmodium triflorum in mice against pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock induced convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Vaibhav Bhosle

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed to study an anticonvulsant activity of aqueous extract of Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC., Fabaceae, in mice. Animal models of epilepsy namely the pentylenetetrazole, and maximal electroshock induced convulsion were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of the extracts. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. In the pentylenetetrazole induced convulsion, aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg si...

  10. Lumbar puncture refusal in febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, S G; Boey, C C

    2000-10-01

    A descriptive study was carried out on patients admitted for febrile convulsion over a two-year period to determine rate of lumbar puncture (LP) refusal, factors associated with LP refusal and outcome of such patients. From 77 patients indicated and requested for LP, 19 (25%) patients refused the procedure. Refusal of LP was significantly more common among the Malay ethnic group (p = 0.01) but not significantly associated with age,gender or whether the patient was admitted for a first or recurrent febrile convulsion. Half of the patients who refused LP had to be started empirically on antibiotics for meningitis. Patients who refused LP were also 8.5 times more likely to discharge themselves "at own risk" (AOR), compared to other patients with febrile convulsion (p = 0.004). In conclusion, LP refusal is a common problem in the local setting and is a hindrance to the proper management of patients with fever and seizure. Appropriate measures must be carried out to educate the public, particularly those from the Malay ethnic group on the safety and usefulness of the procedure. Reasons for patients discharging AOR following LP refusal also need to be addressed and problems rectified. PMID:11281439

  11. Relationship between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Youn Soo Jun; Ho Il Bang; Seung Taek Yu; Sae Ron Shin; Du Young Choi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose : The association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants has been examined in several studies with conflicting results. Therefore, the authors aimed to evaluate the precise relationship involved. Methods : In this case-control study, the authors assessed 100 children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsion, aged between 9 months and 2 years, during January 2007 to July 2009. The control group consisted of 100 febrile children without convulsion; controls w...

  12. Cerebrospinal Fluid Findings in the First Febrile Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Emami, P

    2001-01-01

    Is a routine lumbar puncture in patients with first episode of febrile convulsion necessary? In order to find an answer to this question, in a prospective study 332 children with a first episode of convulsion were lumbar punctured. 17 patients (5.1%) had abnormal CSF findings although clinically meningitis was not suspected in them. This makes a lumber puncture in children with the first episode of febrile convulsion unavoidable.

  13. CAN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS HELP EASE PARENTAL ANXIETY FOLLOWING THEIR CHILD FIRST FEBRILE CONVULSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Farsar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective Compared to other pediatric emergencies, febrile convulsions (FC, despite having an excellent prognosis, are a main cause of considerable anxiety among mothers of children faced with their child’s first febrile convulsion. Consequently, one of the physician’s most important responsibilities in the management of pediatric febrile convulsions is to educate and guide mothers on how to reduce their anxiety. This study was performed on mothers whose children had been admitted to Mofid Children’s Hospital following a first febrile convulsion, to determine the effect of education on lowering the levels of maternal anxiety after their child’s first febrile convulsion.Materials and MethodsIn this sequential control clinical trial, 84 volunteering mothers were divided in two matched groups, the intervention and the controls. Maternal anxiety levels were determined in both groups by the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI standard questionnaire (pretest. Following this, the intervention group of mothers underwent face-to-face education for 3 hours, whereas no intervention was used for the control group. After nine days, anxiety levels were determined in the two groups using the same questionnaire (post-test. The data was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney, the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum, and the McNemar tests, and chi-square analysis.ResultsResults show that in the intervention group, maternal anxiety decreased significantly (p<0.001, whereas no significant difference was seen in the control group.Conclusion This study demonstrates that maternal education on FCs significantly reduces maternal anxiety, in coping with stress following their child’s first febrile convulsion, and considering the results of similar studies, educational programs are highly recommended for mothers having children who suffer from the condition.

  14. Renal Function in Children with Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan AFSHARKHAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Afsharkhas L, Tavasoli A. Renal Function in Children with Febrile Convulsions.Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4:57-61.AbstractObjectiveFebrile convulsions (FC are the most frequent seizure disorder in children.Some studies have detected serum electrolyte disturbances in patients with FC.This study determines serum electrolytes, renal function tests, and frequency of urinary tract infection in hospitalized children with FC.Materials & MethodsIn this descriptive, cross sectional study, we evaluated 291 children with FC admitted to the Neurology ward of Ali-Asghar Children’s Hospital from 2008–2013. Data was recorded on age, sex, type (simple, complex, and recurrence of seizures, family history of FC and epilepsy, serum electrolytes, renal function tests, and urinary tract infections.ResultsA total of 291 patients with diagnosis of FC were admitted to our center. Of these 291 patients, 181 (62.2% were male. The mean age was 24.4 ± 14.6 months.There were simple, complex, and recurrent FCs in 215 (73.9%, 76 (26.1% and 61 (21% of patients, respectively. Urinary tract infections (UTI were found in 13 (4.5% patients, more present in females (p-value = 0.03 and under 12 months of age (p-value = 0.003. Hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypokalemia was detected in 32 (11%, 16 (5.5%, and 4 (1.4% of cases, respectively. Twentyfour (8.2% patients had a glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2.There were no abnormalities in serum magnesium, BUN, and creatinine levels.ConclusionDuring FCs, mild changes may occur in renal function but a serum electrolyte evaluation is not necessary unless patients are dehydrated. In children with FC, urinary tract infections should be ruled out. ReferencesGhofrani M. Febrile Convulsion: Another look at an old subject. Iran J Child Neurology 2006 June:1(1:5-9.Swaiman K, Ashwal S, Ferriero D, Schor N. Swaiman’s Pediatric Neurology: Principles and Practice. 5th edition

  15. Soman-induced convulsions: The neuropathology revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organophosphorus compound soman, an irreversible inhibitor of cholinesterases, produces seizure activity and related brain damage. Studies using various biochemical markers of programmed cell death (PCD) suggested that soman-induced cell damage in the brain was apoptotic rather than necrotic. However, it has recently become clear that not all PCD is apoptotic, and the unequivocal demonstration of apoptosis requires ultrastructural examination. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to reinvestigate the damage produced in the brains of mice sacrificed at various times within the first 24 h or at 7 days after a convulsive dose of soman. Classical histology and ultrastructural examination were performed. The immunohistochemical expression of proteins (p53, Bax) involved in PCD, DNA fragmentation (TUNEL method at light and electron microscopy levels) and the glial reaction were also explored. Our study confirms that the severity of lesions depended on the duration of convulsions and shows that cerebral changes were still occurring as late as 7 days after the onset of long-lasting convulsions. Our observations also establish that there was a large variety of ultrastructurally distinct types of cell damage, including hybrid forms between apoptosis and necrosis, but that pure apoptosis was very rare. A prominent expression of p53 and Bax proteins was detected indicating that PCD mechanisms were certainly involved in the morphologically diverse forms of cell death. Since purely apoptotic cells were very rare, these protein expressions were presumably involved either in nonapoptotic cell death mechanisms or in apoptotic mechanisms occurring in parallel with nonapoptotic ones. Moreover, evidence for DNA fragmentation by the TUNEL method was found in apoptotic but also in numerous other morphotypes of cell damage. Therefore, TUNEL-positivity and the expression of PCD-related proteins, in the absence of ultrastructural confirmation, were here shown not to provide

  16. Parent behaviour regarding fever and febrile convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Erdağ, Gülay Çiler; AKIN, Yasemin; GİRİT, Nadir; ALTUĞ, Habibe

    2010-01-01

    Objective and Aim: This prospective study was planned to evaluate the level of knowledge and approach of the parents on fever and febrile convulsion (FC) of children brought to our Pediatric Emergency Room(PER) for high fever, aged between 3 months-5 years. Material and Methods: Parents of 150 children, brought to PER for high fever were interviewed by pediatricians with a questionnaire. Results: 87.0% of the questions were answered by the mother, and 13% by the father. 64.0% of the parents c...

  17. Occult pneumococcal bacteraemia and febrile convulsions.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Over two years 29 children had bacteraemia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae at this hospital. In 15 previously healthy children the site of infection could not be identified, and in most of them, bacteraemia was not suspected clinically. All 15 had high total white cell (greater than or equal to 17 x 10(9)/1) and neutrophil (greater than or equal to 11 x 10(9)/1) counts. Twelve children were under 4 years of age, and of these, 10 had been admitted because of a simple febrile convulsion and one...

  18. Prognosis and predictors of convulsion among pediatric lupus nephritis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we aimed to analyze features and outcome of convulsion in pediatric lupus nephritis patients. We retrospectively reviewed data of 14 Iranian children with lupus nephritis who developed seizures and compared them with a group of the same number of well matched pediatric lupus nephritis patients. Higher serum creatinine levels and higher frequencies of anemia and lymphopenia were observed in the convulsion group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the only risk factor for development of convulsion in pediatric lupus patients with nephritis was lymphopenia. Survival analysis showed that convulsion had no impact on patient and renal function outcomes in our pediatric lupus nephritis subjects. In conclusion, we found that lymphopenia is a predictive factor for convulsion occurrence in our patients and special attention to neurological status assessment may be needed in this situation. (author)

  19. Prognosis and predictors of convulsion among pediatric lupus nephritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beiraghdar Fatemeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to analyze features and outcome of convulsion in pediatric lupus nephritis patients. We retrospectively reviewed data of 14 Iranian children with lupus nephritis who developed seizures and compared them with a group of the same number of well matched pe-diatric lupus nephritis patients. Higher serum creatinine levels and higher frequencies of anemia and lymphopenia were observed in the convulsion group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis re-vealed that the only risk factor for development of convulsion in pediatric lupus patients with ne-phritis was lymphopenia. Survival analysis showed that convulsion had no impact on patient and renal function outcomes in our pediatric lupus nephritis subjects. In conclusion, we found that lympho-penia is a predictive factor for convulsion occurrence in our patients and special attention to neuro-logical status assessment may be needed in this situation.

  20. [Febrile convulsion. A clinical study of 303 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-González, R; Vallejo-Moreno, D; Carrera-Sandoval, J P; Sevilla-Castillo, R; de la Peña-Saucedo, F

    1990-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of 303 patients who had episodes of feverish convulsions (FC) were retrospectively reviewed. No preference was seen for either sex (1.3/1). In 75.3% of the cases, the convulsions occurred in children under two. There was some predominance of tonic-clonic crisis and generalized clonic-tonic convulsions (85.5%) with 21.8% of complex partial crisis. In 44.8% of the cases a perinatal history of high risk was noted. A comparative investigation was carried out in a subgroup of 244 children in who FC vs non-febrile convulsions (NFC) were during two years. In 35.2% of the patients neurological abnormalities were found associated, among them were language difficulties (27.4%) and psychomotor retardation (11.9%). In 36.4% of the cases, the EEG was found to be abnormal, and paroxysmal in 27%. The predominating perinatal pathological complications were perinatal hypoxia-anoxia and prematurity. In 84% of the patients, anti-convulsive medication was administered. Of the 244 patients, 62 (25.4) of them had NFC which were directly related to the number of risk factors and their characteristics. Among those risk factors were partial convulsions, neurological deficit, abnormal EEG, convulsions lasting over 10 minutes and a previous family history of epilepsy. It is noteworthy that 15.7% of the patients had no risk factors related to epilepsy. In those patients who suffered from convulsions from an early age, who had convulsions of a partial--complex type, which lasted over 20 minutes and repeated frequently--were seen to be the most likely to develop epilepsy. The medications prescribed prevented the occurrence of the FC but did not significantly diminish the development of epilepsy. Febrile convulsions; epilepsy; perinatal. PMID:1692466

  1. Clinical update: febrile convulsion in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Blaikley, Sarah; Chinthapalli, Ravindranath

    2012-07-01

    Febrile convulsion is common in young children and occurs in 3-4% of children aged under six years of age. This is the most common seizure disorder and it is not epilepsy. It occurs generally with high temperatures and recurs in one third of children during a subsequent febrile illness. These episodes can be extremely frightening for parents and lot of reassurance needs to be provided by health professionals after an episode. Most often the episodes are short lived and self-terminating and long-term anticonvulsant medicines are not required. The prognosis is generally good and affected children do not suffer any long-term health problems. Community practitioners can provide education, support and counselling to help families return to normality after an event. PMID:22866531

  2. FEBRILE CONVULSION: ANOTHER LOOK AT AN OLD SUBJECT

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghofrani MD

    2006-01-01

    Febrile convulsion (FC), an occurrence frequently encountered in everyday practice, is discussed in this article with a review of corresponding literature.Taking into account the extent of debate on the topic, from FC being considered a kind of epileptic seizure to its being viewed as a nonepileptic phenomenon, our aim is not to be judgmental regarding its nature in the present writing. Two distinct groups of children, who convulse with fever are described; one, the group whose neurological s...

  3. Relationship between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Soo Jun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants has been examined in several studies with conflicting results. Therefore, the authors aimed to evaluate the precise relationship involved. Methods : In this case-control study, the authors assessed 100 children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsion, aged between 9 months and 2 years, during January 2007 to July 2009. The control group consisted of 100 febrile children without convulsion; controls were closely matched to the cases by age, gender, and underlying disease. Results : The mean ages of the febrile convulsion and control group were 16.3¡?#?.4 ;and 15.8¡?#?.1 ;months, respectively, and the two groups had no differences in clinical features. Iron deficiency anemia (Hb &lt;10.5 gm/dL was more frequent in the febrile convulsion group than in the control group, although there was no statistical significance. Unexpectably, the RDW (red blood cell distribution width was significantly lower and the MCNC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly higher among seizure cases than among the controls (P&lt;0.05. There is no statistical difference between simple and complex febrile groups in the clinical and laboratory profiles. On multiple logistic regression analysis, iron deficiency anemia was more frequent, but the RDW was lower, among the cases with febrile convulsion, compared with the controls. Conclusions : Our study suggests that the iron deficiency anemia is associated with febrile convulsion, and screening for iron deficiency anemia should be considered in children with febrile convulsions.

  4. Factors predisposing to a complicated initial febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S J

    1975-01-01

    131 consecutive admissions to hospital for a first febrile convulsion were studied to find which factors predisposed to a complicated fit--defined as one lasting more than 30 minutes, unilateral, or repeated within the same illness. A significant excess of complicated attacks occurred where the age of onset was less than 16 months, where both family history of convulsive disorder and perinatal abnormality were present, and, in females only, where it was suspected that neurological disorder preceded the first fit. PMID:1220608

  5. Automated differentiation between epileptic and non-epileptic convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai;

    2015-01-01

    algorithm: 25 generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) from 11 patients, and 19 episodes of convulsive PNES from 13 patients. The gold standard was the interpretation of the video-electroencephalographic recordings by experts blinded to the EMG results. The algorithm correctly classified 24 GTCSs (96%) and...... 18 PNESs (95%). The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95%. This algorithm is useful for distinguishing between epileptic and psychogenic convulsive seizures....

  6. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations. PMID:22608867

  7. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations.

  8. Lymphocytes subsets in children with febrile convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Oğuz; Karaman, Sait; Caksen, Hüseyin; Oner, Ahmet Faik; Odabas, Dursun; Yilmaz, Cahide; Atas, Bülent

    2007-07-01

    In this study, lymphocytes subsets including blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, and CD56 values were analyzed in children with febrile convulsion (FC) to determine whether there was the association of lymphocytes subsets in the pathogenesis of FC. The study includes 48 children with FC, and 55 healthy age matched control subjects, followed in Yüzüncü Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics between October 2003 and June 2004. Blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, and CD56 values were examined in the study and control groups. The analyses were performed in the Hematology Laboratory, Yüzüncü Yil University Faculty of Medicine, with flow cytometer device (Coulter Epics XL2, Flow Cytometer). A total of 48 children [17 girls (35.5%) and 31 boys (64.5%)], aged 6 months to 60 months (mean 22.20 +/- 13.75 months) with FC and 55 healthy children [28 girls (51%) and 27 boys (49%)], aged 6 months to 60 months (mean 28.87 +/- 17.04 months) were included in the study. When compared with the control group, the study found significantly decreased blood CD3 and CD4 values in the study group (p .05). When comparing the children with and without positive family history for FC, the study did not find any difference for all CD values between the groups (p >.05). Similarly, there was not significant difference in CD values between the children with simple and complex FC (p >.05). The findings suggested that decreased blood CD3 and CD4 values might be responsible for the infections connected with FC or that they might be related to the pathogenesis of FC in some children.

  9. New lessons: Classic treatments in convulsive status epilepticus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Renganathan, R

    2012-02-03

    Convulsive status epilepticus is a relatively common life-threatening illness requiring prompt intervention. There has been much debate about the appropriate protocol for management of convulsive status epilepticus. Published data on the management of this condition in Ireland is limited. Our aim was to establish if there was a structured, evidence-based or consensus-based protocol being implemented in the management of status epilepticus in our centre. We retrospectively audited all charts with a diagnosis of \\'Status Epilepticus\\' admitted to our hospital from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 95 episodes of convulsive status epilepticus were recorded. 34 charts were reviewed. Benzodiazepines were the drug class of first choice in 96% of patients. However, the doses of benzodiazepines used varied widely. The most frequent dose of phenytoin used was 1 gram. No one received continuous EEG monitoring during treatment of refractory status epilepticus. Overall mortality was 18%. The results of this study show that there is no consistent protocol was being followed for the management of convulsive status epilepticus in our centre. The drugs of first choice varied between diazepam and lorazepam in most cases. Although phenytoin was used as second line drug, the dose used was frequently suboptimal. We have developed a protocol for the management for convulsive status in our centre.

  10. Clinical research of benign infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-bing LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cases of benign infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (BICE treated in our hospital from 2008 to 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Among the 65 cases of convulsions with acute diarrhea, there were 18 cases of BICE, 15 cases of febrile seizures, 13 cases of epilepsy, 6 cases of viral encephalitis, 6 cases of hyponatremia encephalopathy, 3 cases of hypernatremia encephalopathy, 2 cases of toxic encephalopathy, and 2 cases of hypocalcemia convulsion. The convulsion occurred mostly during the first 2 d of the illness and was in a generalized tonic or tonic-clonic form. Positive rotavirus antigens in the BICE patients were detected in 83.33% (15/18. Phenobarbital was administered after the first convulsion (5-10 mg/kg, and diazepam was given intravenously in case of recurrence (0.10-0.30 mg/kg. BICE occurs frequently in infantile and controlling relapse is the main purpose. The prognosis is good. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.019

  11. Characteristics and treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of complicated febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, K; Takuji, N; Kawasaki, J; Kawai, I

    1998-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the close correlation between complicated febrile convulsions (CFC) and medial temporal lobe epilepsy and to delineate characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with CFC. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were divided into those with a prior episode of CFC (n=52), those with febrile convulsions other than CFC, and those without either (n=345). Clinical constellations, neuroimaging, drug resistance, and effects of temporal lobectomy of the three groups were compared. A close association between CFC and temporal lobe epilepsy was confirmed. The salient features of temporal lobe epilepsy with CFC were early age at onset of habitual seizures (about 10 years), the predominance of autonomic auras, and a high incidence of MRI evidence of unilateral medial temporal sclerosis. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with prior CFC had an excellent outcome after surgery, by contrast with an unfavourable response to drug therapy. The surgical results were discouraging in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy without history of any febrile convulsions and without solid brain tumours. These results indicate surgical intervention as the choice of therapy in a substantial number of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of CFC. PMID:9489540

  12. EEG disorder in patients with complex febrile convulsion and underlying risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Hemmati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile seizures are the most common convulsion disorder in childhood. The possible risk of developing epilepsy in febrile seizures is about 2-10%. EEG is helpful to diagnose epilepsy; however, there are controversies about the abnormal EEG and associated risk factors .The aim of this study was to determine EEG abnormality and effective risk factors in patients with complex febrile seizures. Methods: This study was conducted on the patients with complex febrile seizures in 2009-2010.EEG was performed on all children 6 to 10 days after seizure and reported by a neurologist. Demographic data and risk factors, including age, sex, family history of epilepsy and febrile convulsions, presentation of seizure, postictal neurological disorder were documented by a checklist and their association with EEG was analyzed. Results: 111 patients with complex febrile seizure, 70 girls and 41 boys, with the mean age of 3.4±20 months were studied. EEG was abnormal in 37.8% of patients, 9% were epileptic form abnormality and 28.8% were nonspecific abnormal. There was a statistically significant association between EEG abnormality in patients with focal seizures, family history of febrile seizures and postictal neurologic disorder (p<0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed abnormality of EEG in complex febrile convulsions in 37.8% of patients, which was significantly higher in patients with postictal neurological disorder, focal seizures and family history of febrile seizure.

  13. Rocuronium and sugammadex: An alternative to succinylcholine for electro convulsive therapy in patients with suspected neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramamoorthy, Karthik G

    2012-01-31

    We report a case of presumptive neuroleptic malignant syndrome requiring muscle relaxation for electro-convulsive therapy. short acting muscle relaxation without the use of succinylcholine was achieved using rocvronivm reversed with the novel reversal agent sugammadex. We suggest that this combination is a safe and effective alternative to succinylcholine in such cases.

  14. Clinical Effect of Modified Electric Convulsive Therapy on Acute Psychosis%无抽搐电休克治疗急性期重性精神病的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽蓉

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical effect of modified electric convulsive therapy( MECT) on acute psychosis.Methods:60 patients with acute psychosis, who were in our hospital from December, 2013 to January,2014,were divided into drug treatment group( n=30) and MECT treatment group( n=30) in accordance with the admission time.brief psychiatric rating scale( BPRS) ,the Clinical Global Im-pression-Severty of Illness( CGI-SI) and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale( TESS) were used to eval-uate the curative effect and side effects before the treatment and 1st,2nd,3rd and 4th week after the treat-ment.Results:The total efficiency of the MECT treatment group was 96.67% ,which was significantly higher than that of drug treatment group(46.67%) (P <0.01).There was no significant change in BPRS between two groups before the treatment.BPRS in MECT treatment group was significantly lower than that in the drug treatment group after 1 week (t=3.04,P<0.05),2 week(t=2.75,P<0.05),3 week (t=4.24,P<0.01)and 4 week treatment(t=3.89,P<0.01).The difference in CGI-SI score was no statistical significant between the two groups before and 1 week after the treatment.CGI-SI in MECT treatment group were significantly lower than those in the drug treatment group after 2 week ( t=9.91,P<0.01),3 week (t=6.79,P<0.01)and 4 week treatment(t=6.40,P<0.01).Significant lower incidences of adverse reactions to the drug were observed in the patients in MECT treatment group compared with drug treatment group at 1 week(t=2.40,P<0.05),2week(t=3.35,P<0.05),3week (t=4.15,P<0.01) and 4 week (t=5.53,P <0.01) after the treatment.Conclusion:The effect of MECT is superior to the conventional drug treatment and the side effect of MECT is lower than that of conventional drug treatment,MECT is a safe and effective treatment method for acute psychosis.%目的:探讨无抽搐电休克治疗( MECT)急性期重性精神病的临床疗效。方法:选取2013年12月-2014年1月在攀枝花市第三人民医院6个

  15. PRRT2 phenotypes and penetrance of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and infantile convulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Rianne; Breedveld, Guido; de Rijk-van Andel, Johanneke; Brilstra, Eva; Verbeek, Nienke; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, Corien; Boon, Maartje; Samijn, Johnny; Diderich, Karin; van de Laar, Ingrid; Oostra, Ben; Bonifati, Vincenzo; Maat-Kievit, Anneke

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the phenotypes and penetrance of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), a movement disorder characterized by attacks of involuntary movements occurring after sudden movements, infantile convulsion and choreoathetosis (ICCA) syndrome, and benign familial infantile convulsions

  16. Differences between physiological and pathological convulsive thresholds in patients with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxi Liu; Leiyu Geng; Jiali Xu; Mingzheng Wang; Ce Zhang; Yu Zhang

    2008-01-01

    necessary to provoke convulsion of the forelimbs and/or facial muscles. Up to the TLS, if stimulation continued, the current intensity necessary to provoke the generalized seizures is called the threshold of generalized seizures (TGS). If stimulation is continued for about 2 seconds when the TGS is reached, rats still showed generalized clonic activity after stimulation ceased. When seizures stopped, a short period of immobility can be observed. The current intensity is called the threshold of prolonged seizures (TPS). The rats in the strong current group were stimulated up to the current level required to reach the TPS. In the course of stimulation, first, the TLS was recorded, then the TGS, and finally the TPS. The stimulation interval in one session was 10 minutes, repeated twice daily. The rats in the weak current group were only stimulated up to the current levels required to reach the TGS; first, the TLS was recorded and then the TGS was measured at the same time as the strong current group. Control animals were also equipped with a full electrode set and placed in the same conditions, but no stimulation took place, only electroencephalogram (EEG) recording at the same times as the experimental groups.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Stimulation of the two experimental groups lasted for 11 weeks and then observation of their behavior and electroencephalogram recording continued for 4 weeks. The control group was also observed over a total of 15 weeks. ② Observing neuronal damage/loss in the hippocampus with a light microscope using a 250× visual field.RESULTS: All 36 Wistar rats were included in the final analysis. At the beginning of the experiment, the convulsive thresholds were all above 1 100 μA, although there were significant individual variations among rats of the same group. Those thresholds quickly declined during the initial 4 weeks of repetitive electrical stimulation. The convulsive thresholds approached a constant level in the 10th week after commencement

  17. FEBRILE CONVULSION: ANOTHER LOOK AT AN OLD SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.GHOFRANI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Febrile convulsion (FC, an occurrence frequently encountered ineveryday practice, is discussed in this article with a review ofcorresponding literature.Taking into account the extent of debate on the topic, from FC beingconsidered a kind of epileptic seizure to its being viewed as a nonepileptic phenomenon, our aim is not to be judgmental regardingits nature in the present writing. Two distinct groups of children,who convulse with fever are described; one, the group whoseneurological status is suboptimal and the other children who onewho enjoy good health.In this review, the clinical aspects of management of fever, a forerunnerof a seizure are emphasized. The other important aspect of handlinga case of febrile convulsion consists of controlling the seizure, whichshould be done without any delay when it occurs.Nowadays, the drugs of choice are diazepines, used via the rectal,buccal or intranasal routes. The most important area of investigationis lumbar puncture in a child who has had a febrile convulsion,which will be discussed at the end.

  18. FEBRILE CONVULSION: ANOTHER LOOK AT AN OLD SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. GHOFRANI MD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Febrile convulsion (FC, an occurrence frequently encountered in everyday practice, is discussed in this article with a review of corresponding literature.Taking into account the extent of debate on the topic, from FC being considered a kind of epileptic seizure to its being viewed as a nonepileptic phenomenon, our aim is not to be judgmental regarding its nature in the present writing. Two distinct groups of children, who convulse with fever are described; one, the group whose neurological status is suboptimal and the other children who one who enjoy good health. In this review, the clinical aspects of management of fever, a forerunner of a seizure are emphasized. The other important aspect of handling a case of febrile convulsion consists of controlling the seizure, which should be done without any delay when it occurs. Nowadays, the drugs of choice are diazepines, used via the rectal, buccal or intranasal routes. The most important area of investigation is lumbar puncture in a child who has had a febrile convulsion, which will be discussed at the end.

  19. Vertebral artery dissection associated with generalized convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

    2013-01-01

    A 46-year-old male with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy was admitted to the neurological department for convulsive seizures just after lamotrigine was discontinued. On admission he was awake but had a right-sided hemiparesis with Babinski sign and ataxic finger-nose test on the left side. An MR scan...

  20. Forebrain-independent generation of hyperthermic convulsions in infant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospelov, Alexey S; Yukin, Alexey Y; Blumberg, Mark S; Puskarjov, Martin; Kaila, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common type of convulsive events in children. It is generally assumed that the generalization of these seizures is a result of brainstem invasion by the initial limbic seizure activity. Using precollicular transection in 13-day-old rats to isolate the forebrain from the brainstem, we demonstrate that the forebrain is not required for generation of tonic-clonic convulsions induced by hyperthermia or kainate. Compared with sham-operated littermate controls, latency to onset of convulsions in both models was significantly shorter in pups that had undergone precollicular transection, indicating suppression of the brainstem seizure network by the forebrain in the intact animal. We have shown previously that febrile seizures are precipitated by hyperthermia-induced respiratory alkalosis. Here, we show that triggering of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation and consequent convulsions in transected animals are blocked by diazepam. The present data suggest that the role of endogenous brainstem activity in triggering tonic-clonic seizures should be re-evaluated in standard experimental models of limbic seizures. Our work sheds new light on the mechanisms that generate febrile seizures in children and, therefore, on how they might be treated. PMID:26547277

  1. Treatment of 40 Cases of Infantile Convulsion by Tuina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Jie; ZHUANG An-shi; CUI Yi-jun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Infantile convulsion is a common disease in infants and babies and often caused by scare and improper nursing. Its main clinical manifestations are fright,crying and waking up with a start, etc. Since 1998, we have treated 40 cases by Tuina. It is summarized as follows.

  2. Kluver-Bucy syndrome developed after convulsion: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Okur, Mesut; Yılmaz, Cahide; Epçaçan, Serdar; Üstyol, Lokman; Kaya, Avni; Çaksen, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Kluver-Bucy syndrome is characterized by increased appetite, hypersexuality, hypermetamorphosis, memory disorders, visual agnosia, stagnancy, aphasia, bulimia, polyuria, and polydipsia. A 14 year old girl had generalized tonic-clonic convulsions at admission, and an incomplete Kluver-Bucy syndrome with hypersexuality, recent memory disturbance, hypermetamorphosis, speech disturbance, hyperactivity, agitation, aggressiveness, and hallucinations, developed the following day. Here in, ...

  3. Febrile convulsion--a clinical survey and a review of its current concept of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, A H; Ho, L; Lim, K W; Cheng, H K

    1989-01-01

    Between February 1986 to November 1986, 335 cases of febrile convulsion were admitted to the paediatric ward, Tan Tock Seng Hospital. The study revealed 87 cases (26%) were complex febrile convulsion and 73 cases (21.8%) were recurrent febrile convulsion. 51 patients with complex febrile convulsion and 32 patients with recurrent febrile seizures were put on long term phenobarbitone. The number of patients with recurrent and complex convulsion was big. The role of anticonvulsant prophylaxis is reviewed and its efficacy discussed. PMID:2638720

  4. Electro convulsive therapy in a pre-pubertal child with severe depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT in pre-pubertal children is a controversial and underreported treatment. Even though the effectiveness and side effects of ECT in adolescents are comparable with those in adults, there is a pervasive reluctance to use ECT in children and adolescents. We report the case of a pre-pubertal child in an episode of severe depression with catatonic features, where a protracted course of ECT proved life-saving in spite of prolonged duration of seizures and delayed response to treatment. The case illustrates the safety and efficacy of ECT in children. Relevant literature is also reviewed along with the case report.

  5. Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Seeds of Cassia Fistula against Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh P. Sawadadkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassia Fistula is a popular Indian herb which is used as tonic, laxative, anti-pyretic, astringent, febrifuge, strong purgative etc. The aim of present study was to evaluate anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced convulsions in mice. All the animals were divided into four groups of six mice each and were injected PTZ (60mg/kg intraperitonially Group I was served as toxic control, Group II was pretreated with  Gabapentin (200mg/kg P.O.. Group III was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (100 mg/kg P.O. for 7 days. Group IV was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (200mg/kg P.O. for 7 days.The result shows that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula significantly reduced duration of clonic convulsions and also delayed the onset of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. The result was expressed as mean ± SEM and were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. It is concluded that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula can show anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions in mice.

  6. Convulsive Movements in Bilateral Paramedian Thalamic and Midbrain Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Yamashiro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although some previous reports have described convulsive movements in bilateral paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarction, little is known about their nature. A 71-year-old man presented with impaired consciousness and clonic movements of both arms. Each series of movements lasted 10 to 20 s and occurred at 2- to 3-min intervals, which disappeared after intravenous administration of diazepam and phenytoin. Magnetic resonance imaging showed acute bilateral paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarction. A review of the literature revealed that convulsive movements were observed mostly at the onset of infarction. Clonic movements appeared frequently in the limbs, particularly in both arms. Clinical observations and results of animal experiments suggest that these seizures might originate from the mesencephalic reticular formation. Physicians should recognize this condition, because not only seizure control but also early management of ischemic stroke is required.

  7. Convulsions in early post-partum period, a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil H. Inamdar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic (tapeworm infection of the brain worldwide. It presents as hydrocephalus and acute onset seizures. A 28-year-old para 3 live 3 [P3L3], post-partum [day 7], resident of Arvi, presented in casualty during emergency hours with headache and fever since 7 days. She presented with h/o convulsions 2 episodes, one on day 5 and one on day 7 of her full term vaginal home delivery. She presented to the Emergency Department on day 7 with generalised tonic-clonic seizures preceded by nausea and headache. All her blood investigations were within normal limits except an extremely surprising finding on CT scan. 40% of patients having postpartum convulsions do not experience preeclampsia, clinical awareness is essential for early treatment and care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 231-233

  8. Spreading convulsions, spreading depolarization and epileptogenesis in human cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Jens P; Major, Sebastian; Pannek, Heinz-Wolfgang;

    2012-01-01

    outcome at 6 months showed significantly higher total and peak numbers of spreading depolarizations and significantly longer total and peak depression periods during the electrocorticographic monitoring than patients with good outcome. In a semi-structured telephone interview 3 years after the initial......, monopolar recordings here provided unequivocal evidence of spreading convulsions in patients. Hence, practically all major pathological cortical network events in animals have now been observed in people. Early spreading depolarizations may indicate a risk for late post-haemorrhagic seizures....

  9. 中医药防治小儿热性惊厥的研究进展%A review on treating infant febrile convulsions in TCM medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恩杰

    2014-01-01

    Febrile convulsions are a common convulsive disease in young children, and also in the pediatric emergency department. In this paper, effects of TCM medicine on febrile convulsions were summarized to apply reference for TCM clinic in the future.%热性惊厥是小儿最常见的惊厥性疾病,也是儿科门急诊常见的急症之一。本文综述了中医药在防治小儿热性惊厥所发挥的作用,为今后中医药处理该疾病提供一定的依据。

  10. Convulsant and anticonvulsant actions of agonists and antagonists of group III mGluRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghauri, M; Chapman, A G; Meldrum, B S

    1996-06-17

    Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR4, 6, 7, 8) are negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase and, when activated presynaptically, decrease the release of glutamate and GABA. We have used intracerebroventricular injections of agonists and antagonists believed to act selectively on these receptors to study the pro- or anti-convulsant effects of mGluR III activation in nonepileptic (Swiss-Webster) and epileptic (DBA/2) mice. In both mouse strains the prototypic agonists L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoate (LAP4) and L-serine-O-phosphate are proconvulsant. The supposed antagonists (S)-2-methyl-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoate (MAP4) and (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG), have a predominantly proconvulsant effect. (S)-alpha-methyl-3-carboxyphenylalanine, which is a potent and selective antagonist for LAP4 in the cortex, is anticonvulsant in DBA/2 mice and decreases the convulsant effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate, 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, LAP4 and MPPG in Swiss-Webster mice. These data suggest that reduced inhibitory transmission may be more significant than reduced synaptic release of glutamate following group III mGluR activation. PMID:8856700

  11. Spreading convulsions, spreading depolarization and epileptogenesis in human cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Jens P; Major, Sebastian; Pannek, Heinz-Wolfgang; Woitzik, Johannes; Scheel, Michael; Wiesenthal, Dirk; Martus, Peter; Winkler, Maren K L; Hartings, Jed A; Fabricius, Martin; Speckmann, Erwin-Josef; Gorji, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Spreading depolarization of cells in cerebral grey matter is characterized by massive ion translocation, neuronal swelling and large changes in direct current-coupled voltage recording. The near-complete sustained depolarization above the inactivation threshold for action potential generating channels initiates spreading depression of brain activity. In contrast, epileptic seizures show modest ion translocation and sustained depolarization below the inactivation threshold for action potential generating channels. Such modest sustained depolarization allows synchronous, highly frequent neuronal firing; ictal epileptic field potentials being its electrocorticographic and epileptic seizure its clinical correlate. Nevertheless, Leão in 1944 and Van Harreveld and Stamm in 1953 described in animals that silencing of brain activity induced by spreading depolarization changed during minimal electrical stimulations. Eventually, epileptic field potentials were recorded during the period that had originally seen spreading depression of activity. Such spreading convulsions are characterized by epileptic field potentials on the final shoulder of the large slow potential change of spreading depolarization. We here report on such spreading convulsions in monopolar subdural recordings in 2 of 25 consecutive aneurismal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients in vivo and neocortical slices from 12 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy in vitro. The in vitro results suggest that γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated inhibition protects from spreading convulsions. Moreover, we describe arterial pulse artefacts mimicking epileptic field potentials in three patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage that ride on the slow potential peak. Twenty-one of the 25 subarachnoid haemorrhage patients (84%) had 656 spreading depolarizations in contrast to only three patients (12%) with 55 ictal epileptic events isolated from spreading depolarizations. Spreading depolarization frequency and depression

  12. Refractory generalised convulsive status epilepticus : a guide to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälviäinen, Reetta; Eriksson, Kai; Parviainen, Ilkka

    2005-01-01

    The patient with status epilepticus has continuous or rapidly repeating seizures. Generalised convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is the most common form of the disorder and is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical management. Status epilepticus that does not respond to first-line benzodiazepines (lorazepam or diazepam) or to second-line antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin/fosphenytoin, phenobarbital or valproate) is usually considered refractory and requires more aggressive treatment. The optimal treatment of refractory GCSE has not been defined, but patients should be treated in an intensive care unit, as artificial ventilation and haemodynamic support are required. Invasive haemodynamic monitoring is often necessary and EEG monitoring is essential. The drug treatment of refractory GCSE involves general anaesthesia with continuous intravenous anaesthetics given in doses that abolish all clinical and electrographic epileptic activity, often requiring sedation to the point of burst suppression on the EEG. Barbiturate anaesthetics, pentobarbital in the US and thiopental sodium in Europe and Australia, are the most frequently used agents and are highly effective for refractory GCSE both in children and adults. Indeed, they remain the only way to stop seizure activity with certainty in severely refractory cases. Other options are midazolam for adults and children and propofol for adults only.Regardless of the drug selected, intravenous fluids and vasopressors are usually required to treat hypotension. Once seizures have been controlled for 12-24 hours, continuous intravenous therapy should be gradually tapered off if the drug being administered is midazolam or propofol. Gradual tapering is probably not necessary with pentobarbital or thiopental sodium. Continuous EEG monitoring is required during high-dose treatment and while therapy is gradually withdrawn. During withdrawal of anaesthetic therapy, intravenous phenytoin/fosphenytoin or valproate should

  13. Parental reactions to a child's first febrile convulsion. A follow-up investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balslev, T

    1991-04-01

    The severe psychological reactions of most parents to the first febrile convulsions of their child contrast with the doctors' consideration of febrile convulsions as a simple and benign phenomenon. Fifty-two parents whose child had been admitted with febrile convulsions were interviewed about their immediate and long-term reactions. Most of the parents knew little about febrile convulsions before the fit. Parents with previous knowledge of febrile convulsions took more appropriate measures during the fit than parents without such knowledge. Sixty per cent of the parents slept restlessly for some time after the fit, 13% watched their child at night, and 29% had dyspeptic symptoms. Parents of young children should as a routine be offered general information by the family doctor about fever and febrile convulsions. Parents who have watched their child during a fit need specific information in order to avoid long-term reactions. PMID:2058397

  14. Evaluation of treatment effect of sodium valproate for convulsive status epilepticus of cerebral arterial thrombosis%丙戊酸钠对于缺血性脑卒中惊厥性癫痫持续状态的治疗效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇刚

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨丙戊酸钠(SV)治疗缺血性脑卒中惊厥性癫痫持续状态(CSE)的效果。方法:收治CSE患者38例,采用 SV 治疗,观察治疗效果。结果:治疗成功24例(63.15%),4例患者发生不良反应。10例(29.4%)难治性 CSE 的mRS>3;实验室检查无明显恶化。结论:SV治疗缺血性脑卒中后CSE安全有效,特别是mRS低分值患者。%Objective:To explore the treatment effect of sodium valproate(SV) for convulsive status epilepticus(CSE) of cerebral arterial thrombosis.Methods:38 patients with CSE were selected.They were treated with SV.We observed the effect of treatment. Results:24 cases(63.15% ) were treated successfully,and 4 cases had adverse reactions.The mRS was greater than 3 of 10 patients(29.4% ) with intractable CSE,and laboratory tests showed no deterioration.Conclusion:SV was safe and effective for treating CSE after cerebral arterial thrombosis,especially for patients with low mRS scores.

  15. CAN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS HELP EASE PARENTAL ANXIETY FOLLOWING THEIR CHILD FIRST FEBRILE CONVULSION

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Farsar; A.A. Kolahi

    2008-01-01

    AbstractObjectiveCompared to other pediatric emergencies, febrile convulsions (FC), despite having an excellent prognosis, are a main cause of considerable anxiety among mothers of children faced with their child's first febrile convulsion.Consequently, one of the physician's most important responsibilities in the management of pediatric febrile convulsions is to educate and guide mothers on how to reduce their anxiety. This study was performed on mothers whose children had been admitted to M...

  16. CAN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS HELP EASE PARENTAL ANXIETY FOLLOWING THEIR CHILD FIRST FEBRILE CONVULSION

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Farsar; A.A. Kolahi

    2008-01-01

    Objective Compared to other pediatric emergencies, febrile convulsions (FC), despite having an excellent prognosis, are a main cause of considerable anxiety among mothers of children faced with their child’s first febrile convulsion. Consequently, one of the physician’s most important responsibilities in the management of pediatric febrile convulsions is to educate and guide mothers on how to reduce their anxiety. This study was performed on mothers whose children had been admitted to Mofid C...

  17. Evaluation of Selenium Levels and Mean Platelet Volume in Patients with Simple Febrile Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Abuhandan, Mahmut; Solmaz, Abdullah; Geter, Suleyman; Kaya, Cemil; Guzel, Bulent; Yetkin, Ilhan; Koca, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate serum selenium levels and mean platelet volume in children who experience simple febrile convulsion. Methods: The study comprised 42 patients diagnosed with simple febrile convulsions and a control group of 30 healthy children. Blood samples were taken following a febrile convulsion. Selenium levels in the serum of both the patients and control subjects were measured with the hydride formation method on an atomic absorption spectrometry device and mean ...

  18. IS LUMBAR PUNCTURE ALWAYS NECESSARY IN THE FEBRILE CHILD WITH CONVULSION?

    OpenAIRE

    MR. Salehi Omrani MD; MR. Edraki MD; M. Alizadeh MD

    2009-01-01

    ObjectiveFebrile convulsion is the most common benign convulsive disorder in children. Meningitis is one of the most important causes of fever and convulsions, diagnosed by lumbar puncture (LP), a painful and invasive procedure much debated  regarding its necessity. This study evaluates the frequency of abnormal LP findings in a group of patients, to determine whether or not unnecessary LP can be prevented without missing patients with serious problems such as meningitis.Materials& MethodsThe...

  19. Knowledge, attitude and practices of parents of children with febrile convulsion.

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar R; Sahu D; Bavdekar S

    2001-01-01

    CONTEXT: Parental anxiety and apprehension is related to inadequate knowledge of fever and febrile convulsion. AIMS: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the parents of children with febrile convulsions. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire based study in a tertiary care centre carried over a period of one year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 140 parents of consecutive children presenting with febrile convulsion were enrolled. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test. RESULTS...

  20. Serum Zinc Level in Children with Febrile Convulsion and its Comparison with that of Control Group

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Vahid Harandi; Mahshid Talebi-Taher; Fahimeh Ehsanipour; Keivan Kani

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Febrile convulsion is the most common disorder in childhood with good prognosis. There are different hypotheses about neurotransmitters and trace element (such as zinc) changes in cerebrospinal fluid and serum, which can have a role in pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. The aim of the present prospective analytical case-control study was to determine whether there was any changes in serum zinc level in children with febrile convulsion during seizure.Methods: Ninety-two children age...

