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Sample records for behavior-based donor deferrals

  1. Low hemoglobin deferral in blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Mast, Alan E.

    2013-01-01

    Low hemoglobin deferral occurs in about 10% of attempted whole blood donations and commonly is a consequence of iron deficiency anemia. Pre-menopausal women often have iron deficiency anemia caused by menstruation and pregnancy and have low hemoglobin deferral on their first donation attempt. Frequent donors also develop iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia because blood donation removes a large amount of iron from the donor and the 56-day minimum inter-donation interval for donors in t...

  2. Questionnaire-Related Deferrals in Regular Blood Donors in Norway

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    Håkon Reikvam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary donation is a key issue in transfusion medicine. To ensure the safety of blood transfusions, careful donor selection is important. Although new approaches to blood safety have dramatically reduced the risks for infectious contamination of blood components, the quality and the availability of blood components depend on the willingness to donate and the reliability of the information given by the donors about their own health, including risk behavior. As donors who are deferred by the blood bank will be less motivated to return for donation, it is important to reduce the number of deferrals. The aims of the present study were to investigate the reasons for deferral of registered donors coming to the blood bank for donation, in order to identify areas of importance for donor education—as these deferrals potentially could be avoided by better donor comprehension. Deferral related to testing of donors is not included in this study as these deferrals are dependent on laboratory results and cannot be indentified by questionnaire or interview. Data were collected from all blood donors in a period for 18 months who came for blood donation at a large university hospital in Norway. 1 163 of the 29 787 regular donors, who showed up for donation, were deferred (3.9%. The main reasons were intercurrent illness (n=182 (15.6%, skin ulcers (n=170 (14.6%, and risk behaviour (n=127 (10.9%. In a community, intercurrent illnesses, skin ulcers, and potential risk behavior are the most frequent reasons for deferral of regular donors. Strategized effort on donor education is needed, as “failure to donate” reduces donor motivation.

  3. DONOR DEFERRAL PATTERN AMONG BLOOD DONORS IN BLOOD BANK OF A MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL OF CHHATTISGARH

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    Bhanu P .

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3 Years retrospective study conducted on “Donor Deferral Pattern among Blood Donors in Blood Bank’’ of a Medical College Hospital of Chhattisgarh. This study shows the major possible causes of deferrals for donation of blood in northern Chhattisgarh. Donor’s detail information on the donor deferral including the cause of deferral was recorded in deferral register. Donors deferred were analyzed and computed for study on the bas ic of medical examination. In the study done f ro m A ugust 2012 to July 2015 a total of 18773 donors were registered and the screened. Out of these 18153 were male and 620 were female. Among the male, 1486 were deferred which makes 8.18% of the total registe red. Among female, 339 were deferred which makes 54.67% of the total registered. The maximum numbers of deferrals were due to low Hb (17.97% the second most important cause for deferral in this region happens to be alcohol/ganja intake (11.61%. The third leading cause is skin puncture or ear piercing (10.57%. This figure is mainly due to professional donors who frequent around the hospital very often. Interestingly forth cause is deferral is medication (7.39% mostly over the counter drugs. Other major c ause for deferrals in descending order are low BP (6.68%, fever and cold (6.30%, hypertension (5.64%, underweight (4.54%, Typhoid (4.05%, menstrual cycle (3.39% and donated <3 month (2.41%. The least percentage of cause of deferral was due to breast feeding (0.10%. It is because of very low percentage of female donation. Strict screening of donor is compulsory to achieve safe blood equally important is to increase the number of voluntary donations with minimum deferral. To achieve this it is necessa ry to study and analyze various causes for donor deferral & categorize them under temporary & Permanent, so that temporary deferral can be converted to donations. Proper medical examination and Strict deferral system of the blood donors in blood banks redu ces the

  4. Blood donors on teratogenic drugs and donor deferral periods in a clinical situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S Y; Shin, Y H; Lee, S W; Shin, J Y; Kim, C H

    2012-05-01

    Deferral of blood donors taking teratogenic drugs is critical. From March 2008 to January 2009, we analysed stored blood specimens from donors who had taken teratogenic drugs and whose blood was transfused to women of childbearing age to determine the plasma concentration at the time of donation using high-performance liquid chromatography. In total, 167 specimens were examined. The numbers of specimens exceeding the quantification limit were 7, 39, 4, 2 and 1 for finasteride, isotretinoin, acitretin, etretinate and dutasteride, respectively. Finasteride was beyond the recommended drug deferral period in one specimen. These results may help create practical deferral policies. PMID:22211799

  5. Evaluation of blood donor deferral causes in a tertiary hospital, South India

    OpenAIRE

    John, Fred; Varkey, Mary Rithu

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study aims to analyze the donor deferral rates, various causes of deferrals and to take proper referral and follow up measures to decrease the temporary deferral rate by which we could increase the pool of voluntary donors without compromising on the quality of the blood and safety to the recipient.Methods: A two year retrospective study of donors, carried out in a tertiary hospital in south India, and also includes voluntary donors from outdoor camps conducted by blood bank during...

  6. Whole blood donor deferral analysis at Genera l hospital blood bank – A retrospective study.

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    Hinal Gajjar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A blood transfusion is a life saving procedure in many instances and it requir es an adequate supply of safe blood. The most important is the selection of blood donors by donor selection criteria. A large number of blood donors are deferred from donating blood for several reasons either temporarily or permanently. A shortage of safe blood donor is frequent and it is important to understand the causes of deferral of potential donors. Aims: 1. Primary objective of this study was to record and document the current rate and reasons for donor deferred in our blood bank. 2. Apply relevant findings to modify recruitment strategy for blood donors. Materials and methods: Data for WBD presenting for blood donation in a blood bank V S General Hospital and outdoor camps over two and half years from January 2011 to June 2013 were analysed retrospectively. National Guidelines were used for selection & deferral of WBD. Results: 3836 (11.16% WBD were deferred out of 34373 registered donors during the study period. Donor deferrals were tabulated into temporary and permanent reasons. Temporary deferrals were 3113 (81.15% and permanent deferrals were 723 (18.85%. The most common reasons were low haemoglobin (48.33%, high blood pressure (11.94%, underweight donors (7.95% and history of medication use (6.13% among total deferral donors. Majority of donors (47.16% deferred were between 18 -30 years. Females were found to have higher deferral rate (25.48% than males (10.76%. Discussion and conclusion: A deferral study in blood donors may shed light on the health status of general population which may affect the present and future blood supply. It is important to provide donors with a clear message on their deferral status so that most of temporary deferral donors will return for donation in future.

  7. Whole blood donor deferral analysis at a center in Western India

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    Agnihotri Naveen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Deferrals lead to loss of precious whole blood donors (WBD and blood units available for transfusion purposes. Knowledge of rate and causes of donor deferral can guide the recruitment strategy for WBD. Aim: To find the incidence and causes of deferral in Indian WBD and apply relevant findings to modify recruitment strategy for blood donors. Materials and Methods: Data for WBD presenting for donation in a blood center and outdoor camps over one and half year were analyzed retrospectively. National guidelines were used for selection and deferral of WBD. Result: 736 (11.6% WBD were deferred out of 6357 presenting for donation during the study period. Most (69.8% of the donors were deferred on physical examination and hemoglobin (Hb testing. Most common reasons for deferral were low Hb (55.8%, abnormal blood pressure (11.1%, medication (6.9% and underweight donors (2.9%. Significantly more volunteers were deferred than relative donors (13.97% vs 5.80%; P<0.000. Females were found to have higher deferral rate than males (53.5% vs 6.9%; P=0.000 and higher odds ratio for deferral (15.4. Donors older than 40 years of age had significantly higher chance of being deferred (P<0.05. Discussion and Conclusion: It is important to determine the rate and causes of WBD deferral to guide the recruitment and retention efforts at local, regional, and national level.

  8. Pre-donation deferral of blood donors in South Indian set-up: An analysis

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    Sundar P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is well known that quite a large number of apparently healthy donors are not able to donate blood successfully because of varied reasons. Aim: We want to analyze the rate and various reasons for deferrals. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of records of the donors, for 3 years, from January 2005 to December 2007 was done, in order to find out the rate and causes of deferral in four categories of age groups, both in male and female, in our Transfusion Medicine Centre, Bangalore, India. Result: There were 16,706 donors, of which 976 donors were deferred (5.84% for various reasons. Of the 16,706 donors registered for donation, females constituted only 11.27%. And deferral rate was about five times more for female (19.85% compared to male (4.06%. The three most common reasons for deferral in female were low hemoglobin levels, low body weight, and hypotension. The deferral rate was higher in the age group of 18-25 years and most common cause was low hemoglobin level. In male, the three most common reasons for deferral were hypertension, under weight, and low hemoglobin levels. The deferral rate varied from 4 to 15% as reported in the literature. The most common cause of deferral in our study and in several studies available in the literature is the same.

  9. Analysis of efforts to maintain safe donor in main donor pool after completion of temporary deferral period

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    Ripal Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Voluntary blood donation is not satisfactory all over India. In India, about 55% of donation is through voluntary non-remunerated blood donors (VNRBD. However, about one third already motivated blood donors are deferred due to stringent screening criteria, either temporarily or permanently. The temporarily deferred donors could be a good source of blood donation after deferral period. Aims: The present study is carried out to know retrieval of blood donors those who are deferred temporarily. Design: The present study is carried out in the Regional Blood Transfusion Centre of Western India. All donors screened as per the guideline and deferred donors are categorized as temporary and permanently deferred donors. Materials and Methods: From temporarily deferred donors, reason for deferral is considered. As per reason of deferral, time duration for recalling the donor is defined. Based on this, donor is called back to donate again. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test is applied. Result: A total of 33% donors were deferred either temporarily or permanently. In the repeat donors (5.32% deferral rate was significantly higher than first time (1.32% donors. Significant female preponderance was observed (15.05% vs 2.51%. Majority of temporarily deferred donors were less than 40 years of age (80.80%, graduate (82.90%, from low income group (62.90% and profession was service (48.10%. Conclusion: Low hemoglobin (78.30% was the most common reason of temporary deferral, both in first time and repeat donors (71.00%. Efforts to increase the hemoglobin in the repeat donors will improve the donor retention and overall blood safety can be increased.

  10. Analysis of Pre-Donation Deferral Causes in Blood Donors at a Rural Medical Institute of Rohilkhand Region, India

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswal, Milan; Maheshwari, Sonam; Saxena, Ratna; Yadav, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Deferral of potential blood donors due to various reasons at the time of pre-donation medical examination and interrogation leads to the scarcity of blood for the treatment of patients requiring blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to analyze the reasons for deferral and the demographic profile of these deferred blood donors, so that necessary changes in donor recruitment policies could be made in future.Methods: Deferral record of five years from January 2010 to December 2014 w...

  11. Blood donor deferral: time for change? An evidence-based analysis

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    Borra V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vere Borra,1 Giovani Vandewalle,1 Hans Van Remoortel,1 Veerle Compernolle,1,2 Emmy De Buck,1 Philippe Vandekerckhove1–31Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, Mechelen, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Ghent, Ghent, 3Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Donor selection remains an important part in the safety of the blood supply all over the world. Yet, donor deferral criteria seem to be strongly based on the precautionary principle protecting safety and quality, and on supply and expense considerations. This review therefore provides an overview of the available evidence on donor exclusion criteria, as well as on their cost-effectiveness, for the most frequent reasons of donor deferral in our region. PubMed was queried to retrieve primary research studies, systematic reviews, and health technology assessments (HTAs concerning donor exclusion criteria. With a similar approach, HTAs about the different blood-banking safety interventions were included. Reasons for donor deferral were recorded via the blood bank information system of the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders. Seven systematic reviews were identified: four on donor safety (hypotension, hypertension/type 2 diabetes, epilepsy, and higher age and three on recipient safety (hemochromatosis, men who have sex with men, and endoscopy. Forty-three low-quality observational studies were included, as well as 16 HTAs: three about donor exclusion criteria and 13 cost-utility analyses about blood-banking safety interventions. In general, the available evidence for deferral reasons was of low quality, and for 60% of the top 30 reasons for excluding donors, no evidence was found. Blood banking shows its unique position as many safety measures far exceed the normally accepted cost of €50,000/quality-adjusted life-years. The historical model based on the precautionary principle and on supply and expense considerations provides adequate supplies of

  12. The evaluation of blood donor deferral causes in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, N.; Khoza, S.; Van Hulst, M.; Postma, M.J.; Mvere, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Donor selection is one of the first steps in blood donation aimed at improving the safety of blood and blood products. It is the only line of protection for donors and against certain infections for which testing is not performed. There is paucity of published data on reasons for donor d

  13. Questionnaire-Related Deferrals in Regular Blood Donors in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Håkon Reikvam; Kjersti Svendheim; Anne S. Røsvik; Tor Hervig

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary donation is a key issue in transfusion medicine. To ensure the safety of blood transfusions, careful donor selection is important. Although new approaches to blood safety have dramatically reduced the risks for infectious contamination of blood components, the quality and the availability of blood components depend on the willingness to donate and the reliability of the information given by the donors about their own health, including risk behavior. As donors who are deferred by the...

  14. Blood donor deferral: time for change? An evidence-based analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Borra V; Vandewalle G; Van Remoortel H; Compernolle V; De Buck E; Vandekerckhove P

    2016-01-01

    Vere Borra,1 Giovani Vandewalle,1 Hans Van Remoortel,1 Veerle Compernolle,1,2 Emmy De Buck,1 Philippe Vandekerckhove1–31Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, Mechelen, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Ghent, Ghent, 3Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Donor selection remains an important part in the safety of the blood supply all over the world. Yet, donor deferral criteria seem to be strongly based on the precautionary princip...

  15. Blood donor deferral: time for change? An evidence-based analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Borra,Vere; Vandewalle,Giovani; van Remoortel, Hans; Compernolle, Veerle; De Buck, Emmy

    2016-01-01

    Vere Borra,1 Giovani Vandewalle,1 Hans Van Remoortel,1 Veerle Compernolle,1,2 Emmy De Buck,1 Philippe Vandekerckhove1–31Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, Mechelen, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Ghent, Ghent, 3Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Donor selection remains an important part in the safety of the blood supply all over the world. Yet, donor deferral criteria seem to be strongly based on the precautionary pri...

  16. Donor deferral due to anemia: A tertiary care center-based study

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    Bahadur Shalini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The minimum hemoglobin cutoff for blood donation in India is 12.5 gm% for both male and female donors and the minimum donation interval is 3 months. Donation of one unit of blood results in decrease in hemoglobin by 1 gm% and loss of 200-250 mg of iron. Donor deferral due to anemia is one of the major reasons of temporary rejection of blood donors. In the absence of further workup or advise, it results in loss of valuable donor base. Aim and Objective: To provide baseline information regarding the prevalence and spectrum of anemia in prospective blood donors to help plan a future strategy for donor management. Materials and Methods: Hemoglobin testing of donors was performed using Hemocue and Copper sulfate specific gravity method. Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid sample of all the donors who failed either or both the screening tests was tested on automated analyzer for evaluation of hemoglobin and red blood cell indices. Results: Of all the donors, 15.5% were deferred due to anemia. Prevalence of anemia in prospective blood donors was 1.8%. It was significantly higher in female donors compared with male donors (34.2% vs 1.2%. The most common type of anemia was normocytic normochromic.

  17. Analysis of predonation loss of blood donors due to deferrals - in a tertiary care hospital set up

    OpenAIRE

    Shreedevi S Bobati; Vijaya Basavraj; Pallavi Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Context: Blood is a living tissue that is transfused into another human body and hence blood safety is a major issue in transfusion medicine. It is well-known that a large number of apparently healthy donors are deferred from successful blood donation because of varied reasons. They are the potential motivated donors the society is losing. Hence, it is very important to analyze the reasons for deferral and retain the motivated donors. Aims: The objective of this study was to determine the...

  18. Risk factors for deferral due to low hematocrit and iron depletion among prospective blood donors in a Brazilian center

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    Eloísa Tedeschi Dauar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Deferral of blood donors due to low hematocrit and iron depletion is commonly reported in blood banks worldwide. This study evaluated the risk factors for low hematocrit and iron depletion among prospective blood donors in a large Brazilian blood center.METHOD: A case-control study of 400 deferred donors due to low hematocrit and 456 eligible whole blood donors was conducted between 2009 and 2011. Participants were interviewed about selected risk factors for anemia, and additional laboratory tests, including serum ferritin, were performed. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between predictors and deferral due to low hematocrit in the studied population and iron depletion in women.RESULTS: Donors taking aspirins or iron supplementation, those who reported stomachache, black tarry stools or hematochezia, and women having more than one menstrual period/month were more likely to be deferred. Risk factors for iron depletion were repeat donation and being deferred at the hematocrit screening. Smoking and lack of menstruation were protective against iron depletion.CONCLUSION: This study found some unusual risk factors related to gastrointestinal losses that were associated with deferral of donors due to low hematocrit. Knowledge of the risk factors can help blood banks design algorithms to improve donor notification and referral.

  19. Blood Donors on Medication - an Approach to Minimize Drug Burden for Recipients of Blood Products and to Limit Deferral of Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christian D K; Stichtenoth, Dirk O; Wichmann, Michael G; Schaefer, Christof; Szinicz, Ladislaus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood products derived from donors on medication can contain drugs which might pose a risk for the recipients or influence the quality of the product itself. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To judge the eligibility of blood donors on medication, 4 drug classes have been formed with respect to their pharmacological properties, and blood products have been divided in accordance with their single-donor plasma contents. RESULTS: For drugs with dose-dependent pharmacodynamics, no deferral periods are necessary for donation of blood products containing less than 50 ml single-donor plasma for application to adults. Waiting periods of t(max) + 5 t(1/2) were calculated for the other blood products. Teratogenic drugs do not require special considerations (exception: retinoids, thalidomide and lenalidomide, dutasteride or finasteride with waiting periods for all blood products). A deferral period of t(max) + 24 t(1/2) is proposed for every blood product from blood donors on genotoxic drugs. Drugs without systemic effects can be neglected. Irreversible inhibitors of platelet function cause a 10-day waiting period if production of platelet concentrates is intended. CONCLUSION: Donors on medication are allowed to donate blood for blood products containing less than 50 ml plasma of a single donor, like red blood cell concentrates, for the use in adults without deferral periods, except those taking retinoids, thalidomide, lenalidomide, dutasteride, finasteride, or genotoxic drugs. PMID:20823991

  20. 78 FR 50421 - Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Donor Questioning, Deferral, Reentry, and Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... deferral recommendations. In the Federal Register of July 6, 2012 (77 FR 40068), FDA announced the... Communication, Outreach and Development (HFM-40), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), Food and... CONTACT: Melissa Reisman, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (HFM-17), Food and...

  1. 77 FR 40068 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Donor Questioning, Deferral, Reentry, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... scientific workshop. In addition, FDA is aware that dengue viruses are endemic in Quintana Roo and Jalisco. FDA is currently evaluating the risk of dengue virus infections in U.S. blood donors that are...

  2. Comparison of deferral rates using a computerized versus written blood donor questionnaire: a randomized, cross-over study [ISRCTN84429599

    OpenAIRE

    Bourque Ronald; Haynes R Brian; Ali Anita; Swanson Graham; Hayward Robert; Sellors John W; Moore Karen-Ann; Lohfeld Lynne; Dalby Dawn; Howard Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Self-administered computer-assisted blood donor screening strategies may elicit more accurate responses and improve the screening process. Methods Randomized crossover trial comparing responses to questions on a computerized hand-held tool (HealthQuiz, or HQ), to responses on the standard written instrument (Donor Health Assessment Questionnaire, or DHAQ). Randomly selected donors at 133 blood donation clinics in the area of Hamilton, Canada participated from 1995 to 1996....

  3. Comparison of deferral rates using a computerized versus written blood donor questionnaire: a randomized, cross-over study [ISRCTN84429599

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    Bourque Ronald

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-administered computer-assisted blood donor screening strategies may elicit more accurate responses and improve the screening process. Methods Randomized crossover trial comparing responses to questions on a computerized hand-held tool (HealthQuiz, or HQ, to responses on the standard written instrument (Donor Health Assessment Questionnaire, or DHAQ. Randomly selected donors at 133 blood donation clinics in the area of Hamilton, Canada participated from 1995 to 1996. Donors were randomized to complete either the HQ or the DHAQ first, followed by the other instrument. In addition to responses of 'yes' and 'no' on both questionnaires, the HQ provided a response option of 'not sure'. The primary outcome was the number of additional donors deferred by the HQ. Results A total of 1239 donors participated. Seventy-one potential donors were deferred as a result of responses to the questionnaires; 56.3% (40/71 were deferred by the DHAQ, and an additional 43.7% (31/71 were deferred due to risks identified by the HQ but not by the DHAQ. Fourteen donors self-deferred; 11 indicated on the HQ that they should not donate blood on that day but did not use the confidential self-exclusion option on the DHAQ, and three used the self-exclusion option on the DHAQ but did not indicate that they should not donate blood on the HQ. The HQ identified a blood contact or risk factor for HIV/AIDS or sexually transmitted infection that was not identified by the DHAQ in 0.1% to 2.7% of donors. Conclusion A self-administered computerized questionnaire may increase risk reporting by blood donors.

  4. Reasons for blood donation deferral in sub-Saharan Africa: experience in Ivory Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Kouao, MD; Dembelé, B; N'Goran, LK; Konaté, S.; Bloch, E.; Murphy, EL; Lefrère, JJ

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Blood donor selection is important to ensure the safety of both donors and recipients. There is a paucity of data on reasons for blood donor deferral in Ivory Coast. The aim of this study was to identify the reasons for predonation deferral at a blood collection site at General Hospital, Yopougon Attié in Abidjan. Materials and Methods: The investigators conducted a retrospective audit of data pertaining to donor deferral for blood donors that presented to the general hospital o...

  5. Understanding non-return after a temporary deferral from giving blood: a qualitative study

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    Hillgrove Tessa L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reasons why deferral from blood donation reduces the likelihood of future return remain unclear. This aim of this study was to investigate possible reasons why deferral has such a dramatic impact on donation patterns. Methods Qualitative methods were used to explore donors’ motivations to give blood, their experiences of temporary deferral, and their intentions to return once eligible. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 donors in the two weeks following a temporary deferral due to a low haemoglobin concentration. The Framework approach was used to analyse data and identify themes associated with prompt return, ascertained from Blood Service records. Results We found that, predominantly, individuals give blood because it represents an easy and convenient way to help others, and provides personal rewards, such as enhancing positive self-concepts and valuable knowledge about health. Deferral disrupts the habit of regular donation, and additionally, introduces an element of practical and emotional hassle to what is generally seen as an undemanding activity. Return after deferral was related to four aspects of a person and their context: an individual’s other obligations, especially parenting; whether donation arrangements were facilitated by a range of supports; the presence of a strong “blood donor” identity; and whether deferral left the donor feeling valued and appreciated. Conclusions Aspects of the deferral process need to be improved to ensure individuals feel valued, and continued attention should be given to the convenience of donation, especially for those with competing obligations.

  6. Impacto da recusa de candidatos à doação de sangue devido aos critérios para prevenção da doença de Creutzfeldt-Jacob e sua variante Impact of deferral criteria on prevention of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and its variant among blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Cesar Almeida Neto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Creutzfeldt-Jacob (CJD e sua variante (vCJD são doenças neurológicas fatais, degenerativas, com longo período de incubação. Recentemente, um possível caso de transmissão de vCJD por transfusão sangüínea foi descrito. A partir de 2001 adotamos critérios para recusa de candidatos baseados em dados da literatura, Portarias e Resoluções do Ministério da Saúde. Avaliamos retrospectivamente o porcentual de recusas anuais na triagem clínica de 1.015.587 candidatos à doação, referentes aos critérios relacionados a CJD e vCJD, de janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2004. Este porcentual correspondeu a 0,0049% em 2001, 0,0051% em 2002, 0,092% em 2003 e 0,098% em 2004, representando recusa definitiva de 726 (0,068% candidatos. A causa mais freqüente de recusa por CJD ou vCJD foi permanência no Reino Unido > 6 meses (259 recusas seguido de transplante de córnea (203 recusas e uso de hormônio do crescimento de origem humana (151 recusas. Embora o número de recusas relacionados a CJD e sua variante seja baixo em nossa Instituição, observamos um aumento gradativo anual, que provavelmente relaciona-se à adição de novos critérios. Diferentemente de outros países, estas recusas não afetaram nosso estoque de sangue e componentes. Com os dados obtidos, consideramos que, na nossa população, podemos manter o "Princípio da Precaução" sem causar prejuízo no fornecimento de sangue e componentes aos nossos pacientes.Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD and its variant (vCJD are degenerative and fatal neurological diseases with a long incubation period. Recent studies have described a potential association between vCJD and blood transmission. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the deferral criteria for CJD and vCJD in our institution since their implementation in 2001. Based on scientific data, we have adopted deferral criteria for the prevention of CJD and vCJD through blood transfusion since 2001. Blood donors are

  7. Confidence as a Source of Deferral

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Brian

    2014-01-01

    One apparent reason for deferring a decision – abstaining from choosing, leaving the decision open to be taken by someone else, one’s later self, or nature – is for lack of sufficient confidence in the relevant beliefs. This paper develops an axiomatic theory of decision in situations where a costly deferral option is available that captures this source of deferral. Drawing on it, a preliminary behavioural comparison with other accounts of deferral, such as those based on information asymmetr...

  8. 75 FR 25268 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; REDS-II-Does Pre-Donation Behavioral Deferral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... researchers then estimated the impact on blood donor selection and disease marker testing using the results... collection centers, donor deferral is initiated either by the blood center staff, based on information... safety'' concept, increase the safety of the blood supply, studies with sufficiently large sample size...

  9. THE STUDY OF DEFERRED BLOOD DONORS AT TERTIARY LEVEL HOSPITAL BASED BLOOD BANK OF SOUTH GUJARAT

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    Snehal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pre - donation donor screening is must for the safety of the blood donor and recipient. Deferrals lead to loss of precious whole blood donors and blood units available for transfusion purposes. AIM: T o record and document the current rate and reasons for donor deferral in our tertiary care hospital based blood bank to modify recruitment strategy for blood donors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study was conducted by retrospective data analysis of whole blood donors ( V oluntary/ R eplacement , arrived for donating bloo d at blood bank and in outdoor camps , during the period 1 st July 2010 to 30 th June 2014. The donor selection was done by pre - donation screening tests like questionnaire followed by physical examination and haemoglobin estimation. National guidelines were used for selection and deferral of donors. The deferred donor’s data was analyzed statistically. RESULT: Out of 34380 blood donors who came to donate blood, 31049 (89 . 63 %, out of which 97 . 51 % voluntary donors were eligible for d onation and 3331 (10 . 37% blood donors were deferred. The deferral rate among male population 7 . 47% and female population 42 . 09% were observed. Odds ratio for deferral in female donors was 8 . 99, implying thereby that chance of deferral in females is nearly 9 times higher as compared to males. The five leading causes for male donor deferral were low haemoglobin, hypertension, medication, and malaria & alcohol intake in last 48 hours & for the female donor deferral were low haemoglobin, menstruation, medication, low weight & hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: Studying the frequency and the different causes of donor deferral will help to identify sections of the population which could be targeted for increasing and retaining of the existing pool of voluntary blood donors and also to guide and provide the necessary essential database for the policy design and programme implementation at local, regional, and national level.

  10. Deadline Differentiated Pricing of Deferrable Electric Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Bitar, Eilyan; Xu, Yunjian

    2014-01-01

    A large fraction of the total electric load is comprised of end-use devices whose demand for energy is inherently deferrable in time. Of interest is the potential to leverage on such latent flexibility in demand to absorb variability in power supplied from intermittent renewable generation. The challenge, however, lies in designing incentives to reliably induce the desired response in demand. With an eye to electric vehicle charging, we propose a novel forward market for differentiated electr...

  11. Blood donor management in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Zhong; Stevens, Lori; Sadler, Andrew; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2014-07-01

    Despite a steady increase in total blood collections and voluntary non-remunerated blood donors, China continues to have many challenges with its blood donation system. The country's donation rate remains low at 9%o, with over 60% of donors being first-time donors. Generally there is a lack of adequate public awareness about blood donation. The conservative donor selection criteria, the relatively long donation interval, and the small donation volume have further limited blood supply. To ensure a sufficient and safe blood supply that meets the increasing clinical need for blood products, there is an urgent need to strengthen the country's blood donor management. This comprehensive effort should include educating and motivating more individuals especially from the rural areas to be involved in blood donation, developing rational and evidence-based selection criteria for donor eligibility, designing a donor follow-up mechanism to encourage more future donations, assessing the current donor testing strategy, improving donor service and care, building regional and national shared donor deferral database, and enhancing the transparency of the blood donation system to gain more trust from the general public. The purpose of the review is to provide an overview of the key process of and challenges with the blood donor management system in China. PMID:25254023

  12. 26 CFR 1.409A-2 - Deferral elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deferral elections. 1.409A-2 Section 1.409A-2...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.409A-2 Deferral elections. (a) Initial elections as to the time and form of payment—(1) In general. A plan that is, or constitutes part of,...

  13. Sex, risk, and education in donor educational materials: review and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, M Ariel; Yomtovian, Roslyn

    2013-01-01

    Food and Drug Administration guidelines prohibit men who have sex with men (MSM) from donating blood to prevent the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS). Although the deferral criteria leave "sex" undefined, donor educational materials distributed before the health questionnaire often offer a definition. This study analyzes educational materials for their contribution to the donation process and construction of HIV/AIDS. It applies a discourse analysis approach to a sample (n = 52) of such materials obtained in summer 2009 from blood collection organizations listed in the AABB (now referred to as "Advancing Transfusion and Cellular Therapies Worldwide") Directory of Community Blood Centers and Hospital Blood Banks [AABB. Directory of Community Blood Centers and Hospital Blood Banks. Bethesda, MD: AABB; 2009]. It finds that when materials define sex, the definition is "vaginal, oral, or anal sex whether or not a condom or other protection was used," and when materials define HIV/AIDS risk behaviors, the definition is, with few exceptions, "sexual contact with an infected person or by sharing needles or syringes used for injecting drugs." Widespread use of these definitions demonstrates the influence of "Making Your Blood Donation Safe." Through analysis of this document and variations upon it, this research finds that the category MSM therefore provides one component of the construction of HIV/AIDS as the providence of MSM, together with heterosexual Africans and other risk populations, conflating group membership with individual risk. Deferring MSM therefore fails as a behavior-based deferral because it collapses multiple sexual behaviors with varying risks into a single risk category. It constructs all MSM as HIV positive and implicitly constructs non-MSM as risk-free. PMID:22749059

  14. Profile of blood donors with serologic tests reactive for the presence of syphilis in São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida Neto, C; Murphy, EL; McFarland, W.; Junior, AM; Chen, S.; Chamone, DA; Sabino, EC

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Syphilis screening of blood donors is a common practice worldwide, but very little is known about the meaning of a positive serologic test for syphilis in blood donors and the risk profile of these donors. The aim of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics and risk behaviors of blood donors with recent and past syphilis and their implications for blood bank testing and deferral strategies. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Demographic characteristics, category of donat...

  15. 20 CFR 606.41 - High unemployment deferral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment (as determined for purposes of 20 CFR 615.12) under the State law with respect to the period... 20 CFR part 615 must have averaged a percentage equalling or exceeding 7.5 percent. (c) Schedule of... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High unemployment deferral. 606.41...

  16. Tattoos and transfusion-transmitted disease risk: implications for the screening of blood donors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de A. Nishioka

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Having a tattoo has been associated with serological evidence of hepatitis B and C viruses, as well as human immunodeficiency virus infections and syphilis; all of these are known to be transmissible by blood transfusion. These associations are of higher magnitude for individuals with nonprofessionally-applied tattoos and with two or more tattoos. Tattoos are common among drug addicts and prisoners, conditions that are also associated with transfusion-transmitted diseases. We examined the implications of these associations for the screening of blood donors in Brazil. Numbers of individuals who would be correctly or unnecessarily deferred from blood donation on the basis of the presence of tattoos, and on their number and type, were calculated for different prevalence situations based on published odds ratios. If having a tattoo was made a deferral criterion, cost savings (due to a reduced need for laboratory testing and subsequent follow-up would accrue at the expense of the deferral of appropriate donors. Restricting deferral to more `at-risk' sub-groups of tattooed individuals would correctly defer less individuals and would also reduce the numbers of potential donors unnecessarily deferred. Key factors in balancing cost savings and unnecessary deferrals include the magnitude of the pool of blood donors in the population, the prevalence of individuals with tattoos and the `culture' of tattoos in the population. Tattoos can therefore be an efficient criterion for the screening of blood donors in certain settings, a finding that requires corroboration from larger population-based studies.

  17. 77 FR 65627 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Deferral for CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... this document, whenever ``we,'' ``us,'' or ``our'' is used, we mean EPA. On April 18, 2012, (77 FR... provisions on May 13, 2011 (76 FR 27898). In addition to the incorporation of the Biomass Deferral, the SIP... (76 FR 27898). However, the Biomass Deferral is a separate rulemaking action and was not addressed...

  18. 77 FR 23178 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Deferral for CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... authorities and sources (75 FR 31514). EPA accomplished this by tailoring the applicability criteria that... approve that SIP revision (76 FR 27898). B. EPA's Biomass Deferral Rule On July 20, 2011, EPA promulgated... rulemaking at 76 FR 43490. The biomass deferral delays until July 21, 2014 the consideration of CO...

  19. 8 CFR 208.17 - Deferral of removal under the Convention Against Torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Against Torture. 208.17 Section 208.17 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION... Deferral of removal under the Convention Against Torture. (a) Grant of deferral of removal. An alien who... Convention Against Torture; and is subject to the provisions for mandatory denial of withholding of...

  20. 29 CFR 1420.9 - FMCS deferral to parties' own private interest arbitration procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false FMCS deferral to parties' own private interest arbitration... FMCS deferral to parties' own private interest arbitration procedures. (a) The Service will defer to the parties' own privately agreed to interest arbitration procedure and decline to appoint a Board...

  1. 26 CFR 1.457-5 - Individual limitation for combined annual deferrals under multiple eligible plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual limitation for combined annual... Gross Income Included § 1.457-5 Individual limitation for combined annual deferrals under multiple... taking into account the combined annual deferral for the participant for any taxable year under...

  2. Effectiveness of blood donor questionnaire directed at risk factor for transfusion transmitted infections in Pakistani population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Salamat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deferring blood donors who admit to high-risk behavior on questioning are likely to eliminate those in window period for transfusion transmitted infections (TTI. However, many questions have been implemented in some countries as part of donor history questionnaire, based on precautionary principle and not on evidence, and can result in increased donor losses. This study aims to identify effective risk-directed questions having high predictive value, in local context which can form part of blood donor deferral policies. For this, a case control study in a hospital blood bank having donation services was carried out prospectively over a period of three years. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty donors, who were repeatedly reactive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV with EIA, and syphilis with TPHA, were the cases. Eight hundred and eighty four controls were the donors who tested negative for all TTI test. All donors answered seven hepatitis risk directed questions and their responses and reactivity status for TTI were used for statistical analysis with SPSS ver. 15. Results: Positive predictive value for history of jaundice at any age for HBsAg was 20%, while PPV for history of surgery in previous six months for both HBsAg and anti-HCVHCV was also around 20%, based on pretest probability of 7%. The post-test probability for these questions was around 30%. Odds ratios with 95% CI did not reveal any significant association of hepatitis with any of seven questions. Donor losses after deferring on basis of two questions were 5.3% per year, while deferral rate after all seven questions was 20%. Conclusions: Donors should be permanently deferred if there is history of jaundice at any age, while deferral period after surgery should be one year. Other risk-directed questions should not be used to defer donors. Donor deferral policies should be evidence based and questions with proven efficacy should be made part of donor history

  3. Ethical Aspects of Blood Donors and the Recipients of Their Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. M. van den Burg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To date medical care is inextricable based on blood donors and blood products. The continuing increase and intensification of tests and guidelines also results in a change in deferral and abnormal test results. Donors and recipients of their blood are faced with this information and are confronted with a kaleidoscope of thoughts and emotions. The discussion with respect to paid versus nonpaid donation is not new, but other aspects are less often discussed. We describe these other aspects for donors and recipients of their blood and hope to open the ethical discussion; if and to what extent we should have limits?

  4. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-1T - Coordination of loss deferral rules and wash sale rules (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Coordination of loss deferral rules and wash..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(b)-1T Coordination of loss deferral rules and wash sale rules (temporary). (a) In...

  5. The Perils of Behavior-Based Personalization

    OpenAIRE

    Juanjuan Zhang

    2008-01-01

    "Behavior-based personalization" has gained popularity in recent years, whereby businesses offer personalized products based on consumers' purchase histories. This paper highlights two perils of behavior-based personalization in competitive markets. First, although purchase histories reveal consumer preferences, competitive exploitation of such information damages differentiation, similar to the classic finding that behavior-based price discrimination intensifies price competition. With endog...

  6. 26 CFR 1.402(g)-0 - Limitation on exclusion for elective deferrals, table of contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., table of contents. 1.402(g)-0 Section 1.402(g)-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Plans, Etc. § 1.402(g)-0 Limitation on exclusion for elective deferrals, table of contents. This section contains the captions that appear in § 1.402(g)-1. § 1.402(g)-1Limitation on exclusion for...

  7. 78 FR 13497 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Deferral for CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... talley.david@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background On September 7, 2012 (77 FR 55171), EPA... (77 FR 68721). II. Summary of SIP Revision EPA incorporated the biomass deferral into the Code of... Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an information collection burden...

  8. 8 CFR 1208.17 - Deferral of removal under the Convention Against Torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Against Torture. 1208.17 Section 1208.17 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW... Withholding of Removal § 1208.17 Deferral of removal under the Convention Against Torture. (a) Grant of... entitled to protection under the Convention Against Torture; and is subject to the provisions for...

  9. 75 FR 78726 - Agency Information Collection Activities: North American Free Trade Agreement Duty Deferral

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... requirement concerning the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Duty Deferral. This request for comment...: 1651-0071. Abstract: The provisions of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) were adopted by the U.S. with the enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 1993...

  10. Age Differences in Choice Deferrals as Functions of Interattribute Conflict and Decision Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethtel, Olivia L.; Chen, Yiwei

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine age differences in choice deferral when young and older adults make high vs. low conflict decisions in two domains (i.e., health and commodity). Sixty young and 60 older adults were presented with four different decision scenarios in which they could either choose an option or use choice…

  11. Is having sex with other men a risk factor for transfusion-transmissible infections in male blood donors in Western countries? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmy De Buck

    Full Text Available Although increased prevalence of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI among "men who have sex with men" (MSM has been well documented, the exclusion of MSM as blood donors is contested. The aim of this systematic review is to find studies that describe the risk of TTI in MSM blood donors.We searched MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cinahl, and Web of Science, and used GRADE for determining evidence quality. We included studies comparing MSM and non-MSM blood donors (or people eligible to give blood, living in areas most relevant for our Blood Service.Out of 18 987 articles, 14 observational studies were included. Two studies directly compared MSM with non-MSM donors showing that MSM donors have a statistically significant higher risk of HIV-1 infections. In one of these studies it was shown that this was related to recent (< 12 months MSM contact. In two additional studies no evidence was shown in favour of a certain deferral period for MSM. Ten studies, applying permanent deferral for MSM, compared infected versus non-infected donors. One study found that MSM is a statistically significant risk factor for HIV-1 infection in blood donors. For other TTI such as HBV or HCV, an increased risk of infection could not be demonstrated, because the precision of the results was affected by the low numbers of donors with MSM as risk factor, or because of risk of bias in the included studies. All studies included low level evidence, because of risk of bias and imprecision of the results.High-quality studies investigating the risk of TTI in MSM who donate blood are scarce. The available evidence suggests a link between MSM blood donors and HIV-1 infection, but is too limited to be able to unambiguously/clearly recommend a certain deferral policy.

  12. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute retrovirus epidemiology donor studies (Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study and Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II): twenty years of research to advance blood product safety and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven; King, Melissa R; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Glynn, Simone A

    2012-10-01

    The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS), conducted from 1989 to 2001, and the REDS-II, conducted from 2004 to 2012, were National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded, multicenter programs focused on improving blood safety and availability in the United States. The REDS-II also included international study sites in Brazil and China. The 3 major research domains of REDS/REDS-II have been infectious disease risk evaluation, blood donation availability, and blood donor characterization. Both programs have made significant contributions to transfusion medicine research methodology by the use of mathematical modeling, large-scale donor surveys, innovative methods of repository sample storage, and establishing an infrastructure that responded to potential emerging blood safety threats such as xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus. Blood safety studies have included protocols evaluating epidemiologic and/or laboratory aspects of human immunodeficiency virus, human T-lymphotropic virus 1/2, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, West Nile virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 8, parvovirus B19, malaria, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, influenza, and Trypanosoma cruzi infections. Other analyses have characterized blood donor demographics, motivations to donate, factors influencing donor return, behavioral risk factors, donors' perception of the blood donation screening process, and aspects of donor deferral. In REDS-II, 2 large-scale blood donor protocols examined iron deficiency in donors and the prevalence of leukocyte antibodies. This review describes the major study results from over 150 peer-reviewed articles published by these 2 REDS programs. In 2011, a new 7-year program, the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III, was launched. The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III expands beyond donor-based research to include studies of blood transfusion recipients in the hospital setting and adds a third country, South Africa

  13. Contribution of the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS) to research on blood transfusion safety in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Paula; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Proietti, Anna Bárbara Carneiro; Capuani, Ligia; Gonçalez, Thelma Terezinha; de Oliveira, Claudia Di Lorenzo; Leão, Silvana Carneiro; Lopes, Maria Inês; Sampaio, Divaldo; Patavino, Giuseppina Maria; Ferreira, João Eduardo; Blatyta, Paula Fraiman; Lopes, Maria Esther Duarte; Mendrone-Junior, Alfredo; Salles, Nanci Alves; King, Melissa; Murphy, Edward; Busch, Michael; Custer, Brian; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira

    2014-03-01

    The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS) program was established in the United States in 1989 with the purpose of increasing blood transfusion safety in the context of the HIV/AIDS and human T-lymphotropic virus epidemics. REDS and its successor, REDS-II were at first conducted in the US, then expanded in 2006 to include international partnerships with Brazil and China. In 2011, a third wave of REDS renamed the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III) was launched. This seven-year research program focuses on both blood banking and transfusion medicine research in the United States of America, Brazil, China, and South Africa. The main goal of the international programs is to reduce and prevent the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other known and emerging infectious agents through transfusion, and to address research questions aimed at understanding global issues related to the availability of safe blood. This article describes the contribution of REDS-II to transfusion safety in Brazil. Articles published from 2010 to 2013 are summarized, including database analyses to characterize blood donors, deferral rates, and prevalence, incidence and residual risk of the main blood-borne infections. Specific studies were developed to understand donor motivation, the impact of the deferral questions, risk factors and molecular surveillance among HIV-positive donors, and the natural history of Chagas disease. The purpose of this review is to disseminate the acquired knowledge and briefly summarize the findings of the REDS-II studies conducted in Brazil as well as to introduce the scope of the REDS-III program that is now in progress and will continue through 2018. PMID:24790542

  14. Contribution of the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS to research on blood transfusion safety in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Loureiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS program was established in the United States in 1989 with the purpose of increasing blood transfusion safety in the context of the HIV/AIDS and human T-lymphotropic virus epidemics. REDS and its successor, REDS-II were at first conducted in the US, then expanded in 2006 to include international partnerships with Brazil and China. In 2011, a third wave of REDS renamed the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III was launched. This seven-year research program focuses on both blood banking and transfusion medicine research in the United States of America, Brazil, China, and South Africa. The main goal of the international programs is to reduce and prevent the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other known and emerging infectious agents through transfusion, and to address research questions aimed at understanding global issues related to the availability of safe blood. This article describes the contribution of REDS-II to transfusion safety in Brazil. Articles published from 2010 to 2013 are summarized, including database analyses to characterize blood donors, deferral rates, and prevalence, incidence and residual risk of the main blood-borne infections. Specific studies were developed to understand donor motivation, the impact of the deferral questions, risk factors and molecular surveillance among HIV-positive donors, and the natural history of Chagas disease. The purpose of this review is to disseminate the acquired knowledge and briefly summarize the findings of the REDS-II studies conducted in Brazil as well as to introduce the scope of the REDS-III program that is now in progress and will continue through 2018.

