Sample records for behavior therapy-based psychotherapy

  1. [Functional Analytic Psychotherapy: Approaches and scope of behavior therapy based on changes in the therapeutic context]. (United States)

    Muñoz-Martínez, Amanda M; Coletti, Juan P


    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a therapeutic approach developed in 'third wave therapies' context. FAP is characterized by use therapeutic relationship and the behaviors emit into it to improve clients daily life functioning. This therapeutic model is supported in behavior analysis principles and contextual functionalism philosophy. FAP proposes that clients behavior in session are functional equivalent with those out of session; therefore, when therapists respond to clients behaviors in session contingently, they promote and increase improvements in the natural setting. This article poses main features of FAP, its philosophical roots, achievements and research challenges to establish FAP as an independent treatment based on the evidence.


    Muñoz-Martínez, Amanda M; Coletti, Juan Pablo


    Abstract Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a therapeutic approach developed in context. FAP is characterized by use therapeutic relationship and the behaviors emit into it to improve clients daily life functioning. This therapeutic model is supported in behavior analysis principles and contextual functionalism philosophy. FAP proposes that clients behavior in session are functional equivalent with those out of session; therefore, when therapists respond to clients behaviors in session contingently, they promote and increase improvements in the natural setting. This article poses main features of FAP, its philosophical roots, achievements and research challenges to establish FAP as an independent treatment based on the evidence.

  3. Psychotherapies (United States)

    ... Dealing with a difficult transition, such as a divorce, children leaving home, job difficulties, or the death ... Association for Behavioral Therapies American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry American Psychiatric ...

  4. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP): A Review of Publications from 1990 to 2010 (United States)

    Mangabeira, Victor; Kanter, Jonathan; Del Prette, Giovana


    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP), a therapy based on radical behaviorism, establishes the priority of the therapeutic interaction as a mechanism of change in psychotherapy. Since the first book on FAP appeared in 1991, it has been the focus of many papers and has been incorporated by the community of behavior therapists. This paper is a…

  5. Therapists' Attitudes Towards Psychotherapeutic Strategies in Community-Based Psychotherapy with Children with Disruptive Behavior Problems


    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Garland, Ann F.; Taylor, Robin; Zoffness, Rachel


    Little is known about what individual treatment strategies therapists providing usual care psychotherapy consider the most valuable to their practice. The Therapeutic Strategies Survey (TSS) assesses therapists' attitudes about the value of 27 individual treatment strategies in their practice with children with disruptive behavior problems in community-based outpatient psychotherapy. Findings indicate that therapists from multiple professional disciplines highly value many individual psychoth...

  6. Therapists' attitudes towards psychotherapeutic strategies in community-based psychotherapy with children with disruptive behavior problems. (United States)

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Garland, Ann F; Taylor, Robin; Zoffness, Rachel


    Little is known about what individual treatment strategies therapists providing usual care psychotherapy consider the most valuable to their practice. The Therapeutic Strategies Survey (TSS) assesses therapists' attitudes about the value of 27 individual treatment strategies in their practice with children with disruptive behavior problems in community-based outpatient psychotherapy. Findings indicate that therapists from multiple professional disciplines highly value many individual psychotherapeutic strategies, and consider strategies common to a majority of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for this population at least as important as strategies not emphasized in EBPs. Implications for developing therapist training and implementation of EBPs are discussed.

  7. Compliments and accounts : Positive evaluation of reported behavior in psychotherapy for adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Margot; De Winter, Andrea F.; Metselaar, Janneke; Knorth, Erik J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Huiskes, Mike


    Based on conversation analysis (CA) of video-recorded therapy sessions, the article explicates a particular interactional project of positively evaluating client-reported behavior in psychotherapy. The analysis focuses on the therapist's actions that convey a positive evaluation of client-reported b

  8. Pretreatment and Process Predictors of Outcome in Interpersonal and Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy for Binge Eating Disorder (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Saelens, Brian E.; Stein, Richard I.; Mockus, Danyte S.; Welch, R. Robinson; Matt, Georg E.; Wilfley, Denise E.


    The present study examined pretreatment and process predictors of individual nonresponse to psychological group treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized trial, 162 overweight patients with BED were treated with either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group interpersonal psychotherapy. Treatment nonresponse, which was defined…

  9. Case Management as a Significant Component of Usual Care Psychotherapy for Youth with Disruptive Behavior Problems (United States)

    Zoffness, Rachel; Garland, Ann; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Roesch, Scott


    Youth with disruptive behavior problems (DBPs) represent the majority of youth served in usual care (UC) psychotherapy, and are at high risk for maladaptive outcomes. Little is known about UC psychotherapeutic strategies utilized with this population. Researchers and clinicians suggest that case management (CM) is a major activity occurring in…

  10. Psychodynamic psychotherapy versus cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder: An efficacy and partial effectiveness trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bögels; P. Wijts; F.J. Oort; S.J.M. Sallaerts


    Objectives: Comparing the overall and differential effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT) versus cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Design: Patients with a primary SAD (N = 47) were randomly assigned to PDT (N = 22) or CBT (N = 27). Both PDT and CBT consisted o

  11. What Works for People with Mental Retardation? Critical Commentary on Cognitive-Behavioral and Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Research. (United States)

    Beail, Nigel


    This paper reviews what is known about the effectiveness of the more controversial use of psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy with people who have mental retardation. It examines self-management approaches (problem solving, anger management, and cognitive therapy) and psychodynamic psychotherapy. The paper concludes that there has…

  12. Neuroimaging mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for addictive behaviors: emerging translational approaches that bridge biology and behavior. (United States)

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Chung, Tammy


    Research on mechanisms of behavior change provides an innovative method to improve treatment for addictive behaviors. An important extension of mechanisms of change research involves the use of translational approaches, which examine how basic biological (i.e., brain-based mechanisms) and behavioral factors interact in initiating and sustaining positive behavior change as a result of psychotherapy. Articles in this special issue include integrative conceptual reviews and innovative empirical research on brain-based mechanisms that may underlie risk for addictive behaviors and response to psychotherapy from adolescence through adulthood. Review articles discuss hypothesized mechanisms of change for cognitive and behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based interventions, and neuroeconomic approaches. Empirical articles cover a range of addictive behaviors, including use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and pathological gambling and represent a variety of imaging approaches including fMRI, magneto-encephalography, real-time fMRI, and diffusion tensor imaging. Additionally, a few empirical studies directly examine brain-based mechanisms of change, whereas others examine brain-based indicators as predictors of treatment outcome. Finally, two commentaries discuss craving as a core feature of addiction, and the importance of a developmental approach to examining mechanisms of change. Ultimately, translational research on mechanisms of behavior change holds promise for increasing understanding of how psychotherapy may modify brain structure and functioning and facilitate the initiation and maintenance of positive treatment outcomes for addictive behaviors.

  13. Mobile technology boosts the effectiveness of psychotherapy and behavioral interventions: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B; Rosen, Dana; Silk, Jennifer


    We conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of mobile technology on treatment outcome for psychotherapy and other behavioral interventions. Our search of the literature resulted in 26 empirical articles describing 25 clinical trials testing the benefits of smartphone applications, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or text messaging systems either to supplement treatment or substitute for direct contact with a clinician. Overall, mobile technology use was associated with superior treatment outcome across all study designs and control conditions, effect size (ES) = .34, p mobile technology using a rigorous "Treatment" versus "Treatment + Mobile" design, effect sizes were only slightly more modest (ES = .27) and still significant (p mobile technology for the delivery of psychotherapy and other behavioral interventions.