  1. Clinical Nursing Observation of Children With Febrile Convulsion%小儿高热惊厥临床护理观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡丽密

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察小儿高热惊厥的原因、探求最佳临床护理方法。方法分析我院2014年8月~2015年8月收治的100例小儿高热惊厥护理经验。结果发生小儿高热惊厥的患者年龄以1~3岁居多,占65%;发生支气管炎占15%;呼吸道感染占70%。本组100例患者中,治愈了98例,好转了2例。结论小儿高热惊厥先兆早期发现征兆的话能快速有效的治疗,控制高热、惊厥、保持呼吸道的畅通是治疗小儿高热惊厥的关键。%Objective To observe the cause of the children with febrile convulsion, ifnd the best method of clinical nursing.Methods From August 2014 to August 2015, 100 cases of children with febrile convulsion nursing experience.Results Children with febrile convulsion occurred in patients aged 1 to 3 years old, was 65%. Bronchitis (15%). Respiratory infection (70%). 100 cases of patients, 98 cases cured, 2 cases improved.ConclusionChildren with febrile convulsion aura early detection of signs can fast effective treatment, control of high fever, convulsions, keep respiratory tract clear is the key to the treatment of children with febrile convulsion.

  2. The role of vasopressin, somatostatin and GABA in febrile convulsion in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaki, S; Nagaki, S; Minatogawa, Y; Sadamatsu, M; Kato, N; Osawa, M; Fukuyama, Y

    1996-01-01

    In order to further elucidate a possible role of neuropeptides and GABA in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsions, we studied changes of immunoreactive-arginine vasopressin (IR-AVP), IR-somatostatin (IR-SRIF) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the rat brain after febrile convulsions induced by ultra-red light (UR). Male Wistar rats at 16 days of age irradiated with UR developed generalized convulsions after 4.9 +/- 0.5 min irradiation. Six rats were killed by microwave irradiation 3 min after UR irradiation prior to convulsion development, and 29 rats were killed either 0 min, 2 h, 6 h, 24 h or 48 h after febrile convulsions. Non-irradiated rats served as controls. The rat brain was dissected into 4 regions; amygdala, hypothalamus, cortex and hippocampus, and subjected to radioimmunoassays. IR-AVP levels in hypothalamus were increased 3 min after UR and decreased at 2 h and 6 h after the convulsions. IR-SRIF levels were increased in cortex and hippocampus at 3 min after UR and 0 min after the convulsions. The GABA content increased in all regions tested at 2 h and 6 h after the convulsions. These results suggest that AVP, SRIF and GABA may be involved in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsions in different ways. PMID:8649210

  3. Assessment of the Level of GABA and Some Trace Elements in Blood in Children who Suffer from Familial Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama N. Salah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizure is one of the most common neurological problems during childhood. The etiology and pathogenesis of febrile seizure remain unknown. However, several factors such as vitamin B6 deficiency, electrolyte disturbances, and reduction in serum zinc, selenium, magnesium levels, and low gamma - aminobutyric acid (GABA levels are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of febrile seizure. The present study included twenty children from 10 families, 11 were male and 9 were female. Each family has at least 2 members with a history of febrile convulsion. All cases were subjected to the following: Determination of serum levels of copper, zinc, magnesium, selenium level in serum, and plasma level of γ-aminobytaric acid (GABA. Serum levels of selenium and GABA were statistically significantly low in comparison with controls. Serum copper was statistically significantly higher in cases than controls, while serum zinc showed no significant changes in the cases of febrile convulsion compared with the control group. The mean Zn level in the serum of febrile convulsion was found to be at lower level than in the control group. The serum magnesium was significantly low in cases than controls. The logistic regression model in our study shows that Selenium and Magnesium have protective effects, while Copper has causative effect.

  4. 5-Hydroxytryptamine antagonists and the 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced changes of postdecapitation convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, T

    1987-01-01

    The ability of various compounds to antagonise the 5-MeODMT induced prolongations of latency and duration of postdecapitation convulsions (PDCs) were compared. The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor antagonists, mianserin, methergoline, cinanserin and methysergide antagonised the 5-MeODMT (0.5 to 4.0 mg/kg) induced prolongations of latency to onset of convulsions substantially and to a lesser extent the prolongation of duration. The efficacy of the 5-HT antagonists for blocking 5-MeODMT changes of PDCs was roughly of the order mianserin greater than cinanserin greater than methysergide greater than methergoline. Pirenperone, the 5-HT2 antagonist, and pimozide, the dopamine receptor antagonist did not antagonise the 5-MeODMT induced changes. Mianserin, methergoline, cinanserin and methysergide, by themselves, prolonged the duration of PDCs but did not affect latency. Pirenperone (0.25 mg/kg) prolonged both the latency and duration of the PDCs while pimozide (0.5-2.0 mg/kg) had no effect upon PDCs. This evidence suggests that 5-MeODMT induced changes of PDCs are mediated via 5-HT1 receptors and thus a reliable model to combine with other measures of spinal function is suggested. PMID:3562388

  5. Human Herpes Virus Type 6 and Febrile Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    HOUSHMANDI, Mohammad Mehdi; MOAYEDI, Alireza; Rahmati, Mohammad Bagher; NAZEMI, Abdulmajid; FAKHRAI, Darioush; ZARE, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Objective Febrile Convulsion (FC) is occurred in 6 months to 5 yr old children. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HHV-6 infection in FC admitted patients of Bandar Abbas Children Hospital, southern Iran. Materials & Methods In a cross-sectional study, 118 children aged 6-60 months who had FC were selected by a simple random method in 2010-11. Demographic data, clinical manifestation and two blood samples gathered to assess the human herpes virus type 6 (HHV6). Blood s...

  6. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin

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    Emmanuel Randrianarivo

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The results confirmed at least partly the traditional uses of the smoke of M. moschatus for the management of convulsion, and implied that the essential oil may inhibit the convulsion by GABAergic neuromodulation.

  7. Causes of Infectious Diseases Which Tend to Get Into Febrile Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Blouki Moghaddam; Bidabadi; Hassanzadeh Rad; Dalili

    2015-01-01

    Background Febrile convulsions are seizures associated with fever during childhood. They generally have excellent prognosis. However, as they may signify a serious underlying acute infectious disease, each case must be carefully examined and appropriately investigated. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of infectious diseases, which tend to get into febrile convulsion in patients hospitalized in 17th Sh...

  8. Predictors of Outcome of Convulsive Status Epilepticus Among an Egyptian Pediatric Tertiary Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawa, Eman F; Draz, Iman; Ahmed, Dalia; Shaheen, Hala A

    2015-11-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus is a common neurologic emergency in pediatrics. We aimed to study the etiology, clinical features, and prognostic factors among pediatric patients with convulsive status epilepticus. Seventy patients were included in this cohort study from pediatric emergency department of the specialized Children Hospital of Cairo University. The outcome was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Score. Acute symptomatic etiology was the most common cause of convulsive status epilepticus. Refractory convulsive status epilepticus was observed more significantly in cases caused by acute symptomatic etiologies. The outcome was mortality in 26 (37.1%) patients, severe disability in 15 (21.4%), moderate disability in 17 (24.3%), and good recovery in 12 (17.1%) patients. The significant predictor of mortality was lower modified Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission, whereas lower modified Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission and refractory convulsive status epilepticus were the significant predictors for disability and mortality.

  9. Gentianine protects hippocampal neurons in a rat model of recurrent febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuewei Liu; Shumin Liu; Na Wang; Fang Lu; Min Cao

    2011-01-01

    Gentianine has been shown to have a protective effect on hippocampal CA1 neurons in rats subjected to recurrent febrile convulsion (FC).The present study sought to explore the possible mechanism of gentianine by intraperitoneally injecting gentianine into rats with warm water-induced FC.The results revealed that neuronal organelle injury was slightly ameliorated in the hippocampal CA1 region.The level of glutamate was decreased,but the level of γ-aminobutyric acid was increased,as detected by ninhydrin staining.In addition,glutamate acid decarboxylase expression in hippocampal CA1 was increased,as determined by immunohistochemistry.The results demonstrated that gentianine can ameliorate FC-induced neuronal injury by enhancing glutamate acid decarboxylase activity,decreasing glutamate levels and increasing γ-aminobutyric acid levels.

  10. Convulsion due to levobupivacaine in axillary brachial plexus block: Case report

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    Cevdet Düger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Axillary brachial plexus block is an effective method of anaesthesia for the surgeries performed on the hand, forearm and distal third of the arm. However it has the risk of serious complications such as cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity. Levobupivacaine is a long acting amide local anaesthetic used for epidural, caudal, spinal, infiltration and peripheral nerve blocks. Levobupivacaine is the S (- isomer of racemic bupivacaine and has a lower risk of cardiovascular, central nervous system toxicity than bupivacaine. However central system toxicity cases due to absorption of the drug into the systemic circulation has been reported. Here, we report a case having no vascular puncture during axillary brachial plexus block performance but developing convulsion due to levobupivacain after the intervention.

  11. Hippocampal abnormalities after prolonged febrile convulsion: a longitudinal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rod C; King, Martin D; Gadian, David G; Neville, Brian G R; Connelly, Alan

    2003-11-01

    Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common lesion in patients who require epilepsy surgery, and approximately 50% of patients with MTS have a history of prolonged febrile convulsion (PFC) in childhood. The latter led to the hypothesis that convulsive status epilepticus, including PFC, can cause MTS. Our recently published data on children investigated within 5 days of a PFC showed that children investigated by MRI within 48 h of a PFC had large hippocampal volumes and prolongation of T2 relaxation time. Patients investigated >48 h from a PFC had large hippocampal volumes and normal T2 relaxation time. These data are strongly suggestive of hippocampal oedema that is resolving within 5 days of a PFC, but do not exclude the possibility of a pre-existing hippocampal lesion. Fourteen children from the original study had follow-up investigations carried out 4-8 months after the acute investigations. Of the 14 patients, four have had further seizures. Two had short febrile convulsions, one had PFC and one had non-febrile seizures. There was a significant reduction in hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation time between the first and second investigations, and there is now no difference in hippocampal volume or T2 relaxation time in patients compared with a control population. Moreover, there is a significant increase in hippocampal volume asymmetry in patients at follow-up when compared with initial data. Five out of 14 patients had asymmetry outside the 95th percentile for control subjects and, of these, three had one hippocampal volume outside the lower 95% prediction limit for control subjects. A reduction in hippocampal volume or T2 relaxation time, into or below the normal range between the first and second scans, indicates that the earlier findings are temporary and are strongly suggestive of hippocampal oedema as the abnormality in the initial investigations. The change in hippocampal symmetry in the patient group is consistent with injury and neuronal loss

  12. Serum Zinc Level in Children with Febrile Convulsion and its Comparison with that of Control Group

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    Nahid Vahid Harandi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Febrile convulsion is the most common disorder in childhood with good prognosis. There are different hypotheses about neurotransmitters and trace element (such as zinc changes in cerebrospinal fluid and serum, which can have a role in pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. The aim of the present prospective analytical case-control study was to determine whether there was any changes in serum zinc level in children with febrile convulsion during seizure.Methods: Ninety-two children aged 6 months to 5 years were divided into three groups: group A, 34 children with febrile convulsion, group B, 40 children having fever without convulsion, and group C, and 18 children with non-febrile convulsion. Serum zinc levels for the three groups were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. Data were analyzed to compare zinc level among the three groups using appropriate statistical tools employing SPSS 13.Findings: Serum zinc levels of groups A, B, and C had a mean value of 76.82±24.36mg/1, 90.12±14.63 mg/1 and 94.53±17.39 mg/l, respectively. Serum zinc level of group A was lower than those of the other two groups (P<0.006. It was also lower in group B than in group C (P<0.006.Conclusion: These findings revealed that serum zinc level decreases during infection; this decrease was more significant in patients with febrile convulsion.

  13. Establishment and Effects of Nursing Clinic Pathway of Modified Electric Convulsive Therapy in Psychiatric Department%精神科无抽搐电休克治疗临床护理路径的建立与实施效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐春霞; 陈海勤; 徐美英; 潘晓芳; 叶美凤; 徐伟琴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of clinical pathway on the improvement of the nursing quality of modified electric convulsive therapy (MECT) in psychiatric department. Methods Using convenience sampling, 100 patients undergoing the initial MECT in the hospital between March and August 2011 were enrolled in the study. Two male and female wards were randomly selected as control group(n=50) , while the other two male and female wards were selected as the research group(n= 50). Patients in the control group were treated with the regular nursing care, while patients in the research group were given the clinical pathway. The nursing safety, health education, basic care, complication, nursing writing time and the MECT treatment satisfaction were compared between the two groups with a self-designed nursing quality evaluation form. Results The quality of care and patient satisfaction in the research group were significantly higher than those in the control group,while the recording time and the incidence of complications in the research group were significantly lower than those in the control group(P<0. 05). Conclusion The establishment and implementation of the clinical pathway on the MECT in psychiatric department contributes to standardizing the treatment procedure, saving recording time and improving nursing quality and the satisfaction of patients' families.%目的 探讨临床路径在提高精神科无抽搐电休克治疗(modified electric convulsive therapy,MECT)护理质量中的作用.方法 方便性抽样选择2011年3-8月湖州市第三人民医院普通精神科首次入院进行MECT治疗的患者100例,各抽取男女两个病房作为对照组和观察组,每组50例,对照组采用常规护理,观察组采用临床路径进行护理;应用自制的护理质量评定表比较两组患者治疗前后的护理安全、健康宣教、基础护理、并发症、护理书写时间及MECT治疗满意度.结果 结果表明,观察组的护理质量、患者满

  14. The overlooked side of convulsion: bilateral posterior fracture and dislocation of proximal humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Mehmet; Yaman, Asli; Yigit, Eda; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet

    2016-05-01

    Injuries after an epileptic convulsion have been seen commonly such as burns, head injury and dislocation of the extremities. But fractures of the extremities due to convulsion are rare. External trauma mechanism is not necessary for extremity fractures. Muscle contractions can cause increased load on the skeleton and it can be complicated by dislocation andor fracture of extremities. Almost 1-4% of all the shoulder dislocations are posterior. In this case report we present a 32 year old male patient who had bilateral posterior fracture and dislocation of proximal humerus after convulsion. We would like to emphasize that it is so important to make systemic examination and evaluation of the patients who were admitted to emergency department after epileptic convulsion. PMID:27183951

  15. Expressions of glucose-regulated protein 78 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathway in the hippocampus of status convulsion rat and the effect of Nimodipine%尼莫地平对惊厥持续状态幼鼠海马葡萄糖调节蛋白78、p38丝裂素激活蛋白激酶表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏慧; 赵艳民; 楼菁菁; 周朱瑛; 王海萍; 李光乾

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨葡萄糖调节蛋白78(GRP78)、p38丝裂素激活蛋白激酶(p38MAPK)相关信号通路在惊厥性脑损伤中的作用及尼莫地平对其的影响.方法 雄性SD幼年大鼠分为惊厥持续状态组(SC组)、尼莫地平组(NM组)、正常对照组(NC组).采用免疫组织化学法、反转录(RT)-PCR技术检测海马CA1区GRP78/Bip、p38MAPK蛋白、mRNA表达动态变化;采用原位末端标记(TUNEL)检测神经细胞的凋亡.结果 1.免疫组织化学:GRP78/Bip蛋白惊厥后4h开始增加,24 h达高峰,之后下降.p38MAPK蛋白惊厥后4h表达开始增加,24 h达高峰,48 h稍有下降.2.RT-PCR:SC组海马GRP78/Bip mRNA表达于惊厥后4h开始少量增加,24 h达高峰,48 h回到基线水平.NM组4h,24 h和48 h表达情况较SC组和NC组均明显升高(P均<0.05).SC组p38MAPK mRNA于惊厥后4h开始表达,24 h达高峰,48 h后有所下降,但均高于NC组;NM组24 h时间点明显高于NC组(P<0.01).3.TUNEL:SC组海马CA1区TUNEL阳性细胞于惊厥后4h已有少量表达,48 h达高峰,之后有下降趋势;且24 h、48 h2个时间点均明显高于NC组(P均<0.05).NM组24 h、48 h时间点TUNEL阳性细胞表达水平较SC组明显降低(P均<0.05);但仍高于NC组(P<0.01).结论 GRP78信号通路可能通过激活p38MAPK介导细胞凋亡,尼莫地平预处理可影响GRP78/Bip和p38MAPK的表达,缓解内质网应激,减轻惊厥后海马病理损伤程度.%Objective To explore the role of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78),p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(p38MAPK) signal pathway in seizure-reduced brain injures and the regulatory effect of Nimodipine on it.Methods Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into status convulsion group (SC group),Nimodipine group(NM group),and a normal control group(NC group).The expressions of GRP78/Bip and p38MAPK mRNA and protein were detected by reverse transcription(RT)-PCR and immunohistochemistry.The expression of apoptosis cells was observed by TdT-mediated d

  16. Effects of (60)Co gamma irradiation on behavior and gill histoarchitecture of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DE MAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-babu, P

    2013-06-01

    Present study was designed to observe the effects of (60)Co gamma radiation in behavioral and histological changes in the gills of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The adult prawns were irradiated with four different dose levels (3mGy, 30mGy, 300mGy and 3000mGy) and the control group (without irradiation) was maintained separately. Behavioral changes like hyperactivity, loss of balance, reduced swimming rate, slower rate of food intake and convulsions were observed in higher dose levels of 300mGy and 3000mGy. The histological alterations such as accumulated haemocytes in haemocoelic spaces, abnormal gill tips, lifted lamellar epithelium, swollen and fused lamellae, hyperplasic, necrotic, clavate-globate and complete disorganization of lamellae were observed in (60)Co gamma irradiated prawns. Significantly more considerable histological alterations were observed in the highest dose level of 3000mGy, but no mortality was evidenced. This study serves as biomonitoring tool to assess the radiation pollution in the aquatic environment.

  17. Convulsive Syncope Induced by Ventricular Arrhythmia Masquerading as Epileptic Seizures: Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sabu, John; Regeti, Kalyani; Mallappallil, Mary; Kassotis, John; Islam, Hamidul; Zafar, Shoaib; Khan, Rafay; Ibrahim, Hiyam; Kanta, Romana; Sen, Shuvendu; Yousif, Abdalla; Nai, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    It is important but difficult to distinguish convulsive syncope from epileptic seizure in many patients. We report a case of a man who presented to emergency department after several witnessed seizure-like episodes. He had a previous medical history of systolic heart failure and automated implantable converter defibrillator (AICD) in situ. The differential diagnoses raised were epileptic seizures and convulsive syncope secondary to cardiac arrhythmia. Subsequent AICD interrogation revealed ve...

  18. Many parents think their child is dying when having a first febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumer, J H; David, T J; Valentine, S J; Roberts, J E; Hughes, B R

    1981-08-01

    Fifty parents of 36 consecutive children admitted to hospital with their first febrile convulsion were interviewed shortly after the event. Very few parents voluntarily said that they had thought their child was dying, but when asked specifically the majority said they had thought the child was dying or likely to die. This common fear should be kept in mind when discussing febrile convulsions with parents, who are unlikely to volunteer the information. PMID:7274593

  19. Development, maternal effects, and behavioral plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Jill M

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral, hormonal, and genetic processes interact reciprocally, and differentially affect behavior depending on ecological and social contexts. When individual differences are favored either between or within environments, developmental plasticity would be expected. Parental effects provide a rich source for phenotypic plasticity, including anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits, because parents respond to dynamic cues in their environment and can, in turn, influence offspring accordingly. Because these inter-generational changes are plastic, parents can respond rapidly to changing environments and produce offspring whose phenotypes are well suited for current conditions more quickly than occurs with changes based on evolution through natural selection. I review studies on developmental plasticity and resulting phenotypes in Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi), an ideal species, given the competing demands to avoid predation while gaining sufficient weight to survive an upcoming hibernation, and the need for young to learn their survival behaviors. I will show how local environments and perceived risk of predation influence not only foraging, vigilance, and anti-predator behaviors, but also adrenal functioning, which may be especially important for obligate hibernators that face competing demands on the storage and mobilization of glucose. Mammalian behavioral development is sensitive to the social and physical environments provided by mothers during gestation and lactation. Therefore, maternal effects on offspring's phenotypes, both positive and negative, can be particularly strong. PMID:24820855

  20. IS LUMBAR PUNCTURE ALWAYS NECESSARY IN THE FEBRILE CHILD WITH CONVULSION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR. Salehi Omrani MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveFebrile convulsion is the most common benign convulsive disorder in children. Meningitis is one of the most important causes of fever and convulsions, diagnosed by lumbar puncture (LP, a painful and invasive procedure much debated  regarding its necessity. This study evaluates the frequency of abnormal LP findings in a group of patients, to determine whether or not unnecessary LP can be prevented without missing patients with serious problems such as meningitis.Materials& MethodsThe study was a descriptive, cross sectional study, conducted on 200 children suffering from fever and convulsions. Medical files of patients were taken from the hospital records and relevant data were collected to complete the appropriate forms.ResultsOf 200 patients included in the study, 116 (58% children were male, and 84 (42% were female. 47 cases (23.5% underwent LP, of whom just one (0.5% had abnormal LP and meningitis.ConclusionRegarding Considering the low prevalence of meningitis in children with convulsion and fever, we conclude that by means of precise clinical examination and monitoring, it is possible to prevent unnecessary LP in these patients.Key Words:Fever and convulsion, Lumbar puncture, Meningitis.

  1. Effect of saponin fraction from Ficus religiosa on memory deficit, and behavioral and biochemical impairments in pentylenetetrazol kindled mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Damanpreet; Mishra, Awanish; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2013-04-01

    In our previous study, the saponin-rich fraction (SRF) of adventitious root extract of Ficus religiosa L. (Moraceae) was shown to have an anticonvulsant effect in acute animal models of convulsions. The present study was envisaged to study the effect of SRF in the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling mouse model and its associated depression and cognition deficit. Treatment with the SRF (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg; i.p.) for 15 days in kindled mice significantly decreased seizure severity on days 5, 10 and 15 when challenged with PTZ (35 mg/kg; i.p.). Marked protection against kindling-associated depression was also observed on days 10 and 15 in the SRF-treated groups when tested using the tail-suspension test. However, the SRF treatment failed to protect kindling-associated learning and memory impairments in the passive shock avoidance paradigm. The observed behavioral effects were corroborated with modulation in the levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, GABA and glutamate in discrete brain regions. PMID:23332444

  2. Evaluation of interleukin 1β in febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmanesh, Fatemeh; Ashrafzadeh, Farah; Varasteh, Abdoreza; Shakeri, Abdoreza; Shahsavand, Shabnam

    2012-12-01

    Febrile convulsion (FC) is the most common type of seizure in childhood that occurs in 2-5 % of the children younger than 6 years. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is a cytokine that contributes to febrile inflammatory responses. There are conflicting results on increasing this cytokine in serum during FC. Thus we measured IL-1ß in febrile children with or without seizure. 60 febrile children (6 months to 5 years old) were divided in two groups, one group consisted of 30 children with FC, the other group consisting of 30 children without seizure which served as control. Blood samples were collected from members of both groups and serum samples were prepared. Interleukin 1β concentrations were measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. We found that there was a difference in serum levels of interleukin 1β between FC and control group but it was not significant. This result may be due to the low number of samples or the result of interleukin 1β binding to some large proteins such as α2-macroglobolin, complement and soluble type 2 Interleukin 1 receptor, that affected the free interleukin 1β concentration.We could not find a significant relationship between serum interleukin 1β concentration and FC. PMID:23264411

  3. Vasopressin: its role in antipyresis and febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, W L; Cooper, K E; Ruwe, W D

    1984-02-01

    When pyrogenic substances are injected intravenously into experimental animals, a sequence of events is set in motion which involves the hypothalamus and perhaps other portions of the diencephalon to produce a febrile response. We now present evidence that the brain produces its own endogenous antipyretic which may serve as a means of controlling the extent of the fever. When arginine vasopressin is perfused through the lateral septal area of the hypothalamus of the sheep, fever is suppressed. Vasopressin alone does not lower normal body temperature when perfused through this region of the brain. In addition, evidence is provided to indicate that vasopressin is released within the lateral septal area during the febrile response. It is concluded that, in fever, arginine vasopressin may be released in the lateral septal area of the brain and serve as an endogenous antipyretic. Results indicate that, following an initial application of vasopressin into the brain itself, a subsequent similar administration of vasopressin produces seizure-like activity. Therefore, it is suggested that this release of arginine vasopressin may contribute to the production of febrile convulsion. PMID:6722595

  4. Etiology and prognosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Su; Jhang, Yunsook; Kim, Young-Soo; Moon, Jangsup; Shin, Jung-Won; Moon, Hye Jin; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Chu, Kon; Park, Kyung-Il; Lee, Sang Kun

    2014-11-01

    Although non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is an important type of epilepsy, it is not often recognized. In order to analyze the clinical characteristics and outcome in patients with NCSE, we examined the medical records of patients with NCSE admitted to the Seoul National University Hospital between June 2005 and October 2008. The clinical details and electroencephalography records of 34 adult NCSE patients (aged over 16 years) were collected. Their mean age was 47 years (standard deviation 20 years, range, 16-87 years), and 20 were female. Twenty-seven patients (79.4%) showed decreased awareness with acute onset, and seven (20.6%) were obtunded or comatose. Ten patients (29.4%) had a history of epilepsy, and four (11.8%) had a history of stroke. NCSE was etiologically attributed to acute medical or neurological problems in 25 patients (73.5%), was cryptogenic in three (8.8%), and was secondary to underlying epilepsy in six (17.7%). Acute symptomatic etiology was associated with poor recovery (p=0.048), with all unresponsive patients in this acute symptomatic group. Eight (23.5%) of the 34 NCSE patients did not recover or died, whereas nine (26.5%) recovered. Our study shows that the presence of acute symptoms or central nervous system infection is associated with poor outcome, suggesting that a high level of vigilance is required to identify and prevent complications.

  5. [Risk factors for the occurrence of recurrent convulsions following an initial febrile convulsion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offringa, M; Derksen-Lubsen, G; Bossuyt, P M; Lubsen, J

    1992-03-14

    The results of a follow up study of 155 Dutch children who visited the emergency room of an urban paediatric hospital after experiencing their first febrile seizure are presented. Median follow up time was 38 months (range 27-60). Of these 155 initially untreated children 58 (37%) suffered at least one, 47 (30%) at least two and 27 (17%) at least three recurrent seizures. The recurrence hazard after any seizure was highest in the first six months, and dropped markedly after 6 months without seizures. The effect of the various postulated risk factors on the occurrence of any recurrent seizure and three or more recurrences was assessed. A first degree family history of febrile or nonfebrile seizures appears to be a predictor of multiple recurrences; an age of at least 30 months and a temperature of 40.0 degrees C or higher at the initial seizure are associated with a decreased risk. Several factors act together on the risk of recurrent seizures, sometimes in opposite directions. By considering the action of all relevant factors (age at onset, family history and features of the initial febrile seizure) subgroups of children with one year seizure recurrence rates as low as 15% and as high as 48% were identified. PMID:1552954

  6. [Accidents linked to traditional treatment of convulsions of infants and children in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayivi, B; Dan, V

    1990-02-01

    Convulsions represent a frequent pediatric emergency in southern Benin and Nigeria, where they are estimated to occur in 15% of hospitalizations. The principal cause is fever during a malarial attack. The health team provides symptomatic treatment and searches for the etiology so that adequate treatment can be provided. For the family faced with convulsions, the major concern is to bring the child out of the convulsive state at almost any price. The 3 products most commonly used by parents and other caretakers are cod liver oil, honey, and lemon, which are administered orally often in combination in hopes of provoking vomiting or stimulating the child to regain consciousness. Other substances sometimes administered include cow or cat urine, garlic or onion, and rubbing alcohol. Articles such as spoons or sticks or fingers may be used in attempts to loosen the jaws and avoid blockages. Flagellation may be used to revive the child. Scarification or fumigation may be done to combat sorcery or chase away evil spirits. A hand or leg may be plunged into boiling water or fire to revive the child from a postconvulsive coma. Use of these techniques explains the high rate of mortality or morbidity following convulsions, Morbid states induced by traditional treatments of convulsions may include false bronchial route, ocular or cutaneous burns buccal lesions, injuries to the nasal cavities or lips, and edema of the cheeks. A survey of parents indicated that 37% of families interviewed had been present at a convulsive crisis of their children or siblings. Convulsions were considered a natural ailment by only 55% and a sign of sorcery and malediction by 36%. 84% of parents surveyed knew about possible sequelae of traditional treatments and 40% used them. 90% of families knew about possible sequelae of traditional treatments but explained them by the seriousness of the convulsions or sorcery. 69% felt that more adequate treatment should be found. The best preventive measures

  7. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  8. Febrile Convulsion among Hospitalized Children Aged Six Months to Five Years and Its Association With Haemoglobin Electrophoretic Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Adeboye, M; Ojuawo, A; Adeniyi, A; Ibraheem, RM; Amiwero, C

    2015-01-01

    Background Febrile convulsion and sickle cell disease are common in tropical countries and both are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Worldwide, Nigeria has the highest prevalence of sickle cell disease. However, there is a dearth of knowledge on the haemoglobin electrophoresis in patients with febrile convulsions. Methods This was a hospital based, descriptive, cross-sectional study of the relationship between haemoglobin genotype and febrile convulsion at the University o...

  9. Study of recurrence and serum indicator change after levetiracetam treatment of children febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Qin Meng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the recurrence and serum indicator change after levetiracetam treatment of children febrile convulsion.Methods:A total of 92 cases of children with febrile convulsion who received treatment in our hospital from March 2012 to December 2014 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into observation group and control group according to different treatment methods, each group with 46 cases. Control group received conventional therapy, observation group received levetiracetam combined with conventional therapy, and then differences in recurrence of febrile convulsion, cranial nerve-related factors, contents of trace elements and iron as well as humoral and cellular immune function of two groups were compared.Results:Average number of fever, frequency of recurrence of convulsion and the proportion of developing to epilepsy of observation group after treatment were less than those of control group, and the time from the end of treatment to the first convulsive seizure was longer than that of control group; serum NSE, S-100β and BDNF levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; serum Ca2+, P, SI and SF levels of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group, and ALP level was lower than that of control group; serum IgA, IgM, IgG and CD8+ levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group, and levels of CD4+ and CD4+/ CD8+ were higher than those of control group.Conclusion:Levetiracetam therapy for children with febrile convulsion reduces convulsive seizure and meantime can optimize children’s microenvironment and enhance immune function.

  10. [Prehospital management of febrile convulsions by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekaer, A.L.; Nielsen, S.L.; Pedersen, Ulf Gøttrup

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We conducted a quality assurance project of The Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in the Capital Region of Denmark when dispatched to febrile convulsions. The study focuses on prehospital treatment, comparison between prehospital and in-hospital diagnoses and parents' perceptions of...... their child's febrile convulsions and their satisfaction with the MECU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The period of investigation was from March 1st 2004 to March 31st 2005. Children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsions or relevant differential diagnoses were eligible for inclusion. Children were excluded if...... the MECU should still be dispatched primarily to febrile convulsions Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/24...

  11. The treatment and clinical character of infantile convulsion%小儿惊厥的临床特点及治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海英

    2013-01-01

      Objective:To explore the treatment and clinical character of infantile convulsion. Methods:To analyze retrospectively the clinical date of 75 cases of clinical character.Result: The treatment of al patients showed effective. Except of 1 case of complex febrile convulsion and 1 case of non-heat convulsions evolved to epilepsia, the other patients had no obvious sequelae. Conclusion: Induction factors of infantile convulsion are complicated, except of congenital and traumatic factors, the prognosis of the others are good generaly. The recurrent frequent is related on development degree, so, it should on the base of effective treatment, to avoid induction factors and decrease recurrent rate, and make the child grow up and pass the dangerous period smoothly.%  目的探讨小儿惊厥的临床特点和治疗体会。方法回顾性分析75例惊厥患儿的临床资料。结果75例惊厥患儿均治疗有效。除复杂性高热惊厥和无热惊厥患儿各有1例发展成为癫痫,其他患儿均无明显的后遗症。结论小儿惊厥的发病因素较为复杂,但除去先天性或外伤性因素外,一般预后较好。惊厥复发频率与发育程度有关,应该在治疗有效的基础上,避免诱发因素,降低复发率,使之能尽量顺利成长,顺利度过惊厥危险期。

  12. Aqueous stem bark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (Cham, Sandrine Petit) protects against generalized seizures in pentylenetetrazole and electro-convulsive models in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, F P; Omogbai, E K I; Otokiti, I O

    2009-01-01

    Stereospermum kunthianum, Cham Sandrine Petit (Bignoniaceae) known in English as pink jacaranda is used in traditional medicine to treat an array of ailments including febrile convulsions in infants and young children by the rural dwellers in Nigeria. This study examined the anticonvulsant activity of its aqueous stem bark extract (100 - 400mg/kg) against maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rodents. Phenobarbitone and ethosuximide were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Stereospermum kunthianum extract (200 - 400mg/kg, i.p.) remarkably protected (76.9% and 84.6 % respectively) the rats against electroshock-induced seizures. However, the extract (200- 400mg/kg) when administered orally showed a comparatively less effect (33.3% and 55.6% respectively) to the intraperitoneally administered extract in the maximal electroshock test. The extract (100-400mg/kg, i.p.) significantly delayed (pbark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum produces its antiseizure effect by enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission and/or action in the brain. The results indicate that the aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity in rodents and therefore tend to suggest that the shrub may be used as a natural supplementary remedy in the management, control and/or treatment of childhood convulsions. It can be concluded that the aqueous stem bark extract possesses anticonvulsant activity and therefore lend pharmacological credence to the traditionally claimed use in the treatment of childhood convulsions.

  13. From the Behavioral Pharmacology of Beta-Carbolines to Seizures, Anxiety, and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Venault

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of beta-carbolines are inverse agonists of the GABA-A receptor complex, acting on the benzodiazepine site. They show convulsive properties when administered at high doses, anxiogenic properties at moderate doses, and learning-enhancing effects at low doses. These data suggest a possible physiological relationship, through the GABA-A receptor channel, between memory processes, anxiety, and ultimately, in pathological states, epileptic seizures. This relationship seems to be confirmed partially by experiments on mouse strains selected for their resistance (BR and sensitivity (BS to a single convulsive dose of a beta-carboline. These two strains also show differences in anxiety and learning abilities. However, some opposite results found while observing the behavior of the two strains suggest that in addition to pharmacologically induced anxiety, there is spontaneous anxiety, no doubt involving other brain mechanisms.

  14. Evaluation of interleukin 1β in febrile convulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Behmanesh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Febrile collected from members of both groups and serum samples were prepared. Interleukin 1β concentrations were measured using a commercial Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit.We found that there was a difference in serum levels of Interleukin 1β between FC and control  group but  it was not  significant. This result may be due to  the low number  of samples  or  the  result  of  Interleukin  1β  binding  to  some  large proteins  such  as  α2- macroglobolin, complement and soluble type 2 Interleukin 1 receptor, that affected the free Interleukin 1β concentration.We could not find a significant relationship between serum Interleukin 1β concentration and FC.convulsion (FC is the most common type of seizure in childhood that occurs in 2-5 %  of  the  children younger than  6  years. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β is a cytokine that contributes to febrile inflammatory responses. There are conflicting results on increasing this cytokine in serum during FC. Thus we measured IL-1ß in febrile children with or without seizure.60 febrile children (6 months  to 5 years old were divided in two groups, one group consisted of 30 children with FC, the other group consisting of 30 children without seizure which served as control. Blood samples were

  15. [A 57-year-old woman with gait disturbance, headache, character change, convulsion, and coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takubo, H; Satoh, S; Mori, H; Tsukahara, M; Suda, K; Imai, H; Mizuno, Y

    1995-07-01

    We report a 57-year-old woman with progressive gait disturbance, headache, character change, convulsion and coma. She was well until 55 years of age, when she noted an onset of unsteady gait. At times she experienced transient weakness in her right hand, which was followed some difficulty in articulation. She was admitted to our service for the work up on April 6, 1992. Neurologic examination at that time revealed an alert Japanese lady in no acute distress. She was oriented to all spheres, however, she was somewhat bradyphrenic and had some disturbance in recent memory. Higher cerebral functions appeared intact. The visual acuity and visual fields were normal as were the optic fundi. Pupils were round and isocoric reacting promptly to light. Ocular movement was full, however, horizontal nystagmus was noted upon right lateral gaze. The sensation of the face was intact. She showed right facial paresis of the central type. Hearing was intact. She showed slurred speech and some difficulty in swallowing. The tongue was deviated to the right. Her gait was wide based and unsteady; tandem gait was difficult, however, walking on toes and on heels were performed well. No cerebellar ataxia was noted, but she showed some clumsiness in her right hand. Deep reflexes were symmetric and normally reactive; plantar response was extensor bilaterally. Sensation was intact; no meningeal sign was elicited. Routine laboratory work up was unremarkable; the CSF was under a borderline pressure (180 mmH2O) and contained 39 mg/dl of protein and 59 mg/dl of sugar. Cranial CT scan revealed diffuse low density areas involving bilateral cerebral white matter as well as the brain stem; MRI revealed high signal intensity lesions in those areas; gadolinium enhancement was negative; cortical sulci were effaced and the anterior part of the left lateral ventricle was compressed without deviation of the midline structure. The patient was treated with steroid pulse therapy without effect. She was

  16. IS LUMBAR PUNCTURE ALWAYS NECESSARY IN THE FEBRILE CHILD WITH CONVULSION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR. Salehi Omrani

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveFebrile convulsion is the most common benign convulsive disorderin children. Meningitis is one of the most important causes of feverand convulsions, diagnosed by lumbar puncture (LP, a painful andinvasive procedure much debated regarding its necessity. This studyevaluates the frequency of abnormal LP findings in a group of patients,to determine whether or not unnecessary LP can be prevented withoutmissing patients with serious problems such as meningitis.Materials& MethodsThe study was a descriptive, cross sectional study, conducted on 200children suffering from fever and convulsions. Medical files of patientswere taken from the hospital records and relevant data were collectedto complete the appropriate forms.ResultsOf 200 patients included in the study, 116 (58% children were male,and 84 (42% were female. 47 cases (23.5% underwent LP, of whomjust one (0.5% had abnormal LP and meningitis.ConclusionRegarding Considering the low prevalence of meningitis in childrenwith convulsion and fever, we conclude that by means of preciseclinical examination and monitoring, it is possible to preventunnecessary LP in these patients

  17. Evaluation of Serum Selenium Levels in Children with Recurrent Febril Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Berk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The febrile convulsion (FC occurs in neurologically normal children aged between six months and five years and it is defined as convulsions occurred during fever and in the absence of central nervous system (CNS infection, electrolyte imbalance, diseases affecting directly CNS, and history of afebrile convulsion. The aims of this study were to determine the serum levels of selenium in patients with recurrent FC and to compare them with those of healthy children. Materials and Methods: The study included 61 pediatric patients diagnosed with recurrent FC. At the same session, 54 healthy children who admitted to our pediatric clinic for routine controls without history of fever and convulsion, are assigned as control group. The serum level of selenium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometric method (hydride technique.Results: Mean level of selenium was determined as 67.10±8.87 µg/L in patients and 81.99±13.13 µg/L in control group; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. Discussion: The lower serum levels of selenium in patients with recurrent FC may be the cause of triggering of convulsion or may contribute to its recurrence. Further studies are necessary to clarify this relationship. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2011; 9: 110-5

  18. Clinical observation and treatment of febrile convulsions%小儿高热惊厥的临床观察与治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜颖; 吴雅玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment of children with febrile convulsion.Methods Sixty children with febrile convulsion in the sixth people' s hospital of Luoyang from August 2010 to October 2013 were randomly selected,the data of patients were retrospectively analyzed,to summarize and analyze the clinical manifestations,characteristics of the disease of children,and the therapeutic effects were discussed.Results Febrile seizures occured more common in four months to 3 years old children,mainly due to high fever,upper respiratory tract infection convulsion;in this study,51 cases were markedly effective after the treatment,six cases of effective therapy,only 3 cases of invalid,the total effective rate of treatment was 95.0%.Conclusions The febrile convulsion is more common in younger children,the key of clinical treatment is timely cooling,anti convulsion,and active treatment of the original diseases,so as to effectively control the seizures,avoid causing irreversible damage.%目的 探讨小儿高热惊厥的临床特点及治疗方案.方法 随机选取洛阳市第六人民医院2010年8月至2013年10月收治的高热惊厥患儿60例,对患儿的病例资料进行回顾性分析,对患儿的临床表现、发病特点进行总结分析,并对治疗效果进行讨论.结果 高热惊厥多发于4个月~3岁幼儿,主要为上呼吸道感染所致高热引起的惊厥;本研究显效51例,有效6例,无效3例,总治疗有效率为95.0%.结论 高热惊厥多见于低龄幼儿,临床治疗的关键在于及时降温、止惊,积极治疗原发病,以有效控刺惊厥,避免引起不可逆性损伤.

  19. Behavioral interventions--rationale, measurement, and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2005-06-01

    Effective STD and HIV prevention requires synergism of individual-based prevention behaviors and societal/structural supports that will promote and maintain these behaviors. We should also expect the unexpected. STD rates in gay men have risen after effective prevention of HIV/STD in gay men and effective antiretroviral therapy. New drugs of abuse, such as methamphetamine ("crystal meth"), have induced risky sexual behaviors in gay and heterosexual communities. Economic dislocation in Eastern Europe has resulted in trafficking of commercial sex workers to Europe, the Mideast, and Asia, all with the potential for STD and HIV spread. James Curran, formerly director of the HIV epidemiology and prevention effort at the CDC, has written: It is ironic that the two clearest examples of large-scale success in HIV prevention-reduction in HIV transmission in gay men in the United States and national declines in HIV incidence in Thailand-arise in societies/communities known in their own way for sexual openness....the openness in both communities provided the environment to make the powerful revolutionary changes needed. In Africa, the powerful voice of President Museveni of Uganda has also encouraged candor about sexual risk-taking and facilitated that nation's encouraging early success in reducing HIV prevalence...Unfortunately, most of the world remains unable or unwilling to deal frankly and consistently with sexuality despite the considerable risks of HIV infection in many communities. There is a worldwide sexual hangup hampering HIV prevention efforts. PMID:15963887

  20. Effects of Aqueous Matricaria Recutita extract on anxiety-like behavior in rat’s model kindled by Pentylenetetrazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Komeili

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Kindling can increase anxiety-like behavior in rodents. Oxidative stress has an important role in arousing anxiety. It is known that Matricaria Recutita has an antioxidant effect. Thus, the present study aimed at assessing the effects of this plant’s extract. on anxiety-like behavior induced by kindling in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar Albino rats (wt:200-250 g were randomly divided into 4 equal groups; namely control (intact, kindling, diazepam (2 mg/kg, and aqueous extract of Matricaria Recutita (30 mg/kg intrapertoneally. Kindling was done by a sub-convulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 40 mg/kg, i.p. in the remainder . groups. Kindling parameters in all these animals were evaluated by a plus elevated maze. The percent of time spent in the open arms of maze (OAT % and percent of entries in the open arms (OAE % were accounted for anxiety evaluation. Increase in OAT % and OAE % indicated an anxiolytic effect. Finally,the obtained data was analyzed by means of Any-Maze software and P<0.05 was taken as the significant level. Results: Kindling significantly (P<0.05 increased anxiety response in rats for at least 24h following the last seizure (decrease in OAT % and OAE %. Administeration of diazepam and Matricaria Recutita induced a significant increase in OAT % and OAE %, thereby . displaying a decrease in the anxiety in the kindled rats (P<0.05. Activity rate of the animals increased in the extract-treated group. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that Matricaria Recutita was able to improve elevated levels of anxiety in kindled rats. Therefore, further works are needed to elucidate the extent and mechanism of these effects.