  15. 19 CFR 181.53 - Collection and waiver or reduction of duty under duty-deferral programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Canada or Mexico as reflected on the applicable Canadian or Mexican entry document (see § 181.47(c) (1... or Mexico or for entry into a Canadian or Mexican duty-deferral program. Such measures govern... for exportation to Canada or Mexico or is used as a material in the production of another good that...

  16. Electric utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral benefits from modular electricity storage : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA)

    2009-06-01

    The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

  17. Transfusion-transmitted malaria: case report of asymptomatic donor harboring Plasmodium malariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Scuracchio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in Brazil is endemic in the Amazon region, but autochthonous cases with low parasitaemia occur in the Atlantic Forest area of the country. According to Brazilian legislation no test is mandatory for blood donors from non-endemic areas. However if they have traveled to malaria transmission regions they are deferred for six months before they can donate. This report describes a transfusion-transmitted malaria case in Sao Paulo, Brazil, where one recipient received infected blood and developed the disease. He lived in Sao Paulo and had no previous transfusion or trips to endemic areas, including those of low endemicity, such as Atlantic Forest. Thick blood smears confirmed Plasmodiummalariae. All donors lived in Sao Paulo and one of them (Donor 045-0 showed positive hemoscopy and PCR. This asymptomatic donor had traveled to Juquia, in the Atlantic Forest area of S ao Paulo State, where sporadic cases of autochthonous malaria are described. DNA assay revealed P. malariae in the donor's (Donor 045-0 blood. Serum archives of the recipient and of all blood donors were analyzed by ELISA using both P. vivax and P. falciparum antigens, and IFAT with P. malariae. Donor 045-0's serum was P. malariae IFAT positive and the P. vivax ELISA was reactive. In addition, two out of 44 donors' archive sera were also P. vivax ELISA reactive. All sera were P. falciparum ELISA negative. This case suggests the need of reviewing donor selection criteria and deferral strategies to prevent possible cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria.

  18. The mutual impact of deferral labour taxation and capital income taxation on risk-taking behaviour: An experimental analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Massarrat-Mashhadi, Nima

    2013-01-01

    Does the timing of labour earnings taxation encroaches upon capital income taxation and individual risk-taking investment decisions, i.e. portfolio selection? This paper presents the results of a laboratory experiment that is, contrary to previous approaches, not restricted to the analysis of capital income taxation (fully taxable vs. tax-exempt investment earnings) and individual risktaking, but adds other dimensions of taxation, i.e. deferral or immediate labour earnings taxation. Empirical...

  19. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Waleed A; Al-Akraa, Mahmoud M

    2005-07-01

    With the number of patients presently awaiting renal transplantation exceeding the number of cadaveric organs available, there is an increasing reliance on live renal donation. Of the 11,869 renal transplants performed in 2002 in the US, 52.6% were living donors from the United Network for Organ Sharing Registry. Renal allografts from living donors provide: superior immediate long-term function; require less waiting time and are more cost-effective than those from cadaveric donors. However, anticipation of postoperative pain and temporary occupational disability may dissuade many potential donors. Additionally, some recipients hesitate to accept a living donor kidney due to suffering that would be endured by the donor. It is a unique medical situation when a young, completely healthy donor undergoes a major surgical procedure to provide an organ for transplantation. It is mandatory to offer a surgical technique, which is safe and with minimal complications. It is also obvious for any organ transplantation, that the integrity of the organ remain intact, thus, enabling its successful transplantation into the recipient. An acceptably short ischemia time and adequate lengths of ureter and renal vasculature are favored. Many centers are performing laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy in an effort to ease convalescence of renal donors. This may encourage the consideration of live donation by recipients and potential donors. PMID:16047050

  20. Lung donor selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970

  1. Nyretransplantation med levende donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Løkkegaard, H; Rasmussen, F

    2000-01-01

    In recent years transplantation from living donors has accounted for 25-30% of all kidney transplants in Denmark corresponding to 40-45 per year. Most of these living donors are parents or siblings, although internationally an increasing number are unrelated donors. Donor nephrectomy is associated...... with only few complications. The long-term outcome for kidney donors is good without increase in mortality or risk for development of hypertension and renal failure; proteinuria may be seen. Living kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment of end-stage renal disease with better graft survival...... than in cadaver transplantation. The ethical and psychological aspects related to transplantation from a living donor are complex and need to be carefully evaluated when this treatment is offered to the patients....

  2. Factors influencing donor return.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlumpf, KS; Glynn, SA; Schreiber, GB; Wright, DJ; Randolph Steele, W; Tu, Y.; Hermansen, S; Higgins, MJ; Garratty, G; Murphy, EL

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To predict future blood donation behavior and improve donor retention, it is important to understand the determinants of donor return. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was completed in 2003 by 7905 current donors. With data mining methods, all factors measured by the survey were ranked as possible predictors of actual return within 12 months. Significant factors were analyzed with logistic regression to determine predictors of intention and of actual ret...

  3. Systems of donor transfer

    OpenAIRE

    de Charro, Frank; Akveld, Hans; Hessing, Ellen

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe development of medical knowledge has resulted in a demand in society for donor organs, but the recruitment of donor organs for transplantation is difficult. This paper aims to provide some general insights into the complex interaction processes involved. A laissez-faire policy, in which market forces are relied on, is not acceptable from an ethical and legal point of view in most western European countries. Especially at the demand side of the exchange of donor organs, commerc...

  4. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nitin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.

  5. Systems of donor transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.T. de Charro (Frank); J.E.M. Akveld (Hans); E. Hessing (Ellen)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe development of medical knowledge has resulted in a demand in society for donor organs, but the recruitment of donor organs for transplantation is difficult. This paper aims to provide some general insights into the complex interaction processes involved. A laissez-faire policy, in wh

  6. Behavior-Based Safety and Occupational Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    The behavior-based approach to managing occupational risk and preventing workplace injuries is reviewed. Unlike the typical top-down control approach to industrial safety, behavior-based safety (BBS) provides tools and procedures workers can use to take personal control of occupational risks. Strategies the author and his colleagues have been…

  7. Lung donor selection criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that me...

  8. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, S; Giessing, M; Roigas, J; Wille, A H; Lein, M; Schönberger, B; Loening, S A

    2005-01-01

    Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LDN) has removed disincentives of potential donors and may bear the potential to increase kidney donation. Multiple modifications have been made to abbreviate the learning curve while at the same time guarantee the highest possible level of medical quality for donor and recipient. We reviewed the literature for the evolution of the different LDN techniques and their impact on donor, graft and operating surgeon, including the subtleties of different surgical accesses, vessel handling and organ extraction. We performed a literature search (PubMed, DIMDI, medline) to evaluate the development of the LDN techniques from 1995 to 2003. Today more than 200 centres worldwide perform LDN. Hand-assistance has led to a spread of LDN. Studies comparing open and hand-assisted LDN show a reduction of operating and warm ischaemia times for the hand-assisted LDN. Different surgical access sites (trans- or retroperitoneal), different vessel dissection approaches, donor organ delivery techniques, delivery sites and variations of hand-assistance techniques reflect the evolution of LDN. Proper techniques and their combination for the consecutive surgical steps minimize both warm ischaemia time and operating time while offering the donor a safe minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure. LDN has breathed new life into the moribund field of living kidney donation. Within a few years LDN could become the standard approach in living kidney donation. Surgeons working in this field must be trained thoroughly and well acquainted with the subtleties of the different LDN techniques and their respective advantages and disadvantages. PMID:16754618

  9. Live-donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Juan P; Davis, Eric; Edye, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Six decades after its first implementation, kidney transplantation remains the optimal therapy for end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. Despite the incontrovertible mortality reduction and cost-effectiveness of kidney transplantation, the greatest remaining barrier to treatment of end-stage renal disease is organ availability. Although the waiting list of patients who stand to benefit from kidney transplantation grows at a rate proportional to the overall population and proliferation of diabetes and hypertension, the pool of deceased-donor organs available for transplantation experiences minimal to no growth. Because the kidney is uniquely suited as a paired organ, the transplant community's answer to this shortage is living donation of a healthy volunteer's kidney to a recipient with end-stage renal disease. This review details the history and evolution of living-donor kidney transplantation in the United States as well as advances the next decade promises. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has overcome many of the obstacles to living donation in terms of donor morbidity and volunteerism. Known donor risks in terms of surgical and medical morbidity are reviewed, as well as the ongoing efforts to delineate and mitigate donor risk in the context of accumulating recipient morbidity while on the waiting list. PMID:22678857

  10. Independent donor ethical assessment: aiming to standardize donor advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Devasmita; Jotterand, Fabrice; Casenave, Gerald; Smith-Morris, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    Living organ donation has become more common across the world. To ensure an informed consent process, given the complex issues involved with organ donation, independent donor advocacy is required. The choice of how donor advocacy is administered is left up to each transplant center. This article presents the experience and process of donor advocacy at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center administered by a multidisciplinary team consisting of physicians, surgeons, psychologists, medical ethicists and anthropologists, lawyers, a chaplain, a living kidney donor, and a kidney transplant recipient. To ensure that advocacy remains fair and consistent for all donors being considered, the donor advocacy team at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center developed the Independent Donor Ethical Assessment, a tool that may be useful to others in rendering donor advocacy. In addition, the tool may be modified as circumstances arise to improve donor advocacy and maintain uniformity in decision making. PMID:24919733

  11. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  12. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  13. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  14. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  15. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  16. Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are Some Benefits of a Living-donor Liver Transplant? In the U.S., more than 17,500 patients ... 1,700 patients die each year while waiting. Liver transplants are given to patients on the basis of ...

  17. Becoming a Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about donation.” > Read more about my story Organ, eye, and tissue donation and transplantation provide a second chance at life for thousands ... individuals whose lives could be enhanced through tissue transplants. Use the link ... as an organ, eye, and tissue donor. > Register in your state to ...

  18. Donor transplant programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts

  19. The Influence Mechanism of Incidental Emotions on Choice Deferral%偶然情绪对延迟选择的影响机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓明; 谢佳

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to discuss and analyze the effect of incidental emotions on choice deferral. After participants were evoked target emotions by pictures-induced or video clips-induced techniques in the two experiments, they were asked to complete the course or hotel selection task when the option of not choosing any of the alternatives was also provided. From the outcome-oriented and the process-oriented perspectives, this study aimed at exploring the influence of incidental emotions on choice deferral and the influencing mechanism.Study 1 used the pictures-induced technique to trigger target emotions (positive, neutral and negative) and to explore the effect of emotions and decision conflict on choice deferral. The results demonstrated that decision conflict affected choice deferral significantly, and higher decision conflict lead to more choice of the deferral options. The main effect for emotions was not significant. More importantly, there was a significant interaction on choice deferral; when the decision conflict was high, the participants in negative emotion would select the deferral option more often comparing with the participants in positive and neutral emotions; when the decision conflict was low, incidental emotions did not affect choice deferral significantly. Study 2 used the video clips-induced technique to evoke incidental emotions: happy and anger. In order to further explore the impact of the two target emotions on decision-making and to study the process of choice deferral, this study detected the process of decision-making by MouselabWeb procedure. The results showed that, individuals in the negative emotion (anger) would select the deferral option more often than happy individuals; there was a significant effect of the emotions on the process of decision-making. Happy individuals spent less time for searching information, and were involved in more reduced depth of information searching, greater variance in the proportion of

  20. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need dialysis after the operation?” One of the advantages of living donation is that these kidneys essentially ... were removed from the donor. One of the advantages of living donor is that time is from ...

  1. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with an open incision. There is a screening process for potential donors. It’s important to emphasize that ... surgically an acceptable candidate. This shows our screening process, first the potential donor meets with a social ...

  2. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a kidney is safe. It has an excellent safety record both here and nationwide. To ensure that, ... ve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that ...

  3. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgical risks and long term complications: Long-Term Organ Specific Donor Complications Kidney Hypertension Kidney failure Proteinuria Lung Intra- ... Vancouver Forum on the care of the live organ donor: lung, liver, pancreas, and intestine data and medical ...

  4. Donor commitment and patient needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, R; van Walraven, A-M; Egeland, T

    2004-01-01

    The article discusses views and recommendations of the World Marrow Donor Association concerning ethical issues related to the donation of hematopoietic stem cell products with respect to recruitment, evaluation, workup, and follow-up of unrelated donors. Particular emphasis is placed upon commitment of individual donors, in particular, with respect to the needs of patients to find HLA-matched donors, who may be asked to donate stem cell and other cell products more than once for given patients. PMID:14628078

  5. Management of Young Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Bruce H.

    2014-01-01

    The emphasis on high-school blood drives and acceptance of 16-year-old blood donors led to more research on physiologic and psychological ways to decrease vasovagal reaction rates in young blood donors and to increase donor retention. Research on how to accomplish this has been advantageous for the blood collection industry and blood donors. This review discussed the current situation and what can be done psychologically, physiologically, and via process improvements to decrease vasovagal rea...

  6. Why Minority Donors Are Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Search Register with your state as an Organ Donor Home Why Donate Becoming a Donor About Donation & ... Why Donate RELATED INFORMATION Minority Focused Grantee Publications Organ Donation Process Enrolling as a Donor Trying to Save a Life Testing for Brain ...

  7. Confidentiality and American semen donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, A M

    1993-01-01

    Most American donor insemination programs include a policy of complete confidentiality concerning the donor of the semen. This is the result of a long legal tradition of American constitutional law. However, some slight abridgement of this body of legal decisions might be very much in the best interests of children arising from donor insemination, and even--in most cases, in fact--the donors themselves. With regard to the children, the factors involved are both those of genetic counseling, should the need arise, and psychological development. Of course, as at present, the donor must be relieved of all responsibility, both legal and financial. PMID:8348162

  8. Donor demographic and laboratory predictors of single donor platelet yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet transfusions are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality in patients who are severely thrombocytopenic and are at risk of spontaneous bleeding. Platelets are currently obtained either by fractionation of whole blood or by platelet apheresis. The quality of single donor platelets (SDP in terms of yield influences platelet recovery in the recipient and allows prolonging intervals between transfusions. Material and Methods: Donor demographic and laboratory data were analyzed prior to performing plateletpheresis to identify donor factors that influence platelet yield. The study was conducted on 130 healthy, first-time plateletpheresis donors over a period of 4 years. The plateletpheresis procedures were performed using Fresenius Kabi COM.TEC and Hemonetics MCS plus separator. A relationship between pre-donation donor variables and yield of platelets was studied using the Pearson correlation. Results: The mean platelet yield was 3.160.62x1011 per unit. A positive correlation was observed between platelet yield and pre-donation platelet count, body mass index (BMI; Kg/m2 of the donor, while a negative correlation was observed between age and the platelet yield. Conclusion: Donor pre-donation platelet count, BMI and donor age influence platelet yield. Young healthy donors with a high platelet count and better BMI can give a better platelet yield in the SDP.

  9. Behavior-Based Formation Control of Swarm Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarm robotics is a specific research field of multirobotics where a large number of mobile robots are controlled in a coordinated way. Formation control is one of the most challenging goals for the coordination control of swarm robots. In this paper, a behavior-based control design approach is proposed for two kinds of important formation control problems: efficient initial formation and formation control while avoiding obstacles. In this approach, a classification-based searching method for generating large-scale robot formation is presented to reduce the computational complexity and speed up the initial formation process for any desired formation. The behavior-based method is applied for the formation control of swarm robot systems while navigating in an unknown environment with obstacles. Several groups of experimental results demonstrate the success of the proposed approach. These methods have potential applications for various swarm robot systems in both the simulation and the practical environments.

  10. Retroperitoneoscopic right living donor nephrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhen-li; WU Ji-tao; YANG Dian-dong; SHI Lei; MEN Chang-ping; WANG Lin

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the past, living donor nephrectomy required an open flank incision that results in postoperative morbidity and a prolonged hospital stay. Since its introduction in 1995, laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy has been shown to decrease postoperative pain and hospital stay,reduce blood loss, and improve cosmesis while hastening recovery of normal activities of donors.1 With decreased morbidity and favorable graft function, this procedure as a novel approach has been used to address the increasing disparity between organ need and availability.2 Better graft function and survival are noted in living-donor kidney transplantation than in cadaveric kidney transplantation. 1,2

  11. Behavior-based Task Learning by Demonstration on Mobile Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Users should have the opportunity to teach new tasks on their robot to fit the specific needs in its own environment. Behaviors are good building blocks for complex tasks because they are in charge of a specific control objective and have an intuitive name. After encapsulating controls within a behavior, the task learning problem for behavior-based systems becomes a behavior recognition problem. Behavior-based task learning can be focused on either behavior segmentation, behavior recognition or behavior cooperation. The behavior diagram is expressed by an execution matrix, which consists of only numerical information referring to the parameters of the behaviors or transitions. The parameter values are determined by the behavior classification.A feature space is introduced to extract more meaningful information from sensory data. Geometric features, such as the plane feature or the line feature, detect whether the movement of points fulfills a certain geometric relationship. A combined machine learning approach, which consists of decision tree and support vector machine, is proposed for behavior-based task learning. The decision tree is used to select relevant features from the feature pool, and support vector machine is applied to find the mapping from the feature space to behaviors. This way, corresponding behaviors can be recognized during demonstration. This method also has the ability to handle the diversity of robot configurations and users. Post-processing techniques are proposed to improve the classifi-cation results.

  12. Donor selection criteria and procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking

  13. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Boston. Dr. Joseph Murray was awarded the Nobel Prize for that pioneering work. And we’ve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that operation turned 80 last year, which is really quite an accomplishment. On ...

  14. 75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... expect that better clinical donor management would improve organ quality, organs transplanted per donor... strategies and approaches serving as model interventions for identifying appropriate organ donor candidates, evaluating donated organs, maintaining donor clinical stability and optimizing methods for organ...

  15. Node Attribute Behavior Based Intrusion Detection in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Baskar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Security is one of the important problem in wireless sensor networks. With limited energy resources and processing resources, this paper focus on node attribute behavior based anomaly detection system and deals only with attributes of layered sensor node. It introduces node attribute behavioral index. The detection uses genetic algorithm which evaluates the behavior of sensor node with node attributes and threshold technique have been used to detect abnormal behavior of sensor node based on behavioral index. The performance has been evaluated for MAC and network layer feature set of wireless nodes.

  16. Adult living donor liver imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Larry; Yeh, Benjamin M; Westphalen, Antonio C; Roberts, John P; Wang, Zhen J

    2016-01-01

    Adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is increasingly used for the treatment of end-stage liver disease. The three most commonly harvested grafts for LDLT are left lateral segment, left lobe, and right lobe grafts. The left lateral segment graft, which includes Couinaud's segments II and III, is usually used for pediatric recipients or small size recipients. Most of the adult recipients need either a left or a right lobe graft. Whether a left or right lobe graft should be harvested from the donors depends on estimated graft and donor remnant liver volume, as well as biliary and vascular anatomy. Detailed preoperative assessment of the potential donor liver volumetrics, biliary and vascular anatomy, and liver parenchyma is vital to minimize risks to the donors and maximize benefits to the recipients. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are currently the imaging modalities of choice in the preoperative evaluation of potential donors. This review provides an overview of key surgical considerations in LDLT that the radiologists must be aware of, and imaging findings on CT and MRI that the radiologists must convey to the surgeons when evaluating potential donors for LDLT. PMID:26912106

  17. Blood donation and institutional trust: risk, policy rhetoric, and the men who have sex with men lifetime deferral policy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, André; Fiddler, Jay; Walby, Kevin; Hier, Sean

    2011-11-01

    This article examines the process of rebuilding institutional trust in the Canadian blood system in the aftermath of the tainted blood scandal. Our focus is the policy of lifetime deferral from donating blood for men who have sex with men. Drawing on findings from interviews with representatives of Health Canada's Expert Advisory Committee on Blood Regulation, the National Liaison Committee, Canadian Blood Services, and blood consumer groups, we demonstrate how claims making about rights, discrimination, science, and risk contribute to policy continuity. We also examine the link between policy continuity and the management of reputational risk. PMID:22400205

  18. Estimating electricity storage power rating and discharge duration for utility transmission and distribution deferral :a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Butler, Paul Charles; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (,.Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-01

    This report describes a methodology for estimating the power and energy capacities for electricity energy storage systems that can be used to defer costly upgrades to fully overloaded, or nearly overloaded, transmission and distribution (T&D) nodes. This ''sizing'' methodology may be used to estimate the amount of storage needed so that T&D upgrades may be deferred for one year. The same methodology can also be used to estimate the characteristics of storage needed for subsequent years of deferral.

  19. Recruiting unrelated donors for the National Marrow Donor Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Yanke, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    Medical advances have made bone marrow transplantation the treatment of choice for certain hematologic diseases. For those patients eligible for a marrow transplant only about 30 percent find an HLA-compatible match within their families. Studies indicate that unrelated volunteers are willing to donate their marrow. The National Marrow Donor Program was formed in 1986 as a result of a federal contract. This group is a network of donor centers, transplant centers, and collection centers. The C...

  20. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  1. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also some basic medical tests ... steroidal medications like ibuprofen, which can affect kidney function. And then about four weeks after surgery, I’ ...

  2. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a machine, have a better quality of life. It ended up not happening until 2001. It ... Since I’ve become a kidney donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just ...

  3. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a matter of experience as you -- in medical school and you do gross anatomy and you learn ... than an older donor, say, choosing between a parent over a sibling, or how would you choose ...

  4. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spread much at all, so it has little risk of damaging other tissues. But it does a ... donor, particularly because they’re at long-term risks for health problems such as diabetes, which in ...

  5. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of work for a little while and my child is grown and I don’t have to ... donor, Anna, a question that pertains to having children. “What was your understanding about being able to ...

  6. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 800 kidneys have been transplanted, and 441 of these have been living donor transplants, and that will ... John Hopkins, and we have done hundreds of these since then. The procedure is beneficial to patients ...

  7. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also ... that came in. They would come in three times a week, so basically you become their family. ...

  8. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these ... donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...

  9. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the donor that really was the main source. Otherwise these patients are screened very carefully medically ... here. And there is quite a bit of information now coming out in studies that preemptive living ...

  10. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ever be a donor?” No. The recipient, by definition, had end-stage kidney disease and certainly can’ ... And you had that PCA pump for pain control to where you push the button to help ...

  11. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... choose one donor over another? There are several factors go into that. If somebody’s fortunate enough to have more than one person who is willing to donate them a kidney, ...

  12. Motivations for Giving of Alumni Donors, Lapsed Donors and Non-Donors: Implications for Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugano, Emilio Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive and causal comparative study sought to identify motivations for alumni donor acquisition and retention in Christian institutions of higher learning. To meet this objective, motivations for alumni donors, lapsed donors, and non-donors were analyzed and compared. Data was collected through an electronic survey of a stratified sample…

  13. BEHAVIOR BASED CREDIT CARD FRAUD DETECTION USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dheepa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Along with the great increase of internet and e-commerce, the use of credit card is an unavoidable one. Due to the increase of credit card usage, the frauds associated with this have also increased. There are a lot of approaches used to detect the frauds. In this paper, behavior based classification approach using Support Vector Machines are employed and efficient feature extraction method also adopted. If any discrepancies occur in the behaviors transaction pattern then it is predicted as suspicious and taken for further consideration to find the frauds. Generally credit card fraud detection problem suffers from a large amount of data, which is rectified by the proposed method. Achieving finest accuracy, high fraud catching rate and low false alarms are the main tasks of this approach.

  14. Behavior Based Social Dimensions Extraction for Multi-Label Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Li

    Full Text Available Classification based on social dimensions is commonly used to handle the multi-label classification task in heterogeneous networks. However, traditional methods, which mostly rely on the community detection algorithms to extract the latent social dimensions, produce unsatisfactory performance when community detection algorithms fail. In this paper, we propose a novel behavior based social dimensions extraction method to improve the classification performance in multi-label heterogeneous networks. In our method, nodes' behavior features, instead of community memberships, are used to extract social dimensions. By introducing Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA to model the network generation process, nodes' connection behaviors with different communities can be extracted accurately, which are applied as latent social dimensions for classification. Experiments on various public datasets reveal that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory classification results in comparison to other state-of-the-art methods on smaller social dimensions.

  15. Behavior Based Social Dimensions Extraction for Multi-Label Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Xu, Junyi; Xiao, Weidong; Ge, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Classification based on social dimensions is commonly used to handle the multi-label classification task in heterogeneous networks. However, traditional methods, which mostly rely on the community detection algorithms to extract the latent social dimensions, produce unsatisfactory performance when community detection algorithms fail. In this paper, we propose a novel behavior based social dimensions extraction method to improve the classification performance in multi-label heterogeneous networks. In our method, nodes' behavior features, instead of community memberships, are used to extract social dimensions. By introducing Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to model the network generation process, nodes' connection behaviors with different communities can be extracted accurately, which are applied as latent social dimensions for classification. Experiments on various public datasets reveal that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory classification results in comparison to other state-of-the-art methods on smaller social dimensions. PMID:27049849

  16. Behavior-Based Cleaning for Unreliable RFID Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong

    2012-01-01

    Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology promises to revolutionize the way we track items and assets, but in RFID systems, missreading is a common phenomenon and it poses an enormous challenge to RFID data management, so accurate data cleaning becomes an essential task for the successful deployment of systems. In this paper, we present the design and development of a RFID data cleaning system, the first declarative, behavior-based unreliable RFID data smoothing system. We take advantage of kinematic characteristics of tags to assist in RFID data cleaning. In order to establish the conversion relationship between RFID data and kinematic parameters of the tags, we propose a movement behavior detection model. Moreover, a Reverse Order Filling Mechanism is proposed to ensure a more complete access to get the movement behavior characteristics of tag. Finally, we validate our solution with a common RFID application and demonstrate the advantages of our approach through extensive simulations. PMID:23112595

  17. A Behavior-Based Remote Trust Attestation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Huanguo; WANG Fan

    2006-01-01

    While remote trust attestation is a useful concept to detect unauthorized changes to software, the current mechanism only ensures authenticity at the start of the operating system and cannot ensure the action of running software. Our approach is to use a behavior-based monitoring agent to make remote attestation more flexible, dynamic, and trustworthy. This approach was mostly made possible by extensive use of process information which is readily available in Unix. We also made use of a behavior tree to effectively record predictable behaviors of each process. In this paper, we primarily focus on building a prototype implementation of such framework, presenting one example built on it, successfully find potential security risks in the run time of a ftp program and then evaluate the performance of this model.

  18. Promoting Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency in Military Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AH McMakin; EL Malone; RE Lundgren

    1999-09-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps agencies reduce the cost of doing business through energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of solar and other renewable energy. As a large energy user, the U.S. military has been one of the government sectors of focus. Several military installations have shown substantial energy savings in past years. Most of these efficiency projects, however, have focused primarily on physical upgrades, technologies, and purchasing habits. Furthermost projects have focused on administrative and operational areas of energy use. Military residential housing, in particular, has received little formal attention for energy efficiency involving behaviors of the residents themselves. Behavior-based change is a challenging, but potentially fruitful area for energy conservation programs. However, behavioral change involves links with values, social networks and organizations, and new ways of thinking about living patterns. This handbook attempts to fill a gap by offering guidance for promoting such efforts.

  19. Behavior-Based Cleaning for Unreliable RFID Data Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisong Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID technology promises to revolutionize the way we track items and assets, but in RFID systems, missreading is a common phenomenon and it poses an enormous challenge to RFID data management, so accurate data cleaning becomes an essential task for the successful deployment of systems. In this paper, we present the design and development of a RFID data cleaning system, the first declarative, behavior-based unreliable RFID data smoothing system. We take advantage of kinematic characteristics of tags to assist in RFID data cleaning. In order to establish the conversion relationship between RFID data and kinematic parameters of the tags, we propose a movement behavior detection model. Moreover, a Reverse Order Filling Mechanism is proposed to ensure a more complete access to get the movement behavior characteristics of tag. Finally, we validate our solution with a common RFID application and demonstrate the advantages of our approach through extensive simulations.

  20. Behavior Based Social Dimensions Extraction for Multi-Label Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Xu, Junyi; Xiao, Weidong; Ge, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Classification based on social dimensions is commonly used to handle the multi-label classification task in heterogeneous networks. However, traditional methods, which mostly rely on the community detection algorithms to extract the latent social dimensions, produce unsatisfactory performance when community detection algorithms fail. In this paper, we propose a novel behavior based social dimensions extraction method to improve the classification performance in multi-label heterogeneous networks. In our method, nodes’ behavior features, instead of community memberships, are used to extract social dimensions. By introducing Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to model the network generation process, nodes’ connection behaviors with different communities can be extracted accurately, which are applied as latent social dimensions for classification. Experiments on various public datasets reveal that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory classification results in comparison to other state-of-the-art methods on smaller social dimensions. PMID:27049849

  1. Mining Behavior Based Safety Data to Predict Safety Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe

    2010-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) operates a behavior based safety program called Safety Observations Achieve Results (SOAR). This peer-to-peer observation program encourages employees to perform in-field observations of each other's work practices and habits (i.e., behaviors). The underlying premise of conducting these observations is that more serious accidents are prevented from occurring because lower level “at risk” behaviors are identified and corrected before they can propagate into culturally accepted “unsafe” behaviors that result in injuries or fatalities. Although the approach increases employee involvement in safety, the premise of the program has not been subject to sufficient empirical evaluation. The INL now has a significant amount of SOAR data on these lower level “at risk” behaviors. This paper describes the use of data mining techniques to analyze these data to determine whether they can predict if and when a more serious accident will occur.

  2. Object-oriented vision for a behavior-based robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Rainer; Graefe, Volker; Wershofen, Klaus P.

    1996-10-01

    As one realization out of the class of behavior-based robot architectures a specific concept of situation-oriented behavior-based navigation has been proposed. Its main characteristic is that the selection of the behaviors to be executed in each moment is based on a continuous recognition and evaluation of the dynamically changing situation in which the robot is finding itself. An important prerequisite for such as approach is a timely and comprehensive perception of the robot's dynamically changing environment. Object-oriented vision as proposed and successfully applied, e.g., in freeway traffic scenes is a particularly well suited sensing modality for robot control. Our work concentrated on modeling the physical objects which are relevant for indoor navigation, i.e. walls, intersections of corridors, and landmarks. In the interest of efficiency these models include only those necessary features for allowing the robot to reliably recognize different situations in real time. According to the concept of object- oriented vision recognizing such objects is largely reduced to a knowledge-based verification of objects or features that may be expected to be visible in the current situation. The following results have been achieved: 1) By using its vision system and a knowledge base in the form of an attributed topological map the robot could orient itself and navigate autonomously in a known environment. 2) In an unknown environment the robot was able to build, by means of supervised learning, an attributed topological map as a basis for subsequent autonomous navigation. 3) The experiments could be performed both under unmodified artificial light and under natural light shining through the glass walls of the building.

  3. 75 FR 8367 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; REDS-II-Does Pre-Donation Behavioral Deferral Increase the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... currently screened for in Brazil (HIV, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, Human T-lymphotropic virus, syphilis, and... settings. For example, a small hospital-based case control study conducted in Brazil examined the... determine blood donor eligibility in Brazil, having a tattoo was associated with HCV and also with having...

  4. Hyperbilirubinemia in normal healthy donors

    OpenAIRE

    Arora Veena; Kulkarni R; Cherian Susan; Pillai Raji; Shivali M

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the...

  5. A Behavior Based Intrusion Detection System Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat OĞUZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are consistently referred to as the weakest link in information security. Human factors such as individual differences, cognitive abilities and personality traits can impact on behavior and play a significant role in information security. The purpose of this study is to identify, describe and classify the human factors affecting Information Security and develop a model to reduce the risk of insider misuse and assess the use and performance of the best-suited artificial intelligence techniques in detection of misuse. More specifically, this study provides a comprehensive view of the human related information security risks and threats, classification study of the human related threats in information security, a methodology developed to reduce the risk of human related threats by detecting insider misuse by a behavior-based intrusion detection system using machine learning algorithms, and the comparison of the numerical experiments for analysis of this approach. Specifically, by using the machine learning algorithm with the best learning performance, the detection rates of the attack types defined in the organized five dimensional human threats taxonomy were determined. Lastly, the possible human factors affecting information security as linked to the detection rates were sorted upon the evaluation of the taxonomy.

  6. Explanation Capabilities for Behavior-Based Robot Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terrance L.

    2012-01-01

    A recent study that evaluated issues associated with remote interaction with an autonomous vehicle within the framework of grounding found that missing contextual information led to uncertainty in the interpretation of collected data, and so introduced errors into the command logic of the vehicle. As the vehicles became more autonomous through the activation of additional capabilities, more errors were made. This is an inefficient use of the platform, since the behavior of remotely located autonomous vehicles didn't coincide with the "mental models" of human operators. One of the conclusions of the study was that there should be a way for the autonomous vehicles to describe what action they choose and why. Robotic agents with enough self-awareness to dynamically adjust the information conveyed back to the Operations Center based on a detail level component analysis of requests could provide this description capability. One way to accomplish this is to map the behavior base of the robot into a formal mathematical framework called a cost-calculus. A cost-calculus uses composition operators to build up sequences of behaviors that can then be compared to what is observed using well-known inference mechanisms.

  7. Penerapan Program Behavior Based Safety (BBS) Dan Kecelakaan Kerja Di PT Inalum Kuala Tanjung Tahun 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Saodah, Siti

    2015-01-01

    Work accidents are mostly caused by unsafe behavior. Behavior Based Safety Program plays an important role to create zero accidents. The implementation of behavior-based safety program is focused to observe the behavior of a process to improve safe work behavior. This study used a descriptive research with cross sectional design approach which aimed to describe the application of behavior-based safety program and work accidents in PT. Inalum Kuala Tanjung year 2014. The s...

  8. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening, I’m Dr. John Colonna, the ... donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...

  9. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Can someone receive a transplant before going into kidney failure?” Absolutely. That’s call a “preemptive transplant.” There are ... donor cleared, and to get everybody together before kidney failure actually occurs. But we do do preemptive transplants ...

  10. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an adult kidney to a child?” Certainly. Our team here works with children’s hospital the King’s Daughters with their ... members of the team. We have a great team here at Norfolk General, particularly Amy who works so hard with the living donors, but really ...

  11. Mass Transfer from Giant Donors

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovskii, K

    2014-01-01

    The stability of mass transfer in binaries with convective giant donors remains an open question in modern astrophysics. There is a significant discrepancy between what the existing methods predict for a response to mass loss of the giant itself, as well as for the mass transfer rate during the Roche lobe overflow. Here we show that the recombination energy in the superadiabatic layer plays an important and hitherto unaccounted-for role in he donor's response to mass loss, in particular on its luminosity and effective temperature. Our improved optically thick nozzle method to calculate the mass transfer rate via $L_1$ allows us to evolve binary systems for a substantial Roche lobe overflow. We propose a new, strengthened criterion for the mass transfer instability, basing it on whether the donor experiences overflow through its outer Lagrangian point. We find that with the new criterion, if the donor has a well-developed outer convective envelope, the critical initial mass ratio for which a binary would evolv...

  12. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... And we’ll see them again about six months after the surgery, and then about 18 months after just to be sure that the donor ... process was such a whirlwind. It’s been six months since I even knew I had the disease. ...

  13. DONOR-TRANSMITTED CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Mironkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate opportunities, prospects and safety of using heart transplants from aged donors who are at high risk of coronary atherosclerosis.Materials and methods. Over the period from March 1987 to May 2014450 heart transplantations (HTx were performed in V.I.Shumakov Federal Research Center of Transplantology and Artifi cial Organs. During the fi rst month after HTx coronarography was made to 152 (37,8% recipients inorder to exclude/confi rm donor-transmitted coronary atherosclerosis (DTCA and to identify tactics of treatment. Coronary atherosclerosis was detected among 16 patients (3,6% of total number of HTx, 15 (93,8% men and 1 (6,2% women. Mean age of recipients with DTCA at the moment of HTx was 48,3 ± 13,1 years.Results. Hemodynamically relevant coronary atherosclerosis was not detected and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI was not made in the group of patients with the mean age of 42,24 ± 8,91 years. Using heart transplants from aged donors is connected with increasing risk of DTCA among the recipients. DTCA-dependent PCI is not connected with coronary mortality. Actuarial survival rate of patients who underwent PCI is comparable with the same one in the total population of HTx recipients and is equal to 87,5% at 5 years and less.Conclusion. Hearts from aged donors (older than 50 years may be used for HTx with suffi cient level of safety. Due to high level of DTCA using of hearts from such donors is preferable for completing urgent HTx to recipients 1А–В UNOS.

  14. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 352 352 Loading... ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  15. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 361 361 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  16. Psychosocial counselling of identifiable sperm donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Visser; M.H. Mochtar; A.A. de Melker; F. van der Veen; S. Repping; T. Gerrits

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What do identifiable sperm donors feel about psychosocial counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER: Identifiable sperm donors found it important that psychosocial counselling focused on emotional consequences and on rules and regulations and they expected to have access to psychosocial counsellin

  17. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 361 361 Loading... ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  18. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 350 350 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  19. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 350 350 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  20. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 351 351 Loading... ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 351 351 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 360 360 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  3. Historical perspective of living donor liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, See Ching; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2008-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has gone through its formative years and established as a legitimate treatment when a deceased donor liver graft is not timely or simply not available at all. Nevertheless, LDLT is characterized by its technical complexity and ethical controversy. These are the consequences of a single organ having to serve two subjects, the donor and the recipient, instantaneously. The transplant community has a common ground on assuring donor safety while achieving ...

  4. Organ donor problems and their management

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Veena; Bhosale G

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, transplantation has assumed an important role in the treatment of patients with end-stage organ failure. With the passage of Transplantation of Human Organ Act by the Indian parliament, transplantation of organs from brain dead donors has become a reality. Although there are many issues in success of cadaver programme, intensivists can play a crucial role by converting a potential donor into an actual donor. This article reviews the identification of potential organ donor and...

  5. Behavior-based safety on construction sites: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Rafiq M

    2014-09-01

    This work presents the results of a case study and describes an important area within the field of construction safety management, namely behavior-based safety (BBS). This paper adopts and develops a management approach for safety improvements in construction site environments. A rigorous behavioral safety system and its intervention program was implemented and deployed on target construction sites. After taking a few weeks of safety behavior measurements, the project management team implemented the designed intervention and measurements were taken. Goal-setting sessions were arranged on-site with workers' participation to set realistic and attainable targets of performance. Safety performance measurements continued and the levels of performance and the targets were presented on feedback charts. Supervisors were asked to give workers recognition and praise when they acted safely or improved critical behaviors. Observers were requested to have discussions with workers, visit the site, distribute training materials to workers, and provide feedback to crews and display charts. They were required to talk to operatives in the presence of line managers. It was necessary to develop awareness and understanding of what was being measured. In the process, operatives learned how to act safely when conducting site tasks using the designed checklists. Current weekly scores were discussed in the weekly safety meetings and other operational site meetings with emphasis on how to achieve set targets. The reliability of the safety performance measures taken by the company's observers was monitored. A clear increase in safety performance level was achieved across all categories: personal protective equipment; housekeeping; access to heights; plant and equipment, and scaffolding. The research reveals that scores of safety performance at one project improved from 86% (at the end of 3rd week) to 92.9% during the 9th week. The results of intervention demonstrated large decreases in

  6. New biologically active hydrogen sulfide donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Thomas; Raynaud, Francoise; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Ransy, Céline; Simonet, Serge; Crespo, Christine; Bourguignon, Marie-Pierre; Villeneuve, Nicole; Vilaine, Jean-Paul; Artaud, Isabelle; Galardon, Erwan

    2013-11-25

    Generous donors: The dithioperoxyanhydrides (CH3 COS)2 , (PhCOS)2 , CH3 COSSCO2 Me and PhCOSSCO2 Me act as thiol-activated hydrogen sulfide donors in aqueous buffer solution. The most efficient donor (CH3 COS)2 can induce a biological response in cells, and advantageously replace hydrogen sulfide in ex vivo vascular studies. PMID:24115650

  7. Donor conversion rates depend on the assessment tools used in the evaluation of potential organ donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J. de Groot (Yorick); E.F.M. Wijdicks (Eelco); M. van der Jagt (Mathieu); J. Bakker (Jan); B. Roozenbeek (Bob); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); E.J.O. Kompanje (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: It is desirable to identify a potential organ donor (POD) as early as possible to achieve a donor conversion rate (DCR) as high as possible which is defined as the actual number of organ donors divided by the number of patients who are regarded as a potential organ donor. The DC

  8. Hyperbilirubinemia in normal healthy donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Veena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the others. Causes of icteric plasma in these apparently healthy donors are discussed. Differential diagnosis includes Gilbert′s disease, hemolytic anemia, drug-induced anemia and other hepatic causes of hyperbilirubinemia, of which Gilbert′s disease is most probable cause with a prevalence of 0.91% in our population. As there are no studies to document the safety of the recipients receiving such abnormal colored plasma as well as to document the hazards in its transfusion, the question arises whether to transfuse such units or not. This study highlights this dilemma. A reassessment of existing policies and regulations is merited.

  9. Reactive donor notification: First error reported

    OpenAIRE

    Urvershi Kotwal; Veena Doda; Satyam Arora; Meena Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Donor notification and post-donation counseling is an essential role of blood bank. If a donor is reactive for any marker, the blood bank counselor, informs the donor and advices him/her to report to the blood bank for further counseling and management. The counselor at our blood bank informed a young female voluntary donor to be reactive for HIV both with ELISA as well as NAT. When the donor reported to blood bank, the repeat testing was negative and no history of high risk behavior could be...

  10. Kidney Transplantation From Donors with Hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroux, Massimiliano; Ardita, Vincenzo; Corona, Daniela; Giaquinta, Alessia; Ekser, Burcin; Sinagra, Nunziata; Zerbo, Domenico; Patanè, Marco; Gozzo, Cecilia; Veroux, Pierfrancesco

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand for organ donors to supply the increasing number of patients on kidney waiting lists has led most transplant centers to develop protocols that allow safe use of organs from donors with special clinical situations previously regarded as contraindications. Deceased donors with previous hepatitis B may be a safe resource to increase the donor pool even if there is still controversy among transplantation centers regarding the use of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive donors for renal transplantation. However, when allocated to serology-matched recipients, kidney transplantation from donors with hepatitis B may result in excellent short-term outcome. Many concerns may arise in the long-term outcome, and studies must address the evaluation of the progression of liver disease and the rate of reactivation of liver disease in the recipients. Accurate selection and matching of both donor and recipient and correct post-transplant management are needed to achieve satisfactory long-term outcomes. PMID:27123988

  11. Development of Organ-Specific Donor Risk Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in devel...

  12. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar I. Mitre

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  13. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitre Anuar I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  14. Reactive donor notification: First error reported

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvershi Kotwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Donor notification and post-donation counseling is an essential role of blood bank. If a donor is reactive for any marker, the blood bank counselor, informs the donor and advices him/her to report to the blood bank for further counseling and management. The counselor at our blood bank informed a young female voluntary donor to be reactive for HIV both with ELISA as well as NAT. When the donor reported to blood bank, the repeat testing was negative and no history of high risk behavior could be elicited. The hospital information system (HIS records were checked again immediately for clarification and showed consistency with her demographic profile. But when her manual records and donor questionnaire were retrieved, showed information displayed in the HIS system was wrongly interpreted by the counselor. In this era of information technology being highly advanced, the role of manual record keeping is still the gold standard.