  14. Methodology for Naturalistic Observation of Therapist Behavior in Group Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Weiss, Leslie Bloch

    This paper presents a research method derived from the functional analysis of behavior currently common among operant behavior therapists. Naturalistic observation, the method used, encompasses behavioral-level description of events, systematic observation and recording by means of codes, assessment of inter-judge reliability, as well as targeting…

  15. Trauma and Psychotherapy: Implications from a Behavior Analysis Perspective (United States)

    Prather, Walter


    Attachment theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding trauma and the treatment of abuse in children. This article examines attachment theory and traditional models of family therapy from the perspective of behavior analysis, and provides a rationale for a behavioral treatment approach for abused children and their foster or…

  16. Attachment as Moderator of Treatment Outcome in Major Depression: A Randomized Control Trial of Interpersonal Psychotherapy versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy (United States)

    McBride, Carolina; Atkinson, Leslie; Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael


    Anxiety and avoidance dimensions of adult attachment insecurity were tested as moderators of treatment outcome for interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Fifty-six participants with major depression were randomly assigned to these treatment conditions. Beck Depression Inventory-II, Six-Item Hamilton Rating Scale…

  17. Ethical Considerations for Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists in Psychotherapy Research Trials (United States)

    Haman, Kirsten L.; Hollon, Steven D.


    Psychotherapy research studies, which balance the pursuit of knowledge with the provision of treatment, can place unique demands on clinicians, patients, and research staff. However, the literature on ethical considerations in psychotherapy trials is minimal. The current paper depicts CBT community standards of practice in the context of two…

  18. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... options exist. Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) Other forms of therapy for BPD include: ... than acting out these emotions impulsively. Schema-Focused Therapy (SFT) This type of therapy focuses on reframing “ ...

  19. Social Problem Solving and Depressive Symptoms over Time: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy, Brief Supportive Psychotherapy, and Pharmacotherapy (United States)

    Klein, Daniel N.; Leon, Andrew C.; Li, Chunshan; D'Zurilla, Thomas J.; Black, Sarah R.; Vivian, Dina; Dowling, Frank; Arnow, Bruce A.; Manber, Rachel; Markowitz, John C.; Kocsis, James H.


    Objective: Depression is associated with poor social problem solving, and psychotherapies that focus on problem-solving skills are efficacious in treating depression. We examined the associations between treatment, social problem solving, and depression in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of psychotherapy augmentation for…

  20. Advanced Psychotherapy Training: Psychotherapy Scholars' Track, and the Apprenticeship Model (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E.; Yager, Joel


    Background/Objective: Guided by ACGME's requirements, psychiatric residency training in psychotherapy currently focuses on teaching school-specific forms of psychotherapy (i.e., cognitive-behavioral, supportive, and psychodynamic psychotherapy). On the basis of a literature review of common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes and…

  1. Changes in neurotic personality profile associated with reduction of suicidal ideation in patients who underwent psychotherapy in the day hospital for the treatment of neurotic and behavioral disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Rodziński


    The results confirm effectiveness of intensive psychotherapy as a treatment method that leads to comprehensive improvement encompassing reduction of neurotic personality disorders (neuroticism and of majority of neurotic personality traits, as well as SI reduction. The revealed associations weigh in favor of hypothesis on neuroticism as SI predisposing factor in patients with neurotic, behavioral and personality disorders.

  2. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders (United States)

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia


    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  3. Transpersonal psychotherapy. (United States)

    Boorstein, S


    The history, theory, and practice of Transpersonal (or Spiritual) Psychotherapy are presented. The author describes his own evolution from a traditional psychoanalyst to a psychotherapist who uses the tools and wisdom from spiritual traditions to enhance traditional psychotherapy while, at the same time, improving the self system of the therapist. Dangers as well as benefits of the spiritual approach are outlined. The creation and holding of a spiritual or transpersonal context is described and ways to ascertain, in the clinical situation, the appropriateness of such an approach are explained. The use of bibliotherapy to help transform and expand the worldview of the patient is outlined. Prayer and meditational systems also have a healing role in this approach. To illustrate the uses of Transpersonal Psychotherapy in practice, four cases are presented: 1) a paranoid schizophrenic man, 2) a well-functioning borderline person, 3) a very poorly functioning borderline person, and 4) a high-functioning neurotic man who had been in psychoanalysis.

  4. [General psychotherapy]. (United States)

    Vymetal, J


    Nowadays a theoretical psychotherapeutical thinking develops from the eclectic practice and uses particularly the research of the effective factors of the therapy. Best they can be characterized as differentiate, synthetic, integrative and exceeding other approaches. The development in question goes on with attempts of creating a general model of the psychotherapy that could be a basis for models of special psychotherapies. The aim of such a model is to describe all that is present as important factor for inducing a desirable change of a human in all psychotherapeutical approaches. Among general models we can mention the generic model of D. E. Orlinski and K. I. Howard, Grawe's cube (the author is K. Grawe) and the equation of the psychotherapy.

  5. Promoting Efficacy Research on Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (United States)

    Maitland, Daniel W. M.; Gaynor, Scott T.


    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a form of therapy grounded in behavioral principles that utilizes therapist reactions to shape target behavior. Despite a growing literature base, there is a paucity of research to establish the efficacy of FAP. As a general approach to psychotherapy, and how the therapeutic relationship produces change,…

  6. Piaget and psychotherapy. (United States)

    Friedman, T L


    It is difficult to apply Piaget's theory to psychotherapy because the place of affect in it is ambiguous. When the alternatives are considered, it seems most consistent with Piaget's ideas to regard both cognitive and affective phenomena as problem-solving organizations. Piaget's remarkable discoveries in the cognitive sphere are a consequence of the easy access in that sphere to the kind of problems that need solving, and the phasic development of solutions. But the nature of the problems to be solved or the values to be guarded by a patient in psychotherapy are not knowable independently of the patient's actual behavior. In one respect all that is left from Piaget's approach for psychotherapy generally is the truism that therapy fosters differentiation and integration. However, even if we cannot frame a peculiarly Piagetian paradigm of psychotherapy, Piaget is valuable in posing a subsidiary question, namely, what in therapy fosters problem-solving activity. A reading of Piaget suggests that a patient learns by acting on his therapist and tacitly interpreting the results of his actions, that difficulties in therapy are the material from which therapy proceeds, and that in order to grasp the situation of the patient, the therapist himself may need to act on him and not just think about him. An implied lesson for training would be that supervision should instill a professional identity that is reinforced rather than challenged by therapy difficulties, and does not rely solely on theoretical categorizing.

  7. Positive Psychotherapy (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.


    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  8. The Comparison of Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy Based on Coping Skills and Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Improvement of Emotional Regulation Strategies and Relapse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Ghorbany


    Full Text Available Purpose: This study compared the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy based on coping skills (CBT and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT in improvement of emotional regulation strategies and prevention of relapse. Method: The method of the present study was semi-experimental research design (pre-test-post-test with witness group. For sampling 45 substance abuse people who had referred to addiction treatment centers were selected and assigned to three groups of cognitive behavior therapy, methadone maintenance treatment and witness group randomly. The participants in all three groups completed the emotional intelligence questionnaire before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed by covariance method. Results: The results showed that cognitive-behavior therapy in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and witness group led to significant improvement of emotional regulation in substance abusers, but there was no significant difference between the methadone maintenance treatment group and control group. Also, the rate of relapse in individuals who assigned to cognitive-behavior therapy group in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and the witness group was significantly lower, but there was no significant difference between methadone therapy and witness. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavior therapy was an effective treatment that can change the cognitive and behavioral variables related to substance abuse, such as emotional regulation strategies. Thus, results suggested that drug abuse treatment programs must target these mediator variables.