  1. Electrode Evaporation Effects on Air Arc Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingwen; CHEN Degui; LI Rui; WU Yi; NIU Chunping

    2008-01-01

    A numerical study of the effects of copper and silver vapours on the air arc behavior is performed. The commercial software FLUENT is adapted and modified to develop a two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) models of arc with the thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients, net emission coefficient for the radiation model of 99% ai-1% Cu, 99% air-1% Ag, and pure air, respectively. The simulation result demonstrates that vaporization of the electrode material may cool the arc center region and reduce the arc velocity. The effects of Ag vapour are stronger compared to those of Cu vapour.

  2. Recurrence rate of febrile convulsion related to the degree of pyrexia during the first attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Radhi, A S; Withana, K; Banajeh, S

    1986-06-01

    Ninety-four children consecutively admitted to the hospital between January 1980 and December 1982 with their first febrile convulsion (FC) were studied to assess the influence of the degree of pyrexia on the recurrence rate of FC. Thirty-eight of sixty-three children between 6 and 18 months of age (the peak incidence of FC) with fever above 40 degrees C were almost seven times less likely to have subsequent convulsions with fever, than those whose initial febrile convulsion was associated with a lower degree of pyrexia. It is suggested that the degree of pyrexia is a factor that influences the recurrence of FC. This may explain why some children have a reduced frequency of subsequent FC compared with others who appear to be at comparable risk. PMID:3698455

  3. [A case of tyrosinemia type II with convulsion and EEG abnormality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, M; Suzuki, N; Koeda, T

    1993-11-01

    A 10-year-old boy with palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and keratitis was reported. His physical development was normal and mental development was lower limit. He had also convulsions with low grade fever several times, and his EEG showed paroxysmal discharges. The plasma levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine were 5 to 10 times higher than those of controls. Tyrosinemia II was diagnosed on the low level of cytosol tyrosine aminotransferase in biopsied liver. The cases of tyrosinemia II were reviewed on the symptoms of the central nervous system. Two of twelve cases had convulsions. Adult cases demonstrated nystagmus, tremor, ataxia, and convulsion. Hyperkeratosis and corneal lesions were characteristic in symptoms of tyrosinemia II, but attention should be paid to the symptoms of the central nervous system.

  4. Quantitative analysis of surface electromyography during epileptic and nonepileptic convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of sustained muscle activation during convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), as compared to voluntary muscle activation. The main goal was to find surface electromyography (EMG) features that can distinguish between...... convulsive epileptic seizures and convulsive PNES. METHODS: In this case-control study, surface EMG was recorded from the deltoid muscles during long-term video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring in 25 patients and in 21 healthy controls. A total of 46 clinical episodes were recorded: 28 generalized......, median frequency (MF), coherence, and duration of the seizures, of the clonic EMG discharges, and of the silent periods between the cloni. Based on wavelet analysis, we distinguished between a low-frequency component (LF 2-8 Hz) and a high-frequency component (HF 64-256 Hz). RESULTS: Duration...

  5. Differences in factors influencing the familial aggregation of febrile convulsion in population and hospital patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, J J; Huang, M C; Lung, F W; Huang, C C; Change, Y C

    1996-11-01

    Socio-demographic data, initial clinical manifestations, outcome and family aggregation of febrile convulsion (FC) were compared between 85 population and 364 multicenter patients. More patients presented with clustering of seizures and had recurrence of FC in multicenter group than in population group. Multicenter patients had more fever episodes per year, more day-card attendance and a higher incidence of FC history in their parents. The odds ratio of FC in the siblings was 6:1 in population group and 12:1 in multicenter group. Lower socioeconomic status influenced the presence of FC in the sibling of population group. Instead, FC histories in the father and paternal cousins of probands had influence on the presence of FC in the siblings of multicenter group. We conclude that the population FC sample rather than the hospital sample is the more representative. And there are differences not only in the clinical manifestations but also in the effect of environmental and genetic influences on the family aggregation in population and hospital patients. PMID:8947282

  6. Delays and Factors Related to Cessation of Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämppi, Leena; Ritvanen, Jaakko; Mustonen, Harri; Soinila, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. This study was designed to identify the delays and factors related to and predicting the cessation of generalized convulsive SE (GCSE). Methods. This retrospective study includes 70 consecutive patients (>16 years) diagnosed with GCSE and treated in the emergency department of a tertiary hospital over 2 years. We defined cessation of SE stepwise using clinical seizure freedom, achievement of burst-suppression, and return of consciousness as endpoints and calculated delays for these cessation markers. In addition 10 treatment delay parameters and 7 prognostic and GCSE episode related factors were defined. Multiple statistical analyses were performed on their relation to cessation markers. Results. Onset-to-second-stage-medication (p = 0.027), onset-to-burst-suppression (p = 0.005), and onset-to-clinical-seizure-freedom (p = 0.035) delays correlated with the onset-to-consciousness delay. We detected no correlation between age, epilepsy, STESS, prestatus period, type of SE onset, effect of the first medication, and cessation of SE. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that rapid administration of second-stage medication and early obtainment of clinical seizure freedom and burst-suppression predict early return of consciousness, an unambiguous marker for the end of SE. We propose that delays in treatment chain may be more significant determinants of SE cessation than the previously established outcome predictors. Thus, streamlining the treatment chain is advocated. PMID:26347816

  7. Delays and Factors Related to Cessation of Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Kämppi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was designed to identify the delays and factors related to and predicting the cessation of generalized convulsive SE (GCSE. Methods. This retrospective study includes 70 consecutive patients (>16 years diagnosed with GCSE and treated in the emergency department of a tertiary hospital over 2 years. We defined cessation of SE stepwise using clinical seizure freedom, achievement of burst-suppression, and return of consciousness as endpoints and calculated delays for these cessation markers. In addition 10 treatment delay parameters and 7 prognostic and GCSE episode related factors were defined. Multiple statistical analyses were performed on their relation to cessation markers. Results. Onset-to-second-stage-medication (p=0.027, onset-to-burst-suppression (p=0.005, and onset-to-clinical-seizure-freedom (p=0.035 delays correlated with the onset-to-consciousness delay. We detected no correlation between age, epilepsy, STESS, prestatus period, type of SE onset, effect of the first medication, and cessation of SE. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that rapid administration of second-stage medication and early obtainment of clinical seizure freedom and burst-suppression predict early return of consciousness, an unambiguous marker for the end of SE. We propose that delays in treatment chain may be more significant determinants of SE cessation than the previously established outcome predictors. Thus, streamlining the treatment chain is advocated.

  8. Role of routine investigations in children presenting with their first febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, N; Smales, O R

    1977-01-01

    To assess the role of routine investigations in children presenting with their first febrile convulsion, the results of investigations carried out in 328 children over a 2-year period were reviewed. Lumber puncture was performed in 96% of cases and resulted in the detection of 4 cases of unsuspected meningitis, one of which was bacterial. 2 children had normal lumbar punctures on admission but developed meningococcal meningitis within 48 hours. Sugar, calcium, urea, and electrolyte estimations, and blood counts were commonly performed but were unhelpful. We suggest that lumbar puncture in those children presenting with their first febrile convulsion under the age of 18 months is the only useful routine investigation. PMID:848997

  9. The Relationship between Zinc Deficiency and Febrile Convulsion in Isfahan,Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza MODARRESI; Seyyed Mohamamd Amir SHAHKARAMI; Omid YAGHINI; Javad SHAHABI; Davoud MOASAIIEBI; Touran MAHMOODIAN

    2011-01-01

    Objective  Febrile convulsion (FC) is a common cause of seizure in young children, with an excellent prognosis. In addition to genetic predisposition and infections,FCs are generally thought to be induced by metabolic and elemental changes during fever such as Zinc (Zn) deficiency. Regarding the high prevalence of febrile convulsions and the role of Zn deficiency, we investigated the role of Zn in FC patients in Isfahan, Iran.  Materials and Methods  In a controlled cross sectional stu...

  10. The Effects of Token Reinforcement on Delinquents' Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Michael M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The effects of a token reinforcement program on the classroom behavior of 19 delinquent boys in a correctional institution were investigated. Findings suggest that the use of global, composite measures may mask program effects on important component behaviors. (Author)

  11. Differential Effects of a Tier Two Behavior Intervention Based on Function of Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Campbell, Amy L.; Carter, Deborah Russell; Dickey, Celeste Rossetto

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a tier two daily behavior card intervention and differential effects based on function of problem behavior. The participants were 36 elementary school students nominated for additional intervention beyond universal School-Wide Positive Behavior Support. Measures included…

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Sodium Valproate in Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital

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    Razieh FALLAH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Fallah R, Yadegari Y, Salmani Nodushan M. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Sodium Valproate in Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital. Iran. J. Child. Neurol 2012;6(2:39-44. Objective Status epilepticus (SE is the most common pediatric neurologic emergency with high mortality and morbidity. There is no consensus on the drug of choice in the treatment of children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of intravenous sodium valproate as a third-line drug in the treatment of generalized convulsive SE of children. Materials & Methods In a retrospective study, medical records of those children who were admitted to Shahid Sadoughi Hospital of Yazd due to refractory generalized convulsive SE and were treated by intravenous sodium valproate as a third-line drug from 2009 to 2011 were evaluated. Results Six girls and five boys with a mean age of 5.12 ± 1.2 years (range: 3 - 9.6 years were evaluated. Intravenous valproate was effective for cessation of seizures in seven patients (63.6 %. The mean dose of valproate for stopping seizures was 27.1 ± 1.4 mg/kg/day. Children whose seizures were controlled by sodium valproate were older than non- responsive children (mean± SD: 4.8 ± 1.2 years vs. 3.1 ± 0.43 years, p= 0.03 and they also had shorter ICU stay days (mean± SD: 2.6 ± 1.4 days vs. 5.6 ± 2.8 days, p= 0.01. Two children had mild and transient nausea and vomiting. None of them had cardiopulmonary or severe paraclinical side effects. Conclusion Intravenous sodium valproate may be used as an effective and safe third-line antiepileptic drug in the treatment of pediatric generalized convulsive status epilepticus.References Raj D, Gulati S, Lodha R. Status epilepticus. Indian J Pediatr 2011;78(2:219-26. Shearer P, Riviello J. Generalized convulsive status epilepticus in adults and children: treatment guidelines and protocols. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2011

  13. Impacts of Shisiwei Jianzhong Decoction on the Convulsion Latency and the Content of Cytokines in Brain Tissue of the Mice with Oxygen Convulsion%十四味建中汤对氧惊厥小鼠惊厥潜伏期及脑组织炎症细胞因子含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷箴; 王国忠

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the impacts and significance of shisiwei jianzhong decoction on convulsion latency and the content of IL - 1β and IL - 10 in brain tissue of the mice with oxygen convulsion. Methods Fifty - six mice were randomized into 7 groups,named an oxygen - convulsion 6 h group(6 h group),a 24 h group,a 48 h group,a shisiwei jianzhong decoction + oxygen - convulsion 6 h group(a therapy 6 h group),a therapy 24 h group,a therapy 48group and a normal control group. In all of the therapy groups, 2 weeks before convulsion induced by oxygen,shishiwei jianzhong decoction was used for gastric perfusion, once every day. The mice in all of the oxygen convulsion groups and the therapy groups were placed in 500 kPa oxygen environment till the seizure so as to prepare the model of oxygen convulsion. The enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the content of IL - 1β and IL - 10 in brain tissue. Results There was no significant difference in convulsion latency between the therapy groups and the oxygen convulsion groups(P ﹥ 0. 05). In the 24 h group and the 48 h group,the content of IL - 1β was higher significantly than that in the normal control group,indicating the significant difference(P ﹤ 0. 05),and that in the therapy 24 h group and the therapy 48 h group was lower significantly than that in the corresponding oxygen convulsion groups of the same time point,indicating the significant difference in the pair comparison(P ﹤ 0. 05). At the same time point,the difference in the content of IL - 10 was not significant among the oxygen convulsion groups,the therapy groups and the normal control group(P ﹥ 0. 05). Conclusion Shisiwei jianzhong decoc-tion does not significantly prolong the latency of oxygen convulsion in the mice,but it effectively reduces the content of IL - 1β,benefits the re - balance of proinflammatory cytokine and anti - inflammatory cytokine and alleviates the convulsive brain damage.%目的:探讨十四味建中汤对氧惊

  14. The Relationship between Zinc Deficiency and Febrile Convulsion in Isfahan,Iran

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    Mohammad Reza Modarresi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Febrile convulsion (FC is a common cause of seizure in young children, with an excellent prognosis. In addition to genetic predisposition and infections,FCs are generally thought to be induced by metabolic and elemental changes during fever such as Zinc (Zn deficiency. Regarding the high prevalence of febrile convulsions and the role of Zn deficiency, we investigated the role of Zn in FC patients in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods In a controlled cross sectional study, 90 patients aged 9 months to 5 years were studied in a period of 12 months. They were assigned to three groups. Thirty patients were included in the Febrile Seizure group, thirty febrile children without convulsion or previous history of convulsion were included in the febrile group and thirty afebrile healthy ones were enrolled as controls. Venous blood was obtained and Zn concentration in serum was measured using Graphite Furnance Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometering (GF-AAS. Results Patients and the control groups had no difference in either mean age or sex distribution. No significant relationship was observed between serum Zn level and age or sex among patients in the FC group and two other control groups. Conclusion Our findings showed that Zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to two other groups. We tried to categorize various conditions in a more practical form. Also, Zinc is in close relationship with socioeconomic level of the individuals which was well considered in the current survey.

  15. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Egleston, C V

    1997-05-01

    The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure. PMID:9193992

  16. Expression of Hsp72 in lymphocytes in patients with febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Chen, Hsiang-Wen; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2005-03-01

    The pathophysiology of febrile convulsion, the most common childhood neurologic disease, remains unclear. In this study, we investigated what role a heat shock protein plays in this disease. We enrolled eight boys and two girls with febrile convulsion and 10 age-matched healthy controls. We did a biosynthetic evaluation of both groups by separating lymphocytes and measuring the expression of heat shock protein 72 before and after heat shock treatment. Before the treatment, both groups were found to have small amounts of constitutive heat shock protein 72. Afterwards, its expression increased in both groups, and no statistical difference was found between the increases in the two groups. In addition, there was no obvious difference in the susceptibility to produce heat shock proteins. However, the febrile convulsion group was found to have a significant decrease in phosphorylation of heat shock protein 72. These results suggest the possible involvement of post-translational modification of heat shock proteins, most likely phosphorylation, in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. PMID:15875434

  17. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, A. J.; Egleston, C. V.

    1997-01-01

    The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure.

  18. Orofacial injuries associated with prehospital management of febrile convulsion in Nigerian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndukwe, Kizito C; Folayan, Morenike O; Ugboko, Vincent I; Elusiyan, Jerome B E; Laja, Olajumoke O

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine in a population of pediatric patients with febrile convulsions the prevalence and pattern of orofacial and dental injuries caused by traditional remedies used in a suburban Nigerian community. Over the study period of 28 months, 75 cases of febrile convulsion presented to the Children's Emergency unit of our hospital. Of these, 27 children (36%) sustained orofacial injuries caused by forceful insertion of a spoon into the mouth (96.3%) or a bite (3.7%) during convulsive episodes. The ages of the patients ranged from 12 to 84 months with a mean 39.8 +/- 18.3 months. There were 15 males and 11 females with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. The orofacial and dental injuries sustained from prehospital treatment at home were lacerations and bruising of soft tissues including lips, tongue, mucosa and commissures and tooth subluxation, displacement or avulsion. Other injuries sustained outside the mouth include second-degree burns to the feet, a chin laceration and facial bruises resulting from a fall. Many oral injuries were overlooked by pediatricians. Prompt recognition and appropriate management of febrile convulsion would be of great benefit to the pediatric patients. PMID:17367452

  19. Treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in the UMCG: A retrospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, D.R.M.; Brouwer, O.F.; Callenbach, P.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known about clinical practice with respect to the application of guidelines in the treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus (CSE). This retrospective, observational study evaluated treatment of episodes of CSE in children at the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG). Mat

  20. [The clinical study of the first febrile convulsion in children with brain-damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoh, M

    1997-05-01

    Forty-nine patients with cerebral palsy, mental retardation, or other congenital neurological disorders who had experienced febrile convulsions and had no previous nonfebrile seizures were presented. They were followed for 1.6 years to 15 years (mean: 6.8 years) after the initial febrile convulsion. The incidence of subsequent epilepsy (two or more afebrile seizures) was 39%, and 80% of them developed epilepsy within 2 years after the first febrile convulsion. The paroxysmal discharges on EEG recorded prior to or after the first febrile convulsion did not predict the occurrence of later epilepsy. Also under 3 years of age, EEG findings led to the same result. There was no definite evidence that administration of anticonvulsive drugs prevented later epilepsy. Pre-existing neurological abnormality was identified as a risk factor for epilepsy, and was an indication of persistent medication. There is no clear prophylactic procedure against long-lasting attacks. Accordingly, medical therapy can be started when epilepsy has developed. Patients with very severe brain damage who could not move except lying comprised only 6% of all cases, and 69% of the epilepsy patients were well controlled. They showed a good prognosis as compared with children with brain-damage in general with epilepsy. PMID:9146028

  1. Main points of reading electroencephalograms and CT images in convulsive disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Takehiko (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-12-01

    The main ponts for reading electroencephalogram and CT images in various convulsive diseases were described briefly. CT images and electroencephalograms were shown in intracranial hemorrhage, purulent meningitis due to influenzal virus, subacute sclerosing encephalitis, OTC deficiency, Aicardi syndromes, tuberous sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, cerebrovascular moyamoya disease, cerebral tumor, and nodding spasm (changes of cerebral atrophy with time course due to ACTH therapy).

  2. Phase-locking of epileptic spikes to ongoing delta oscillations in non-convulsive status epilepticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Rikkert; Meijer, Hil G.E.; Gils, van Stephan A.; Putten, van Michel J.A.M

    2013-01-01

    The EEG of patients in non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) often displays delta oscillations or generalized spike-wave discharges. In some patients, these delta oscillations coexist with intermittent epileptic spikes. In this study we verify the prediction of a computational model of the thalam

  3. Benign familial infantile convulsions : a clinical study of seven Dutch families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callenbach, Petra; De Coo, René F.M.; Vein, Alla A.; Arts, Willem Frans M.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Hageman, Gerard; ten Houten, Robert; Terwindt, Gisela M.; Lindhout, Dick; Frants, Rune R.; Brouwer, Oebele F.

    2002-01-01

    Benign familial infantile convulsions (BFIC) is a recently identified partial epilepsy syndrome with onset between 3 and 12 months of age. We describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of 43 patients with BFIC from six Dutch families and one Dutch-Canadian family and the encountered difficult

  4. 幼儿急疹合并热性惊厥的临床特征%Clinical characterstics of roseola infantum with febrile convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云峰; 周忠蜀

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of roseola infantmn with febrile convulsions.Methods All cases with roseola infantum or with febrile convulsions were retrospectively collected who were confirmed during January 2005 to February 2008. There were 31 cases of roseola infantum with febrile convulsions. Their clinical features were compared with cases of roseola infantum without febrile convulsions and eases of other febrile convulsions,respectively, and further analyzed with literature. Results There were 17.1% (3 1 / 181 ) roseola infantum with febrile convulsions among febrile convulsions and 24.4% (31/127)among febrile convulsions less than 2 years;The incidence of roseola infantum with febrile convulsions was 15.7% (31/198) among roseola infantum. The median age of roseola infantum with febrile convulsions was less than that of other febrile convulsions. There were no significant differences in sex, age, maximum body temperature, duration of fever and day of rash onset between roseola infantum with and without febrile convulsions ( P > 0.05 ), but the frequency of family history of febrile convulsions was significantly higher in roseola infantum with febrile convulsions than in those without febrile convulsions ( P 0.05),而热性惊厥家族史有显著差别(P<0.05).结论 遗传因素是导致幼儿急疹并热性惊厥发作的一个危险因素;幼儿急疹并热性惊厥时一般预后良好,但要警惕发生严重中枢神经系统损伤的可能性,如癫痫.对于1岁内初次发热并出现热性惊厥的患儿要注意幼儿急疹的可能.

  5. The Relationship between Zinc Deficiency and Febrile Convulsion in Isfahan,Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MODARRESI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  Febrile convulsion (FC is a common cause of seizure in young children, with an excellent prognosis. In addition to genetic predisposition and infections,FCs are generally thought to be induced by metabolic and elemental changes during fever such as Zinc (Zn deficiency. Regarding the high prevalence of febrile convulsions and the role of Zn deficiency, we investigated the role of Zn in FC patients in Isfahan, Iran.  Materials and Methods  In a controlled cross sectional study, 90 patients aged 9 months to 5 years were studied in a period of 12 months. They were assigned to three groups. Thirty patients were included in the Febrile Seizure group, thirty febrile children without convulsion or previous history of convulsion were included in the febrile group and thirty afebrile healthy ones were enrolled as controls. Venous blood was obtained and Zn concentration in serum was measured using Graphite Furnance Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometering (GF-AAS.  Results  Patients and the control groups had no difference in either mean age or sex distribution. No significant relationship was observed between serum Zn level and age or sex among patients in the FC group and two other control groups.   Conclusion  Our findings showed that Zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to two other groups. We tried to categorize various conditions in a more practical form. Also, Zinc is in close relationship with socioeconomic level of the individuals which was well considered in the current survey.  Keywords: Zinc; Zinc deficiency; Febrile Convulsion.

  6. Analysis of the results of routine lumbar puncture after a first febrile convulsion in Hofuf, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditan, A A

    1995-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was analysed to determine a lumbar puncture (LP) yield for meningitis in 95 children who presented with their first febrile convulsions between July 1993 and June 1994. There were 52 males and 43 females aged six months to six years with a mean age of 21.9 +/- 13.0 months at presentation. 87(91.6%) had simple febrile convulsions (SFC) while the remaining 8(8.4%) had complex febrile convulsions (CFC). The majority of the subjects presented with a sudden onset of convulsions that were preceded by a day or two history of fever, coryza, cough and respiratory distress while others had their convulsions preceded by fever and passage of bloody stools. The LP yield for meningitis in this series was 6.3%. The CSF analysis revealed six cases of meningitis comprising an eight month old infant with Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB) meningitis, two partially treated pyogenic meningitis and three aseptic meningitis. All of them had presented with febrile convulsions without signs of meningeal irritation. Excluding aseptic meningitis from this series, a 3.1% LP yield for pyogenic meningitis is significant enough to recommend continued performance of LP in children with first febrile convulsions, especially if under the age of eighteen months. PMID:7498008

  7. Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunii Yasuto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

  8. Electroencephalographic features of convulsive epilepsy in Africa: A multicentre study of prevalence, pattern and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Symon M.; White, Steven; Chengo, Eddie; Wagner, Ryan G.; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth A.; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Masanja, Honorati; Ngugi, Anthony K.; Sander, Josemir W.; Neville, Brian G.; Newton, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the prevalence and pattern of electroencephalographic (EEG) features of epilepsy and the associated factors in Africans with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE). Methods We characterized electroencephalographic features and determined associated factors in a sample of people with ACE in five African sites. Mixed-effects modified Poisson regression model was used to determine factors associated with abnormal EEGs. Results Recordings were performed on 1426 people of whom 751 (53%) had abnormal EEGs, being an adjusted prevalence of 2.7 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.5–2.9) per 1000. 52% of the abnormal EEG had focal features (75% with temporal lobe involvement). The frequency and pattern of changes differed with site. Abnormal EEGs were associated with adverse perinatal events (risk ratio (RR) = 1.19 (95% CI, 1.07–1.33)), cognitive impairments (RR = 1.50 (95% CI, 1.30–1.73)), use of anti-epileptic drugs (RR = 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05–1.49)), focal seizures (RR = 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00–1.19)) and seizure frequency (RR = 1.18 (95% CI, 1.10–1.26) for daily seizures; RR = 1.22 (95% CI, 1.10–1.35) for weekly seizures and RR = 1.15 (95% CI, 1.03–1.28) for monthly seizures)). Conclusions EEG abnormalities are common in Africans with epilepsy and are associated with preventable risk factors. Significance EEG is helpful in identifying focal epilepsy in Africa, where timing of focal aetiologies is problematic and there is a lack of neuroimaging services. PMID:26337840

  9. Temperament characteristics of children from 3 to 7 years old with febrile convulsions%3~7岁热惊厥儿童气质特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝锦丽; 李雪春; 陈华; 张亚京

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the temperament characteristics of children from 3 to 7 years old with febrile convulsions. [Methods] 72 cases aged from 3 to 7 years were chosen with febrile convulsions in the 3rd affiliated hospital and 72 children in control group. Children 3~7 years old temperament questionnaire (Behavioral Style Questionnaire) and self-made questionnaire were filled in by their patients. [Results] The two groups had the same temperament types distribution (P>0. 05) and cases with febrile convulsions had more higher values than the control group in activity level, adaptability, intensity of reaction, quality of mood(P<0.05). And child with complex febrile convulsions often had temperament of difficult to raise, difficulties to raise in the middle type and slow-to-warm-up. The reaction intensity of temperament dimensions were the risk factors to recurrent febrile convulsions (P<0. 05) by multivariate analysis. [Conclusion] The assessment of temperament provides a new prevention and treatment ideas in children with febrile convulsions.%[目的]探讨3~7岁热惊厥儿童的气质特点,为临床有效诊治提供新的参考.[方法]选择本院3~7岁热惊厥发作以及对照组儿童各72例,采用3~7岁儿童气质问卷以及自制调查问卷进行调查.[结果]热惊厥儿童与正常对照组儿童气质类型大致相同(P>0.05);热惊厥儿童活动水平、适应性、反应强度、心境、持久性几个方面气质维度值高于对照组(P<0.05);复杂型热惊厥儿童气质类型中难养型、中间难养型以及启动缓慢型所占比例较高(P<0.05);多因素分析结果发现,气质维度中反应强度是本组热惊厥反复发作的高危因素(P<0.05).[结论]气质评估为热惊厥患儿提供了新的预防及治疗思路.

  10. Effects of Certain Counselor Behaviors on Perceived Expertness and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Azy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined effects and relative contribution of three counselor behaviors (nonverbal behavior, jargon, and attire) on perceived expertise and attractiveness. Results revealed that all three independent variables significantly affected the two rated dimensions. Nonverbal behavior accounted for most of the variance and differentially affected ratings…

  11. Exploring the Behavior of Highly Effective CIOs Using Video Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Komal; Wilderom, Celeste; Hillegersberg, van, Jos

    2009-01-01

    Although recently several studies have addressed the required skills of effective CIOs, little is known of the actual behavior successful CIOs. In this study, we explore the behavior of highly effective CIOs by video-recording CIOs at work. The two CIOs videotaped were nominated as CIO of the year. We analyze the data in an innovative and systematic way by developing and using a behavioral leadership coding scheme. The analysis indicates that highly effective CIOs are good listeners. They als...

  12. On the Nursing of Children with Febrile Convulsion%关于小儿热惊厥护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷婷

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the nursing of children with febrile convulsion, including the causes, treatment, family nursing and post-illness observation of febrile convulsion. Ob-jective:The nursing of children with febrile convulsion. Method:The obtained data and materials. Reason: To strengthen child nursing. Result: The process of the nursing of children with febrile convulsion is obtained.%关于小儿热惊厥的护理,其中包括小儿热惊厥的病因、治疗、家庭护理以及病后观察。研究目的:小儿热惊厥的护理。研究方法:已经得出的数据资料。研究原因:加强对小儿的护理。研究结果:得出小儿热惊厥的护理过程。

  13. The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior of children using stronger statistical controls than earlier literature in this area; to examine whether the effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior is nonlinear; and to investigate whether the effects of corporal punishment on antisocial…

  14. Acceptability – a neglected dimension of access to health care: findings from a study on childhood convulsions in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillip Angel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acceptability is a poorly conceptualized dimension of access to health care. Using a study on childhood convulsion in rural Tanzania, we examined social acceptability from a user perspective. The study design is based on the premise that a match between health providers’ and clients’ understanding of disease is an important dimension of social acceptability, especially in trans-cultural communication, for example if childhood convulsions are not linked with malaria and local treatment practices are mostly preferred. The study was linked to health interventions with the objective of bridging the gap between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions. Methods The study combined classical ethnography with the cultural epidemiology approach using EMIC (Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue tool. EMIC interviews were conducted in a 2007/08 convulsion study (n = 88 and results were compared with those of an earlier 2004/06 convulsion study (n = 135. Earlier studies on convulsion in the area were also examined to explore longer-term changes in treatment practices. Results The match between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions was already high in the 2004/06 study. Specific improvements were noted in form of (1 46% point increase among those who reported use of mosquito nets to prevent convulsion (2 13% point decrease among caregivers who associated convulsion with ‘evil eye and sorcery’, 3 14% point increase in prompt use of health facility and 416% point decrease among those who did not use health facility at all. Such changes can be partly attributed to interventions which explicitly aimed at increasing the match between local and biomedical understanding of malaria. Caregivers, mostly mothers, did not seek advice on where to take an ill child. This indicates that treatment at health facility has become socially acceptable for severe febrile with convulsion. Conclusion As an important dimension

  15. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience.

  16. Prevalence of HHV-6 in cerebrospinal fluid of children younger than 2 years of age with febrile convulsion.

    OpenAIRE

    Setareh Mamishi; Laura Kamrani; Masoud Mohammadpour; Jila Yavarian

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Febrile convulsion is a common disorder in children. Viral infections such as human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) which results in roseola infantum may contribute to developing seizure. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HHV-6 by detecting DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with febrile convulsion and without any rash of roseola infantum. Materials and Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, CSF of 100 children younger than 2 ...

  17. Predictors of acute bacterial meningitis among children with a first episode of febrile convulsion from Northern India: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Amiraj Singh; Joginder Silayach; Geeta Gathwala; Jaya Shankar Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Context: There is limited data to support need of lumbar puncture among Indian children aged less than 5 years presenting with a first episode of fever and seizure. Aims: To determine the incidence and clinical predictors of meningitis among children aged 6-60 months presenting with a first episode of febrile convulsion. Settings and Designs: A prospective study was conducted on 35 children (6-60 months) with a first episode of febrile convulsion subjected to lumbar puncture in a tertiary car...

  18. 51例高热惊厥小儿的护理体会%Nursing experience of 51 cases of febrile convulsion in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗红英; 秦霞; 许京娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究分析小儿高热惊厥的临床护理体会。方法择取在2012.07-2013.07期间在我院接受治疗的51例高热惊厥患儿,充分给予合理的护理干预。结果本组患儿在住院后的5-15天痊愈出院,出院2个月后随访可知,其中有8例患儿再次发生上呼吸道的感染伴有发热,患儿体温在38~39.5℃,未有再次出现惊厥的现象,在门诊治愈。其余患儿均正常。结论对患儿予以合理的护理干预,可以有效改善患儿的生存质量。%ObJective:to analyze the clinical experience of nursing care of children with febrile convulsion research. Methods:51 patients with febrile convulsion selection during 2012. 07 - 2013. 07 in our hospital,nursing intervention and reasonable fully. Results:in this group,the children in the hospital 5 ~ 15 days after cured,after followed up for 2 months showed that discharge,including 8 cases of upper respiratory tract infection occurred again accompanied by fever,infant body temperature at 38 ~ 39. 5 ℃ ,no convulsions againe. All other patients were normal. Conclusion:nursing intervention on quality of life in children with reasonable,can effectively improve childrenˊs.

  19. 51例高热惊厥小儿的护理体会%Nursing Experience of 51 Cases of Febrile Convulsion in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗红英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical experience of nursing care of children with febrile convulsion research. Methods 51 patients with febrile convulsion selection during 2012.07-2013.07 in our hospital, nursing intervention and reasonable fully. Results In this group, the children in the hospital 5-15 days after cured, after followed up for 2 months showed that discharge, including 8 cases of upper respiratory tract infection occurred again accompanied by fever, infant body temperature at 38-39.5 degrees celsius, no convulsions again, in the clinic cure. All other patients were normal. Conclusion Nursing intervention on quality of life in children with reasonable, can effectively improve children's.%目的:研究分析小儿高热惊厥的临床护理体会。方法择取在2012年7月至2013年7月期间在我院接受治疗的51例高热惊厥患儿,充分给予合理的护理干预。结果本组患儿在住院后的5~15d痊愈出院,出院2个月后随访可知,其中有8例患儿再次发生上呼吸道的感染伴有发热,患儿体温在38~39.5℃,未有再次出现惊厥的现象,在门诊治愈。其余患儿均正常。结论对患儿予以合理的护理干预,可以有效改善患儿的生存质量。

  20. First line management of prolonged convulsive seizures in children and adults: good practice points

    OpenAIRE

    De Waele, Liesbeth; Boon, Paul; Ceulemans, Berten; Dan, Bernard; JANSEN Anna; Legros, Benjamin; LEROY, Patricia; Delmelle, Francoise; Ossemann, Michel; De Raedt, Sylvie; Smets, Katrien; Van de Voorde, Patrick; VERHELST, HELENE; Lagae, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decades, it has become clear that the most efficient way to prevent status epilepticus is to stop the seizure as fast as possible, and early treatment of prolonged convulsive seizures has become an integral part of the overall treatment strategy in epilepsy. Benzodiazepines are the first choice drugs to be used as emergency medication. This treatment in the early phases of a seizure often implies a 'pre-medical' setting before intervention of medically trained persons. In this p...

  1. Immunological findings in epileptic and febrile convulsion patients before and under treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartara, A; Verri, A P; Nespoli, L; Moglia, A; Botta, M G

    1981-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin levels of 86 epileptic patients have been evaluated in order to investigate the relationship between epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs and humoral immunity. The results confirm a high incidence of immunological disorders in the epileptic and febrile convulsion patients. These abnormalities were not related to clinical type of epilepsy nor to the therapy; the common feature seems the early onset of seizures and antiepileptic treatment. PMID:6791931

  2. The Frequency of Urinary Tract Infection among Children with Febrile Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Akbar Momen; Seyyed Mehdi Monajemzadeh; Maryam Gholamian

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study was conducted to determine the frequency of urinary tract infection(UTI) among children with febrile convulsion (FC).Materials & MethodsWe analyzed the hospital records of 137 children who had been admitted to thepediatric ward from March 2004 to February 2007 because of FC. Informationsuch as age, sex, developmental status, type of FC, family history of seizure,urine sampling method, and the results of antibiograms were recorded.ResultsThe age distribution of 137 patients...

  3. The Frequency of Urinary Tract Infection among Children with Febrile Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Akbar Momen; Seyyed Mehdi Monajemzadeh

    2011-01-01

    objectiveThis study was conducted to determine the frequency of urinary tract infection(UTI) among children with febrile convulsion (FC).Materials & MethodsWe analyzed the hospital records of 137 children who had been admitted to thepediatric ward from March 2004 to February 2007 because of FC. Informationsuch as age, sex, developmental status, type of FC, family history of seizure,urine sampling method, and the results of antibiograms were recorded.ResultsThe age distribution of 137 patients...

  4. Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Presenting with Acute Cognitive Dysfunction and Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Woo-Hyuk; Na, Ju-Young; Kim, Meyung-Kug; Yoo, Bong-Goo

    2013-01-01

    Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by acute or subacute encephalopathy related to increased anti-thyroid antibodies. Clinical manifestations of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy may include stroke-like episodes, altered consciousness, psychosis, myoclonus, abnormal movements, seizures, and cognitive dysfunction. Acute cognitive dysfunction with convulsion as initial clinical manifestations of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is very rare. We report a 65-year-old man wh...

  5. Clinical Exploration of Factors Related to Recurrence of Febrile Convulsion in Children%小儿热性惊厥复发相关因素的临床探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晓文

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the factors related to the recurrence of febrile convulsion in children. Methods:Select 6 9 cases of child patient in relapse of febrile convulsion as the treatment group and 6 9 cases of concurrent non-recurrent child patient as the control group.Compare their differences on gender ,age,the condition and temperature when convulsion recurs,anomalies during perinatal period ,family history, weight,preictal complications and otherwise.Results:Compare some of the factors of the patients in the two groups,the number of male,age,weight,convulsion times,EEG anomaly,convulsion duration,family his-tory and complications and other factors in treatment group was found to be obviously different from that in the control group,P0.05.Conclusion:The recurrence rate of febrile convulsion is quite high,some may even transform to epilepsia,scientific and effective measures would prevent sequela in nervous system and lower the recurrence effectively.%目的::对小儿热性惊厥复发相关因素进行研究分析。方法:从某院小儿热性惊厥复发患者中选取69例为治疗组,选取同期没有复发的69例小儿热性惊厥患者为对照组,对比分析两组患者在性别、年龄、惊厥发作情况、体温、围生期异常、家族史、体重和发作前合并症等因素之间的差异性。结果:对比两组患者部分因素,治疗组患者男性比率、年龄、体温、惊厥次数、复杂型、脑电图异常、惊厥发作时间、家族史和合并症等因素同对照组患者间存在显著差异性,P0.05。结论:热性惊厥疾病具有较高复发率,部分患者会转化为癫痫,科学有效的处理措施可有效避免患者出现神经系统后遗症,降低患者出现复发现象发生率。

  6. [Effects of environmental change and others' behavior on cooperative behavior and solution preference in social dilemma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined how environmental change and others' behavior affected cooperative behavior and solution preference of the person in social dilemma situation. Participants in two experiments played an "environment game," in which gradual pollution in environment and reduction in profit rate were simulated. Information on behavior of other players was manipulated: in "free rider" condition, one person was an extreme free rider, and the others were cooperative; in "loafing" condition, everyone loafed. In both experiments, "Bad Apple Effect" was not observed clearly, and cooperative behavior increased as environmental pollution worsened. In Experiment 2, there was no main effect of others' behavior on solution preference. However, significant correlations were found among solution preference, motivation to control others' behavior, and perceived seriousness of the situation, only when an extreme free rider was among them. PMID:11883324

  7. Effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia

    2010-02-01

    Previous research has documented that playing violent video games has various negative effects on social behavior in that it causes an increase in aggressive behavior and a decrease in prosocial behavior. In contrast, there has been much less evidence on the effects of prosocial video games. In the present research, 4 experiments examined the hypothesis that playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video game increases helping behavior. In fact, participants who had played a prosocial video game were more likely to help after a mishap, were more willing (and devoted more time) to assist in further experiments, and intervened more often in a harassment situation. Results further showed that exposure to prosocial video games activated the accessibility of prosocial thoughts, which in turn promoted prosocial behavior. Thus, depending on the content of the video game, playing video games not only has negative effects on social behavior but has positive effects as well.

  8. Causes of Infectious Diseases Which Tend to Get Into Febrile Convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blouki Moghaddam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Febrile convulsions are seizures associated with fever during childhood. They generally have excellent prognosis. However, as they may signify a serious underlying acute infectious disease, each case must be carefully examined and appropriately investigated. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of infectious diseases, which tend to get into febrile convulsion in patients hospitalized in 17th Shahrivar Hospital in Rasht city, Iran. Patients and Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on all children hospitalized with infectious diseases in 17th Shahrivar Children’s Hospital in Rasht city, Iran, between August 2008 and August 2009. They were recruited using the convenient method. Data were collected using a form including age, sex, season of admission and possible diagnosis and analyzed by descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation and frequency using SPSS software version 16. Results In this study, 191 patients (14% had febrile convulsion. According to the results, respiratory tract infection was mentioned in 97 cases (47.3% and considered as the leading cause of fever. Conclusions According to results, it seems that clinicians should assess patients with infectious disease thoroughly to prevent further health problems.

  9. Evidence that limbic neural plasticity in the right hemisphere mediates partial kindling induced lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior: effects of low frequency stimulation (quenching?) on long term potentiation of amygdala efferents and behavior following kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R E

    1999-08-21

    Behavioral and physiological effects of partial kindling of the right ventral hippocampus by perforant path (PP) stimulation were investigated in the cat. Partial kindling produced lasting changes in affect (increased defensive response to rats) and predatory attack (decreased pawing and biting attack). Partial kindling also induced long term potentiation (LTP) of amygdala efferent transmission to ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and periaqueductal gray (PAG) in left and right hemispheres. LTP of field population spikes evoked in area CA3 by PP stimulation was also observed. LTP was detected using evoked potential methods. These findings parallel previous studies of left PP-CA3 partial kindling. Analysis of covariance removing effects of LTP from behavioral changes suggests that initiation of increased defensiveness at 2 days after completion of partial kindling depended on LTP of left and right amygdalo-VMH and right amygdalo-PAG transmission. From 6 days after kindling onward, increased defensiveness depended on LTP of right amygdalo-PAG transmission. Depotentiation of amygdala efferent LTP by bilateral low frequency amygdala stimulation (LFS) (900 pulses at 1 Hz, once daily for 7 days) selectively reduced LTP in right amygdala efferents. At the same time, defensive, but not predatory attack behavior, was returned to levels seen prior to partial kindling. Both depotentiation and reduction of defensiveness were transient. Defensiveness increased to post-kindling levels by 76 days after LFS. At the same time, LTP was restored in the right amygdalo-PAG pathway. In contrast LTP in the right amygdalo-VMH pathway remained depotentiated. Effects of LFS were not due to damage, as thresholds to evoke amygdala efferent response were unchanged. These findings suggest that lasting change in affect following partial hippocampal kindling depends on LTP of right amygdala efferent transmission to PAG. The findings parallel studies of non-convulsant pharmacological induction of

  10. Exploring the Behavior of Highly Effective CIOs Using Video Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Komal; Wilderom, Celeste; Hillegersberg, van Jos

    2009-01-01

    Although recently several studies have addressed the required skills of effective CIOs, little is known of the actual behavior successful CIOs. In this study, we explore the behavior of highly effective CIOs by video-recording CIOs at work. The two CIOs videotaped were nominated as CIO of the year.

  11. Anticonvulsant and antipunishment effects of toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, R.W.; Coleman, J.B.; Schuler, R.; Cox, C.