  15. Quality improvement in the care of live liver donors: implementation of the Designated Donor Nurse Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe Rudow, Dianne; Cabello, Charlotte C; Rivellini, Denise

    2010-12-01

    Publications on living donor liver transplant have focused on the medical aspects of donor selection, postoperative management, surgical procedures, and outcomes, but little attention has been given to the nursing implications for care of live liver donors during their inpatient stay. Donor advocates from various disciplines are involved during the initial education and evaluation, but most care after surgery is delivered by an inpatient medical team and bedside nursing staff who are not as familiar with the donor and concepts related to donor advocacy. In an effort to improve the overall donor experience and provide safe, high-quality care to patients undergoing elective partial hepatectomy, our academic medical center began a quality improvement project focused on improving the inpatient stay. Inpatient nursing standards and policies and procedures were developed to ensure that consistent care is delivered. However, the infrequency of living donor liver transplantation makes it nearly impossible to have all transplant program staff on a nursing unit be "experts" on donor care. Therefore, our center determined that, similar to the Independent Donor Advocacy Team, a transplant program needs live donor champions on the nursing unit to mirror the goals of the team. To that end, we developed the concept of the Designated Donor Nurse to care for and advocate for live liver donors during the inpatient stay and also to serve as a resource to their colleagues. PMID:21265291

  16. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque Nodal Arruebarrena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management. It has been defined as the patient in Glasgow coma with scale higher or equal to 8 who doesn´t present contradictions for transplant (possible donor and who has been diagnosed of encephalic death. This document reviews and updates concepts, lists indications and contraindications for different organs donation, clinical assessment of the donor and its treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  17. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management

    OpenAIRE

    José Roque Nodal Arruebarrena; José Noel Marrero Rodríguez; Yenisey Quintero Menéndez; Aida M. Reyes Pérez; Julio Jova Dueñas

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management. It has been defined as the patient in Glasgow coma with scale higher or equal to 8 who doesn´t present contradictions for transplant (possible donor) and who has been diagnosed of encephalic death. This document reviews and updates concepts, lists indications and contraindications for different organs donation, clinical assessment of the donor and its treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspect...

  18. Global Aid Allocation: Are Nordic Donors Different?

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Scott; Hoeffler, Anke

    2004-01-01

    The Nordic development assistance programs have earned a reputation for commitment to human rights and democracy. Is the reputation deserved? We address this question by comparing how much aid donors give and to which recipient countries. Using a global panel data set, spanning the period 1980-99 and 91 recipient countries, we find that individual bilateral donors vary considerably from one another. Nordic aid distribution differs significantly from other bilateral aid donor patterns: Norway,...

  19. Donor Care in Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğan, Ayşen

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation has been increasing day by day. However, there has been still a huge discrepancy between the numbers of potential organ donor and patients candidate for transplant recipient. Therefore, it is most important to gain organ donor pool. A potential organ donor is defined by the presence of either brain death or a catastrophic injury to the brain. It is mandatory to retrieve organs that offer the greatest likelihood of successful outcomes for the recipients. This strategy nec...

  20. Bioethics of living donor liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, See-Ching; 陳詩正.

    2013-01-01

    Bioethics has been central to living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which mandates a high recipient benefit and an acceptably low donor risk. The double equipoise imposes the contextual features of this already technically complex treatment. This research aimed at looking into key bioethical issues of LDLT in the light of the contemporary practice standards. In adult LDLT, in order to provide a partial graft of adequate size, donor right hepatectomy is often required. This procedure...

  1. Living-donor liver transplantation: current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobritto, Steven; Kato, Tomoaki; Emond, Jean

    2012-11-01

    The disparity between the number of available deceased liver donors and the number of patients awaiting transplantation continues to be an ongoing issue predisposing to death on the liver transplant waiting list. Deceased donor shortage strategies including the use of extended donor-criteria deceased donor grafts, split liver transplants, and organs harvested after cardiac death have fallen short of organ demand. Efforts to raise donor awareness are ongoing, but the course has been arduous to date. Living donor transplantation is a means to access an unlimited donor organ supply and offers potential advantages to deceased donation. Donor safety remains paramount demanding improvements and innovations in both the donor and recipient operations to ensure superior outcomes. The specialty operation is best preformed at centers with specific expertise and shuttling of select patients to these centers supported by third party payers is critical. Training future surgeons at centers with this specific experience can help disseminate this technology to improve local availability. Ongoing research in immunosuppression minimization, withdrawal and tolerance induction may make living donation a desired first-line operation rather than a necessary albeit less-desirable option. This chapter summarizes the progress of living liver donation and its potential applications. PMID:23397534

  2. Gamete donation: ethical implications for donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenfield, Francoise

    1999-01-01

    The interests of gamete donors have only recently been recognized in assisted reproduction; traditionally, the interests of the patients (typically a couple) and the prospective child are paramount. However, assisted reproduction would not be possible without donors, and the simple utilitarian view would be to place their interests first to maximize the availability of the practice. There are several ethical issues on both sides of the donor--recipient equation, some of which are mutual and others are in conflict. For example, the word 'donation' implies there is no payment. Informed consent for donation is essential if the autonomy of the donor is to be respected, and includes information about the results of screening. This is a sensitive issue, especially when pathology is found in a donor who is not being screened for his or her own immediate benefit. Counselling may result in donors refusing to take part, but may also lead to selection by the person recruiting the donors, sometimes as a consequence of examining the motivation of the donor. In this case, the main problem is the ethical basis of the selection process. Other aspects of gamete donation may lead to a conflict of interests between the donor, the recipients and even the prospective child, particularly in terms of anonymity and the information that is made available about the specific circumstances of donation. Implications and support counselling are essential tools in achieving an acceptable balance for all parties involved. PMID:11844334

  3. [Kidney transplant from living donors in children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginevri, Fabrizio; Dello Strologo, Luca; Guzzo, Isabella; Belingheri, Mirco; Ghio, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    A living-donor kidney transplant offers a child at the terminal stages of renal disease better functional recovery and quality of life than an organ from a deceased donor. Before starting the procedure for a living-donor transplant, however, it is necessary to establish if it is really safe. There are diseases, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, atypical HUS and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with dense deposits, for which living donation is not recommended given the high incidence of recurrence of the disease but also the frequent loss of the graft. Regarding the selection of the donor, an increased risk of acute rejection has been reported for donors older than 60-65 years and a worsening of the renal outcome if the donor's weight is equal to or less than the recipient's. Finally, it is necessary to take into consideration that complications may arise in the donor both in the perioperative period and in the long term. In conclusion, kidney transplant from a living donor is a natural choice within the pediatric setting. The parents, usually young and highly motivated to donate, are the ideal donors. However, although the risks associated with donation are minimal, they are not totally absent, and consequently it is mandatory to follow standardized procedures according to the guidelines issued by the Centro Nazionale Trapianti. PMID:21341241

  4. Historical perspective of living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    See Ching Chan; Sheung Tat Fan

    2008-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has gone through its formative years and established as a legitimate treatment when a deceased donor liver graft is not timely or simply not available at all. Nevertheless,LDLT is characterized by its technical complexity and ethical controversy. These are the consequences of a single organ having to serve two subjects, the donor and the recipient, instantaneously. The transplant community has a common ground on assuring donor safety while achieving predictable recipient success. With this background, a reflection of the development of LDLT may be appropriate to direct future research and patient- care efforts on this life-saving treatment alternative.

  5. Imaging evaluation of potential donors in living-donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques

  6. Imaging evaluation of potential donors in living-donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, G. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)], E-mail: timgy@yahoo.com; Wiebe, E. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada); Walji, A.H. [Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta (Canada); Bigam, D.L. [Department of Surgery, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.

  7. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org

    OpenAIRE

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2015-01-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kickstarter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions ...

  8. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    OpenAIRE

    Amudha Palanisamy; Paul Persad; Koty, Patrick P.; Douglas, Laurie L.; Stratta, Robert J.; Jeffrey Rogers; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M.; Giuseppe Orlando; Farney, Alan C; Beaty, Michael W.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Iskandar, Samy S.; Grier, David D; Scott A. Kaczmorski; Doares, William H.

    2015-01-01

    We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each pati...

  9. Exploring the Effects of Cultural Variables in the Implementation of Behavior-Based Safety in Two Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumstead, Alaina; Boyce, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    The present case study examines how culture can influence behavior-based safety in different organizational settings and how behavior-based safety can impact different organizational cultures. Behavior-based safety processes implemented in two culturally diverse work settings are described. Specifically, despite identical implementation plans,…

  10. [Liver transplants from living donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogiers, X; Danninger, F; Malagó, M; Knoefel, W T; Gundlach, M; Bassas, A; Burdelski, M; Broelsch, C E

    1996-03-01

    In this article the authors discuss the advantages of Living Related Liver Transplantation (LRLT), criteria for the selection of donors and the standard operation technique. Among a total of 241 liver transplantation (LTx), 42 LRLT were performed at the University of Hamburg between October 1, 1991 and December 19, 1994. The body weight of recipients for LRLT ranged from 4,6 to 39 kg, with 64,2% having less than 10 kg. The volume of the donor left lateral liver lobe ranged from 100 cc to 350 cc. The average one year survival rate among electively operated patients-status 3-4 (UNOS 1995 classification) was 86.7%, two year survival rate 83.3%. The main advantages of LRLT are consired the following: 1. Absence of mortality on the waiting list, 2. Optimal timing of the transplantation (elective procedure, patient in a good condition), 3. Excellent organ (no primary non function), 4. A possible immunologic advantage, 5. Relief of the waiting list for cadaveric organs, 6. Psychological benefit for the family, 7. Cost effectiveness. Potential candidates for living donation with more than one cardiovascular risk factors were excluded. Social and psychological reasons leading to rejection of candidates were as follows: unstable family structure, expected professional or financial difficulties after living donation or withdrawal from consent. LRLT gives parents of a child with TLD a chance to avoid the risk of death on the waiting list or primary non function of the graft. LRLT has therefore established an important place in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:8768973

  11. Donor profiles: demographic factors and their influence on the donor career

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, I.J.T.; Doggen, C.J.M.; Atsma, F.; Kort, de W.L.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives  Studying the contribution of demographic factors to the donor career provides important knowledge to be used for donor management. The aim of this study is to gain insight into donor characteristics, more specifically into the demographic profile of active vs. resigned don

  12. Effect of donor GFR on early renal function of recipients with living donor transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯敬财

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of donor GFR on the early renal function in recipients undergoing living donor transplantation. Methods A total of 172 living donor transplant recipients in our kidney transplantation center from 2006 to 2011 were enrolled into this study. Among them,166 were genetically related

  13. Renal Function Recovery in Donors and Recipients after Live Donor Nephrectomy: Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic vs. Open Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bum Soo; Yoo, Eun Sang; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwon, Tae Gyun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is associated with less postoperative pain and faster recovery times in living kidney donors. However, pneumoperitoneum, which is required in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, can result in adverse effects on renal function in donors and recipients. We compared renal function in donors and recipients after hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN) and open donor nephrectomy (ODN). Materials and Methods Between January 1997 and January 2008, 241 ...

  14. The value of living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoli; Gong, Junhua; Gong, JianPing

    2012-12-31

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a very successful procedure that develops liver resources in case of worldwide shortages. As the technology has developed so much in the past 2 decades, LDLT has the same good prognosis as DDLT. However, LDLT still has lots of ethical & technical problems. It causes great psychiatric, physical and psychosocial harm to donors. Also, it has some negative effects on society by providing a platform for organ trade. Therefore, there is much controversy about the social value of LDLT. After review of recent papers, we find much progress can be made in inspiring the public to become organ donors and creating donation model new to improve the consent rate for solid organ donation from deceased donors. That is the key strategy for increasing the liver supply. With this serious shortage of organs, liver donor transplantation still has its advantages, but we should not place all our hopes on LDLT to increase the liver supply. We all need to try our best to increase donor awareness and promote organ donor registration--when cadaver organs could meet the needs for liver transplantation, living donor liver transplants would not be necessary. PMID:23274332

  15. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

    2006-03-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors. PMID:16482095

  16. Normothermic machine perfusion for donor liver preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, H.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, liver transplantation is the only treatment for end-stage liver failure. Unfortunately, a sever shortage of donor organs causes significant mortality amongst patients awaiting transplantation. The donor organ shortage could be alleviated by using organs that are normally not accepted for

  17. Potential organ donor audit in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegarty, M

    2010-11-01

    As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.

  18. PATHOMORPHOLOGY OF ZERO BIOPSIES OF DONOR KIDNEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  19. Our experience with deceased organ donor maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Meena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Deceased organ donors in an intensive care unit (ICU are the richest source of organs for transplantation. Careful donor maintenance plays a vital role in the successful functioning of the organ in the recipient. Aims : Early identification of brain stem death (BSD in the ICU, problems and management in donor maintenance till retrieval are the main objectives. Materials and Methods : BSD was identified in a level I trauma center over a period of eight years (1996-2004 using UK code. After screening for fitness, they were maintained to achieve normothermia, systolic BP > 90 mm Hg, CVP 8-10 cm water, urine output > 80 ml/hour and normal acid base balance. Results: 168 cases of BSD were maintained, 30 with identity unknown. Common transient complications noted were hypotension (68%, hypokalemia (62%, hypothermia (12%, diabetes insipidus (70%. Brain stem death was identified early and resuscitated to maintain normal tissue perfusion. 17 (12.3% consent for organ donation was obtained. Organs (24 kidneys and one liver were retrieved from 12 donors. Four donors sustained cardiac arrest before retrieval. Conclusion: Early recognition of brain stem death and prompty correction of hemodyanamic instability is the key to deceased donor maintenance. Optimal care of potential donor translates to care of multiple recipients.

  20. Donor research in australia: challenges and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

    2014-07-01

    Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  1. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15−59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  2. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Khaled E; Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15-59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  3. Interventional radiology in living donor liver transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Hsu, Hsien-Wen; Concerjero, Allan M; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long

    2014-01-01

    The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT. PMID:24876742

  4. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...... policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients...

  5. Iron Status in Norwegian Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Røsvik, Anne Synnøve

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims: Blood banks in Norway struggle to close the gap between need and supply of blood. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the iron status in blood donors. The aims of this thesis were first to compare the iron status in new blood donors in 1993-97 and in 2005-06, to describe possible changes in iron status. To describe the effect of four consecutive blood donations without iron supplementation for newly recruited donors was the second aim. Th...

  6. Reducing the Probability of Incidents Through Behavior-Based Safety -- An Anomaly or Not?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing the probability of incidents through Behavior-Based Safety--an anomaly or not? Can a Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) process reduce the probability of an employee sustaining a work-related injury or illness? This presentation describes the actions taken to implement a sustainable BBS process and evaluates its effectiveness. The BBS process at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center used a pilot population of national laboratory employees to: Achieve employee and management support; Reduce the probability of employees' sustaining work-related injuries and illnesses; and Provide support for additional funding to expand within the laboratory

  7. Reducing the Probability of Incidents Through Behavior-Based Safety -- An Anomaly or Not?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing the probability of incidents through Behavior-Based Safety-an anomaly or not? Can a Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) process reduce the probability of an employee sustaining a work-related injury or illness? This presentation describes the actions taken to implement a sustainable BBS process and evaluates its effectiveness. The BBS process at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center used a pilot population of national laboratory employees to: Achieve employee and management support; Reduce the probability of employees' sustaining work-related injuries and illnesses; and Provide support for additional funding to expand within the laboratory

  8. Hemodynamic Changes in Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rafiei

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Everyday, millions of people around the world go through phlebotomy, either to donate blood or for therapeutic intention. The most important worrisome adverse effects are hemodynamic alterations. In this study, hemodynamic changes following blood donation were assessed. Methods & Materials: Three hundred laborers who donated blood voluntarily were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure (BP and pulse rate were measured before the procedure, ten minutes afterwards, and one week following phlebotomy. Hemoglobin (Hgb and hematocrit (Hct were also determined prior to and one week after phlebotomy. Finally, results before and after donation were compared with each other. Results: 242 volunteers had normal BP and 58 were hypertensive. The mean systolic blood pressures (SBP before phlebotomy, ten minutes after the procedure, and one week later were 120, 117, and 122 mmHg, respectively. During the same periods of time, the mean of diastolic blood pressures (DBP were 77 , 78 and 78 mmHg , in order , while pulse rates on average were 80 , 82 and 76 beats/minute . None of the aforementioned changes were clinically significant. After one week, Hgb decreased by about 0.3 g/dl (P<0.001 and Hct declined on average of 1.7 (P<0.001. Forty six individuals had high DBP and one week after donation, their DBP was reduced by 7 mmHg. Age, body mass index and smoking did not have any significant effect on hemodynamic status. Conclusion: Hemodynamic changes in healthy blood donors were not clinically significant. It seems that DBP drops desirably in hypertensive individuals. This needs to be evaluated more carefully in future studies.

  9. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... available when the video has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ...

  10. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the use of BMT and PBSCT, see http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/fa... If you are ... registry of volunteers willing to be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard ...

  11. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Jul 19, 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell ...

  12. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Duration: 3:35. hemaquebec1998 667 views 3:35 Bone Marrow/Stem Cell ... Jeff, peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 22,203 ...

  13. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 22,464 views 3:28 Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer - Duration: 11:58. ...

  14. Living donor liver transplantation in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Living donor liver transplant (LDLT) accounts for a small volume of the transplants in the USA. Due to the current liver allocation system based on the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), LDLT has a unique role in providing life-saving transplantation for patients with low MELD scores and significant complications from portal hypertension, as well as select patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Donor safety is paramount and has been a topic of much discussion in the transplant community as well as the general media. The donor risk appears to be low overall, with a favorable long-term quality of life. The latest trend has been a gradual shift from right-lobe grafts to left-lobe grafts to reduce donor risk, provided that the left lobe can provide adequate liver volume for the recipient. PMID:27115007

  15. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  16. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  17. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Jul 19, 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation ( ...

  18. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ...

  19. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE FOR LIVER DONOR PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lupaşcu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of the liver is one of the most traumatic operations yet deviced and there is a tendency for it to be offered as a possible life-saving therapy to some of the sickest patients that are submitted to surgery. The concept of vascularized liver graft resulted from the pioneering work of Moore (1959 and Starzl (1960. In the last twenty years, the concept of multiorgan donor has been accepted in most European countries and USA, and, where possible, all organs that can be used are transplanted from a given donor, provided permission is forthcoming. Procurement of the whole liver graft from a heart-beating, but brain-dead, donor remains the standard method of liver procurement and is usually carried out as part af a multiple organ retrieval that also includes the kidneys, pancreas and thoracic organs, and occasionally intestinal grafts are being recovered. The author describes the standard approach for donor hepatectomy.

  20. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amudha Palanisamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement.

  1. Iron status of regular voluntary blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahida Vilsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our blood bank is a regional blood transfusion centre, which accepts blood only from voluntary donors. Aim: The aim is to study iron status of regular voluntary donors who donated their blood at least twice in a year. Materials and Methods: Prior to blood donation, blood samples of 220 male and 30 female voluntary donors were collected. Control included 100 each male and female healthy individuals in the 18- to 60-year age group, who never donated blood and did not have any chronic infection. In the study and control groups, about 10% subjects consumed non-vegetarian diet. After investigation, 85 males and 56 females having haemoglobin (Hb levels above 12.5 g/dl were selected as controls. Donors were divided into ≤10, 11-20, 21-50 and> 50 blood donation categories. Majority of the donors in> 50 donation category donated blood four times in a year, whereas the remaining donors donated two to three times per year. Haematological parameters were measured on fully automatic haematology analyzer, serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC by biochemical methods, ferritin using ELISA kits and transferrin using immunoturbidometry kits. Iron/TIBC ratio x 100 gave percentage of transferrin saturation value. Statistical Analysis: Statistical evaluation was done by mean, standard deviation, pair t -test, χ2 and anova ( F -test. Results: Preliminary analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the iron profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects or controls and the donors donating < 20 times. Significant increase or decrease was observed in mean values of various haematological and iron parameters in donors who donated blood for> 20 times ( P < 0.001, compared to controls. Anaemia, iron deficiency and depletion of iron stores were more prevalent in female donors ( P < 0.05 compared to males and especially in those male donors who donated their blood for more than 20 times. Conclusion: Regular voluntary blood

  2. Assurances of past donor anonymity are meaningless

    OpenAIRE

    Blyth, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The New Scientist recently recounted the story of an American teenager conceived through ostensibly anonymous donor insemination who had been able to identify his donor through DNA testing and an internet genetic database service (also see BioNews issue 333, at http://www.bionews.org.uk/new.lasso?storyid=2808). In fact, we have known since Barry Stevens' remarkable documentary, Offspring, released in 2001, that with some genetic background information, access to DNA testing and the intern...

  3. Rare blood donors with irregular antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krga-Milanović Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Blood groups are inherited biological characteristics that do not change throughout life in healthy people. Blood groups represent antigens found on the surface of red blood cells. Kell blood group system consists of 31 antigens. Kell antigen (K is present in 0.2% of the population (the rare blood group. Cellano antigen is present in more than 99% (the high-frequency antigen. These antigens have a distinct ability to cause an immune response in the people after blood transfusion or pregnancy who, otherwise, did not have them before. Case Report. This paper presents a blood donor with a rare blood group, who was found to have an irregular antibody against red blood cells by indirect antiglobulin test. Further testing determined the specificity of antibody to be anti-Cellano. The detected antibody was found in high titers (1024 with erythrocyte phenotype Kell-Cellano+. The blood donor was found to have a rare blood group KellKell. This donor was excluded from further blood donation. It is difficult to find compatible blood for a person who has developed an antibody to the high-frequency antigen. The donor’s family members were tested and Cellano antigen was detected in her husband and child. A potential blood donor was not found among the family members. There was only one blood donor in the Register of blood donors who was compatible in the ABO and Kell blood group system. Conclusion. For the successful management of blood transfusion it is necessary to establish a unified national register of donors of rare blood groups and cooperate with the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory in Bristol with the database that registers donors of rare blood groups from around the world.

  4. Fragile African States: What Should Donors Do?

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, Paul

    2014-01-01

    1. IntroductionNecessarily, all donors will focus increasingly on fragile states. The more successful countries in Africa have achieved growing tax bases and are consequently now gaining access to global capital markets. For such countries, aid is becoming marginal. In contrast, fragile states, by the nature of their condition, have small tax bases and face risks which deter private capital: for them aid remains potentially important. Not only do donors provide a substantial proportion of gov...

  5. Therapeutic donor insemination with frozen semen.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, S G; Mortimer, D.; P J Taylor; Leader, A; Pattinson, H A

    1990-01-01

    Although it is now accepted that cryopreserved semen must, on ethical and medicolegal grounds, be used for donor insemination many clinicians still believe that it has an unacceptably reduced fecundability rate as compared with fresh semen. We studied the outcome of 81 recipients who started therapeutic donor insemination (TDI) treatment during 1986 in a program that used exclusively cryopreserved semen; 55 had never undergone TDI and were receiving the first series (six cycles), 6 were recei...

  6. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections

    OpenAIRE

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D.; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K.; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B.

    2014-01-01

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an...

  7. Use of a Simulated Work Setting to Study Behavior-Based Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael R.; Hayes, Linda J.

    2005-01-01

    A need exists for a controlled examination of the variables that may affect the results of a behavior-based safety program. These include the rate of risky behaviors and how they relate to a contingent bonus payout (Experiment 1), and the relative amounts of honesty in injury reporting and rule following (Experiment 2). A simple task consisting of…

  8. Perancangan dan Implementasi Autonomous Landing Menggunakan Behavior-Based dan Fuzzy Controller pada Quadcopter

    OpenAIRE

    Fadjri Andika Permadi; Rusdhianto Effendie Abdul Kadier; Ali Fatoni

    2012-01-01

    Perkembangan teknologi sistem kendali pesawat sayap berputar (copter) semakin pesat salah satunya pada pesawat berbaling-baling empat (quadcopter). Landing merupakan bagian tersulit dalam penerbangan quadcopter. Ukuran quadcopter yang kecil mengakibatkan susahnya pengendalian kestabilan dan kecepatan turun.Cara mengatasi permasalahan ini adalah dengan autonomous landing yang menggunakan algoritma kendali behavior-based (berbasis perilaku). Tugas akhir ini merancang dan mengimplementasikan alg...

  9. Child and Adolescent Behaviorally Based Disorders: A Critical Review of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the historical construction and empirical support of two child and adolescent behaviorally based mental health disorders: oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Method: The study utilized a historiography methodology to review, from 1880 to 2012, these disorders' inclusion in…

  10. Donor identification 'kills gamete donation'? A response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Sonia

    2012-12-01

    Two Australian government inquiries have recently called for the release of information to donor-conceived people about their gamete donors. A national inquiry, recommended 'as a matter of priority' that uniform legislation to be passed nationwide. A state-based inquiry argued that all donor-conceived people should have access to information and called for the enactment of retrospective legislation that would override donor anonymity. This paper responds to an opinion piece published in Human Reproduction in October 2012 by Professor Pennings in which he criticized such recommendations and questioned the motives of people that advocate for information release. I answer the arguments of Pennings, and argue that all parties affected by donor conception should be considered, and a compromise reached. The contact veto system is one such compromise. I discuss the education and support services recommended by the Victorian government and question Pennings' assertions that legislation enabling information release will lead to a decrease in gamete donation. Finally, I rebut Pennings' assertion that there is a 'hidden agenda' behind the call for information release. There is no such agenda in my work. If there is from others, then it is their discriminatory views that need to be addressed, not the move toward openness and honesty or the call for information by donor-conceived people. PMID:23034154

  11. Living donor transplant: wider selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Valeri, M; Torlone, N; Vega, A; Tullio, T; Condò, S; Dominijanni, S; Casciani, C U

    2004-04-01

    The availability of cadaveric donor organs is insufficient for actual needs. The organ demand increases by 20% per year. Living donor transplant (LDT) may be a valid therapeutical alternative provided one uses proper criteria. LDT provides many advantages, like improved patient and organ survival, short waiting time, and the possibility to carefully plan the procedure. Potential risks include perioperative mortality and renal dysfunction in the kidney donor. At present, kidney LDTs in Italy represent 8% of the total, with an organ survival rate of 97% after 1 year (vs 93% for cadaveric transplants) and donors mortality rate of almost null. Most LDTs are performed from kinsmen. Presently, law no. 458, 26 June 1967, is in force in Italy for kidney LDT and law no. 453, 16 December 1999, for liver LDT. The foundations of LDT are, of course, the recipient's condition, the donor's motivation, and the altruism of the donation. It is desirable that in the future an increasing number of LDT be performed, supported by a careful, widespread health education regarding organ donation from living subjects and by the possibility to obtain insurance for the donor, which has been considered but never provided by actual laws. PMID:15110560

  12. Recent advance in living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikura, Yasuhiko; Kawasaki, Seiji; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Terada, Masaru; Ikegami, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Yuichi; Urata, Koichi; Chisuwa, Hisanao; Ogino, Shiro; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2002-02-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT)has been performed in more than 2000 cases around the world. This procedure is considered to have certain advantages over cadaveric liver transplantation, because detailed preoperative evaluation of the donor liver is possible and superior graft quality is available. The indication has recently been widened to include adult patients. The results of LDLT have been reported to be very good. In this article,several considerations on LDLT,including living donor selection and application to adult patients, are discussed. Between June 1990 and March 2001, 143 patients underwent LDLT at Shinshu University Hospital. During this period, 160 patients were determined to be candidates for liver transplantation in our institution, and 185 candidates were evaluated as potential donors for these patients. Thirty-eight of 185 donor candidates were excluded for reasons including liver dysfunction and withdrawal of consent. The recipients included 60 adults, 50 (83%) of whom are currently alive. Taking into account the worldwide shortage of cadaveric organ donation,the importance of LDLT will probably never diminish. This procedure should be established on the basis of profound consideration of donor safety as well as accumulated expertise of hepatobiliary surgery. PMID:11865355

  13. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field. PMID:21649566

  14. How Organ Donors are Different from Non-donors: Responsibility, Barriers, and Religious Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Lillian M; Brazda, Geoffrey F

    2015-12-01

    To see if religious involvement, previously linked to various health behaviors, was linked to organ donation, 143 ethnically diverse undergraduates stated whether they were registered donors (53% were), and completed measures of organ donation attitudes and religious involvement. Compared with non-donors, donors reported fewer barriers, more family responsibility, and more willingness to receive donor organs, but were not different in religious involvement. Even in 2014, when being a "good Samaritan" by agreeing to organ donation is as easy as checking one box on a driver's license application, religious involvement does not seem to be a factor in checking this box. PMID:25524413

  15. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-06-24

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor. PMID:25032095

  16. Prevalence of seroreactivity among blood donors in rural population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonwane B

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The seroreactivity pattern amongst blood donors in rural population was studied at S.R.T. Rural Medical College and Hospital, Ambajogai (M. S.. The study period was from January 1996 to December 2001. A total number of 12,240 blood donors were screened. The voluntary donation was 36.98% and replacement donors were 63.02%. No professional donor is bled in our blood bank. The HIV seroreactivity among voluntary donors was 1.56% and 2.11% in replacement donors. The HBsAg seroreactivity was 2.78% in voluntary donors and 4.84% in replacement donors. VDRL seroreactivity is 1.12% in replacement donors. No malarial parasite and HCV seroreactive donor was found in our study period. We have found the magnitude of hepatitis to be far more than that of HIV. Hence testing for HCV routinely is mandatory, besides HBsAg.

  17. Evaluation of the medically complex living kidney donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Yasar; Yildiz, Alaattin

    2012-01-01

    Due to organ shortage and difficulties for availability of cadaveric donors, living donor transplantation is an important choice for having allograft. Live donor surgery is elective and easier to organize prior to starting dialysis thereby permitting preemptive transplantation as compared to cadaveric transplantation. Because of superior results with living kidney transplantation, efforts including the usage of "Medically complex living donors" are made to increase the availability of organs for donation. The term "Complex living donor" is probably preferred for all suboptimal donors where decision-making is a problem due to lack of sound medical data or consensus guidelines. Donors with advanced age, obesity, asymptomatic microhematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, renal stone disease, history of malignancy and with chronic viral infections consist of this complex living donors. This medical complex living donors requires careful evaluation for future renal risk. In this review we would like to present the major issues in the evaluation process of medically complex living kidney donor. PMID:22655169

  18. Sibling stem cell donor experiences at a single institution†

    OpenAIRE

    Wiener, Lori S.; Steffen-Smith, Emilie; Battles, Haven B.; Wayne, Alan; Love, Cynthia P.; Fry, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow (BM) and cytokine mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation can be curative for patients with malignant and nonmalignant hematologic diseases. Siblings are most often selected as a donor match; however, research on sibling donors is limited and has focused primarily on conventional BM donors. This exploratory study describes the experiences of PBSC sibling donors at a single institution. Through retrospective interviews, 14 sibling donors shared their ...

  19. International rare donor panels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, S; Scharberg, E A; Thornton, N; Yahalom, V; Sareneva, I; Lomas-Francis, C

    2016-04-01

    International rare blood donor panels or registries are important in the consistent availability of rare blood for patients who need this scarce resource. In countries where it has been possible to commit resources to this effort and often where the need is great, donors have been entered into a registry. The ISBT leadership recognized the importance of this very challenging inventory management activity and created a Working Party to support it. Individual countries support the WHO International Rare Donor Panel by submitting their donors' phenotype or genotype information to be catalogued into the database. It is extremely important that this database be cultivated and grown. The contributing countries keep their list updated and supply the blood product as they can when requested. It is known that some blood types are extremely scarce worldwide and requests for these are particularly difficult to fulfil. Thus, it is important to have a protocol to identify and recruit donors with rare blood types. It is equally or perhaps more important to ensure that the patients who need the rare blood are being managed appropriately in the presence and absence of rare blood products being available. PMID:26689301

  20. Are live kidney donors at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To share experience of live donor nephrectomy (including intraoperative variables, morbidity and ethical aspects) and to give an overview of surgical technique being practiced. Results: Majority of the donors (58.5%) were 31-50 years old and 70.6% were first-degree relatives. Left sided kidney was taken in 96.5% cases. Mean operative time was 145 minutes. Mean renal warm ischemia time from cross clamping of renal vessels to cold perfusion on the bench was 1.5 minutes per operation. Operative complications encountered were injury to lumbar veins in 5.1 % cases, slipping of satinsky clamp on vena cava stump in 1.7 % and accidental pleural damage in 5.1 % cases. Postoperative morbid complications found were urinary retention in 6.4 % cases, epididymo-orchitis in 1.7 %, prolonged lymph drain in 3.4 %, stitch infection in 1.7 % and prolonged wound discomfort in 5.1 % patients. Conclusions: Open live donor nepherectomy appears to be safe procedure for harvesting kidney. Related or emotionally related donors must be the choice in all cases. Non-related donors may be entertained in selected cases despite the probability of organ vending in our society. (author)

  1. The Psychosocial and Independent Living Donor Advocate Evaluation and Post-surgery Care of Living Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudow, Dianne LaPointe; Swartz, Kathleen; Phillips, Chelsea; Hollenberger, Jennifer; Smith, Taylor; Steel, Jennifer L

    2015-09-01

    Solid organ transplantation as a treatment for end stage organ failure has been an accepted treatment option for decades. Despite advances in medicine and technology, and increased awareness of organ donation and transplantation, the gap between supply and demand continues to widen. Living donation has been an option that has increased the number of transplants despite the continued shortage of deceased organs. In the early 2000s live donor transplantation reached an all-time high in the United States. As a result, a consensus meeting was convened in 2000 to increase the oversight of living donor transplantation. Both the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the United Network for Organ Sharing developed regulations that transplant programs performing live donor transplantation. These regulations and guidelines involve the education, evaluation, informed consent process and living donor follow-up care. Two areas in which had significant changes included the psychosocial and the independent living donor advocate (ILDA) evaluation. The purpose of this paper was to outline the current regulations and guidelines associated with the psychosocial and ILDA evaluation as well as provide further recommendations for the administration of a high quality evaluation of living donors. The goals and timing of the evaluation and education of donors; qualifications of the health care providers performing the evaluation; components of the evaluation; education provided to donors; documentation of the evaluation; participation in the selection committee meeting; post-decline and post-donation care of donors is described. Caveats including the paired donor exchange programs and non-directed and directed donation are also considered. PMID:26293351

  2. Rule-Based vs. Behavior-Based Self-Deployment for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdiales, Cristina; Aguilera, Francisco; González-Parada, Eva; Cano-García, Jose; Sandoval, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSN), nodes are allowed to move autonomously for deployment. This process is meant: (i) to achieve good coverage; and (ii) to distribute the communication load as homogeneously as possible. Rather than optimizing deployment, reactive algorithms are based on a set of rules or behaviors, so nodes can determine when to move. This paper presents an experimental evaluation of both reactive deployment approaches: rule-based and behavior-based ones. Specifically, we compare a backbone dispersion algorithm with a social potential fields algorithm. Most tests are done under simulation for a large number of nodes in environments with and without obstacles. Results are validated using a small robot network in the real world. Our results show that behavior-based deployment tends to provide better coverage and communication balance, especially for a large number of nodes in areas with obstacles. PMID:27399709

  3. Rule-Based vs. Behavior-Based Self-Deployment for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdiales, Cristina; Aguilera, Francisco; González-Parada, Eva; Cano-García, Jose; Sandoval, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSN), nodes are allowed to move autonomously for deployment. This process is meant: (i) to achieve good coverage; and (ii) to distribute the communication load as homogeneously as possible. Rather than optimizing deployment, reactive algorithms are based on a set of rules or behaviors, so nodes can determine when to move. This paper presents an experimental evaluation of both reactive deployment approaches: rule-based and behavior-based ones. Specifically, we compare a backbone dispersion algorithm with a social potential fields algorithm. Most tests are done under simulation for a large number of nodes in environments with and without obstacles. Results are validated using a small robot network in the real world. Our results show that behavior-based deployment tends to provide better coverage and communication balance, especially for a large number of nodes in areas with obstacles. PMID:27399709

  4. Modeling and Analysis for Obstacle Avoidance of a Behavior-Based Robot with Objected Oriented Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Object Modeling Technique is widely applied in the field of software engineering; and in this paper we applied this technique to model a mobile robot including its behaviors and interactions with environment. The paper first describes key background knowledge about object oriented analysis in software engineering, behavior based robotics and their similarities. Then, based on these similarities, the paper uses object oriented methods of software engineering, such as unified modeling language (UML, to analyze and model the architecture; and to design behaviors for a behavior-based robot, which is expected to wander with autonomous obstacle avoidance in unknown environment. Object oriented methods permit a translation from conceptual behavior models to computer programming representations, and separate concrete control algorithms from robot modeling. With this approach, the paper implements a fuzzy algorithm for obstacle avoidance behavior of the constructed behavior models in a physical robot, and made experiments in the given indoor environment.

  5. AN ANDROID APPLICATION FOR VOLUNTEER BLOOD DONORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Turhan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an expectation that the blood will always be there when it is really needed. Blood donor volunteers constitute the main supply source in an effective blood supply chain management. They feed blood stocks through their donation. In an emergency situation, if the stocks are insufficient, the only source of blood supply will be the people who come to the health center and donate the blood on a voluntary basis. It is certain that time is a very important component in such situation. For this reason, the health care center should call the nearest available donor in order to ensure to get the service as quickly as possible. A smart phone application is developed to facilitate the identification of the nearest available blood donor volunteer and the communication with him/her in the emergency situations where the blood can’t be supplied through the blood banks’ stocks. In this paper this application will be presented.

  6. INFLUENCE OF CUSTOMER VALUES AND SELF-IMAGE CONGRUITY ON CUSTOMER BEHAVIOR-BASED CRM PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mandy Loh; Maisarah Ahmad; Suhaila Abdul Kadir; Syed Shah Alam

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the key dimensions of customer value (functional value, emotional value, social value, and perceived sacrifice) and self-image congruity on customer-behavior based CRM performance. The study also attempts to investigate on the effect of key dimensions of customer value and self-image congruity on customer satisfaction and brand loyalty. The research model for this study was adopts an integrated framework from a previous study, and a...

  7. Behavior-based multi-robot collaboration for autonomous construction tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terry; Okon, Avi; Aghazarian, Hrand; Robinson, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    The Robot Construction Crew (RCC) is a heterogeneous multi-robot system for autonomous construction of a structure through assembly of Long components. The two robot team demonstrates component placement into an existing structure in a realistic environment. The task requires component acquisition, cooperative transport, and cooperative precision manipulation. A behavior-based architecture provides adaptability. The RCC approach minimizes computation, power, communication, and sensing for applicability to space-related construction efforts, but the techniques are applicable to terrestrial construction tasks.

  8. Why do firms collect data on customers? A behavior-based price discrimination approach

    OpenAIRE

    Helminen, Leena

    2011-01-01

    This thesis discusses the collection of customer data and its potential use in price discrimination. I survey the current literature on behavior-based price discrimination to understand its implications to firms’ profitability. Focus is given to homogenous, non-durable good duopolies to investigate the competitive effects of customer recognition. As the objective is to understand why firms invest in the collection of customer data, welfare analysis is left outside the scope of the thesis. ...

  9. A behavior-based scheme using reinforcement learning for autonomous underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Carreras Pérez, Marc; Yuh, Junku; Batlle i Grabulosa, Joan; Ridao Rodríguez, Pere

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid behavior-based scheme using reinforcement learning for high-level control of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Two main features of the presented approach are hybrid behavior coordination and semi on-line neural-Q_learning (SONQL). Hybrid behavior coordination takes advantages of robustness and modularity in the competitive approach as well as efficient trajectories in the cooperative approach. SONQL, a new continuous approach of the Q_learning algorithm with...

  10. Donor-recipient matching: myths and realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Javier; Ciria, Ruben; de la Mata, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Liver transplant outcomes keep improving, with refinements of surgical technique, immunosuppression and post-transplant care. However, these excellent results and the limited number of organs available have led to an increasing number of potential recipients with end-stage liver disease worldwide. Deaths on waiting lists have led liver transplant teams maximize every organ offered and used in terms of pre and post-transplant benefit. Donor-recipient (D-R) matching could be defined as the technique to check D-R pairs adequately associated by the presence of the constituents of some patterns from donor and patient variables. D-R matching has been strongly analysed and policies in donor allocation have tried to maximize organ utilization whilst still protecting individual interests. However, D-R matching has been written through trial and error and the development of each new score has been followed by strong discrepancies and controversies. Current allocation systems are based on isolated or combined donor or recipient characteristics. This review intends to analyze current knowledge about D-R matching methods, focusing on three main categories: patient-based policies, donor-based policies and combined donor-recipient systems. All of them lay on three mainstays that support three different concepts of D-R matching: prioritarianism (favouring the worst-off), utilitarianism (maximising total benefit) and social benefit (cost-effectiveness). All of them, with their pros and cons, offer an exciting controversial topic to be discussed. All of them together define D-R matching today, turning into myth what we considered a reality in the past. PMID:23104164

  11. INFLUENCE OF CUSTOMER VALUES AND SELF-IMAGE CONGRUITY ON CUSTOMER BEHAVIOR-BASED CRM PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Loh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the key dimensions of customer value (functional value, emotional value, social value, and perceived sacrifice and self-image congruity on customer-behavior based CRM performance. The study also attempts to investigate on the effect of key dimensions of customer value and self-image congruity on customer satisfaction and brand loyalty. The research model for this study was adopts an integrated framework from a previous study, and adds new element into it. This study has chosen to examine the framework in the retail industry, specifically hypermarket in Malaysia, where the adoption of CRM tools is increasing incrementally. The study target on the Generation Y who believed will be the future driver of retail industry. The findings show that perceived sacrifice appears to be a critical customer perceived value in influencing the customer behavior-based CRM performance and customer satisfaction. This study show that brand loyalty would directly influence the customer behavior-based CRM performance. Perceived sacrifice and brand loyalty should be focused when trying to improve the performance of CRM.

  12. Donor safety in living donor liver transplantation: a single-center analysis of 300 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Lei

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the safety to donors of living-donor liver transplantation. METHODS: This study included 300 consecutive living liver tissue donors who underwent operations at our center from July 2002 to December 2012. We evaluated the safety of donors with regard to three aspects complications were recorded prospectively and stratified by grade according to Clavien's classification, and the data were compared in two stages (the first 5 years' experience (pre-January 2008 and the latter 5 years' experience (post-January 2008; laboratory tests such as liver function and blood biochemistry were performed; and the health-related quality of life was evaluated. RESULTS: There was no donor mortality at our center, and the overall morbidity rate was 25.3%. Most of the complications of living donors were either grade I or II. There were significantly fewer complications in the latter period of our study than in the initial period (19.9% vs 32.6%, P<0.001, and biliary complications were the most common complications, with an incidence of 9%. All of the liver dysfunction was temporary; however, the post-operative suppression of platelet count lasted for years. Although within the normal range, eight years after operation, 22 donors showed lower platelet levels (189 × 10(9/L compared with the pre-operative levels (267 × 10(9/L (P<0.05. A total of 98.4% of donors had returned to their previous levels of social activity and work, and 99.2% of donors would donate again if it was required and feasible. With the exception of two donors who experienced grade III complications (whose recipients died and a few cases of abdominal discomfort, fatigue, chronic pain and scar itching, none of the living donors were affected by physical problems. CONCLUSION: With careful donor selection and specialized patient care, low morbidity rates and satisfactory long-term recovery can be achieved after hepatectomy for living-donor liver transplantation.