  9. Cognitive behavior therapy versus interpersonal psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder delivered via smartphone and computer: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Dagöö, Jesper; Asplund, Robert Persson; Bsenko, Helene Andersson; Hjerling, Sofia; Holmberg, Anna; Westh, Susanne; Öberg, Louise; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Carlbring, Per; Furmark, Tomas; Andersson, Gerhard


    In this study, a previously evaluated guided Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) was adapted for mobile phone administration (mCBT). The treatment was compared with a guided self-help treatment based on interpersonal psychotherapy (mIPT). The treatment platform could be accessed through smartphones, tablet computers, and standard computers. A total of 52 participants were diagnosed with SAD and randomized to either mCBT (n=27) or mIPT (n=25). Measures were collected at pre-treatment, during the treatment, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. On the primary outcome measure, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale - self-rated, both groups showed statistically significant improvements. However, mCBT performed significantly better than mIPT (between group Cohen's d=0.64 in favor of mCBT). A larger proportion of the mCBT group was classified as responders at post-treatment (55.6% versus 8.0% in the mIPT group). We conclude that CBT for SAD can be delivered using modern information technology. IPT delivered as a guided self-help treatment may be less effective in this format.

  10. Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy: A Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving; And Others


    Performed a meta-analysis on 18 studies in which a cognitive-behavioral therapy was compared with the same therapy supplemented by hypnosis. Results indicated that hypnosis substantially enhanced treatment outcome, even though there were few procedural differences between the hypnotic and nonhypnotic treatments. Effects seemed particularly…

  11. Alternative Life Styles to Monogamous Marriage: Variants of Normal Behavior in Psychotherapy Clients. (United States)

    Peabody, Shelley Ann


    Discusses three alternative life styles to monogamous marriage: swinging, open marriage, and group marriage. Includes brief reviews of both the critique of monogamous marriage as not fulfilling intimacy needs, and research on individuals in alternative life styles as displaying potentially normal behavior. (Author)

  12. Emotional Control in Psychotherapy Discourse. (United States)

    Horowitz, Mardi


    Emotional control may be observed to be (1) too excessive as in avoidant behaviors during psychotherapy, (2) suitable to a frank expression of feelings, or (3) lacking in regulation causing too intense affective experiences. This article offers a theory that may help clinicians make observations about this range of possible states, formulate the patient's defensive processes, and choose if, how, and when to act. The observations and formulations presented focus on specific and present moment situations rather than habitual defense mechanisms.

  13. Ayurvedic concepts related to psychotherapy. (United States)

    Behere, Prakash B; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P


    The perfect balance of mind, body and soul is considered as complete health in Ayurveda. Ayurveda has its own identity as most ancient and traditional System of Medicine in India. Even Ayurveda emphasizes its treatment modalities into three parts viz. Satwawajay Chikitsa, Yuktivyapashray and Daivyapashray Chikitsa. Sattvavajaya therapy mentioned in Charakasamhita and it used as new concept of psychotherapy in Ayurveda. The effectiveness of "traditional mental health promoting practices" was identified as health regimens (swasthvrtt), correct behavior (sadvrtt), and yoga. Sattvavajaya as psychotherapy, is the mental restraint, or a "mind control" as referred by Caraka, is achieved through "spiritual knowledge, philosophy, fortitude, remembrance and concentration. Ayurvedic psychotherapy would play a dual role: First, as a revival of authentic medical culture, the exercise of a practice with an assumed primordial dimension, and second as a discovery of authentic subjectivity, the revelation of a self with an assumed interior depth. When we integrate the contemporary art of psychotherapy with the ancient science of Ayurveda, it becomes a powerful combination that is called Psycho Veda. The integration of Psycho and Veda is motivated by the complete integration of the immense but fairly contemporary view of the mind, emotions and psyche and how this performs in our lives. Integrating Psychotherapy and Vedic principles teaches us how to rediscover critical knowledge and awareness of the natural forces and rhythms that compliment and strengthen our human experience, through the understanding of the psyche and what our inner experiences are and also involving practical daily activities with thorough attention to our total environment to bring about radical changes in our mental outlook and in physical health.

  14. Teaching psychodynamic psychotherapy to psychiatric residents: an integrated approach. (United States)

    Gastelum, Emily; Douglas, Carolyn J; Cabaniss, Deborah L


    There is enduring controversy in our field regarding the place for supportive interventions in psychodynamic psychotherapy. This controversy is reflected in the differing ways in which psychodynamic psychotherapy has been conceptualized and taught in psychiatric residency training programs. The authors propose an "integrated" approach for teaching psychodynamic psychotherapy to trainees. In the integrated model, psychodynamic psychotherapy is conceptualized as a form of therapy designed to (a) uncover unconscious elements that influence thoughts, feelings, and behavior, and (b) support weakened psychological function. Using this model, residents learning psychodynamic psychotherapy are taught both uncovering and supporting techniques side by side in one course with specific guidelines for assessing when to use one set of interventions or the other. Teaching psychodynamic psychotherapy to residents in this integrated way prepares them to become skilled clinicians who are able to move fluidly from supporting to uncovering in a pragmatic and flexible manner, matched to the particular moment-to-moment needs of the individual patient.

  15. A translational approach to the functional analysis of language in psychotherapy


    Javier Virues-Ortega; María Xesús Froján-Parga


    The functional analysis of verbal behavior has been successful in establishing basic and advanced forms of language in individuals with developmental disabilities. The development of behavioral approaches to psychotherapy, such as the functional-analytic psychotherapy, have advanced the implementation of operant analyses of verbal behavior among typical adults. The field of behavior-analytic approaches to psychotherapy departs from the applied experimental research in behavior analysis in ...

  16. Psychotherapy for Delinquents? (United States)

    Richards, Ian; Sullivan, Ann


    Presents the results of a psychotherapy consultation service for delinquents (n=47). Based on data obtained from this program and a review of relevant literature, a working model of individual psychotherapy related to attachment theory as it applies to this population is presented. Discusses difficulties that warrant resolution. (JPS)

  17. The Play of Psychotherapy (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry


    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  18. Translating the Theoretical into Practical: A Logical Framework of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Interactions for Research, Training, and Clinical Purposes (United States)

    Weeks, Cristal E.; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Bonow, Jordan T.; Landes, Sara J.; Busch, Andrew M.


    Functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP) provides a behavioral analysis of the psychotherapy relationship that directly applies basic research findings to outpatient psychotherapy settings. Specifically, FAP suggests that a therapist's in vivo (i.e., in-session) contingent responding to targeted client behaviors, particularly positive reinforcement…

  19. [Psychotherapy with the unwilling patient]. (United States)

    Madert, K K


    By means of the residential motivation therapy of addicts we discuss ways of dealing with the specific problems, that arise in psychotherapy of character disordered, who are not suffering psychically. The - in the view of the addict patient - often unvoluntary referral to the hospital provokes the patient's refusal of cooperation. The greatest therapeutic challenge is the ego-syntonicity of the character disorder and the rigid defense structure of overcompensation, projection and denial, covered up by rationalizations. This defense system serves to avoid closeness and contact with the original emotions. In our group setting we use mini-contracts, reality-oriented confrontation of behavioral issues in order to make the addict aware of his desperation and lack of fullfilment in life, and offer attractive models of living and the experience of warmth and bondedness in the group. Our main techniques are non-verbal. Body experience and full-body-expression of emotions mediate self-experience which is then integrated verbally. The goal of this psychoanalytically based psychotherapy is to bring about by working through resistances, the attitudes which are a precondition for continuing with a personality-changing psychotherapy.