    1984-01-01

    Toluene can have striking acute behavioral effects and is subject to abuse by inhalation. To determine if its actions resemble those of drugs used in the treatment of anxiety (anxiolytics), two sets of experiments were undertaken. Inasmuch as prevention of pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions is an identifying property of this class of agents, the authors first demonstrated that pretreatment of mice with injections of toluene delayed the onset of convulsive signs and prevented the tonic extension phase of the convulsant activity in a dose-related manner. Injections of another alkyl benzene, m-xylene, were of comparable potency to toluene. Inhalation of toluene delayed the time of death after pentylenetetrazol injection in a manner related to the duration and concentration of exposure; at lower convulsant doses, inhalation of moderate concentrations (EC/sub 58/, 1300 ppm) prevented death. Treatment with a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist (Ro 15-1788) failed to reduce the anticonvulsant activity of inhaled toluene. Anxiolytics also attenuate the reduction in response rate produced by punishment with electric shock. Toluene increased rates of responding suppressed by punishment when responding was maintained under a multiple fixed-interval fixed-interval punishment schedule of reinforcement. Distinct antipunishment effects were observed in rats after 2 hr of exposure to 1780 and 3000 ppm of toluene; the rate-increasing effects of toluene were related to concentration and to time after the termination of exposure. Thus, toluene and m-xylene resemble in several respects clinically useful drugs such as the benzodiazepines. 51 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  12. ANTI-CONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF GANAXOLONE ALONE A ND IN COMPARISON WITH STANDARD ANTI-EPILEPTIC DRUGS IN RODENT MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhani Basha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Presently, treatment of epilepsy with standa rd anti-epileptic drugs is associated with a number of shortcomings invi ting us to study newer agents that would overcome these problems or search for the dr ugs or substances, which would enhance the efficacy or reduce the dose or toxicity of these standard anti-epileptic drugs. Ganaxolone (GNX (3α-hydroxy-3β-methyl-5α-pregnan-20-one, a synthetic analog of the endogenous neurosteroid allopregnanolone and a positive a llosteric modulator of GABA A receptors, may represent a new treatment approach for epilep sy. AIM: To evaluate the effect of Ganaxolone on maximal electroshock (MES induced and Pen tylenetetrazol (PTZ induced convulsions and also their effect in combination with co nventional antiepileptic drugs (CAEDs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wister strain albino rats weighing 200-250 gm were used. Effects of Ganaxolone (5 &10 mg/kg alone and in combination with standard drugs were studied in MES and PTZ induced seizure model s. Abolition of tonic hind limb extension was an index of anticonvulsant activity in MES, while for PTZ seizures; failure to observe c lonus for 5sec duration for 30min was the index. F ollowing that, percentage inhibition was calculated. STATISTICS: ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls Multiple Compar ison Test was used for analysis of data between the groups . RESULTS : In MES seizures, significant anti- epileptic activity was observed with 10mg of Ganaxolone compared to control group but has less activity when compared to that of P henobarbitone. In PTZ induced convulsions, the anti-epileptic effect of Sodium Valproate was h igher than Ganaxolone, but both were statistically significant as compared to contr ol. In PTZ-induced seizures, augmented effect s were obtained when Ganaxolone was combined wi th sodium valproate i.e. 55%. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide a lead for potential benefit of adding Ganaxolone to Sodium Valproate in the treatment of epilepsy

  13. Using the Effective Behavior Supports Survey to Guide Development of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    As the use of school-based positive behavior support (PBS) spreads nationwide, the development of assessment strategies to identify intervention priorities becomes more critical. This study addresses the validity of the Effective Behavior Supports Survey (Lewis & Sugai, 1999) by examining reliability, determining whether rating differences exist…

  14. Teacher Perceptions of Level System Effectiveness on the Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Daniel T.; Smith, Stephen W.; Brownell, Mary T.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 172 teachers of students with emotional/behavioral disorders found that 71% reported they currently use level systems for behavioral management. Analysis notes similarities and differences between level system users and nonusers, characteristics common to level systems, and inconsistencies in perceptions of effectiveness and…

  15. The Effectiveness of Two Universal Behavioral Supports for Children with Externalizing Behavior in Head Start Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandra Covington; Lewis, Timothy J.; Stormont, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    To add to the emerging early intervention research on universal supports for children, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an intervention designed to increase teachers' use of two universal behavioral supports on target children's behavior. The children targeted for this study were at elevated risk for problem…

  16. Effectiveness of a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment on the Social Behaviors of Children with Asperger Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Volker, Martin A.; Nida, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The current study presents preliminary data from an ongoing research project evaluating a summer treatment program for children with Asperger disorder (AD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment program on the social behaviors of 6- to 13-year-old children with AD. Overall program…

  17. 综合护理干预在小儿高热惊厥中的应用%Application of Comprehensive Nursing Intervention in Children With Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晶

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of comprehensive nursing intervention in children with febrile convulsion. Methods We divided 82 patients into two groups. Control group used routine nursing,the observation group used nursing intervention,compared clinical efficacy of two groups. Results The nursing satisfaction,convulsions disappear time,hospitalization time and medication compliance of observation group were significantly better than control group(P < 0.05). Conclusion Comprehensive nursing intervention can effectively improve the clinical symptoms.%目的:探讨综合护理干预在小儿高热惊厥中的效果。方法随机将82例高热惊厥患儿平均分为两组。对照组行常规护理,观察组在对照组基础上行综合护理,比较两组临床效果。结果观察组护理满意度、惊厥消失时间、住院时间及服药依从性等指标均优于对照组(P <0.05)。结论综合护理干预能够有效患儿临床症状。

  18. Report of the Task Group on Behavioral Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of the Task Group on Behavioral Effects is to examine effects on the mental health of the public and the workers directly involved in the accident at TMI-2. Of particular interest are the behavioral response of the workers under stress during the accident, and the behavioral response of the population under stress during the accident. In examining effects on mental health, a distinction is to be made between short term and long term effects. Attention is also to be paid to the possible impact [on] the affected populations and workers of a variety of studies either under way or planned

  19. The effect of unethical behavior on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Faezeh Rezazadeh Baei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the components of ethical behavior and their impacts on life insurance companies in province of Mazandaran, Iran. There were 367 insurance representatives and the study selects a sample of 187 ones based on Cochran formula and 2 questionnaires were distributed among them. The first questionnaire, unethical behavior, includes 8 items including Bribery, Cheating, Deception, Interact with colleagues, Act as social behavior, Uncommitted to firm and Irresponsibility. In addition, the questionnaire of brand equity contains three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined that the effects of cheating and deception on unethical behaviors were not confirmed but the effects of other factors, bribery, interact with colleagues, act as social behavior, uncommitted to firm and irresponsibility on unethical behavior were confirmed. In addition, three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty had positive relationship with brand equity.

  20. Treatment of febrile convulsion in children%小儿高热惊厥的治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金生

    2016-01-01

    目的:总结并分析我院小儿高热惊厥的急救处理与治疗,为今后的治疗提供思路。方法选取2013年1月~2015年12月我院收治的高热惊厥患儿47例作为研究对象,分析其原发疾病,并针对患儿病情给予相应的急救处理与治疗,并对治疗结果进行回顾性分析。结果本组患儿中,原发疾病情况为上呼吸道感染26例(55.31%)、支气管炎10例(21.27%),肠炎7例(14.89%),癫痫1例(2.12%),其中上呼吸道感染的发病率明显高于其他原发疾病,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。所有患儿经相应治疗后,平均高热消退时间为(59.53±7.35)min,均未发生严重并发症,随访1年内,复发5例,复发率为10.64%,均未留有后遗症。结论在小儿高热惊厥的急救治疗中,开展针对性的急救与治疗措施能够有效提高治疗疗效,减少并发症与复发患儿的发生,预后良好。%ObjectiveTo summarize and analyze the emergency treatment and treatment of children with high fever convulsion in our hospital, and provide a way for the future treatment.Methods47 children with febrile convulsion were treated in our hospital from January 2013 to December 2015 as the observation object,and the primary disease was analyzed.ResultsIn this group of 47 cases,upper respiratory tract infection 26 cases (55.31%), bronchitis 10 cases (21.27%),enteritis 7 cases (14.89%),epilepsy 1 cases (2.12%).After treatment, the average high fever subsided time was (59.53±7.35) min,there were no serious complications,5 cases were followed up for 1 years,the recurrence rate was 10.64%.ConclusionIn the treatment of children with high fever convulsion, the ifrst aid and treatment measures can effectively improve the treatment effect,reduce the complications and recurrence of the occurrence of the case, the prognosis is good.

  1. Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Masashi Hayakawa

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Possible electromagnetic effects on abnormal animal behavior before earthquakes. Abstract The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behavior before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilized to characterize the unusual animal behavior; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence hist...

  2. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E

    2014-09-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed.

  3. 小儿高热惊厥的治疗及护理%The Nursing and Treatment of Children With Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林英兰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿高热惊厥的原因及主要表现,实施有效的护理,在医护紧密配合下获得满意的效果。方法回顾性分析我院接诊的14例高热惊厥患儿的临床资料。结果经及时止惊,降温,保持呼吸道通畅,吸氧,加强监护等综合治疗,患儿均转为为安。结论及时迅速控制惊厥,降温,加强护理,降低高热惊厥患儿的意外伤害率,减少惊厥的复发。%Objective To explore the causes and the main performance of high fever convulsion in children, and implement effective nursing care to obtain satisfactory results in close cooperation with medical care.Methods Retrospective analyzed of 14 cases of febrile convulsion in children in our hospital.Results The patients were treated with the combined therapy of respiratory tract, keeping the respiratory tract unobstructed, oxygen inhalation, strengthening the monitoring, et al, all of them were safe. Conclusion Prompt control of seizures, cooling, enhanced care, reduce the rate of accidental injury in children with high fever and recurrence of seizures.

  4. 小儿高热惊厥的临床治疗研究进展%Research Progress in Clinical Treatment on Infantile Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童自强

    2015-01-01

    小儿高热惊厥可由感染或非感染途径致病,未及时救治会导致脑组织损伤或意识障碍,对小儿智力发育造成不利影响。临床对小儿高热惊厥的病理病机认识不断深入,治疗方法较多,多采取中西医结合疗法和综合疗法,以防复发。%Infantile febrile convulsion can be caused by infection or non-infection, and result in brain tissue damage or disturbance of consciousness without timely treatment, with adverse effect on intellectual development of children. The pathology and pathogenesis of infantile febrile convulsion is developing in clinic, there are a lot of treatment, mainly with combined therapy of Chinese and Western medicine and comprehensive therapy, to prevent recurrence.

  5. Rapid Amygdala Kindling Causes Motor Seizure and Comorbidity of Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wang, Yu-Lin; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding. In the present study, 40 amygdala stimulations given within 2 days were applied in adult Wistar rats. Afterdischarge (AD) and seizure stage were recorded throughout the amygdala kindling. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and open field (OF) test, whereas depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swim (FS) and sucrose consumption (SC) tests. A tonic-clonic convulsion was provoked in the kindle group. Rapid amygdala kindling resulted in a significantly lower frequency entering an open area of either open arms of the EPM or the central zone of an OF, lower sucrose intake, and longer immobility of the FS test in the kindle group. Our results suggest that rapid amygdala kindling elicited severe motor seizures comorbid with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors.

  6. Rapid Amygdala Kindling Causes Motor Seizure and Comorbidity of Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wang, Yu-Lin; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding. In the present study, 40 amygdala stimulations given within 2 days were applied in adult Wistar rats. Afterdischarge (AD) and seizure stage were recorded throughout the amygdala kindling. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and open field (OF) test, whereas depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swim (FS) and sucrose consumption (SC) tests. A tonic-clonic convulsion was provoked in the kindle group. Rapid amygdala kindling resulted in a significantly lower frequency entering an open area of either open arms of the EPM or the central zone of an OF, lower sucrose intake, and longer immobility of the FS test in the kindle group. Our results suggest that rapid amygdala kindling elicited severe motor seizures comorbid with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. PMID:27445726

  7. Better Choices: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Behavior Management Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, Miguel T.

    2011-01-01

    Managing student behavior is often looked upon as a sidebar in teaching. The lack of formal classroom management training in teacher education programs reveals the low importance placed on this skill. As a result, teachers are often very well prepared to instruct, but in terms of effectively understanding the behavior of students--particularly…

  8. Effects of Nonverbal Behavior on Perceptions of Power Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; Simonsen, Melissa M.; Pierce, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Manipulates three types of nonverbal behaviors and examines their effects on perceptions of power bases. Reports that a relaxed facial expression increased the ratings for five of the selected power bases; furthermore, direct eye contact yielded higher credibility ratings. Provides evidence that various nonverbal behaviors have only additive…

  9. Effects of Behavior and Family Structure on Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Effects of information about an adolescent's family structure and behavior on perceptions of education majors were studied for 45 male and 98 female college students. College students made subtle judgments based on this minimal information, but how strongly such judgments affect perceptions and behavior toward adolescents is not known. (SLD)

  10. 小儿高热惊厥的护理体会%Nursing Experience of Febrile Convulsion in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟芬芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿高热性惊厥的原因及急救措施和护理。方法对我院儿科2014年1月~2015年1月收治的30例高热性惊厥患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果30例小儿高热惊厥的快速抽搐,及时冷却,保持呼吸道通畅,吸氧,加强监控等一系列综合治疗和护理后全部转危为安。结论对高热惊厥患儿的治疗关键是高热,惊厥,迅速控制迅速冷却,加强综合护理。%Objective To investigate the cause of febrile convulsion in children and the emergency treatment and nursing. Methods The clinical data of 30 cases of febrile convulsion in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Results 30 cases of children with febrile convulsion of fast twitch, timely cooling, maintain respiratory tract unobstructed, oxygen, strengthen monitoring and so on a series of comprehensive treatment and nursing after turning the corner. Conclusion The key to the treatment of children with high fever convulsion is high fever, convulsion, rapid control rapid cooling, strengthen comprehensive nursing.

  11. Convulsions and inhibition of glutamate decarboxylase by pyridoxal phosphate-gamma-glutamyl hydrazone in the developing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massieu, L; Rivera, A; Tapia, R

    1994-02-01

    We have previously shown that in the adult rat the inhibition of brain glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity by pyridoxal phosphate-gamma-glutamyl hydrazone (PLPGH) administration does not result in convulsions, whereas in the adult mouse intense convulsions invariably occur. In the present study we report that, surprisingly, immature rats from 2 to 20 days of age treated with PLPGH (80 mg/kg) showed generalized tonic-clonic convulsions, whereas no convulsions at all were present in 30 days-old or older rats. GAD activity, measured by enzymic determination of GABA formed in forebrain homogenates, was inhibited by about 60% at the time of convulsions in 15 days-old and younger rats, whereas the inhibition was between 40 and 50% in older animals. The addition of the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate to the incubation medium completely reversed this inhibition. In all treated animals GABA levels were lower compared to controls. The results indicate that the susceptibility of GAD in vivo to a diminished cofactor concentration decreases with age. It seems possible that changes in the expression of enzyme forms are reflected in developmental variations in the susceptibility to seizures induced by vitamin B6 depletion, but alterations of other B6-dependent biochemical pathways cannot be discarded.

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of sodium valproate in convulsive status epilepticus following to ıschemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE is very rarely observed after ischaemic stroke. Sodium valproate (SV is one of the agents used in the treatment of CSE, but its role still controversial, and its degree of efficacy in treating CSE that develops following stroke is unclear. Method : We evaluated 19 patients who were treated with intravenous (IV SV (20 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg/h-12h after diazepam. Patients’ modified Rankin scores (mRS, SE types, and changes in biochemical parameters after treatment were assessed. Results : CSE was successfully treated in 12 (63.15% patients. Side effects such as hypotension and allergic reactions were observed in two patients. Refractory SE development was observed in 5 (29.4% patients with high mRS (˃ 3. No significant deterioration in patients’ laboratory evaluations, conducted before and after status, was observed. Conclusion : SV may be safe and effective in the treatment of CSE observed after ischaemic stroke, especially in patients with low mRS.

  13. 疫苗反应与急性惊厥或癫(癎)发作%Vaccination reactions and acute convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination is a milestone in the history of modern medicine. It has played a major role to prevent infectious diseases and to reduce mortality. However, the vaccine or vaccination-induced side effects, especially neurological disorders, such as seizures are also increasingly attracted concerns of the community. Seizures and side effects of vaccination are two separate medical problems that are parallel to the occasional cross. This paper will discuss the relationship between vaccine reactions and acute convulsions or seizures based on the latest research results.%疫苗在现代医学发展史上具有里程碑的意义.疫苗接种为预防和控制传染病、降低传染病病死率起了重大的作用.同时由于疫苗或预防接种引起的不良反应也日益受到社会各界的关注,特别是其神经系统不良反应,如惊厥等的发生更是受到普遍关注.惊厥和预防接种不良反应是两个独立的医学问题,平行而偶有交叉.文章结合最新研究,阐述疫苗反应与急性惊厥或癫(癎)发作的相关性.

  14. Incentives for cost-effective physician behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, A

    1987-04-01

    The objective of the National Health Service is to maximise improvements in the health status of patients regardless of their willingness and ability to pay. To achieve this objective it is necessary to identify those procedures which maximise improvements in health or quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and direct scarce resources to those therapies with the best cost-QALY characteristics. Unfortunately in the NHS and elsewhere cost-QALY characteristics are largely unknown and the structure of the health service and its provider remuneration systems are such that objectives are vague, behavior perverse due to the haphazard construction of incentive systems, and health status outcomes often unknown due to the failure to evaluate input-outcome relationships. To reform the NHS, in particular ensure more efficient practice by physicians, existing perverse incentives will have to be replaced by the use of buyer (NHS) power and by budgeting mechanisms which induce economizing behavior. It is not clear which type of incentive mechanism will produce outcomes consistent with NHS goals. To remedy this ignorance experimentation with careful evaluation would seem appropriate. PMID:10312074

  15. Incidence, Remission and Mortality of Convulsive Epilepsy in Rural Northeast South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G Wagner

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions globally, estimated to constitute 0.75% of the global burden of disease, with the majority of this burden found in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs. Few studies from LMICs, including much of sub-Saharan Africa, have described the incidence, remission or mortality rates due to epilepsy, which are needed to quantify the burden and inform policy. This study investigates the epidemiological parameters of convulsive epilepsy within a context of high HIV prevalence and an emerging burden of cardiovascular disease.A cross-sectional population survey of 82,818 individuals, in the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS in rural northeast South Africa was conducted in 2008, from which 296 people were identified with active convulsive epilepsy. A follow-up survey was conducted in 2012. Incidence and mortality rates were estimated, with duration and remission rates calculated using the DISMOD II software package.The crude incidence for convulsive epilepsy was 17.4/100,000 per year (95%CI: 13.1-23.0. Remission was 4.6% and 3.9% per year for males and females, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.6 (95%CI: 1.7-3.5, with 33.3% of deaths directly related to epilepsy. Mortality was higher in men than women (adjusted rate ratio (aRR 2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.4, and was significantly associated with older ages (50+ years versus those 0-5 years old (RR 4.8 (95%CI: 0.6-36.4.The crude incidence was lower whilst mortality rates were similar to other African studies; however, this study found higher mortality amongst older males. Efforts aimed at further understanding what causes epilepsy in older people and developing interventions to reduce prolonged seizures are likely to reduce the overall burden of ACE in rural South Africa.

  16. Cognitive and Behavioral Effects of Topiramate Versus Carbamazepine Monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive and behavioral effects of topiramate (TPM versus carbamazepine (CBZ were evaluated in a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial at Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, and other university centers in Korea.

  17. Separate and combined effects of methylphenidate and a behavioral intervention on disruptive behavior in children with mental retardation.

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, N J; Mauk, J E; McComas, J J; Mace, F C

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the separate and combined effects of a behavioral intervention and methylphenidate (Ritalin) on disruptive behavior and task engagement in 3 children with severe to profound mental retardation. The behavioral intervention involved differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior and guided compliance. All 3 children demonstrated decreased disruptive behavior and improved task engagement in response to the response to the behavioral intervention. Two of the 3 children demonst...

  18. The Relationship between Iron Deficiency and Febrile Convulsion: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Kheirkhah, Davood; Madani, Mahla; Kashani, Hamed Haddad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Febrile seizure is among the most common convulsion disorders in children, which strikes 2% to 5% of children between 3 to 60 months of age. Some studies have reported that iron deficiency could be a risk factor for febrile seizure. The present study was conducted to compare the rate of iron deficiency anemia in febrile children with and without seizure. Materials and Methods: This case-control study evaluated 200 children aged 6-60 month in two 100 person groups (febrile seizur...

  19. Leukocyte Count and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate as Diagnostic Factors in Febrile Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Akbar Rahbarimanesh; Peyman Salamati; Mohammadreza Ashrafi; Manelie Sadeghi; Javad Tavakoli

    2011-01-01

    "nFebrile convulsion (FC) is the most common seizure disorder in childhood. white blood cell (WBC) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are commonly measured in FC. Trauma, vomiting and bleeding can also lead to WBC and ESR so the blood tests must carefully be interpreted by the clinician. In this cross sectional study 410 children(163 with FC), aged 6 months to 5 years, admitted to Bahrami Children hospital in the first 48 hours of their febrile disease, either with or without seizu...

  20. Diagnosis and interpretation of EEG on non-convulsive status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-gang KANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to diagnose non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE clinically because of the complicated etiology and various clinical and electroencephalographic features of NCSE without a universally accepted definition. Although the diagnosis of NCSE relies largely on electroencephalogram (EEG findings, the determination of NCSE on EEG is inevitably subjective, and the EEG changes of most patients is lack of specificity. As the diagnosis of NCSE is related to clinical and electroencephalographic manifestations, diagnostic criteria for NCSE should take into account both clinical and electroencephalographic features, and their response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.005

  1. The Effects of Failure and Recovery on Customer Purchase Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Heumann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The present dissertation empirically assesses the effects of failure, complaints, and recovery on actual purchase behavior. Using a unique data set incorporating retail purchase data over three years and repeated survey measures capturing customer pre- and postfailure relationship perceptions, this thesis investigates the effects of failure resolution and perceived justice on postfailure purchase behavior. Interactional justice assumes a salient role as outcome determinant. Moreover, the find...

  2. Effects of cocaine on maternal behavior and neurochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nephew, Benjamin C; Febo, Marcelo

    2012-03-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that involves drug seeking and abuse despite the negative social and health consequences. While the potential effects of cocaine on child development have been extensively studied over the last 30 years, few researchers have focused on the effects of cocaine on maternal behavior, which includes offspring care and maternal aggression towards an unfamiliar individual. In humans, maternal cocaine use can lead to child neglect, abuse, and disrupt the mother-child bond. While it has been argued the developmental effects of maternal cocaine use on children were initially overstated, it is clear that disruptions of typical maternal behavior (i.e. postpartum depression, anxiety disorders) are detrimental to the physical and emotional health of offspring. Cocaine use in mothers is commonly associated with psychological disorders, including depression and anxiety, and it is postulated that many of the negative effects of maternal cocaine use on offspring are mediated through changes in maternal behavior. This review will summarize research on cocaine and maternal behavior in animal and human studies, discuss potential mechanisms, and suggest therapeutic strategies for treating cocaine-affected maternal behavior which may improve the physical and behavioral health of both mother and child. The primary objective is to stimulate future communication, cooperation, and collaboration between researchers who use animals and humans to study cocaine and maternal behavior. PMID:22942878

  3. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  4. 小儿高热惊厥的院前急救护理探析%Nursing care of children with febrile convulsion of pre hospital ifrst aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏杰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探析院前急救护理小儿高热惊厥的临床效果。方法搜集本院急诊科2014年1月~2015年1月接诊的68例高热惊厥患儿,随机分为两组,甲组采用院前急救护理,乙组采用常规急救护理,对比护理效果。结果甲组护理总有效率94.3%、满意度为100%、不良反应的发生率8.6%。显著优乙组护理的84.8%、90.1%、18.2%。差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论院前急救护理小儿高热惊厥的临床效果显著,可以有效提高患儿的恢复和家长的满意度,降低不良反应的发生,值得临床推广。%Objective The clinical effect and nursing of infantile hyperpyretic convulsion of pre hospital emergency.Methods Collected 68 cases of patients with febrile convulsion in our hospital emergency department in 2014 January-2015 year in January admissions, were randomly divided into two groups, group A with pre hospital emergency care, B group used routine emergency nursing care, the effect of contrast.Results Group a total of 8.6% nursing incidence rate of 94.3%, efifciency of satisfaction was 100%, adverse reaction. B nursing group total effectiveness 84.8%, satisfaction was 90.1%, the incidence rate of adverse reaction was 18.2%. The two groups were compared, the difference in group B was signiifcantly better than that ofP<0.05 group a large,Conclusion The clinical effect and nursing of infantile hyperpyretic convulsion prehospital signiifcantly, can effectively improve the recovery of children and parents satisfaction, and reduce the incidence of adverse reactions, it is worthy of clinical promotion.

  5. The association between tranexamic acid and convulsive seizures after cardiac surgery: a multivariate analysis in 11 529 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V; Katznelson, R; Jerath, A; Garrido-Olivares, L; Carroll, J; Rao, V; Wasowicz, M; Djaiani, G

    2014-02-01

    Because of a lack of contemporary data regarding seizures after cardiac surgery, we undertook a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from 11 529 patients in whom cardiopulmonary bypass was used from January 2004 to December 2010. A convulsive seizure was defined as a transient episode of disturbed brain function characterised by abnormal involuntary motor movements. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of postoperative seizures. A total of 100 (0.9%) patients developed postoperative convulsive seizures. Generalised and focal seizures were identified in 68 and 32 patients, respectively. The median (IQR [range]) time after surgery when the seizure occurred was 7 (6-12 [1-216]) h and 8 (6-11 [4-18]) h, respectively. Epileptiform findings on electroencephalography were seen in 19 patients. Independent predictors of postoperative seizures included age, female sex, redo cardiac surgery, calcification of ascending aorta, congestive heart failure, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, duration of aortic cross-clamp and tranexamic acid. When tested in a multivariate regression analysis, tranexamic acid was a strong independent predictor of seizures (OR 14.3, 95% CI 5.5-36.7; p < 0.001). Patients with convulsive seizures had 2.5 times higher in-hospital mortality rates and twice the length of hospital stay compared with patients without convulsive seizures. Mean (IQR [range]) length of stay in the intensive care unit was 115 (49-228 [32-481]) h in patients with convulsive seizures compared with 26 (22-69 [14-1080]) h in patients without seizures (p < 0.001). Convulsive seizures are a serious postoperative complication after cardiac surgery. As tranexamic acid is the only modifiable factor, its administration, particularly in doses exceeding 80 mg.kg(-1), should be weighed against the risk of postoperative seizures. PMID:24588023

  6. Stimulating cost effective behavior in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, D

    1987-04-01

    Types of influence on the delivery of medical care are divided into monetary and other. These incentives effect care at the system, hospital, care team, physician and patient levels. Selected examples, primarily from the USA, are discussed. PMID:10312075

  7. Effects of switching behavior for the attraction on pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2014-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk i...

  8. Effect of DC voltage pulses on memristor behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2013-10-01

    Current knowledge of memristor behavior is limited to a few physical models of which little comprehensive data collection has taken place. The purpose of this research is to collect data in search of exploitable memristor behavior by designing and implementing tests on a HP Labs Rev2 Memristor Test Board. The results are then graphed in their optimal format for conceptualizing behavioral patterns. This series of experiments has concluded the existence of an additional memristor state affecting the behavior of memristors when pulsed with positively polarized DC voltages. This effect has been observed across multiple memristors and data sets. The following pages outline the process that led to the hypothetical existence and eventual proof of this additional state of memristor behavior.

  9. FREQUENCY, ETIOLOGY AND IMMEDIATE OUTCOME OF CHILDREN ADMITTED TO PEDIATRIC INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (PICU) WITH CONVULSIVE STATUS EPI LEPTICUS IN KASHMIR NORTH INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Muzafar; Suhail; Sartaj; Waseem; Aliya; Mudasir

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is one of the common causes of childhood hospitalization to PICU with significant morbidity and mortality. Objective of current study was to know the Frequency, etiology and immediate outcome of children admitted to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) with convulsive Status Epilepticus in Kashmir Nor...

  10. Leukocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate as diagnostic factors in febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbarimanesh, Ali Akbar; Salamati, Peyman; Ashrafi, Mohammadreza; Sadeghi, Manelie; Tavakoli, Javad

    2011-01-01

    Febrile convulsion (FC) is the most common seizure disorder in childhood. white blood cell (WBC) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are commonly measured in FC. Trauma, vomiting and bleeding can also lead to WBC and ESR so the blood tests must carefully be interpreted by the clinician. In this cross sectional study 410 children(163 with FC), aged 6 months to 5 years, admitted to Bahrami Children hospital in the first 48 hours of their febrile disease, either with or without seizure, were evaluated over an 18 months period. Age, sex, temperature; history of vomiting, bleeding or trauma; WBC, ESR and hemoglobin were recorded in all children. There was a significant increase of WBC (P<0.001) in children with FC so we can deduct that leukocytosis encountered in children with FC can be due to convulsion in itself. There was no significant difference regarding ESR (P=0.113) between the two groups. In fact, elevated ESR is a result of underlying pathology. In stable patients who don't have any indication of lumbar puncture, there's no need to assess WBC and ESR as an indicator of underlying infection. If the patient is transferred to pediatric ward and still there's no reason to suspect a bacterial infection, there is no need for WBC test. PMID:21960077

  11. Leukocyte Count and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate as Diagnostic Factors in Febrile Convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Rahbarimanesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "nFebrile convulsion (FC is the most common seizure disorder in childhood. white blood cell (WBC and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR are commonly measured in FC. Trauma, vomiting and bleeding can also lead to WBC and ESR so the blood tests must carefully be interpreted by the clinician. In this cross sectional study 410 children(163 with FC, aged 6 months to 5 years, admitted to Bahrami Children hospital in the first 48 hours of their febrile disease, either with or without seizure, were evaluated over an 18 months period. Age, sex, temperature; history of vomiting, bleeding or trauma; WBC, ESR and hemoglobin were recorded in all children. There was a significant increase of WBC (P<0.001 in children with FC so we can deduct that leukocytosis encountered in children with FC can be due to convulsion in itself. There was no significant difference regarding ESR (P=0.113 between the two groups. In fact, elevated ESR is a result of underlying pathology. In stable patients who don't have any indication of lumbar puncture, there's no need to assess WBC and ESR as an indicator of underlying infection. If the patient is transferred to pediatric ward and still there's no reason to suspect a bacterial infection, there is no need for WBC test.

  12. Continuous EEG monitoring in the evaluation of non-convulsive seizures and status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-convulsive seizures (NCSzs and non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE occur in a substantial proportion of patients with acute brain injury. These acute seizure disorders are often unrecognized and under-diagnosed. Seizure semiology of NCSz is too subtle clinically to be noticed. Most often, mental status impairment is the presenting feature. Changes in the functions of the thalamo-cortical system in patients with impaired consciousness can be detected by continuous EEG (cEEG monitoring. cEEG monitoring allows detection of the changes at a reversible stage, often when there are no clinical indications of such phenomena. In addition EEG provides reasonable spatial resolution and excellent temporal resolution. This makes cEEG an excellent method for supplementing single or serial recordings in the detection of NCSzs and NCSE. Recent advances in digital EEG have made cEEG monitoring in the neurological intensive care unit (NICU technically feasible. Current evidence suggests that the common clinical denominator associated with electrographic seizures or NCSzs is mental status impairment. In NCSE, the duration of ictal activity and the time of delay to diagnosis are independent predictors of poor outcome. It will be prudent to do cEEG monitoring in any patient with impaired consciousness either in the setting of acute brain injury or with no clear explanation to detect NCSzs/NCSE. Early recognition and timely intervention is likely to be associated with good outcomes.

  13. Effects of rubberized flooring on Asian elephant behavior in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Camie L; Croney, Candace C; Shepherdson, David

    2007-01-01

    Six Asian elephants at the Oregon Zoo were observed to determine the effects of a poured rubber flooring substrate on captive Asian elephant behavior. Room utilization also was evaluated in seven rooms used for indoor housing, including Front and Back observation areas. Data were collected in three phases. Phase I (Baseline Phase) examined elephant behavior on old concrete floors. In Phase II (Choice Phase), elephant behavior was observed in the Back observation area where room sizes were comparable and when a choice of flooring substrates was available. Phase III (Final Phase) examined elephant behavior when all rooms in both observation areas, Front and Back, were converted to rubberized flooring. Room use in both observation areas remained stable throughout the study, suggesting that flooring substrate did not affect room use choice. However, there was a clear pattern of decreased discomfort behaviors on the new rubber flooring. Normal locomotion as well as stereotypic locomotion increased on the new rubber flooring. In addition, resting behavior changed to more closely reflect the resting behavior of wild elephants, which typically sleep standing up, and spend very little time in lateral recumbence. Overall, these findings suggest that the rubber flooring may have provided a more comfortable surface for locomotion as well as standing resting behavior. It is suggested that poured rubber flooring may be a beneficial addition to similar animal facilities. Zoo Biol 0:1-11, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Effects of logging on orangutan behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Hardus; A.R. Lameira; S.B.J. Menken; S.A. Wich

    2012-01-01

    The human footprint is increasing across the world’s natural habitats, causing large negative impacts on the survival of many species. In order to successfully mitigate the negative effects on species’ survival, it is crucial to understand their responses to human-induced changes. This paper examine

  15. Effective viscoelastic behavior of particulate polymer composites at finite concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dan; HU Geng-kai

    2007-01-01

    Polymeric materials usually present some viscoelastic behavior. To improve the mechanical behavior of these materials, ceramics materials are often filled into the polymeric materials in form of fiber or particle. A micromechanical model was proposed to estimate the overall viscoelastic behavior for particulate polymer composites, especially for high volume concentration of filled particles. The method is based on Laplace transform technique and an elastic model including two-particle interaction. The effective creep compliance and the stress and strainrelation at a constant loading rate are analyzed. The results show that the proposed method predicts a significant stiffer response than those based on Mori-Tanaka's method at high volume concentration of particles.

  16. Effect of Teaching Behavior on Study Motivation in Generative Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉梅; 薛小莹

    2014-01-01

    Teaching behavior plays a vital role in students’study and has a great effect on their academic achievement.Study moti-vation is one of key essentials for students to focus themselves on their study. As a teacher,how to arouse students ’motivation and inspire students to study actively is a critical teaching behavior.How to change default teaching into generative teaching is al-so one of necessary teaching behaviors in English teaching.This paper will illustrate what measures should be taken and what prin-ciples should be followed in generative teaching.

  17. Evaluation of Behavioral and Pharmacological Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Valeriana prionophylla Standl. from Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iandra Holzmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies on the pharmacological properties of Valeriana prionophylla Standl. (VP, known as “Valeriana del monte”, and used in Mesoamerican folk medicine to treat sleep disorders. This study examines the pharmacological effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of the dry rhizome using the open field, rota rod, elevated plus-maze (EPM, forced swimming (FST, strychnine- and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, PTZ-induced seizures, and the inhibitory avoidance tests. VP did not show any protective effect against PTZ-induced convulsions. In the EPM, exhibited an anxiolytic-like effect through the effective enhancement of the entries (38.5% and time spent (44.7% in the open arms, when compared with control group. Time spent and the numbers of entrances into the enclosed arms were decreased, similar to those effects observed with diazepam. In the FST, acute treatment with VP, produced a dose-dependent decrease in immobility time, similarly to imipramine. VP also produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in the latency of sleeping time, while producing an increase in total duration of sleep; influenced memory consolidation of the animals only at lower doses, unlike those that produced anti-depressant and anxiolytic effects. In summary, the results suggest that VP presents several psychopharmacological activities, including anxiolytic, antidepressant, and hypno-sedative effects.

  18. The Effect of Behavioral Codes and Gender on Honesty

    OpenAIRE

    Arbel, Yuval; Bar-El, Ronen; Siniver, Erez; Tobol, Yossi

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of adherence to behavioral codes, as measured by the degree of religiosity, on the level of honesty by conducting under-the-cup die experiments. The findings suggest that behavioral codes, which prohibit lying, offset the monetary incentive to lie. The highest level of honesty is found among young religious females while the lowest is found among secular females. Moreover, when the monetary incentive to lie is removed, the tendency of secular subjects to lie disappears. ...

  19. 小儿热性惊厥的临床治疗分析%Analysis of Clinical Treatment of Febrile Convulsion in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孜拜旦木·艾合买提; 阿尔祖古丽·图尔逊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the febrile seizures in infants treatment methods and results.MethodsForm February 2013 to September 2014 selected 90 cases of illness in infants seizures in the department, through the convulsive disease conditions to be divided, respectively, as well as simple type of complex febrile seizures in patients with two types of implementation of targeted treatment program.Results After 3 to 7 days of treatment, 90 cases of febrile convulsion disease in infants full recovery rate was 100% effective, there are two cases of the disease situation to deteriorate during the training and epilepsy, the ratio was 2.22%. Conclusion Received seizures due to high fever sudden infant patients, health care policy needs simultaneously, to suppress heat, while alleviating convulsions in order to optimize the effect prognosis, save the infant's life.%目的:研究婴幼儿热性惊厥的医治方式及成效。方法在2013年2月~2014年9月间在科室选出发生惊厥病症的婴幼儿90例,通过对惊厥症情进行划分,分别对复杂型以及简单型两类热性惊厥患者实施针对性医治方案。结果经过3~7天的医治,90例发生热性惊厥症的婴幼儿悉数复原得到有效比率为100%,有2例修养期间症情恶化并发生癫痫,比率是2.22%。结论接收到因高热突发惊厥的婴幼儿患者时,需要同步进行医护策略,对高热进行抑制,同时缓解惊厥才能优化预后的效果,挽救婴幼儿的生命。

  20. Investigating the Anticonvulsant Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Perforant Path Kindling Model in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yadollahpour

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Almost 20% of epileptics are drug resistant. Studies have shown that low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is with therapeutic effects on epilepsy-affected laboratory models. Anticonvulsant effects of rTMS depend on several parameters among which radiation frequency is the most important one. In this study, the therapeutic impacts of 1 and 2 Hz rTMS on convulsing parameters in epileptic model of electrical kindling stimulation of the perforant path were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 21 rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely ‘1 Hz treatment group’ and ‘2 Hz treatment group’ and ‘kindling group’. The kindling group only received kindling stimulations for seven days. One Hz and 2 Hz frequency treatment groups received maximally 5 min rTMS after termination of kindling stimulation per day for a week. Stimulation and stability electrodes had been placed, in turn, on perforant path and dentate gyrus. For quantifying the duration of the subsequent discharge waves, two-way ANOVA test and Bonferroni post-test were employed. In addition, for quantifying the convulsive behaviors, Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U tests were used. Results: The results showed that 1 Hz and 2 Hz frequency rTMS have considerable inhibitory impact on the development of convulsive phases. Anticonvulsive effect was observed from the first day after rTMS was undertaken. In addition, the animals did not show fourth and fifth convulsive stages, and a significant reduction was evident in their recorded peak discharge waves compared with kindle group. Conclusion: Low frequency rTMS possesses significant anticonvulsive effects which depend upon sTMS stimulation frequency.

  1. EFFECT OF THICKENERS ON PAPER COATING VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng Zhang; Kefu Chen; Rendang Yang; Zhengnan Xuan

    2004-01-01

    Paper coating has a viscoelastic character, which affected by dissolved polymer in the aqueous phase.The different thickeners have different effects on Paper Coating viscoelasticity behavior. CMC, PVA and CMS are compared in this article, and CMC have the strongest effect than the others.

  2. Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S.

    This review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) first looks at aspects of the history and prevalence of AS use in competitive sports. Research suggests that one-quarter to one-half million adolescents in the United States have used, or are currently using AS. Some effects of androgens…

  3. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist: A Behavior Rating Scale for the Assessment of Treatment Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development of a scale to assess drug and other treatment effects on severely mentally retarded individuals is described. Separate factor analyses of the data from two samples resulted in a five-factor scale: (1) Irritability, Agitation, Crying; (2) Lethargy, Social Withdrawal; (3) Stereotypic Behavior; (4) Hyperactivity, Noncompliance; and…

  4. Complex effects of reward upshift on consummatory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annicchiarico, Ivan; Glueck, Amanda C; Cuenya, Lucas; Kawasaki, Katsuyoshi; Conrad, Shannon E; Papini, Mauricio R

    2016-08-01

    Exposing rats to an upshift from a small reward to a larger reward sometimes yields evidence of consummatory successive positive contrast (cSPC), an effect that could be a suitable animal model of positive emotion. However, cSPC is an unreliable effect. Ten experiments explored the effects of an upshift in sucrose or saccharin concentration on consummatory behavior under several conditions. There was occasional evidence of cSPC, but mostly a combination of increased consummatory behavior relative to preshift reward concentrations and a reduced behavioral level relative to unshifted controls. Such a pattern is consistent with processes causing opposite changes on behavior. Reward upshift may induce processes that suppress behavior, such as taste neophobia (induced by an intense sucrose taste) and generalization decrement (induced by novelty in reward conditions after the upshift). An experiment tested the role of such novelty-related effects by preexposing animals to either the upshift concentration (12% sucrose) or water during three days before the start of the experiment. Sucrose-preexposed animals drank significantly more than water-preexposed animals during the upshift, but just as much as unshifted controls (i.e., no evidence of cSPC). These results suggest that cSPC may be difficult to obtain reliably because reward upshift induces opposing processes. However, they also seriously question the ontological status of cSPC. PMID:27298234

  5. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare. PMID:26910772

  6. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare.

  7. Prevalence of HHV-6 in cerebrospinal fluid of children younger than 2 years of age with febrile convulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Mamishi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Febrile convulsion is a common disorder in children. Viral infections such as human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6 which results in roseola infantum may contribute to developing seizure. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HHV-6 by detecting DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of children with febrile convulsion and without any rash of roseola infantum.In this descriptive cross-sectional study, CSF of 100 children younger than 2 years of age with febrile convulsion was evaluated for detecting HHV-6 DNA by PCR. All of them were referred to emergency ward in Pediatric Medical Center from March 2010 to March 2011. General information, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and outcomes were collected in the questionnaires.One hundred children including 59 males and 41 females were evaluated. HHV-6 was detected from CSF in six patients (6% by PCR. Mean age was 8 months old. All children were younger than 12 months old. The most common primary manifestation was fever alone. None of them had rash. Majority of cases occurred in winter. All patients recovered without any encephalitis.These findings showed that primary infection with HHV-6 is frequently associated with febrile convulsion in infants which may be at risk for subsequent development of epilepsy.

  8. Progress in studies on the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor in convulsion: a short review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-fang; LIU Li-qun

    2012-01-01

    Convulsion is the medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly,resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.The impaired inhibition of electrical activity in the brain is one of leading causes of convulsion.y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS).GABA acts at inhibitory synapses in the brain by binding to specific transmembrane receptors in the plasma membrane of both pre- and post-synaptic neuronal processes.GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is the most important inhibitory receptor,and is the target receptor of anticonvulsant drugs in the clinic.In this review,we describe GABAergic signaling mediated by GABAAR,the mechanisms of GABAAR and their expression,and the progress being made on understanding the role of GABAAR in convulsion with emphasis on the association between GABAAR mutations or GABAAR subunit expression and convulsion.We also describe progress of anticonvulsant drugs based on the GABAAR.

  9. Pressure effects on dynamics behavior of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebian, Taha [Faculty of Engineering, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The dynamic behavior of Multiwall boron nitride nanotubes (MWBNNTs) is investigated by employing multiple elastic shells model. The influences of van der Waals interactions on layers are shown as nonlinear functions of the interlayer distance of MWBNNTs. Governing equations are solved by using the developed finite element method and by employing time history diagrams. The radial wave speed from the outermost layer to the innermost layer is computed. The effects of geometrical factors such as diameter-to-thickness ratio on dynamic behavior of MWBNNTs are determined. The magnification aspects of MWBNNTs are computed, and the effects of surrounding pressures on wave speed and magnification aspect of MWBNNTs are discussed.

  10. Media effects on the audience attitudes and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Marques Carriço Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a bibliographical review of the development of the literature on media effects and it presents a nuanced history of the development of the studies on media effects. This text intends to recover the classical demarcation of literature belonging to the era of (1 unlimited effects, in which the media have complete power over its audience, to the period in which the studies (2 evoked potentially intervening variables in media effects (in determining limited effects, and to the (returning era of (3 significant effects. The perspective taken in this study focuses on researches that approach the media influence on the attitudes and behaviors of the audience.

  11. Taurine and ethanol interactions: behavioral effects in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsburg, Brett C.; Lamb, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant amino acid in the brain that shares pharmacological effects and similar potency with ethanol. Recently, taurine-containing beverages have been reported to enhance the euphoric effects of ethanol, though the extent of this effect and the role of taurine remain speculative. The present study was designed to explore interactions between taurine and ethanol on several behaviors including locomotion, ataxia, and loss of righting. Two strains of mice, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice...