  13. Anisotropic donor states in electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakrzewski, Adam J. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-06-15

    In this paper we consider the application of the stabilization method to calculations of the ground state energy and resonance width of shallow donors in a uniform electric field. We show for the first time that within our formulation of this method it is very easy to include various factors influencing electronic structure of shallow impurities, like effective mass anisotropy or magnetic field. We demonstrate that the effective mass anisotropy significantly changes the lifetime of donor bound electrons. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. [Attitude of blood donors towards cholesterol measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesland, O; Botten, G; Solheim, B G; Orjasaeter, H

    1992-05-20

    In analyses of cost-effectiveness it is customary to count knowledge of having a high serum cholesterol level as a negative factor. There is little support for this practice in the literature. We have studied the attitude of 305 Norwegian blood donors towards cholesterol testing. 63% stated that they were interested in their serum cholesterol level, and 40% said they knew their own serum cholesterol level. The attitude towards cholesterol testing was clearly positive, both among men and among women, regardless of age. Only one donor stated that she did not want to have her serum cholesterol tested in conjunction with blood donation. PMID:1509430

  15. Risks for donors in uterus transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisu, Iori; Mihara, Makoto; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Araki, Jun; Hara, Hisako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Daisuke

    2013-12-01

    Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an alternative to gestational surrogacy and adoption for patients with absolute uterine infertility. Studies have been conducted in animals, and UTx is now within the reach of clinical application in humans. Procedures in humans have been published, but many medical, ethical, and social problems and risks of UTx require discussion prior to widespread clinical application, from the perspectives of donors, recipients, families, and newborns. In this article, we summarize the burdens and risks of UTx, with a focus on donors who provide the uterus. PMID:23793471

  16. When 'sperm' becomes 'donor': transitions in parents' views of the sperm donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indekeu, Astrid; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Daniels, Ken R; Dierickx, Kris; Rober, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Little is known about recipients' views of their sperm donor. This study aimed to examine the possible transitions or consistencies in donor sperm recipients' (DSRs') view on the sperm donor over time. A longitudinal qualitative study of 19 Belgian heterosexual DSRs was undertaken. Interviews took place with both partners of the couple during pregnancy, at birth and 1.5-2 years after birth, and were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Recipients who intended to disclose exhibited a transition in their awareness of the donor from being of minimal importance to one who was increasingly seen as part of their family narrative. This was partly triggered by the offspring's life, remarks about resemblance and the socio-cultural context. The perceived position of the donor changed for most recipients from a threatening rival to a 'distractor'. This change was supported by the emerging father-child bond and the confidence that stemmed from it. These observations were applicable to those recipients who intended to disclose their donor conception; for those recipients who intended not to disclose, little or no transition was observed. This study describes and analyses the transitions and consistencies in recipients' views of the donor over different stages of the family life-cycle (pregnancy, birth, toddler stage) and could help the fertility clinics tailor their counselling to the specific stages of parenthood. PMID:24851674

  17. Donor Hemodynamics as a Predictor of Outcomes After Kidney Transplantation From Donors After Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M B; Billig, E; Reese, P P; Shults, J; Hasz, R; West, S; Abt, P L

    2016-01-01

    Donation after cardiac death is an important source of transplantable organs, but evidence suggests donor warm ischemia contributes to inferior outcomes. Attempts to predict recipient outcome using donor hemodynamic measurements have not yielded statistically significant results. We evaluated novel measures of donor hemodynamics as predictors of delayed graft function and graft failure in a cohort of 1050 kidneys from 566 donors. Hemodynamics were described using regression line slopes, areas under the curve, and time beyond thresholds for systolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and shock index (heart rate divided by systolic blood pressure). A logistic generalized estimation equation model showed that area under the curve for systolic blood pressure was predictive of delayed graft function (above median: odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.90). Multivariable Cox regression demonstrated that slope of oxygen saturation during the first 10 minutes after extubation was associated with graft failure (below median: hazard ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.64), with 5-year graft survival of 70.0% (95%CI 64.5%-74.8%) for donors above the median versus 61.4% (95%CI 55.5%-66.7%) for those below the median. Among older donors, increased shock index slope was associated with increased hazard of graft failure. Validation of these findings is necessary to determine the utility of characterizing donor warm ischemia to predict recipient outcome. PMID:26361242

  18. Tissue banking: relationship with blood donor and organ donor card status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kenneth D; Fitzpatrick, Patricia E; Sheehan, John D

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationships among altruistic health acts may serve to aid therapeutic research advances. In this paper, we report on the links between two such behaviours-donating blood and carrying an organ donor card-and willingness to donate urological tissue to a tissue bank. Reasons for the differential willingness to do so are examined in this paper. A systematic sample of 259 new and returning attendees at a tertiary urology referral clinic in Ireland completed a self-report questionnaire in an outpatient setting. In addition to demographic details, details of known diagnosis of malignancy and family history of cancer; attitudes to tissue donation for research purposes were gauged using a 5-point Likert scale. Both blood donors and organ donor card carriers were more likely to be willing to donate tissue for research purposes. Blood donors were more likely want to know their overall results in comparison to nonblood donors and want their samples to be used for nonprofit research. Our hypothesis that being a blood donor would be a better predictor to donate urological tissue than being an organ donor card carrier borne out by the trends reported above. PMID:22567418

  19. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  20. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants

  1. Syntheses of donor-acceptor-functionalized dihydroazulenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broman, Søren Lindbæk; Jevric, Martyn; Bond, Andrew;

    2014-01-01

    The dihydroazulene (DHA)/vinylheptafulvene (VHF) photo/thermoswitch has been of interest for use in molecular electronics and advanced materials. The switching between the two isomers has previously been found to depend strongly on the presence of donor and acceptor groups. The fine-tuning of opt...

  2. Properties of Excitons Bound to Ionized Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben; Suffczynski, M.; Gorzkowski, W.

    1971-01-01

    Binding energies, interparticle distances, oscillator strengths, and exchange corrections are calculated for the three-particle complex corresponding to an exciton bound to an ionized donor. The results are given as functions of the mass ratio of the electron and hole. Binding of the complex is...

  3. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... Press Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Try something new! Loading... Working... ...

  4. Electron shuttling in phosphorus donor qubit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, N. Tobias; Gamble, John King; Nielsen, Erik; Muller, Richard P.; Witzel, Wayne M.; Montano, Ines; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2014-03-01

    Phosphorus donors in silicon are a promising qubit architecture, due in large part to their long nuclear coherence times and the recent development of atomically precise fabrication methods. Here, we investigate issues related to implementing qubits with phosphorus donors in silicon, employing an effective mass theory that non-phenomenologically takes into account inter-valley coupling. We estimate the significant sources of decoherence and control errors in this system to compute the fidelity of primitive gates and gate timescales. We include the effects of valley repopulation during the process of shuttling an electron between a donor and nearby interface or between neighboring donors, evaluating the control requirements for ensuring adiabaticity with respect to the valley sector. This work was supported in part by the LDRD program at Sandia National Labs, a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp, for the U.S. DOE NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Case 1: chronic infected donor site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Following a coronary bypass surgery, a vein donor site became infected and failed to heal despite use of antibiotics and a variety of topical treatments. Octenilin Wound Gel not only helped to promote healing, but also increased the patient's ability to tolerate dressing changes. PMID:26949845

  6. South Korea as an emerging donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Hong-Min; Munyi, Elijah Nyaga; Lee, Heejin

    2010-01-01

    South Korea's official development assistance (ODA) has been increasing rapidly and will continue to do so. Korea is one of the few countries which have successfully transitioned from a recipient to a donor. It became a member of DAC (development assistance committee), OECD in November 2009. Korea...

  7. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... 41. Annabelle Monks 3,487 views 4:41 Science Friction: Stem Cell Research - Duration: 54:44. Irishstemcell ...

  8. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... views 4:25 Susan Solomon: The promise of research with stem cells - Duration: 14:59. TED 55, ...

  9. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... Monks 3,700 views 4:41 Stem Cell Basics - How Blood is Made. - Duration: 10:58. Vernon ...

  10. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the use of BMT and PBSCT, see http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/fa... If you are interested ... of volunteers willing to be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube ...

  11. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 23,393 ... Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Try something new! Loading... Working... Sign ...

  12. Dilemma over live-donor transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Garwood, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Organ transplants save thousands of lives each year, but put many live donors at risk due to an unregulated organ trade that exploits the vulnerable in developing countries and complicates legitimate organ donation efforts. Countries face a dilemma: how they can increase the supply of organs in a manner that is ethical and humane.

  13. Hepatitis C virus infection in the asymptomatic British blood donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, D J; Harrison, R F; O'Donnell, K B; Shaw, J; Martin, B A; Atrah, H; Ala, F A; Skidmore, S; Hubscher, S G; Neuberger, J M

    1995-01-01

    Blood donor screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies is now routine. Most blood transfusion services recommend that seropositive donors are referred for further investigation. Southern European studies suggest that many asymptomatic seropositive donors have clinically significant liver disease. Seropositive donors in areas of high prevalence may not, however, be representative of British donors. We have prospectively examined the prevalence and severity of HCV infection in a British volunteer blood donor population. During a 14 month period, only 0.35% (999/287,332) of all donors in the West Midlands were anti-HCV (screening assay) positive. Only 5% (52/999) of these were confirmed true seropositive. Nearly 80% (41/52) of seropositive donors were referred to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Liver Unit for further investigation. Most underwent complete investigation, including liver biopsy. Forty of forty-one donors had biochemical, histological, or virological evidence of persistent viral infection. Histological changes were generally mild and none was cirrhotic. Covertly infected patients had less severe disease than those with an overt risk factor for HCV exposure. In the British Midlands, the prevalence of blood donor seropositivity is low. In contrast with seropositive Southern European donors, the British donor is more likely to belong to an at-risk group for parenteral exposure and is less likely to have severe histological changes. This study highlights the importance of developing locally relevant guidelines for the counselling and investigation of anti-HCV-positive blood donors. PMID:7493294

  14. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation and...... and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health...

  15. Donor safety and remnant liver volume in living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Rong Shi; Lu-Nan Yan; Cheng-You Du

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the relationship between donor safety and remnant liver volume in right lobe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).METHODS:From July 2001 to January 2009,our liver transplant centers carried out 197 LDLTs.The clinical data from 151 cases of adult right lobe living donors (not including the middle hepatic vein) were analyzed.The conditions of the three groups of donors were well matched in terms of the studied parameters.The donors' preoperative data,intraoperative and postoperative data were calculated for the three groups:Group 1 remnant liver volume (RLV) < 35%,group 2 RLV 36%-40%,and group 3 RLV > 40%.Comparisons included the different remnant liver volumes on postoperative liver function recovery and the impact of systemic conditions.Correlations between remnant liver volume and post-operative complications were also analyzed.RESULTS:The donors' anthroposomatology data,operation time,and preoperative donor blood test indicators were calculated for the three groups.No significant differences were observed between the donors' gender,age,height,weight,and operation time.According to the Chengdu standard liver volume formula,the total liver volume of group 1 was 1072.88 ± 131.06 mL,group 2 was 1043.84 ± 97.11 mL,and group 3 was 1065.33 ± 136.02 mL.The three groups showed no statistically significant differences.When the volume of the remnant liver was less than 35% of the total liver volume,the volume of the remnant had a significant effect on the recovery of liver function and intensive care unit time.In addition,the occurrence of complications was closely related to the remnant liver volume.When the volume of the remnant liver was more than 35% of the total liver volume,the remnant volume change had no significant effect on donor recovery.CONCLUSION:To ensure donor safety,the remnant liver volume should be greater than the standard liver volume (35%) in right lobe living donor liver transplantation.

  16. ِAnalysis of donor motivations in living donor liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham eAbdeldayem

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The introduction of the living donor liver transplantation (LDLT in Egypt as in elsewhere, has raised important psychological conflicts and ethical questions. The objective of this study was to get better understanding of the potential donors’ motives towards LDLT.Methods:This study was conducted on consecutive 193 living –liver donors who underwent partial hepatectomy as donors for LDLT during the period between April 2003 and January 2013, at the National Liver Institute Menoufeyia University, Egypt. Potential donors were thoroughly evaluated preoperatively through a screening questionnaire and interviews as regard their demographic data, relationship to the potential recipient and motives towards proceeding to surgery. They were assured that the information shared between them and the transplant centre is confidential. Results.The donors’ mean age was 25.53± 6.39 years with a range of 18-45 years. Males represented 64.7 % and females were 35.3%. The most common donors (32.1%, n_62, were sons and daughters to their parents (sons: n_43, daughters: n_19 while parents to their offsprings represent 15% (mothers: n_21, fathers: n_8. Brothers and sisters represent 16.5 % (brothers: n_22, sisters: n_10. Nephews & nieces giving their uncles or aunts were 14%. The number of wives donating to their husbands was 11 (5.7%. Interestingly, there was no single husband who donated his wife. Among the remaining donors, there were 11 cousins & one uncle. Unrelated donors were 20 (10.4%. Several factors seemed to contribute to motivation for donation: the seriousness of the potential recipient condition, the relationship and personal history of the donor to the potential recipient, the religious beliefs, the trust in the health care system, and family dynamics and obligations.Conclusions. Absolute absence of coercion on the living-liver donor’s motives may not be realistic because of the serious condition of the potential recipient. It is

  17. Molecular assembly of amino acid interlinked, topologically symmetric, π-complementary donor-acceptor-donor triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, M B; Sandeepa, K V; Govindaraju, T

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid interlinked pyrene and naphthalenediimide (NDI) based novel donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) triads are designed to exploit their topological symmetry and complementary π-character for facile charge-transfer complexation. Consequently, free-floating high-aspect-ratio supercoiled nanofibres and hierarchical helical bundles of triads are realized by modulating the chemical functionality of interlinking amino acids. PMID:23946856

  18. Covenant Deferral Request for the Proposed Transfer of Land Parcel ED-8 at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - Final - May 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAIC

    2009-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to transfer a land parcel (hereinafter referred to as 'the Property') designated as Land Parcel ED-8 at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by deed, and is submitting this Covenant Deferral Request (CDR) pursuant to Section 120(h)(3)(C) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, and applicable U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance. The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), which includes ETTP, was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in November 1989. Environmental investigation and cleanup activities are continuing at ETTP in accordance with CERCLA, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). The FFA was entered into by the DOE-Oak Ridge Office (ORO), EPA Region 4, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in 1991. The FFA establishes the schedule and milestones for environmental remediation of the ORR. The proposed property transfer is a key component of the Oak Ridge Performance Management Plan (ORPMP) for accelerated cleanup of the ORR. DOE, using its authority under Section 161(g) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), proposes to transfer the Property to Heritage Center, LLC, a subsidiary of the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET), hereafter referred to as 'Heritage Center.' CROET is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit corporation established to foster the diversification of the regional economy by re-utilizing DOE property for private-sector investment and job creation. The Property is located in the southern portion of ETTP and consists of approximately 84 acres proposed as the potential site for new facilities to be used for office space, industrial activities, or other commercial uses. The parcel contains both grassy fields located outside the ETTP 'main plant' area and infrastructure located inside

  19. Donor biopsy in living donor liver transplantation: is it still relevant in a developing country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorwal, P; Gautam, D; Sharma, D; Singh, D R; Raina, V

    2015-04-01

    Liver transplantation is an important modality of treatment for end-stage liver disease. Liver biopsy evaluation has been an important aspect of the donor evaluation protocol. With the advent of newer modalities of donor evaluation such as high resolution CT scan, fibroscan and NMR spectroscopy, the relevance of the liver biopsy appears to be diminishing. We investigated the usefulness of donor liver biopsy evaluation in patients who had been cleared by radiological investigations. We evaluated 184 donor liver biopsies performed over a one-year period and found that 18% showed >5% steatosis and around 40% showed portal inflammation, which was, however, minimal to mild. Fibrosis was detected in 10 cases (5.4%), 7 being in stage 1 and 3 in stage 2. Donors with these findings were not considered for transplantation. We conclude that the liver biopsy still continues to be relevant especially in a developing country and does add additional information to the diagnostic work-up of a liver donor. PMID:25890612

  20. Donor-Specific HLA Antibodies in Living Versus Deceased Donor Liver Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, J; Kaneku, H; Jie, C; Walsh, R C; Abecassis, M; Tambur, A R

    2016-08-01

    With less ischemia, improved donor selection and controlled procedures, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) might lead to less HLA donor-specific antibody (DSA) formation or fewer adverse outcomes than deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). Using the multicenter A2ALL (Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study) biorepository, we compared the incidence and outcomes of preformed and de novo DSAs between LDLT and DDLT. In total, 129 LDLT and 66 DDLT recipients were identified as having serial samples. The prevalence of preformed and de novo DSAs was not different between DDLT and LDLT recipients (p = 0.93). There was no association between patient survival and the timing (preformed vs. de novo), class (I vs. II) and relative levels of DSA between the groups; however, preformed DSA was associated with higher graft failure only in DDLT recipients (p = 0.01). De novo DSA was associated with graft failure regardless of liver transplant type (p = 0.005) but with rejection only in DDLT (p = 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, DSA was an independent risk factor for graft failure regardless of liver transplant type (p = 0.017, preformed; p = 0.002, de novo). In conclusion, although similar in prevalence, DSA may have more impact in DDLT than LDLT recipients. Although our findings need further validation, future research should more robustly test the effect of donor type and strategies to mitigate the impact of DSA. PMID:26896194

  1. Behavior-based implicit planning method and its application to robot soccer system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Changhong; Chen Weidong; Xi Yugeng

    2005-01-01

    A behavior-based implicit planning method is proposed through the design of a middle-size autonomous robot soccer system (MARSS). With basic goal-driven behaviors, the MARSS reactively selects suitable basic behavior according to different situation. The reactive executions of basic behavior sequences implicitly plan two primary behavior chains. By the robot's dynamical interactions with the environments, interleaving of basic behaviors spontaneously exhibits effective emergent behaviors to deal with some difficult situations. These emergent behaviors make the system simple, robust and competitive.

  2. Lipid profile of regular blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uche EI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available EI Uche,1 A Adediran,2 OD Damulak,3 TA Adeyemo,2 AA Akinbami,4 AS Akanmu21Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria; 3Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria; 4Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos State University, Ikeja, NigeriaIntroduction: A few reports have linked regular blood donation to the lowering of parameters of lipid profile. Estimating the lipid profile is an accepted method of assessing an individual’s risk for coronary heart disease, particularly if there is evidence of lipid peroxidation. Regular blood donation may lower iron stores, and this in turn lowers lipid peroxidation. This study was carried out to determine the effect of blood donation on lipid profile.Materials and methods: Eighty-two participants consented to participate and were enrolled into the study, 52 of whom were regular blood donors (study group and 30 were non-donors (control group. Venous blood (10 mL was drawn from each subject into new plain screw-capped disposable plastic tubes. This was allowed to clot and the serum was used to determine total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein.Results: The mean total cholesterol (4.66 ± 0.86 mmol/L, triglycerides (1.22 ± 0.64 mmol/L, and low-density lipoprotein (2.32 ± 0.73 mmol/L were significantly lower in the regular blood donors than the control group (5.61 ± 1.26 mmol/L, 1.77 ± 2.9 mmol/L, and 3.06 ± 0.89 mmol/L, respectively; P < 0.05 in all cases. Also, while 42% of the study group had a low/high-density lipoprotein ratio of at least three, about 57% of the control group had a ratio of at least three (P = 0.21.Conclusion: Regular blood donation may be protective against cardiovascular disease as reflected by significantly lower mean total

  3. Transvaginal Route for Kidney Extraction in Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Gurluler, Ercument; Berber, Ibrahim; Cakir, Ulkem; Gurkan, Alihan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare conventional laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy with transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy in terms of feasibility and reproducibility. Methods: A total of 115 consecutive female patients who underwent laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (n = 70) or transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy (n = 45) wer...

  4. Mini-donor nephrectomy: A viable and effective alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Guleria, Sandeep

    2010-01-01

    Live kidney donation is an excellent way of increasing the donor pool. The introduction of the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has resulted in an increase in live organ donation in the western hemisphere. There is no data on its impact on organ donation in India. However attractive as it may seem, the procedure is associated with a definite learning curve and does compromise donor safety. The procedure is also expensive in terms of the equipment required. The mini-donor nephrectomy is an excel...

  5. Explaining differences between hospitals in number of organ donors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friele, R.D.; Coppen, R.; Marquet, R.L.; Gevers, J.K.M.

    2006-01-01

    The shortage of donor organs calls for a careful examination of all improvement options. In this study, 80 Dutch hospitals were compared. They provided 868 donors in a 5-year period, constituting 91% of all donors in that period in The Netherlands. Multilevel regression analysis was used to explain

  6. Donors and archives a guidebook for successful programs

    CERN Document Server

    Purcell, Aaron D

    2015-01-01

    Donors and Archives: A Guidebook for Successful Programs highlights the importance of development and fundraising for archives, while focusing on the donor and potential donor. Their interest, their support, their enthusiasm, and their stuff are vital to the success of archival programs.

  7. Prevalence Of Hepatitis C Antibodies In Healthy Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Nalini; Kumar Amarjit

    2002-01-01

    Research question : What is the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in healthy blood donors? Objective: To screen the blood donors for HCV antibodies routinely. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Deptt. of Transfusion Medicine, Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana. Participants: Healthy blood donors. Statistical analysis: Prevalence rate. Results: Prevalence of anti HCV was found to be 1.5%, which is quite high.

  8. Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors in Benin City Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors for asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and anemia among blood donors in a private medical laboratory in Benin City, Nigeria.Venous blood was collected from a total of 247 blood donors. Malaria status, ABO, Rhesus blood groups and hemoglobin concentration of all participants were determined using standard methods.The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection was higher among commercial blood donors than volunteer group (commercial vs volunteer donor: 27.5 %vs. 13.8%; OR = 2.373, 95% CI = 0.793, 7.107, P = 0.174. Asymptomatic malaria was not significantly affected by gender (P = 0.733, age (P = 0.581, ABO (P = 0.433 and rhesus blood groups (P = 0.806 of blood donors. Age was observed to significantly (P = 0.015 affect malaria parasite density with donors within the age group of 21-26 years having the highest risk. The prevalence of anemia was significantly higher among commercial donors (commercial vs volunteer donors: 23.4% vs 3.4%: OR = 8.551, 95% CI = 1.135, 64.437, P = 0.013 and donors of blood group O type (P = < 0.0001.Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and anemia was higher among commercial donors than voluntary donors. Mandatory screening of blood donors for malaria parasite is advocated to curb transfusion transmitted malaria and associated sequelae.

  9. Unique early gene expression patterns in human adult to adult living donor liver grafts compared to deceased donor grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Jonge, Jeroen; Kurian, Sunil; Shaked, Abraham; Reddy, K. Rajendar; Hancock, Wayne; Salomon, Daniel R.; Olthoff, Kim M.

    2009-01-01

    Because of inherent differences between deceased donor (DD) and living donor (LD) liver grafts, we hypothesize that the molecular signatures will be unique, correlating with specific biologic pathways and clinical patterns.

  10. Distributed behavior-based control architecture for a wall climbing robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past two decades, Behavior-based AI (Artificial Intelligence) has emerged as a new approach in designing mobile robot control architecture. It stresses on the issues of reactivity, concurrency and real-time control. In this paper we propose a new approach in designing robust intelligent controllers for mobile robot platforms. The Behaviour-based paradigm implemented in a multiprocessing firmware architecture will further enhance parallelism present in the subsumption paradigm itself and increased real-timeness. The paper summarises research done to design a four-legged wall climbing robot. The emphasis will be on the control architecture of the robot based on the Behavior -based paradigm. The robot control architecture is made up of two layers, the locomotion layer and the gait controller layer. The two layers are implemented on a Vesta 68332 processor board running the Behaviour-based kernel, The software is developed using the L programming language, introduced by IS Robotics. The Behaviour-based paradigm is outlined and contrasted with the classical Knowledge-based approach. A description of the distributed architecture is presented followed by a presentation of the Behaviour-based agents for the two layers. (author)

  11. Agent Behavior-Based Simulation Study on Mass Collaborative Product Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass collaborative product development (MCPD benefits people by high innovation products with lower cost and shorter lead time due to quick development of group innovation, Internet-based customization, and prototype manufacturing. Simulation is an effective way to study the evolution process and therefore to guarantee the success of MCPD. In this paper, an agent behavior-based simulation approach of MCPD is developed, which models the MCPD process as the interactive process of design agents and the environment objects based on Complex Adaptive System (CAS theory. Next, the structure model of design agent is proposed, and the modification and collaboration behaviors are described. Third, the agent behavior-based simulation flow of MCPD is designed. At last, simulation experiments are carried out based on an engineering case of mobile phone design. The experiment results show the following: (1 the community scale has significant influence on MCPD process; (2 the simulation process can explicitly represent the modification and collaboration behaviors of design agents; (3 the community evolution process can be observed and analyzed dynamically based on simulation data.

  12. Perancangan dan Implementasi Autonomous Landing Menggunakan Behavior-Based dan Fuzzy Controller pada Quadcopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadjri Andika Permadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi sistem kendali pesawat sayap berputar (copter semakin pesat salah satunya pada pesawat berbaling-baling empat (quadcopter. Landing merupakan bagian tersulit dalam penerbangan quadcopter. Ukuran quadcopter yang kecil mengakibatkan susahnya pengendalian kestabilan dan kecepatan turun.Cara mengatasi permasalahan ini adalah dengan autonomous landing yang menggunakan algoritma kendali behavior-based (berbasis perilaku. Tugas akhir ini merancang dan mengimplementasikan algoritma kendali behavior-based (berbasis perilaku pada proses autonomous landing quadcopter dan kontroler PD (Proporsional, Diferensial pada untuk  kestabilan sudut roll dan pitch, sedangkan untuk jarak landing menggunakan kontroler logika fuzzy. Pada Tugas Akhir ini, didapatkan nilai parameter kontroler PD roll dan kontroler PD pitch dari hasil tuning terstruktur pada simulasi Kp=500 dan Kd=30. Sedangkan kendali landing menggunakan kontroler logika fuzzy dengan parameter Ke=4 Kde=175 dan Ku=1 pada simulasi dapat melakukan proses landing selama 8 detik dari ketinggian 3 meter. Respon hasil implementasi pada quadcopter belum sesuai dengan hasil simulasi. Proses landing pada implementasi lebih cepat dengan waktu 3.5 detik dari ketinggian 2 meter, selain itu koreksi sudut roll dan sudut pitch masih terhadapat error +/-3º.

  13. Customer Relationship Management Untuk Pengelolaan Donor Darah

    OpenAIRE

    Matin Aziz Saputra; Bambang Setiawan

    2014-01-01

    Palang Merah Indonesia (PMI) Surabaya bergerak di pelayanan donor darah. Oleh karena itu PMI berkaitan erat dengan pelayanan kepada pendonor darah. Karena itu perlu dijaga dan ditingkatkan pelayanan kepada pendonor. Upaya yang dilakukan adalah dengan menerapkan Customer Relationship Management berbasis Teknologi Informasi.PMI menerapkan 3 siklus CRM yaitu acquitition, enhancement dan retain. Ketiga siklus tersebut diterapkan ke 3 kategori pelanggan yaitu lingkungan perusahaan, lingkungan seko...

  14. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Tara E.; Paul C Adams

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120) and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000). Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 yea...

  15. AN ANDROID APPLICATION FOR VOLUNTEER BLOOD DONORS

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan Turhan

    2015-01-01

    There is an expectation that the blood will always be there when it is really needed. Blood donor volunteers constitute the main supply source in an effective blood supply chain management. They feed blood stocks through their donation. In an emergency situation, if the stocks are insufficient, the only source of blood supply will be the people who come to the health center and donate the blood on a voluntary basis. It is certain that time is a very important component in such ...

  16. Grandparents’ Stories of Family Life After Donor Conception (Parents of heterosexual couples with children conceived using donor sperm or eggs)

    OpenAIRE

    Hazel Burke, Petra Nordqvist and Carol Smart

    2015-01-01

    This leaflet is written for the parents of heterosexual couples who have, or areplanning, children using donor conception. It is based on many hours of research interviews, during which parents and grandparents of donor-conceived children told usabout their experiences of family life after donor conception.This leaflet is one of a series of four, written for parents and grandparents with donor-conceived children. They are based on research from the Relative Strangers project.

  17. Grandparents’ Stories of Family Life After Donor Conception (Parents of lesbian couples with children conceived using donor sperm)

    OpenAIRE

    Hazel Burke, Petra Nordqvist and Carol Smart

    2015-01-01

    This leaflet is written for the parents of lesbian couples who have, or are planning, children using donor conception. It is based on many hours of research interviews, during which parents and grandparents of donor conceived children told us abouttheir experiences of family life after donor conception.This leaflet is one of a four part series written for parents and grandparents of donor-conceived children. It is based on research from the 'Relative Strangers' project, which was funded by th...

  18. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor ...

  19. Increasing the Supply of Kidneys for Transplantation by Making Living Donors the Preferred Source of Donor Kidneys

    OpenAIRE

    Testa, Giuliano; Siegler, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Abstract At the present time, increasing the use of living donors offers the best solution to the organ shortage problem. The clinical questions raised when the first living donor kidney transplant was performed, involving donor risk, informed consent, donor protection, and organ quality, have been largely answered. We strongly encourage a wider utilization of living donation and recommend that living donation, rather than deceased donation, become the first choice for kidney transplantation....

  20. Taking a Step Forward in Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy: Transvaginal Retrieval of Donor's Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ying Hao; Lim, Yu Ming Joel; Ng, Ying Woo; Tiong, Ho Yee

    2016-09-01

    Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has been broadly recognized as the gold standard for kidney procurement used in kidney transplantation where it is not uncommon for donors to experience discomfort and aesthetic dissatisfaction over larger incision site. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery is a surgical approach that allows scarless intraabdominal operations through natural orifices, such as the vagina. In this case report, we describe the first case of transvaginal retrieval of donor's kidney at the National University Hospital, Singapore. A 51-year-old Malay lady with no significant medical history volunteered to a living-related kidney donor. Perioperative antibiotics were administered. A 12 mm Excel port was placed over the left iliac fossa with camera insertion. Two additional ports were inserted over the left rectus sheath edge and left costal margin under direct vision. An additional 5 mm port at the left loin was placed for lateral retraction. A vaginal probe was then inserted to facilitate posterior colpotomy and transection of the left uterosacral ligament. Pneumoperitoneum was subsequently maintained with a LiNA McCartney(®) Tube. A 15 mm Endocatch(®) bag was inserted for retrieval of the kidney. The left kidney was placed in the Endocatch bag after transection of the hilar vessels where the kidney was retrieved vaginally with ease. Colpotomy was closed vaginally using Vicryl-0 continuous suture. Total blood loss was noted as 50 mL with warm ischemia time being 7 minutes and the entire retrieval taking totally 20 minutes. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and the donor was discharged stable 3 days postoperation. The transplanted kidney retained normal graft function. Colpotomy retrieval for donor nephrectomy presents an innovative method for specimen retrieval with minimal disruption of donor anatomy. Doing away with laparotomy for kidney retrieval has indeed shown a reduction in recovery time, reduced postoperative pain, and

  1. Living-donor kidney transplantation: a review of the current practices for the live donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Connie L; Delmonico, Francis L

    2005-07-01

    The first successful living-donor kidney transplant was performed 50 yr ago. Since then, in a relatively brief period of medical history, living kidney transplantation has become the preferred treatment for those with ESRD. Organ replacement from either a live or a deceased donor is preferable to dialysis therapy because transplantation provides a better quality of life and improved survival. The advantages of live versus deceased donor transplantation now are readily apparent as it affords earlier transplantation and the best long-term survival. Live kidney donation has also been fostered by the technical advance of laparoscopic nephrectomy and immunologic maneuvers that can overcome biologic obstacles such as HLA disparity and ABO or cross-match incompatibility. Congressional legislation has provided an important model to remove financial disincentives to being a live donor. Federal employees now are afforded paid leave and coverage for travel expenses. Candidates for renal transplantation are aware of these developments, and they have become less hesitant to ask family members, spouses, or friends to become live kidney donors. Living donation as practiced for the past 50 yr has been safe with minimal immediate and long-term risk for the donor. However, the future experience may not be the same as our society is becoming increasingly obese and developing associated health problems. In this environment, predicting medical futures is less precise than in the past. Even so, isolated abnormalities such as obesity and in some instances hypertension are no longer considered absolute contraindications to donation. These and other medical risks bring additional responsibility in such circumstances to track the unknown consequences of a live-donor nephrectomy. PMID:15930096

  2. [The protocol for multi organ donor management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucewicz, Ewa; Wojarski, Jacek; Zegleń, Sławomir; Saucha, Wojciech; Maciejewski, Tomasz; Pacholewicz, Jerzy; Przybylski, Roman; Knapik, Piotr; Zembala, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Identification and preparation of a potential organ donor requires careful and meticulous intensive care, so that the organs may be harvested in the best possible condition for transplantation. The protocol consists of three key elements: (1) monitoring and haemodynamicstabilisation, (2) hormonal therapy, and (3) adequate mechanical ventilation and nosocomial pneumonia prophylaxis. Standard haemodynamic monitoring should consist of a 12 lead EGG, and direct monitoring of arterial and central venous pressures. Pulmonary artery catheterisation is indicated in donors with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) below 45%. PCWP should be kept at around 12 mm Hg, Cl at greater than 2.4 L m(-2), and SVR between 800 and 1200 dyn s(-1) cm(-5). When a vasopressor is necessary, vasopressin should be used as the drug of choice. If vasopressin is not available, noradrenaline or adrenaline may be used. Haemoglobin concentration should be maintained between 5.5-6.2 mmol L(-1). In a potential heart donor, troponin concentration should be checked daily. Neutral thermal conditions should be maintained using a warm air blower. A brain dead patient cannot maintain adequate pituitary function, therefore hormone replacement therapy with methylprednisolone, thyroxin and desmopressin is indicated. Glucose concentrations should be kept within the normal range, using insulin if necessary. The lung harvesting protocol should be similarto ARDS treatment guidelines (optimal PEEP, low tidal volumes). Lung recruitment manoeuvres, and aggressive prevention and treatment of nosocomial infection are essential. PMID:20201348

  3. Transport through a single donor in p-type silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, J. A.; Mol, J. A.; Salfi, J.; Rogge, S.; Simmons, M. Y.

    2013-07-01

    Single phosphorus donors in silicon are promising candidates as qubits in the solid state. Here, we present low temperature scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy measurements of individual phosphorus dopants deliberately placed in p-type silicon ˜1 nm below the surface. The ability to image individual dopants combined with scanning tunnelling spectroscopy allows us to directly study the transport mechanism through the donor. We show that for a single P donor, transport is dominated by a minority carrier recombination process with the surrounding p-type matrix. The understanding gained will underpin future studies of atomically precise mapping of donor-donor interactions in silicon.

  4. Spin noise spectroscopy on donors in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernien, Hannes; Mueller, Georg; Roemer, Michael; Huebner, Jens; Oestreich, Michael [Institute for Solid State Physics, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University Hannover (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In recent experiments spin noise spectroscopy (SNS) has proven to be a very sensitive technique to study electron spin dynamics in semiconductors at thermal equilibrium. Here we present SNS-measurements on donor bound electrons in very low doped bulk GaAs. In this environment the donors do not interact with each other and form artificial atoms. We discuss the detection of single donor bound electron spins, which should have extremely long spin relaxation times compared to ensemble spin relaxation times. In further experiments the electron bound to the donor will be used to probe and study the local nuclear magnetic field at the donor site.

  5. Donor transmitted and de novo cancer after liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Rajeev; Neuberger, James

    2014-01-01

    Cancers in solid organ recipients may be classified as donor transmitted, donor derived, de novo or recurrent. The risk of donor-transmitted cancer is very low and can be reduced by careful screening of the donor but cannot be abolished and, in the United Kingdom series is less than 0.03%. For donors with a known history of cancer, the risks will depend on the nature of the cancer, the interventions given and the interval between diagnosis and organ donation. The risks of cancer transmission ...

  6. Combining Dense Structure From Motion and Visual SLAM in a Behavior-Based Robot Control Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert De Cubber

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a control architecture for an intelligent outdoor mobile robot. This enables the robot to navigate in a complex, natural outdoor environment, relying on only a single on-board camera as sensory input. This is achieved through a twofold analysis of the visual data stream: a dense structure from motion algorithm calculates a depth map of the environment and a visual simultaneous localization and mapping algorithm builds a map of the surroundings using image features. This information enables a behavior-based robot motion and path planner to navigate the robot through the environment. In this paper, we show the theoretical aspects of setting up this architecture.

  7. Individualized behavior management program for Alzheimer's/dementia residents using behavior-based ergonomic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharwani, Govind; Parikh, Pratik J; Lawhorne, Larry W; VanVlymen, Eric; Bharwani, Meena

    2012-05-01

    Person-centered, nonpharmacological interventions for managing Alzheimer's/dementia-related behavioral disturbances have received significant attention. However, such interventions are quite often of a single type limiting their benefits. We develop a comprehensive nonpharmacological intervention, the Behavior-Based Ergonomic Therapy (BBET), which consists of multiple therapies. This low-cost, 24/7 program uses learning, personality, and behavioral profiles and cognitive function of each resident to develop a set of individualized therapies. These therapies are made available through an accessible resource library of music and video items, games and puzzles, and memory props to provide comfort or stimulation depending on an individual resident's assessment. The quantitative and qualitative benefits of the BBET were evaluated at the dementia care unit in a not-for-profit continuing care retirement community in west central Ohio. The 6-month pilot study reduced falls by 32.5% and markedly reduced agitation through increased resident engagement. PMID:22517891

  8. Dealing with defaulting suppliers using behavioral based governance methods: An Agency Theory perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prosman, Ernst Johannes; Scholten, Kirstin; Power, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore factors influencing the effectiveness of buyer initiated Behavioral Based Governance Methods (BBGMs). The ability of BBGMs to improve supplier performance is assessed considering power imbalances and the resource intensiveness of the BBGM. Agency Theory...... considering power differences and the resource intensiveness of the BBGM. Our data show that even high resource intensive BBGMs can be implemented effectively if there are benefits for a powerful supplier. Cultural influences and uncertainty of the business environment also play a role. Originality....../value: This study develops a series of propositions indicating that Agency Theory can provide valuable guidance on how to better understand the effectiveness of BBGMs. Underlying mechanisms are identified that explain how power imbalances do not necessarily make improvement initiatives unsuccessful....

  9. Behavior-based Attestation of Policy Enforcement among Trusted Virtual Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-wei Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available With serious situation of data leakage in many enterprises, sensitive dataflow protection based on Trusted Virtual Domains (TVD has been gradually paid much attention to. Remote attestation among two or more entities across trusted virtual domains is an important means to ensure sensitive dataflow. According to behavior compliance, this paper proposes a behavior-based attestation of policy enforcement for distributed services in trusted virtual machine, which is adapted to trusted virtual domain. In our attestation, the unified behavior of the policy model is attested rather than that of any individual security policy. The advantage of this approach is that it is not tied to any specific type of security policy, and it addresses the verification when security policies in two individual virtual domains are inconsistent. Besides, the approach easily extends remote attestation to others’ behavior.

  10. Donor Rejection Before Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Causes and Cost Effective Analysis in an Egyptian Transplant Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Meteini, Mahmoud; Dabbous, Hany; Sakr, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Amany; Fawzy, Iman; Bahaa, Mohamed; Abdelaal, Amr; Fathy, Mohamed; Said, Hany; Rady, Mohamed; El-Dorry, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the living donor liver transplant setting, the preoperative assessment of potential donors is important to ensure the donor safety. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify causes and costs of living liver-donors rejection in the donation process. Materials and Methods: From June 2010 to June 2012, all potential living liver donors for 66 liver transplant candidates were screened at the Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplantation. Potential donors were evaluated in 3 phases, and their data were reviewed to determine the causes and at which phase the donors were rejected. Results: One hundred and ninety two potential living liver donors, including 157 (81.7%) males, were screened for 66 potential recipients. Of these, 126 (65.6%) were disqualified for the donation. The causes of rejection were classified as surgical (9.5 %) or medical (90.5 %). Five donors (3.9 %) were rejected due to multiple causes. Factor V Leiden mutation was detected in 29 (23 %) rejected donors (P = 0.001), 25 (19.8 %) donors had positive results for hepatitis serology (P = 0.005), and 16 (12.7 %) tested positive for drug abuse. Portal vein trifurcation (n = 9, 7.1%) and small size liver graft estimated by CT volumetric analysis (n = 6, 4.8 %) were the main surgical causes which precluded the donation. Conclusions: Among potential Egyptian living liver donors, Factor V Leiden mutation was a significant cause for live donor rejection. A stepwise approach to donor assessment was found to be cost-effective. PMID:24497879

  11. Effect of donor age on graft function and long-term survival of recipients undergoing living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Wang; Wen-Tao Jiang; Yong-Lin Deng; Cheng Pan; Zhong-Yang Shen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Donor shortage is the biggest obstacle in organ transplantation. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been considered as a valuable approach to short-ening waiting time. The objectives of this study were to inves-tigate the feasibility of utilizing donors older than 50 years in LDLT and to evaluate the graft function and recipient survival. METHODS: All LDLT cases (n=159) were divided into the older (donor age ≥50 years, n=10) and younger (donor age RESULTS: The median donor age was 58.5 (52.5-60.0) years in the older donor group and 25.0 (23.0-32.0) in the younger do-nor group. There was no significant difference in cold ischemic time, anhepatic phase and operation time between the older and younger donor groups (P>0.05). However, the volume of red blood cell transfused in operation was greater in the older donor group than in the younger donor group (1900 vs 1200 mL, P=0.023). The 1-, 3- and 5-year graft survival rates were 90%, 80% and 80% for the older donor group, and 92%, 87%and 87% for the younger donor group, respectively (P=0.459). The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 100%, 90% and 90%for recipients with older grafts, and 93%, 87% and 87% for those with younger grafts, respectively (P=0.811). CONCLUSION: It is safe for a LDLT recipient to receive liver from donors older than 50 years, and there is no significant adverse effect on graft function and long-term patients' survival.

  12. [Non-heart-beating donors are ineligible].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, W

    2016-02-01

    The death of the donor is a mandatory prerequisite for organ transplantation (dead donor rule) worldwide. It is a medical, legal and ethical consensus to accept the concept of brain death, as first proposed in 1968 by the ad hoc committee of the Harvard Medical School, as a certain criterion of death. In isolated cases where the diagnosis of brain death was claimed to be wrong, it could be demonstrated that the diagnostic procedure for brain death had not been correctly performed. In March 2014 a joint statement by the German neuromedical societies emphasized that 1) the diagnosis of brain death is one of the safest diagnoses in medicine if performed according to accepted medical standards and criteria and 2) the concept of non-heart-beating donors (NHBD, i. e. organ donation after an arbitrarily defined duration of circulatory and cardiac arrest) practiced in some European countries must be absolutely rejected because it implicates a high risk of diagnostic error. According to the current literature it is unclear at what time cardiac and circulatory arrest is irreversible and leads to irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain including the brainstem, even though clinical signs of cessation of brain functions are always found after 10 min. Furthermore, is it often an arbitrary decision to exactly define the duration of cardiac arrest if continuous echocardiographic monitoring has not been carried out from the very beginning. Last but not least there are ethical concerns against the concept of NHBD because it might influence therapeutic efforts to resuscitate a patient with cardiac arrest. Therefore, the German Medical Council (BÄK) has repeatedly rejected the concept of NHBD for organ transplantation since 1995. PMID:26830897

  13. Embryo Transfer (Techniques, Donors, and Recipients).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick E; Jahnke, Marianna M

    2016-07-01

    Commercial embryo transfer has evolved as an art and as a science since the early 1970s. Today's multiple ovulation embryo transfer is a widely used reproductive tool on many farms and is performed by veterinarians throughout the world. Propagation of the female genomes of select donors, through embryo transfer, has allowed a rapid progression of genetic gain in many breeds, much like what happened with artificial insemination since the 1940s. Advancement of this technology is migrating to in vitro fertilization technology today, allowing a higher volume of offspring to be produced with sex selection in the laboratory. PMID:27140299

  14. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S;

    2015-01-01

    is a population-based study and biobank. We performed multivariable linear regression analysis to assess the effects of donation activity, physiologic and lifestyle factors, and diet on Hb levels among 15,197 donors. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of these...... factors on the risk of having low Hb (defined as Hb below the 10th percentile among men and women, respectively) and of a decrease in Hb greater than 0.5 mmol/L (0.8 g/dL) between successive donations. All analyses were performed stratified for sex and smoking status. We also tested a previously used...