  20. Client attachment in a randomized clinical trial of psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa: Outcome moderation and change. (United States)

    Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Poulsen, Stig; Lunn, Susanne


    In the context of a randomized clinical trial of psychoanalytic psychotherapy (PPT) versus cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa (BN), this study performed secondary analyses of (a) the relation between attachment and pretreatment symptom levels, (b) whether client pretreatment attachment moderated treatment outcome, (c) whether change in client attachment was associated with symptomatic change, and (d) whether client attachment changed differently in the 2 treatments. Sixty-nine women and 1 man of a mean age of 25.8 years diagnosed with BN were randomly assigned to either 2 years of weekly PPT or 5 months of CBT. Assessments at intake, after 5 months, and after 2 years included the Eating Disorder Examination to assess eating disorder symptoms, the Adult Attachment Interview to assess client attachment, and the Symptom Checklist 90-R to assess general psychiatric distress. Repeated measures were analyzed using multilevel analysis. Higher scores on attachment insecurity and attachment preoccupation were associated with more frequent binging pretreatment. Pretreatment attachment did not predict treatment outcome. In PPT, but not in CBT, reduction of binging was associated with an increase in attachment security. The 2 treatment types were not associated with significantly different patterns of attachment-related change. Degree and type of attachment insecurity is related to the frequency of binging in BN. Increase in attachment security may be a treatment-specific mechanism of change in PPT for BN. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy for Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in Children and Adolescents: An Evidence-Based Medicine Review (United States)

    Compton, Scott N.; March, John S.; Brent, David; Albano, Anne Marie; Weersing, V. Robin; Curry, John


    Objective: To review the literature on the cognitive-behavioral treatment of children and adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders within the conceptual framework of evidence-based medicine. Method: The psychiatric and psychological literature was systematically searched for controlled trials applying cognitive-behavioral treatment to…

  2. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... identify and verbally express their emotions, describe their interactions with other people, and talk about themselves and ... stress (particularly the stress of rejection or disappointing interactions with other people). Supportive Psychotherapy A form of ...

  3. Values in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Holmes, J


    There is a tension between those who hold that psychotherapy is a scientific discipline and therefore "value-free," and those who believe that values are inherent in the nature of psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis has moved from a science-based ideology, through the ethical concerns of Melanie Klein, to a recognition of the "aesthetic" dimension--the creation of suitable forms that can contain psychological distress. From this latter perspective, the antagonism between religion and psychotherapy, initiated by Freud, becomes less acute. Action-based ethical systems, which ignore the inner world, are critically scrutinized. The evidence suggesting there is a relationship between good outcome in psychotherapy and shared values between therapist and client is reviewed. It is posited that through examination of the "ethical countertransference," therapists should become aware of their own value systems and how they influence practice.

  4. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Psychotherapy (TFP) This form of therapy is rooted in the patient’s confused and contradictory sense of identity ... person to another person, such as the therapist. In that moment, the therapist talks with the patient ...

  5. Premature conclusions about psychotherapy for dysthymia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.


    3.0.CO;2-F 5. McCullough JP. Psychotherapy for dysthymia: a naturalistic study of ten patients. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1991;179(12):734–740. PubMed doi:10.1097/00005053-199112000-00004 6. Keller MB, McCullough JP, Klein DN, et al. A comparison of nefazodone, the cognitive behavioral-analysis system of psy

  6. Recent Studies in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (United States)

    Garcia, Rafael Ferro


    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP), based on the principles of radical behaviorism, emphasizes the impact of eventualities that occur during therapeutic sessions, the therapist-client interaction context, functional equivalence between environments, natural reinforcement and shaping by the therapist. This paper reviews recent studies of FAP…

  7. Introduction: Psychotherapy for Psychosis. (United States)

    Garrett, Michael


    Beginning with Paul Federn--a contemporary of Sigmund Freud--every generation of psychotherapists for the past hundred years has included a small number of determined clinicians who have worked psychotherapeutically with psychotic patients, and written about their work. This special issue of the American Journal of Psychotherapy contains seven papers by clinicians in this generation who are using psychotherapy in the treatment of psychosis.



    Widyawati Suhendro


    Schizophrenia is a disease that causes varying descriptions. The symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into two groups, the primary and secondary symptoms. Treatment should be done as soon as possible, because a state of psychotic periods raises the possibility to suffer mental decline. The treatment is carried out must be comprehensive, multimodal, empirically and can be applied to the patient. One therapy that is given is psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is usually combined with pharmacologica...

  9. 从认知行为治疗的发展看心理治疗的疗效评估%Evaluation of psychotherapy outcome: A perspective from cognitive behavioral therapy development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建平; 王晓菁; 唐苏勤


    Whether the outcome of psychological counseling and psychotherapy can be evaluated or not has always been a controversial debate among psychological scholars. Being able to evaluate the outcome is also the aim of different psychotherapy schools. In all schools of psychological counseling and therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered to be the only evidence-based psychotherapy. The author, being a CBT therapist herself, combined with her many years of practical experience of psychotherapy, as well as a lot of literature review, put forward her opinions on the origin, development and characteristics of CBT. The author believed that CBT follows the real " scientist-practitioner" model, and the effect of CBT can be evaluated with evidence support.%心理咨询与治疗的效果能否评估以及如何评估一直是学者们争议的话题,也是各心理咨询治疗流派努力的方向.在心理咨询与治疗各流派中,认知行为治疗(CBT)被认为是唯一循证的心理咨询治疗方法.本文作者是CBT治疗师,结合自己多年心理咨询治疗的实践经验和回顾相关文献,从CBT的起源、发展和特点,提出了自己的观点和看法,认为CBT是真正遵循和体现了“科学家-实践家”的模式,其效果是可以评价的,是有证据支持的.

  10. Characteristics of Patients Involved in Psychotherapy in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Alispahić


    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of Bosnian and Herzegovinian patients involved in psychotherapeutic treatments in order to explore the current situation of psychotherapy in Bosnia and Herzegovina.Methods: The study included 213 patients (154 women and 47 men undergoing diverse psychotherapeutic treatments. Data about demographic and clinical characteristics were collected by questionnaire. Following characteristics were documented: age, sex, education, employment status, marital status, specific problem that got the client involved in psychotherapy, type of psychotherapy, and use of psychopharmacology.Results: Majority of the patients undergoing psychotherapy are age up to 40 and female. They are by vast majority holding a university degree and are employed. Nearly equal number of patients is living in partnership or marriage compared to single or never been married. Most frequent reasons for getting involved in the psychotherapy treatment are of the intrapersonal nature (depression, anxiety and panic attacks. Majority of the patients were involved in gestalt and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, and at the same time majority of those were not prescribed medicaments.Conclusions: We point out and overview some of the most prominent socio-demographic traits of patients undergoing psychotherapy, the ones that could be important in the future research with the higher degree of control. In the terms of personal initiative, psychotherapy stops being a taboo in Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, there is still a long path until it reaches integration in daily life of the people.

  11. Is Rational and Emotive Behavior Therapy a Scientific Psychotherapy?%理性情绪行为疗法理论之科学方法论分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      理性情绪行为疗法(REBT)是当代认知心理治疗理论的重要分支。该理论先后将方法论建立在逻辑经验主义和批判理性主义之上并最终在批判理性主义的视野下找到了其理论科学性之立足点——可证伪性。但由于REBT理论是心理治疗理论,它与经验科学毕竟存在着一定的区别,有学者对该理论以科学的心理治疗理论自居提出了质疑。文章认为,在波普的划界标准下,REBT理论是一种科学的心理治疗理论,它的基本概念具有逻辑一致性,其核心假设也具有可证伪性,它在经验的检验中不断修正与重构自身的理论体系,以开放、严谨的理论态度为其科学地位奠定了基础。%Rational and emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is an important branch of contemporary psychotherapy. Its methodology was first built on logical empiricism, and then critical rationalism. In this article, it is held that REBT is a scientific therapy under Popper’s standard of demarcation. Its basic concepts are consistent with each other and its core hypotheses are falsifiable. The system of REBT has been kept modifying and reconstructing during empirical testing. The opening and rigorous theory attitude has set a strong foundation for its scientific status.