  12. Anticonvulsant Effect of Ferula Assa-Foetida Oleo Gum Resin on Chemical and Amygdala-Kindled Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Rezvani, Mohamad Ebrahim; Vahidi, Ali Reza; Esmaili, Mansur

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Iranian traditional medicine, Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin (asafoetida) have been used as anti-convulsant agents. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-convulsant effect of asafoetida on chemical and amygdala -kindled rats. Materials and Methods: In chemical model, rats received orally asafoetida at dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg 90 minutes prior to Pentylenetetrazol injection in dose of 35 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) and control group received normal saline. Convulsive behavior was recorded for 30 minutes. For amygdala kindle model, bipolar stimulating and monopolar recording electrodes were implanted stereotaxically. After kindling, the effect of asafoetida (50 and 100mg/kg) on after discharge duration, duration of stage 5 seizure and latency to the onset of bilateral forelimb clonuses was measured. Results: Pretreatment animals with asafoetida significantly reduced the mean seizure stage during the 20 kindling injection of Pentylenetetrazol. Seizure parameters in amigdala kindle model improved in treatment animals at both dose 50 and 100 mg/kg. The number of stimulations in stage 3, 4, and 5 in asafoetida-treated rats at both doses significantly increased. Conclusions: These results showed that asafoetida could prevent seizure in both chemical and electrical kindling model and this effect may partially be related to the terpenoids compounds. PMID:25210675

  13. Anticonvulsant effect of ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin on chemical and amygdala-kindled rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Majid Bagheri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Iranian traditional medicine, Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin (asafoetida have been used as anti-convulsant agents. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-convulsant effect of asafoetida on chemical and amygdala -kindled rats. Materials and Methods: In chemical model, rats received orally asafoetida at dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg 90 minutes prior to Pentylenetetrazol injection in dose of 35 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p. and control group received normal saline. Convulsive behavior was recorded for 30 minutes. For amygdala kindle model, bipolar stimulating and monopolar recording electrodes were implanted stereotaxically. After kindling, the effect of asafoetida (50 and 100mg/kg on after discharge duration, duration of stage 5 seizure and latency to the onset of bilateral forelimb clonuses was measured. Results: Pretreatment animals with asafoetida significantly reduced the mean seizure stage during the 20 kindling injection of Pentylenetetrazol. Seizure parameters in amigdala kindle model improved in treatment animals at both dose 50 and 100 mg/kg. The number of stimulations in stage 3, 4, and 5 in asafoetida-treated rats at both doses significantly increased. Conclusions: These results showed that asafoetida could prevent seizure in both chemical and electrical kindling model and this effect may partially be related to the terpenoids compounds.

  14. Clinical, behavioral and antinociceptive effects of crotalphine in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Cristina Bueno do Prado Guirro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Crotalphine is a novel analgesic peptide that acts on kappa opioid and delta receptors, causing powerful analgesia in rats submitted to inflammatory, neuropathic or oncologic models of pain. This study evaluated clinical, behavioral and antinociceptive effects caused by crotalphine in horses, employing 18 Arabian horses and it was divided in three phases. In Phase I, "clinical and behavioral effects", crotalphine did not change the latency to urinate and defecate; did not modify the values of cardiac or respiratory rates, intestinal motility and rectal temperature; and did not cause significant ataxia, head, eye and lip ptosis. In Phase II, "antinociceptive effect on intact skin at scapular or ischial region", crotalphine did not cause significant analgesia. In Phase III, "antinociceptive effect on incised skin at scapular or ischial region", crotalphine promoted effective antinociceptive effects for six hours and inhibited hyperalgesia state for three days in the ischial region of horses submitted to incisional model of inflammatory pain, but crotalphine did not evoke relevant analgesic effect on the scapular region. Concluding, intravenous injection of a single dose of crotalphine (3.8ngkg-1 did not cause important clinical or behavioral changes and promotes antinociceptive effect on incised ischial region for seven days in horses. Moreover, crotalphine did not evoke relevant anti nociceptive effect on the scapular region or in intact skin of horses.

  15. The Nursing Experience of Intestinal Infection Associated Febrile Convulsion in Children%肠道感染相关热性惊厥小儿护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    恽长明

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical nursing pediatric heat infection related advocacy seizures. Methods Randomly selected in our hospital in 2011 April -2013 year in April were related to intestinal infection in children with febrile convulsion in 40 cases as the research object. To give the corresponding nursing measures in the process of al children in the treatment of children. Results The results showed that, after nursing measures, the group of children with the treatment of 25 cases markedly effective, 9 cases improved, 6 cases ineffective. Conclusion In view of the intestinal infection related febrile convulsion in children with the disease, the use of appropriate care measures, can obtain good effect, worthy of promotion in clinical use.%目的:研究探讨倡导感染相关热性惊厥小儿临床护理。方法随机抽取我院2011年4月~2013年4月收治的肠道感染相关热性惊厥患儿40例为研究对象。在所有患儿治疗的过程中给予患儿相应护理措施。结果结果表明,经过护理措施,本组患儿治疗显效25例、好转9例、无效6例。结论针对肠道感染相关热性惊厥的疾病,对患儿应用恰当的护理措施,能够取得良好的效果,值得在临床上推广使用。

  16. DEMOGRAPHY OF PEDIATRIC BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Keihanidoust

    2006-01-01

    Objective :Behavioral disorders of children and adolescents have long been a subject of discussion among researchers of pedology,   psychology, medicine and psychiatry and are also a commonly encountered complaint of patients referring to the pediatric neurology out patient clinics. The main purpose of the present study is to survey some organic disorders, e.g. temporal lobe epilepsy (non convulsive seizures) and to investigate the role of some trace element deficiencies, in particular iron d...

  17. The effects of proton exposure on neurochemistry and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Szprengiel, A.; Pluhar, J.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Future space missions will involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, where astronauts will be exposed to radiation hazards such as those that arise from galactic cosmic rays. Galactic cosmic rays are composed of protons, α particles, and particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles). Research by our group has shown that exposure to HZE particles, primarily 600 MeV/n and 1 GeV/n 56Fe, can produce significant alterations in brain neurochemistry and behavior. However, given that protons can make up a significant portion of the radiation spectrum, it is important to study their effects on neural functioning and on related performance. Therefore, these studies examined the effects of exposure to proton irradiation on neurochemical and behavioral endpoints, including dopaminergic functioning, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, and spatial learning and memory as measured by the Morris water maze. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a dose of 0, 1.5, 3.0 or 4.0 Gy of 250 MeV protons at Loma Linda University and were tested in the different behavioral tests at various times following exposure. Results showed that there was no effect of proton irradiation at any dose on any of the endpoints measured. Therefore, there is a contrast between the insignificant effects of high dose proton exposure and the dramatic effectiveness of low dose (<0.1 Gy) exposures to 56Fe particles on both neurochemical and behavioral endpoints.

  18. Mutations in the Gene PRRT2 Cause Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Yang Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majority (24/25 of well-characterized families with PKD/IC. PRRT2 truncating mutations were also detected in 28 of 78 additional families. PRRT2 encodes a proline-rich transmembrane protein of unknown function that has been reported to interact with the t-SNARE, SNAP25. PRRT2 localizes to axons but not to dendritic processes in primary neuronal culture, and mutants associated with PKD/IC lead to dramatically reduced PRRT2 levels, leading ultimately to neuronal hyperexcitability that manifests in vivo as PKD/IC.

  19. ÉPIDÉMIOLOGIE ET CARACTÉRISTIQUES DES CONVULSIONS FEBRILES DE L'ENFANT

    OpenAIRE

    KAPUTU, Kalala Malu CELESTIN; Mafuta, Musalu Eric; Dubru, Jean-Marie; LEROY, Patricia; TOMAT, Anne-Marie; Misson, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Résumé : Les convulsions fébriles (CF), malgré leur bénignité, font toujours l’objet de discussions concernant les investigations à entreprendre et l’attitude thérapeutique à adopter. Notre étude vise à faire l’inventaire des éléments cliniques et paracliniques présents lors de survenue des CF et susceptibles d’en influencer la prise en charge. 275 épisodes de CF admis aux Urgences Pédiatriques du CHR sur une période de 5 ans ont été analysés rétrospectivement sur la base...

  20. Phase-locking of epileptic spikes to ongoing delta oscillations in non-convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, Rikkert; Meijer, Hil G E; van Gils, Stephan A; van Putten, Michel J A M

    2013-01-01

    The EEG of patients in non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) often displays delta oscillations or generalized spike-wave discharges. In some patients, these delta oscillations coexist with intermittent epileptic spikes. In this study we verify the prediction of a computational model of the thalamo-cortical system that these spikes are phase-locked to the delta oscillations. We subsequently describe the physiological mechanism underlying this observation as suggested by the model. It is suggested that the spikes reflect inhibitory stochastic fluctuations in the input to thalamo-cortical relay neurons and phase-locking is a consequence of differential excitability of relay neurons over the delta cycle. Further analysis shows that the observed phase-locking can be regarded as a stochastic precursor of generalized spike-wave discharges. This study thus provides an explanation of intermittent spikes during delta oscillations in NCSE and might be generalized to other encephathologies in which delta activity can be observed.

  1. High-density lesions in cranial CT with vision loss of both sides and paroxysmal convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Li-bo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A 49-year-old man presented with weakness of right side and vision loss of both sides in local hospital. Initial CT of the head showed multiple high-density lesions in occipital -parietal lobe and with diagnosis of cerebral cysticercosis. Two months later, repeated cranial CT showed no significant change of multiple high-density lesions in occipital -parietal lobe, with symptom of vision get worse; and so of three months later and the third cranial CT, until he had seizures. During episodes of convulsion, EEG showed occipital lobe epilepsy. And brain MR revealed several hemorrhage-like lesions in occipital -parietal lobe. After admission, Echocardiaogram showed a mass in left atrial. The mass proved to be a myxoma on surgical resection.

  2. Clinical and genetic analysis of two Chinese families with benign familial neonatal convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Haiyan; TANG Beisha; XIA Kun; CAO Guifang; SHEN Lu; JIANG Hong; PAN Qian; SONG Yanmin; CAI Fang

    2005-01-01

    Benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited epilepsy syndrome. Two voltagegated potassium channel genes, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, have been identified as the genes responsible for BFNC. Here we report two Chinese families with clinical histories of typical BFNC. Using six microsatellite markers, two located at KCNQ2 locus and four at KCNQ3 locus, linkage analysis was performed in the two families, which excluded the linkage of BFNC to KCNQ3, but could not exclude the linkage to KCNQ2. Direct DNA sequencing of the KCNQ2 gene in the two families was performed, and two formerly unknown polymorphisms were identified, but no KCNQ2 mutation was found in the two families. Our study suggests the genetic heterogeneity in Chinese families with BFNC and proves the existence of a new gene locus for BFNC.

  3. Effect of Chronic Lead Intoxication on Risky Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mohammadyar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With industrialization of human societies, pollutants like lead have entered in the life cycle, causing harmful effects on body organs. No sufficient studies have been done on the effects of pollutants on behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of lead on some measurable behaviors of an animal model. Methods: Forty eight male adult mice were divided into 4 groups of 12 each. Lead acetate was added at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, or 500 ppm to the drinking water of the animals for 4 weeks (28 days. On day 29, animals were placed on an Elevated Plus maze (EPM for 5 min and the time in sec spent was measured on closed arms, open arms and the end 1/3rd of the open arms. Increased time on open arms, particularly the end 1/3rd was considered to reflect an enhanced risk-accepting behavior. Results: In this study, it was shown that lead exposure caused an increased number of entrance (P=0.006 and time spent (P=0.034 by mice on open arms of the EPM. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of lead acetate and those two effects. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that lead poisoning may decrease normal anxiety in mice and increase risky behavior in this species. Clinical studies on human subjects with risky behavior are strongly suggested in order to find a possible relation between chronic exposures to lead as well as plasma concentration of lead with the extent of this kind of behavior.

  4. The Frequency of Urinary Tract Infection among Children with Febrile Convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Momen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThis study was conducted to determine the frequency of urinary tract infection(UTI among children with febrile convulsion (FC.Materials & MethodsWe analyzed the hospital records of 137 children who had been admitted to thepediatric ward from March 2004 to February 2007 because of FC. Informationsuch as age, sex, developmental status, type of FC, family history of seizure,urine sampling method, and the results of antibiograms were recorded.ResultsThe age distribution of 137 patients (82 boys, 55 girls was as follows: 1-6 monthsof age, 1 infant (0.7%; 6-12 months, 21 infants (15.3%; 1-3 years, 75 (54.8%;3-5 years, 30 (21.9%; and more than 5 years, 10 (7.3%. Three out of the 82boys and 6 out of the 55 girls had UTI (3.7% vs. 10.9%, total, 6.6%. The agedistribution of these 9 patients was as follows: 1-6 months, 1 patient (11.1%;7-12 months, 5 (55.6%; and 1-3 years, 3 (33.3%. The relative incidence of UTIwas 6.6%. The most common organisms causing infections were Escherichiacoli in 8 and Proteus spp., in 1 patient (88.8% vs. 11.1%. Simple FC was seenin all 9 patients with UTI.ConclusionIn this study, the relative frequency of UTI among children with FC was 6.6%and this frequency was higher that the incidence of UTI in girls and boys(3-5% and 1%, respectively. Therefore, we recommend that UTI should beconsidered as an important cause of FC in children.Keywords: Febrile convulsion; urinary tract infection; children    

  5. [Unverricht-Lundborg disease manifesting tremulous myoclonus with rare convulsive seizures: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takayuki; Yamakado, Hodaka; Kawamata, Jun; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Hitomi, Takefumi; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio

    2009-01-01

    We report a 23-year-old woman who slowly developed progressive tremulous myoclonus and rare convulsive seizures beginning at the age of 9 and 11 years, respectively. She also showed a mild degree of ataxia and cognitive dysfunction. Convulsive seizures were well suppressed by valproic acid since the age of 17 years, but tremulous myoclonus gradually progressed and became rather intractable in spite of treatment by clonazepam and piracetam. Her cognitive dysfunction was mild (total IQ score in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised being 85 points). In addition, she had a fear of walking which disabled her in the daily life although she could actually walk without assistance. The brain MRI showed a mild cerebellar atrophy, and FDG-PET showed a mild hypometabolism in the cerebellar hemispheres. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) showed enlarged P25 and N33 amplitudes (giant SEPs). A Cystatin B gene analysis exhibited a homozygous expansion of the dodecamer repeat, and thus we made a diagnosis of Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD). We also did gene analysis and SEP study to her parents after written informed consents were obtained. They had heterozygous expansion of the dodecamer repeat. The mother also showed enlarged P25 and N33 amplitudes, whereas the father showed normal amplitudes. It is known that degree of clinical symptoms varies among patients with ULD diagnosed by gene analysis. Gene analysis was helpful for a diagnosis of ULD in this patient because the ataxia and cognitive dysfunction were much milder than those commonly seen in patients with ULD. PMID:19227896

  6. The Effects of a Team Charter on Student Team Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Joshua R.; McDowell, William C.; Herdman, Andrew O.

    2014-01-01

    The authors contribute to growing evidence that team charters contribute positively to performance by empirically testing their effects on key team process outcomes. Using a sample of business students in a team-based task requiring significant cooperative and coordinative behavior, the authors compare emergent team norms under a variety of team…

  7. The Effects of a Brushing Procedure on Stereotypical Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; Durand, Shannon; Chan, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the effects of a brushing protocol on stereotyped behavior of a young boy with autism. First, a functional analysis was conducted which showed that the participant's stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Next, the Wilbarger Protocol, a brushing intervention, was implemented. An ABA design was implemented…

  8. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Lochbuehler; M. Peters; R.H.J. Scholte; R.C.M.E. Engels

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  9. The Behavioral Effects of Crowding: Definitions and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Larry M.; And Others

    Crews of 18 U.S. Navy combat vessels rated their living and working conditions aboard ship, including degree of crowding. In order to better understand the behavioral effects of crowding, three different types of measures, corresponding to different definitions of crowding, were constructed. These separate crowding measures correlated uniquely…

  10. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this e

  11. Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Behavior Problems and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Parents and children completed measures that assessed children's behavior problems and depression. Children had experienced abuse, witnessed spouse abuse, experienced and witnessed abuse, or experienced no domestic violence. Reports of effects of domestic violence on children varied, depending on the type of violence and the person reporting it.…

  12. Effect of Maternal Depression on Child Behavior: A Sensitive Period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maternal depression during the child's first year of life (i.e., sensitive period) on subsequent behavior problems. Method: Participants were 175 mothers participating in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) who met lifetime diagnostic criteria for major depressive…

  13. Effects of Academic Experience and Prestige on Researchers’ Citing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a bibliometric study of the measurable effects of experience and prestige on researchers' citing behavior. All single authors from two econometrics journals over a 10-year time period form the basis of the analysis of how experience and prestige affect the num...

  14. Effects of Behavioral and Social Class Information on Social Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Reuben M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the role of disconfirming behavioral information and the limits on social class schema effects. Using a Bayesian model of social perception, it was found that unambiguous, relevant stimulus information influenced judgments. Although social class information did not affect relevant stimulus information, it did sway judgments in…

  15. Humidity Effects and Aging Behavior in Granular Media

    OpenAIRE

    Restagno, F.; Gayvallet, H.; Bocquet, L.; Charlaix, E.

    1999-01-01

    We present a study of humidity effects on the maximum stability angle in granular media. We show that a granular medium of small glass beads exhibits aging properties : the first avalanche angle increases logarithmically with the resting time of the pile. This aging behavior is found to depend on the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere. A short interpretation of this effect, based on a model of activated capillary condensation, is proposed.

  16. Hall Effect Sensors Design, Integration and Behavior Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Kayal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on various aspects regarding Hall Effect sensors’ design, integration, and behavior analysis. In order to assess their performance, different Hall Effect geometries were tested for Hall voltage, sensitivity, offset, and temperature drift. The residual offset was measured both with an automated measurement setup and by manual switching of the individual phases. To predict Hall sensors performance prior to integration, three-dimensional physical simulations were performed.

  17. Hall Effect Sensors Design, Integration and Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maher Kayal; Maria-Alexandra Paun; Jean-Michel Sallese

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on various aspects regarding Hall Effect sensors’ design, integration, and behavior analysis. In order to assess their performance, different Hall Effect geometries were tested for Hall voltage, sensitivity, offset, and temperature drift. The residual offset was measured both with an automated measurement setup and by manual switching of the individual phases. To predict Hall sensors performance prior to integration, three-dimensional physical simulations were perfor...

  18. 小儿热性惊厥64例回顾性分析%64 children with Febrile Convulsion were Retrospectively Analyzed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑艳

    2016-01-01

    ;The observation group with no age limit is obvious,and has a higher rate of abnormal EEG,with complex disease mainly.Conclusion For patients had febrile convulsion in children,when the symptoms of fever,Should be regardless of age to take the temperature control,If children have the history of the disease or have risk factors,prevention and control measures should be taken actively and effectively prevent the occurrence of febrile convulsion in children.

  19. Exposure to multiple parasites is associated with the prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gathoni Kamuyu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is common in developing countries, and it is often associated with parasitic infections. We investigated the relationship between exposure to parasitic infections, particularly multiple infections and active convulsive epilepsy (ACE, in five sites across sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A case-control design that matched on age and location was used. Blood samples were collected from 986 prevalent cases and 1,313 age-matched community controls and tested for presence of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Taenia solium and HIV. Exposure (seropositivity to Onchocerca volvulus (OR = 1.98; 95%CI: 1.52-2.58, p<0.001, Toxocara canis (OR = 1.52; 95%CI: 1.23-1.87, p<0.001, Toxoplasma gondii (OR = 1.28; 95%CI: 1.04-1.56, p = 0.018 and higher antibody levels (top tertile to Toxocara canis (OR = 1.70; 95%CI: 1.30-2.24, p<0.001 were associated with an increased prevalence of ACE. Exposure to multiple infections was common (73.8% of cases and 65.5% of controls had been exposed to two or more infections, and for T. gondii and O. volvulus co-infection, their combined effect on the prevalence of ACE, as determined by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI, was more than additive (T. gondii and O. volvulus, RERI = 1.19. The prevalence of T. solium antibodies was low (2.8% of cases and 2.2% of controls and was not associated with ACE in the study areas. CONCLUSION: This study investigates how the degree of exposure to parasites and multiple parasitic infections are associated with ACE and may explain conflicting results obtained when only seropositivity is considered. The findings from this study should be further validated.

  20. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelson Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely

  1. Effects of tourists on behavior and demography of Olympic marmots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Suzanne C; Valois, Tanguy; Taper, Mark L; Scott Mills, L

    2007-08-01

    If changes in animal behavior resulting from direct human disturbance negatively affect the persistence of a given species or population, then these behavioral changes must necessarily lead to reduced demographic performance. We tested for the effects of human disturbance on Olympic marmots (Marmota olympus), a large ground-dwelling squirrel that has disappeared from several areas where recreation levels are high. We assessed the degree to which antipredator and foraging behavior and demographic rates (survival and reproduction) differed between sites with high recreation levels (high use) and those with little or no recreation (low use). Compared with the marmots at low-use sites, marmots at high-use sites displayed significantly reduced responses to human approach, which could be construed as successful accommodation of disturbance or as a decrease in predator awareness. The marmots at high-use sites also looked up more often while foraging, which suggests an increased wariness. Marmots at both types of sites had comparable reproductive and survival rates and were in similar body condition. Until now, the supposition that marmots can adjust their behavior to avoid negative demographic consequences when confronted with heavy tourism has been based on potentially ambiguous behavioral data. Our results support this hypothesis in the case of Olympic marmots and demonstrate the importance of considering demographic data when evaluating the impacts of recreation on animal populations. PMID:17650256

  2. Perinatal stress: characteristics and effects on adult eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Cesiana da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have pointed out the importance of mother-child interaction in the early months of life. A few decades ago, a method called kangaroo care was developed and its main goal was to keep underweight or premature newborns in direct contact with the mother. This method has reduced the morbidity and mortality of these newborns, increasing their growth rate, breastfeeding time and mother-child contact. In rodents, the dam's presence is crucial for avoiding aggression factors that may trigger phenotypic adaptations in the pups with irreversible morphological, functional and behavioral consequences. Eating behavior is an adaptive response stemming from the external environment demand and modulated by opportunities and limitations imposed by the external environment. This behavior is regulated by a complex interaction of peripheral and central mechanisms that control hunger and satiety. The hypothalamus is a brain structure that integrates central and peripheral signals to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight. The hypothalamic nucleus have orexigenic peptides, such as neuropeptide Y and the Agouti-related peptide, and anorexigenic peptides, such as cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript and proopiomelanocortin. An innovative study of eating behavior in experimental models of neonatal stress separates the mother from the offspring during lactation. This review describes the effects of stress during the neonatal period on general physiological factors, particularly on the control of eating behavior.

  3. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eCelec

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences.

  4. Ferromagnetic behavior and exchange bias effect in akaganeite nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadic, Marin, E-mail: marint@vinca.rs [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Science, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Milosevic, Irena; Motte, Laurence [Laboratoire CSPBAT, UMR 7244 CNRS Université Paris 13, 93017 Bobigny Cedex (France); Kralj, Slavko [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Saboungi, Marie-Louise [CNRS, University of Orleans, F-45071 Orleans 2 (France); IMPMC, Sorbonne Univ-UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR CNRS 7590, Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, IRD UMR 206, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-05-04

    We report ferromagnetic-like properties and exchange bias effect in akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanorods. They exhibit a Néel temperature T{sub N} = 259 K and ferromagnetic-like hysteresis behavior both below and above T{sub N}. An exchange bias effect is observed below T{sub N} and represents an interesting behavior for akaganeite nanorods. These results are explained on the basis of a core-shell structure in which the core has bulk akaganeite magnetic properties (i.e., antiferromagnetic ordering) while the shell exhibits a disordered spin state. Thus, the nanorods show ferromagnetic properties and an exchange bias effect at the same time, increasing their potential for use in practical applications.

  5. Mental and behavioral effects of parasitic infections: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Anisha; Ojha, Suvash Chandra; Singh, Yengkokpam Ibotomba

    2007-03-01

    Whether parasitic diseases-and in particular helminth infections because they are extensive and widespread--have an effect on mental functions and educational attainment is by no mean a new question. Concern about the possibility was evident in the early decades of the century, and the results of investigations designed to discover whether the effects of parasite infections had consequences on school children. Many species of helminth have been reported as causing infections in humans. Of the nematode infections, both soil transmitted helminthiasis and lymphatic filariasis are public health problem in the country. Any of these infections may result in morbidity, malnutrition, and iron-deficiency anaemia. Their possible contribution to impaired cognitive function and educational achievement is by the association between iron deficiency anaemia and malnutrition. Research on the effects of parasitic infection has focused on school-age children. Not only are these children the most vulnerable to parasitic infections--they are also the population group most likely to experience the impact of infection on cognitive function. This review paper discusses the mental and behavioral effects of parasitic infection on child's health. Infected children are less active; their behavior is said to be sluggish and both mental and physical activities and processes appear dulled and slow. A reduction in available energy is likely to cause a cascade of effects running through most aspects of the host's daily mental life and behavior.

  6. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boon-How; Chew; Sazlina; Shariff-Ghazali; Aaron; Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus(DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal contro of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications,causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient’s psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation,self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors,coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relationto DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  7. Characterization of behavioral and endocrine effects of LSD on zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leah; Utterback, Eli; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Chung, Kyung Min; Suciu, Christopher; Wong, Keith; Elegante, Marco; Elkhayat, Salem; Tan, Julia; Gilder, Thomas; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Cachat, Jonathan; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-12-25

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogenic drug that strongly affects animal and human behavior. Although adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a promising neurobehavioral model, the effects of LSD on zebrafish have not been investigated previously. Several behavioral paradigms (the novel tank, observation cylinder, light-dark box, open field, T-maze, social preference and shoaling tests), as well as modern video-tracking tools and whole-body cortisol assay were used to characterize the effects of acute LSD in zebrafish. While lower doses (5-100 microg/L) did not affect zebrafish behavior, 250 microg/L LSD increased top dwelling and reduced freezing in the novel tank and observation cylinder tests, also affecting spatiotemporal patterns of activity (as assessed by 3D reconstruction of zebrafish traces and ethograms). LSD evoked mild thigmotaxis in the open field test, increased light behavior in the light-dark test, reduced the number of arm entries and freezing in the T-maze and social preference test, without affecting social preference. In contrast, LSD affected zebrafish shoaling (increasing the inter-fish distance in a group), and elevated whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our findings show sensitivity of zebrafish to LSD action, and support the use of zebrafish models to study hallucinogenic drugs of abuse.

  8. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Shariff-Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron

    2014-12-15

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient's adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal control of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications, causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient's psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation, self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors, coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relation to DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  9. Separate and combined effects of methylphenidate and a behavioral intervention on disruptive behavior in children with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, N J; Mauk, J E; McComas, J J; Mace, F C

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the separate and combined effects of a behavioral intervention and methylphenidate (Ritalin) on disruptive behavior and task engagement in 3 children with severe to profound mental retardation. The behavioral intervention involved differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior and guided compliance. All 3 children demonstrated decreased disruptive behavior and improved task engagement in response to the response to the behavioral intervention. Two of the 3 children demonstrated similar improvement in response to methylphenidate. Although both interventions were highly effective for these 2 participants, the relative efficacy of the interventions varied between the 2 children. There was no evidence of an additive or synergistic effect of the two interventions, but the high efficacy of each intervention alone limited our ability to detect such effects.

  10. Behavioral effects of ketamine and toxic interactions with psychostimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Keiichi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anesthetic drug ketamine (KT has been reported to be an abused drug and fatal cases have been observed in polydrug users. In the present study, considering the possibility of KT-enhanced toxic effects of other drugs, and KT-induced promotion of an overdose without making the subject aware of the danger due to the attenuation of several painful subjective symptoms, the intraperitoneal (i.p. KT-induced alterations in behaviors and toxic interactions with popular co-abused drugs, the psychostimulants cocaine (COC and methamphetamine (MA, were examined in ICR mice. Results A single dose of KT caused hyperlocomotion in a low (30 mg/kg, i.p. dose group, and hypolocomotion followed by hyperlocomotion in a high (100 mg/kg, i.p. dose group. However, no behavioral alterations derived from enhanced stress-related depression or anxiety were observed in the forced swimming or the elevated plus-maze test. A single non-fatal dose of COC (30 mg/kg, i.p. or MA (4 mg/kg, i.p. caused hyperlocomotion, stress-related depression in swimming behaviors in the forced swimming test, and anxiety-related behavioral changes (preference for closed arms in the elevated plus-maze test. For the COC (30 mg/kg or MA (4 mg/kg groups of mice simultaneously co-treated with KT, the psychostimulant-induced hyperlocomotion was suppressed by the high dose KT, and the psychostimulant-induced behavioral alterations in the above tests were reversed by both low and high doses of KT. For the toxic dose COC (70 mg/kg, i.p.- or MA (15 mg/kg, i.p.-only group, mortality and severe seizures were observed in some animals. In the toxic dose psychostimulant-KT groups, KT attenuated the severity of seizures dose-dependently. Nevertheless, the mortality rate was significantly increased by co-treatment with the high dose KT. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that, in spite of the absence of stress-related depressive and anxiety-related behavioral alterations following a single

  11. Study on Application of Nursing Intervention in Children With Febrile Convulsion%护理干预在小儿高热惊厥中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analysis the application effectiveness of nursing intervention in children with febrile convulsion. Methods In this paper, the research object of choice for from January 2014 to December 2014, healing, 100 cases of children with febrile convulsion, children will be divided into a, b, the ifrst division (50) adopts the method of routine nursing, and group b (50) is based on students' care for nursing intervention, compared two groups of children with care effect. Results After nursing, the level of serum index is superior to the first division b, family satisfaction of nursing and the master degree of knowledge of febrile convulsion disease is signiifcantly better than the ifrst division, the data contrast with signiifcant difference (P<0.05), with statistical significance. Conclusion Nursing intervention is an effective method in children with febrile convulsion.%目的:探析护理干预在小儿高热惊厥中的应用有效性。方法本文的研究对象选择为我院2014年1月~2014年12月医治的小儿高热惊厥患儿100例,为了便于对比、研究,将患儿随机划分成甲组及乙组,其中甲组(50人)主要采取常规小儿高热惊厥护理方法,而乙组(50人)则是在甲组护理基础上给予其护理干预,对比两组患儿的护理效果。结果在护理后,乙组疾病的复发率比甲组低,且乙组的血清指标水平优于甲组,家属对护理的满意度以及对高热惊厥疾病知识的掌握程度也明显优于甲组,数据对比有显著的差异(P<0.05),具有统计学意义。结论护理干预在小儿高热惊厥中的应用效果较好。

  12. The effects of music on animal physiology, behavior and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Leanne C; Buerkle, Shawna C

    2013-02-01

    Physiological and psychological effects of listening to music have been documented in humans. The changes in physiology, cognition and brain chemistry and morphology induced by music have been studied in animal models, providing evidence that music may affect animals similarly to humans. Information about the potential benefits of music to animals suggests that providing music may be used as a means of improving the welfare of laboratory animals, such as through environmental enrichment, stress relief and behavioral modification. The authors review the current research on music's effect on animals' physiology and behavior and discuss its potential for improving animal welfare. They conclude that the benefits of providing music to laboratory animals depend on the species and the type of music.

  13. Acute toxicity and effects of malathion exposure on behavior and hematological indices in Indian carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rauf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is one of the most commonly used pesticides in agriculture. This study was aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of malathion as an aquatic pollutant on the behavior and hematological indices in Indian carp (Cirrhinus mrigala. A static experiment was conducted and 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs LC50 values of malathion for the test fish were estimated as 14.55 mg/L, 12.48 mg/L, 11.56 mg/L, 10.85 mg/L and 9.32 mg/L, respectively. During 96 hrs exposure to 9.32 mg/L of malathion, behavioral abnormalities such as hyperactivity, cough, convulsions, erratic swimming, loss of balance, rapid opercular movements, gill mucous secretion, surfacing and gulping of air were observed in the test fish. The hematological changes in exposed fish after 96 hrs exposure to malathion included a significant decrease in erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content, hematocrit, leukocyte count and a significant increase in neutrophils count as compared to the control fish. In conclusion, acute exposure to 9.32 mg/L of malathion provoked behavioral and hematological abnormalities in Indian carp which offers a valuable tool to monitor malathion induced toxicity in fish.

  14. Effectiveness of a Response Cost Raffle Procedure on the Disruptive Classroom Behavior of Adolescents with Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Mary Anne; Morgan, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of a behavior management procedure--the response cost raffle--was studied with three male eighth graders and one female ninth grader in special education with mild to moderate behavior problems. Results indicate that the response cost raffle can be an effective and a practical classroom technique for increasing appropriate…

  15. Effects of Supervisor Performance Feedback on Increasing Preservice Teachers' Positive Communication Behaviors with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathel, Jeanna Marie; Drasgow, Erik; Christle, Christine C.

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of supervisor performance feedback on preservice teachers' rates of positive and negative communication behaviors with students with emotional and behavioral disorders and the effects of the intervention on the preservice teachers' perceptions of classroom management and climate. The authors…

  16. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Boon-How; Shariff-Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal control of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications, causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. ...

  17. Homogenization principles and effect of mixing on dielectric behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sihvola, Ari

    2013-01-01

    This paper consists of two parts. First, a review of classical mixing principles lists the multitude of the various ways to characterize the effective permittivity of heterogeneous materials. Different connections between the various mixing formulas are underlined and the homogenization principles are classified into families of mixing rules. The second part emphasizes and analyzes the richness of the manner how the mixing process is able to create new types of dielectric behaviors, in partic...

  18. Behavioral and social effects of family violence in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was tome asure effects of domestic violence on children, both child abuse and exposure to marital violence. 300 families were randomly selected in Hermosillo, Sonora, a northwestern Mexican city. Two members of each family were interviewed: the mother anda minor randomly selected among all their children. The research instrument collected demographicinformation, and information regarding mother's and parent's alcohol consumption, marital violence,child abuse, and child misconduct. A structural model was tested which estimated the effects ofchild abuse and exposure to marital violence on child problems. Results showed that the two forms of violence had repercussions on delinquent and antisocial behavior, produced attention problems,depression, anxiety, sadness and the manifestation of somatic symptoms. In addition, mother's education a level had a significant and negative effect on children's behavioral and social problemsand father's educational level inhibited their aggression against their wives. Alcohol consumption was positively related to child abuse. These results seems to indicate that both child abuse andexposure to marital violence rcsult in harmful consequences on children's behavior and well-being.

  19. Effects of consumer motives on search behavior using internet advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kenneth C C

    2004-08-01

    Past studies on uses and gratifications theory suggested that consumer motives affect how they will use media and media contents. Recent advertising research has extended the theory to study the use of Internet advertising. The current study explores the effects of consumer motives on their search behavior using Internet advertising. The study employed a 2 by 2 between-subjects factorial experiment design. A total of 120 subjects were assigned to an experiment condition that contains an Internet advertisement varying by advertising appeals (i.e., rational vs. emotional) and product involvement levels (high vs. low). Consumer search behavior (measured by the depth, breadth, total amount of search), demographics, and motives were collected by post-experiment questionnaires. Because all three dependent variables measuring search behavior were conceptually related to each other, MANCOVA procedures were employed to examine the moderating effects of consumer motives on the dependent variables in four product involvement-advertising appeal conditions. Results indicated that main effects for product involvements and advertising appeals were statistically significant. Univariate ANOVA also showed that advertising appeals and product involvement levels influenced the total amount of search. Three-way interactions among advertising appeals, product involvement levels, and information motive were also statistically significant. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:15331030

  20. Evaluation of Magnesium Levels in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Febrile Convulsion Hospitalized in Bahrami Hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Khosroshahi; Laleh Ghadirian; Kamyar Kamrani

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of magnesium levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with febrile convulsion (FC) hospitalized in Bahrami hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011. In the past, decreased levels of magnesium in serum and CSF of patients with FC were reported. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible role of magnesium in febrile seizures in children. Identifying this condition, we may control seizures and also prevent subsequent convulsion. In this cross-sectional study, inclusion c...

  1. Effect of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ranjbar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most prevalent psychotic disorder. In order to cure and prevent the recurrence of this disease, it is necessary to gain more information about remedial methods like Group Cognitive- Behavior Therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the amount of depression on the patients. Methods: This study was experimental and it included both experimental and control group with a pre test. The subjects were selected from patients with mild depression. Their Beck inventory score ranged between 17-20. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. The subjects of experimental group received eight sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. The Beck depression test was completed by the subjects in three phases before the intervention, after the intervention and one month after that. The data was transferred to SPSS program and analyzed. Results: The results indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control group after the intervention at Beck tests (P=0.043. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the experimental group between the depression score in patients before and after the intervention (p=0.033 and the score of patients before and one month after the intervention (p=0.492. Conclusion: Group Cognitive-Behavioral therapy decreases depression in patients who suffer from mild depression.

  2. Aspen shaving versus chip bedding: effects on breeding and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E; Demarest, K; Eckert, W J; Cates-Gatto, C; Nadav, T; Cates, L N; Howard, H; Roberts, A J

    2015-01-01

    The choice of laboratory cage bedding material is often based on both practical and husbandry issues, whereas behavioral outcomes rarely appear to be considered. It has been noted that a breeding success difference appears to be associated with the differential use of aspen chip and aspen shaving bedding in our facility; therefore, we sought to analyze breeding records maintained over a 20-month period. In fact, in all four mouse strains analyzed, shaving bedding was associated with a significant increase in average weanlings per litter relative to chip bedding. To determine whether these bedding types also resulted in differences in behaviors associated with wellbeing, we examined nest building, anxiety-like, depressive-like (or helpless-like), and social behavior in mice housed on chip versus shaving bedding. We found differences in the nests built, but no overall effect of bedding type on the other behaviors examined. Therefore, we argue that breeding success, perhaps especially in more challenging strains, is improved on shaving bedding and this is likely due to improved nest-building potential. For standard laboratory practices, however, these bedding types appear equivalent.

  3. Benign Infantile Convulsions with Mild Gastroenteritis:Report of 42 Cases%婴幼儿良性惊厥并轻度胃肠炎42例报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青; 宋元华

    2015-01-01

    worse. Rotavirus antigen: stool positive in 23 cases. After the ifrst injection of phenobarbital to prevent sexual convulsion recurrence rate was 79.2%.Conclusion BICE infant digestive system manifestations, convulsion attack in clusters. The intramuscular injection of pentobarbital convulsion antispasmodic effect is not obvious, the probability is very small after epilepsy BICE.

  4. Hemi-convulsion-hemiplegia syndrome revisited: longitudinal MRI findings in 10 children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemi-convulsion-hemiplegia syndrome (HHS) is a rare severe epilepsy of infancy consisting of unilateral convulsive status epilepticus immediately followed by transient or lasting ipsilateral hemiplegia. HHS may occur either in patients with previous brain pathology or without any identified cause, so-called 'idiopathic HHS'. We retrospectively analysed clinical and MRI longitudinal findings of a series of 10 patients (six females, four males) presenting with HHS. Age at the study inclusion ranged from 2 years 6 months to 15 years (mean of 5 y 10 mo, median 4 y 2 mo). After defining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features as 'typical', i.e. strictly unilateral involvement, and 'atypical', i.e. bilateral, we compared clinical data from both groups. Cognitive level was assessed using Brunet-Lezine or Wechsler scales. HHS occurred at a mean age of 20.5 months (range 8-48 mo). In all cases, status epilepticus lasted for more than 1 hour and was characterised by unilateral clonic seizures followed by ipsilateral hemiplegia (persistent in five patients). Two patients in this series died: the first from multi-organ failure 2 weeks after the status epilepticus and the other from a second episode of ipsilateral intractable febrile status epilepticus 3 years after the first episode. Early MRI (days 1-7 from status epilepticus) showed hemispheric cytotoxic oedema in all, extending to the contralateral side for one. T2 hyperintensity in the basal ganglia was disclosed in 70% of patients and in the hippocampus in 60%. After 1 month (in intermediate and chronic phases), all surviving patients but one showed hemispheric cortical atrophy corresponding to the regions involved during the early stage. Comparing clinical features of patients presenting with 'typical' features, to those with 'atypical' findings, the second group presented psychomotor delay before status epilepticus. This series underlines the major value of early MRI

  5. The Effect of Behavioral Family Intervention on Knowledge of Effective Parenting Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Leanne; Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of research considering the effect of behavioral family intervention (BFI) on parenting knowledge and the relative importance of both knowledge and parent confidence in reducing parenting dysfunction and problematic child behavior is unclear. In this study ninety-one parents (44 mothers, 47 fathers) of children aged 2-10 years…

  6. Transient loss of consciousness with convulsions in two young adults with potentially fatal underlying heart disease: syncope versus seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Iniesta, Ivan; Yotti, Raquel; Garcia-Pastor, Andres

    2009-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of syncope versus seizures represents a daily challenge for cardiologists and neurologists. Long Q-T syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are two hereditary arrhythmogenic heart conditions causing syncope in early adulthood. We report the cases of two patients who were reassessed for transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) with convulsions despite treatment. The first patient, a 40-year-old woman, had been diagnosed with epilepsy and was given phenytoin. He...

  7. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Worcester

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication training, breaks, and altering the non-preferred stimulus are discussed as effective treatments for escape-maintained behaviors. Similarities between treatment and implications for practitioners are discussed.

  8. Investigating the Collateral Effects of Behavior Management on Early Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Nicholas A.; MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.; Prykanowski, Debra; Coyne, Michael; Scott, Terrance M.

    2015-01-01

    Effective behavior management is necessary to ensure students are engaged with instruction. Students cannot learn if they are not engaged. Although the relationship between effective behavior management and positive student behavior is well established, the relationship between behavior management and increased academic achievement, including…

  9. Long-Term Effects of a Token Economy on Target and Off-Task Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Theodore H.; Vogrin, Daniel J.

    1979-01-01

    Examined the effects of a token economy on off-task behavior occurring concurrently with the reinforcement of target behavior. Results indicated that while the token economy maintained effectiveness in terms of increasing the frequency of target behaviors, the frequency of off-task or inappropriate behaviors also increased as the year progressed.…

  10. The incidence of human herpesvirus 6 infection in children with febrile convulsion admitted to the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, K B; Lam, S K; AbuBakar, S; Koh, M T; Lee, W S

    1997-12-01

    From October 1996 to March 1997, 31 children with febrile convulsions were admitted to the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV 6) was virologically and/or serologically confirmed to be the cause of the febrile episode in 5 of these children (16.1%). Age, sex and other associated clinical features (diarrhoea, cough, running nose and type of seizure) were not useful in differentiating cases of febrile convulsion due to HHV 6 from those of other aetiology. However, uvulo-palatoglossal junctional ulcers were noted in children in whom the cause of the seizure could be attributed to HHV 6 but not in the remaining cases in the study group. HHV 6 DNA was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from all patients with febrile convulsions attributed to HHV6, and in patients shown serologically to have already been exposed to the virus by nested polymerase chain reaction amplification. Only genotype HHV 6B was detected from patients with seizure due to HHV 6 but both genotype 6A and 6B were detected in the remaining cases studied. PMID:10968110

  11. Home management of febrile convulsion in an African population: a comparison of urban and rural mothers' knowledge attitude and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofovwe, G E; Ibadin, O M; Ofovwe, E C; Okolo, A A

    2002-08-15

    To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of home management of febrile convulsion (FC), by mothers in the community, focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted in two communities, Uselu (urban) and Evbuomodu village (rural), both in Edo State, Southern Nigeria. The study was conducted between December 2000 and February 2001. Our findings show that 71% of urban mothers compared to 25% of rural mothers attributed the cause of FC to fever (chi(2)=24.17: p<0.001). Seventy-five percent of mothers from rural community and 28.6% of urban mothers attributed the cause to witchcraft and/or evil spirits. Twenty-five percent of rural mothers also attributed abnormality of the spleen as a cause of FC. All the mothers, both urban and rural, were not directly involved in the management of the convulsive episode due to panic and confusion. Ninety-two percent of urban and all the rural mothers permitted the use of traditional medicine while 7.1% of urban mothers employed prayers during convulsion. Twenty percent of urban and twenty-two percent of rural mothers use urine (human and or cow's) for treating FC at home. Other home remedies include kerosene, fuel and crude oil. Mass enlightenment campaign for the community, especially the rural, against use of harmful traditional remedies to treat FC at home is strongly advised. PMID:12127675

  12. Generalized Models for the Classification of Abnormal Movements in Daily Life and its Applicability to Epilepsy Convulsion Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, José R; Vergara, Paula; Menéndez, Manuel; de la Cal, Enrique; González, Víctor M; Sedano, Javier

    2016-09-01

    The identification and the modeling of epilepsy convulsions during everyday life using wearable devices would enhance patient anamnesis and monitoring. The psychology of the epilepsy patient penalizes the use of user-driven modeling, which means that the probability of identifying convulsions is driven through generalized models. Focusing on clonic convulsions, this pre-clinical study proposes a method for generating a type of model that can evaluate the generalization capabilities. A realistic experimentation with healthy participants is performed, each with a single 3D accelerometer placed on the most affected wrist. Unlike similar studies reported in the literature, this proposal makes use of [Formula: see text] cross-validation scheme, in order to evaluate the generalization capabilities of the models. Event-based error measurements are proposed instead of classification-error measurements, to evaluate the generalization capabilities of the model, and Fuzzy Systems are proposed as the generalization modeling technique. Using this method, the experimentation compares the most common solutions in the literature, such as Support Vector Machines, [Formula: see text]-Nearest Neighbors, Decision Trees and Fuzzy Systems. The event-based error measurement system records the results, penalizing those models that raise false alarms. The results showed the good generalization capabilities of Fuzzy Systems. PMID:27354194

  13. The incidence of human herpesvirus 6 infection in children with febrile convulsion admitted to the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, K B; Lam, S K; AbuBakar, S; Koh, M T; Lee, W S

    1997-12-01

    From October 1996 to March 1997, 31 children with febrile convulsions were admitted to the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV 6) was virologically and/or serologically confirmed to be the cause of the febrile episode in 5 of these children (16.1%). Age, sex and other associated clinical features (diarrhoea, cough, running nose and type of seizure) were not useful in differentiating cases of febrile convulsion due to HHV 6 from those of other aetiology. However, uvulo-palatoglossal junctional ulcers were noted in children in whom the cause of the seizure could be attributed to HHV 6 but not in the remaining cases in the study group. HHV 6 DNA was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from all patients with febrile convulsions attributed to HHV6, and in patients shown serologically to have already been exposed to the virus by nested polymerase chain reaction amplification. Only genotype HHV 6B was detected from patients with seizure due to HHV 6 but both genotype 6A and 6B were detected in the remaining cases studied.