  15. Potential donor segregation to promote blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2008-04-01

    This work is set in the field of social marketing and more specifically in the context of blood donation. Its principal objective focuses on segregating potential donors by using the inhibitors or barriers to a blood donation behaviour as criteria. Moreover, an analysis of the predisposition to donate blood, the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for donating blood, and the incentives that may stimulate their donation conduct was conducted for each of the four identified groups. The results reveal that the four segments differ significantly in their predisposition to donate, in their motivations and in the incentives that encourage them to donate blood. PMID:18343199

  16. Attitudes and motives of potential sperm donors in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrih Anđelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. For curing infertility, sperm donors and their donations are important source of benefits for the society. Attitudes of sperm donors towards different recipient categories and relation with offspring become more important. The aim of our study was to explore sperm donation related attitudes and motives among potential sperm donors in Serbia. Methods. The study included 303 participants from Serbia, age from 20 to 40. Measures of personality traits were obtained by using the Big Five Inventory. For measuring attitudes and motivation regarding sperm donation the Attitudes and Motivation of Sperm Donors questionnaire was applied. Results. A total of 244 participants stated that they would be willing to be sperm donors. The results showed no statistically significant differences in personality traits between people who claimed that they would be willing to become sperm donors, and those claiming otherwise, but a number of differences in personality traits were found when various attitudes regarding sperm donation process, possible users of donated sperm and relations between the donor and his biological offspring were considered. Conclusion. There are no statistically significant differences in personality traits between people who claimed that they would and those that would not be willing to become sperm donors. It is possible that some other factors (e.g. cultural values influence the decision to become sperm donor, but personality traits play an important role in making decisions regarding sperm donation process, possible receivers of donation and relations between the donor and his biological offspring.

  17. How important is donor age in liver transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lué, Alberto; Solanas, Estela; Baptista, Pedro; Lorente, Sara; Araiz, Juan J; Garcia-Gil, Agustin; Serrano, M Trinidad

    2016-06-01

    The age of liver donors has been increasing in the past several years because of a donor shortage. In the United States, 33% of donors are age 50 years or older, as are more than 50% in some European countries. The impact of donor age on liver transplantation (LT) has been analyzed in several studies with contradictory conclusions. Nevertheless, recent analyses of the largest databases demonstrate that having an older donor is a risk factor for graft failure. Donor age is included as a risk factor in the more relevant graft survival scores, such as the Donor Risk Index, donor age and Model for End-stage Liver Disease, Survival Outcomes Following Liver Transplantation, and the Balance of Risk. The use of old donors is related to an increased rate of biliary complications and hepatitis C virus-related graft failure. Although liver function does not seem to be significantly affected by age, the incidence of several liver diseases increases with age, and the capacity of the liver to manage or overcome liver diseases or external injuries decreases. In this paper, the importance of age in LT outcomes, the role of donor age as a risk factor, and the influence of aging on liver regeneration are reviewed. PMID:27275089

  18. A Risk Index for Living Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, A B; Leanza, J; Fahmy, L M; Chow, E K H; Desai, N M; Luo, X; King, E A; Bowring, M G; Segev, D L

    2016-07-01

    Choosing between multiple living kidney donors, or evaluating offers in kidney paired donation, can be challenging because no metric currently exists for living donor quality. Furthermore, some deceased donor (DD) kidneys can result in better outcomes than some living donor kidneys, yet there is no way to compare them on the same scale. To better inform clinical decision-making, we created a living kidney donor profile index (LKDPI) on the same scale as the DD KDPI, using Cox regression and adjusting for recipient characteristics. Donor age over 50 (hazard ratio [HR] per 10 years = 1.15 1.241.33 ), elevated BMI (HR per 10 units = 1.01 1.091.16 ), African-American race (HR = 1.15 1.251.37 ), cigarette use (HR = 1.09 1.161.23 ), as well as ABO incompatibility (HR = 1.03 1.271.58 ), HLA B (HR = 1.03 1.081.14 ) mismatches, and DR (HR = 1.04 1.091.15 ) mismatches were associated with greater risk of graft loss after living donor transplantation (all p DD kidney), and 4.4% of donors had LKDPI > 50 (more risk than the median DD kidney). The LKDPI is a useful tool for comparing living donor kidneys to each other and to deceased donor kidneys. PMID:26752290

  19. How important is donor age in liver transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lué, Alberto; Solanas, Estela; Baptista, Pedro; Lorente, Sara; Araiz, Juan J; Garcia-Gil, Agustin; Serrano, M Trinidad

    2016-01-01

    The age of liver donors has been increasing in the past several years because of a donor shortage. In the United States, 33% of donors are age 50 years or older, as are more than 50% in some European countries. The impact of donor age on liver transplantation (LT) has been analyzed in several studies with contradictory conclusions. Nevertheless, recent analyses of the largest databases demonstrate that having an older donor is a risk factor for graft failure. Donor age is included as a risk factor in the more relevant graft survival scores, such as the Donor Risk Index, donor age and Model for End-stage Liver Disease, Survival Outcomes Following Liver Transplantation, and the Balance of Risk. The use of old donors is related to an increased rate of biliary complications and hepatitis C virus-related graft failure. Although liver function does not seem to be significantly affected by age, the incidence of several liver diseases increases with age, and the capacity of the liver to manage or overcome liver diseases or external injuries decreases. In this paper, the importance of age in LT outcomes, the role of donor age as a risk factor, and the influence of aging on liver regeneration are reviewed.

  20. Q-FISH measurement of hepatocyte telomere lengths in donor liver and graft after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation: donor age affects telomere length sustainability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Kawano

    Full Text Available Along with the increasing need for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT, the issue of organ shortage has become a serious problem. Therefore, the use of organs from elderly donors has been increasing. While the short-term results of LDLT have greatly improved, problems affecting the long-term outcome of transplant patients remain unsolved. Furthermore, since contradictory data have been reported with regard to the relationship between donor age and LT/LDLT outcome, the question of whether the use of elderly donors influences the long-term outcome of a graft after LT/LDLT remains unsettled. To address whether hepatocyte telomere length reflects the outcome of LDLT, we analyzed the telomere lengths of hepatocytes in informative biopsy samples from 12 paired donors and recipients (grafts of pediatric LDLT more than 5 years after adult-to-child LDLT because of primary biliary atresia, using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH. The telomere lengths in the paired samples showed a robust relationship between the donor and grafted hepatocytes (r = 0.765, p = 0.0038, demonstrating the feasibility of our Q-FISH method for cell-specific evaluation. While 8 pairs showed no significant difference between the telomere lengths for the donor and the recipient, the other 4 pairs showed significantly shorter telomeres in the recipient than in the donor. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the donors in the latter group were older than those in the former (p = 0.001. Despite the small number of subjects, this pilot study indicates that donor age is a crucial factor affecting telomere length sustainability in hepatocytes after pediatric LDLT, and that the telomeres in grafted livers may be elongated somewhat longer when the grafts are immunologically well controlled.

  1. Safety evaluation of donors for living-donor liver transplantation in Chinese mainland: A single-center report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the safety of donors during living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and the authors' experience with 50 cases.METHODS: Between January 1995 and March 2006, 50 patients with end-stage liver disease received LDLT in our department. Donors (at the age of 27-58 years) were healthy and antibody (ABO)-compatible. The protocol of evaluation and selection of donors, choice of surgical methods and strategy applied in the safety evaluation of donors were analyzed.RESULTS: A total of 115 candidate donors were evaluated for LDLT at our center. Of these, 50 underwent successful hepatectomy for living donation.The elimination rate for donors was 43.5%. Positive hepatitis serology and ABO incompatibility were the main factors for excluding candidates. All donors recovered uneventfully. The follow-up time ranged from 3 to 135 mo. The incidence of major and minor medical complications was 12.0% and 28.0%, respectively.CONCLUSION: LDLT provides an excellent approach to the problem of donor shortage in China. With a thorough and complete preoperative workup and meticulous intraand postoperative management, LDLT can be performed with minimal donor morbidity.

  2. A Study on Consumer Deferral Preference Reversal Based on Theory of Planned Behavior%中国消费者的延迟购买偏好是如何反转的?——计划行为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓; 屠采撷

    2011-01-01

    内容提要:中国消费者普遍存在的延迟购买意向构成了企业销售的一大瓶颈,基于此,本文在延迟理论和反转理论的基础上提出消费者延迟购买偏好的反转,并借助计划行为理论构建了反转模型。研究发现,消费者的延迟购买偏好存在着三条反转路径(态度改善、面子意识及群体评价提升、感知行为控制增强),其中,第三条路径效果最佳,消费者对于“我能”的感知超过了对“我喜欢”、“我应该”的感知,即对改变延迟偏好的控制度越高,越觉得改变容易,该延迟偏好发生反转的可能性也就越大。本研究结果对更好地认识中国消费者延迟购买意向的权变性,帮助中国企业引导消费者反转、有效促销有重要意义。%Consumer Deferral Preference in China is widespread which has become a bottleneck for company sales. This paper proposes Consumer Deferral Preference Reversal based on the Theory of Deferral and the Theory of Reversal, and introduces the Theory of Planned Behavior to build the reversal model. Our study shows that: there are three reversal routes for consumers' deferral purchase intention (improved attitude, face consciousness and increased group evaluation, enhanced perceived behavior control) , and the third route is the best. Perception of "I can" is higher than perception of "I like" and "I should". Namely, the higer the perceived behavior control is, the higher the probability of reversal would be. This paper reveals chinese consumers' contingency in deferral purchase intention, which helps Chinese companies to lead consumers' reversal and to make effective promotion strategies in a meaningful way.

  3. Approach to the Pretransplant Evaluation of the Living Kidney Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the potential kidney donor is a complex activity that differs substantially from other types of preoperative assessments. The well being of the donor, who derives no medical benefit from this surgery, must be assured in both the short term and long term, and the potential adverse consequences to the recipient must be determined as well. The criteria that must be met for a person to donate a kidney are rigorous and include medical, social, psychosocial, ethical, and legal issues. Donor evaluation can be divided into assessments to protect the health and safety of the donor and assessments to protect the health and safety of the recipient. This article provides an approach to evaluating a donor, focusing on the complex issues that an evaluator is faced with. A careful assessment of risks and benefits to both the donor and recipient can lead to favorable outcomes.

  4. Consequences of dietary methyl donor supplements: Is more always better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Kimberly R; Felder, Michael R; Vrana, Paul B

    2015-07-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are now recognized to play roles in disease etiology. Several diseases increasing in frequency are associated with altered DNA methylation. DNA methylation is accomplished through metabolism of methyl donors such as folate, vitamin B12, methionine, betaine (trimethylglycine), and choline. Increased intake of these compounds correlates with decreased neural tube defects, although this mechanism is not well understood. Consumption of these methyl donor pathway components has increased in recent years due to fortification of grains and high supplemental levels of these compounds (e.g. vitamins, energy drinks). Additionally, people with mutations in one of the enzymes that assists in the methyl donor pathway (5-MTHFR) are directed to consume higher amounts of methyl donors to compensate. Recent evidence suggests that high levels of methyl donor intake may also have detrimental effects. Individualized medicine may be necessary to determine the appropriate amounts of methyl donors to be consumed, particularly in women of child bearing age. PMID:25841986

  5. Biotechnological aspects of sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor

    OpenAIRE

    Meulepas, R.J.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2010-01-01

    Biological sulfate reduction can be used for the removal and recovery of oxidized sulfur compounds and metals from waste streams. However, the costs of conventional electron donors, like hydrogen and ethanol, limit the application possibilities. Methane from natural gas or biogas would be a more attractive electron donor. Sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor prevails in marine sediments. Recently, several authors succeeded in cultivating the responsible microorganisms in vitro. In...

  6. CHANGES IN DONOR SUPPORT FOR HIGHER EDUCATION IN KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    For decades donors have played an important role in supporting higher education the world over. Kenya has not been an exception. There have been changes in donor investments in Kenyan higher education over the past 30 years. These changes have impacted the sector in various ways. From independence the responsibility for higher education in Kenya was borne by the state. This changed when two decades later the government introduced cost sharing, due to the influence of donors. This study di...

  7. Donors with renal artery stenosis: Fit to donate

    OpenAIRE

    Vemuru Sunil K Reddy; Sandeep Guleria; Bora, Girdhar S.

    2012-01-01

    Kidney donation from hypertensive donors is now an accepted norm in live related kidney transplantation. The use of hypertensive donors with renal artery stenosis due to athero-sclerosis and fibromuscular dysplasia is still debated. The prime concern is about the deleterious effect of hypertension on the donor and the risk of recurrence of such lesions in the solitary kidney. Even as the response of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis to revascularisation is unpredictable, there is an impro...

  8. Risk Factors of Viral Hepatitis B among Egyptian Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Awadalla, HI; Ragab, MH; Osman, MA; Nassar, NA; Cairo, Egypt.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Surveillance of infectious disease markers in the blood donor population is important in recognizing trends in prevalence and incidence of transfusion related infections in asymptomatic volunteer blood donors. Subjects & Methods: It is a community base cross sectional study. Subjects of study are volunteers to donate blood. Samples were collected from blood donors and questionnaire was designed to collect the risk factors data. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HB...

  9. Prevalence Of Hepatitis C Antibodies In Healthy Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nalini

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in healthy blood donors? Objective: To screen the blood donors for HCV antibodies routinely. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Deptt. of Transfusion Medicine, Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana. Participants: Healthy blood donors. Statistical analysis: Prevalence rate. Results: Prevalence of anti HCV was found to be 1.5%, which is quite high.

  10. Deconstructing Giving: Donor Types and How They Give

    OpenAIRE

    Lata Gangadharan; Philip J. Grossman; Kristy Jones

    2014-01-01

    We examine the extent to which individual donors are warm glow or altruistic givers and whether this distinction motivates giving decisions, particularly paternalism. Results from our experiment suggest that motivations for giving are heterogeneous, ranging from pure altruism to impure altruism to pure warm glow. Of 115 donors, in our setting 30 are purely altruistic givers, 36 are impure givers and up to 17 could be considered pure warm-glow givers. We find that donors are predominantly pate...

  11. Applicability of available methods for incidence estimation among blood donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shtmian Zou; Edward P.Notari IV; Roger Y.Dodd

    2010-01-01

    @@ Abstract Incidence rates of major transfusion transmissible viral infections have been estimated threugh widely used sereconversion approaches and recently developed methods.A quality database for blood donors and donations with the capacity to track donation history of each donor is the basis for incidence estimation and many other epidemiological studies.Depending on available data,difierent ways have been used to determine incidence rates based on conversion from uninfected to infected status among repeat donors.

  12. Do affective attitudes predict organ donor registration? A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Lee; O'Carroll, Ronan

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed whether people's affective attitudes predicted organ donor registration at a later time. People who were not registered as an organ donor prior to completing the study (N = 150) first rated their affective attitudes towards organ donation. We then measured whether they clicked on a hyperlink to register as an organ donor. Believing that the body should be kept whole for burial (bodily integrity) was the only affective attitude to predict this organ donation behaviour. Futu...

  13. Anticipated regret and organ donor registration: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    O'Carroll, Ronan; Shepherd, Lee; Hayes, Peter; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To test whether simply asking people to rate the extent to which they anticipate feeling regret for not registering as an organ donor after death increases subsequent verified organ donor registration. Methods: 14,509 members of the general public (both registered and non-registered donors) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 arms, each receiving different questionnaires. The no-questionnaire control (NQC) arm received a survey measuring demographics and whether or not they were...

  14. Addressing the Donor Liver Shortage with EX VIVO Machine Perfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Maria-Louisa Izamis; Berendsen, Tim A.; Korkut Uygun; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a critical shortage of viable donor livers for transplantation, only a fraction of the available organs are used. Donor organ defects, which in the majority of cases are caused by extensive exposure to ischemia, cannot be reversed by static cold storage, the current gold standard of organ preservation. In this review, the role of machine perfusion (MP) in the recovery of non-transplantable ischemic donor organs is discussed. Though still in the experimental phase, various models of MP...

  15. Xenotransplantation: A Potential Solution to the Critical Organ Donor Shortage

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, K Howe; Marinov, Anton; Levy, Gary A.

    1999-01-01

    The success of allotransplantation as a treatment for end-stage organ failure has resulted in the need for an increasing number of organ donors. Attempts to meet this need include the use of organs from living related and unrelated donors, financial or other incentives for the donor family, and even the reuse of transplanted organs. Despite these initiatives, the supply of organs for transplantation still falls far short of the demand, as evidenced by longer waiting times for transplantation ...

  16. Evaluation of the Medically Complex Living Kidney Donor

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar Caliskan; Alaattin Yildiz

    2012-01-01

    Due to organ shortage and difficulties for availability of cadaveric donors, living donor transplantation is an important choice for having allograft. Live donor surgery is elective and easier to organize prior to starting dialysis thereby permitting preemptive transplantation as compared to cadaveric transplantation. Because of superior results with living kidney transplantation, efforts including the usage of “Medically complex living donors” are made to increase the availability of organs ...

  17. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak-Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Annika; Perry, Michael; Smith, Brian; Sullivan, Michael; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2014-03-25

    The rollout of smart meters in the last several years has opened up new forms of previously unavailable energy data. Many utilities are now able in real-time to capture granular, household level interval usage data at very high-frequency levels for a large proportion of their residential and small commercial customer population. This can be linked to other time and locationspecific information, providing vast, constantly growing streams of rich data (sometimes referred to by the recently popular buzz word, “big data”). Within the energy industry there is increasing interest in tapping into the opportunities that these data can provide. What can we do with all of these data? The richness and granularity of these data enable many types of creative and cutting-edge analytics. Technically sophisticated and rigorous statistical techniques can be used to pull interesting insights out of this highfrequency, human-focused data. We at LBNL are calling this “behavior analytics”. This kind of analytics has the potential to provide tremendous value to a wide range of energy programs. For example, highly disaggregated and heterogeneous information about actual energy use would allow energy efficiency (EE) and/or demand response (DR) program implementers to target specific programs to specific households; would enable evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of energy efficiency programs to be performed on a much shorter time horizon than was previously possible; and would provide better insights in to the energy and peak hour savings associated with specifics types of EE and DR programs (e.g., behavior-based (BB) programs). In this series, “Insights from Smart Meters”, we will present concrete, illustrative examples of the type of value that insights from behavior analytics of these data can provide (as well as pointing out its limitations). We will supply several types of key findings, including: • Novel results, which answer questions the industry

  18. Donor risk indices in pancreas allocation in the Eurotransplant region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Wouter H; de Vries, Erwin; de Boer, Jan; Putter, Hein; Schareck, Wolfgang; Samuel, Undine; Braat, Andries E

    2016-08-01

    Pancreas donor selection and recognition are important to cope with increasing organ shortage. We aim to show that the PDRI is more useful than the P-PASS to predict acceptance and should thus be preferred over P-PASS. Eurotransplant donors from 2004 until 2014 were included in this study. PDRI logistical factors were set to reference to purely reflect donor quality (PDRI donor ). PDRI and P-PASS association with allocation outcome was studied using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Regional differences in donor quality were also investigated. Of the 10 444 pancreata that were reported, 6090 (58.3%) were accepted and 2947 (28.2%) were transplanted. We found that P-PASS was inferior to PDRIdonor in its ability to predict organ reporting, acceptance, and transplantation: AUC 0.63, 0.67 and 0.73 for P-PASS vs. 0.78, 0.79 and 0.84 for PDRIdonor , respectively. Furthermore, there were significant differences in donor quality among different Eurotransplant countries, both in reported donors and in transplanted organs. PDRI is a powerful predictor of allocation outcome and should be preferred over P-PASS. Proper donor selection and recognition, and possibly a more liberal approach toward inferior quality donors, may increase donation and transplant rates. PMID:27188797

  19. Paid Living Donation and Growth of Deceased Donor Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Nasrollah

    2016-06-01

    Limited organ availability in all countries has stimulated discussion about incentives to increase donation. Since 1988, Iran has operated the only government-sponsored paid living donor (LD) kidney transplant program. This article reviews aspects of the Living Unrelated Donor program and development of deceased donation in Iran. Available evidence indicates that in the partially regulated Iranian Model, the direct negotiation between donors and recipients fosters direct monetary relationship with no safeguards against mutual exploitation. Brokers, the black market and transplant tourism exist, and the waiting list has not been eliminated. Through comparison between the large deceased donor program in Shiraz and other centers in Iran, this article explores the association between paid donation and the development of a deceased donor program. Shiraz progressively eliminated paid donor transplants such that by 2011, 85% of kidney transplants in Shiraz compared with 27% across the rest of Iran's other centers were from deceased donors. Among 26 centers, Shiraz undertakes the largest number of deceased donor kidney transplants, most liver transplants, and all pancreas transplants. In conclusion, although many patients with end stage renal disease have received transplants through the paid living donation, the Iranian Model now has serious flaws and is potentially inhibiting substantial growth in deceased donor organ transplants in Iran. PMID:27203584

  20. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H;

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009...... and November 2011, we offered haematology consultations to blood donors with repeated haemoglobin concentration (Hb) above the WHO limit for polycythaemia vera (PV) (10·2 and 11·5 mm/16·5 and 18·5 g/dl for women and men, respectively). Investigation of such donors included Hb, haematocrit, mean cell volume...

  1. On the effect of nuclear bridge modes on donor-acceptor electronic coupling in donor-bridge-acceptor molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a theoretical study of intra-molecular electronic coupling in a symmetric DBA (donor-bridge-acceptor) complex, in which a donor electronic site is coupled to an acceptor site by way of intervening orbitals of a molecular bridge unit. In the off-resonant (deep tunneling) regime of electronic transport, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (MO's) of the DBA system are split into distinguishable donor/acceptor and bridge orbitals. The effect of geometrical changes at the bridge on the donor/acceptor electronic energy manifold is studied for local stretching and bending modes. It is demonstrated that the energy splitting in the manifold of donor/acceptor unoccupied MOs changes in response to such changes, as assumed in simple McConnell-type models. Limitations of the simple models are revealed where the electronic charging of the bridge orbitals correlates with increasing donor/acceptor orbital energy splitting only for stretching but not for bending bridge modes.

  2. Adoptive T-cell Immunotherapy from third-party donors: Characterization of donors and set up of a T-cell donor registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta eEiz-Vesper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with and reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and adenovirus (ADV are frequent and severe complications in immunocompromised recipients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT or solid organ transplantation (SOT. These serious adverse events are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs are often used to treat both viral infections and leukemia relapses after transplantation but are associated with potentially life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GvHD. Adoptive immunotherapy with virus-specific cytotoxic effector T cells (CTLs derived from seropositive donors can rapidly reconstitute antiviral immunity after HSCT and organ transplantation. Therefore, it can effectively prevent the clinical manifestation of these viruses with no significant acute toxicity or increased risk of GvHD. In conditions, where patients receiving an allogeneic cord blood transplant or a transplant from a virus-seronegative donor and since donor blood is generally not available for solid organ recipients, allogeneic third party T-cell donors would offer an alternative option. Recent studies showed that during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF mobilization, the functional activity of antiviral memory T cells is impaired for a long period. This finding suggests that even stem cell donors may not be the best source of T cells.Under these circumstances, partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA-matched virus-specific CTLs from healthy seropositive individuals may be a promising option. Therefore frequency assessments of virus-specific memory T cells in HLA-typed healthy donors as well as in HSCT/SOT donors using a high throughput T-cell assay were performed over a period of 4 years at Hannover Medical School. This chapter will address the relevance and potential of a third-party T-cell donor registry and will discuss its clinical implication for adoptive T

  3. Behavior-based obstacle avoidance capability for biologically inspired eight-legged walking robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behavior-based approach has proven to be useful in making mobile robot working in real world situations. Since the behaviors are responsible for managing the interaction between the robots and its environment, observing their use can be exploited to model these interactions. A real-time obstacle avoidance algorithm has been developed and implemented. This algorithm permits the detection of unknown obstacle simultaneously with the steering of the mobile robot to avoid collisions and advance toward the target. In our approach the robot is initially given a set of behavior-producing modules to choose from, and the algorithm provides a memory-based approach to dynamically adapt the selection of the behaviors according to the history of their use. We developed a set of algorithms, which uses Subsumption Architecture (SA) for controlling an eight-legged walking robot operating in closed vicinity. This paper describes a successful application of these algorithms to Oct-Ib robot and experimental results of the robot navigating in complex environment. (Author)

  4. Identification of Behavior Based Safety by Using Traffic Light Analysis to Reduce Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Nasution, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work present the safety assessment of a case study and describes an important area within the field production in oil and gas industry, namely behavior based safety (BBS). The company set a rigorous BBS and its intervention program that implemented and deployed continually. In this case, observers requested to have discussion and spread a number of determined questions related with work behavior to the workers during observation. Appraisal of Traffic Light Analysis (TLA) as one tools of risk assessment used to determine the estimated score of BBS questionnaire. Standardization of TLA appraisal in this study are based on Regulation of Minister of Labor and Occupational Safety and Health No:PER.05/MEN/1996. The result shown that there are some points under 84%, which categorized in yellow category and should corrected immediately by company to prevent existing bad behavior of workers. The application of BBS expected to increase the safety performance at work time-by-time and effective in reducing accidents.

  5. Perancangan Autonomous Landing pada Quadcopter Menggunakan Behavior-Based Intelligent Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalidia Nurin Hamdani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Quadcopter adalah salah satu platform unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV yang saat ini banyak diriset karena kemampuannya melakukan take-off dan landing secara vertikal. Karena menggunakan 4 motor brushless sebagai penggerak utama, quadcopter memiliki kompleksitas yang cukup tinggi baik dalam pemodelan maupun pengendalian. Landing merupakan salah satu mekanisme pada quadcopter yang membutuhkan kecepatan yang akurat dan aman dengan tetap mempertahankan keseimbangan. Pada penelitian ini, penulis menggunakan Behavior-Based Intelligent Fuzzy Control (BBIFC sebagai dasar kontrol untuk penerapan autonomous landing pada quadcopter. BBIFC adalah salah satu skema high-level control di mana desain kontrol terdiri dari beberapa layer. Ada 2 layer yang digunakan pada penelitian ini yaitu layer untuk pengendalian sudut pitch, roll, yaw dan layer untuk pengendalian ketinggian. Setiap layer memiliki mekanisme kontrol yang berbeda yang didesain menggunakan Intelligent Fuzzy Controller dan kontroler PID. Dengan metode ini dihasilkan algoritma untuk mekanisme safe autonomous landing dengan mengikuti sinyal eksponensial di mana quadcopter mencapai titik 0 (nol meter dalam waktu 15 detik dan Kontroler PID dapat mengendalikan keseimbangan quadcopter dalam waktu 7.97 detik untuk roll dan pitch serta 1.25 detik untuk yaw sejak gangguan sudut diberikan.

  6. LABRADOR: a learning autonomous behavior-based robot for adaptive detection and object retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Brian; Moseley, Mark; Brookshire, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    As part of the TARDEC-funded CANINE (Cooperative Autonomous Navigation in a Networked Environment) Program, iRobot developed LABRADOR (Learning Autonomous Behavior-based Robot for Adaptive Detection and Object Retrieval). LABRADOR was based on the rugged, man-portable, iRobot PackBot unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) equipped with an explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) manipulator arm and a custom gripper. For LABRADOR, we developed a vision-based object learning and recognition system that combined a TLD (track-learn-detect) filter based on object shape features with a color-histogram-based object detector. Our vision system was able to learn in real-time to recognize objects presented to the robot. We also implemented a waypoint navigation system based on fused GPS, IMU (inertial measurement unit), and odometry data. We used this navigation capability to implement autonomous behaviors capable of searching a specified area using a variety of robust coverage strategies - including outward spiral, random bounce, random waypoint, and perimeter following behaviors. While the full system was not integrated in time to compete in the CANINE competition event, we developed useful perception, navigation, and behavior capabilities that may be applied to future autonomous robot systems.

  7. Simulation of the human TMJ behavior based on interdependent joints topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamil, Marta B; Nedel, Luciana P; Freitas, Carla M D S; Macq, Benoit

    2012-03-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is one of the most important and complex joints of the body and its pathologies affect a great percentage of the human population. The simulation of the TMJ behavior during opening, closing and chewing movements can be very useful to the understanding of this articulation by physicians, helping them to prevent or fix problems due to accidents or diseases. This work proposes a model to simulate the human TMJ behavior based on the concept of two interdependent joints. The model was conceived using multimodal information acquired from CT and MRI images of a live person, as well as motion data acquired from this same person with a magnetic motion capture device. Simulation of movement of other TMJs, based on different morphology of bones and teeth, is obtained by adapting the regular captured motion data through collision detection and treatment methods. The proposed model was evaluated through image registration techniques by comparing our simulated results with real, captured motion data. We also validate the model showing how it can be used to predict TMJ behavior in the presence of different--normal or abnormal--bones and teeth morphologies. PMID:22036476

  8. Distributed multi-robot sensing and tracking: a behavior-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many large-scale surveillance and reconnaissance tasks is that of tracking the movements of (or maintaining passive contact with) objects navigating in a bounded area of interest. Oftentimes in these problems, the area to be monitored will move over time or will not permit fixed sensors, thus requiring a team of mobile sensors -- or robots -- to monitor the area collectively. In these situations, the robots must not only have mechanisms for determining how to track objects and how to fuse information from neighboring robots, but they must also have distributed control strategies for ensuring that the entire area of interest is continually covered to the greatest extent possible. This paper focuses on the distributed control issue by describing a proposed decentralized control mechanism that allows a team of robots to collectively track and monitor objects in an uncluttered area of interest. The approach is based upon an extension to the ALLIANCE behavior-based architecture that generalizes from the domain of loosely-coupled, independent applications to the domain of strongly cooperative applications, in which the action selection of a robot is dependent upon the actions selected by its teammates. We conclude the paper by describing our ongoing implementation of the proposed approach on a team of four mobile robots

  9. Distributed multi-robot sensing and tracking: a behavior-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-12-31

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many large-scale surveillance and reconnaissance tasks is that of tracking the movements of (or maintaining passive contact with) objects navigating in a bounded area of interest. Oftentimes in these problems, the area to be monitored will move over time or will not permit fixed sensors, thus requiring a team of mobile sensors -- or robots -- to monitor the area collectively. In these situations, the robots must not only have mechanisms for determining how to track objects and how to fuse information from neighboring robots, but they must also have distributed control strategies for ensuring that the entire area of interest is continually covered to the greatest extent possible. This paper focuses on the distributed control issue by describing a proposed decentralized control mechanism that allows a team of robots to collectively track and monitor objects in an uncluttered area of interest. The approach is based upon an extension to the ALLIANCE behavior-based architecture that generalizes from the domain of loosely-coupled, independent applications to the domain of strongly cooperative applications, in which the action selection of a robot is dependent upon the actions selected by its teammates. We conclude the paper by describing our ongoing implementation of the proposed approach on a team of four mobile robots.

  10. A Context-Aware Mobile User Behavior-Based Neighbor Finding Approach for Preference Profile Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new approach is adopted to update the user preference profile by seeking users with similar interests based on the context obtainable for a mobile network instead of from desktop networks. The trust degree between mobile users is calculated by analyzing their behavior based on the context, and then the approximate neighbors are chosen by combining the similarity of the mobile user preference and the trust degree. The approach first considers the communication behaviors between mobile users, the mobile network services they use as well as the corresponding context information. Then a similarity degree of the preference between users is calculated with the evaluation score of a certain mobile web service provided by a mobile user. Finally, based on the time attenuation function, the users with similar preference are found, through which we can dynamically update the target user’s preference profile. Experiments are then conducted to test the effect of the context on the credibility among mobile users, the effect of time decay factors and trust degree thresholds. Simulation shows that the proposed approach outperforms two other methods in terms of Recall Ratio, Precision Ratio and Mean Absolute Error, because neither of them consider the context mobile information.

  11. Behavior Based Anomaly Detection Technique to Mitigate the Routing Misbehavior in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.P.Sundararajan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network does not have traffic concentration points such as gateway or access points which perform behavior monitoring of individual nodes. Therefore, maintaining the network function for normal nodes when other nodes do not route and forward correctly is a big challenge. This paper, address the behavior based anomaly detection technique inspired by the biological immune system to enhance the performance of MANET to operate despite the presence of misbehaving nodes. Due to its reliance on overhearing, the existing watchdog technique may fail to detect misbehavior or raise false alarms in the presence of ambiguous collisions, receiver collisions, and limited transmission power. Our proposed scheme uses intelligent machine learning techniques that learns and detects each node by false alarm and negative selection approach. We consider DSR, AODV and DSDV [24],[25] as underlying routing protocol which are highly vulnerable to routing misbehavior. Analytical and simulation results are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme. Keywords: intrusion detection, anomaly detection, mobile ad hoc network, security.

  12. An Automated Malware Detection System for Android Using Behavior-Based Analysis AMDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Joshua Abela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Android platform is the fastest growing market in smartphone operating systems to date. As such, it has become the most viable target of security threats. The reliance of the Android Market Security Model on its reactive anti-malware system presents an opportunity for malware to be present in the Official Android Market and does not encompass applications outside the official market. This allows applications to masquerade as harmless applications which lead to the loss of credentials if precautions are not taken. Most anti-malware applications in the Market use static analysis for detection because it is fast and relatively simple. However, static analysis requires regular updates of threat databases and it may be circumvented by obfuscation techniques. As a solution to these problems, the study utilizes behavior analysis of applications as basis for malware. As a first step, features of known-benign and known-malicious applications are extracted for machine learning to provide baseline behavior datasets. Test applications are then passed through the behavior based module for identification of its being malware or benign. A classification scheme is provided for applications identified as malware by the system.

  13. Informed consent--suggested procedures for informed consent for unrelated haematopoietic stem cell donors at various stages of recruitment, donor evaluation, and donor workup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmayr, A; Hartwell, L; Egeland, T

    2003-04-01

    The Ethics Working Group of the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA) was established to address the increasing and complex number of ethical issues surrounding unrelated haematopoietic stem cell donation where the selected donor and recipient reside in different countries. This paper considers the topic of informed donor consent, but recognises that the recommendations contained within the paper may be subject to cultural variances in interpretation, and to adjustment to meet the legal requirements of individual countries. Nevertheless, the extent of international cooperation establishes sufficient common denominators for the recommendations to be widely adhered to in the interests of best practice. PMID:12692618

  14. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-03-01

    Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for reduced graft function (RGF). We also developed a prediction model of RGF using these donor biomarkers. RGF was defined as delayed or slow graft function. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to generate a prediction model, which was internally validated using a bootstrapping method. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of biomarkers with 1-year graft function. Notably, donor urinary NGAL levels were associated with donor AKI (P = 0.014), and donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP were predictive for RGF, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.704 for NGAL and L-FABP, respectively. The best-fit model including donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine conveyed a better predictive value for RGF than donor serum creatinine alone (P = 0.02). In addition, we generated a scoring method to predict RGF based on donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic performance of the RGF prediction score (AUROC 0.808) was significantly better than that of the DGF calculator (AUROC 0.627) and the kidney donor profile index (AUROC 0.606). Donor urinary L-FABP levels were also predictive of 1-year graft function (P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP to be useful biomarkers for RGF, and support the use of

  15. Donor safety in adult living donor liver transplantation using the right lobe:Single center experience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Gui Li; Lu-Nan Yan; Yong Zeng; Jia-Yin Yang; Qi-Yuan Lin; Xiao-Zhong Jiang; Bin Liu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety of donors in adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using the right lobe in a single liver transplantation center in China.METHODS: We investigated retrospectively 52 living donor liver resections performed from October 2003 to July 2006. All patients were evaluated by blood tests and abdominal CT. The mean donor age was 28.2±7.4years. Residual liver volume was 42.1%±4.7%. Mean operative time was 420±76.2 min; mean ICU stay, less than 36 h; mean hospital stay, 16.4±8.6 d; and mean follow-up period, 6 mo.RESULTS: There was no mortality. The overall complication rate was 40% (21 donors). Major complications included biliary leak in two, and pneumonia in 2 donors. Minor complications included mild pleural effusion in 12 donors, transient ascites in 6, mild depression in 4, intra-abdominal collections in 2,and wound infections in 1 donor. Residual liver volume did not affect the complication rate. None required reoperation. Return to pre-donation activity occurred within 5-8 wk.CONCLUSION: Right hemi-hepatectomy can be performed safely with minimal risk in cases of careful donor selection. Major complications occurred in only 7.7% of our series.

  16. Clinical experience in the use of marginal donor hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ai-ni; DONG Nian-guo; ZHANG Kai-lun; XIA Jia-hong; XIAO Shi-liang; SUN Zong-quan

    2011-01-01

    Background Although heart transplantation has become a standard therapy for end-stage heart disease, there are few published studies regarding the use of transplant organs from marginal donors. Here we describe the clinical outcome we have obtained using marginal donor hearts.Methods We analyzed 21 cases of orthotropic heart transplantation for end-stage heart disease performed in our department between September 2008 and July 2010. Of these patients, six received hearts from marginal donors and the remainder received standard-donor hearts. The two groups were compared in terms of both mortality and the incidence of perioperative complications such as infection, acute rejection, and right heart insufficiency.Results The 1-year survival rate of both groups was 100%. Only one death was recorded in standard-donor group during follow-up. Patients who received marginal donor hearts (83%) experienced more early complications than did the standard-donor-heart group (13%), but the mortality of the two groups was the same. The duration of post-ICU stay was greater in the marginal donor group than in the standard-donor group, (35.5±17.4) days and (21.7±2.6) days, respectively (P <0.05).Conclusions The use of marginal donor hearts increases the number of patients who can receive and benefit from transplants. However, it may introduce an increased risk of early complications, thus care should be taken both in the choice of patients who will receive marginal donor hearts and in the perioperative treatment of those for whom the procedure is performed.

  17. Behaviorally Based Interventions for Teaching Social Interaction Skills to Children with ASD in Inclusive Settings: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Síglia Pimentel Höher; Rispoli, Mandy; Ganz, Jennifer; Hong, Ee Rea; Davis, Heather; Mason, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Behaviorally based interventions have been demonstrated to be effective to teach social interaction skills for children with autism spectrum disorders in general education. However, the overall and moderating effects of these interventions have not been previously investigated in inclusive settings. The goal of this study was to investigate the…

  18. Tissue Banking: Relationship with Blood Donor and Organ Donor Card Status

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Kenneth D.; Fitzpatrick, Patricia E.; Sheehan, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationships among altruistic health acts may serve to aid therapeutic research advances. In this paper, we report on the links between two such behaviours—donating blood and carrying an organ donor card—and willingness to donate urological tissue to a tissue bank. Reasons for the differential willingness to do so are examined in this paper. A systematic sample of 259 new and returning attendees at a tertiary urology referral clinic in Ireland completed a self-report questi...

  19. Ploidy of Bovine Nuclear Transfer Blastocysts Blastomere Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, P J; VIUFF, D; THOMSEN, P D;

    2000-01-01

    reconstructed from in vitro produced embryo donors. In vitro matured oocytes were enucleated and then activated using calcium ionophore A23187 followed by 6- dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP). Subsequently, embryos were reconstructed using blas- tomeres from day 4–5 in vitro produced donors. The embryos were...

  20. Unconfirmed reactive screening tests and their impact on donor management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the percentage of false positive testing for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) using immunochromatographic test (ICT) as first line of screening tests and its effect on loss of volunteer blood donors. Over a period of three months, samples from blood bags of donors undergoing phlebotomy at teaching hospital blood banks in Lahore were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) by immunochromatographic tests. Those found positive on initial screening were re-tested by ELISA method at the screening laboratory of the Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab. Lahore. Out of a total of 62090 voluntary blood donors, 469 donors were found to be initially reactive for either HIV, HBV or HCV. Amongst these 96 (0.15%) blood donors were found to have tested falsely positive for HIV, HBV or HCV as compared to testing by ELISA. False positive testing rate of 0.15% or 96 out of a total of 62090 donors is rather small in terms of loss of voluntary donors and appropriate utilization of available resources. Although immunochromatographic testing is not the gold standard, however it serves an important purpose of initial donor screening. (author)

  1. The electron-ionized donor recombination in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A calculation is presented of the recombination cross section of a conduction electron and a donor impurity. Donor states are described in a many-valley model. It is shown that, for Si, the main contribution comes from the intravalley terms and that the intervalley terms are completely negligible. (author)

  2. New Actors in Health Financing: Implications for a Donor Darling

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Drechsler; Felix Zimmermann

    2007-01-01

    With concern about how to finance the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) widespread, recent donor pledges to raise aid volumes are welcome. However, aid alone will not suffice – bringing in new actors and sources of development finance will be essential. In many developing countries, this is already happening, creating new opportunities and challenges for their governments and donors....

  3. Prevalence of malaria parasites among blood donors in Kaduna, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas D. Garba

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of malaria parasites among blood donors was 7.5% Blood donors should be routinely screened for malaria parasites and the blood marked negative or positive as the case may be. Recipients of malaria parasites positive blood should be given prophylactic treatment to prevent transfusion related malaria (TRM. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2112-2119

  4. Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Educational Donors in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Russell N., III; Wiepking, Pamala

    2008-01-01

    Using data from 1,373 households participating in the 2005 Giving in the Netherlands Panel Survey, this paper examines the characteristics of educational donors in comparison with other types of charitable donors and with nondonors. Charitable giving is quite common in the Netherlands, but there is no established higher education advancement…

  6. Aromatic donor-acceptor interactions in non-polar environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Giles M; Pascu, Sofia I; Filip, Sorin V; West, Kevin R; Pantoş, G Dan

    2015-05-14

    We have evaluated the strength of aromatic donor-acceptor interactions between dialkyl naphthalenediimide and dialkoxynaphthalene in non-polar environments. (1)H NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry were used to characterise this interaction. We concluded that the strength of donor-acceptor interactions in heptane is sufficient to drive supramolecular assemblies in this and other aliphatic solvents. PMID:25875729

  7. Blood Test May Rule Out Too Many Donor Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... finding ways to sign up more people as organ donors, but there is also a problem in that ... based solely on elevated troponin I if the organ is otherwise suitable. At our institution it has already changed how we evaluate donors, and I think this data will lead to ...

  8. Evaluation of the Medically Complex Living Kidney Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar Caliskan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to organ shortage and difficulties for availability of cadaveric donors, living donor transplantation is an important choice for having allograft. Live donor surgery is elective and easier to organize prior to starting dialysis thereby permitting preemptive transplantation as compared to cadaveric transplantation. Because of superior results with living kidney transplantation, efforts including the usage of “Medically complex living donors” are made to increase the availability of organs for donation. The term “Complex living donor” is probably preferred for all suboptimal donors where decision-making is a problem due to lack of sound medical data or consensus guidelines. Donors with advanced age, obesity, asymptomatic microhematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, renal stone disease, history of malignancy and with chronic viral infections consist of this complex living donors. This medical complex living donors requires careful evaluation for future renal risk. In this review we would like to present the major issues in the evaluation process of medically complex living kidney donor.