  12. What are the active ingredients in cognitive and behavioral psychotherapy for anxious and depressed children? A meta-analytic review. (United States)

    Spielmans, Glen I; Pasek, Leigh F; McFall, Joseph P


    Prior meta-analytic reviews have indicated that cognitive and behavioral treatments are efficacious in treating child and adolescent depression and anxiety. Further, a meta-analysis has suggested that behavioral treatments are superior to nonbehavioral treatments for treating anxiety and depression in youth. However, the prior meta-analysis did not examine direct comparisons between cognitive and behavioral treatments (CBT) and non-CBT treatments, leaving open the possibility that their results were artifactual. The present meta-analysis aggregated results of studies in which CBT treatments were compared with either other bona fide treatments (including other CBT therapies) or non-bona fide therapies. The heterogeneity of the distribution of differences between bona fide treatments as well as a comparison of full (e.g. CBT+Parent training) versus component treatments (e.g., CBT only) were examined. The results indicated that: (a) CBT was more efficacious than non-bona fide therapies; (b) CBT was no more efficacious than bona fide non-CBT treatments (c) the differences between bona fide treatments were homogenously distributed around zero; and (d) full CBT treatments offered no significant benefit over their components. The results strongly suggest that the theoretically purported critical ingredients of CBT are not specifically ameliorative for child and adolescent depression and anxiety.

  13. Psychotherapies for Children and Adolescents (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents: Different Types No. 86; updated February 2017 Psychotherapy ... Therapy (DBT) can be used to treat older adolescents who have chronic suicidal feelings/thoughts, engage in ...

  14. Group Psychotherapy in Italy. (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria


    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  15. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy as an Adjunct to Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Theory and Application in a Single Case Design (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Prins, Annabel; Nguyen, Hong; Tsai, Mavis


    Evidence-based treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may be enhanced by Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP; Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1991; Tsai et al., 2009). As PTSD can include a variety of problems with interpersonal relationships (e.g., trust of others), manualized treatments may not afford clinicians enough time and flexibility to…

  16. Equifinality in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy: Different Strokes for Different Folks (United States)

    Darrow, Sabrina M.; Dalto, Georgia; Follette, William C.


    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is an interpersonal behavior therapy that relies on a therapist's ability to contingently respond to in-session client behavior. Valued behavior change in clients results from the therapist shaping more effective client interpersonal behaviors by providing effective social reinforcement when these behaviors…

  17. An Immediate and Long-Term Study of a Temperament and Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Based Community Program for Preschoolers with Behavior Problems (United States)

    Pade, Hadas; Taube, Daniel O.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Reiser, Paul J.


    The immediate and long-term effects of a Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) derived program offered at a Kaiser Permanente facility were evaluated. There were 73 participants in the initial sample and 23 in the 5-6 year follow-up sample. Child behaviors improved significantly immediately following treatment and some improvements were…

  18. Group Psychotherapy in Iceland. (United States)

    Ívarsson, Ómar


    In this overview of group psychotherapy in Iceland, an attempt will be made to describe how it is practiced today, give some glimpses into its earlier history, and clarify seven issues: (1) the standing of group psychotherapy in Iceland, its previous history, and the theoretical orientation of dynamic group therapy in the country; (2) the role of group therapy in the health care system; (3) how training in group therapy is organized; (4) the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice; (5) which issues/processes can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Iceland; and (6) how important are group-related issues within the social background of the country; and (7) what group work holds for the future.

  19. Gratitude in cognitive psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Moyano


    Full Text Available Gratitude is a cognitive-affective state caused by the recognition that one has received a benefit from an external agent, due to the good intentions of this agent. Despite the evidence that associate gratitude with subjective well being, psychological well being, physical health and copping with stressful events, it is not enough taken in consideration in an academic level and in its interaction with psychotherapy instruments as well. In this article, the central concepts and information provided by the research are revised, intending to analyze possible ways to include gratitude into Cognitive Psychotherapy

  20. Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): an open clinical feasibility trial


    Hirvikoski, T.; Waaler, E.; Lindström, T; Bölte, S.; Jokinen, J


    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of a new psychoeducative intervention program (PEGASUS) for adults with ADHD and their significant others in a psychiatric outpatient context. At three outpatient psychiatric clinics, adults with ADHD and their significant others took part in PEGASUS, a psychoeducational program based on theories from cognitive behavioral therapy, neuropsychology, and cross-disciplinary evidence regarding ADHD. In total, 108 adul...

  1. A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Based Text Messaging Intervention Versus Medical Management for HIV-Infected Substance Users: Study Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Trial.


    Glasner-Edwards, S; Patrick, K; Ybarra, ML; Reback, CJ; Rawson, RA; Chokron Garneau, H; Chavez, K; Venegas, A


    Background Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for addictions and related conditions such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) are underutilized. Obstacles to implementation of CBT in clinical settings include limited availability of quality training, supervision, and certification in CBT for clinicians; high rates of clinician turnover and high caseloads; and limited qualifications of the workforce to facilitate CBT expertise. Objective Mobile phone–based delivery of CBT, if demonstra...

  2. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  3. Synchrony in Dyadic Psychotherapy Sessions (United States)

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    Synchrony is a multi-faceted concept used in diverse domains such as physics, biology, and the social sciences. This chapter reviews some of the evidence of nonverbal synchrony in human communication, with a main focus on the role of synchrony in the psychotherapeutic setting. Nonverbal synchrony describes coordinated behavior of patient and therapist. Its association with empathy, rapport and the therapeutic relationship has been pointed out repeatedly, yet close evaluation of empirical studies suggests that the evidence remains inconclusive. Particularly in naturalistic studies, research with quantitative measures of synchrony is still lacking. We introduce a new empirical approach for the study of synchrony in psychotherapies under field conditions: Motion Energy Analysis (MEA). This is a video-based algorithm that quantifies the amount of movement in freely definable regions of interest. Our statistical analysis detects synchrony on a global level, irrespective of the specific body parts moving. Synchrony thus defined can be considered as a general measure of movement coordination between interacting individuals. Data from a sequence of N = 21 therapy sessions taken from one psychotherapy dyad shows a high positive relationship between synchrony and the therapeutic bond. Nonverbal synchrony can thus be considered a promising concept for research on the therapeutic alliance. Further areas of application are discussed.

  4. Psychotherapy, a concept for the nonpsychiatric physician. (United States)

    KAHN, J P


    Patients tend to repeat with their physician, as with other significant people in their lives, their earlier previous patterns of behavior. The physician as well as the patient is involved in the physician-patient relationship. He will tend to respond to his patients in accordance with his earlier life experiences and his characteristic repetitive behavioral pattern. For both physician and patient, the relationship between them extends beyond the immediate reality situation. Psychotherapy is the utilization of psychological measures in the treatment of sick persons and the deliberate utilization by the physician of the physician-patient relationship for the benefit of the patient. The kind of psychotherapy that is practical and utilizable by the nonpsychiatric physician is that which uses education, reassurance, support and the management of the patient's problems either directly or indirectly or through the intermediary of other people or agencies. The symbolic aspect of the physician-patient relationship is based essentially on the fact that a sick person, because of his anxiety and because of the threat to his physical and psychic integrity, is more dependent and more anxious than he would be if he were well, and therefore he has a correspondingly greater need for the authoritative and protective figure he finds in the physician. Psychotherapy is not directed exclusively to the treatment of flagrantly or obviously neurotic or psychotic patients. It should be and is directed to all sick persons. Limitations in psychotherapy are set by various determinants, among which are the nature of the precipitating factor in the illness, the nature of the sick person, the skill, knowledge and abilities of the physician, and the nature of the physician-patient relationship. In psychotherapy, as in all medicine, the physician should not do anything which may disturb the patient if the disturbance is of no value or if it cannot be followed through with special skills.