  14. Blending Effective Behavior Management and Literacy Strategies for Preschoolers Exhibiting Negative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Sometimes students will exhibit various aggressive behaviors in the preschool classroom. Early childhood educators need to have behavior management strategies to manage the students' negative behaviors within the classroom setting. This article will provide a rationale for embedding literacy instruction within behavior management strategies to…

  15. Effect of lanthanum ion implantation on oxidation behavior of zircaloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyang Liu; Xinde Bai

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of lanthanum ion imprantation on the oxidation behavior of zircaloy at 500℃, Zircaloy specimens were implanted by lanthanum ions with a dose range from 5×1016 to 2×1017 ions/cm2 at room temperature, and then oxidized at 500℃ for 100 min. The valence of the oxides in the scale was analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The phase structures of the oxides in the scale were examined by Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD). With the increase of implanted lanthanum ions dose, the phase structures in the oxide scale are transformed from monoclinic zirconia to hexagonal one and then to monoclinic one again. The measurement of weight gain showed that a similar change from the decreased gain to increased one again is achieved in the oxidation behavior of lanthanum ion implanted zircaloy compared with that of as-received zircaloy.

  16. Stress Ratio Effect on Ratcheting Behavior of AISI 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya Bharathi, K.; Dutta, K.

    2016-02-01

    Ratcheting is known as accumulation of plastic strain during asymmetric cyclic loading of metallic materials under non-zero mean stress. This phenomenon reduces fatigue life of engineering materials and thus limits the life prediction capacity of Coffin-Manson relationship. This study intends to investigate the ratcheting behavior in AISI 4340 steel which is mainly used for designing of railway wheel sets, axles, shafts, aircraft components and other machinery parts. The effect of stress ratio on the ratcheting behaviour in both annealed and normalised conditions were investigated for investigated steel. Ratcheting tests were done at different stress ratios of -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8. The results showed that the material responds to hardening behavior and nature of strain accumulation is dependent on the magnitude of stress ratio. The post ratcheted samples showed increase in tensile strength and hardness which increases with increasing stress ratio and these variations in tensile properties are correlated with the induced cyclic hardening.

  17. Size effect on the static behavior of electrostatically actuated microbeams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yin; Qin Qian; Lin Wang

    2011-01-01

    We present a new analytical model for electrostatically actuated microbeams to explore the size effect by using the modified couple stress theory and the minimum total potential energy principle. A material length scale parameter is introduced to represent the size-dependent characteristics of microbeams. This model also accounts for the nonlinearities associated with the mid-plane stretching force and the electrostatical force. Numerical analysis for microbeams with clamped-clamped and cantilevered conditions has been performed. It is found that the intensity of size effect is closely associated with the thickness of the microbeam, and smaller beam thickness displays stronger size effect and hence yields smaller deflection and larger pull-in voltage. When the beam thickness is comparable to the material length scale parameter, the size effect is significant and the present theoretical model including the material length scale parameter is adequate for predicting the static behavior of microbeam-based MEMS.

  18. Treatment and outcome in patients with febrile convulsion associated with epileptiform discharges on electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Akihisa; Ishiguro, Yoshiko; Sofue, Ayako; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Maruyama, Koichi; Kubota, Tetsuo; Negoro, Tamiko; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of prophylactic treatment for patients with febrile convulsions (FCs) in whom electroencephalograms (EEGs) revealed epileptiform discharges. We retrospectively investigated 43 patients who met the following criteria: (a) at least one FC during the study period; (b) epileptiform discharges were first recognized; (c) no unevoked seizures before epileptiform discharges were first seen; (d) normal psychomotor development and no neurological abnormality; and (e) follow-up >3 years. The clinical characteristics, treatment, and a later occurrence of FCs or unevoked seizures were studied. EEGs revealed focal epileptiform discharges in 25 patients and generalized ones in 18. There was no significant difference in the rate of recurrence of FC or occurrence of unevoked seizures between those with focal and generalized epileptiform discharges. No prophylaxis was performed in ten patients, 14 patients being treated with intermittent diazepam and 19 with a daily anticonvulsant. The rate of recurrence of FC was not significantly different between patients with and without prophylaxis. Unevoked seizures were only observed in two patients undergoing daily treatment. Intermittent or daily anticonvulsant therapy will not reduce the risk of recurrence of FCs or later development of unevoked seizures in patients with FC with epileptiform discharges. PMID:15130690

  19. Canine parvovirus type 2c infection in a kitten associated with intracranial abscess and convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Desario, Costantina; Amorisco, Francesca; Losurdo, Michele; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Greco, Maria Fiorella; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2011-04-01

    A case of canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) infection in a 3-month-old feral kitten with a cerebral abscess and neurological disease is reported. The cat displayed ataxia and convulsions together with signs of gastroenteritis and profound alteration of the total and differential white blood cell counts. A parvovirus strain was detected by a TaqMan assay in the blood and faeces of the affected kitten, which was characterised as CPV by means of molecular assays but did not react with any of the CPV type-specific probes. By sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the VP2-protein gene, the CPV-2c strain displayed a non-coding mutation in the probe-binding region. Although the role of CPV-2c in this particular case is unclear, it is possible that it predisposed the kitten to the clinical signs seen. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor future spreading of this CPV-2c mutant, and any associated clinical signs, in the dog and cat population.

  20. Study on etiology and treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong LI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The clinical data of 182 children with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE were analyzed. There were 21 cases with refractory status epilepticus (RSE and 161 cases with non-refractory status epilepticus (non-RSE. Etiological factors mainly included epilepsy in 54 cases, intracranial infection in 49 cases, and complex febrile seizure in 44 cases. In the ictal stage, 102 cases were treated with clonazepam by intravenous injection, 54 cases with diazepam by intravenous injection, 46 cases with midazolam by intravenous injection, 36 cases with phenobarbital by muscular injection, and 32 cases with 6.5% chloral hydrate by nosal feeding or clyster. The etiology of CSE in children is various. Epilepsy, intracranial infection and complex febrile seizure are the main causes. Poor prognosis and high mortality often occur in RSE caused by severe viral encephalitis. So the fundamental principle of treatment is to control CSE quickly and avoid the damage of brain and other important organs. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.009

  1. Analysis of factors influencing admission to intensive care following convulsive status epilepticus in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tirupathi, Sandya

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical features and therapeutic decisions that influence admission to the Intensive Care unit (ICU) in children presenting with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). METHODS: We evaluated 47 admissions with status epilepticus to a tertiary paediatric hospital A&E over a three year period (2003-2006). Following initial management 23 episodes required admission to ICU and 24 were managed on a paediatric ward. We compared clinical, demographic data and compliance with our CSE protocol between the ICU and ward groups. RESULTS: Median age at presentation in the ICU group was 17 months (range 3 months-11 years) compared to 46 months in the ward group (range 3 months-10 years). Fifty per cent of patients in both groups had a previous history of seizures. Median duration of pre-hospital seizure activity was 30 min in both groups. More than two doses of benzodiazepines were given as first line medication in 62% of the ICU group and 33% of the ward group. Among children admitted to ICU with CSE, 26% had been managed according to the CSE protocol, compared to 66% of children who were admitted to a hospital ward. Febrile seizures were the most common aetiology in both groups. CONCLUSION: Younger age at presentation, administration of more than two doses of benzodiazepines and deviation from the CSE protocol appear to be factors which influence admission of children to ICU. Recognition of pre-hospital administration of benzodiazepines and adherence to therapeutic guidelines may reduce the need for ventilatory support in this group.

  2. A tautology in the classification of generalized non-convulsive epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, M; Fujiwara, T; Miyakoshi, M; Yagi, K

    1980-01-01

    Five patients with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome who have shown generalized nonconvulsive seizures were presented. The seizure manifestations which occurred spontaneously were documented by simultaneous recording and analyzed in terms of clinical and electroencephalographic correlates. According to the diagnostic criteria of the International Classification, it was possible, on the one hand, to regard them as "atypical complex absences" in which the impairment of consciousness is accompanied by other symptoms, which tend to dominate the clinical picture. They were: hypotonic, hypertonic, myoclonic and akinetic components, respectively. On the other hand, if we give a special weight to the accompanying symptoms, it is entirely possible that they are at the same time diagnosed atonic, axial tonic, bilateral myoclonic and akinetic seizures. The initial impairment of consciousness is common to all the seizure manifestations, and the ictal and interictal EEG expressions are not of diagnostic significance. A question arises as to whether two different nomenclatures were arbitrarily given to a unique ictal manifestation or not as far as the generalized non-convulsive seizures were concerned.

  3. Mephedrone: Public health risk, mechanisms of action, and behavioral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybdal-Hargreaves, Nicholas F; Holder, Nicholas D; Ottoson, Paige E; Sweeney, Melanie D; Williams, Tyisha

    2013-08-15

    The recent shortage of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) has led to an increased demand for alternative amphetamine-like drugs such as the synthetic cathinone, 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone). Despite the re-classification of mephedrone as a Class B restricted substance by the United Kingdom and restrictive legislation by the United States, international policy regarding mephedrone control is still developing and interest in synthetic amphetamine-like drugs could drive the development of future mephedrone analogues. Currently, there is little literature investigating the mechanism of action and long-term effects of mephedrone. As such, we reviewed the current understanding of amphetamines, cathinones, and cocaine emphasizing the potentially translational aspects to mephedrone, as well as contrasting with the work that has been done specifically on mephedrone in order to present the current state of understanding of mephedrone in terms of its risks, mechanisms, and behavioral effects. Emerging research suggests that while there are structural and behavioral similarities of mephedrone with amphetamine-like compounds, it appears that serotonergic signaling may mediate more of mephedrone's effects unlike the more dopaminergic dependent effects observed in traditional amphetamine-like compounds. As new designer drugs are produced, current and continuing research on mephedrone and other synthetic cathinones should help inform policymakers' decisions regarding the regulation of novel 'legal highs.'

  4. Effects of endocannabinoid system modulation on cognitive and emotional behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eZanettini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis has long been known to produce cognitive and emotional effects. Research has shown that cannabinoid drugs produce these effects by driving the brain's endogenous cannabinoid system and that this system plays a modulatory role in many cognitive and emotional processes. This review focuses on the effects of endocannabinoid-system modulation in animal models of cognition (learning and memory and emotion (anxiety and depression. We review studies in which natural or synthetic cannabinoid agonists were administered to directly stimulate cannabinoid receptors or, conversely, where cannabinoid antagonists were administered to inhibit the activity of cannabinoid receptors. In addition, studies are reviewed that involved genetic disruption of cannabinoid receptors or genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. Endocannabinoids affect the function of many neurotransmitter systems, some of which play opposing roles. The diversity of cannabinoid roles and the complexity of task-dependent activation of neuronal circuits may lead to the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation being strongly dependent on environmental conditions. Recent findings are reviewed that raise the possibility that endocannabinoid signaling may change the impact of environmental influences on emotional and cognitive behavior rather than affecting one or another specific behavior.

  5. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Parenting: Behavioral Genetics Evidence of Child Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ilhong; Lee, Julak

    2016-10-01

    The criminological literature has a long tradition of emphasizing the socialization effects that parents have on children. By contrast, evidence from behavioral genetics research gives precedence to child effects on parental management techniques over parental effects on children's outcomes. Considering these diverging lines of scholarship and literature, the current study explores a novel hypothesis that child effects on parenting may be conditioned by the level of the disadvantage of the neighborhood in which the child's family resides. By using measures of perceived parenting as dependent variables, the researchers analyze data on 733 same-sex sibling pairs derived from the Add Health study by taking advantage of the DeFries-Fulker analytical technique. The results show that in adequate neighborhoods, between 43% and 55% of the variance in the measures of perceived parenting is due to genetic factors, whereas shared environmental effects are negligible. In disadvantaged neighborhoods, genetic effects are negligible, whereas shared environmental influences account for between 34% and 57% of the variance in perceived parenting. These results offer partial support for the contextualized gene-environment correlation, which provides initial evidence that although both parental socialization effects and child effects exist, these effects can be modified by the context. PMID:25891272

  6. Fabrication of biomimetic nanomaterials and their effect on cell behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porri, Teresa Jane

    Cells in vivo respond to an intricate combination of chemical and mechanical signals. The corneal epithelium, a structure which prevents the admission of bacteria and undesirable molecules into the eye, grows on a basement membrane which presents both nanoscale topographic and adhesive chemical signals. An effective approach to biomaterials design takes advantage of the synergistic effects of the multiple cellular inputs which are available to engineer cell-substrate interactions. We have previously demonstrated the effects of nanoscale topography on a variety of corneal epithelial cell behaviors. To gain a better understanding of cell-level control in vivo, we employ a systems-level approach which looks at the effect of nanoscale topography in conjunction with a biomimetic surface chemistry. First, we discuss a novel method of fabricating nanoscale topography through templated electroless deposition of gold into PVP-coated polycarbonate membranes. This technique creates nanowires of gold with an uniform outer diameter that is dependent upon the size of the pores in the membrane used, and a nanowire length that is dependent upon the extent of etching into the polymer membrane. The gold nanowires can be modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols. Using these substrates, we study the effect of topographic length scale and surface chemistry on cells attached to a discontinuous nanoscale topography, and find a transition in cellular behavior at a length scale (between 600 and 2000 nm inter-wire spacing) that is commensurate with the transition length scale seen on surfaces presenting continuous grooves and ridges. Secondly, we study the effect of non-fouling peptide-modified SAMs on cellular behavior. We examine the effect of co-presented RGD and AG73 peptides and show that cell spreading is a function of the relative ratios of RGD and AG73 present on the surface. Finally, we explore the combinatorial effects of biologically relevant chemistry with

  7. Quinine enhances the behavioral stimulant effect of cocaine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Adriana; Wessinger, William D; Kucheryavykh, Yuri V; Sanabria, Priscila; Eaton, Misty J; Skatchkov, Serguei N; Rojas, Legier V; Maldonado-Martínez, Gerónimo; Inyushin, Mikhail Y

    2015-02-01

    The Na(+)-dependent dopamine transporter (DAT) is primarily responsible for regulating free dopamine (DA) concentrations in the brain by participating in the majority of DA uptake; however, other DA transporters may also participate, especially if cocaine or other drugs of abuse compromise DAT. Recently, such cocaine-insensitive low-affinity mono- and poly-amine OCT transporters were described in astrocytes which use DA as a substrate. These transporters are from a different transporter family and while insensitive to cocaine, they are specifically blocked by quinine and some steroids. Quinine is inexpensive and is often found in injected street drugs as an "adulterant". The present study was designed to determine the participation of OCTs in cocaine dependent behavioral and physiological changes in mice. Using FVB mice we showed, that daily single injections of quinine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) co-administered with cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) for 10 days significantly enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor behavioral sensitization. Quinine had no significant effect on the time course of behavioral activation. In astrocytes from the ventral tegmental area of mice, transporter currents of quinine-sensitive monoamine transporters were also augmented after two weeks of cocaine administration. The importance of low-affinity high-capacity transporters for DA clearance is discussed, explaining the known ability of systemically administered DAT inhibitors to anomalously increase DA clearance.

  8. Creative behavior: Effects of the verbal consequences type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpio, Claudio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different types of verbal consequences were evaluated in second order conditional discrimination tasks on creative behavior emergence in four experimental groups. In the first group, it was specified only if the responses were correct or incorrect. For the second group, it was specified the particular stimulus selected and if that response was correct or incorrect. For the third group, it was specified the relationship between selected comparative stimulus (CoS and the matching stimulus (MS and if the answer was correct or incorrect. For the fourth group, it was specified if the relation MS-CoS was equal or not to the relation between the selector stimuli (SS and if the response was correct or incorrect. Post- training transference and creative behavior tests were performed. The results showed that the different types of verbal consequences promoted contact with different aspects of the performance in the task, being partially relational consequences which promoted higher percentages in transference and creative behavior tests. The conceptual status of the verbal consequences is discussed.

  9. Effects of habitual anger on employees' behavior during organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-12-01

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior-mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident's negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed. PMID:24287849

  10. Effects of Strategies Marketing of Collective Buying about Impulsive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Elen Ferreira Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the second largest e-commerce market in the world. One model used in this sector is "collective buying", a feature of which is impulse sales. Consumer behavior can be influenced by several factors, two of which are addressed in this article: the individual impulsivity of consumers and strategies of mix marketing. Impulsive buying is characterized by an unplanned purchase, i.e. the need to acquire the product arises just before the purchase. Consumers respond differently to mixed strategies depending on their degree of impulsivity. Thus, this article aims to analyze the efficacy of different marketing mix strategies for impulsive and non-impulsive consumer purchasing behavior. 137 participants were given a questionnaire containing the Buying Impulsiveness scale from Rook and Fisher (1995, and statements about the marketing strategies used by collective buying sites. Through a regression analysis, three strategies were found to relate more to impulsivity: search for products from well-known brands, search for deals with big discounts and confidence in receiving the product. For e-commerce and researchers, this study elucidates which strategies, from the consumer's perspective, effectively persuade purchasing behavior.

  11. Effects of a Rational-Emotive Treatment Program on Type A Behavior Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Christopher W.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of rational-emotive therapy in treating Type A behavior in college students (N=22). Results showed the RET program was significantly more effective than no treatment in reducing Type A behavior, irrational beliefs, and anxiety. (JAC)

  12. The Effects of a Token Economy on First Grade Students Inappropriate Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Suzan C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Studies the effectiveness of a token economy on specific inappropriate social behaviors of three first grade students. Suggests that token economy systems can be very effective in decreasing disruptive behaviors of primary aged students. (MG)

  13. Effects of a Positive Support Approach To Enhance Communicative Behaviors of Children with Mental Retardation Who Have Challenging Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzroni, Orit E.; Roth, Tali

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated effects of a positive behavior support plan accompanied by an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention on the reduction of challenging behaviors in four children with moderate and severe mental retardation. Functional assessment was followed by a positive AAC support plan designed by the school team to…

  14. Behavioral assay for assessing effects of pollutants on fish chemoreception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemly, A.D.; Smith, R.J.

    1986-04-01

    Behavioral assays are sensitive to sublethal levels of pollution but they usually require highly trained personnel and long observation periods. We describe a system that combines the sensitivity of a behavioral assay with commercially available automated monitoring equipment. The observation system consists of a special aquarium coupled to a recirculating water system, and an Opto-Varimex-Aqua activity tracking meter (Columbus Instruments, Columbus, Ohio) interfaced to a microcomputer. The tracking meter forms an intersecting, planar grid of light beams which, when interrupted by fish movements, is translated into a digitized signal and fed to the computer. The assay is based on the response of fish to natural chemical stimuli such as food odors or pheromones. When these stimulus solutions are injected into the water circulation the response of the fish is monitored by the computer system, which is capable of discriminating and quantifying changes in eight parameters. Normal responses to stimuli are compared with the response of fish that have been exposed to pollutants. We have successfully used this technique to examine effects of reduced pH on the response of fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, to chemical feeding stimuli. The system should be easily adapted to any laboratory concerned with testing for effects of toxic substances, and will identify effects of pollution that have thus far been difficult or impossible to assess.

  15. Hydrostatic Stress Effect on the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has negligible effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of various geometries. Fatigue tests and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN100) equal-arm bend specimens and new monotonic tests and nonlinear finite element analyses of IN100 smooth tension, smooth compression, and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions were performed. A new FEA constitutive model was developed that incorporates a pressure-dependent yield function with combined multilinear kinematic and multilinear isotropic hardening using the ABAQUS user subroutine (UMAT) utility. In all monotonic tensile test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains for the DENT specimen, the Drucker-Prager FEM s predicted loads that were approximately 3% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEM s predicted strains that were up to 35% greater than the von Mises values. Both the Drucker-Prager model and the von Mises model performed equally-well in simulating the equal-arm bend fatigue test.

  16. Moisture effect on compressive behavior of concrete under dynamic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继凯; 丁宁

    2014-01-01

    The effect of moisture content upon compressive mechanical behavior of concrete under impact loading was studied. The axial rapid compressive loading tests of over 50 specimens with five different saturations were executed. The technique “split Hopkinson pressure bar” (SHPB) was used. The impact velocity was 10 m/s with corresponding strain rate of 50 s−1. The compressive behavior of materials was measured in terms of stress−strain curves, dynamic compressive strength, dynamic increase factor (DIF) and critical strain at a maximum stress. The data obtained from test indicate that both ascending and descending portions of stress−stain curves are affected by moisture content. However, the effect is noted to be more significant in ascending portion of the stress−strain curves. Dynamic compressive strength is higher at lower moisture content and weaker at higher moisture content. Furthermore, under nearly saturated condition, an increase in compressive strength can be found. The effect of moisture content on the average DIF of concrete is not significant. The critical compressive strain of concrete does not change with moisture content.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on the behavioral properties of crotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Moreira

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Crotoxin has been detoxified with gamma radiation in order to improve crotalic antiserum production. Nevertheless, present knowledge of the biological characteristics of irradiated crotoxin is insufficient to propose it as an immunizing agent. Crotoxin is known to increase the emotional state of rats and to decrease their exploratory behavior (Moreira EG, Nascimento N, Rosa GJM, Rogero JR and Vassilieff VS (1996 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 29: 629-632. Therefore, we decided 1 to evaluate the effects of crotoxin in the social interaction test, which has been widely used for the evaluation of anxiogenic drugs, and 2 to determine if irradiated crotoxin induces behavioral alterations similar to those of crotoxin in the social interaction, open-field and hole-board tests. Male Wistar rats (180-220 g were used. Crotoxin (100, 250, and 500 µg/kg was injected intraperitoneally 2 h before the social interaction test. Similarly, irradiated crotoxin (2000 Gy gamma radiation from a 60Co source was administered at the doses of 100, 250, and 500 µg/kg for the hole-board test, and at the doses of 1000 and 2500 µg/kg for the open-field and social interaction tests. ANOVA complemented with the Dunnett test was used for statistical analysis (P<0.05. Crotoxin decreased the social interaction time (s at the doses of 100, 250 and 500 µg/kg (means ± SEM from 51.6 ± 4.4 to 32.6 ± 3.7, 28.0 ± 3.6 and 31.6 ± 4.4, respectively. Irradiated crotoxin did not induce behavioral alterations. These results indicate that 1 crotoxin may be an anxiogenic compound, and 2 in contrast to crotoxin, irradiated crotoxin was unable to induce behavioral alterations, which makes it a promising compound for the production of crotalic antiserum

  18. Inhibition of eating behavior: negative cognitive effects of dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K E; Chiovari, P

    1998-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that dieters would score higher than nondieters in terms of food rumination. Two hundred and thirty one college undergraduates completed the Eating Obsessive-Compulsiveness Scale (EOCS) and responded to a questionnaire that inquired about dieting status. Subjects also completed measures that tapped neuroticism and social desirability. Results showed that current dieters were significantly more obsessed with thoughts of eating and food than were nondieters. Neither dieting status nor EOCS scale scores were related to neuroticism or social desirability. These results are consistent with previous theory and research suggesting that inhibition of appetitive behaviors can have negative cognitive effects. Moreover, they indicate a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  19. THE EFFECT OF ASTROLOGY ON YOUNG CUSTOMER BEHAVIORS

    OpenAIRE

    Gulmez Mustafa; Kitapci Olgun; Dortyol Ibrahim Taylan

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of date-of-birth on consumption behaviors of young people. A face-to-face interview survey is conducted to collect data. SPSS 18.0 for Windows was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics such as means, frequencies, ANOVA tests and Chi-square tests were calculated. The findings pointed out that the young consumers on fire group (Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius) take more instant and impulsive purchase actions. It is a new study about ...

  20. An Investigation of the Effective Leadership Behaviors of School Principals

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksel Gündüz; Aydın Balyer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the level of display of effective leadership behaviors by school principals. Descriptive design was used in this research. The target population of the study is the teachers who work in primary and high schools in Kartal, Maltepe and Üsküdar located in İstanbul, The sample consists of 703 primary and high school teachers randomly selected from the population. The study was carried out quantitatively and data were gathered through the 30-item 5-point L...

  1. Excited states rotational effects on the behavior of excited molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    Excited States, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that discusses the excited states of molecules. The first paper reviews the rotational involvement in intra-molecular in vibrational redistribution. This paper analyzes the vibrational Hamiltonian as to its efficacy in detecting the manifestations of intra-molecular state-mixing in time-resolved and time-averaged spectroscopic measurements. The next paper examines the temporal behavior of intra-molecular vibration-rotation energy transfer (IVRET) and the effects of IVRET on collision, reaction, and the decomposition processes. This paper also

  2. Artificial emotion triggered stochastic behavior transitions with motivational gain effects for multi-objective robot tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents artificial emotional system based autonomous robot control architecture. Hidden Markov model developed as mathematical background for stochastic emotional and behavior transitions. Motivation module of architecture considered as behavioral gain effect generator for achieving multi-objective robot tasks. According to emotional and behavioral state transition probabilities, artificial emotions determine sequences of behaviors. Also motivational gain effects of proposed architecture can be observed on the executing behaviors during simulation.

  3. On their best behavior: how animal behavior can help determine the combined effects of species interactions and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jason P; Barton, Brandon T

    2013-09-01

    The increasingly appreciated link between climate change and species interactions has the potential to help us understand and predict how organisms respond to a changing environment. As this connection grows, it becomes even more important to appreciate the mechanisms that create and control the combined effect of these factors. However, we believe one such important set of mechanisms comes from species' behavior and the subsequent trait-mediated interactions, as opposed to the more often studied density-mediated effects. Behavioral mechanisms are already well appreciated for mitigating the separate effects of the environment and species interactions. Thus, they could be at the forefront for understanding the combined effects. In this review, we (1) show some of the known behaviors that influence the individual and combined effects of climate change and species interactions; (2) conceptualize general ways behavior may mediate these combined effects; and (3) illustrate the potential importance of including behavior in our current tools for predicting climate change effects. In doing so, we hope to promote more research on behavior and other mechanistic factors that may increase our ability to accurately predict climate change effects.

  4. 小儿高热惊厥整体护理干预%Nursing Intervention of Children With Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丹

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨整体护理干预对小儿高热惊厥预后改善的作用。方法本次选取小儿高热惊厥30例,均为我院内科监护病房2013年3月~2015年3月收治,随机分组,就常规护理(对照组,n=15)与整体、系统的护理干预(观察组,n=15)效果展开对比。结果观察组高热惊厥患儿惊厥消失时间、平均住院时间均短于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组复发率为5%,低于对照组17.5%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论针对小儿高热惊厥病例,重视整体、全面护理干预的实施,对缩短惊厥发作时间,加快病情康复意义显著,有较高实施价值。%Objective Explore the role of holistic nursing intervention to improve the prognosis of febrile seizures in children. Methods 30 cases of febrile seizures in children, all I care unit hospital department were treated from March 2013 to March 2015, were randomized to usual care (control group, n=15) and the whole system of nursing intervention (observation group, n=15) expand contrast effect. Results Observation group febrile seizures convulsions disappeared time, the average length of stay was signiifcantly shorter than the control group, a signiifcant difference (P<0.05). Observation group, the recurrence rate was 5%, significantly lower than the control group 17.5%, a significant difference (P <0.05). Conclusion For cases of febrile seizures in children, attention to implementation of the overall, comprehensive care interventions, to shorten the time of seizure, meaning significantly accelerate the disease rehabilitation, the implementation of a higher value.

  5. Unpacking Links between Fathers' Antisocial Behaviors and Children's Behavior Problems: Direct, Indirect, and Interactive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer; Lewin-Bizan, Selva

    2011-01-01

    Building upon previous evidence for the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviors, this research assessed and compared three models seeking to explain links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. A representative sample of children from low-income families (N = 261) was followed from age 3 through age…

  6. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  7. Effects of prenatal ionizing irradiation on neural function and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behavioral studies in the past decade on postnatal effects of prenatal ionizing irradiation (125-R) revealed alterations in circadian locomotor activity and modifications of duration, frequency and sequences of certain behavioral acts in irradiated rats. Other studies have shown that the effect of irradiation (150-R) and enriched environment were both significant in initial, repetitive and total error scores while at 200-R enrichment was less effective. Rats irradiated on the 13th, 14th and 15th day of gestation were born with a hopping gait, paired hind and forelimbs moving in unison. Thoracic cord section led to crossed extention hind-limb reflexes in control rats and simultaneus withdrawal of hind limbs in hopping rats, in response to pinprick. In 90 day old squirrel monkeys the percent of correct response in visual orientation, discrimination and reversal learning in 50- and 100-R offspring (Co 60 irradiation at 89-90 days gestation) were significantly lower than those of controls, and differences in reversal learning persisted undiminished at 2 years of age. Time required for body righting, head-up orientation and climbing at 450 incline was significantly greater in irradiated (mainly 100-R) than control animals at from 2 to 28 days of age. Visual acuity levels of 50- and 100-R 30 day old infants were significantly lower than in control infants. Stabilimeter activity in the dark was significantly higher in 50- and 100-R 30 day old infants than in controls. In the squirrel monkey studies effects of Co 60 irradiation (100-R) on postnatal development of the brain and behaviour can be identified at statistically significant levels of confidence independent of offspring nursery rearing effects. (orig.)

  8. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Chronic Fibromyalgia Pain: Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A multiple-baseline-across two behavior sets and positions (reclined, upright) was used to experimentally examine the effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment for Pain (BAT-P) on pain-related behavior of a 44-year-old woman with a 22-year history of fibromyalgia (FM). BAT-P, based on the matching law, is comprised of Behavioral Relaxation…

  9. Gateway Health Behaviors in College Students: Investigating Transfer and Compensation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Claudio Renato; Lee, Hye-ryeon; Hubbard, Amy E.; Min-Sun, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of studies on the mechanisms of multiple risk behaviors, even though these behaviors are significant public health issues. The authors investigated whether health behavior interventions have transfer or compensatory effects on other health behaviors. Participants and Methods: The authors looked at transfer and…

  10. Different effects of valproate on methamphetamine-and cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-XuLi; Jian-HuiLiang

    2004-01-01

    Multiple intermittent administration of psychostimulants induces a behavioral sensitization, which is characterized by the augmentation of locomotor activity and stereotyped behavior, even after their long-term withdrawal. This kind of behavioral effects is thought to serve as a useful animal model that mimics the behavioral responses in drug craving. Dopamine

  11. The Effects of Function-Based Self-Management Interventions on Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard P.; Kamps, Debra M.; Greenwood, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) struggle to achieve social and academic outcomes. Many studies have demonstrated self-management interventions to be effective at reducing problem behavior and increasing positive social and academic behaviors. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) information may be used in designing…

  12. An Investigation of the Effective Leadership Behaviors of School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Gündüz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the level of display of effective leadership behaviors by school principals. Descriptive design was used in this research. The target population of the study is the teachers who work in primary and high schools in Kartal, Maltepe and Üsküdar located in İstanbul, The sample consists of 703 primary and high school teachers randomly selected from the population. The study was carried out quantitatively and data were gathered through the 30-item 5-point Likert-type scale developed by the researchers. Data were analyzed by percentages, frequencies, means and crosstabs. In order to find out sources of differences and do pair comparisons, Mann-Whitney U tests were employed while Kruskal-Wallis H tests were used to do comparisons of variables having more than three levels. According to the results obtained from this research, teachers stated that principals “sometimes” demonstrate effective leadership behaviors. When mean scores of all the items were checked, the highest score was earned by the item, “The principal plans the future of the school” and the lowest score by “Principals are open to be criticized.” There were significant differences based on gender and teaching experience of teachers and school types.

  13. Effect of fault jogs on frictional behavior: An experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Studying the effect of geometrically irregular bodies on the mechanical behavior of fault activity is of significance in understanding the seismic activity along a fault zone. By using rock mechanics ex- periment with medium-scale samples, we have studied the effect of fault jogs, the most common irregularity along fault zones, on frictional behavior. The research indicates that extensional fault jog can be easily fractured because of its low strength and the fractured jog has no obvious resistance to fault sliding, and the micro-fractures occurring in the jog are indicative of stick-slip along the faults. The fault zone containing extensional jogs is characterized by velocity weakening and can be described by rate and state friction law. Compressional fault jog makes fault sliding more difficult because of its high fracturing strength, but the micro-fractures occurring in the tensile areas around fault ends at higher stress level can provide necessary condition for occurrence of stick-slip along the faults before the jog is fractured and thus act as precursors of fault instability. Compression jog can be taken as a stable indicator of fault segmentation until the jog is completely fractured and two faults are linked.

  14. Effect of fault jogs on frictional behavior: An experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA ShengLi; CHEN ShunYun; LIU PeiXun; HU XiaoYan; WANG KaiYing; HUANG YuanMin

    2008-01-01

    Studying the effect of geometrically irregular bodies on the mechanical behavior of fault activity is of significance in understanding the seismic activity along a fault zone. By using rock mechanics experiment with medium-scale samples, we have studied the effect of fault jogs, the most common irregularity along fault zones, on frictional behavior. The research indicates that extensional fault jog can be easily fractured because of its low strength and the fractured jog has no obvious resistance to fault sliding, and the micro-fractures occurring in the jog are indicative of stick-slip along the faults. The fault zone containing extensional jogs is characterized by velocity weakening and can be described by rate and state friction law. Compressional fault jog makes fault sliding more difficult because of its high fracturing strength, but the micro-fractures occurring in the tensile areas around fault ends at higher stress level can provide necessary condition for occurrence of stick-slip along the faults before the jog is fractured and thus act as precursors of fault instability. Compression jog can be taken as a stable indicator of fault segmentation until the jog is completely fractured and two faults are linked.

  15. Sublethal landrin toxicity: Behavioral and physiological effects on captive vultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthman-Quick, D.L.; Hill, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Use of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) has been proposed to reduce consumption of California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) eggs by ravens (Corvus corax). Although landrin has induced aversions in ravens and other birds, no data were available on behavioral and physiological effects of landrin on condors, non-target birds that might consume treated eggs. Because condors are endangered, we selected taxonomically related surrogates to approximate the effects on condors of acute oral doses of landrin. Seven black vultures (Coragyps atratus), 2 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), and 2 king vultures (Sarcoramphus papa) received landrin and placebo treatments 1 week apart. Plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity was monitored at zero, 3, and 24 hours posttreatment, and behavioral observations were made for 2 hours posttreatment. The doses tested were nonlethal, and ChE levels approached normal within 24 hours after treatment. Only the frequency of vomiting differed statistically between the placebo and landrin treatment. We conclude that with appropriate precautions, landrin can be used in applications of CTA to discourage consumption of condor eggs by ravens, while posing no apparent risk to reintroduced condors.

  16. Effects of mazindol on behavior maintained or occasioned by cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, R S; Balster, R L

    1993-01-01

    The effects of mazindol, cocaine and D-amphetamine were studied in rhesus monkeys trained to self-administer cocaine, and in rats and squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine from saline. Non-contingent intravenous drug injections were administered to monkeys responding under a session consisting of a 5-min period during which lever-pressing produced food reinforcement and a 60-min session in which responding produced i.v. cocaine infusions (10 or 33 micrograms/kg per infusion). Acute i.v. injections of cocaine (0.1-1.7 mg/kg), D-amphetamine (0.1-1 mg/kg) and the dopamine re-uptake inhibitor mazindol (0.03-0.56 mg/kg) given 5 min before the session decreased self-administration of cocaine, but also decreased rates of behavior maintained by the presentation of food. In both rats and squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine from saline in a two-lever, food-maintained procedure, mazindol, cocaine and D-amphetamine substituted for cocaine in a dose-related manner. Despite a lack of selectivity to decrease cocaine self-administration as compared to behavior maintained by food, the present data provide some rationale for further consideration of mazindol as a potential pharmacotherapy for stimulant abuse, due to its relatively low abuse liability and cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects. PMID:8436063

  17. Customer Value, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions: the Effects of Consumer Search Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuningsih

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops and tests an integrative model to examine the relationships among customer value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions based upon a typology of consumer search behaviors. The model was tested using surveyed data from 546 customers of car insurance in Melbourne, Australia. The findings demonstrate that each type of consumer (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent, performs differently on the relationships among customer value, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. The identification of value, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions within each search behavior allows managers to deliver optimal value and satisfaction to their consumers.

  18. Effects of Consumer Search Behavior Typology on the Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuningsih

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The author investigates how consumer search behavior typology affects the relationship between customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that the type of consumer as defined by whether and how they search for information (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent perceive different levels of satisfaction and performs differently on satisfaction behavioral intentions linkages. Relational-dependent and rational active consumers are found to perceive higher satisfaction levels, and to express stronger intentions to engage in positive behavioral intentions than passive consumers. The identification of satisfaction and behavioral intentions within each search type allows managers to satisfy their consumers; hence, the company will obtain higher profit.

  19. Ionizing radiation: effects upon acquisition and performance of behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study, using rats as subjects, attempted to assess the effects of multiple exposures to gamma radiation upon behavior in two procedures of a multiple schedule of repeated acquisition and performance. With an experimental chamber containing three levers displaced horizontally, left (l), center (c) and right (r), different levels of complexity were programmed for procedures A and B. In both procedures a new sequence of three responses was programmed for each session (lcr, lrc, clr, crl, rlc) for the acquisition component, whereas for the performance component the same sequence was maintained throughout the sessions. The completion of three sequences (nine responses) was followed by reinforcement and incorrect responses were followed by time-out without correction procedures. In procedure A the sequences consisted of one response in each lever (for example, crl→crl→crl→reinforcement) while in procedure B a sequence consisted of three response in the same lever, with the following three responses having to occur in a different lever (for example, ccc→rrr→lll→reinforcement). Six subjects were trained in each procedure. Base line data showed, by means of error percentage, that procedure B regardless of being more complex represented a lower difficulty level than procedure A: subjects in procedure B displayed, in general, a lower number of errors per session. After training in these procedures of repeated acquisition and performance, the subjects were exposed to doses of ionizing radiation of 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.0 Gy, with an interval of 45 days between exposures. With measurements of response rate and obtained reinforcers, the data showed a dose-response relation, with higher doses producing lower rates of responses and reinforcers. Percentage of errors was higher after doses of 6.0 and 8.0 Gy in the performance component, while changes in error patterns occurred in the acquisition component. The effects of radiation was more evident and orderly

  20. Effect of interfacial octahedral behavior in ultrathin manganite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, E J; Balachandran, P V; Kirby, B J; Keavney, D J; Sichel-Tissot, R J; Schlepütz, C M; Karapetrova, E; Cheng, X M; Rondinelli, J M; May, S J

    2014-05-14

    We investigate structural coupling of the MnO6 octahedra across a film/substrate interface and the resultant changes of the physical properties of ultrathin La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) films. In order to isolate the effect of interfacial MnO6 octahedral behavior from that of epitaxial strain, LSMO films are grown on substrates with different symmetry and similar lattice parameters. Ultrathin LSMO films show an increased magnetization and electrical conductivity on cubic (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7 (LSAT) compared to those grown on orthorhombic NdGaO3 (NGO) substrates, an effect that subsides as the thickness of the films is increased. This study demonstrates that interfacial structural coupling can play a critical role in the functional properties of oxide heterostructures. PMID:24697503

  1. Effect of solvent on crystallization behavior of xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hongxun; Hou, Baohong; Wang, Jing-Kang; Lin, Guangyu

    2006-04-01

    Effect of organic solvents content on crystallization behavior of xylitol was studied. Solubility and crystallization kinetics of xylitol in methanol-water system were experimentally determined. It was found that the solubility of xylitol at various methanol content all increases with increase of temperature. But it decreases when increasing methanol content at constant temperature. Based on the theory of population balance, the nucleation and growth rates of xylitol in methanol-water mixed solvents were calculated by moments method. From a series of experimental population density data of xylitol gotten from a batch-operated crystallizer, parameters of crystal nucleation and growth rate equations at different methanol content were got by the method of nonlinear least-squares. By analyzing, it was found that the content of methanol had an apparent effect on nucleation and growth rate of xylitol. At constant temperature, the nucleation and growth rate of xylitol all decrease with increase of methanol content.

  2. Effects of Website Interactivity on Online Retail Shopping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Hafizul

    Motivations to engage in retail online shopping can include both utilitarian and hedonic shopping dimensions. To cater to these consumers, online retailers can create a cognitively and esthetically rich shopping environment, through sophisticated levels of interactive web utilities and features, offering not only utilitarian benefits and attributes but also providing hedonic benefits of enjoyment. Since the effect of interactive websites has proven to stimulate online consumer’s perceptions, this study presumes that websites with multimedia rich interactive utilities and features can influence online consumers’ shopping motivations and entice them to modify or even transform their original shopping predispositions by providing them with attractive and enhanced interactive features and controls, thus generating a positive attitude towards products and services offered by the retailer. This study seeks to explore the effects of Web interactivity on online consumer behavior through an attitudinal model of technology acceptance.

  3. Effect of powder characteristics on sintering behavior of silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sintering behavior of high-quality Si3N4 produced by imide decomposition method was studied to verify the effect of powder characteristics on densification and mechanical properties of Si3N4 ceramics. Oxygen content and its distribution in the particle had much influence on the sintering activity of Si3N4 powder. Although densification of Si3N4 doped with Y2O3 and Al2O3 was promoted by oxygen contaminant, especially surface oxygen of the starting powder, bending strength of pressureless-sintered Si3N4 showed maximum value at 1.5 wt% of oxygen content and was deteriorated with increasing oxygen content over 1.5 wt%. This deterioration in strength was caused by the decrease in fracture toughness of grain boundary phase. Carbon more than 0.1 wt% exhibited detrimental effects on both densification and bending strength. (orig.)

  4. The Frequency of Urinary Tract Infection among Children with Febrile Convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Momen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available objectiveThis study was conducted to determine the frequency of urinary tract infection(UTI among children with febrile convulsion (FC.Materials & MethodsWe analyzed the hospital records of 137 children who had been admitted to thepediatric ward from March 2004 to February 2007 because of FC. Informationsuch as age, sex, developmental status, type of FC, family history of seizure,urine sampling method, and the results of antibiograms were recorded.ResultsThe age distribution of 137 patients (82 boys, 55 girls was as follows: 1-6 monthsof age, 1 infant (0.7%; 6-12 months, 21 infants (15.3%; 1-3 years, 75 (54.8%;3-5 years, 30 (21.9%; and more than 5 years, 10 (7.3%. Three out of the 82boys and 6 out of the 55 girls had UTI (3.7% vs. 10.9%, total, 6.6%. The agedistribution of these 9 patients was as follows: 1-6 months, 1 patient (11.1%;7-12 months, 5 (55.6%; and 1-3 years, 3 (33.3%. The relative incidence of UTIwas 6.6%. The most common organisms causing infections were Escherichiacoli in 8 and Proteus spp., in 1 patient (88.8% vs. 11.1%. Simple FC was seenin all 9 patients with UTI.ConclusionIn this study, the relative frequency of UTI among children with FC was 6.6%and this frequency was higher that the incidence of UTI in girls and boys(3-5% and 1%, respectively. Therefore, we recommend that UTI should beconsidered as an important cause of FC in children.