  9. Photoinduced Intramolecular Charge Transfer in Donor-acceptor Dyad and Donor-bridge-acceptor Triad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Ding; Yuan-zuo Li; Feng-cai Ma

    2008-01-01

    The ground and excited state properties of the [60]fullerene,diphenylbenzothiadiazole-triphenylamine (PBTDP-TPA) dyad and fullerene-diphenylbenzothiadiazole-triphenylamine (fullerene-PBTDP-TPA) triad were investigated theoretically using density functional theory with B3LYP functional and 3-21G basis set and time-dependent density functional theory with B3LYP functional and STO-3G basis set as well as 2D and 3D real space analysis methods.The 2D site representation reveals the electron-hole coherence on exci- tation.The 3D transition density shows the orientation and strength of the transition dipole moment,and the 3D charge difference density gives the orientation and result of the intramolecular charge transfer.Also, photoinduced intermolecular charge transfer (ICT) in PBTDP-TPA-fullerene triad are identified with 2D and 3D representations,which reveals the mechanisms of ICT in donor-bridge-acceptor triad on excitation. Besides that we also found that the direct superexchange ICT from donor to acceptor (tunneling through the bridge) strongly promotes the ICT in the donor-bridge-acceptor triad.

  10. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV{sub R}/LV{sub W}), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV{sub R}/(LV{sub W} + SV{sub 0})], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} (r = 0.759, p < 0.01). The other analyzed factors showed no correlation with changes in liver and spleen volumes. The spleen and remnant liver volumes were increased at CT volumetry performed 2 weeks after partial liver donation. Among the various analyzed factors, LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  11. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LVR/LVW), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LVR/(LVW + SV0)], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LVR/LVW (r = 0.759, p R/LVW influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  12. Defect Donor and Acceptor in GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-energy (0.7 endash 1MeV) electron irradiation in GaN grown on sapphire produces shallow donors and deep or shallow acceptors at equal rates, 1±0.2 cm-1. The data, in conjunction with theory, are consistent only with the shallow donor being the N vacancy, and the acceptor the N interstitial. The N-vacancy donor energy is 64±10 meV, much larger than the value of 18meV found for the residual donor (probably Si) in this material. The Hall-effect measurements also reveal a degenerate n -type layer at the GaN/sapphire interface which must be accounted for to get the proper donor activation energy. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Accumulation of GC donor splice signals in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The GT dinucleotide in the first two intron positions is the most conserved element of the U2 donor splice signals. However, in a small fraction of donor sites, GT is replaced by GC. A substantial enrichment of GC in donor sites of alternatively spliced genes has been observed previously in human, nematode and Arabidopsis, suggesting that GC signals are important for regulation of alternative splicing. We used parsimony analysis to reconstruct evolution of donor splice sites and inferred 298 GT > GC conversion events compared to 40 GC > GT conversion events in primate and rodent genomes. Thus, there was substantive accumulation of GC donor splice sites during the evolution of mammals. Accumulation of GC sites might have been driven by selection for alternative splicing. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Jerzy Jurka and Anton Nekrutenko. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' Reports section.

  14. Transplantation With Livers From Deceased Donors Older Than 75 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Trygve; Aandahl, Einar Martin; Bennet, William;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of donor organs limits the number of patients in need who are offered liver transplantation. Measures to expand the donor pool are crucial to prevent on-list mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of livers from deceased donors who were older than 75...... years. METHODS: Fifty-four patients who received a first liver transplant (D75 group) from 2001 to 2011 were included. Donor and recipient data were collected from the Nordic Liver Transplant Registry and medical records. The outcome was compared with a control group of 54 patients who received a liver...... higher in the D75 group (29.6/13%, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Selected livers from donors over age 75 years should not be excluded based on age, which does not compromise patient or graft survival despite a higher frequency of biliary complications....

  15. Behavior-based network management: a unique model-based approach to implementing cyber superiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Jocelyn M.

    2016-05-01

    Behavior-Based Network Management (BBNM) is a technological and strategic approach to mastering the identification and assessment of network behavior, whether human-driven or machine-generated. Recognizing that all five U.S. Air Force (USAF) mission areas rely on the cyber domain to support, enhance and execute their tasks, BBNM is designed to elevate awareness and improve the ability to better understand the degree of reliance placed upon a digital capability and the operational risk.2 Thus, the objective of BBNM is to provide a holistic view of the digital battle space to better assess the effects of security, monitoring, provisioning, utilization management, allocation to support mission sustainment and change control. Leveraging advances in conceptual modeling made possible by a novel advancement in software design and implementation known as Vector Relational Data Modeling (VRDM™), the BBNM approach entails creating a network simulation in which meaning can be inferred and used to manage network behavior according to policy, such as quickly detecting and countering malicious behavior. Initial research configurations have yielded executable BBNM models as combinations of conceptualized behavior within a network management simulation that includes only concepts of threats and definitions of "good" behavior. A proof of concept assessment called "Lab Rat," was designed to demonstrate the simplicity of network modeling and the ability to perform adaptation. The model was tested on real world threat data and demonstrated adaptive and inferential learning behavior. Preliminary results indicate this is a viable approach towards achieving cyber superiority in today's volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (VUCA) environment.

  16. Auto-agent: a behavior-based architecture for mobile navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kaoshing; Ju, Ming-Yi

    1998-10-01

    The design and construction of mobile robots is as much art as a science. In hardware architecture, researchers tend to construct a low-cost and reliable platform which equips with various sensory system for sensing the change of the environment to offer useful information to the navigation system. An autonomous navigation system plays a role in an mobile robot as the brain in human being. It generates action command according to those sensory data from the perception system to direct the mobile robot to go to desired positions or accomplish useful tasks without human intervention in real-world. An important problem in autonomous navigation is the need to cope with the large amount of uncertainty that is inherent of natural environment. Therefore the development of techniques for autonomous navigation in real-world environments constitutes one of the major trends in the current research on robotics. Inspired with the concept of software agents, reactive control and behavior-based control, a modular architecture, called Auto-agent, for mobile navigation is proposed. The main characteristic of Auto-agent is as following: Behavioral agents cooperate by means of communicating with other behavioral agents intermittently to achieve their local goal and the goals of the community as a whole because no one individually has sufficient competence, resources and information to solve the entire problem. Auto-agent gains advantages from the characteristics of distributed system, it offers the possibility to find an acceptable solution with a reasonable time and complexity range. Besides, the modular structure is convenient for an engineer to construct a new behavioral agent and to add it into Auto-agent.

  17. Cardiovascular and demographic characteristics in whole blood and plasma donors: results from the Donor InSight study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atsma, Femke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; Vegt, de Femmie; Doggen, Carine; Kort, de Wim

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within blood establishments little comparative information is available about donors versus the general population. In this study, a description of the donor pool was made in terms of demographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors. The general Dutch population was used as a referenc

  18. Cardiovascular and demographic characteristics in whole blood and plasma donors: results from the Donor InSight study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atsma, F.; Veldhuizen, I.; Vegt, F. de; Doggen, C.J.; Kort, W. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within blood establishments little comparative information is available about donors versus the general population. In this study, a description of the donor pool was made in terms of demographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors. The general Dutch population was used as a referenc

  19. Diaphragmatic hernia after right donor and hepatectomy:a rare donor complication of partial hepatectomy for transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan M. Hawxby; David P. Mason; Andrew S. Klein

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because of the critical worldwide shortage of cadaveric organ donors, transplant professionals have increasingly turned to living donors. Partial hepatectomy for adult living donor liver transplantation has been performed since the late 1990s. Most often, the complications of living donor hepatectomy have been related to the biliary tract, speciifcally biliary leaks. METHODS: A 54-year-old man underwent donor right hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation. Three years after liver donation he presented with upper abdominal pain and fullness. Radiographic workup revealed a diaphragmatic hernia of the right hemithorax. RESULTS: After thoracoscopic evaluation of the right hemithorax, diaphragmatic hernia was repaired. Currently the patient remains well several months after the repair with complete resolution of abdominal pain, normal chest X-ray examination demonstrating no recurrence of diaphragmatic hernia, and normal liver functions tests. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple complications of living donor liver transplantation have been described the transplant literature. Diaphragmatic hernia is a formerly-undescribed complication of right donor hepatectomy for transplantation.

  20. 78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... enforcement discretion. In the Federal Register of February 28, 2007 (72 FR 9007), FDA announced the... Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) for Infection with Treponema pallidum (Syphilis),'' dated... determinations for donors of HCT/Ps (HCT/P Establishments), with updated recommendations concerning donor...

  1. DONOR HEART VALVES RECONSTRUCTION BEFORE TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. The demonstration of our own experience in heart transplantation after valve reconstruction. Methods and results. From May 2012 to March 2013 3 mitral valve annuloplasties were performed to recipi- ents, requiring urgent HT and having extremely unfavorable prognosis of survival without HT. The recipients were classified as United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS IB, and all of them were on inotropic support. In one case, HT was performed after reconstruction of rheumatic mitral stenosis, in two other cases – after dege- nerative mitral regurgitation. The technical aspects are reviewed of ex-vivo mitral and tricuspid valves repair with concomitant heart transplantation. All patients were discharged from the hospital having excellent postope- rative recovery. Conclusion. Taking into consideration the demonstrated satisfactory result of surveillance and presence of significant experience in performing of reconstructive valve surgery among no-HT cardiosurgical patients, an increase in the pool of suitable donor organs is expected due to the liberalization of the selection criteria and the possibility of the innovative valve reconstruction procedures ex vivo. 

  2. Analyzing sociodemographic factors amongst blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenga Namgay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood transfusion is a fundamental and requisite part of any National Health Service for optimum management of emergency conditions like severe trauma shock and resuscitation with the optimum stock of its different components. The objective of the present study was to analyze the factors of knowledge of prospective blood donors that may influence their perception and awareness about blood donation. Materials and Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Gangtok in the state of Sikkim, India, on 300 subjects of the adult population selected by two-stage cluster sampling. The main outcome variables were the socioeconomic and demographic variables of knowledge of blood donation. By interview technique, using the pre-tested structured close-ended questionnaire, the principal investigator collected the data. Results: In our study population, 46% of the study population was found to have a high knowledge score. The knowledge about blood donation was found to be statistically significant with the occupational status and the education levels, both in the bivariate and in the multivariate analyses. Knowledge about blood donation was not significantly related to age, sex, marital status, religion, community status and per capita monthly family income. Conclusion: The study suggested that the perceptions toward voluntary blood donation could be influenced to a large extent by sociodemographic variables of knowledge among the general population.

  3. Awareness of Cornea Donation of Registered Tissue Donors in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Chu; Lin-nong Wang; Hao Yu; Ru-yang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the current cornea donation awareness of tissue donors in the city of Nanjing,China. Methods Altogether 2000 registered tissue donors in the Red Cross Eye Bank of Nanjing by the end of 2010 and 2000 control residents of Nanjing in February to June 2011 were randomly selected to par-ticipate in our field questionnaire survey. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding the understand-ing of cornea donation,the attitude toward cornea donation,and attitude toward legislation and free dona-tion. The awareness of cornea donation between the registered tissue donors and residents was compared. Related factors of the willingness to donate corneas and to become a tissue donor were evaluated with uni-variate and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 1867 (response rate: 93.4%) tissue donors and 1796 (response rate: 89.8%; ef-fective questionnaires: 1697) residents participated in this survey. For the questions about the knowledge of cornea donation,90.3% tissue donors (residents: 78.9%) knew that donated corneas could be used for transplantations; 71.2% tissue donors (residents: 47.6%) knew that the appearance would not be destroyed after cornea donation; 70.7% tissue donors (residents: 20.0%) knew the formalities to become a cornea do-nor. For attitude toward cornea donation,82.2% tissue donors (residents: 45.1%) were willing to donate corneas or eyeballs after death; 84.0% tissue donors (residents: 30.2%) had discussed with their families about donation; 85.1% tissue donors (residents: 24.8%) supported their families' or friends' cornea donation. For attitude toward legislation and free donation,88.3% tissue donors (residents: 61.3%) approved of legis-lation to regular cornea donation; 72.2% tissue donors (residents: 38.8%) thought that cornea or organ do-nation should be gratis. The difference between two groups was significant (P<0.001). However,some tissue donors did not know cornea donation well,some even opposed the

  4. Evaluation of the return rate of volunteer blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Fátima Lourençon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To convert first-time blood donors into regular volunteer donors is a challenge to transfusion services. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to estimate the return rate of first time donors of the Ribeirão Preto Blood Center and of other blood centers in its coverage region. METHODS: The histories of 115,553 volunteer donors between 1996 and 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was based on a parametric long-term survival model that allows an estimation of the proportion of donors who never return for further donations. RESULTS: Only 40% of individuals return within one year after the first donation and 53% return within two years. It is estimated that 30% never return to donate. Higher return rates were observed among Black donors. No significant difference was found in non-return rates regarding gender, blood type, Rh blood group and blood collection unit. CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of first-time donors who return for further blood donation reinforces the need for marketing actions and strategies aimed at increasing the return rates.

  5. Personality of semen donors and their social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taus, L; Gerzová, J

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined, using three generally accepted methods, the personality structure of 80 semen donors (Cattell's 16-factor questionnaire, 16PF, Eysenck's personality questionnaire, EOD, and Leary's method of interpersonal diagnosis of personality). The donors were selected by means of the Questionnaire of semen donors. The group is subdivided into four sub-groups by the grade of education, i.e. university graduates, men with secondary and elementary education and university students. All are 20-40 years old. The authors describe the assembled results in different sub-groups and in the group as a whole and compare them mutually and with the standardized norm. With regard to the specificity of individual methods and their application the findings are summarized. The donors are balanced personalities, slightly extrovert, emotionally well developed with a realistic outlook. They have positive, sensitive relations with their environment an behaviour towards other people, they are considerate, careful and disciplined. They respect social norms as regards preservation of originality of personality. They have a slight tendency of sheltering behaviour, they wish to be somewhat more aggressive. No pathological phenomena were observed in the donors. Their intelligence is above average. They make a favourable impression with regard to the demand of mental health and transmission of genetic information. The authors evaluate favourably the Questionnaire for semen donors as the method for selection of donors. PMID:1807935

  6. Donors with renal artery stenosis: Fit to donate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemuru Sunil K Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney donation from hypertensive donors is now an accepted norm in live related kidney transplantation. The use of hypertensive donors with renal artery stenosis due to athero-sclerosis and fibromuscular dysplasia is still debated. The prime concern is about the deleterious effect of hypertension on the donor and the risk of recurrence of such lesions in the solitary kidney. Even as the response of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis to revascularisation is unpredictable, there is an improvement in blood pressure following revascularisation of kidneys with fibro-muscular dysplasia. The first use of such kidney donors was reported in 1984 and, since then, there have been a few reports of successful use of kidneys from donors with renal artery stenosis. We report here two interesting cases of successful transplantation of kidneys from live related kidney donors with hypertension due to renal artery stenosis who became normotensive with good graft function in the recipient. We conclude that moderately hypertensive donors with renal artery stenosis are fit to donate.

  7. [Renal transplantation from living donor in Italy and Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frascà, Giovanni M; Gaffi, G; Taruscia, D; D'Arezzo, M; Benozzi, L; Sagripanti, S

    2009-01-01

    Renal transplantation from a living donor shows a better graft and patient survival when compared with cadaver donor grafts. Moreover, since surgery can be planned in advance when a living donor is available, the time spent on dialysis while awaiting transplantation can be greatly reduced and dialysis treatment can be completely avoided in some cases. Only few risks for the donor have been reported as a consequence of nephrectomy, both in the short and long term. Nevertheless, despite these advantages, the number of living donor renal transplants carried out in Europe each year varies greatly from country to country and is particularly low in Spain and Italy. Several factors account for these differences, mainly the effectiveness of the organ procurement system, which could make people reluctant to living donation, and doctors' and patients' limited knowledge about living donor transplants. Nephrologists have the responsibility to identify patients eligible for transplant early in the course of the disease, and to inform them and their relatives about living donor transplantation, enabling them to make informed choices among the various treatment options in end-stage renal disease. PMID:19644833

  8. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus in volunteer blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P E; Stevens, C E; Pindyck, J; Schrode, J; Steaffens, J W; Lee, H

    1990-01-01

    Serum samples collected in 1985 and 1986 from 18,257 donors to the Greater New York Blood Program were screened by enzyme-linked immunoassay for antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus (anti-HTLV). Fifteen samples (0.08%) were confirmed positive: 7 by radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) alone, 6 by Western blot alone, and 2 by combined results from both tests. One donor, whose original test result was uninterpretable because multiple nonspecific bands were present on RIPA, clearly tested positive on subsequent specimens. Follow-up testing of individuals with this type of result may be needed to resolve their HTLV status. Anti-HTLV prevalence increased with age and was significantly more common in black or Hispanic donors and in those born in the Caribbean than in other donors. All anti-HTLV-positive donors were negative for antibody to HIV-1, and only one donor (7% of those positive) would have been excluded by any of the routine donor screening tests used at that time. PMID:2173176

  9. Syphilis seroprevalence estimates of Santa Catarina blood donors in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysla Marcelino Baião

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Knowledge of blood donor characteristics is essential to better guide clinical and serological screening for hemotherapy. The objective of this study was to determine the syphilis seroprevalence and the associated factors of blood donors in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods This population-based study from the State of Santa Catarina used information obtained from blood donation records. We analyzed 83,396 blood donor records generated from donors who were considered eligible to donate between January and August 2010. The aim of the study was to estimate the syphilis seroprevalence and its relationship with educational level, age, gender, geographical region and having donated blood in the past 12 months. We used descriptive analyses and a Poisson regression to calculate the prevalence ratios for the variables of interest. Results We found a 0.14% overall seroprevalence and significant differences among the following: first-time blood donors (0.19% versus repeat donors (0.03% to 0.08%; low educational levels (0.30% versus medium and high educational levels (0.08% to 0.19%; and donors who did not report their residence (0.88% or age (6.94% versus those who did. Increased syphilis seroprevalence was also significantly associated with increased age. Conclusion High syphilis seroprevalence was associated with lower educational level, age, first-time donation and the failure to provide age or residence information.

  10. Can egg donor selection be improved? - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weghofer Andrea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessments of ovarian reserve (OR in egg donor candidates are crucial for maximal donor selection. This study assesses whether recently reported new methods of OR assessment by age-specific (as-, rather than non-as (nas- hormones, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH, and triple nucleotide (CGG repeats on the FMR1 (fragile X gene have the potential of improving egg donor selection. Methods Seventy-three consecutive egg donor candidates (candidates, amongst those 21 who reached egg retrieval (donors, were prospectively investigated for as-FSH, as-AMH and number of CGG repeats. Abnormal findings were assessed in candidates and donors and oocyte yields in the latter were statistically associated with abnormal FSH and AMH (>/ Results Amongst candidates mean as-AMH was 3.8 +/- 2.8 ng/mL (37.0% normal, 3.0 +/- 0.7 ng/mL; 26.6% low, 1.5 +/- 0.5 ng/mL; and 37.0% high, 5.8 +/- 2.2 ng/mL. AMH among donors was 4.2 +/- 1.7 ng/mL (33.3% normal, 14.3% low, and 52.4% high, yielding 17.8 +/- 7.2 oocytes, 42.9% in normal range (10-15, 9.5% in low (less than or equal to 9 and 47.6.% in high range (16-32. Candidates in 41.9% and donors in 38.1% demonstrated normal CGG counts; the remained were mostly heterozygous abnormal. Discussion Prospective assessment of even carefully prescreened candidates and donors still demonstrates shortcomings on both ends of the OR spectrum. Utilization of ovarian reserve testing methods, like as-hormones and CGG repeats on the FMR1 gene have potential of improving candidate selections.

  11. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Helena Urso Pitassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%. Sixteen donors (3.2% were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.

  12. Organ transplantation from deceased donors with cancer: is it safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalesnik MA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Nalesnik1, Michael G Ison21Division of Transplantation and Hepatic Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburg, PA, USA; 2Divisions of Infectious Diseases and Organ Transplantation, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: The availability of donor organs continues to be insufficient to meet the needs of patients actively waiting for transplant. Consequently, there is continuing pressure to increase the donor organ pool while simultaneously assuring safety for the recipient population. The complication of donor malignancy transmission has been documented almost from the beginning of transplantation, and continues to be a concern today. The anecdotal nature of case reports and compiled series ensures that clinical decisions related to organ use from donors with malignancy will of necessity continue to be made on the basis of low-level evidence. Despite this limitation, the literature indicates that not all donor neoplasms have the same risk for transmission to the recipient, and it is necessary to consider the specific malignancy affecting the donor, as well as the condition of the recipient, before a decision is made to transplant or discard a given organ. Published cases suggest that certain forms of neoplasia, such as melanoma, choriocarcinoma, sarcoma, small cell carcinoma, or metastatic carcinomas serve as strong contraindications to organ donation. In contrast, considerable experience exists to suggest that certain tumors of the central nervous system, small subclinical prostate carcinomas, or small renal cell carcinomas resected prior to transplant, among other tumors, should not in themselves disqualify an individual from donating organs in the appropriate circumstance. This review presents the case for considering organ transplantation in the setting of certain donor malignancies and discusses factors to be weighed in such decisions. Additionally

  13. Chylous ascites as a complication of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caumartin, Yves; Pouliot, Frédéric; Sabbagh, Robert; Dujardin, Thierry

    2005-12-01

    Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN) is a minimally invasive technique for kidney procurement and was developed with the hope of reducing the disincentives associated with live renal donation. Compared with open donor nephrectomy (ODN), this alternative has many advantages including less postoperative pain and earlier return to work. Unfortunately, these benefits are sometimes negated by postoperative complications. Among these, chylous ascites (CA) is a rare but serious problem that is usually managed conservatively. We report the case of a living donor who developed CA refractory to initial conservative management and surgical treatment. We also discuss the role of surgery in the treatment of CA following LLDN. PMID:16297058

  14. Selection and Postoperative Care of the Living Donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe Rudow, Dianne; Warburton, Karen M

    2016-05-01

    Live organ donors typically consult their primary care providers when considering live donation and then return for follow-up after surgery and for ongoing primary care. Live liver and kidney transplants are performed routinely as a method to shorten the waiting time for a recipient, provide a healthy organ for transplant, and increase recipient survival. Careful medical and psychosocial evaluation of the potential donor is imperative to minimize harm. This evaluation must be performed by an experienced live donor medical team. Routine health care with careful attention to weight maintenance, cardiovascular health, and prevention of diabetes and hypertension is paramount. PMID:27095648

  15. Donors conference: promises to support Lithuania confirmed by concrete decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decision to decommission unit 1 of Ignalina NPP was related with possible financial assistance from foreign countries, first of from EU. Government of Lithuania jointly with European Commission on 20 - 21 June 2000 is organising Donors conference in order to collect necessary funds for the decommissioning of unit 1. Preparation to the donors conference is described. Information on the preparation to the decommissioning of unit 1 of Ignalina NPP and the Donors Conference is available on the Internet, web-site address www.ekm.lt/decom

  16. Health education about AIDS among seropositive blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, P D; Rogers, T F; Singer, E; Avorn, J; van Devanter, N; Perry, S; Pindyck, J

    1986-01-01

    The New York Blood Center is developing a health education and psychosocial support program for blood donors who are notified that they are HIV antibody positive. The goals of that program are: to provide accurate and intelligible information about the test results to notified donors; to encourage behavior that will reduce the likelihood of spreading the virus; to encourage notified donors to behave in ways that will reduce the probability that they will develop AIDS; and to provide support and facilitate functional coping responses. This article reviews the theoretical and empirical work which informs the intervention program, and it describes how the program is being implemented. PMID:3023260

  17. High-field EPR spectroscopy of thermal donors in silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, R.; Rasmussen, F.B.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Ammerlaan, C.A.J.

    Thermal donors generated in p-type boron-doped Czochralski-grown silicon by a 450 degrees C heat treatment have been studied by high-field magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In the experiments conducted at a microwave frequency of 140 GHz and in a magnetic field of approximately 5 T four individual...... thermal donors species could be resolved. These were observed in their singly ionized TD+ charge state. For the first time in the four decades of thermal donor research the g tensor values for specific members of the Si-NL8 family are given. Also the symmetry of the observed species is discussed....

  18. A New Approximate Chimera Donor Cell Search Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Terry L.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop chimera-based full potential methodology which is compatible with overflow (Euler/Navier-Stokes) chimera flow solver and to develop a fast donor cell search algorithm that is compatible with the chimera full potential approach. Results of this work included presenting a new donor cell search algorithm suitable for use with a chimera-based full potential solver. This algorithm was found to be extremely fast and simple producing donor cells as fast as 60,000 per second.

  19. Radioimmunoassay of serum β2-microglobulin in donor's blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) was tested by radioimmunoassay in 149 donors' and 54 healthy volunteers' blood. The results were 203 +- 33.0 nmol/l and 176 +- 26.2 nmol/l, respectively. There was significant difference statistically between them (P2-MG content. In order to increase the quality of donated blood and to keep the health of blood donor, it is suggested that the high content of serum β2-MG is the indicator of too frequent blood donating. The results also showed that the content of β2-MG in donor's blood is not a normal reference value

  20. Potential Organ-Donor Supply and Efficiency of Organ Procurement Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Guadagnoli, Edward; Christiansen, Cindy L.; Beasley, Carol L.

    2003-01-01

    The authors estimated the supply of organ donors in the U.S. and also according to organ procurement organizations (OPOs). They estimated the number of donors in the U.S. to be 16,796. Estimates of the number of potential donors for each OPO were used to calculate the level of donor efficiency (actual donors as a percent of potential donors). Overall, donor efficiency for OPOs was 35 percent; the majority was between 30- and 40-percent efficient. Although there is room to improve donor effici...

  1. Long-Term Persistence of Donor Alveolar Macrophages in Human Lung Transplant Recipients That Influences Donor-Specific Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, D K; Zhou, F; Xu, M; Huang, J; Tsuji, M; Hachem, R; Mohanakumar, T

    2016-08-01

    Steady-state alveolar macrophages (AMs) are long-lived lung-resident macrophages with sentinel function. Evidence suggests that AM precursors originate during embryogenesis and populate lungs without replenishment by circulating leukocytes. However, their presence and persistence are unclear following human lung transplantation (LTx). Our goal was to examine donor AM longevity and evaluate whether AMs of recipient origin seed the transplanted lungs. Origin of AMs was accessed using donor-recipient HLA mismatches. We demonstrate that 94-100% of AMs present in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were donor derived and, importantly, AMs of recipient origin were not detected. Further, analysis of BAL cells up to 3.5 years post-LTx revealed that the majority of AMs (>87%) was donor derived. Elicitation of de novo donor-specific antibody (DSA) is a major post-LTx complication and a risk factor for development of chronic rejection. The donor AMs responded to anti-HLA framework antibody (Ab) with secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Further, in an experimental murine model, we demonstrate that adoptive transfer of allogeneic AMs stimulated humoral and cellular immune responses to alloantigen and lung-associated self-antigens and led to bronchiolar obstruction. Therefore, donor-derived AMs play an essential role in the DSA-induced inflammatory cascade leading to obliterative airway disease of the transplanted lungs. PMID:27062199

  2. Occult HCV in Egyptian volunteer blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A. Amin 1, Kouka S. E. Abdel-Wahab 2 and Adel A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aims to investigate the risk of post-transfusion transmission of hepatitis c virus (HCV in the circumstances of occult HCV when anti-HCV is undetectable by ELISA and HCV-RNA is detected by RT-PCR in the plasma and or in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of donor blood and the recipients are immunocompromised. Patients & methods: The study covered 18 chronic renal failure patients (CRF [12 males (66.7% their age ranged from 28 to 65 years and 6 females (33.3 % their age ranged from 15 to 55 years] undergoing hemodialysis in Nile Hospital as part of their therapy have to receive blood transfusions (275 blood units for the first time. Commercial ELISA kits for anti-HCV and nested-RT-PCR (N-RT-PCR kits were used. Results: Anti-HCV was positive in one serum from the eighteen (5.5% poly transfused CRF patients at the end of the study while the seventeen sera were negative. This serum was also positive for HCV RNA by N-RT-PCR. Out of the 20 transfused blood units, one blood unit (three components were tested by blood banking anti-HCV negative by ELISA, were positive for HCV RNA by N-RT-PCR. The collective markers of this blood unit represent an occult HCV. The risk of acquiring post-transfusion HCV infection from an occult HCV blood unit is 5%. Real time PCR showed variation in the viral load of the serum of the infected CRF patient, the plasma of blood unit, the PBMCs of this blood unit whether activated by PHA-M or not.

  3. HLA polymorphism in Sudanese renal donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer M Dafalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to provide a database for renal transplantation in Sudan and to determine the HLA antigens and haplotype frequencies (HFs in the study subjects. HLA typing was performed using the complement-dependant lymphocytotoxicity test in 250 unrelated healthy individuals selected as donors in the Sudanese Renal Transplantation Program. Considerable polymorphism was observed at each locus; A2 (0.28, A30 (0.12, A3 (0.09, A24 (0.09, A1 (0.09, and A68 (0.06 were the most frequent antigens in the A locus, while B51 (0.092, B41 (0.081, B39 (0.078, B57 (0.060, B35 (0.068, B 50 (0.053 and B 52 (0.051 were the most common B locus antigens. DR13 (0.444 and DR15 (0.160 showed the highest antigen frequencies (AFs in the DR locus. In the DQ locus, DQ1 showed the highest gene frequency (0.498, while DQ2 and DQ3 AFs were (0.185 and (0.238, respectively. The most common HLA-A and -B haplotypes in positive linkage disequilibrium were A24, B38; A1, B7; and A3, B52. The common HLA-A and -B HFs in positive linkage disequilibrium in the main three tribe-stocks of the study subjects (Gaalia, Nile Nubian and Johyna were A24, B38 for Gaalia; A24, B38 and A2, B7 for Johyna; and A2, B64 and A3, B53 for Nile Nubian. These results suggest that both class I and class II polymorphisms of the study subjects depict considerable heterogeneity, which reflects recent admixture of this group with neighboring Arabs and African populations.

  4. Living-donor vs deceased-donor liver transplantation for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhisa; Akamatsu; Yasuhiko; Sugawara; Norihiro; Kokudo

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of living-donor liver transplantation(LDLT) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC),some authors have reported a potential increase in the HCC recurrence rates among LDLT recipients compared to deceased-donor liver transplantation(DDLT) recipients.The aim of this review is to encompass current opinions and clinical reports regarding differences in the outcome,especially the recurrence of HCC,between LDLT and DDLT.While some studies report impaired recurrence- free survival and increased recurrence rates among LDLT recipients,others,including large database studies,report comparable recurrence- free survival and recurrence rates between LDLT and DDLT.Studies supporting the increased recurrence in LDLT have linked graft regeneration to tumor progression,but we found no association between graft regeneration/initial graft volume and tumor recurrence among our 125 consecutive LDLTs for HCC cases.In the absence of a prospective study regarding the use of LDLT vs DDLT for HCC patients,there is no evidence to support the higher HCC recurrence after LDLT than DDLT,and LDLT remains a reasonable treatment option for HCC patients with cirrhosis.

  5. Recruiting and retaining plasmapheresis donors: A critical belief analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagot, Kathleen L; Masser, Barbara M; White, Katherine M; Starfelt, Louise C

    2015-06-01

    This paper identifies critical beliefs underpinning intentions to commence and continue plasmapheresis donation. Whole blood (n = 624) and first-time plasmapheresis (n = 460) donors completed a cross-sectional survey assessing the belief-base of the theory of planned behaviour and rated their plasmapheresis donation intentions. While the idea of red blood cells being returned was a key deterrent for all donors, critical beliefs underlying commencement and continuation in the plasmapheresis donor panel differed and varied as a function of blood donation history. Findings will assist the development of targeted persuasion messages to optimise recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors in a non-remunerated context. PMID:25824702

  6. Computer-assisted selection of donor sites for autologous grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Zdzislaw; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian U.; Sader, Robert; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Gerhardt, Paul; Horch, Hans-Henning

    1997-05-01

    A new method is proposed for a precise planning of autologous bone grafts in cranio- and maxillofacial surgery. In patients with defects of the facial skeleton, autologous bone transplants can be harvested from various donor sites in the body. The preselection of a donor site depends i.a. on the morphological fit of the available bone mass and the shape of the part that is to be transplanted. A thorough planning and simulation of the surgical intervention based on 3D CT studies leads to a geometrical description and the volumetric characterization of the bone part to be resected and transplanted. Both, an optimal fit and a minimal lesion of the donor site are guidelines in this process. We use surface similarity and voxel similarity measures in order to select the optimal donor region for an individually designed transplant.

  7. Implementation of a mandatory donor RHD screening in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crottet, Sofia Lejon; Henny, Christine; Meyer, Stefan; Still, Franziska; Stolz, Martin; Gottschalk, Jochen; Neuenschwander, Kathrin; Taleghani, Behrouz Mansouri; Gowland, Peter; Frey, Beat M; Fontana, Stefano; Hustinx, Hein; Niederhauser, Christoph; Gassner, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Starting in 2013, blood donors must be tested at least using: (1) one monoclonal anti-D and one anti-CDE (alternatively full RhCcEe phenotyping), and (2) all RhD negative donors must be tested for RHD exons 5 and 10 plus one further exonic, or intronic RHD specificity, according to the guidelines of the Blood Transfusion Service of the Swiss Red Cross (BTS SRC). In 2012 an adequate stock of RHD screened donors was built. Of all 25,370 RhD negative Swiss donors tested in 2012, 20,015 tested at BTS Berne and 5355 at BTS Zürich, showed 120 (0.47%) RHD positivity. Thirty-seven (0.15%) had to be redefined as RhD positive. Routine molecular RHD screening is reliable, rapid and cost-effective and provides safer RBC units in Switzerland. PMID:24679597

  8. Frequency of West Nile Virus Infection in Iranian Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaie, Afsaneh; Aaskov, John; Chinikar, Sadegh; Niedrig, Matthias; Banazadeh, Soudabeh; Mohammadpour, Hashem Khorsand

    2016-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) can be transmitted by blood transfusions and organ transplants. This study was a retrospective study which was performed in Blood Transfusion Center to evaluate the WNV infection in blood donors in Iran. A total of 540 blood samples were taken from volunteer healthy donors who referred for blood donation to Chabahar Blood Center. The presence of WNV was studied by detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG) WNV by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Demonstration of elevated WNV IgG confirmed by immunoflouorescence assay (IFA) Euroimmun kit. Out of the 540 samples 17.96 % (97 cases) were seropositive by ELISA and 1.48 % (8 cases) was seropositive by IFA. This means that 8.24 % of ELISA seropositive samples were confirmed by IFA. Special attention should be paid to criteria of donor selection, albeit positive results may be due to a previous infection in these donors. PMID:27429528

  9. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Blood Donors; Blood Transfusion; HIV Infections; HIV-1; HIV-2; HTLV-I; HTLV-II; Retroviridae Infections; Hepatitis, Viral, Human; Hepatitis B; Hepacivirus; West Nile Virus

  10. Dithienosilolothiophene: A New Polyfused Donor for Organic Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Schroeder, Bob C.

    2015-08-13

    We report the synthesis of a novel pentacyclic donor moiety, dithienosilolothiophene, and its incorporation into low bandgap semiconducting polymers. The unique geometry of this new donor allowed attaching four solubilizing side chains on the same side of the fused ring system, thus ensuring sufficient solubility when incorporated into conjugated polymers while simultaneously reducing the steric hindrance between adjacent polymer chains. The optoelectronic properties of three new polymers comprising the novel pentacyclic donor were investigated and compared to structurally similar thieno[3,2-b]thienobis(silolothiophene) polymers. Organic solar cells were fabricated in order to evaluate the new materials’ potential as donor polymers in bulk heterojunction solar cells and gain further insight into how the single-sided side-chain arrangement affects the active layer blend morphology.

  11. Adiabatic Charge Control in a Single Donor Atom Transistor

    CERN Document Server

    Prati, Enrico; Cocco, Simone; Petretto, Guido; Fanciulli, Marco

    2010-01-01

    A Silicon quantum device containing a single Arsenic donor and an electrostatic quantum dot in parallel is realized in a nanometric field effect transistor. The different coupling capacitances of the donor and the quantum dot with the control and the back gates determine a relative rigid shift of their energy spectrum as a function of the back gate voltage, causing the crossing of the energy levels. We observe the sequential tunneling through the $D^{2-}$ and the $D^{3-}$ energy levels of the donor at 4.2 K, ordinarily hidden at high temperature as they lie above the conduction band edge of Silicon. The exchange coupling of the localized electrons is controlled in the anticrossing region by moving one electron from the donor to the quantum dot site and \\textit{viceversa}, in order to realize physical qubits for quantum information processing.

  12. Donor-acceptor electron transport mediated by solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizhik, L. S.; Piette, B. M. A. G.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2014-11-01

    We study the long-range electron and energy transfer mediated by solitons in a quasi-one-dimensional molecular chain (conjugated polymer, alpha-helical macromolecule, etc.) weakly bound to a donor and an acceptor. We show that for certain sets of parameter values in such systems an electron, initially located at the donor molecule, can tunnel to the molecular chain, where it becomes self-trapped in a soliton state, and propagates to the opposite end of the chain practically without energy dissipation. Upon reaching the end, the electron can either bounce back and move in the opposite direction or, for suitable parameter values of the system, tunnel to the acceptor. We estimate the energy efficiency of the donor-acceptor electron transport depending on the parameter values. Our calculations show that the soliton mechanism works for the parameter values of polypeptide macromolecules and conjugated polymers. We also investigate the donor-acceptor electron transport in thermalized molecular chains.

  13. Section 17. Laparoscopic and minimal incisional donor hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, YoungRok; Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2014-04-27

    Living donor hepatectomy is now a well-established surgical procedure. However, a large abdominal incision is still required, which results in a large permanent scar, especially for a right liver graft. This report reviews our techniques of minimally invasive or minimal incisional donor hepatectomy using a transverse incision.Twenty-five living donors underwent right hepatectomy with a transverse incision and 484 donors with a conventional incision between April 2007 and December 2012. Among the donors with a transverse incision, two cases were totally laparoscopic procedures using a hand-port device; 11 cases were laparoscopic-assisted hepatectomy (hybrid technique), and 14 cases were open procedures using a transverse incision without the aid of the laparoscopic technique. Currently, a hybrid method has been exclusively used because of the long operation time and surgical difficulty in totally laparoscopic hepatectomy and the exposure problems for the liver cephalic portion during the open technique using a transverse incision.All donors with a transverse incision were women except for one. Twenty-four of the grafts were right livers without middle hepatic vein (MHV) and one with MHV. The donors' mean BMI was 21.1 kg/m. The median operation time was 355 minutes, and the mean estimated blood loss was 346.1±247.3 mL (range, 70-1200). There was no intraoperative transfusion. These donors had 29 cases of grade I [14 pleural effusions (56%), 11 abdominal fluid collections (44%), 3 atelectasis (12%), 1bile leak (4%)], 1 case of grade II (1 pneumothorax) and two cases of grade III complications; two interventions were needed because of abdominal fluid collections by Clavien-Dindo classification. Meanwhile, donors with a conventional big incision, which included the Mercedes-Benz incision or an inverted L-shaped incision, had 433 cases of grade I, 19 cases of grade II and 18 cases of grade III complications. However, the liver enzymes and total bilirubin of all donors

  14. Platelet Factor 4/Heparin Antibodies in Blood Bank Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Hursting, Marcie J; Pai, Poulomi J.; McCracken, Julianna E.; Hwang, Fred; Suvarna, Shayela; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Bandarenko, Nicholas; Arepally, Gowthami M.

    2010-01-01

    Platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin antibody, typically associated with heparin therapy, is reported in some heparin-naive people. Seroprevalence in the general population, however, remains unclear. We prospectively evaluated PF4/heparin antibody in approximately 4,000 blood bank donors using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for initial and then repeated (confirmatory) testing. Antibody was detected initially in 249 (6.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.8%-7.4%) of 3,795 donors and...

  15. Organ Transplants from Living Donors – Halachic Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Mordechai Halperin

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript is a survey of the halachic attitudes toward organ transplant procedures from a living donor which can be defined as life-saving procedures for the recipient or at least life-prolonging procedures. Three fundamental problems concerning the halachic aspects of such transplantation are discussed in detail: the danger to the donor, donation under coercion, and the sale of organs and tissues. The terms “halacha” and “Jewish law” are defined in the introduction.

  16. Gilbert's syndrome in healthy blood donors what next??

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Rajendra G.; K B Lakshmidevi; Vidya Ronghe; Dinesh, U S

    2016-01-01

    Settings: This study was done in a tertiary care hospital having bed strength of more than 700 beds at SDM Medical College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad, located in Northern Karnataka. Aim: The study was done to ascertain prevalence of Gilbert′s syndrome in healthy blood donors and review the literature about feasibility of utilizing blood components from Gilbert′s syndrome donors. Materials and Methods: The study was done for 18 months and 7030 whole blood units were collected an...

  17. Living donor liver transplantation for patients with alcoholic liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yo-Han; Hwang, Shin; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Kim, Ki-Hun; Moon, Deok-Bog; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Gil-Chun; Namgoong, Jung-Man; Park, Hyung-Woo; Park, Chun-Soo; Kang, Sung-Hwa; Jung, Bo-Hyeon; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Since most transplantation studies for alcoholic liver disease (ALD) were performed on deceased donor liver transplantation, little was known following living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Methods The clinical outcome of 18 ALD patients who underwent LDLT from Febraury 1997 to December 2004 in a large-volume liver transplantation center was assessed retrospectively. Results The model for end-stage liver disease score was 23±11, and mean pretransplant abstinence period w...

  18. Donor corneoscleral rim contamination by gentamicin-resistant organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Gopinathan Usha; Agrawal Vinay; Sharma Savitri; Rao Gullapalli

    1994-01-01

    Gentamicin is the most widely used antibiotic in the decontamination of donor cornea for penetrating keratoplasty. However, the incidence of resistance to gentamicin is on the rise. Bacterial isolates from 178 donor corneal rims were studied for gentamicin sensitivity. The overall rate of gentamicin resistance was 63.4%. At 86.2% the Pseudomonas. species had the highest rate of resistance, followed by Streptococci at 84.6%. The high rate of gentamicin resistance encounter...

  19. Organ Transplants from Living Donors – Halachic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mordechai Halperin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript is a survey of the halachic attitudes toward organ transplant procedures from a living donor which can be defined as life-saving procedures for the recipient or at least life-prolonging procedures. Three fundamental problems concerning the halachic aspects of such transplantation are discussed in detail: the danger to the donor, donation under coercion, and the sale of organs and tissues. The terms “halacha” and “Jewish law” are defined in the introduction.

  20. Newborns as potential organ donors: a new perspective?

    OpenAIRE

    Ilias Chatziioannidis; Pagona Chouchou; Georgios Mitsiakos

    2015-01-01

    Demand for organ donation is increasing over the years in all age groups leading search for alternative sources. Donation pool expansion in newborns necessitates new approaches specifically for brain and circulatory death definition. The “dead donor rule” (the donor must be dead before organ removal starts) remains the cornerstone for organ procurement. Brain death definition and time determination of circulatory death need to be uniformly accepted by the scientific community. Technical advan...