  5. The Ima Hogg Therapeutic School Individualized Education, Behavioral Management in the Classroom and Psychotherapy for the Emotionally Disturbed and Behaviorally Disordered Child. (United States)

    Wood, Constance D.; And Others

    Three papers discuss aspects of The Ima Hogg Therapeutic School for emotionally disturbed children. The first paper addresses the school's behavior development and management system, which rewards self management with freedom in physical activity and uses individualized target behaviors designed to increase the child's acceptable social…

  6. Art Therapy Verses Psychotherapy (United States)

    Del Giacco, Maureen


    The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…

  7. Personality Theory and Psychotherapy (United States)

    Fagan, Joen; And Others


    This group of articles discusses various aspects of Gestalt Therapy including its major contributions, role in psychotherapy, and contributions of Gestalt psychology in general. There is some discussion of the philosophical background of Gestalt therapy along with Gestalt theory of emotion. A case study and an annotated bibliography are included…

  8. Psychotherapy for Suicidal Clients. (United States)

    Lester, David


    Reviews various systems of psychotherapy for suitability for suicidal clients. Discusses psychoanalysis, cognitive therapy, primal therapy, transactional analysis, Gestalt therapy, reality therapy, person-centered therapy, existential analysis, and Jungian analysis in light of available treatment options. Includes 36 citations. (Author/CRR)

  9. Medikamentengabe und Psychotherapie



    Psychopharmakotherapie ist ein möglicher Baustein in der multimodalen Behandlung kinder- und jugendpsychiatrischer Störungsbilder. Diese simple Aussage ist unumstritten. Dennoch haben im klinischen Alltag sowohl Eltern als auch Psychotherapeuten häufig erhebliche Bedenken, einem Kind ein Psychopharmakon zu verabreichen. Neben angemessenen Bedenken zu potenziellen Wechselwirkungen zwischen psychopharmakotherapie und Psychotherapie oder Unsicherheiten zu Wirkungen und Nebenwirkungen eines Psych...

  10. [Integrated psychotherapy for eating disorders]. (United States)

    Tomizawa, O


    The various psychotherapeutic strategies for eating disorders (EDs) include psychoanalytic, cognitive-behavioral, family oriented, arts therapy and others. In this paper, the psychodynamism of EDs and their therapy are reexamined and considered holistically from "the separate aspects of eating" point of view. That is the separation of eating regulated by biological appetite and the eating or not eating deriving from the patient's mind, unrelated to appetite. A new therapeutic technique called "formalization", which clarifies the separation of aspects of eating are invented. For integrated psychotherapy of EDs, it is necessary to combine the formalization technique of which clarifies and promotes patients' conflicts, and the integrated psychodynamic therapies that treat the promoted conflicts. The psychodynamism of EDs is the subject of much argument by many therapist. Although these arguments differ, they are similar in two points. Firstly, all of them consider EDs as distinctly separate from biological appetites. Secondly, the behavior of patients with EDs are taken as "false solution" or "substitution" of their essential problem. It is impossible to completely separate the physical action of eating mentally, however there may be a second meaning of eating separate from appetite. Seen in this light, psychotherapies are classified into two groups. One supports and sympathizes with these conflicts and the other is an educational one, telling the patients that a false solution is invalid. The former approach is employed by almost all psychodynamic therapies, such as psychoanalysis, family oriented therapy, arts therapy, self-help groups and the like. These therapies treat patients' conflicts with a non-judgemental approach, transform the psychodynamism, and consequently improve the eating behavior. The latter is applied by behavior therapy. Under strict operant conditioning, adequate behavior is reinforced by reward and inadequate behavior is eliminated by punishment

  11. Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): an open clinical feasibility trial. (United States)

    Hirvikoski, T; Waaler, E; Lindström, T; Bölte, S; Jokinen, J


    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of a new psychoeducative intervention program (PEGASUS) for adults with ADHD and their significant others in a psychiatric outpatient context. At three outpatient psychiatric clinics, adults with ADHD and their significant others took part in PEGASUS, a psychoeducational program based on theories from cognitive behavioral therapy, neuropsychology, and cross-disciplinary evidence regarding ADHD. In total, 108 adults were allocated to treatment (51 with ADHD and their 57 significant others). Feasibility was evaluated regarding suitability of the intervention at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and treatment completion. Preliminary efficacy was evaluated per protocol from baseline to post-intervention (n = 41 adults with ADHD and 40 significant others). In a feasibility analysis, the intervention was judged to be a suitable treatment option for 94.5 % of all individuals with a primary diagnosis of ADHD at an outpatient psychiatric clinic. In total, 43 out of 51 allocated individuals with ADHD (84.3 %) completed the intervention. The corresponding figures for their significant others were 42 out of 57 (73.7 %). Knowledge about ADHD increased, and both the quality of relationships and psychological well-being improved from baseline to post-intervention in all participants. The significant others reported a reduction in the subjective burden of care, such as worry and guilt. The objective burden of care (such as financial problems) did not change. The findings support the potential value of psychoeducation for adults with ADHD and their significant others. An ongoing randomized controlled trial will generate further evidence concerning the PEGASUS program.

  12. Mind, brain and psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheth Hitesh


    Full Text Available There is long-standing debate about superiority of mind over brain, in other words about superiority of mind over matter. And outcome of this debate is going to decide future of psychiatry. The psychiatrists believing in materialism may say that brain is all and by changing neurotransmitters level with new molecules of drugs would cure all illnesses. On the other hand, antipsychiatry activists and some psychotherapists oppose all types of treatment despite of convincing evidence that drug therapy is effective (although sometimes it is not as effective as it claims to be. However, truth lies somewhere in between. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are like two legs of psychiatry and psychiatry cannot walk into a future on one leg. The studies have shown that judicious use of pharmacotherapy along with psychotherapy gives better outcome than any one of them used alone. We must heal dichotomy between mind and brain before we heal the patients.

  13. Quantum change and psychotherapy. (United States)

    Bien, Thomas H


    Deep change in psychotherapy more typically comes slowly rather than suddenly, but this difference between therapeutic change and quantum change may be one of perspective rather than substance. Psychotherapy may be understood as a kind of mindfulness practice similar to working with koans in that the client presents a life dilemma incapable of rational solution. While quantum change cannot be engineered, the psychotherapist can create an environment conducive to such transformation by producing true presence and modeling calm, concerned, sustained attention to the dilemma that precipitated treatment. Psychotherapists who also maintain a sense of their work as a high art and a way of being, and who in consequence cultivate their own emotional and spiritual development, may be more likely to create such an environment.

  14. Constructivism and psychotherapy. (United States)

    Mahoney, Michael J; Granvold, Donald K


    Constructivism is a metatheoretical perspective that embraces diverse traditions in medicine, philosophy, psychology, and spiritual wisdom. Constructive psychotherapy emphasizes complex cycles in the natural ordering and reorganizing processes that characterize all development in living systems. Individuals are encouraged to view themselves as active participants in their lives. Within rich contexts of human relationship and symbol systems, people make new meanings as they develop. Techniques from many different traditions can help people find and refine their sense of balance as they develop.