  5. PSEUDOTUMORAL FORM OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS WITH SYMPTOMATIC CONVULSIVE SEIZURES (A CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is prominent among central nervous system diseases. It affects chiefly young people and almost inevitably results in disability. In the past decade, there has been an upward trend for the prevalence of MS worldwide; in particular, the higher prevalence of this disease has been registered in the Moscow Region, which is associated with both an objective increase in its morbidity and improvement of specialized care to the population in the region. MS is characterized by a variety of clinical manifestations. However, paroxysmal disturbances are referred to as the rare symptoms of MS: the incidence of epileptic seizures in this condition is 0.89 to 7.5% according to the literature data. In addition to the clinical form of MS, there are its rare malignant atypical forms that also include its pseudotumoral form characterized by intrinsic neuroimaging and clinical signs that are different from the classical form of MS and another abnormality of the central nervous system. The pseudotumoral form of MS is characterized by the development of acute focal demyelination that appears as a large focus of an increased magnetic resonance signal with perifocal edema as evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging. A pseudotumoral focus of demyelination can occur both at the onset of MS and during its recurrent course. The atypical onset of MS is a special challenge because of diagnostic problems, which may lead to erroneous therapeutic policy and have a negative impact on the late prognosis of the disease. The authors provide a clinical case of the pseudotumoral form of MS with convulsive seizures at the onset of demyelinating disease. The problems of diagnosis and therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  6. Non-convulsive status epilepticus after ischemic stroke: a hospital-based stroke cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Vincenzo; Vidale, Simone; Gorgone, Gaetano; Pisani, Laura Rosa; Sironi, Luigi; Arnaboldi, Marco; Pisani, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate in the setting of a stroke unit ward the usefulness of a prolonged (>6 h) video-EEG recording (PVEEG) in identifying non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in patients with an acute ischemic stroke. Predictors of NCSE were also evaluated. Patients with an acute ischemic stroke, referred to our unit, were included in this prospective observational study. A PVEEG recording was implemented after stroke in all patients during the first week: (a) promptly in those exhibiting a clear or suspected epileptic manifestation; (b) at any time during the routine activity in the remaining patients. After the first week, a standard EEG/PVEEG recording was hooked up only in presence of an evident or suspected epileptic manifestation or as control of a previous epileptic episode. NCSE was identified in 32 of the 889 patients (3.6 %) included in the study. It occurred early (within the first week) in 20/32 (62.5 %) patients and late in the remaining 12. Diagnosis was made on the basis of a specific clinical suspect (n = 19, 59.4 %) or without any suspect (n = 13, 40.6 %). In a multivariate analysis, a significant association of NCSE was observed with NIHSS score, infarct size and large atherothrombotic etiology. NCSE is not a rare event after an acute ischemic stroke and a delayed diagnosis could worsen patient prognosis. Since NCSE can be difficult to be diagnosed only on clinical grounds, implementation of a prompt PVEEG should be kept available in a stroke unit whenever a patient develop signs, although subtle, consistent with NCSE.

  7. Separate and Combined Effects of Methylphenidate and a Behavioral Intervention on Disruptive Behavior in Children with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Nathan J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the effects of methylphenidate drug therapy and differential reinforcement on the disruptive behavior and task engagement of 3 children (ages 6 through 11) with mental retardation. Results indicated that both interventions were effective for two of the children. No evidence of an additive or synergistic effects of the two…

  8. Effects of Check and Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the effects of Check & Connect (C&C) on the attendance, behavior, and academic outcomes of at-risk youth in a field-based effectiveness trial. Method: A multisite randomized block design was used, wherein 260 primarily Hispanic (89%) and economically disadvantaged (74%) students were randomized to treatment…

  9. Lack of association between TNF-α gene polymorphisms at position -308 A, -850T and risk of simple febrile convulsion in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Khoshdel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile convulsions (FCs, occurring between 6 months and 6 years of age is the most common seizure disorder during childhood. The febrile response is thought to be mediated by the release of pyrogenic cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 (IL-1. There is a significant relationship between genetic components for susceptibility of FCs and different report mutation. We investigated association between two polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α promoter region (G-308A, C-850T and FCs in the southwest area of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this matched case-control study, 100 patients with febrile convulsion as case group and 130 healthy children as control group were enrolled in the study. Peripheral blood samples were collected and DNA was extracted by standard phenol-chloroform method. The genotype and allele frequencies of TNF- α polymorphisms in case and control groups were determined by using PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. Results: The average age of case and control groups were 3.4 ± 1.4 and 3.4 ± 1.2 years, respectively. There was no significant difference between age and sex in both the groups (P > 0.05. A family history of febrile convulsion was detected in 44% of patients. Moreover, the simple febrile convulsion was detected in 85% of the case group. Conclusion: RFLP analysis of TNF- α promoter region polymorphisms, considering P = 0.146 and P = 0.084 for G-308A and C-850T, respectively, showed no correlation between TNF- α polymorphisms and predisposition to simple febrile, based on the kind of convulsion (atypical and simple febrile convulsion. We found a significant relation between genotype distribution of G-308A and atypical febrile convulsion in case group (P = 0.04. A significant correlation between genotype distribution of G-308A and atypical febrile convulsion in the case

  10. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  11. Synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM). Behavioral effects and radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM), an immunomodulator, for its survival enhancing capacity and behavioral toxicity in B6D2F1 female mice. In survival experiments, mice were administered S-TDCM (25-400 μg/mouse i.p.) 20-24 hr before 5.6 Gy mixed-field fission-neutron irradiation (n) and γ-photon irradiation. The 30-day survival rates for mice treated with 100-400 μg/mouse S-TDCM were significantly enhanced compared to controls. Toxicity of S-TDCM was measured in nonirradiated mice by locomotor activity, food intake, water consumption, and alterations in body weight. A dose-dependent decrease was noted in all behavioral measures in mice treated with S-TDCM. Doses of 100 and 200 μg/mouse S-TDCM significantly reduced motor activity beginning 12 hr postinjection with recovery by 24 hr. A dose of 400 μg/mouse significantly decreased activity within the first 4 hr after administration and returned to control levels by 32 hr following injection. Food and water intake were significantly depressed at doses of 200 and 400 μg/mouse on the day following drug administration, and were recovered in 24 hr. Body weight was significantly decreased in the 200 μg/mouse group for 2 days and in the 400 μg/mouse group for 4 days following injection. A dose of 100 μg/mouse effectively enhanced survival after fission-neutron irradiation with no adverse effect on food consumption, water intake, or body weight and a minimal, short-term effect on locomotor activity. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Magnesium Levels in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Febrile Convulsion Hospitalized in Bahrami Hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Khosroshahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of magnesium levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with febrile convulsion (FC hospitalized in Bahrami hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011. In the past, decreased levels of magnesium in serum and CSF of patients with FC were reported. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible role of magnesium in febrile seizures in children. Identifying this condition, we may control seizures and also prevent subsequent convulsion. In this cross-sectional study, inclusion criteria were the existence of convulsion due to fever and exclusion criteria were having a known neurological disease which could induce a seizure, and children younger than one month. In each group (cases include children with febrile convulsion and controls include febrile children without convulsion, Mg was measured in blood, and cerebrospinal fluid of 90 children and then they were compared. The data were analyzed by SPSS (α=0.05. The mean serum and CSF levels of Mg in case and control groups were equal (P<0.87 and P<0.22 respectively. There was no difference between two groups in terms of sex, but mean age was significantly different (P<0.003. There was not an association between serum and CSF levels of magnesium and the presence of FC. Therefore, it’s not suggested to measure the level of magnesium in serum or CSF in children with fever routinely.

  13. Evaluation of Magnesium Levels in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Febrile Convulsion Hospitalized in Bahrami Hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahi, Nahid; Ghadirian, Laleh; Kamrani, Kamyar

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of magnesium levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with febrile convulsion (FC) hospitalized in Bahrami hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011. In the past, decreased levels of magnesium in serum and CSF of patients with FC were reported. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible role of magnesium in febrile seizures in children. Identifying this condition, we may control seizures and also prevent subsequent convulsion. In this cross-sectional study, inclusion criteria were the existence of convulsion due to fever and exclusion criteria were having a known neurological disease which could induce a seizure, and children younger than one month. In each group (cases include children with febrile convulsion and controls include febrile children without convulsion), Mg was measured in blood, and cerebrospinal fluid of 90 children and then they were compared. The data were analyzed by SPSS (α=0.05). The mean serum and CSF levels of Mg in case and control groups were equal (P<0.87 and P<0.22 respectively). There was no difference between two groups in terms of sex, but mean age was significantly different (P<0.003). There was not an association between serum and CSF levels of magnesium and the presence of FC. Therefore, it's not suggested to measure the level of magnesium in serum or CSF in children with fever routinely. PMID:26749235

  14. 小儿热性惊厥的动态脑电图分析%Analysis on ambulatory electroencephalogram of children with febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江涛; 辛翠娟; 梁东; 贾飞勇; 丁臻博

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿热性惊厥的动态脑电图变化.方法:对167例热性惊厥患儿的动态脑电图进行回顾性对比分析.结果:小儿热性惊厥动态脑电图异常改变与年龄、体温、家族遗传史、出生史、发作持续时间、反复发作密切相关,均具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:动态脑电图改变对小儿热性惊厥的预后评价具有重要意义.%Objective: To explore the changes of ambulatory electroencephalogram (AEEG) of children with febrile convulsion. Methods: The AEEG of 167 children with febrile convulsion were compared and analyzed retrospectively. Results: The abnormal changes of AEEG in children with febrile convulsion were related to age, temperature, history of family heredity, history of birth, duration of febrile convulsion and repeated onset closely, there was significant difference (P <0. 0l ) . Conclusion: The changes of AEEG has important value in evaluation of prognosis of children with febrile convulsion.

  15. Molecular Mechanism: ERK Signaling, Drug Addiction, and Behavioral Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Quizon, Pamela M; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants has been considered as a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by craving and compulsive drug seeking and use. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that repeated drug exposure causes long-lasting neurochemical and cellular changes that result in enduring neuroadaptation in brain circuitry and underlie compulsive drug consumption and relapse. Through intercellular signaling cascades, drugs of abuse induce remodeling in the rewarding circuitry that contributes to the neuroplasticity of learning and memory associated with addiction. Here, we review the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and its related intracellular signaling pathways in drug-induced neuroadaptive changes that are associated with drug-mediated psychomotor activity, rewarding properties and relapse of drug seeking behaviors. We also discuss the neurobiological and behavioral effects of pharmacological and genetic interferences with ERK-associated molecular cascades in response to abused substances. Understanding the dynamic modulation of ERK signaling in response to drugs may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies to drug addiction. PMID:26809997

  16. Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Brady, J V; Fischman, M W

    1986-09-01

    Nine male research volunteers, in three groups of three subjects each, resided in a residential laboratory for up to 25 days. All contact with the experimenter was through a networked computer system and subjects' behaviors including food intake were continuously recorded. Subjects brought their own activities such as model-making, and these in combination with those provided by the laboratory resulted in rich behavior repertoires. During the first part of the day, subjects remained in their private rooms doing planned work activities, and during the remainder of the day, they were allowed to socialize. Cigarettes containing active marijuana (1.84% THC) or placebo were smoked prior to the private work period and during the social access period. A single active marijuana cigarette prior to the private work period had no effect on food intake. The administration of two or three active marijuana cigarettes during the social access period increased average daily caloric intake. The increased intake was due to an augmentation of calories consumed as between-meal snack items rather than an increase in meal size per se.

  17. Effects of Habitual Anger on Employees’ Behavior during Organizational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Bönigk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees’ habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior—mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident’s negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.

  18. The effect of red on avoidance behavior in achievement contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Maier, Markus A; Binser, Martin J; Friedman, Ron; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2009-03-01

    This research tests whether the perception of red in an achievement context evokes avoidance behavior without conscious awareness and also examines the context specificity of the hypothesized red effect. In Experiment 1, participants were briefly shown red or green on the cover of an analogies test that they would ostensibly take (an achievement context) or rate on likability of (a nonachievement context) in an adjacent lab. Those shown red, relative to those shown green, knocked fewer times on the door of the adjacent lab in the achievement context; no red-green difference in knocking was observed in the nonachievement context. In Experiment 2, participants were briefly shown red, green, or gray on the cover of an IQ test that they would ostensibly take. Those shown red moved their body away from the test cover to a greater degree than did those shown green or gray. This research contributes to incipient work on color psychology and to the more established literature on the automatic link between evaluation and behavior. PMID:19223458

  19. Customer Value, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions: the Effects of Consumer Search Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuningsih

    2011-01-01

    This study develops and tests an integrative model to examine the relationships among customer value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions based upon a typology of consumer search behaviors. The model was tested using surveyed data from 546 customers of car insurance in Melbourne, Australia. The findings demonstrate that each type of consumer (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent), performs differently on the relationships among customer value, satisfaction, and behavioral intent...

  20. Effects of Consumer Search Behavior Typology on the Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuningsih

    2007-01-01

    The author investigates how consumer search behavior typology affects the relationship between customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that the type of consumer as defined by whether and how they search for information (passive, rational-active, relational-dependent) perceive different levels of satisfaction and performs differently on satisfaction behavioral intentions linkages. Relational-dependent and rational active consumers are found to perceive higher satisfac...

  1. Adult tonic-clonic convulsive status epilepticus over the last 11 years in a resource-poor country: a tertiary referral centre study from southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phabphal, Kanitpong; Geater, Alan; Limapichart, Kitti; Sathirapanya, Pornchai; Setthawatcharawanich, Suwanna

    2013-09-01

    Status epilepticus is a common condition in patients admitted to hospital in resource-poor countries and reports indicate that aetiology, factors of poor outcome, and treatment strategies are variable. To date, there is no report of a prospective study in Thai adults. Herein, we investigated the aetiology, clinical features, factors of predicted poor outcome, and treatment strategies in Thai adult patients who presented with convulsive status epilepticus. A total of 180 patients, whose ages ranged from 15 to 106 years, were included. Of these, 121 patients (67.2%) had acute symptomatic aetiology. The most common aetiology of status epilepticus was encephalitis (36.1%), followed by scarring of the cerebral hemisphere (15%). The median duration of status epilepticus before treatment was three hours. The rate of mortality in the study was 26.7%. Poor outcome was identified in 112 (62.2%) patients. For referral patients, all received only intravenous drugs before referral. The variables that correlated with poor outcome were aetiology and duration of status epilepticus. An approach to incorporate improved prevention of encephalitis, a more effective transportation system, and provision of the essential intravenous antiepileptic drugs would effectively increase the response to treatment.

  2. Predictors of acute bacterial meningitis among children with a first episode of febrile convulsion from Northern India: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiraj Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is limited data to support need of lumbar puncture among Indian children aged less than 5 years presenting with a first episode of fever and seizure. Aims: To determine the incidence and clinical predictors of meningitis among children aged 6-60 months presenting with a first episode of febrile convulsion. Settings and Designs: A prospective study was conducted on 35 children (6-60 months with a first episode of febrile convulsion subjected to lumbar puncture in a tertiary care teaching hospital of North India. Materials and Methods: Clinical characteristics were compared between the two groups: Children with meningitis (n = 17 and children without meningitis (n = 18. Statistical Methods: Multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the independent predictors of meningitis. Results: A total of 120 children were screened; 35 children subjected to lumbar puncture were finally enrolled. The mean (SD age of enrolled children was 18.49 (10.79 months. The incidence of meningitis was 48.6% (17/35. Children with meningitis significantly had a higher proportion of children with high grade (temperature >104°F fever (P = 0.005, received prior antibiotics (P = 0. 041, had lower hemoglobin levels (P = 0.04 and lower blood sugar levels (P = 0.03 as compared to children with no meningitis. On multivariate logistic regression, it was observed that high-grade fever was an independent predictor of meningitis (odds ratio: 0.03 [0.001-0.86] [P = 0.04]. Conclusion: We found that the presence of high-grade fever was an important predictor of meningitis among children aged 6-60 months presenting with a first episode of febrile convulsion.

  3. The effectiveness of feedback in improving safe behaviors: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, N A

    1998-01-01

    Reducing unsafe behaviors in the work place is of primary concern in industry. Unsafe behaviors seem to be shaped both by a subtle reinforcement of these behaviors by the work culture and by management's failure to define what constitutes unsafe behavior. Thus, any program to change these behaviors must focus both on defining and reinforcing safe behaviors. This paper reviews some of the literature associated with feedback and its effectiveness in increasing worker safety. The Theory of Planned Behavior is discussed as one possible mechanism for explaining the positive results achieved. PMID:24441557

  4. Effect of Surface Modification on Behaviors of Cerium Oxide Nanopowders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Mei; Shi Zhenxue; Liu Zhaogang; Hu Yanhong; Wang Mitang; Li Hangquan

    2007-01-01

    Study was made on the effect of surface modification on the behaviors of cerium oxide nanopowders. A surfactant-sodium dodecyl sulfate(C12H25SO4Na) was used to modify the surface of CeO2 powder particles. The unmodified and modified CeO2 powders were characterized by using a powder comprehensive characteristic tester, laser particle size analyzer, specific surface area tester, X-ray diffraction tester, and a scanning electron microscope. The testing and analysis results showed that C12H25SO4Na surface modification might increase the flowability and dispersity, and decrease the specific surface area and agglomeration of CeO2 powders. The mechanism of the surface modification of CeO2 powder particles was also discussed.

  5. Effects of torrefaction on hemicellulose structural characteristics and pyrolysis behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shurong; Dai, Gongxin; Ru, Bin; Zhao, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoliu; Zhou, Jinsong; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2016-10-01

    The effects of torrefaction on hemicellulose characteristics and its pyrolysis behaviors were studied in detail. The oxygen content decreased significantly after torrefaction, leading to the increase of high heating value. Two-dimensional perturbation correlation analysis based on diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was performed to characterize the structural evolutions. It was found the dehydration of hydroxyls and the dissociation of branches were the main reactions at low torrefaction temperature. When the temperature further increased, the depolymerization of hemicellulose and the fragmentation of monosaccharide residues occurred. The distributed activation energy model with double Gaussian functions based on reaction-order model was used to investigate the pyrolysis kinetics. The results showed that torrefaction enhanced the activation energy for degradation reactions while lowered that for condensation reactions, and increased the devolatilization contribution of condensation reactions. Besides, torrefaction decreased the yields of typical pyrolytic products, such as acids, furans, alicyclic ketones and so on.

  6. Effects of Transport on Live Weight and Behavior of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Andronie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study has monitored the effects of transport stress on some biochemical indicators of stress and behavior lambs at time of slaughter. The research was carried out in the cold season, on a number of 120 lambs, transported for 6h- 16h, to be slaughtered. During our research, we followed the changes in bodyweight, behaviours expressed by sheep, and plasma cortisol levels. Bodyweight loss recorded in the slaughterhouse to 24 hours of departure transportation was of 4-5%. The behavioural manifestations of lambs were different from the destination, depending on journey duration. Lambs behaviour was different depending on the journey, the resting and watering were mostly present manifestations. Increased in cortisol levels measured at 3 h after leaving the vehicle was maintained at 9 h after the journey. Increased duration of rest before slaughter can reduce the stress of transport in case of lambs ensures obtaining good quality meat.

  7. Effects of torrefaction on hemicellulose structural characteristics and pyrolysis behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shurong; Dai, Gongxin; Ru, Bin; Zhao, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoliu; Zhou, Jinsong; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2016-10-01

    The effects of torrefaction on hemicellulose characteristics and its pyrolysis behaviors were studied in detail. The oxygen content decreased significantly after torrefaction, leading to the increase of high heating value. Two-dimensional perturbation correlation analysis based on diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was performed to characterize the structural evolutions. It was found the dehydration of hydroxyls and the dissociation of branches were the main reactions at low torrefaction temperature. When the temperature further increased, the depolymerization of hemicellulose and the fragmentation of monosaccharide residues occurred. The distributed activation energy model with double Gaussian functions based on reaction-order model was used to investigate the pyrolysis kinetics. The results showed that torrefaction enhanced the activation energy for degradation reactions while lowered that for condensation reactions, and increased the devolatilization contribution of condensation reactions. Besides, torrefaction decreased the yields of typical pyrolytic products, such as acids, furans, alicyclic ketones and so on. PMID:27469091

  8. Effects of Dark Brooders on Behavior and Fearfulness in Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Guzman, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    to the novel object at age 15 weeks (p open-field test at age 28 weeks (p ...Chicks require heat to maintain body temperature during the first weeks after hatch. This may be provided by dark brooders; i.e., horizontal heating elements equipped with curtains. The objective was to test effects of rearing layer chicks with dark brooders on time budget and fearfulness....... Behavioral observations were performed during the first six weeks of age. Three different fear tests were conducted when the birds were age 3–6, 14–15 and 26–28 weeks. During the first four days, brooder chicks rested more than control chicks whereas they spent less time drinking, feather pecking...

  9. Bauschinger effect and springback behavior of dual phase sheet steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongwei

    2007-09-01

    the three-point bending tests, an FE model was effectively established to simulate the springback under different pin sizes. In order to investigate the Bauschinger effect on springback behavior, the deep-draw bending test was simulated using finite element method and showed improvement of simulation accuracy with the incorporation of the Bauschinger effect.

  10. The relationship between serum magnesium level and febrile convulsion in 6 months to 6 years old children

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Derakhshan; Parisa Balaee; Hamid Bakhshi; Shokoofe Darakhshan

    2010-01-01

    Background: The pathogenesis of febrile convulsion (FC) which is the most frequent seizure disorder in childhood isn’t clear but changes in the serum level of neurotransmitters and trace elements such as magnesium are known to contributing risk factors.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study serum magnesium of 32 children with FC and 33 children without FC were compared. Results: 25% of children with FC had serum magnesium level under 1.5 mg/dl. In the normal group no one had serum...

  11. Developmental and behavioral effects of postnatal amitraz exposure in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Palermo-Neto

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of postnatal amitraz exposure on physical and behavioral parameters were studied in Wistar rats, whose lactating dams received the pesticide (10 mg/kg orally on days 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 and 19 of lactation; control dams received distilled water (1 ml/kg on the same days. A total of 18 different litters (9 of them control and 9 experimental born after a 21-day gestation were used. The results showed that the median effective time (ET50 for fur development, eye opening, testis descent and onset of the startle response were increased in rats postnatally exposed to amitraz (2.7, 15.1, 21.6 and 15.3 days, respectively compared to those of the control pups (1.8, 14.0, 19.9 and 12.9 days, respectively. The ages of incisor eruption, total unfolding of the external ears, vaginal and ear opening and the time taken to perform the grasping hindlimb reflex were not affected by amitraz exposure. Pups from dams treated with amitraz during lactation took more time (in seconds to perform the surface righting reflex on postnatal days (PND 3 (25.0 ± 2.0, 4 (12.3 ± 1.2 and 5 (8.7 ± 0.9 in relation to controls (10.6 ± 1.2; 4.5 ± 0.6 and 3.4 ± 0.4, respectively; the climbing response was not changed by amitraz. Postnatal amitraz exposure increased spontaneous motor activity of male and female pups in the open-field on PND 16 (140 ± 11 and 17 (124 ± 12, and 16 (104 ± 9, 17 (137 ± 9 and 18 (106 ± 8, respectively. Data on spontaneous motor activity of the control male and female pups were 59 ± 11 and 69 ± 10 for days 16 and 17 and 49 ± 9, 48 ± 7 and 56 ± 7 for days 16, 17 and 18, respectively. Some qualitative differences were also observed in spontaneous motor behavior; thus, raising the head, shoulder and pelvis matured one or two days later in the amitraz-treated offspring. Postnatal amitraz exposure did not change locomotion and rearing frequencies or immobility time in the open-field on PND 30, 60 and 90. The present findings indicate

  12. Effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Mulders, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (LIBT) supplementing regular treatment in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) standardized tests of cognition, adaptive behavior, interpersonal relations, play, language, characterist

  13. The Effects of Television Violence on Antisocial Behavior: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Haejung; Comstock, George

    1994-01-01

    Presents discussion of various studies of the effect of television on aggressive behavior. Argues for a positive and significant correlation between television violence and aggressive behavior. Performs additional tests to solidify conclusions. Provides substantive interpretation. (HB)

  14. The Effects of a Peer-Mediated Positive Behavior Support Program on Socially Appropriate Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Lynnette; Young, K. Richard; Marchant, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the results of aligning functional behavioral assessment (FBA) information with positive behavior support plans (PBS plans) designed with consideration for teacher acceptability. The independent variable had the three major components of a package, including assessment and planning (FBA), training (teachers, students, and…

  15. The Mediating Effects of Parenting Behaviors on Maternal Affect and Reports of Children's Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazsia, Bryan T.; Wildman, Beth G.

    2009-01-01

    Parenting behaviors have received ample support as a mediator of the relationship between maternal affect and child behavior problems. The majority of these research efforts were based on a uni-dimensional conceptualization of maternal mood, even though decades of theory and research suggest that mood is multidimensional. We examined the mediating…

  16. The Effect of Parenting Behaviors on Subsequent Child Behavior Problems in Autistic Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The current research explored the relationship between parenting behaviors in parents of children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and subsequent child behavior problems. The sample consisted of 72 children (aged 5-16 years) and their parents, who were assessed over a period of 9-10 months. There was a relationship between parenting…

  17. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received emotional intelligence training program in 17 sessions (2 sessions per week, 60 minutes per session and the control group received no training beyond their regular school program. After two months, in order to examine the stability (durability of training effect, the follow-up test was conducted. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimating equations. Results: The results showed that the intervention program had created a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control group (p<0.001 and the rate of behavioral problems (aggression, rule breaking occurrence has dropped. This was true for the follow-up results too. Conclusions: It can be concluded that Emotional Intelligence Training decreases the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder and helps to prevent high occurrence of these problems.

  18. The Indirect Effects of Servant Leadership Behavior on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Job Performance: Organizational Justice as a Mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Zehir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Therelationship between leader and followers plays a vital role, particularly ineducational institutions where a keen understanding of human character and highlevel of social interaction ought to be facilitated. For this reason, in starkcontrast to contemporary leaders who see people only as units of production orexpendable resources in a profit and loss statement, servant leadership focuseson meeting the needs of followers, making them reach their maximum potentialand so perform optimally in order to achieve organizational goals andobjectives. This study examines theeffects of servant leadership behaviors of private college principals onteachers’ organizationalcitizenship behavior and job performance. Using 300 respondents from theprivate education institutes in Turkey, servant leadership behavior is examinedfor its indirect effects on organizational citizenship behavior and jobperformance by its impact on organizational justice. Organizational justiceacts as a mediator between the variables in question. All the results are insupport of the studied mediation effects. Implications of the findings andsuggestions for future research are discussed

  19. Different behavioral effects of maprotiline and fluxilan in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Nataša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin and noradrenaline are involved in the mechanisms of action of most antidepressant drugs. We examined the effects of chronic treatment with maprotiline, a selective inhibitor of noradrenaline reuptake, and fluxilan, a selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake, on the behavior of unstressed controls and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS model rats in the forced swim test (FST and elevated plus maze test. Both selective reuptake inhibitors resulted in a significant reduction of time spent in immobility. Climbing was significantly increased in maprotiline- and swimming was exclusively elicited in the fluxilan-treated unstressed control and CUMS rats. Maprotiline-treated ani­mals displayed decreased anxiety and fluxilan-treated rats enhanced anxiety. The obtained results suggest that central noradrenergic and serotonergic systems might be affected differently during FST. The results also demonstrate that the anxiogenic effects of chronic fluxilan treatment are similar to those reported by many other studies. These differences observed for the effects of fluxilan in relation to those reported for maprotiline and probably due to the different phar­macological profiles of these drugs.

  20. Smelling the books: The effect of chocolate scent on purchase-related behavior in a bookstore

    OpenAIRE

    DOUCE, Lieve; Poels, Karolien; Janssens, Wim; De Backer, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this research were to (1) explore the different effects of an ambient scent of chocolate on general approach versus goal-directed behavior, and (2) investigate whether an ambient chocolate scent diffused in a retail environment has a positive effect on consumers’ behavior toward thematically congruent products. A field study with 201 participants shows that a chocolate scent positively influences general approach behavior and negatively influences goal-directed behavior in a books...

  1. The effect of learning styles and study behavior on success of preclinical students in pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Halil Asci; Esin Kulac; Mekin Sezik; F Nihan Cankara; Ekrem Cicek

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of learning styles and study behaviors on preclinical medical students′ pharmacology exam scores in a non-Western setting. Materials and Methods: Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Study Scale and a modified Study Behavior Inventory were used to assess learning styles and study behaviors of preclinical medical students (n = 87). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent effect of gender, age, learning style, and study behavior on ph...

  2. Behavioral and Neurobiological Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation in a Mouse Model of High Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Schmuckermair, Claudia; Gaburro, Stefano; Sah, Anupam; Landgraf, Rainer; Sartori, Simone B; Singewald, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that high-frequency deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens (NAcb-DBS) may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for individuals suffering from treatment-resistant depression, although the underlying mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. In this study, using a unique mouse model of enhanced depression- and anxiety-like behavior (HAB), we investigated behavioral and neurobiological effects of NAcb-DBS. HAB mice either underwent chronic treatment wit...

  3. Social carry-over effects on non-social behavioral variation: mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Toivo Niemelä

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of animal personality is interested in decomposing behaviors into different levels of variation, with its present focus on the ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences of expressed variation. Recently the role of the social environment, i.e. social partners, has been suggested to affect behavioral variation and induce selection on animal personality. Social partner effects exist because characters of social partners (e.g. size, behavior, affect the behavioral expression of a focal individual. Here, we 1 first review the proximate mechanisms underlying the social partner effects on behavioral expression and the timescales at which such effects might take place. We then 2 discuss how within- and among-individual variation in single behaviors and covariation between multiple behaviors, caused by social partners, can carry-over to non-social behaviors expressed outside the social context. Finally, we 3 highlight evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects to non-social behaviors and 4 suggest study designs and statistical approaches which can be applied to study the nature and evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects on non-social behaviors. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underpinning the social partner effects is important since it opens a door for deeper understanding of how social environments can affect behavioral variation and covariation at multiple levels, and the evolution of non-social behaviors (i.e. exploration, activity, boldness that are affected by social interactions.

  4. 热性惊厥与缺铁性贫血的关系%Relationship between Febrile Convulsion and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何梅玲; 彭丰

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨热性惊厥与缺铁性贫血的关系。方法检测104例热性惊厥患儿的红细胞计数(RBC)、血红蛋白(Hb)、红细胞平均容积(MCV)、红细胞平均血红蛋白(MCH)、红细胞平均血红蛋白浓度(MCHC)、SI,并以同期98例呼吸道、肠道感染而无惊厥患儿为对照组,分析其结果。结果惊厥组贫血发生率明显高于对照组,且多为小细胞性贫血(符合缺铁性贫血的血液特征)。结论小儿热性惊厥与血清铁有着密切的联系,缺铁性贫血可能是引起小儿热性惊厥的重要原因之一。%Objective To investigate the correlation of febrile convulsion and iron deficiency anemia. Methods Mesured the RBC,Hb,MCV,MCH,MCHC,SI in 104 children of Upper respiratory tract infection, and recorded children of febrile convulsion with Iron deficiency anemia, and children of febrile convulsion without iron deficiency anemia,children of febrile convulsion without deficiency anemia. The rest 2 groups of children are as control group. Results Which is significantly higher than the control group. And anemin in which the average size of erythrocytes is smal er than normal. Conclusion Children febrile convulsion could be highly correlated, and the iron deficiency anemia maybe one of the cause of children febrile convulsion.

  5. 现代模式护理在小儿高热惊厥中的应用%The Application of Modern Mode of Nursing in Children With Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:对现代护理模式在小儿高热惊厥中的应用效果进行探究。方法资料选取我院收治的小儿高热惊厥患儿96例作为研究对象,将其分均为对照、实验两组,每组各48例,对照组行常规护理,实验组在对照组基础上行现代模式护理,并对两组患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果实验组高热惊厥的复发率明显低于对照组,差异具有显著性(P<0.05)。结论对小儿高热惊厥患儿实施有效的现代模式护理效果显著,能有效降低高热惊厥复发的几率,是有效的小儿高热惊厥护理措施。%Objective To probe the effect of application of modern nursing mode in children with febrile convulsion in. Methods Data selection in our hospital 96 cases of children with febrile convulsion of children as the research object, divide it was as control and experimental group, 48 cases in each group, the control group received routine nursing care, the experimental group in the control group on the basis of the modern mode of nursing, and retrospective analysis of the clinical data of two children were. Results The recurrence of febrile seizures in experimental group was significantly lower than the control group, the difference was significant (P< 0.05). Conclusion The infantile convulsion in children with implementation of modern nursing mode for valid effect significantly, can effectively reduce the risk of recurrence of febrile seizures, febrile seizures in children is effective nursing measures.

  6. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Fadaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. Methods: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly di-vided in two groups of intervention (n = 32 and control (n = 40. The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not re-ceive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Results: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44 and control (15 95 ± 4 66 groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395. The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11 compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27 after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001. Conclusions: Since a woman′s body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman′s favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the impor-tance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  7. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DMAB Dissanayake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. Results: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47 vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66, P 0.05. However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. Conclusions : Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction.

  8. Spatially quantifying the leadership effectiveness in collective behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among natural biological flocks/swarms or mass social activities, when the collective behavior of the followers has been dominated by the direction or opinion of one leader group, it seems difficult for later-coming leaders to reverse the orientation of the mass followers, especially when they are in quantitative minority. This paper, however, reports a counter-intuitive phenomenon, i.e. Following the Later-coming Minority, provided that the later-comers obey a favorable distribution pattern that enables them to spread their influence to as many followers as possible within a given time and to be dense enough to govern these local followers they can influence directly from the beginning. We introduce a discriminant index to quantify the whole group's orientation under competing leaderships, with which the eventual orientation of the mass followers can be predicted before launching the real dynamical procedure. From the application point of view, this leadership effectiveness index also helps us to design an economical way for the minority later-coming leaders to defeat the dominating majority leaders solely by optimizing their spatial distribution pattern provided that the premeditated goal is available. Our investigation provides insights into effective leadership in biological systems with meaningful implications for social and industrial applications.

  9. La doping effect on TZM alloy oxidation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The oxidation can be resisted by doping La into TZM alloy. • La doped TZM alloy has more compact organization. • It can rise the starting temperature of severe oxidation reaction by more than 50 °C. • Effectively slow down the oxidation rate. • Provide guidance for experiments of improving high-temperature oxidation resistance. - Abstract: Powder metallurgy methods were utilized to prepare lanthanum-doped (La-TZM) and traditional TZM alloy plates. High temperature oxidation experiments along with the differential thermal analysis were employed to study the oxidation behavior of the two kinds of TZM alloys. An extremely volatile oxide layer was generated on the surface of traditional TZM alloy plates when the oxidation started. Molybdenum oxide volatilization exposed the alloy matrix, which was gradually corroded by oxygen, losing its quality with serious surface degradation. The La-TZM alloy has a more compact structure due to the lanthanum doping. The minute lanthanum oxide particles are pinned at the grain boundaries and refine the grains. Oxide layer generated on the matrix surface can form a compact coating, which effectively blocks the surface from being corroded by oxidation. The oxidation resistance of La-TZM alloys has been enhanced, expanding its application range

  10. Aging and the Effects of Exploratory Behavior on Spatial Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Kaitlin M; Dopkins, Stephen; Philbeck, John W

    2016-03-01

    The present research examined the effect of encoding from multiple viewpoints on scene recall in a group of younger (18-22 years) and older (65-80 years) adults. Participants completed a visual search task, during which they were given the opportunity to examine a room using two sets of windows that partitioned the room differently. Their choice of window set was recorded, to determine whether an association between these choices and spatial memory performance existed. Subsequently, participants were tested for spatial memory of the domain in which the search task was completed. Relative to younger adults, older adults demonstrated an increased tendency to use a single set of windows as well as decreased spatial memory for the domain. Window-set usage was associated with spatial memory, such that older adults who relied more heavily on a single set of windows also had better performance on the spatial memory task. These findings suggest that, in older adults, moderation in exploratory behavior may have a positive effect on memory for the domain of exploration.

  11. Multistress effects on goldfish (Carassius auratus) behavior and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandar, Allison; Jean, Séverine; Canal, Julie; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Gilbert, Franck; Laffaille, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Crossed effects between climate change and chemical pollutions were identified on community structure and ecosystem functioning. Temperature rising affects the toxic properties of pollutants and the sensitiveness of organisms to chemicals stress. Inversely, chemical exposure may decrease the capacity of organisms to respond to environmental changes. The aim of our study was to assess the individual and crossed effects of temperature rising and pesticide contamination on fish. Goldfish, Carassius auratus, were exposed during 96 h at two temperatures (22 and 32 °C) to a mixture of common pesticides (S-metolachlor, isoproturon, linuron, atrazine-desethyl, aclonifen, pendimethalin, and tebuconazol) at two environmentally relevant concentrations (total concentrations MIX1 = 8.4 μg L(-1) and MIX2 = 42 μg L(-1)). We investigated the sediment reworking behavior, which has a major ecological functional role. We also focused on three physiological traits from the cellular up to the whole individual level showing metabolic status of fish (protein concentration in liver and muscle, hepatosomatic index, and Fulton's condition factor). Individual thermal stress and low concentrations of pesticides decreased the sediment reworking activity of fish and entrained metabolic compensation with global depletion in energy stores. We found that combined chemical and thermal stresses impaired the capacity of fish to set up an efficient adaptive response. Our results strongly suggest that temperature will make fish more sensitive to water contamination by pesticides, raising concerns about wild fish conservation submitted to global changes. PMID:26272290

  12. Effect of Surface Nanocrystallization on Fatigue Behavior of Pure Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Sun, Qiaoyan; Xiao, Lin; Sun, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The high-cycle fatigue behavior was investigated in pure titanium after surface nanocrystallization (SNC Ti). Compared with the coarse-grained titanium (CG Ti) samples, the SNC Ti samples exhibit an improved fatigue life. The SNC has a remarkable influence on the fatigue cracks initiation and growth of pure titanium. The results show that, because the free-surface cracking is suppressed by the surface nanogradient structure in the SNC Ti, the fatigue cracks initiation sites change from the free surface to the subsurface. Meanwhile, the fatigue crack growth rate decreases due to the microstructural feature and residual compressive stress. The deformation twins in the subsurface of SNC Ti have a marked effect on the fatigue crack initiation and the crack growth. The former effect is due to the twin boundaries being preferential sites for crack initiation, while the latter is associated with the barriers that the twin boundaries pose to the propagation of dislocations. Furthermore, microstructural analysis indicates that the dislocation distribution in SNC Ti gradually becomes homogenous as fatigue processes. This homogeneous microstructure is also beneficial to the improvement of fatigue life.

  13. Effects of exposure to different types of radiation on behaviors mediated by peripheral or central systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Erat, S.

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on behavior may result from effects on peripheral or on central systems. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by peripheral systems (e.g., radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion or vomiting), the behavioral effects of exposure to heavy particles (^56Fe, 600 MeV/n) are qualitatively similar to the effects of exposure to gamma radiation (^60Co) and to fission spectrum neutrons. For these endpoints, the only differences between the different types of radiation are in terms of relative behavioral effectiveness. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by central systems (e.g., amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning), the effects of exposure to ^56Fe particles are not seen following exposure to lower LET gamma rays or fission spectrum neutrons. These results indicate that the effects of exposure to heavy particles on behavioral endpoints cannot necessarily be extrapolated from studies using gamma rays, but require the use of heavy particles.

  14. Electromagnetic Field Modeling of Transcranial Electric and Magnetic Stimulation: Targeting, Individualization, and Safety of Convulsive and Subconvulsive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhi-De

    inform dosage requirements in convulsive therapies. Our results indicate that the MST electric field is more focal and more confined to the superficial cortex compared to ECT. Further, the conventional ECT current amplitude is much higher than necessary for seizure induction. One of the factors important to clinical outcome is seizure expression. However, it is unknown how the induced electric field is related to seizure onset and propagation. In this work, we explore the effect of the electric field distribution on the quantitative ictal electroencephalography and current source density in ECT and MST. We further demonstrate how the ECT electrode shape, size, spacing, and current can be manipulated to yield more precise control of the induced electric field. If desirable, ECT can be made as focal as MST while using simpler stimulation equipment. Next, we demonstrate how the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be controlled. We present the most comprehensive comparison of TMS coil electric field penetration and focality to date. The electric field distributions of more than 50 TMS coils were simulated. We show that TMS coils differ markedly in their electric field characteristics, but they all are subject to a consistent depth-focality tradeoff. Specifically, the ability to directly stimulate deeper brain structures is obtained at the expense of inducing wider electric field spread. Figure-8 type coils are fundamentally more focal compared to circular type coils. Understanding the depth-focality tradeoff can help researchers and clinicians to appropriately select coils and interpret TMS studies. This work also enables the development of novel TMS coils with electronically switchable active and sham modes as well as for deep TMS. Design considerations of these coils are extensively discussed. Part II of the dissertation aims to quantify the effect of individual, sex, and age differences in head geometry and conductivity on the induced

  15. Effects of a group rational-emotive behavior therapy program on the Type A behavior pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A T; Botha, H C

    1996-06-01

    A sample of 44 male Type A insurance representatives, selected by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview, were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 22) and a delayed treatment control group (n = 22). The treatment group participated in 9 weekly sessions of group Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy and were followed up after 10 weeks. After the control period, the delayed treatment control group received the same treatment program. Repeated measurements were obtained by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview, Jenkins Activity Survey, Cook-Medley Hostility Scale, and Type A Cognitive Questionnaire. Self and spouse/friend ratings of Type A behavior were obtained by means of the Bortner Rating Scale. Analysis indicated that, compared to the control condition, the therapy significantly reduced the intensity of Type A behavior and its time urgency component. These improvements were maintained at follow-up and were accompanied by self-reports of significant positive changes in Type A behavior and irrational beliefs.

  16. Effects of prepartal stress on postpartal nursing behavior, litter development and adult sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, L R; Whitney, J B

    1976-12-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to the stress of restraint, heat and bright lights three times daily from Days 14 to 22 of gestation. Because prepartal stress did not markedly disturb the mother's retrieving and crouching behavior, disturbances in postpartal nursing behavior do not seem to account for the abnormal sexual behavior of male offspring as adults. The most significant finding was that litter weights were reduced, not only at birth, but for 3 weeks thereafter, suggesting that prepartal stress not only altered the pups in utero but also affected postpartal milk synthesis. The possibility emerges that prepartal stress may alter adult sexual behavior in males by modifications in fetal and/or maternal pituitary glands.

  17. Using women advocacy groups to enhance knowledge and home management of febrile convulsion amongst mothers in a rural community of Sokoto State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oche, Oche Mansur; Onankpa, Oloche Ben

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Febrile convulsions (FC) are a common paediatric problem worldwide. Between 1 and 4% of children will have a febrile convulsion with about 4% of cases arising before the age of six months. Although FC is benign and does not cause death, brain damage or learning disorders, it is quite frightening to observers and parents who witness an episode of FC, would think the child is going to die. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study (a pre and post-test interventional, one group), ...