  1. Directed organ donation: is the donor the owner?

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Antonia J.; Price, David

    2008-01-01

    The issue of directed donation of organs from deceased donors for transplantation has recently risen to the fore, given greater significance by the relatively stagnant rate of deceased donor donation in the UK. Although its status and legitimacy is explicitly recognized across the USA, elsewhere a more cautious, if not entirely negative, stance has been taken. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, the Human Tissue Act 2004, and in Scotland the Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006, are both sile...

  2. Eligibility and Exclusion of Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Levstik, M; Adams, PC

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemochromatosis patients are excluded in many countries as voluntary blood donors. In 1991, changes in the Canadian Red Cross policy allowed healthy hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary donors.STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The medical histories of 208 hemochromatosis patients were evaluated for eligibility for blood donation from a large prospective database of hemochromatosis patients. A survey that determined the success or exclusion of 81 patients for blood donat...

  3. Ethical aspects of renal transplantation from living donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, P; Berloco, P B

    2007-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from living donors is widely performed all over the world. Living nephrectomy for transplantation has no direct advantages for the donor other than increased self-esteem, but it at least remains an extremely safe procedure, with a worldwide overall mortality of 0.03%. This theoretical risk for the donor seems to be justified by the socioeconomic advantages and increased quality of life of the recipient, especially in selected cases, such as pediatric patients, when living donor kidney transplantation can be performed in a preuremic phase, avoiding the psychological and physical stress of dialysis, which in children is not well tolerated and cannot prevent retarded growth. According to the Ethical Council of the Transplantation Society, commercialism must be effectively prevented, not only for ethical but also medical reasons. The risks are too high, not only for the donors, but also for the recipients, as a consequence of poor donor screening and evaluation with consequent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other infective agents, as well as of inappropriate medical and surgical management of donors and also recipients, who are often discharged too early. Most public or private insurance companies consider kidney donation a safe procedure without long-term impairment and therefore do not increase the premium, whereas recipient insurance of course should cover hospital fees for the donors. "Rewarded gifting" or other financial incentives to compensate for the inconvenience and loss of income related to the donation are not advisable, at least in our opinion. Our Center does not perform anonymous living organ donation or "cross-over" transplantation. PMID:17692612

  4. Ethical considerations on kidney transplantation from living donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, P; Pretagostini, R; Poli, L; Rossi, M; Berloco, P B

    2005-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from living donors is widely performed all over the world. Living nephrectomy for transplantation has no direct advantage for the donor other than increased self-esteem, but at least remains an extremely safe procedure, with a worldwide overall mortality rate of 0.03%. This theoretical risk to the donor seems to be justified by the socioeconomic advantages and increased quality of life of the recipient, especially in selected cases, such as pediatric patients, when living donor kidney transplantation can be performed in a preuremic phase, avoiding the psychological and physical stress of dialysis, which in children is not well tolerated and cannot prevent retarded growth. According to the Ethical Council of the Transplantation Society, commercialism must be prevented, not only for ethical but also medical reasons. The risks are too high not only for the donors, but also for the recipients, as a consequence of poor donor screening and evaluation with consequent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus or other infectious agents, as well as inappropriate medical and surgical management of donors and also of recipients, who are often discharged too early. Most public or private insurance companies are considering kidney donation a safe procedure without long-term impairment and, therefore, do not increase the premium, whereas recipient insurance of course should cover hospital fees for the donors. "Rewarded gifting" or other financial incentives to compensate for the inconvenience and loss of income related to the donation are not advisable, at least in our opinion. Our center does not perform anonymous living organ donation or "cross-over" transplantation. PMID:16182701

  5. Profile of potential organ donors in a reference hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Thamy Braga Rodrigues; Maristela Inês Osawa Chagas; Maria da Conceição Coelho Brito; Diane Sousa Sales; Regina Célia Carvalho da Silva; Ângela Maria Alves e Souza

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to characterize the profile of potential organ donors in a hospital in the northern zone of Ceará, Brazil. This is a quantitative, retrospective and documentary study, performed in a hospital of Ceará, from information contained in the medical records of potential donors, from May to September 2009. Data were tabulated, focusing on the identification process and logistic aspects. We identified that the most prevalent diagnoses were traumatic brain injury (51.4%) and stroke (31...

  6. Prevalence of peptic ulcer in Helicobacter pylori positive blood donors.

    OpenAIRE

    Vaira, D; Miglioli, M; Mulè, P; Holton, J; M. Menegatti; Vergura, M; Biasco, G.; Conte, R.; Logan, R P; Barbara, L

    1994-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the importance of raised antibodies to Helicobacter pylori in an asymptomatic population. A total of 128 asymptomatic blood donors who were seropositive for H pylori and consented to endoscopy were investigated. These subjects were from a population of 1010 blood donors screened for antibodies to H pylori. A questionnaire was completed to determine if any subjects had complained of symptoms, and they subsequently had endoscopy. Altogether 121 of 128 were positive...

  7. Family donors are critical and legitimate in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre Allain; Cees Th Smit Sibinga

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For many years, family blood donors have been considered less safe than volunteer non-remunerated blood donors and actively discouraged by international organisations and affluent countries support agencies for developing countries. In addition to safety, pressure and coercion was considered unethical. However these assumptions were not supported by evidence. Aims of the study: To assemble recently collected evidence to reopen the assessment whether or not the ban of family bloo...

  8. Organ donation after circulatory death: the forgotten donor?

    OpenAIRE

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L; McGregor, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) can be performed on neurologically intact donors who do not fulfill neurologic or brain death criteria before circulatory arrest. This commentary focuses on the most controversial donor-related issues anticipated from mandatory implementation of DCD for imminent or cardiac death in hospitals across the USA. We conducted a nonstructured review of selected publications and websites for data extraction and synthesis. The recommended 5 min of circulatory arr...

  9. Aid to fragile states: Do donors help or hinder?

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    he record of aid to fragile and poorly-performing states is the real test of aid effectiveness. Rich countries can justify aid to fragile states both through altruism and self-interest. But, with some exceptions, donors have appeared at the wrong times and with the wrong attitudes, even sometimes undermining development progress. State failure has dimensions of both will and capacity. Failure demands constructive engagement by donors, in some cases to save people in weak states from their lea...

  10. Operationalizing Experience: Donor Approaches to Service Delivery in Fragile States

    OpenAIRE

    DiCaprio, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the different approaches to service delivery in fragile states by surveying donors' own evaluations of their existing fragile states policies. Because there is limited understanding of what works in risky environments, monitoring and evaluation are critical components of effective assistance. By highlighting trends in the strategies that donors have developed to implement acknowledged good practices, we can better understand how these experiences might contribute to future...

  11. Seasonal distribution in conceptions achieved by artificial insemination by donor

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of conceptions after artificial insemination from a donor was studied in 259 conceptions at an artificial insemination clinic and found to be seasonal. Conception was not influenced by the number of donors or patients attending the clinic, the frequency of inseminations, or medical skill. Conception was more common from early winter until early spring (October to March) with a peak in November. As variables such as frequency of intercourse and ovulation were irrelevant in the...

  12. Sero prevalence of hepatitis -C antibodies in blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of anti HCV antibodies in blood donors. Design: The retrospective sero-epidemiological data of the institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab over a period of one year after starting HCV screening, was analyzed to estimate the percentage prevalence. Setting; The data was obtained regularly from the blood units established by this institute at the pablic sector hospitals and retesting on initially reactive serum sample by EIA was done at the Institute. Subjects: A total of 166183 directed first time donors or replacement blood donors aged 18-60 years who donated blood at these blood banks or at mobile sessions have been included in the study. All initially reactive donors who tested non-reactive on EIA were excluded from the study. Main outcome Measures: Assessment of prevalence of HCV in blood donors. Results: 4.45% of the total donors intially tested reactive of these 0.36 % were atsety reactive on intial screening. Further testing by EIA, 4.1%. Conclusions: The blood transfusion service started screening for HCV in April 2000 and the prevalence of HCV, amongst the transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) being screened for in the Punjab, is the highest. It is almost double the prevalence of HBV and several thousand time that of HIV. Meticulous and total screening coverage is needed to curtail impending catastrophe. With experience, the choice of testing methodology might have to be reviewed. (author)

  13. Minimally invasive surgery for live kidney donors: techniques and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Nicholas R; Nicholson, Michael L

    2005-09-01

    Live kidney donation is assuming an increasingly prominent role in kidney transplantation programs. The traditional operative approach has been through an incision in the upper quadrant of the abdomen or in the loin, with the attendant potential postoperative complications associated with a large surgical wound. These problems may act as disincentives to prospective donors. The introduction of laparoscopic donor surgery in 1995 heralded a new era offering reduced post-operative pain and improved cosmetic result. It is hoped that these benefits may counter some disincentives and thereby increase donation rates. Three minimal-access approaches and their advantages and disadvantages are described: classical laparoscopic, hand-assisted laparoscopic, and retroperitoneoscopic surgery. Published reports indicate extensive experience with the first 2 of these approaches and less experience with the latter. All 3 approaches present technical, physiological, and anatomical challenges in the context of retrieving an organ that is fit for transplantation. For minimal-access surgery to be accepted as the procedure of choice for live kidney donors, it must be demonstrated that morbidity is not transferred from donor to recipient when these techniques are used. Some concerns about these procedures are addressed. High-level evidence in the form of randomized controlled trials is generally lacking, but experiences of surgeons and patients suggest that, with appropriate modifications, these techniques are safe for both donors and allografts and also benefit donors' recovery. PMID:16252632

  14. [Use of related live donors in renal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyer, M

    1996-06-01

    Collecting pertinent information is first step in assessing the use of living-related kidneys for transplantation. Current bioethics legislation in France limits kidney donation to first-degree family members and spouses in emergency situations. Severe penalties are inflicted for use of other donors or sale of organs. Further valuable information can be obtained from reports in the literature on complications in donors and on the advantages of living donor organs. The proportion of live donors in France is small (3.5% from 1984 through 1993) indicating that transplantation teams prefer cadaver organs except in pediatric cases. The proportion of live donor organs transplanted in northern Europe and North America is much higher. A quick survey of French teams show that opinions and practices vary. Questions still under debate include how to guarantee freedom to refuse or accept, a freedom directly related to correct information. Several propositions have been made in an attempt to harmonize management. First, an information sheet could be distributed during the early discussions, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of live organ donation. A list of complementary examinations could also be established to identify possible contraindications for nephrectomy and define exclusion criteria. A similar procedure adopted by all transplantation teams could be based on these propositions presented in the appendix. Potential donors could then benefit from uniform protection. PMID:8685149

  15. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Anne

    2012-06-01

    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought. PMID:22908618

  16. Spatially resolving valley quantum interference of a donor in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salfi, J.; Mol, J. A.; Rahman, R.; Klimeck, G.; Simmons, M. Y.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Rogge, S.

    2014-06-01

    Electron and nuclear spins of donor ensembles in isotopically pure silicon experience a vacuum-like environment, giving them extraordinary coherence. However, in contrast to a real vacuum, electrons in silicon occupy quantum superpositions of valleys in momentum space. Addressable single-qubit and two-qubit operations in silicon require that qubits are placed near interfaces, modifying the valley degrees of freedom associated with these quantum superpositions and strongly influencing qubit relaxation and exchange processes. Yet to date, spectroscopic measurements have only probed wavefunctions indirectly, preventing direct experimental access to valley population, donor position and environment. Here we directly probe the probability density of single quantum states of individual subsurface donors, in real space and reciprocal space, using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. We directly observe quantum mechanical valley interference patterns associated with linear superpositions of valleys in the donor ground state. The valley population is found to be within 5% of a bulk donor when 2.85 ± 0.45 nm from the interface, indicating that valley-perturbation-induced enhancement of spin relaxation will be negligible for depths greater than 3 nm. The observed valley interference will render two-qubit exchange gates sensitive to atomic-scale variations in positions of subsurface donors. Moreover, these results will also be of interest for emerging schemes proposing to encode information directly in valley polarization.

  17. Quantum Computing in Silicon with Donor Electron Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Michelle

    2014-03-01

    Extremely long electron and nuclear spin coherence times have recently been demonstrated in isotopically pure Si-28 making silicon one of the most promising semiconductor materials for spin based quantum information. The two level spin state of single electrons bound to shallow phosphorus donors in silicon in particular provide well defined, reproducible qubits and represent a promising system for a scalable quantum computer in silicon. An important challenge in these systems is the realisation of an architecture, where we can position donors within a crystalline environment with approx. 20-50nm separation, individually address each donor, manipulate the electron spins using ESR techniques and read-out their spin states. We have developed a unique fabrication strategy for a scalable quantum computer in silicon using scanning tunneling microscope hydrogen lithography to precisely position individual P donors in a Si crystal aligned with nanoscale precision to local control gates necessary to initialize, manipulate, and read-out the spin states. During this talk I will focus on demonstrating electronic transport characteristics and single-shot spin read-out of precisely-positioned P donors in Si. Additionally I will report on our recent progress in performing single spin rotations by locally applying oscillating magnetic fields and initial characterization of transport devices with two and three single donors. The challenges of scaling up to practical 2D architectures will also be discussed.

  18. Organ donation after circulatory death: the forgotten donor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L; McGregor, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) can be performed on neurologically intact donors who do not fulfill neurologic or brain death criteria before circulatory arrest. This commentary focuses on the most controversial donor-related issues anticipated from mandatory implementation of DCD for imminent or cardiac death in hospitals across the USA. We conducted a nonstructured review of selected publications and websites for data extraction and synthesis. The recommended 5 min of circulatory arrest does not universally fulfill the dead donor rule when applied to otherwise neurologically intact donors. Scientific evidence from extracorporeal perfusion in circulatory arrest suggests that the procurement process itself can be the event causing irreversibility in DCD. Legislative abandonment of the dead donor rule to permit the recovery of transplantable organs is necessary in the absence of an adequate scientific foundation for DCD practice. The designation of organ procurement organizations or affiliates to obtain organ donation consent introduces self-serving bias and conflicts of interest that interfere with true informed consent. It is important that donors and their families are not denied a 'good death', and the impact of DCD on quality of end-of-life care has not been satisfactorily addressed to achieve this. PMID:17020597

  19. Life insurance for living kidney donors: a Canadian undercover investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R C; Young, A; Nevis, I F P; Lee, D; Jain, A K; Dominic, A; Pullenayegum, E; Klarenbach, S; Garg, A X

    2009-07-01

    Some living kidney donors encounter difficulties obtaining life insurance, despite previous surveys of insurance companies reporting otherwise. To better understand the effect of donation on insurability, we contacted offices of life insurance companies in five major cities in Canada to obtain $100 000 of life insurance (20-year term) for 40 fictitious living kidney donors and 40 paired controls. These profiles were matched on age, gender, family history of kidney disease and presence of hypertension. The companies were blinded to data collection. The study protocol was reviewed by the Office of Research Ethics. The main study outcomes were the annual premium quoted and total time spent on the phone with the insurance agent. All donor and control profiles received a quote, with no significant difference in the premium quoted (medians $190 vs. $209, p = 0.89). More time was spent on the phone for donor compared to control profiles, but the absolute difference was small (medians 9.5 vs. 7.0 min, p = 0.046). Age, gender, family history of kidney disease and new-onset hypertension had no further effect on donor insurability in regression analysis. We found no evidence that kidney donors were disadvantaged in the first step of applying for life insurance. The effect donation has on subsequent phases of insurance underwriting remains to be studied. PMID:19519823

  20. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy versus open donor nephrectomy: Recipient′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukaram E Jamale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN on graft function, especially early post-transplant, have been controversial. To assess and compare early and late graft function in kidneys procured by open and laparoscopic methods, a retrospective observational study was carried out on 37 recipients-donors who underwent LDN after introduction of this technique in February 2007 at our center, a tertiary care nephrology referral center. Demographic, immunological and intraoperative variables as well as immunosuppressive protocols and number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA mismatches were noted. Early graft function was assessed by serum creatinine on Days two, five, seven, 14 and 28 and at the time of discharge. Serum creatinine values at three months and at one year post-transplant were considered as the surrogates of late graft function. Data obtained were compared with the data from 33 randomly selected kidney transplants performed after January 2000 by the same surgical team, in whom open donor nephrectomy was used. Pearson′s chi square test, Student′s t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Early graft function (serum creatinine on Day five 2.15 mg/dL vs 1.49 mg/dL, P = 0.027 was poorer in the LDN group. Late graft function as assessed by serum creatinine at three months (1.45 mg/dL vs 1.31 mg/dL, P = 0.335 and one year (1.56 mg/dL vs 1.34 mg/dL, P = 0.275 was equivalent in the two groups. Episodes of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis were significantly higher in the LDN group (37.8% vs 12.1%, Z score 2.457, P = 0.014. Warm ischemia time was significantly prolonged in the LDN group (255 s vs 132.5 s, P = 0.002. LDN is associated with slower recovery of graft function and higher incidence of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis. Late graft function at one year is however comparable.

  1. Decreased Infections in Recipients of Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation from Donors with an Activating KIR Genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Tomblyn, Marcie; Young, Jo-Anne H.; Haagenson, Michael D.; Klein, John P.; Trachtenberg, Elizabeth A.; Storek, Jan; Spellman, Stephen R.; Cooley, Sarah; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Infectious complications following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from unrelated donors (URD) result in significant morbidity. We hypothesized that recipients of an URD with an activating natural killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) (B/x) genotype would have decreased infectious complications due to enhanced NK cell function. We compared the infectious complications in 116 recipients of a graft from a donor with an A/A KIR (n = 44) genotype and a B/x KIR (n = 72...

  2. Subclinical leukopenia in a cross section of Nigerian blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adias TC

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Zaccheaus A Jeremiah1, Ruth E Umoh2, Teddy C Adias31Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; 3College of Health Technology, Ogbia, Bayelsa State, NigeriaBackground: Most studies on blood donors are centered on the selective evaluation of red blood cell parameters with little or no regard to white blood cells and platelets.Methods: One hundred and twelve male blood donors comprising 43 first-time and 69 regular blood donors, drawn from a tertiary health facility in the Niger Delta of Nigeria, participated in the study. Their hematological parameters were assessed using a 3-part differential autohematology analyzer (PCE-210 N.Results: Of the blood donors, 18.8% were found to be anemic (packed cell volume [PCV] <33% while 12.5% were leukopenic (white blood cell [WBC] count <2.0 × 109/L. The leukopenia observed in this study was largely due to the significant reductions in both the absolute lymphocyte (P = 0.019, percent lymphocyte (P = 0.016, and percent monocyte count (P = 0.008. Anemia was obviously due to the reduction in the red blood cell (RBC count, PCV, hemoglobin (Hb, mean cell Hb (MCH, and red cell distribution width (RDW values. Significant positive correlations were found between PCV and total WBC count (r = 0.309; P < 0.01 while a negative correlation was found between PCV and absolute lymphocyte counts (r = —0.191; P < 0.005 and RDW (r = —0.219; P < 0.05. Comparison of the mean values of the first-time versus regular blood donor parameters revealed that six parameters were significantly reduced in the regular blood donors (PCV, absolute WBC count, percent monocytes, RBC count, Hb, PCV. The reference ranges of hematological parameters for Port Harcourt donors are also presented in this

  3. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: impact on an established renal transplant program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafizadeh, S; McEvoy, J R; Murray, C; Baillie, G M; Ashcraft, E; Sill, T; Rogers, J; Baliga, P; Rajagopolan, P R; Chavin, K

    2000-12-01

    The current disparity of viable organs and patients in need of a transplant has been an impetus for innovative measures. Live donor renal transplantation offers significant advantages compared with cadaveric donor transplantation: increased graft and patient survival, diminution in incidence of delayed graft function, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), and reduction in waiting time. Notwithstanding these gains live donors continue to be underutilized and account for only approximately one quarter of all renal transplants performed in the United States. It has been felt that inherent disincentives to live donation have slowed its growth. These include degree and duration of postoperative pain and convalescence, child care concerns, cosmetic concerns, and time until return to full activities and employment. In an attempt to curtail the disincentives to live donation, laparoscopic live donation (laparoscopic donor nephrectomy; LDN) was developed. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of our first 25 laparoscopic nephrectomies (performed over a 10-month period from September 1998 through July 1999) with the previous 25 standard open donor nephrectomies (ODNs) completed over the past 3 years. We conducted a retrospective review of all donor nephrectomies and recipient pairs performed over the past 3 years. End points included sex, operative time, length of stay, immediate and long-term renal function, and willingness to donate. There were no differences in demographics of the ODN versus the LDN group. The average length of stay was 2.48+/-0.72 days for the LDN versus 4.08+/-0.28 days for the ODN. ODN and LDN have comparable short- and long-term function with no delayed graft function and no complications. Growth of living donor transplant has increased from 16 per cent of all kidney transplants performed in 1995 to 23 per cent in 1999. We conclude that LDN is a viable alternative to the standard donor operation. LDN has had a positive impact on the donor pool

  4. Blood donors screening for blood born viruses in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarczyk, Piotr; Kopacz, Aneta; Sulkowska, Ewa; Kubicka-Russel, Dorota; Mikulska, Maria; Brojer, Ewa; Łętowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Blood donor screening of viral markers in Poland is based on serologic testing for anti-HCV, HBsAg, anti-HIV1/2 (chemiluminescence tests) and on nucleic acid testing (NAT) for RNA HCV, RNA HIV-1 and DNA HBV performed in minipools of 6 with real-time PCR (MPX 2.0 test on cobas s201) or with TMA in individual donations (Ultrio Plus or Ultrio Elite). Donors of plasma for anti-D and anti-HBs production are tested for parvovirus B19 DNA. Before implementation tests and equipment are evaluated at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine (IHTM). The last 20 years witnessed a decreasing trend for HBsAg in both first time and repeat donors (1%-0.3% and 0.1%-0.02% respectively). Prevalence of anti-HCV repeat reactive results was stable and oscillated around 0.8% for first time donors and 0.2% for repeat donors. Elevated prevalence of seropositive HIV infected donors was recently observed (7.5-9 cases/100,000 donors). Since respective molecular markers implementation HCV RNA was detected on average in 1/119,235 seronegative donations, HIV RNA in 1/783,821 and HBV DNA in 1/61,047. HBV NAT yields were mostly occult hepatitis B (1/80,248); window period cases were less frequent (1/255,146). The efficiency of HBV DNA detection depends on the sensitivity of the HBV DNA screening system. PMID:26519842

  5. Android Blood Donor Life Saving Application in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Hilda Jenipha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emergency situations, such as accidents, create an immediate, critical need for specific blood type. In addition to emergency requirements, advances in medicine have increased the need for blood in many on-going treatments and elective surgeries. Despite increasing requirements for blood, only about 5% of the Indian population donates blood. In this paper we propose a new and efficient way to overcome such scenarios with our project. We have to create a new idea, just touch the button. Donor will be prompted to enter an individual's details, like name, phone number, and blood type. After that your contact details will appear in alphabetical order on the screen; the urgent time of a blood requirement, you can quickly check for contacts matching a particular or related blood group and reach out to them via Phone Call/SMS through the Blood donor App. Blood Donor App provides list of donors in your city/area. Use this app in case of emergency. A large number of blood donors are attracted using an Android application. Cloud- based services can prove important in emergency blood delivery since they can enable central and immediate access to donors' data and location from anywhere. Since almost everyone carries a mobile phone with him, it ensures instant location tracking and communication. The location-based app, operational on android platform, will help users easily find donors of matching blood groups in their location and access their mobile numbers for instant help. Only a registered person, with willingness to donate blood, will be able to access the service.

  6. Donor transmitted and de novo cancer after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rajeev; Neuberger, James

    2014-05-28

    Cancers in solid organ recipients may be classified as donor transmitted, donor derived, de novo or recurrent. The risk of donor-transmitted cancer is very low and can be reduced by careful screening of the donor but cannot be abolished and, in the United Kingdom series is less than 0.03%. For donors with a known history of cancer, the risks will depend on the nature of the cancer, the interventions given and the interval between diagnosis and organ donation. The risks of cancer transmission must be balanced against the risks of death awaiting a new graft and strict adherence to current guidelines may result increased patient death. Organs from selected patients, even with high-grade central nervous system (CNS) malignancy and after a shunt, can, in some circumstances, be considered. Of potential donors with non-CNS cancers, whether organs may be safely used again depends on the nature of the cancer, the treatment and interval. Data are scarce about the most appropriate treatment when donor transmitted cancer is diagnosed: sometimes substitution of agents and reduction of the immunosuppressive load may be adequate and the impact of graft removal should be considered but not always indicated. Liver allograft recipients are at increased risk of some de novo cancers, especially those grafted for alcohol-related liver disease and hepatitis C virus infection. The risk of lymphoproliferative disease and cancers of the skin, upper airway and bowel are increased but not breast. Recipients should be advised to avoid risk behavior and monitored appropriately. PMID:24876738

  7. Partial phenotyping in voluntary blood donors of Gujarat State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitrey Gajjar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Partial phenotyping of voluntary blood donors has vital role in transfusion practice, population genetic study and in resolving legal issues.The Rh blood group is one of the most complex and highly immunogenic blood group known in humans. The Kell system, discovered in 1946, is the third most potent system at triggering hemolytic transfusion reactions and consists of 25 highly immunogenic antigens. Knowledge of Rh & Kell phenotypes in given population is relevant for better planning and management of blood bank; the main goal is to find compatible blood for patients needing multiple blood transfusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Rh & Kell phenotype of voluntary donors in Gujarat state. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted by taking 5670 samples from random voluntary blood donors coming in blood donation camp. Written consent was taken for donor phenotyping. The antigen typing of donors was performed by Qwalys-3(manufacturer: Diagast by using electromagnetic technology on Duolys plates. Results: Out of 5670 donors, the most common Rh antigen observed in the study population was e (99.07% followed by D (95.40%, C (88.77%, c (55.89% and E (17.88%. The frequency of the Kell antigen (K was 1.78 %. Discussion: The antigen frequencies among blood donors from Gujarat were compared with those published for other Indian populations. The frequency of D antigen in our study (95.4% and north Indian donors (93.6 was significantly higher than in the Caucasians (85% and lower than in the Chinese (99%. The frequencies of C, c and E antigens were dissimilar to other ethnic groups while the ′e′ antigen was present in high frequency in our study as also in the other ethnic groups. Kell antigen (K was found in only 101 (1.78 % donors out of 5670. Frequency of Kell antigen in Caucasian and Black populations is 9% & 2% respectively. The most common Kell phenotype was K-k+, not just in Indians (96.5% but

  8. Characteristics of blood donors and factors associated with blood donation in Guangzhou

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Jian; 欧阳剑

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe and compare the characteristics of blood donors and non-donors and to examine factors associated with donation, including motivators and barriers of blood donation in Guangzhou, China. Design: Cross-sectional survey using self-administered standardized structured questionnaires on both donors and non-donors. Setting: 12 mobile and 4 permanent blood donation stations in Guangzhou during the whole operation time. Participants: 500 blood donors who donated at th...

  9. Proposed legislative change mandating retrospective release of identifying information: consultation with donors and Government response

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarberg, Karin; Johnson, Louise; Bourne, Kate; Fisher, Jane; Kirkman, Maggie

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How do gamete donors who presumed they could remain anonymous respond to proposed legislation to retrospectively remove anonymity? SUMMARY ANSWER A little more than half of the donors opposed the recommendation to introduce legislation to remove donor anonymity with retrospective effect. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY An increasing proportion of parents disclose their origins to their donor-conceived children and growing numbers of donor-conceived adults are aware of how they were conce...

  10. Adverse Reactions in Allogeneic Blood Donors: A Tertiary Care Experience from a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Sadia Sultan; Mohammad Amjad Baig; Syed Mohammed Irfan; Syed Ijlal Ahmed; Syeda Faiza Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Fragmented blood transfusion services along with an unmotivated blood donation culture often leads to blood shortage. Donor retention is crucial to meet the increasing blood demand, and adverse donor reactions have a negative impact on donor return. The aim of this study was to estimate adverse donor reactions and identify any demographic association.   Methods: We conducted a prospective study between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 41,759 healthy donors were enrol...

  11. Alternative donor transplants for severe aplastic anemia: current experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupo, Andrea; Sica, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Patients with acquired severe aplastic anemia (SAA), who lack a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical sibling donor (SIB), have two therapeutic options: immunosuppressive therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) and cyclosporine (CsA), or a transplant from an alternative donor. In these patients, the current guidelines of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) call for a course of ATG + CsA first and transplantation in case of no response. The alternative donor source can be an unrelated donor (UD), a cord blood (CB) unit, or a family mismatched member, in most instances genetically HLA haplo-mismatched (HAPLO). In the present review, we will discuss recent results of transplants from matched UD and SIB donors, with significantly improved outcome, especially with UD in the past decade. We will also be looking at CB transplants, and the problems of limited stem cell dose. Finally HAPLO grafts have been explored in patients lacking or having rejected an unrelated or CB graft: early results seem encouraging, though the procedure should still be considered experimental. PMID:27000736

  12. Patient experiences in advertising for an egg donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowoweiski, Sarah; Matic, Hayley; Foster, Penelope

    2011-06-01

    Advertising is a commonly used means of recruiting an egg donor within Australia. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and outcomes of people's attempts to recruit an egg donor through advertising in a printed publication, Melbourne's Child. Individuals and couples who placed a new advertisement between July 2007 and December 2008 were invited to participate (n = 84), and those who expressed interest were mailed a questionnaire specifically designed for the purposes of this study. Thirty-one advertisers (37%) agreed to be sent the questionnaire and 28 were completed and returned (33%). Results showed that over half (56%) of respondents successfully recruited an egg donor through their advertisement in Melbourne's Child, 75% received at least one genuine reply and most people received a response within 2 weeks (50%) or 1-2 months (32%) after publication. At the time of completing the questionnaire, 48% had undergone a treatment cycle using donor eggs. Advertising was recalled as a stressful experience and 79% of respondents felt that more information about the success of advertising would have been helpful prior to embarking on this process. Results will be used to inform current clinical practice in assisting patients to recruit an egg donor. PMID:21498120

  13. Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pim M W; Thorn, Petra; Castilla, Jose A; Frith, Lucy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Mochtar, Monique; Bjorndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson C

    2015-06-01

    An international working group was established with the aim of making recommendations on the number of offspring for a sperm donor that should be allowable in cases of international use of his sperm. Considerations from genetic, psychosocial, operational and ethical points of view were debated. For these considerations, it was assumed that current developments in genetic testing and Internet possibilities mean that, now, all donors are potentially identifiable by their offspring, so no distinction was made between anonymous and non-anonymous donation. Genetic considerations did not lead to restrictive limits (indicating that up to 200 offspring or more per donor may be acceptable except in isolated social-minority situations). Psychosocial considerations on the other hand led to proposals of rather restrictive limits (10 families per donor or less). Operational and ethical considerations did not lead to more or less concrete limits per donor, but seemed to lie in-between those resulting from the aforementioned ways of viewing the issue. In the end, no unifying agreed figure could be reached; however the consensus was that the number should never exceed 100 families. The conclusions of the group are summarized in three recommendations. PMID:25817048

  14. A case of Hepatitis E in a blood donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita A Tendulkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat of hepatitis E is being felt in blood banks in recent times. The disease is usually self-limiting, but may progress to a fulminant fatal form. We report a unique case of a hepatitis E virus (HEV-positive asymptomatic blood donor who later developed jaundice and informed the blood bank. A blood donor passed all eligibility criteria tests and donated blood. After 20 days, the blood bank was informed by the donor that he had developed vomiting and jaundice 1 day postdonation. He was investigated by a local laboratory 1 day postdonation for liver profile, which was high. There had been a major outbreak in his community of similar symptoms during the same period. HEV IgM antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was positive. Silent infections may be lurking in apparently healthy donors. Donors need to be encouraged to revert in case of any significant developments after donation and maintain open channels of communication.

  15. Left versus right deceased donor renal allograft outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Paul J

    2009-12-01

    It has been suggested that the left kidney is easier to transplant than the right kidney because of the longer length of the left renal vein, facilitating the formation of the venous anastomosis. There are conflicting reports of differing renal allograft outcomes based on the side of donor kidney transplanted (left or right).We sought to determine the effect of side of donor kidney on early and late allograft outcome in our renal transplant population. We performed a retrospective analysis of transplanted left-right deceased donor kidney pairs in Ireland between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008. We used a time to death-censored graft failure approach for long-term allograft survival and also examined serum creatinine at different time points post-transplantation. All outcomes were included from day of transplant onwards. A total of 646 transplants were performed from 323 donors. The incidence of delayed graft function was 16.1% in both groups and there was no significant difference in acute rejection episodes or serum creatinine from 1 month to 8 years post-transplantation.There were 47 death-censored allograft failures in the left-sided group compared to 57 in the right-sided group (P = 0.24). These observations show no difference in renal transplant outcome between the recipients of left- and right-sided deceased donor kidneys.

  16. Donor type and parental disclosure following oocyte donation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Stephenson; Eric Blyth; Wendy Kramer; Jennifer Schneider

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To ascertain the perspectives of parents of children conceived via oocyte donation regarding donor anonymity and disclosure of the nature of their conception to their children. Methods:Information was gathered by means of an anonymous online survey initiated by theDonorSiblingRegistry, in which108 parents with143 children conceived following oocyte donation and aged between one year and15 yearsparticipated.Results:Parental use of an anonymous or open-identity donor-and regardless of parental choice of donor-makes very little difference to the timing of parental disclosure to their donor-conceived child about their conception.The median age of children at disclosure is about3.5years;UK/Australian parents seem more ready to tell their children at an early stage(median age around two years) thanNorth American parents(median age around4.5 years), although about three quarters of all children have been told by the age of six years.Considerable ambiguity among parents who intend to disclose to their children as to the optimal age of disclosure is evidenced.Conclusions:Parents’ experiences of disclosure to children at different ages need to be more thoroughly examined in order to establisha coherent body of knowledge that may facilitate improved evidence-based parental decision making.

  17. Recurrence of cholestatic liver disease after living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sumihito Tamura; Masatoshi Hakuuchi; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Junichi Kaneko; Junichi Togashi; Yuichi Matsui; Noriyo Yamashiki; Norihiro Kokudo

    2008-01-01

    End-stage liver disease,due to cholestatic liver diseases with an autoimmune background such as primary biliary cirrhosis(PBC)and primary sclerosing cholangitis(PSC),is considered a good indication for liver transplantation.Excellent overall patient and graft outcomes,based mostly on the experience from deceased donor liver ransplantation(DDLT),have been reported.Due to the limited number of oraan donations from deceased donors in most Asian countries,living donor liver transplantation(LDLT)is the mainstream treatment for end-stage liver disease,including that resulting from PBC and PSC.Although the initial experiences with LDLT for PBC and PSC seem satisfactory or comparable to that with DLT,some aspects,including the timing of transplantation,the risk of recurrent disease,and its long-term clinical implications,require further evaluation.Whether or not the long-term outcomes of LDLT from a biologically related donor are equivalent to that of DDLT requires further observations.The clinical course following LDLT may be affected by he genetic background shared between the recipient and the living related donor.(C)2008 The WJG Press.All rights reserved.

  18. Blood donor behaviour in Greece: implications for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chliaoutakis, J; Trakas, D J; Socrataki, F; Lemonidou, C; Papaioannou, D

    1994-05-01

    Blood donation behaviour was studied in 809 residents of the Greater Athens area to identify socio-economic and attitudinal factors and level of knowledge about blood donation related to donor behaviour. The sample was randomly selected and consisted of men and women aged 18-65, the legally defined age for donation. According to stepwise regression analysis, blood donation (40.8% of the study population) was found to be correlated with gender, place of birth, occupation and knowledge about donation. Donors were more likely to be men than women; students and military recruits than professionals and scientists; and those with higher knowledge scores regarding donation. In our factor analysis of the social attitudes related to blood donation, three factors emerged as important regarding donation: health-related incentives for the donor, structural incentives (organization of blood donation education and management of facilities) and the creation of social and economic incentives. With respect to the affective measures those who expressed feelings of guilt when presented with hypothetical, emotionally charged situations dramatizing the need for donor blood were more likely to be donors. The results of the data are discussed within a larger socio-cultural context and suggestions for health policy are made. PMID:8023195

  19. Algorithm for recall of HIV reactive Indian blood donors by sequential immunoassays enables selective donor referral for counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakral B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS pandemic brought into focus the importance of safe blood donor pool. Aims: To analyze true seroprevalence of HIV infection in our blood donors and devise an algorithm for donor recall avoiding unnecessary referrals to voluntary counseling and testing centre (VCTC. Materials and Methods: 39,784 blood units were screened for anti-HIV 1/2 using ELISA immunoassay (IA-1. Samples which were repeat reactive on IA-1 were further tested using two different immunoassays (IA-2 and IA-3 and Western blot (WB. Based on results of these sequential IAs and WB, an algorithm for recall of true HIV seroreactive blood donors is suggested for countries like India where nucleic acid testing or p24 antigen assays are not mandatory and given the limited resources may not be feasible. Results: The anti-HIV seroreactivity by repeat IA-1, IA-2, IA-3 and WB were 0.16%, 0.11%, 0.098% and 0.07% respectively. Of the 44 IA-1 reactive samples, 95.2% (20/21 of the seroreactive samples by both IA-2 and IA-3 were also WB positive and 100% (6/6 of the non-reactive samples by these IAs were WB negative. IA signal/cutoff ratio was significantly low in biological false reactive donors. WB indeterminate results were largely due to non-specific reactivity to gag protein (p55. Conclusions: HIV seroreactivity by sequential immunoassays (IA-1, IA-2 and IA-3; comparable to WHO Strategy-III prior to donor recall results in decreased referral to VCTC as compared to single IA (WHO Strategy-I being followed currently in India. Moreover, this strategy will repose donor confidence in our blood transfusion services and strengthen voluntary blood donation program.

  20. Living donor liver transplantation from a donor previously treated with interferon for hepatitis C virus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakao Kazuhiko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Selecting a marginal donor in liver transplantation (LT remains controversial but is necessary because of the small number of available donors. Case presentation A 46-year-old Japanese woman was a candidate to donate her liver to her brother, who had decompensated liver cirrhosis of unknown origin. Eight years before the donation, she had a mild liver dysfunction that was diagnosed as a hepatitis C virus (HCV infection (serotype 2. She had received anti-viral therapy with interferon α-2b three times weekly for 24 weeks and had a sustained viral response (SVR. A biopsy of her liver before the donation showed normal findings without any active hepatitis, and her serum was negative for HCV-RNA. Only 67 patients have undergone LT from a cadaveric donor in Japan. The family in this case decided to have living donor LT. A careful selection for the liver graft donation was made; however, since she was the only candidate, we approved her as a living donor. She was discharged nine days after the liver donation. Her liver function recovered immediately. A computed tomography scan showed sufficient liver regeneration one year later. Her brother also had good liver function after LT and had no HCV infection 48 months after surgery and no de novo malignancy. Neither of the siblings has developed an HCV infection. Conclusions A patient with SVR status after interferon therapy might be considered a candidate for living donor LT but only if there are no other possibilities of LT for the recipient. A careful follow-up of the donor after donation is needed. The recipient also must have a very close follow-up because it is difficult to predict what might happen to the graft with post-transplant immunosuppression.

  1. Differences in willingness to donate cadaveric organ between young donor families and adult donor families: evidence from the Hunan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-zhao; YE Qi-fa; LIU Wei; SHAO Ming-jie; WAN Qi-quan; LI Cui-ying; LUO Ai-jing

    2013-01-01

    Background The Red Cross of China and Ministry of Health jointly started a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death to overcome the shortage of available organs since 2010.The purpose of this qualitative study were to compare the consent rate of organ donation between young donor families and adult donor families; to explore and determine factors associated with differences in willingness to donate organs between them.Research objective was to provide a rationale for further preparation of professionals involved in this sensitive work.Methods Between March 2010 and June 2012,24 young deceased patients including donors and non-donors and 96 potential adult donors were collected,and consent rates of young donors' families and adult donors' families were calculated.A X2 test analysis to compare the consent rates of the two groups was conducted.We studied through semistructured interviews 15 parents of young donors and 15 relatives of old donors who were interviewed for petition of consent.Data collection and analysis of the overall study were performed according to the grounded theory methodology.Factors that influenced the families' decisions were identified and classified.We found the differences in willingness to donate organs between the two groups.Results The consent rate of young donor families was 66.67%,while the consent rate of adult donor families was 26.04%.Young donor families easily consented to organ donation than adult donor families (P<0.005).The donors' families had been affected by various factors throughout the process of deciding to give consent for donation.The findings led to the formulation of an empirically based model of interlinking categories that influence families' decision-making process in organ donation.These factors are grouped into five main categories:(1) personal factors,(2) conditions of organ request,(3) interpersonal factors,(4) ethical factors,and (5) traditional views.The funeral tradition influenced the young

  2. Prevalence and trends of transfusion transmitted infections among blood donors of blood bank attached to government hospital of South Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi H. Dobariya

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Prevalence of TTIs in the present study was lower as compare to other studies of the India. The reasons behind this finding may be better pre-donation counseling, better life style, higher proportion of voluntary blood donation (> 99% and high pre-donation deferral rate (11.17%. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(9.000: 4123-4127

  3. Clinical study on safety of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation in both donors and recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Liu; Ji-Chun Zhao; Yu-Kui Ma; Jiang-Wen Liu; Hong Wu; Lu-Nan Yan; Wen-Tao Wang; Bo Li; Yong Zeng; Tian-Fu Wen; Ming-Qing Xu; Jia-Yin Yang; Zhe-Yu Chen

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (A-A LDLT) in both donors and recipients.METHODS: From January 2002 to July 2006, 50 cases of A-A LDLT were performed at West China Hospital, Sichuan University, consisting of 47 cases using right lobe graft without middle hepatic vein (MHV), and 3 cases using dual grafts (one case using two left lobe, 2 using one right lobe and one left lobe). The most common diagnoses were hepatitis B liver cirrosis, 30 (60%) cases; and hepatocellular carcinoma, 15 (30%) cases in adult recipients. Among them, 10 cases had the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) with a score of more than 25. Donor screening consisted of reconstruction of the hepatic blood vessels and biliary system with 3-dimension computed tomography and volumetry of whole liver and right liver volume. Various improved surgical techniques were adopted in the procedures for both donors and recipients .RESULTS: Forty-nine right lobes and 3 left lobes (2 left lobe grafts for 1 recipient, 1 left lobe graft for 1 recipient who had received right lobe graft donated by relative living donor) were obtained from 52 living donors. The 49 right lobe grafts, without MHV, weighed 400 g-850 g (media 550 g), and the ratio of graft volume to recipient standard liver volume (GV/SLV) ranged from 31.74% to 71.68% (mean 45.35%). All donors' remnant liver volume was over 35% of the whole liver volume. There was no donor mortality. With a follow-up of 2-52 mo (media 9 mo), among 50 adult recipients, complications occurred in 13 (26%) cases and 4 (8%) died postoperatively within 3 mo. Their 1-year actual survival rate was 92%.CONCLUSION: When preoperative CT volumetry shows volume of remnant liver is more than 35%, the ratio of right lobe graft to recipients standard liver volume exceeding 40%, A-A LDLT using right lobe graft without MHV should be a very safe procedure for both donors and recipients, otherwise dual grafts liver transplantation

  4. Diamagnetic susceptibility of a confined donor in inhomogeneous quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, K.; Zorkani, I.; Jorio, A.

    2011-03-01

    The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility χdia are estimated for a shallow donor confined to move in GaAs-GaAlAs inhomogeneous quantum dots. The calculation was performed within the effective mass approximation and using the variational method. The results show that the binding energy and the diamagnetic susceptibility χdia depend strongly on the core radius and the shell radius. We have demonstrated that there is a critical value of the ratio of the inner radius to the outer radius which may be important for nanofabrication techniques. The binding energy Eb shows a minimum for a critical value of this ratio depending on the value of the outer radius and shows a maximum when the donor is placed at the center of the spherical layer. The diamagnetic susceptibility is more sensitive to variations of the radius for a large spherical layer. The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility depend strongly on the donor position.