  15. [Psychotherapy as cultural discourse]. (United States)

    Józefik, Barbara


    It is impossible to think about psychotherapy without reference to the cultural context. In order to understand the development of this domain it is helpful to apply the concept of cultural discourse. When we think about the over one hundred years' history of psychotherapy it becomes clear that understanding of a person, his/her difficulties, psychopathology, the role of a psychotherapist, psychotherapy and its limitations have been changing. It depended on the acknowledged epistemological horizon. Therefore it is important to observe the process of creating discourses related to psychotherapeutic "reality". These discourses are not simply descriptive but they participate in creation of reality. They are not neutral, on the contrary, their application has broad practical, theoretical, ethical and legal consequences. An attempt to describe the culture, or better cultures, we are immersed in, is an attempt to describe the identity of contemporary psychotherapists. This article, referring to the constructionists' perspective and works of Michael Foucault, presents how cultural changes influence psychotherapists' ways of thinking, their practice and presence in social space.

  16. Power Politics of Family Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Whitaker, Carl A.

    It is postulated that the standard framework for psychotherapy, a cooperative transference neurosis, does not validly carry over to the successful psychotherapy of a two-generation family group. In many disturbed families, the necessary and sufficient dynamics for change must be initiated, controlled, and augmented by a group dynamic power-play,…

  17. Predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy


    Izabel Cristina Paez; Maria Lucia Tiellet Nunes; Vânia Naomi Hirakata


    Introduction: This empirical study was based on the analysis of the results of a study about dropout predictors among in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The objectives were to characterize the sample of children discharged from psychoanalytic psychotherapy, examine the association between sociodemographic/ clinical variables and child psychoanalytic psychotherapy discharge, and determine predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy.Method: This quantitative, descriptive a...

  18. Removing pathogenic memories: a neurobiology of psychotherapy. (United States)

    Centonze, Diego; Siracusano, Alberto; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio


    Experimental research examining the neural bases of nondeclarative memory has offered intriguing insight into how functional and dysfunctional implicit learning affects the brain. Long-term modifications of synaptic transmission, in particular, are currently considered the most plausible mechanism underlying memory trace encoding and compulsions, addiction, anxiety, and phobias. Therefore, an effective psychotherapy must be directed to erase maladaptive implicit memories and aberrant synaptic plasticity. This article describes the neurobiological bases of pathogenic memory disruption to provide some insight into how psychotherapy works. At least two mechanisms of unwanted memory erasing appear to be implicated in the effects of psychotherapy: inhibition of memory consolidation/reconsolidation and extinction. Behavioral evidence demonstrated that these two ways to forget are profoundly distinct in nature, and it is increasingly clear that their cellular, synaptic, and molecular underpinnings are different. Accordingly, the blockade of consolidation/reconsolidation erases memories by reversing the plasticity associated with memory maintenance, whereas extinction is a totally new form of plasticity that, similar to the plasticity underlying the old memory, requires protein synthesis-dependent synaptic remodeling.

  19. Humanism as a common factor in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E


    There are many forms of psychotherapies, each distinctive in its own way. From the origins of psychotherapy, it has been suggested that psychotherapy is effective through factors that are common to all therapies. In this article, I suggest that the commonalities that are at the core of psychotherapy are related to evolved human characteristics, which include (a) making sense of the world, (b) influencing through social means, and (c) connectedness, expectation, and mastery. In this way, all psychotherapies are humanistic.

  20. Of God and Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Karasu, T Byram


    Psychotherapy is an instrument for remediation of psychological deficits and conflict resolution, as well as an instrument for growth and self-cultivation. In fact, psychotherapy is the finest form of life education. All of this is done without psychotherapists' playing a teacher, a minister, a priest, a rabbi, an imam, or a Buddhist monk, but by being familiar with what they know and more. That "more" is about understanding "the attributes" of gods and religions as they serve the all-too-human needs of believing and belonging. It is about the distillation of common psychological, sociological, moral, and philosophical attributes of religions, and the recognition that the attributes themselves are faith and God. Attributes that serve the affiliative needs define faith, for example, belonging is faith; attributes that serve the divine needs define God, for example, compassion is God. Those who have recovered from their primitive innocence need to formulate their ideas of God and religion, regardless of their affiliation with a religious community. One may need to resonate emotionally with the God of his or her religion, but intellectually need to transcend all its dogma and cultivate a personal concept of divinity free from any theological structure. Such an enlightened person achieves enduring equanimity by striving to own the attributes of Gods--to be godly. This is equally true for psychotherapists as it is for their patients.

  1. Grundprinzipien der existenziellen Psychotherapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Längle A


    Full Text Available Die existenzielle Psychotherapie hat mit der humanistischen Psychotherapie zentrale Themen gemeinsam: personale Freiheit, Verantwortung, Sinnsuche, Authentizität. Die therapeutische Vorgangsweise ist primär phänomenologisch, d. h. auf den Einzelnen und die Einmaligkeit der Situation ausgerichtet. Begegnung der Person und Interesse an dem, was sie bewegt, steht vor der Anwendung von allgemeinen Techniken. Damit kommt die Person mit ihrer zentralen Fähigkeit, das für sie Wesentliche zu erfassen und der Entscheidung zuzuführen, in den Mittelpunkt des Geschehens. Das Auffinden der inneren Zustimmung zu dem, was man tut oder unterlässt, gilt als zentral in der Vorgangsweise der existenziellen Psychotherapie. So liegt das Interesse weniger in der Symptomfreiheit als im Erreichen persönlicher Erfüllung im Leben. Die Therapie beginnt darum meist mit der Arbeit an der Annahme, am Verstehen und an der Stellungnahme zu den Problemen und Erfahrungen, die das Leid verursachen. Diese dialogische Haltung ist auch bei chronischen Krankheiten von grundlegender Bedeutung. Psychische Störungen bzw. Krankheiten wirken sich hemmend auf den Vollzug dieser Fähigkeiten der authentischen Person aus, mit Auswirkungen vor allem auf die Qualität des (inneren und äußeren Dialogs. Dadurch entsteht neben dem spezifischen Leiden, das Bezug auf die jeweils gestörte existenzielle Struktur nimmt, ein Mangel an innerer Erfüllung im Leben, der als existenzielles Hauptsymptom gilt. Dem erfüllenden Dialog geht eine Offenheit des Menschen voraus, in der er sich vom Leben und von der Lebenssituation befragen lässt hinsichtlich dessen, was seine geeignete Antwort auf die Situation wäre. Nicht ausreichend gelebte Pflege und Sorge um die Grundstrukturen der Existenz wirken sich hemmend auf die Voraussetzungen für erfüllendes Leben aus: auf die personalen Fähigkeiten der Wahrnehmung, des Fühlens, Entscheidens und sich mit den Kontexten Abstimmens. Ein verminderter

  2. Uses of humor in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Dimmer, S A; Carroll, J L; Wyatt, G K


    Given demonstrated usefulness in facilitating learning, aiding healing, and reducing stress, humor has gained recognition as a clinical tool. This article reviews some uses and potential misuses of humor in psychotherapy and suggests directions for practice and research.

  3. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho


    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  4. Big ideas for psychotherapy training. (United States)

    Fauth, James; Gates, Sarah; Vinca, Maria Ann; Boles, Shawna; Hayes, Jeffrey A


    Research indicates that traditional psychotherapy training practices are ineffective in durably improving the effectiveness of psychotherapists. In addition, the quantity and quality of psychotherapy training research has also been limited in several ways. Thus, based on extant scholarship and personal experience, we offer several suggestions for improving on this state of affairs. Specifically, we propose that future psychotherapy trainings focus on a few "big ideas," target psychotherapist meta-cognitive skills, and attend more closely to the organizational/treatment context in which the training takes place. In terms of future training research, we recommend that researchers include a wider range of intermediate outcomes in their studies, examine the nature of trainee skill development, and investigate the role that organizational/treatment culture plays in terms of the retention of changes elicited by psychotherapy training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy with Juveniles Who Have Committed Sexual Offenses (United States)

    Newring, Kirk A. B.; Wheeler, Jennifer G.