  18. Effects of Check & Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of Check & Connect (C&C) in a randomly assigned sample of students who were all receiving Communities in Schools (CIS) services. The research questions for the study include: Are there differences in attendance, academics, and behavior for CIS students who also receive C&C compared to…

  19. Behavioral effects of congenital ventromedial prefrontal cortex malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boes Aaron D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed behavioral profile associated with focal congenital malformation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC has not been reported previously. Here we describe a 14 year-old boy, B.W., with neurological and psychiatric sequelae stemming from focal cortical malformation of the left vmPFC. Case Presentation B.W.'s behavior has been characterized through extensive review Patience of clinical and personal records along with behavioral and neuropsychological testing. A central feature of the behavioral profile is severe antisocial behavior. He is aggressive, manipulative, and callous; features consistent with psychopathy. Other problems include: egocentricity, impulsivity, hyperactivity, lack of empathy, lack of respect for authority, impaired moral judgment, an inability to plan ahead, and poor frustration tolerance. Conclusions The vmPFC has a profound contribution to the development of human prosocial behavior. B.W. demonstrates how a congenital lesion to this cortical region severely disrupts this process.

  20. Analysis the Reason of Infantile Diarrhea and Convulsion%小儿腹泻并惊厥病因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红星

    2013-01-01

    Objective to study the reason of disease of children with infantile diarrhea and convulsions. Methods 38 cases of children with both the conventional stool, blood biochemistry, cerebrospinal fluid, electroencephalogram (eeg) examination. Results found tic 13 cases with a high fever, blood sodium reduce 8 cases, blood calcium to reduce the 7 cases, 4 cases were blood magnesium reduce, low blood sugar in 2 cases, 11 cases of abnormal eeg examination, cerebrospinal fluid to check pressure slightly higher in 3 cases, al normal. Conclusion children with infantile diarrhea and convulsion consider related to high fever, electrolyte metabolic disorders, viral encephalitis.%目的:探讨小儿腹泻并惊厥患儿发病原因。方法38例患儿均予大便常规、血生化、脑脊液、脑电图检查。结果发现抽搐时伴高热13例,血钠降低8例,血钙降低7例,血镁降低4例,低血糖2例,11例脑电图检查异常,脑脊液检3例压力稍高外,余均正常。结论小儿腹泻并惊厥患儿考虑与高热、电解质代谢紊乱、病毒性脑炎有关。

  1. 小儿高热惊厥的护理体会%Nursing Experience of Children with Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢云

    2014-01-01

    目的探究小儿高热惊厥的有效护理方法,为今后的临床工作提供参考依据。方法对我院50例患儿的临床病史资料进行回顾性的分析。结果经对政治疗及有效护理后,所有患儿均痊愈。结论高热惊厥是儿科常见急症,该病其起病急,发病率高,对患儿除了对症治疗外还应该进行精心的护理。%Objective To explore the ef ective nursing methods of children with febrile convulsion, provide a reference basis for the future clinical work. Methods A total of 50 cases of clinical history data were retrospectively analyzed. Results After treatment and ef ective nursing in politics, all the children were recovered. Conclusion Febrile convulsion is common pediatric emergency, the onset of the disease nasty, high incidence, for the children besides symptomatic treatment should also be careful nursing.

  2. An effective algorithm for approximating adaptive behavior in seasonal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainmont, Julie; Andersen, Ken Haste; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro;

    2015-01-01

    behavior; the so-called "myopic approximation", "short sighted", or "static optimization". We explore the performance of the myopic approximation with diel vertical migration (DVM) as an example of a daily routine, a behavior with seasonal dependence that trades off predation risk with foraging......-annual variations, aspects that can only be accessed in dynamic programming approaches with escalating computational costs. Furthermore, the explanatory power of the myopic approximation is notably higher than when behavior is not implemented, highlighting the importance for adaptive DVM behavior in ecological...

  3. Effects of the Good Behavior Game on classwide off-task behavior in a high school basic algebra resource classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Andrea; McKenna, John; Muething, Colin S; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) on classwide off-task behavior in two ninth-grade basic algebra resource classes. Ten students with a variety of disabilities, in two classrooms, and their special education resource teacher participated in this study. A reversal design was employed, in which the special education teacher implemented GBG compared to typical practice-algebra readiness instruction. Results showed that classwide off-task behavior decreased in the GBG conditions compared to the baseline and reversal conditions. Fidelity measures indicated that the teacher implemented GBG with fidelity. Students and the teacher rated GBG favorably. Overall findings support the use of GBG for reducing classwide off-task behavior. Implications for practice and future research directions are presented.

  4. The Effects of Utilitarian and Hedonic Values on Young Consumers’ Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit BASARAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of utilitarian and hedonic values on young consumers’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions in fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors comparatively. Also this study investigates which value component (utilitarian or hedonic is more effective on satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that utilitarian and hedonic values have significant effects on satisfaction and behavioral intentions for both fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors. Additionally, satisfaction has an influence on behavioral intentions in fast-food restaurant sector, but does not have a significant effect in fast-casual restaurant sector. Moreover, associations between hedonic value with satisfaction and behavioral intentions are significantly different between fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors. On the other hand, associations between utilitarian value with satisfaction and behavioral intentions and association between satisfactions with behavioral intentions are not significantly different between fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors.

  5. Effects of Dark Brooders on Behavior and Fearfulness in Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Anja B.; Guzman, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Chicks require heat to maintain body temperature during the first weeks after hatch. Heat is normally provided by use of heating lamps or whole-house heating, but an alternative is dark brooders, i.e. horizontal heating elements equipped with curtains. The effects of providing layer chicks with dark brooders during the brooding period on behavior and fearfulness were investigated. Brooders resulted in chicks showing less locomotive activity, feather pecking and fleeing. Also, a long-term reduction of fearfulness in brooder birds was found. Results support the suggestion that rearing with dark brooders can be a successful method of reducing or preventing some of the major welfare problems in layers. Abstract Chicks require heat to maintain body temperature during the first weeks after hatch. This may be provided by dark brooders; i.e., horizontal heating elements equipped with curtains. The objective was to test effects of rearing layer chicks with dark brooders on time budget and fearfulness. Behavioral observations were performed during the first six weeks of age. Three different fear tests were conducted when the birds were age 3–6, 14–15 and 26–28 weeks. During the first four days, brooder chicks rested more than control chicks whereas they spent less time drinking, feather pecking and on locomotion (p ≤ 0.009). On days 16, 23, 30 and 42, brooder chicks spent less time on feather pecking, locomotion and fleeing (p ≤ 0.01) whereas foraging and dust bathing occurred more often on day 42 (p ≤ 0.032). Brooder birds had shorter durations of tonic immobility at all ages (p = 0.0032), moved closer to the novel object at age 15 weeks (p < 0.0001), and had shorter latencies to initiate locomotion in the open-field test at age 28 weeks (p < 0.0001). Results support the suggestion that dark brooders can be a successful method of reducing or preventing fear and feather pecking in layers. PMID:26751482

  6. Fever,poor response, convulsions, and hepatomegaly%发热,反应差,抽搐,肝大

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱乔乔; 刘智胜; 张芙蓉; 李瑞珍; 王宝香

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differential diagnosis of Reye syndrome and the characteristics of primary carnitine deficiency,and to provide diagnostic strategy for similar cases.Methods There was a case presented with fever,poor response,convulsions and hepatomegaly hospitalized in Wuhan Children's Hospital,and the clinical manifestations were described,the physical examination was comprehensively conducted,the auxiliary examination results were recorded,some pediatric specialists from ICU,neurology department,genetic metabolic department,digestive system department were invited to discuss the case.The treatment was adjusted according to the suggested opinions;the treatment effects and the final diagnosis were tracked.Results The primary diagnosis of the case was central nervous system infection or toxic encephalopathy at the time of admission,but Reye syndrome could not be excluded.Although the cerebrospinal fluid test and brain MRI examination detected nothing abnormal,liver function suggested alanine aminotrans ferase ALT increase,blood sugar decrease,the liver volume increase,which was detected by liver ultrasound.Blood amino acids examination revealed the carnitine level decreased,and it was confirmed as primary carnitine deficiency in the end.L-carnitine was used to treat the disease,and its effect was good.Conclusions Great importance should be attached to children with onset age,physical check-up,and multidisciplinary cooperation.Use monism to explain the illness and the auxiliary inspection as far as possible,so that it can get early diagnosis and treatment,and the outcome is good.%目的 探讨瑞氏综合征的鉴别诊断及原发性肉碱缺乏症特点,并为类似病例提供诊断思路.方法 对武汉市儿童医院收治的1例临床表现为发热、反应差、抽搐、肝脏增大的患儿,总结其临床表现,全面进行体格检查,记录其辅助检查结果,并请小儿重症医学科、神经内科、遗传代谢科、消化内科专

  7. The effects of behavioral modification based on client center program to health behaviors among obese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarakamhang, Ungsinun; Malarat, Anan

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to examine the effectiveness of Health Behavioral Modification based on the Client Center Program (HBMCCP) and to study behavioral change in relation to self - efficacy, self- regulation, self-care behaviors and body weight. The sample was 59 undergraduate students, who were selected by cluster random sampling. 29 participated in the HBMCCP for 8 weeks, and were followed up 4 weeks after the program, and 30 students in the control group. Data was collected 3 times, before, immediately after and 4 weeks after the program, by 6 scale - questionnaires which had high reliability of Cronbach's alpha-coefficient between .81 to.94. The stratified variables were psycho-social variables, being a positive attitude towards health behavior and social support. Data were analyzed by MANOVA and ANCOVA. Results showed that 1) Obese students in the experimental group with HBMCCP had self - efficacy, self- regulation and self-care behavior at immediately after and 4 weeks later program significantly higher scores than before the program (pstudents in the program had self - efficacy, self- regulation and self-care behavior scores at immediately after and 4 weeks after the program significantly higher than obese students in the control group (p=0.009) and significantly lower body weights than obese students in the control group (p=0.026), and 3) No three - way interaction among positive attitude towards health behavior, social support and the program was found, although there was a two- way interaction between positive attitude towards health behavior and the program (p=0.001) and effect size=0.272.

  8. Effectiveness of Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Judith A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated effects of group behavioral therapy including aerobic exercise, behavioral therapy alone, and aerobic exercise alone on pain and physical and psychological disability among mildly disabled chronic low-back-pain patients (n=96). The combined behavioral therapy and exercise group improved significantly more pretreatment to posttreatment…

  9. Improving Classroom Behavior through Effective Instruction: An Illustrative Program Example Using "SRA FLEX Literacy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Ronald C.; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated a strong positive correlation between behavior problems and low academic achievement. Student success and/or failures are in large part determined by how well teachers provide effective instruction to their students. This article overviews key behavior-management approaches related to academic and behavioral success that…

  10. Effects of high magnetic field on martensitic transformation behavior and structure in Fe-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, H.; Wada, H. [Tsukuba Labs., Ibaraki (Japan). Nat. Res. Inst. for Metals; Ghosh, G. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Effects of magnetic field on lath-type martensitic transformation behavior and the reverse transformation behavior from lath math martensite to austenite have been investigated in 18Ni maraging steel. It was found that the reverse transformation temperature during heating is increased by magnetic field. Reverse transformation behavior during isothermal holding was also found to be retarded by magnetic field. (orig.)

  11. Teacher Classroom Management Practices: Effects on Disruptive or Aggressive Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Regina M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large research base grounded in behavioral theory for strategies to increase appropriate behavior and prevent or decrease inappropriate behavior in the classroom, a systematic review of multi-component universal classroom management research is necessary to establish the effects of teachers' universal classroom management approaches.…

  12. Effective elements of school health promotion across behavioral domains: a systematic review of reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.H. Peters; G. Kok; G.T.M. ten Dam; G.J. Buijs; T.G.W.M. Paulussen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements o

  13. Effective elements of school health promotion across behavioral domains: A systematic review of reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L.W.H.; Kok, G.; Ten Dam, G.T.M.; Buijs, G.J.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements o

  14. Spontaneous Recovery of Previously Extinguished Behavior as an Alternative Explanation for Extinction-Related Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Raymond J.; Mays, Nicole M.

    2007-01-01

    Extinction is accepted as a viable intervention for behaviors that are hypothesized to be maintained by contingent attentional reinforcement. However, it is frequently acknowledged that extinction has potential numerous side effects, including the generation of aggressive behavior. This explanation does not provide a behavioral conceptualization…

  15. Effects of leader contingent and noncontingent reward and punishment behaviors on subordinate performance and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, P M; Todor, W D; Skov, R

    1982-12-01

    This study investigated the nature of the relationships between leader reward and punishment behaviors and subordinate performance and satisfaction. Only performance-contingent reward behavior was found to affect subordinate performance significantly. Positive relationships were found between leader contingent reward behavior and employee satisfaction. Contingent punishment had no effects on subordinate performance or satisfaction.

  16. The effects of differential negative reinforcement of other behavior and noncontingent escape on compliance.

    OpenAIRE

    Kodak, Tiffany; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Romaniuk, Cathryn

    2003-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of noncontingent escape and differential negative reinforcement of other behavior in reducing problem behaviors and increasing compliance in 2 children with disabilities. Results showed that both methods reduced problem behavior and increased compliance for both children.

  17. The Effects of Locus of Control, Organizational Justice Perception and Organizational Commitment on Organizational Citizenship Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Basım, Prof. Dr. H. Nejat

    2015-01-01

    Personal and organizational factors, which have effect on personal behaviors, can increase organizational performance and effectiveness by protecting the organization from unwanted behaviors and can have an effect on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB). In this study, locus of control (LOC) has been included to the research as a personal variable and organizational justice perception and organizational commitment have been included to the research as organizational variables to put...

  18. The Effects of Utilitarian and Hedonic Values on Young Consumers’ Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Umit BASARAN; Ozan BUYUKYILMAZ

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of utilitarian and hedonic values on young consumers’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions in fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors comparatively. Also this study investigates which value component (utilitarian or hedonic) is more effective on satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that utilitarian and hedonic values have significant effects on satisfaction and behavioral intentions for both fast-food and fas...

  19. Preschool Children's Sleep and Wake Behavior: Effects of Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Preschool children received twice-weekly massages for five weeks. Compared to control children, the massaged children had better behavior ratings on mood state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation following massage on day one and throughout the study. Teachers rated their behavior more optimally, and their parents rated them as having less…

  20. Substantive and relational effectiveness of organizational conflict behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euwema, M C; Van de Vliert, E; Bakker, A B

    2003-01-01

    In this observation study the theory of conglomerated conflict behavior is tested. The impact of seven conflict behaviors on substantive and relational conflict outcomes is examined through multiple independent observations of 103 Dutch nurse managers handling a standardized conflict. Results show t

  1. Effect of Electrode Configuration on Nitric Oxide Gas Sensor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P

    2015-01-01

    The influence of electrode configuration on the impedancemetric response of nitric oxide (NO) gas sensors was investigated for solid electrochemical cells [Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Au)]. Fabrication of the sensors was carried out at 1050 °C in order to establish a porous YSZ electrolyte that enabled gas diffusion. Two electrode configurations were studied where Au wire electrodes were either embedded within or wrapped around the YSZ electrolyte. The electrical response of the sensors was collected via impedance spectroscopy under various operating conditions where gas concentrations ranged from 0 to 100 ppm NO and 1%-18% O₂ at temperatures varying from 600 to 700 °C. Gas diffusion appeared to be a rate-limiting mechanism in sensors where the electrode configuration resulted in longer diffusion pathways. The temperature dependence of the NO sensors studied was independent of the electrode configuration. Analysis of the impedance data, along with equivalent circuit modeling indicated the electrode configuration of the sensor effected gas and ionic transport pathways, capacitance behavior, and NO sensitivity. PMID:26404312

  2. Effect of Electrode Configuration on Nitric Oxide Gas Sensor Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Cui

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of electrode configuration on the impedancemetric response of nitric oxide (NO gas sensors was investigated for solid electrochemical cells [Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ/Au]. Fabrication of the sensors was carried out at 1050 °C in order to establish a porous YSZ electrolyte that enabled gas diffusion. Two electrode configurations were studied where Au wire electrodes were either embedded within or wrapped around the YSZ electrolyte. The electrical response of the sensors was collected via impedance spectroscopy under various operating conditions where gas concentrations ranged from 0 to 100 ppm NO and 1%–18% O2 at temperatures varying from 600 to 700 °C. Gas diffusion appeared to be a rate-limiting mechanism in sensors where the electrode configuration resulted in longer diffusion pathways. The temperature dependence of the NO sensors studied was independent of the electrode configuration. Analysis of the impedance data, along with equivalent circuit modeling indicated the electrode configuration of the sensor effected gas and ionic transport pathways, capacitance behavior, and NO sensitivity.

  3. EFFECTS OF ROCK BEHAVIOR AND STRESS CONDITIONON FIELD STRESS DETERMINATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.H.(Steve)Zou

    1995-01-01

    Non-consistency of stress results is often observed during field measurements. In some cases, even the measurements are made at the same location in a massive rockmass, the results can vary widely. In order to solve the problem, extensive research has been carried out to study the major factors which may affect stress determination. They include the rock behaviour and the stress state. For rocks showing non-isotropic behaviour, the values of Young's modulus and Poisson ratio vary with the orientation of loading and measurement. Stress condition in the rock affects the rock behaviour. Furthermore, the loading condition on rock samples during laboratory tests is different from in the field and therefore the determined elastic constants may not represent the field condition. In general, the Young's modulus may depend on the orientation, the loading path, the stress magnitude and the stress ratio. This paper examines in detail the effects of those factors, especially for rocks showing transversely isotropic behaviour. It is found that the discrepancy of stress results from fieldts in this type of rock is mainly due to over simplification of the rock behavior and inadequate use of elastic constants of the rock during stress calculation. A case study is given, which indicates the significance of these factors and demonstrates the proper procedure for stress calculation from

  4. Effect of behavior modification on patient compliance in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D D; Nanda, R S; Sinha, P K; Smith, D W; Currier, G F

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a reward system for improving patient compliance in orthodontic treatment. The sample consisted of 144 orthodontic patients (63 male, 81 female, average age 12.8 years), 6 to 12 months into their treatment. The sample was divided into above-average and below-average compliers, based on the orthodontic patient cooperation scale (OPCS). Each group was further divided into three subgroups: (a) a control group, which received only standard instructions; (b) an award group, which received compliance instructions and a written evaluation of compliance; and (c) a reward group, which received compliance instructions, a report card, and eligibility to receive rewards for adherent behavior. Two measurements of patient compliance were used: (1) the OPCS, which divided the sample into high and low compliers and was used to compare compliance before and after the 6-month experimental period; and (2) a clinical evaluation of compliance that was based on oral hygiene, appointment punctuality, appliance wear, and appliance maintenance. Evaluations were completed at each monthly appointment. Average compliance scores of above-average compliers showed no significant improvement with rewards. The average scores of patients with below-average compliance did not improve significantly. Only oral hygiene scores in the low compliance reward group were better than in the low compliance control group. Academic performance in school was found to be correlated (p reward system may help motivate below-average compliers to comply with prescribed instructions.

  5. Occurrence, behavior and effects of nanoparticles in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Bernd; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2007-11-01

    The increasing use of engineered nanoparticles (NP) in industrial and household applications will very likely lead to the release of such materials into the environment. Assessing the risks of these NP in the environment requires an understanding of their mobility, reactivity, ecotoxicity and persistency. This review presents an overview of the classes of NP relevant to the environment and summarizes their formation, emission, occurrence and fate in the environment. The engineered NP are thereby compared to natural products such as soot and organic colloids. To date only few quantitative analytical techniques for measuring NP in natural systems are available, which results in a serious lack of information about their occurrence in the environment. Results from ecotoxicological studies show that certain NP have effects on organisms under environmental conditions, though mostly at elevated concentrations. The next step towards an assessment of the risks of NP in the environment should therefore be to estimate the exposure to the different NP. It is also important to notice that most NP in technical applications are functionalized and therefore studies using pristine NP may not be relevant for assessing the behavior of the NP actually used. PMID:17658673

  6. Effects of humidity on shear behavior of bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Askarinejad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a naturally occurring biological composite, however its microstructure and hence its properties are very complex compared to the manmade composites. Due to optimization, it can be assumed that the variation in properties along the thickness of the culm be a smooth transition for better bonding strength between layers and to prevent non uniformity in stress concentration. As a consequence, biological structures are complicated and functionally graded. Hence, a realistic model that can capture the mechanical performance of bamboo is valuable in future design of robust multifunctional composites. This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical studies on the torsional (shear properties of bamboo. The hierarchical and multi-scale structure of bamboo and the distribution of micro-scale fibers are revealed via laser scanning and atomic force microscopy. This information was incorporated into a finite element model to analyze the mechanical behavior of bamboo under torsion and to estimate the shear modulus of bamboo along the fibers. Moreover, the effects of humidity and therefore water content on the mechanical properties of bamboo were evaluated by performing torsion tests on samples maintained in environments with different humidities. Increasing the humidity does not cause a drop in the shear modulus, however, a jump in the shear modulus did occur at around 60% humidity. Results of this study indicate that the highest strength values in samples occurred in environments with humidity levels between 60% and 80% and undergo a significant drop after that. In higher humidities, the samples behave more ductile.

  7. Behavioral effects of longitudinal training in cognitive reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Bryan T; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2014-04-01

    Although recent emotion regulation research has identified effective regulatory strategies that participants can employ during single experimental sessions, a critical but unresolved question is whether one can increase the efficacy with which one can deploy these strategies through repeated practice. To address this issue, we focused on one strategy, reappraisal, which involves cognitively reframing affective events in ways that modulate one's emotional response to them. With a commonly used reappraisal task, we assessed the behavioral correlates of four laboratory sessions of guided practice in down-regulating responses to aversive photos. Two groups received practice in one of two types of reappraisal tactics: psychological distancing and reinterpretation. A third no-regulation control group viewed images in each session without instructions to regulate. Three key findings were observed. First, both distancing and reinterpretation training resulted in reductions over time in self-reported negative affect. Second, distancing participants also showed a reduction over time in negative affect on baseline trials in which they responded naturally. Only distancing group participants showed such a reduction over and above the reduction observed in the no-regulation control group, indicating that it was not attributable to habituation. Third, only participants who distanced reported less perceived stress in their daily lives. The present results provide the first evidence for the longitudinal trainability of reappraisal in healthy adults using short courses of reappraisal practice, particularly using psychological distancing. PMID:24364856

  8. The Effect of Contracted Abstinence on College Students' Behavior toward Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Steven B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Assessed the relative effects of contracted abstinence and a class in alcoholism on college students' attitudes and behavior toward alcohol use. The alcohol class was effective in modifying self-reported drinking behavior,while contracted abstinence was an effective tool when used in the context of an alcohol class. (Author)

  9. Advance Organizers in Secondary Special Education Resource Classrooms: Effects on Student Engagement Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Student engagement and appropriate behaviors are essential for effective instruction in secondary special education classrooms. Research suggests that proactive engagement strategies and interventions can have a greater effect on overall classroom behaviors than negative consequences. A single case experiment measured the effects of…

  10. Extinction of Chained Instrumental Behaviors: Effects of Procurement Extinction on Consumption Responding

    OpenAIRE

    Thrailkill, Eric A.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental behavior often consists of sequences or chains of responses that minimally include procurement behaviors that enable subsequent consumption behaviors. In such chains, behavioral units are linked by access to one another and eventually to a primary reinforcer, such as food or a drug. The present experiments examined the effects of extinguishing procurement responding on consumption responding after training of a discriminated heterogeneous instrumental chain. Rats learned to make ...

  11. Effect Of Leadership Behavior On The Performance Of Micro-Financial Institutions In Kakamega County.

    OpenAIRE

    Kisiangani Benson Walela; Emily Mokeira Okwemba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Leadership behavior is key factor to performance of any organization. It is a human factor that enables a leader to influence the subordinates towards a given goal. Despite the increased emphasis on strong leadership behavior in teams there is a lack of integration concerning the relationship between leader behaviors and performance outcomes. Use of task-focused behaviors is related to perceived team effectiveness and productivity. The problem manifests itself in multiple ways in whi...

  12. Frequency effects on the scale and behavior of acoustic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentry, Michael B; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic streaming underpins an exciting range of fluid manipulation phenomena of rapidly growing significance in microfluidics, where the streaming often assumes the form of a steady, laminar jet emanating from the device surface, driven by the attenuation of acoustic energy within the beam of sound propagating through the liquid. The frequencies used to drive such phenomena are often chosen ad hoc to accommodate fabrication and material issues. In this work, we seek a better understanding of the effects of sound frequency and power on acoustic streaming. We present and, using surface acoustic waves, experimentally verify a laminar jet model that is based on the turbulent jet model of Lighthill, which is appropriate for acoustic streaming seen at micro- to nanoscales, between 20 and 936 MHz and over a broad range of input power. Our model eliminates the critically problematic acoustic source singularity present in Lighthill's model, replacing it with a finite emission area and enabling determination of the streaming velocity close to the source. At high acoustic power P (and hence high jet Reynolds numbers ReJ associated with fast streaming), the laminar jet model predicts a one-half power dependence (U∼P1/2∼ ReJ) similar to the turbulent jet model. However, the laminar model may also be applied to jets produced at low powers-and hence low jet Reynolds numbers ReJ-where a linear relationship between the beam power and streaming velocity exists: U∼P∼ReJ2. The ability of the laminar jet model to predict the acoustic streaming behavior across a broad range of frequencies and power provides a useful tool in the analysis of microfluidics devices, explaining peculiar observations made by several researchers in the literature. In particular, by elucidating the effects of frequency on the scale of acoustically driven flows, we show that the choice of frequency is a vitally important consideration in the design of small-scale devices employing acoustic streaming

  13. The lack of behavioral effects of fenbendazole: a medication for pinworm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Richard; Macinnis, Mika; Guilhardi, Paulo; Chamberland, Karen; Church, Russell

    2005-03-01

    Pinworm infection in rodent laboratories is common and often treated with fenbendazole, which is effective and has a low toxicity level. However, very little is known about the behavioral effects of the drug. The purpose of this study was to determine the behavioral effects of fenbendazole on rats tested by using various conditioning and timing procedures. These behavioral effects were examined both between animals (i.e., control versus medicated treatments) and within animals (baseline-treatment-baseline design). Fenbendazole reduced the detection of pinworm eggs, and it had no significant behavioral effects across multiple levels of analysis (e.g., from overall response rates to response patterns to interresponse intervals). All behavioral differences (e.g., discrimination ratios) were a result of task variables. These results suggest that behavioral studies are unlikely to be influenced by fenbendazole treatment given before or during a study.

  14. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson-Hanley C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function

  15. Effect of Educational Program to Encourage Safe Sexual Behaviors Among Addicted Men Refered to Substance Abuse Treatment Centers in Hamadan, Western Iran: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Babak Moeini; Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Hazavehei; Saeed Bashirian; Alireza Soltanian; Amir Abbas Mousali; Vahid Kafami

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unsafe sexual behaviors as important risky behaviors can expose individuals and society to dangerous infectious disease such as AIDS and viral hepatitis. Considering the high prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviors, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational programs to encourage safe sexual behaviors among substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan, Western Iran by applying the theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: This ...

  16. An analysis of valve train behavior considering stiffness effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To maintain the specific volumetric efficiency of a heavy-duty diesel engine, an understanding of the behavior of each part of the valve train system is very important. The stiffness of the valve train system has a strong influence on the behavior of the valve train than value clearance, heat-resistance, or the durability of parts. In this study, a geometrical cam design profile using a finite element model of the valve train system is suggested. The results of the valve behavior according to the change in stiffness is analyzed for further tuning of the valve train system

  17. The role of cognition in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prenger Rilana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral interventions typically focus on objective behavioral endpoints like weight loss and smoking cessation. In reality, though, achieving full behavior change is a complex process in which several steps towards success are taken. Any progress in this process may also be considered as a beneficial outcome of the intervention, assuming that this increases the likelihood to achieve successful behavior change eventually. Until recently, there has been little consideration about whether partial behavior change at follow-up should be incorporated in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs. The aim of this explorative review is to identify CEAs of behavioral interventions in which cognitive outcome measures of behavior change are analyzed. Methods Data sources were searched for publications before May 2011. Results Twelve studies were found eligible for inclusion. Two different approaches were found: three studies calculated separate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for cognitive outcome measures, and one study modeled partial behavior change into the final outcome. Both approaches rely on the assumption, be it implicitly or explicitly, that changes in cognitive outcome measures are predictive of future behavior change and may affect CEA outcomes. Conclusion Potential value of cognitive states in CEA, as a way to account for partial behavior change, is to some extent recognized but not (yet integrated in the field. In conclusion, CEAs should consider, and where appropriate incorporate measures of partial behavior change when reporting effectiveness and hence cost-effectiveness.

  18. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  19. Organizational Behavior Change: The Effectiveness of Behavior Modification Techniques with and without Participatory Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M.; Goldstein, Marc B.

    This study examines a naturally occurring experiment in a large urban hospital faced with budget cuts, in which departments were ordered to reduce employees' overtime without jeopardizing service quality. The study focuses on two departments that chose to use behavior modification techniques. In one department (Radiology) the intervention combined…

  20. Good behavior game: effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrish, H H; Saunders, M; Wolf, M M

    1969-01-01

    Out-of-seat and talking-out behaviors were studied in a regular fourth-grade class that included several "problem children". After baseline rates of the inappropriate behaviors were obtained, the class was divided into two teams "to play a game". Each out-of-seat and talking-out response by an individual child resulted in a mark being placed on the chalkboard, which meant a possible loss of privileges by all members of the student's team. In this manner a contingency was arranged for the inappropriate behavior of each child while the consequence (possible loss of privileges) of the child's behavior was shared by all members of this team as a group. The privileges were events which are available in almost every classroom, such as extra recess, first to line up for lunch, time for special projects, stars and name tags, as well as winning the game. The individual contingencies for the group consequences were successfully applied first during math period and then during reading period. The experimental analysis involved elements of both reversal and multiple baseline designs. PMID:16795208

  1. Effective Behavior and Instructional Support: A District Model for Early Identification and Prevention of Reading and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Carol; Sugai, George

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the development and 10-year implementation of the effective behavior and instructional support model in a midsized northwestern Oregon school district. The district experienced a sustained reduction in students' discipline referral rates, an increase in the percentage of students on track for early…

  2. Mild gastroenteritis with benign convulsions 22 cases of clinical observation and nursing of an infant%轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥22例临床观察和护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凤彩

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to observe the mild gastroenteritis with infants and young children the clinical characteristics of benign convulsion, and to give proper nursing method. Methods:our hospital on December 2011 - December 22, 2012 cases of infants and young children for treatment and analysis, and medication, mental nursing and convulsions. Observe patients nursing before and after seizures. Results: after a series of treatment and care, for children 6 months of folow-up work, found that the number of children have decreased significantly, after treatment, the number of children with significantly reduced, the contrast between the differences statisticaly significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: the mild gastritis with infants and young children benign convulsions under the nursing intervention can effectively control and improve the prognosis of the infant, worthy of popularization and application in clinic.%目的::观察轻度肠胃炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥的临床特点,并给予合适的护理方法。方法:我院对2011年12月-2012年12月22例婴幼儿进行治疗和分析,并进行用药、心理和惊厥方面的护理。观察患者护理前和护理后的惊厥次数。结果:在经过一系列的治疗和护理之后,对患儿进行为期6个月的随访工作,发现患儿发病次数有了明显的减少,治疗后,患儿的发病次数明显减少,两者之间对比差异具有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论:轻度胃炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥在护理干预下能够有效控制,提高婴幼儿的预后情况,值得在临床上推广应用。

  3. Adverse Consequences of Glucocorticoid Medication : Psychological, Cognitive, and Behavioral Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, Lewis L.; Schettler, Pamela J.; Brown, E. Sherwood; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Sternberg, Esther M.; Bender, Bruce G.; Bulloch, Karen; Cidlowski, John A.; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Fardet, Laurence; Joels, Marian; Leung, Donald Y. M.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Roozendaal, Benno; Van Rossum, Elisabeth F. C.; Ahn, Junyoung; Brown, David W.; Plitt, Aaron; Singh, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as

  4. Adverse consequences of glucocorticoid medication: psychological, cognitive, and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, L.L.; Schettler, P.J.; Brown, E.S.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Sternberg, E.M.; Bender, B.G.; Bulloch, K.; Cidlowski, J.A.; Kloet, E.R. de; Fardet, L.; Joels, M.; Leung, D.Y.; McEwen, B.S.; Roozendaal, B.; Rossum, E.F. van; Ahn, J.; Brown, D.W.; Plitt, A.; Singh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as

  5. Rodent Habitat On ISS: Spaceflight Effects On Mouse Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, A. E.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Padmanabhan, S.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Decadal Survey (2011), Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era, emphasized the importance of expanding NASA life sciences research to long duration, rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities supporting mouse studies in space were developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The first flight experiment carrying mice, Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1), was launched on Sept 21, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, SpaceX4, exposing the mice to a total of 37 days in space. Ground control groups were maintained in environmental chambers at Kennedy Space Center. Mouse health and behavior were monitored for the duration of the experiment via video streaming. Here we present behavioral analysis of two groups of five C57BL/6 female adult mice viewed via fixed camera views compared with identically housed Ground Controls. Flight (Flt) and Ground Control (GC) mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploratory behavior, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Mice propelled themselves freely and actively throughout the Habitat using their forelimbs to push off or by floating from one cage area to another, and they quickly learned to anchor themselves using tails and/or paws. Overall activity was greater in Flt as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior including the development of organized ‘circling’ or ‘race-tracking’ behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight and encompassed the primary dark cycle activity for the remainder of the experiment. We quantified the bout frequency, duration and rate of circling with respect to characteristic behaviors observed in the varying stages of the progressive development of circling: flipping utilizing two sides of the

  6. Studies on homocarnosine in cerebrospinal fluid in infancy and childhood. Part II. Homocarnosine levels in cerebrospinal fluid from children with epilepsy, febrile convulsion or meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H

    1981-01-01

    To clarify the pathophysiological role of homocarnosine in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in children, homocarnosine levels in CSF were determined in patients with epilepsy (32 cases), febrile convulsion (5 cases) and meningitis (42 cases) with a high speed amino acid autoanalyzer (Hitachi Co.). Mean homocarnosine levels in CSF of controlled epileptic children, uncontrolled epileptic children and febrile convulsion cases were 0.61 +/- 0.25 mumol/dl, 1.03 +/- 0.37 mumol/dl and 1.09 +/- 0.04 mumol/dl, respectively. High homocarnosine levels in CSF of children with uncontrolled epilepsy or febrile convulsion may indicate the reduced turnover rate from homocarnosine to GABA. In patients with meningitis, the unconscious states were accompanied by significantly lower homocarnosine levels in CSF (0.39 +/- 0.20 mumol/dl) than those in the patients with clear conscious states (0.9 +/- 0.31 mumol/dl, however, in patients with clear conscious states homocarnosine in CSF were almost the same as those of normal children (0.89 +/- 0.23 mumol/dl). These data suggest that homocarnosine in CSF might be related to the convulsive tendency and consciousness. PMID:7283086

  7. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson-Hanley C; Tureck K; Schneiderman RL

    2011-01-01

    Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Ex...

  8. Effects of implementing a token economy on teacher attending behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, N L; Allen, G J

    1975-01-01

    After systematic attempts to increase a teacher's positive responding to her first-grade students, a token-economy system was implemented as a "last resort". On-task student behavior and relative frequency of positive and negative teacher comments were systematically observed. Data indicated that institution of the token system was associated with a relatively higher percentage of positive than negative comments. Termination and re-implementation of the token system caused reversals of the teacher's behavior.

  9. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. PMID:22114543

  10. Nanostructuration Effect on the Thermal Behavior of Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana S M C; Santos, Luís M N B F

    2016-05-18

    This work shows how the nanostructuration of ionic liquids (ILs) governs the glass and melting transitions of the bistriflimide imidazolium-based [Cn C1 im][NTf2 ] and [Cn Cn im][NTf2 ] series, which highlights the trend shift that occurs at the critical alkyl size (CAS) of n=6. An initial increase in the glass temperature (Tg ) with an increase in the alkyl side chain was observed due to the intensification of the dispersive interactions (van der Waals). Above the CAS, the -CH2 - increment has the same effect in both glass and liquid states, which leads to a plateau in the glass transition after nanostructuration. The melting temperature (Tm ) of the [Cn C1 im][NTf2 ] and [Cn Cn im][NTf2 ] series presents a V-shaped profile. For the short-alkyl ILs, the -CH2 - increment affects the electrostatic ion pair interactions, which leads to an increase in the conformational entropy. The -CH2 - increment disturbs the packing ability of the ILs and leads to a higher entropy value (ΔslSm○ ) and consequently a decrease in Tm . Above the CAS, the -CH2 - contribution to the melting temperature becomes more regular, as a consequence of the nanostructuration of the IL into polar and nonpolar domains. The dependence of the alkyl chain on the temperature, enthalpy, and entropy of melting in the ILs above the CAS is very similar to the one observed for the alkane series, which highlights the importance of the nonpolar alkyl domains on the ILs thermal behavior.

  11. The Causal Effect of Education on Health Behaviors: Evidence From Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel, Aysit; Karaoglan, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    This study provides causal effect of education on health behaviors in Turkey which is a middle income developing country. Health Survey of the Turkish Statistical Institute for the years 2008, 2010 and 2012 are used. The health behaviors considered are smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, exercising and one health outcome namely, the body mass index (BMI). We examine the causal effect of education on these health behaviors and the BMI Instrumental variable approach ...

  12. 咪达唑仑鼻腔滴入控制小儿热性惊厥的探讨%Clinical study on treating children’s febrile convulsion with midazolam nasal drip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝栋; 江从春; 唐建宁; 王小春

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of midazolam nasal drip in the treatment of children’s febrile convulsion. Methods 42 children who suffered from febrile convulsion were randomly divided into two groups(the treament group and the control group). 0.2 mg/kg midazolam nasal drip was delivered to each member of the treament group,while 0.3~0.5 mg/kg diazepam was given to each member of the control group by intravenous injection. Compared and evaluated the control time,effective rate and safefy regarding treament of children’s febrile convulsion with midazolam nasal drip. Results Effective rate of treament group was 85.7%,while the control group was 90.5%. These weren’t significantly different from each other(P > 0.05). The control time of the treament group was(6.2 ±1.6)min,while the control group was(8.10 ±0.9)min(P<0.05). Both groups showed no obvious adverse reacitons. Conclusion It is effective and convenient to treat children’s febrile convulsion with midazolam nasal drip.%目的:探讨咪达唑仑鼻腔给药治疗小儿高热惊厥的有效性和安全性。方法选取小儿热性惊厥患儿42例,随机分为治疗组和对照组各21例。治疗组鼻腔内滴入咪达唑仑0.2 mg/kg,对照组给予地西泮0.3~0.5 mg/kg静脉缓慢推注。比较分析两组患儿的惊厥控制时间、有效率及安全性。结果治疗组和对照组有效率分别为85.7%和90.5%,组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗组患儿从到达医院急诊科至惊厥控制所用时间为(6.2±1.6)min,对照组为(8.1±0.9)min,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组均未发现明显不良反应。结论咪达唑仑鼻腔滴入可以有效地控制小儿热性惊厥,且更方便快捷。

  13. Healthcare-seeking behavior after seizures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavdekar Sandeep

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hardly any Indian data is available regarding practices employed by parents for preventing injuries and aspiration and controlling convulsions in children. Aims: To describe the health care-seeking behavior and practices employed by parents when a child has convulsions. Settings and Design: Prospective questionnaire-based study in a tertiary care hospital setting. Materials and Methods: Parents of children (age: 1 month -12 years admitted with history of convulsions were enrolled and information regarding demographic characteristics, time lag, preferred health care provider and measures taken in a convulsing child was elicited using a pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Demographic parameters and measures employed described as percentages. Results: One hundred and forty parents were interviewed. Seventy-six children had first episode. Forty-nine of 64 children with subsequent seizures had contact with a health care provider during the previous seizure episode. The median duration of seizures was 10 minutes (Mean: 54.15±366.39 min; but children were brought to the hospital after a median of 2 hours (Mean: 5.22±10.37 h. Measures such as smelling onions, oral administration of cold water, reading religious texts and insertion of mouth gag were employed. Although 45 with previous seizure-related health care contact agreed that they were informed about measures to be taken, none of them could remember more than one measure for preventing injuries and aspiration and controlling seizures. Only four narrated "per-rectal administration of diazepam" as a measure, although only one implemented it. Only four general practitioners used per-rectal diazepam to control seizures. Conclusions: Children with seizures reach health care providers after a considerable delay putting them at higher risk for developing neurological sequel. There is a need to develop appropriate strategies for disseminating information about "first aid

  14. Transgenerational effects of social stress on social behavior, corticosterone, oxytocin, and prolactin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Jessica A; Carini, Lindsay M; Spears, Stella L; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2014-04-01

    Social stressors such as depressed maternal care and family conflict are robust challenges which can have long-term physiological and behavioral effects on offspring and future generations. The current study investigates the transgenerational effects of an ethologically relevant chronic social stress on the behavior and endocrinology of juvenile and adult rats. Exposure to chronic social stress during lactation impairs maternal care in F0 lactating dams and the maternal care of the F1 offspring of those stressed F0 dams. The overall hypothesis was that the male and female F2 offspring of stressed F1 dams would display decreased social behavior as both juveniles and adults and that these behavioral effects would be accompanied by changes in plasma corticosterone, prolactin, and oxytocin. Both the female and male F2 offspring of dams exposed to chronic social stress displayed decreased social behavior as juveniles and adults, and these behavioral effects were accompanied by decreases in basal concentrations of corticosterone in both sexes, as well as elevated juvenile oxytocin and decreased adult prolactin in the female offspring. The data support the conclusion that social stress has transgenerational effects on the social behavior of the female and male offspring which are mediated by changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Social stress models are valuable resources in the study of the transgenerational effects of stress on the behavioral endocrinology of disorders such as depression, anxiety, autism, and other disorders involving disrupted social behavior.

  15. Effects of Interventions Based in Behavior Analysis on Motor Skill Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Kang, Minsoo; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2013-01-01

    Techniques based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be useful across a variety of settings to improve numerous behaviors. Specifically within physical activity settings, several studies have examined the effect of interventions based in ABA on a variety of motor skills, but the overall effects of these interventions are unknown.…

  16. Effects of Decision-Making Styles of School Administrators on General Procrastination Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Celai Teyyar

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Lack of habits such as effective time management, determination of priorities, and effective and productive use of time is one of several reasons for procrastination behaviors. Personality traits along with incorrect cognitive loads about the self and the environment are other reasons for procrastination behaviors. At this…

  17. Effects of Vibroacoustic Music on Challenging Behaviors in Individuals with Autism and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Andersson, Gunilla; Viding, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Vibroacoustic music has been proposed to be an effective treatment for individuals with developmental disorders and challenging behaviors. The present study experimentally tested the effects of vibroacoustic music on self-injurious, stereotypical, and aggressive destructive behaviors in 20 individuals with autism spectrum disorders and…

  18. Ethical leader behavior and leader effectiveness: the role of prototypicality and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kalshoven; D.N. den Hartog

    2009-01-01

    The study examines factors that mediate the impact of ethical leader behavior on leader effectiveness. Little is known about how ethical leadership impacts leader effectiveness. We hypothesized that prototypicality and trust sequentially mediate the relationship between ethical leader behavior and p

  19. Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use, and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.; Rockquemore, Kerry A.

    1998-01-01

    Examined 10th-grade data from the 1988 National Educational Longitudinal Study to investigate the effects of school uniforms on student attendance, behavior problems, substance use, and academic achievement. Data from public, private, and Catholic schools indicated that uniforms had no direct effect on substance use, attendance, or behavior, and a…

  20. Forward-Thinking Teens: The Effects of College Costs on Adolescent Risky Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Benjamin W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of college costs on teenagers' engagement in risky behaviors before they are old enough to attend college. Individuals with brighter prospects for future schooling attainment may engage in less drug and alcohol use and risky sexual activity because they have more to lose if such behaviors have harmful effects in…