  5. Ruthenium Complexes as NO Donors for Vascular Relaxation Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Galvão de Lima

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO donors are substances that can release NO. Vascular relaxation induction is among the several functions of NO, and the administration of NO donors is a pharmacological alternative to treat hypertension. This review will focus on the physicochemical description of ruthenium-derived NO donor complexes that release NO via reduction and light stimulation. In particular, we will discuss the complexes synthesized by our research group over the last ten years, and we will focus on the vasodilation and arterial pressure control elicited by these complexes. Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC and potassium channels are the main targets of the NO species released from the inorganic compounds. We will consider the importance of the chemical structure of the ruthenium complexes and their vascular effects.

  6. Declining prevalence of hepatitis E antibodies among Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Dorte K; Moessner, Belinda K; Engle, Ronald E;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of reported hepatitis E cases in Europe has focused attention on hepatitis E virus (HEV) and the risk of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to HEV (anti-HEV) among Danish blood donors in...... 2013 and to compare it to previous studies in Denmark. In addition we wanted to compare the relative reactivity of two different assays. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Samples from 504 blood donors were collected and analyzed for anti-HEV with an in-house assay developed at the National Institutes of Health...... (NIH). In addition the samples were analyzed with the Wantai anti-HEV assay. Demographic information and possible HEV exposure was collected by self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Using the NIH assay the prevalence of anti-HEV among Danish blood donors was 10.7% and with the Wantai assay the...

  7. Successful orthotopic heart transplantation using a donor heart with ALCAPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, J D; Mustafa, M; Fajardo Jaramillo, D P; Bellsham-Revell, H R; Marek, J; Burch, M; Tsang, V T; Muthialu, N

    2016-09-01

    With the imbalance between donation rates and potential recipients growing, transplant programs are increasingly using non-ideal organs from so-called marginal donors. This is the first reported case of the intentional use of a donor heart with ALCAPA. The recipient was aged one yr with restrictive cardiomyopathy who had been supported with BiVAD for over six months. Function of the donor left ventricle was shown to be well preserved, with no obvious signs of ischemia, except for a fibrotic layer on the anterolateral papillary muscle of the mitral valve. To prevent coronary steal, the anomalous left coronary artery ostium from the MPA was oversewn prior to implantation. The transplanted heart spontaneously regained sinus rhythm immediately following cross-clamp release and showed good contractility from the first postoperative echocardiogram. The patient continues to do well 18 months post-transplant, with excellent function on echocardiography, and good flow on coronary angiography. PMID:27384867

  8. A model of willingness to become a potential organ donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, R L; Horton, P J

    1991-01-01

    This article presents two models of the decision to become a potential organ donor. In the first model the act of carrying or requesting an organ donor card is related to values and factual knowledge regarding organ donation, through intervening attitude and willingness constructs. A sample of 286 students is used to test this model via the LISREL computer program for modeling latent variables. All hypothesized relationships had the predicted sign and were significant. This model is extended by adding the variables attitude towards death, prior blood donation, and age of subject to the model. A second sample of 365 adults from the local community is used to test the second model via LISREL. With two exceptions in the adult sample, all hypothesized relationships had the predicted sign and were significant. Where the two models overlap the results are generally similar. Implications of the models for marketing the act of becoming a potential organ donor are discussed. PMID:1771431

  9. Diamagnetic susceptibility of a confined donor in inhomogeneous quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility χdia are estimated for a shallow donor confined to move in GaAs-GaAlAs inhomogeneous quantum dots. The calculation was performed within the effective mass approximation and using the variational method. The results show that the binding energy and the diamagnetic susceptibility χdia depend strongly on the core radius and the shell radius. We have demonstrated that there is a critical value of the ratio of the inner radius to the outer radius which may be important for nanofabrication techniques. The binding energy Eb shows a minimum for a critical value of this ratio depending on the value of the outer radius and shows a maximum when the donor is placed at the center of the spherical layer. The diamagnetic susceptibility is more sensitive to variations of the radius for a large spherical layer. The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility depend strongly on the donor position.

  10. Spatial correlations of donor charges in MBE CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suski, T.; Wisniewski, P.; Litwin-Staszewska, E. [Unipress, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Wasik, D.; Przybytek, J.; Baj, M. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.; Zakrzewski, A.; Kossut, J. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    We present experimental evidence that at high pressures indium donors in CdTe localize electrons in spatially correlated manner. We have studied Hall mobility,{mu}{sub H}, as a function of electron concentration, n{sub H}, at T = 77 K. Changes of n{sub H} have been achieved by two methods. High pressure freeze-out of electrons onto localized states of In-donors leads to the mobility enhancement with respect to the situation when n{sub H} has been modified by means of a subsequent annealing of the sample. As a result, depending on the degree of spatial correlations in the impurity charges arrangement, different values of {mu}{sub H} correspond to the same value of n{sub H}. The variation of mobility with electron concentration suggests that the localized state of In-donor represents likely negatively charged DX state. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig.

  11. Electrochemical activation of a tetrathiafulvalene halogen bond donor in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R; Groni, S; Fave, C; Branca, M; Mavré, F; Lorcy, D; Fourmigué, M; Schöllhorn, B

    2016-06-21

    The halogen bond donor properties of iodo-tetrathiafulvalene (I-TTF) can be electrochemically switched and controlled via reversible oxidation in the solution phase. Interestingly the activation of only one single halogen bond yielded already a strong and selective interaction, quantified by cyclic voltammetry. The standard potentials of the redox couples I-TTF(0/1+) and I-TTF(1+/2+) were observed to shift upon the addition of halides. These anions selectively stabilize the cationic I-TTF species through halogen bonding in polar liquid electrolytes. The thermodynamic affinity constants for chloride and bromide binding to the oxidized species have been determined. Competition in halide binding between I-TTF(1+) and other halogen bond donors allowed for comparing the relative donor strength of the respective electrophilic species. Furthermore it has been shown that halogen bonding can prevail over hydrogen bonding in the investigated system. PMID:27231819

  12. Heart Procurement from a Donor on Venovenous ECMO Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal; Tsukashita, Masaki; Biscotti, Mauer; Costa, Joseph; Lambert, Daniel; Bacchetta, Matthew; Takayama, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 37-year-old woman with acute respiratory distress syndrome and became a candidate for organ donation after anoxic brain injury and was on a venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) support. On preoperative evaluation and gross examination, the donor's heart was acceptable for heart transplantation to a 62-year-old female patient with a history of nonischemic cardiomyopathy with a HeartMate II mechanical assist device. Orthotopic heart transplantation was successfully performed in the recipient. We report a case that suggests that the procurement of a heart from a donor on ECMO support can potentially expand the donor heart pool in carefully selected patients. PMID:26536537

  13. Using Sun’s Java Real-Time System to Manage Behavior-Based Mobile Robot Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McKenzie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementing a robot controller that can effectively manage limited resources in a deterministic, real-time manner is challenging. Behavior-based architectures that decompose autonomy into levels of intelligence are popular due to their robustness but do not provide real-time features that enforce timing constraints or support determinism. We propose an architecture and approach for using the real-time features of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ in a behavior-based mobile robot controller to show that timing constraints affect performance. This is accomplished by extending a real-time aware architecture that explicitly enumerates timing requirements for each behavior. It is not enough to reduce latency. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated via an implementation on Solaris 10 and the Sun Java Real-Time System (Java RTS. Experimental results are obtained using a K-team Koala robot performing path following with four composite behaviors. Experiments were conducted using several task period sets in three cases: real-time threads with the real-time garbage collector, real-time threads with the non- real-time garbage collector, and non-real-time threads with the non-real-time garbage collector. Results show that even if latency and determinism are improved, the timing of each individual behavior significantly affects task performance.

  14. Evaluation of living liver donors using contrast enhanced multidetector CT – The radiologists impact on donor selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a valuable and legitimate treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. Computed tomography (CT) has proven to be an important tool in the process of donor evaluation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of CT in the donor selection process. Between May 1999 and October 2010 170 candidate donors underwent biphasic CT. We retrospectively reviewed the results of the CT and liver volumetry, and assessed reasons for rejection. 89 candidates underwent partial liver resection (52.4%). Based on the results of liver CT and volumetry 22 candidates were excluded as donors (31% of the cases). Reasons included fatty liver (n = 9), vascular anatomical variants (n = 4), incidental finding of hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 1) and small (n = 5) or large for size (n = 5) graft volume. CT based imaging of the liver in combination with dedicated software plays a key role in the process of evaluation of candidates for LDLT. It may account for up to 1/3 of the contraindications for LDLT

  15. The impact of donor policies in Europe: a steady increase, but not everywhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blok Geke A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantable organs are scarce everywhere. Therefore, countries have developed policies to support the efficient use of potential donors. Nevertheless, the shortage of organs remains. Were these policies in vain? The aim of this study is to assess the impact of donor policies on donor procurement in 10 Western European countries from 1995 to 2005. Method To assess the impact of the donor policies we studied the conversion of potential donors into effectuated donors. 80% of the donors died from CVAs or a (traffic accident. We considered these mortality rates to be a good proxy for potential donors. Here we call the conversion of potential donors into actual donors 'the donor efficiency rate by proxy'. Results The mortality rates for CVA and (traffic accidents have decreased in the countries under study. At the same time, in most countries the donor efficiency rates have steadily increased. The variance in donor efficiency rates between countries has also increased from 1995 to 2005. Four countries introduced a new consent system or changed their existing system, without (visible long-term effects. Conclusion The overall increase in donor efficiency means that the efforts to improve donor policies have paid off. However, substantial differences between countries were found. The success of donor policies in terms of the number of absolute donors is blurred by the success of policies on traffic safety and CVA treatment. It remains unclear which specific policy measures are responsible for the increase in donor efficiency rates. This increase is not related to having a presumed consent system. Furthermore, an analysis of countries that introduced a new consent system or changed their system showed no effect on donor efficiency.

  16. Deceased donor skin allograft banking: Response and utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gore Madhuri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the absence of xenograft and biosynthetic skin substitutes, deceased donor skin allografts is a feasible option for saving life of patient with extensive burn injury in our country. Aims: The first deceased donor skin allograft bank in India became functional at Lokmanya Tilak Municipal (LTM medical college and hospital on 24 th April 2000. The response of Indian society to this new concept of skin donation after death and the pattern of utilization of banked allografts from 2000 to 2010 has been presented in this study. Settings and Design: This allograft skin bank was established by the department of surgery. The departments of surgery and microbiology share the responsibility of smooth functioning of the bank. Materials and Methods: The response in terms of number of donations and the profile of donors was analyzed from records. Pattern and outcome of allograft utilization was studied from specially designed forms. Results: During these ten years, 262 deceased donor skin allograft donations were received. The response showed significant improvement after counselling was extended to the community. Majority of the donors were above 70 years of age and procurement was done at home for most. Skin allografts from 249 donors were used for 165 patients in ten years. The outcome was encouraging with seven deaths in 151 recipients with burn injuries. Conclusions: Our experience shows that the Indian society is ready to accept the concept of skin donation after death. Use of skin allografts is life saving for large burns. We need to prepare guidelines for the establishment of more skin banks in the country.

  17. Monday blues of deceased-donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    See Ching Chan; Wing Chiu Dai; Chung Mau Lo; Banny Lam; Yuen Man Kwan; Wai Yi Ho; Sheung Tat Fan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a constant and global shortage of deceased-donor organs for transplantation. Ways to identify areas for securing potential deceased-donor organs may improve the supply and hence benefit more patients in need of transplantation. METHODS: We looked into the disparity of the number of deceased-donor liver transplantation (DDLT) performed at our hospital on different days of the weeks from January 2000 to the end of December 2009 (237 DDLTs). The number of DDLT performed on each day was compared with the other days of the week. RESULTS: It was apparent that there were fewer DDLTs on Mondays, as shown by the numbers of DDLT performed on different days of the week in an ascending order: Monday 18 (7.6%), Sunday 30 (12.7%), Thursday 34 (14.3%), Friday 36 (15.2%), Wednesday 38 (16.0%), Tuesday 40 (16.9%), and Saturday 41 (17.3%). The difference reached statistical significance when Monday was compared with Tuesday (P=0.019), Wednesday (P=0.010), Friday (P=0.021), and Saturday (P=0.007). It was twice as unlikely a DDLT would be performed on Monday as compared with other days. Such a trend did not change even with an increase in the number of deceased-donor liver grafts in the last year. As consent to donation was obtained from the donor family the day before DDLT, fewer consents were thus obtained on Sundays. CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that deceased-donor organ donation activities were less active on Sundays and could be improved. This further raises the concern of possible wastage of potential cases of organ donation.

  18. Family donors are critical and legitimate in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Allain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For many years, family blood donors have been considered less safe than volunteer non-remunerated blood donors and actively discouraged by international organisations and affluent countries support agencies for developing countries. In addition to safety, pressure and coercion was considered unethical. However these assumptions were not supported by evidence. Aims of the study: To assemble recently collected evidence to reopen the assessment whether or not the ban of family blood donors is justified. Methods: Review of old and recent literature through Pubmed and references from identified articles. Results and Discussion: Viral marker data comparing confirmed seroprevalence in 1 st time volunteer non-remunerated donors (VNRD and family/replacement donors (FRD corrected for gender and age, show no significant difference between the two groups. Evidence has been provided that for both VNRD and FAD benevolence is more appropriate than altruism. The two groups merge for psychological attitude to donation for which knowing someone needing transfusion is a powerful incentive to give blood. Excluding a life or death situation found in areas where severe blood shortage justifies replacement donation, pressures are exerted on both VNRD and FRD. There is no evidence of coercion of FRD. FRDs therefore meet all criteria for VNRD and are willing to become VNRD and to repeat donation. Ostracising FRD is illegitimate and damaging to the blood supply in resource poor areas. In some countries no difference is made between the two groups of donors representing similar populations asked to give blood in different circumstances. Conclusions: FRDs remain a critical source of volunteer, non-remunerated, blood meeting all classical criteria of VNRD that should be considered legitimate and indispensable at this point in time instead of discouraged.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of the cyanobenzene-ethylenedithio-TTF donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrina Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A dissymmetric TTF-type electron donor, cyanobenzene-ethylenedithio-tetrathiafulvalene (CNB-EDT-TTF, was obtained in high yield, by a cross-coupling reaction with triethyl phosphite between 2-thioxobenzo[d][1,3]dithiole-5-carbonitrile and 5,6-dihydro-[1,3]dithiolo[4,5-b][1,4]dithiin-2-one. This new donor was characterized namely by single crystal X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, NMR, UV-visible and IR spectroscopy.

  20. From Consumer Behavior to Donor Behavior: Adapting Marketing Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Moraes da Costa; Patrícia Regina Caldeira Daré; Andres Rodriguez Veloso

    2004-01-01

    This paper was prepared to identify the variables involved in the decision process of an individual who donates financial resources to nonprofit organizations. To this end a research was developed and applied to donors and non-donors, so that it would be possible to identify the factors involved in the process and from that prepare a model of the donor’s behavior, besides identifying the possible factors responsible for non-donation. In order to reach this objective the following stages were ...

  1. Donor-acceptor electron transport mediated by solitons.

    OpenAIRE

    Brizhik, L.; Piette, B. M. A. G.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the long-range electron and energy transfer mediated by solitons in a quasi-one-dimensional molecular chain (conjugated polymer, alpha-helical macromolecule, etc.) weakly bound to a donor and an acceptor. We show that for certain sets of parameter values in such systems an electron, initially located at the donor molecule, can tunnel to the molecular chain, where it becomes self-trapped in a soliton state, and propagates to the opposite end of the chain practically without energy dis...

  2. Lung Procurement from a Donor on ECMO Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewei, Ren; Abu Saleh, Walid K; Al Jabbari, Odeaa; Ramlawi, Basel; Bruckner, Brian A; Suarez, Eddie; Loebe, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old man with congestive heart failure who became a candidate for organ donation after anoxic brain injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) who was on a venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. On visualization, the donor's lung was acceptable for lung transplantation to a 68-year-old male patient with a chronic history of pulmonary fibrosis. Right single-lung implantation was successfully performed in the recipient. Herein, we report a case that highlights our institution's result suggesting that the use of a lung previously on ECMO support can safely and potentially expand the donor lung pool in carefully selected patients. PMID:25914956

  3. Recruitment of prospective donors: what do they expect from a homepage of a blood transfusion service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, R; Fourné, K

    2007-08-01

    In times of shrinking donor population, the recruitment of donors is of utmost importance. Recruitment can be done by personal communication, advertisement/information, classical mass media (newspaper, radio, TV) or new computerized media. The aim of this study was to gain information about the donors' demands of an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Between October and December 2004 inclusive, prospective donors were asked to complete a survey about the impact of Internet information for blood donors. The survey contained questions measuring demographics, education and motivation for blood donation. In addition, the survey included questions that measured Internet access, duration of online time and donors' demands for an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Donors were asked to tick a box with predefined answers. In cases where no options were applied, donors were requested to specify their answers. One hundred and fourteen prospective donors (71 female, 43 male) with a median age of 25 years (range 18-57 years) completed the survey. Most donors (57.9%) were 18-30 years old. Forty-two (36.8%) of the surveyed donors were repeat donors, whereas 72 (63.2%) were first-time donors. The majority of donors were informed about blood donation from relatives or friends (70.7% repeat donors and 67.7% first-time donors). Most of them had Internet access (85.7% repeat donors and 90.3% first-time donors). Exclusive use of private access was more often reported in repeat donors (77.8%), whereas both private and professional access was more frequently used in first-time donors (32.3%). Most donors used the Internet access daily, followed by weekly and monthly use. Multiple answers were given about the importance of desired information about the topic 'blood donation'. Both first-time and repeat donors wanted to be informed about organizational details of blood donation such as opening times, eligibility criteria, donation process and the kind

  4. Predictors of liver donation without kidney recovery in a cohort of expanded criteria donors: identifying opportunities to improve expanded criteria donor kidney utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S L; Leichtman, A B; O'Connor, K; Lipkowitz, G; Pietroski, R; Stoff, J S; Luskin, R S; Belcher, J; Meyer, K; Merion, R M; Port, F K; Delmonico, F L

    2012-09-01

    To maximize deceased donation, it is necessary to facilitate organ recovery from expanded criteria donors (ECDs). Utilization of donors meeting the kidney definition for ECDs increases access to kidney transplantation and reduces waiting times; however, ECDs often do not proceed to kidney recovery. Based on a prospective study of three Organ Procurement Organizations in the United States, we describe the characteristics of donors meeting the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (OPTN) ECD kidney definition (donor age 60+ or donor age 50-60 years with two of the following: final serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL, history of hypertension, or death from cerebral vascular accident) who donated a liver without kidney recovery. ECDs with organs recovered between February 2003 and September 2005 by New England Organ Bank, Gift of Life Michigan, and LifeChoice Donor Services were studied (n = 324). All donors were declared dead by neurological criteria. Data on a wide range of donor characteristics were collected, including donor demographics, medical history, cause of death, donor status during hospitalization, serological status, and donor kidney quality. Logistic regression models were used to identify donor characteristics predictive of liver-alone donation. Seventy-four of the 324 donors fulfilling the ECD definition for kidneys donated a liver alone (23%). History of diabetes, final serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL, age 70+, and presence of proteinuria were associated with liver-alone donation in univariate models. On multivariate analysis, only final serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and age 70+ were independently predictive of liver donation alone. Older age and elevated serum creatinine may be perceived as stronger contraindications to kidney donation than the remaining elements of the ECD definition. It is likely that at least a proportion of these liver-alone donors represent missed opportunities for kidney transplantation. PMID:22974959

  5. Henan Surveys Blood Donors to Aid AIDS Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Central China's Henan Province, one of the worst AIDS-hit provinces in the country, launched a sweeping survey in September of past blood donors to ascertain tile number of HIV-infected individuals to aid AIDS prevention and control work.

  6. Glucosamine derived DISAL donors for stereoselective glycosylations under neutral conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grathe, S.; Thygesen, M.B.; Larsen, K.; Petersen, L.; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    DISAL (methyl 3,5-dinitrosa/icylate) D-glcosyl, D-galactosyl, D-mannosyl, and L-quinovosyl donors have previously provided the efficient glycosylation of a range of substrates under either strictly neutral, mildly basic, or very mildly Lewis acidic (LiClO4) conditions. Herein we report the synthe...

  7. National Marrow Donor Program and Be The Match Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Bone Marrow Transplants The National Marrow Donor Program and Be The Match Registry Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents Creating connections. Saving lives. Founded in 1987 by the federal government, the ...

  8. Central role of altruism in the recruitment of gamete donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Guido

    2015-03-01

    This paper explores problems associated with using altruism as the central value in gamete donation, and in doing so draws on empirical data that sheds light on why gamete donors choose to donate. Donation of bodily material is, arguably, supposed to be motivated by altruism, and this is the view taken by many European governments. Other values are often ignored or rejected as morally inappropriate. This paper analyses some conceptual and practical problems with the use of altruism as the motivation to determine moral acceptability-drawing on empirical data that suggests gamete donors are not motivated purely by altruism, and that motivations are in fact quite complex. Two problems are first analysed: (1) how do we distinguish altruistic from non-altruistic donations and (2) how do we distinguish between removing barriers and providing incentives. A final question, triggered by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics' report, is whether the meaning of the payment should be decided on the basis of an a priori definition or on the basis of the donors' subjective experience. It is concluded that there are different legitimate core values in donation, which should be balanced. In order to value the good generated by donation, donors with mixed motives should be accepted, as long as helping others is an important motive and also features in their motivation. PMID:25743052

  9. Treatment of Ebola Virus Infection with Antibodies from Reconvalescent Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Kreil, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that antibodies from reconvalescent donors (persons who have recovered from infection) may be effective in the treatment of Ebola virus infection. Administration of this treatment to Ebola virus–infected patients while preventing the transmission of other pathogenic viruses may be best accomplished by use of virus-inactivated reconvalescent plasma.

  10. Donor-Acceptor Chromophores based on Acetylenic Scaffolds and Indenofluorenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel Andreas

    The work described in this thesis has been focused on synthesizing donor-acceptor chromophores with conjugated π-bridges. It has also led to the development of an alternative synthetic tool for acetylenic scaffolding. The first chapter focuses on the nitrophenol D-π-A system – A phenol in...

  11. Brain death and care of the organ donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Brain death has specific implications for organ donation with the potential for saving several lives. Awareness on maintenance of the brain dead has increased over the last decade with the progress in the field of transplant. The diagnosis of brain death is clinical and can be confirmed by apnea testing. Ancillary tests can be considered when the apnea test cannot be completed or is inconclusive. Reflexes of spinal origin may be present and should not be confused against the diagnosis of brain death. Adequate care for the donor targeting hemodynamic indices and lung protective ventilator strategies can improve graft quality for donation. Hormone supplementation using thyroxine, antidiuretic hormone, corticosteroid and insulin has shown to improve outcomes following transplant. India still ranks low compared to the rest of the world in deceased donation. The formation of organ sharing networks supported by state governments has shown a substantial increase in the numbers of deceased donors primarily by creating awareness and ensuring protocols in caring for the donor. This review describes the steps in the establishment of brain death and the management of the organ donor. Material for the review was collected through a Medline search, and the search terms included were brain death and organ donation. PMID:27275040

  12. Hypoalbuminemia in Donors with Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, L.; Middeldorp, J. M.; Hulzebos, C. V.; Oepkes, D.; Walther, F. J.; Lopriore, E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the differences in albumin levels between donors and recipients with twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Methods: We performed a matched case-control study including twin pairs with TTTS treated conservatively (conservative group) or with fetoscopic laser surgery (laser gro

  13. The ethical debate on donor insemination in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Juhong; Dessein, Bart; Pennings, Guido

    2010-06-01

    This article gives an overview of the ethical thinking about donor insemination among Chinese ethicists. We analysed the ethical arguments dedicated to the use of donor spermatozoa published in the important bioethics journals of China of the last 15 years. On the one hand, the general Confucian values strongly favour the genetic link as it fits with the traditional importance attached to the continuation of the family line. Therefore, artificial insemination by donor (AID) is highly controversial in China because the involvement of a third party (the donor) severs the genetic link between the husband and his family. On the other hand, procreation is regarded as an important aspect of Confucian filial piety and it is a basic right of every human being to enjoy a family life. AID should be thought of as a means to help infertile couples to overcome infertility. Nowadays, Chinese bioethicists are trying to reinterpret Confucianism in order to adapt it to modernity. One such reinterpretation focuses on the affectionate rather than the genetic tie between parents and child. As the application is still new in China, more discussion and open debate on ethical aspects is needed. PMID:20400375

  14. Glucosamine derived DISAL donors for stereoselective glycosylations under neutral conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grathe, S.; Thygesen, M.B.; Larsen, K.;

    2005-01-01

    the synthesis of new glucosamine DISAL donors, carrying N-TCP, -Troc, or -TFAc protecting groups, and their use in beta-(1,2-trans) selective glycosylations, primarily in NMP in the absence of any added Lewis acids, or in CH3NO2 with LiClO4. Finally, precise microwave heating proved effective in promoting...

  15. Renal allograft tuberculosis with infected lymphocele transmitted from the donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ali Al-Nesf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of tuberculosis (TB from a donor through renal transplantation is a rare incident. We are reporting a 53-year-old Qatari woman diagnosed with renal allograft TB infection. The disease was confirmed by isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from fluid from the lymphocele and demonstration of caseating granuloma in graft biopsy with acid-fast bacilli seen on Ziehl-Neelsen staining. The diagnosis was made quite early post-transplantation. The presence of the granuloma, which is unusual with patients on intensive immunosuppressant medications, suggests that transmission of the infection occurred from the donor rather than from the activation of latent infection. In reviewing the literature, we found ten case reports of TB in transplanted kidney with transmission of TB infection from the donor. The presence of TB in lymphocele in association with the infected transplant by TB, to the best of our knowledge, was reported only once in the literature. Our case had unfavorable outcome and ended by renal allograft nephrectomy and hemodialysis. We are presenting this case of TB infection of renal allograft and lymphocele diagnosed early post-transplantation transmitted from the donor and pertinent review from the literature.

  16. Donor Financing of Basic Education: Opportunities and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Liesbet; Wathne, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    Much progress has been made in improving access to basic education in recent years, but international support has been less than promised and the "funding gap" to achieve universal primary education remains stubbornly present. This article identifies six interrelated factors that constrain such donor financing. Prioritization of basic education,…

  17. 21 CFR 640.3 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.3 Section 640.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS...; and (7) Freedom of the arms and forearms from skin punctures or scars indicative of addiction to...

  18. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.63 Section 640.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... arms and forearms from skin punctures or scars indicative of addiction to self-injected narcotics;...

  19. Brain death induces apoptosis in donor liver of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, JAB; Moshage, H; Schuurs, T; Nijboer, M; van Schilfgaarde, R; Ploeg, RJ

    2003-01-01

    Background. A difference in short- and long-term function between living-related and cadaveric donor organs is consistently shown in kidney- and liver-transplant studies. We hypothesize that this is caused by induction of apoptosis and inflammation of the potential graft because of the phase of brai

  20. Preservation techniques for donors after cardiac death kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, J.; Hoogland, E.R.; Heurn, L.W. van

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the present review is to describe the techniques currently used to preserve kidneys from donors after cardiac death. RECENT FINDINGS: Automated chest compression devices may be used to improve organ perfusion between cardiac death and preservation measures. Normothe

  1. Kidneys from donors after cardiac death provide survival benefit.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeijs, M.G.; Schaubel, D.E.; Hene, R.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Idu, M.M.; Ijzermans, J.N.M.; Ploeg, R.J.; Ringers, J.; Christiaans, M.H.; Buurman, W.A.; Heurn, L.W.E. van

    2010-01-01

    The continuing shortage of kidneys for transplantation requires major efforts to expand the donor pool. Donation after cardiac death (DCD) increases the number of available kidneys, but it is unknown whether patients who receive a DCD kidney live longer than patients who remain on dialysis and wait

  2. Kidneys from donors after cardiac death provide survival benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Snoeijs (Maarten); D.E. Schaubel (Douglas); R. Hené (Ronald); A.J. Hoitsma (Andries); M.M. Idu (Mirza); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); R.J. Ploeg (Rutger); J. Ringers; M.H. Christiaans (Maarten); W.A. Buurman; L.W.E. van Heurn (Ernest)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe continuing shortage of kidneys for transplantation requires major efforts to expand the donor pool. Donation after cardiac death (DCD) increases the number of available kidneys, but it is unknown whether patients who receive a DCD kidney live longer than patients who remain on dialys

  3. Successful living donor liver transplant in a very small child

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar; Raman Raina

    2010-01-01

    Liver transplantation in small children poses perioperative challenges that are different from those seen in adults. We present our successful anaesthetic experience in a 7-month-old infant who has been the youngest case of successful living donor liver transplant performed in our institution till the day this article was being prepared.

  4. Organic Metals. Systematic Molecular Modifications of Hexamethylenetetraheterofulvalene Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engler, E. M.; Patel, V. V.; Andersen, Jan Rud; Schumaker, R. R.; Fukushima, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Two synthetic approaches for modifying hexamethylenetetraheterofulvalene donors are described for the purpose of perturbing in a systematic way the interesting solid state properties of the TCNQ salts of the parent systems. The first approach consists of a steric modification in which a methyl gr...

  5. Complement and renal transplantation : From donor to recipient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, Jeffrey; Schuurs, Theo A.; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Seelen, Marc A.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term kidney graft survival is affected by different variables including donor condition, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and graft rejection during the transplantation process. The complement system is an important mediator of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and in rejecting allografts. However,

  6. Clomiphene based ovarian stimulation in a commercial donor program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to compare an extended clomiphene-based ovarian stimulation regimen with the conventional antagonist protocol in donor-recipient cycles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 170 (N donors were stimulated between January 2013 and December 2013. Conventional antagonist protocol (group I was employed in (n1 = 31 cycles, and clomiphene was used in (n2 = 139 donor cycles (group II. 50 mg clomiphene was given simultaneously with gonadotropins from day 2 of the cycle until the day of trigger. The analysis was performed retrospectively for oocytes retrieved, fertilization rates, cycle cancelation, blastocyst formation, and pregnancy rates. The dosages, cost, and terminal E2 (estradiol were also compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The donor age groups were comparable in both the groups. There were no unsuccessful egg retrievals with clomiphene. The pregnancy rate (positive beta human chorionic gonadotropin was significantly higher in the clomiphene group (odds ratio: 2.453; P = 0.02. Similarly, fertilization rate was significantly higher in the clomiphene group (59.5/50.5, P = 0.04. Eggs retrieved were similar in both groups, but the terminal E2 was significantly higher in the clomiphene group (P = 0.001. Average gonadotropin used was also significantly lower in clomiphene group (P < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Clomiphene can effectively prevent luteinizing hormone surge and limit the dose of gonadotropins thus bringing down the costs and its negative impact on the endometrium and oocyte quality.

  7. Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy in Complete Situs Inversus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahagan, John V; Whealon, Matthew D; Reddy, Uttam; Foster, Clarence E; Ichii, Hirohito

    2016-01-01

    Complete situs inversus is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by transposition of organs. We report a case of renal transplantation using a kidney from a living complete situs inversus donor. The recipient was a 59-year-old female with end-stage renal disease because of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The donor was the 56-year-old sister of the recipient with complete situs inversus. CT angiogram of the abdomen and pelvis showed complete situs inversus and an otherwise normal appearance of the bilateral kidneys with patent bilateral single renal arteries and longer renal vein in the right kidney. The patient was taken to the operating room for a hand-assisted laparoscopic right donor nephrectomy. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged home in good condition on postoperative day 1. The recipient experienced no episodes of acute rejection or infection, with serum creatinine levels of 0.8-1.2 mg/dL. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy in a patient with complete situs inversus remains a technically feasible operation and the presence of situs inversus should not preclude consideration for living kidney donation. PMID:27579434

  8. Improving Organ Donor Registration Using Kiosks in Primary Care Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Ali; Berry, Cherisse; Ley, Eric J.; Schulman, Danielle; Anderson, Jacqueline; Navarro, Sonia; Zheng, Ling; Chan, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the USA, organ donor shortage is especially pronounced among minority ethnic populations such as Hispanics, who are 60% less likely to donate compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Recent evidence suggests that US Hispanics may consent to organ donation via a registry within a doctor's office. The objective of this study was to investigate…

  9. Oxidative activation of dihydropyridine amides to reactive acyl donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Erik Daa; Trads, Julie Brender; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2015-01-01

    Amides of 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) are activated by oxidation for acyl transfer to amines, alcohols and thiols. In the reduced form the DHP amide is stable towards reaction with amines at room temperature. However, upon oxidation with DDQ the acyl donor is activated via a proposed pyridinium...

  10. Fullerene derivatives as electron donor for organic photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrated the performance of unconventional, all-fullerene-based, planar heterojunction (PHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells using fullerene derivatives indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) and phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester as the electron donors with fullerene C70 as the electron acceptor. Two different charge generation processes, including charge generation in the fullerene bulk and exciton dissociation at the donor-acceptor interface, have been found to exist in such all-fullerene-based PHJ cells and the contribution to the total photocurrent from each process is strongly dependent on the thickness of fullerene donor. The optimized 5 nm ICBA/40 nm C70 PHJ cell gives clear external quantum efficiency responses for the long-wavelength photons corresponding to the dissociation of strongly bound Frenkel excitons, which is hardly observed in fullerene-based single layer reference devices. This approach using fullerene as a donor material provides further possibilities for developing high performance OPV cells

  11. Organic Metals. Systematic Molecular Modifications of Hexamethylenetetraheterofulvalene Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engler, E. M.; Patel, V. V.; Andersen, Jan Rud;

    1978-01-01

    Two synthetic approaches for modifying hexamethylenetetraheterofulvalene donors are described for the purpose of perturbing in a systematic way the interesting solid state properties of the TCNQ salts of the parent systems. The first approach consists of a steric modification in which a methyl...

  12. Can the rat donor liver tolerate prolonged warm ischemia ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Qi Yan; Hong Wei Li; Wei Yao Cai; Ming Jun Zhang; Wei Ping Yang

    2000-01-01

    The last two decades of the twentieth century have witnessed increasingly successful rates of liver transplantation. The number of liver transplantations has increased steadily while the number of organ donors has remained relatively constant. Thus a great disparity has developed between the demand and supply of donor organs and remains a major limiting factor for further expansion of liver transplantation. Although many procedures, such as split liver[1] , living-related transplantation[2] , and xenotransplantation[3], have been attempted clinically to overcome the shortage, it is hoped that livers harvested from non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) would alleviatethe problem of organ shortage, which again becomes the focus of attention[4-9]. However, sensitivity of the liver to warm ischemia remains a major worry for use of theNHBDs. The aim of this animal study was to assess if murine liver could tolerate prolonged period of warm ischemia and to determine the optimum timing of intervention in the cadaver donor in order to preserve liver viability.

  13. Normothermic donor heart perfusion: current clinical experience and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Simon; Ardehali, Abbas; Tsui, Steven

    2015-06-01

    Following the first successful heart transplant in 1967, more than 100,000 heart transplants have been carried out worldwide. These procedures have mostly relied on cold ischaemic preservation of the donor heart because this simple technique is inexpensive and relatively reliable. However, the well-known limitations of cold ischaemic preservation imposes significant logistical challenges to heart transplantation which put a ceiling on the immediate success on this life-saving therapy, and limits the number of donor hearts that can be safely transplanted annually. Although the theoretical advantages of normothermic donor heart perfusion have been recognised for over a century, the technology to transport donor hearts in this state has only been developed within the last decade. The Organ Care System (OCS) which is designed and manufactured by TransMedics Inc. is currently the only commercially available device with this capability. This article reviews the history of normothermic heart perfusion and the clinical experience with the TransMedics OCS to date. We have also attempted to speculate on the future possibilities of this innovative and exciting technology. PMID:24853906

  14. Changing pattern of utilization of human donor cornea in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Gogia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review the changing pattern of donor, corneal utilization in an eye bank at a Tertiary Care Center in Northern India by analyzing the trend in the years 2003, 2008, and 2011. Methods: A retrospective review of eye bank records for 3 years (2003, 2008, and 2011 was performed at the National Eye Bank. Details including a clinical grade of donor cornea, indication of corneal transplantation (therapeutic or optical, type of procedure (penetrating or lamellar keratoplasty [LK], and clinical diagnosis of the graft recipients were recorded. Primary outcome measure was to observe any preference toward LK, judicious usage of donor corneal tissue, and impact of lamellar corneal transplant in the usage of donor corneas. Secondary outcomes included overall utilization rate and change in trend of indication for keratoplasty. Results: A total of 673, 745, and 864 corneas were retrieved in the years 2003, 2008, and 2011, respectively. The percentage of donor corneal utilization increased significantly over time with the rate being 65.08%, 70.06%, and 68.29%, respectively, in the years 2003, 2008, and 2011 (P = 0.014; however, this change was reflected only in the usage of nonoptical grade corneas and not for the optical grade corneas. There was an overall increase in lamellar corneal procedures for any clinical grade of cornea (P = 0.0019; number of Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK procedures increased significantly (P < 0.001, particularly for pseudophakic corneal edema (PCE (P = 0.0085 and failed graft (P = 0.002. Significant increase in the utilization of nonoptical grade corneas was observed over the years (P = 0.005, though the utilization did not increase significantly for optical purposes viz., LK (P = 0.08. Conclusions: Utilization rate of donor corneas increased over the years, primarily due to increase in usage of nonoptical grade corneas for therapeutic purposes. There was a procedural shift toward DSAEK for

  15. Der Einfluss einer intermittierenden Eisensubstitution auf den Eisenhaushalt von Blutspendern bei maximaler Spendefrequenz

    OpenAIRE

    Kelle, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The collection of blood or blood components is mandatory for securing patients’ medical care. A large number of regular blood donors develop an iron deficiency, which leads to deferral from blood donation. Temporary deferral has a strong influence on donor contentment and often results in a more rapid loss of these donors. Not least there is the ethical responsibility for protecting donors’ health. This leads to the necessity of providing donors with oral iron supplementation, but th...

  16. New measures of mental state and behavior based on data collected from sensors, smartphones, and the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Tasha; Monteith, Scott

    2014-12-01

    With the rapid and ubiquitous acceptance of new technologies, algorithms will be used to estimate new measures of mental state and behavior based on digital data. The algorithms will analyze data collected from sensors in smartphones and wearable technology, and data collected from Internet and smartphone usage and activities. In the future, new medical measures that assist with the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of psychiatric disorders will be available despite unresolved reliability, usability, and privacy issues. At the same time, similar non-medical commercial measures of mental state are being developed primarily for targeted advertising. There are societal and ethical implications related to the use of these measures of mental state and behavior for both medical and non-medical purposes. PMID:25308392

  17. Insights from Smart Meters. Identifying Specific Actions, Behaviors and Characteristics that drive savings in Behavior-Based Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perry, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pacific Gas & Electric, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sullivan, Michael [Nexant, San Francisco, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    In this report, we use smart meter data to analyze specific actions, behaviors, and characteristics that drive energy savings in a behavior-based (BB) program. Specifically, we examine a Home Energy Report (HER) program. These programs typically obtain 1% to 3% annual savings, and recent studies have shown hourly savings of between 0.5% and 3%. But what is driving these savings? What types of households tend to be “high-savers”, and what behaviors are they adopting? There are several possibilities: one-time behaviors (e.g., changing thermostat settings); reoccurring habitual behaviors (e.g., turning off lights); and equipment purchase behaviors (e.g., energy efficient appliances), and these may vary across households, regions, and over time.

  18. Antibacterial effect of glycerol as preservative on donor skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycerolised cadavetic allografts have been used widely since 1984 in the treatment of bum wounds. Rejections reaction to glycerolised skin were reported to be attenuated. Structural integrity of the skin was maintained and antiviral and antibacterial effects were noted. The Euro Skin Bank has gathered approximately 2000 data since 1987 concerning bacteriology cultures of glycerolised skin. These data are presented. Bacteriological data from skin donors were examined from 1987 till 1995 (1927 data). Donor skin sent to the laboratory and found to be positive for bacteria was quarantined and another container with skin samples was sent to the laboratory at a later time point. This was repeated until all cultures were negative. In 1987, 25 donors were processed without using antibiotics. These results were compared with donor skin treated with antibiotics. The average day for first culture was 19.7 ? 17.2. The average percentage of contaminated skin was 10.1? 3.7%. Antibiotics reduced contamination of glycerolised skin from 80% to 10.1%. Glycerol treatment also showed an antibacterial effect as all contaminated skin eventually became negative. Of the contaminated skin Staphylococcus epidermidis was found most frequently: in 70.7 ? 10.8% of the cases. Not all bacteria are equally sensitive to glycerol: Staphylococcus epidennidis contaminated skin became sterile after 48?24 days, whereas for Bacillus species it took 195? 1 37.9 days. We show that glycerol preservation of donor skin has important advantages over conservative methods such as cryopreservation. Initial contamination of the skin is no longer a reason to discard the material. Prolonged storage in glycerol will eliminate bacterial contamination. This allows an increase in yield of at least 10%

  19. The OPTN Deceased Donor Potential Study: Implications for Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, D K; Edwards, L B; Stewart, D E; Glazier, A K; Orlowski, J P; Berg, C L

    2016-06-01

    The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) Deceased Donor Potential Study, funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration, characterized the current pool of potential deceased donors and estimated changes through 2020. The goal was to inform policy development and suggest practice changes designed to increase the number of donors and organ transplants. Donor estimates used filtering methodologies applied to datasets from the OPTN, the National Center for Health Statistics, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and used these estimates with the number of actual donors to estimate the potential donor pool through 2020. Projected growth of the donor pool was 0.5% per year through 2020. Potential donor estimates suggested unrealized donor potential across all demographic groups, with the most significant unrealized potential (70%) in the 50-75-year-old age group and potential Donation after Circulatory Death (DCD) donors. Actual transplants that may be realized from potential donors in these categories are constrained by confounding medical comorbidities not identified in administrative databases and by limiting utilization practices for organs from DCD donors. Policy, regulatory, and practice changes encouraging organ procurement and transplantation of a broader population of potential donors may be required to increase transplant numbers in the United States. PMID:26813036

  20. Adverse Reactions in Allogeneic Blood Donors: A Tertiary Care Experience from a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sadia; Baig, Mohammad Amjad; Irfan, Syed Mohammed; Ahmed, Syed Ijlal; Hasan, Syeda Faiza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Fragmented blood transfusion services along with an unmotivated blood donation culture often leads to blood shortage. Donor retention is crucial to meet the increasing blood demand, and adverse donor reactions have a negative impact on donor return. The aim of this study was to estimate adverse donor reactions and identify any demographic association.   Methods We conducted a prospective study between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 41,759 healthy donors were enrolled. Professionally trained donor attendants drew blood and all donors were observed during and following donation for possible adverse events for 20 minutes. Blood donors were asked to report if they suffered from any delayed adverse consequences.   Results Out of 41,759 blood donors, 537 (1.3%) experienced adverse reactions. The incidence was one in every 78 donations. The mean age of donors who experienced adverse events was 26.0±6.8 years, and all were male. Out of 537 donors, 429 (80%) developed vasovagal reaction (VVR), 133 (25%) had nausea, 63 (12%) fainted, 35 (6%) developed hyperventilation, 9 (2%) had delayed syncope, and 9 (2%) developed hematoma. Arterial prick, nerve injury, cardiac arrest, and seizures were not observed. Donors aged less than importance of these parameters in the donation process. A well-trained and experienced phlebotomist and pre-evaluation counseling of blood donors could further minimize the adverse reactions.