    We have previously discussed the application of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) with adults who have committed sexual offense behaviors (Newring & Wheeler, 2010). The present entry borrows heavily from the foundation presented in that chapter, and extends this approach to working with adolescents, youth, and juveniles with sexual offense…

  6. Child Psychotherapy, Child Analysis, and Medication: A Flexible, Integrative Approach. (United States)

    Whitman, Laura


    For children with moderate to severe emotional or behavioral problems, the current approach in child psychiatry is to make an assessment for the use of both psychotherapy and medication. This paper describes integration of antidepressants and stimulants with psychoanalytically oriented techniques.

  7. Psychodrama: group psychotherapy through role playing. (United States)

    Kipper, D A


    The theory and the therapeutic procedure of classical psychodrama are described along with brief illustrations. Classical psychodrama and sociodrama stemmed from role theory, enactments, "tele," the reciprocity of choices, and the theory of spontaneity-robopathy and creativity. The discussion focuses on key concepts such as the therapeutic team, the structure of the session, transference and reality, countertransference, the here-and-now and the encounter, the group-as-a-whole, resistance and difficult clients, and affect and cognition. Also described are the neoclassical approaches of psychodrama, action methods, and clinical role playing, and the significance of the concept of behavioral simulation in group psychotherapy.

  8. Should psychotherapy consider reincarnation? (United States)

    Peres, Julio F P


    There is increasing recognition of the need to take into account the cultural environment and belief systems of psychotherapy patients because these values reflect basic assumptions about man's nature and the cognitive references used to cope with psychological difficulties. Currently accepted psychotherapeutic approaches take no account of the belief in life after death held by most of the world's population. The World Values Survey ( showed that there are large numbers of reincarnationists around the world, and whatever the reasons for believing in reincarnation, psychotherapeutic approaches should not ignore this significant group of people. Respect for patient opinions and subjective realities is a therapeutic need and an ethical duty, even though therapists may not share the same beliefs. Guidelines are suggested for professionals to develop collaborative models that help patients mobilize their intrinsic intelligence to find solutions to their complaints.

  9. [The various facets of psychotherapy]. (United States)

    Berger, Mathias


    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing importance in the field of psychiatric treatment. Notably, disorder-specific and evidence-based psychotherapeutic strategies now dominate the field as compared to traditional schools of psychotherapy. It should not be neglected that patients, besides being offered a specifically tailored psychological therapy for their disorder, are also in need of reliable moral support and help. Therapeutic creativity frequently is an important skill to gain access to patients.

  10. The (dramatic) process of psychotherapy. (United States)

    Zeig, Jeffrey K


    Psychotherapy can be conceived as a symbolic drama in which patients can experientially realize their capacity to change. Methods derived from hypnosis can empower therapy without the use of formal trance. A case conducted by Milton Erickson is presented and deconstructed in order to illuminate Erickson's therapeutic patterns. A model is offered for adding drama to therapy, and the model is placed into a larger model of choice points in psychotherapy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyawati Suhendro


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Schizophrenia is a disease that causes varying descriptions. The symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into two groups, the primary and secondary symptoms. Treatment should be done as soon as possible, because a state of psychotic periods raises the possibility to suffer mental decline. The treatment is carried out must be comprehensive, multimodal, empirically and can be applied to the patient. One therapy that is given is psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is usually combined with pharmacological actions in order to increase the level of maximum healing. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  12. Reduction of suicidal ideation in patients undergoing psychotherapy in the day hospital for the treatment of neurotic and behavioral disorders and their neurotic personality traits measured before the hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Rodziński


    Initially prominent Tendency to risk-taking and Impulsiveness may coexist with SI of increased resistance to psychotherapy. Thus, those subgroups require special attention and diligent selection of therapeutic methods. Also, it is probable that focusing therapy at the above-mentioned personality components may increase effectiveness of SI treatment. Reducing SI during psychotherapy appears to be highly effective especially in women with difficulties in expressing anger adequately and in men with prominently elevated level of Envy, which suggests adequacy of this treatment choice and of targeting those difficulties during psychotherapy.

  13. [Psychotherapy: Legally recognized in Quebec]. (United States)

    Trudeau, Jean-Bernard; Desjardins, Pierre; Dion, Alain


    Until recently, Quebec was the first to have regulated the practice of psychotherapy through law adopted in 2009. The law emerged following 30 years of efforts and inter-professional discussions that led to a consensus by an expert committee presided by Dr Jean-Bernard Trudeau in 2005. In this essay, Dr Jean-Bernard Trudeau, general practitioner, and two psychiatrist and psychologist colleagues, who have participated to the expert committee or have been involved more recently in the implementation of law no 21 in Quebec, relate the main landmarks and moments in the regulation of the practice in psychotherapy following this inter-professional consensus that was translated in the law 21. They relate particularly the last ten years that have led to the adoption of law 21 in 2009, following two parliamentary commission after the Trudeau report. They underline how the practice of psychotherapy is integrated in the professional system and submitted to strict regulation. It includes regulations for obtaining the license of psychotherapist and for maintaining competence. Guidelines emerging from continuous inter-professional discussions for the application of the law and of its regulation in the public and private sectors are produced by the Quebec Professions Office. The definition of psychotherapy that was reached by consensus is not limited to the treatment of mental disorders and is distinguished from other intervention in the area of human relations. Continuous training is mandatory and is implemented on one hand by the Order of the psychologists for the psychologists and other professionals practicing psychotherapy and on the other hand the College of physicians for physician practicing psychotherapy. The authors finally described the interdisciplinary advisory council for the practice of psychotherapy that the legislator has foreseen as an external mechanism to insure the conformity of regulation with the spirit of the law and to give opinions to the various

  14. A Single-Case Experimental Demonstration of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy with Two Clients with Severe Interpersonal Problems (United States)

    Oshiro, Claudia Kami Bastos; Kanter, Jonathan; Meyer, Sonia Beatriz


    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is emerging as an effective psychotherapy for psychiatric clinical cases. However, there is little research demonstrating the process of change of FAP. The present study evaluated the introduction and withdrawal of FAP interventions on therapy-interfering verbal behaviors of two participants who were in…

  15. Alliance in individual psychotherapy. (United States)

    Horvath, Adam O; Del Re, A C; Flückiger, Christoph; Symonds, Dianne


    This article reports on a research synthesis of the relation between alliance and the outcomes of individual psychotherapy. Included were over 200 research reports based on 190 independent data sources, covering more than 14,000 treatments. Research involving 5 or more adult participants receiving genuine (as opposed to analogue) treatments, where the author(s) referred to one of the independent variables as "alliance," "therapeutic alliance," "helping alliance," or "working alliance" were the inclusion criteria. All analyses were done using the assumptions of a random model. The overall aggregate relation between the alliance and treatment outcome (adjusted for sample size and non independence of outcome measures) was r = .275 (k = 190); the 95% confidence interval for this value was .25-.30. The statistical probability associated with the aggregated relation between alliance and outcome is p < .0001. The data collected for this meta-analysis were quite variable (heterogeneous). Potential variables such as assessment perspectives (client, therapist, observer), publication source, types of assessment methods and time of assessment were explored.

  16. Child Psychotherapy Dropout: An Empirical Research Review (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet


    This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…

  17. [Method of existence analytic psychotherapy]. (United States)

    Längle, A


    Introducing questions of individual purpose and meaning into psychotherapy was an important contribution of Viktor Frankl and a necessary supplement to traditional psychotherapy. V. Frankls "Logotherapy" (logos = meaning) however has found its main application in counselling (especially bereavement and grief processes) and prophylactic endeavours (e.g. pedagogics). Suffering from meaninglessness, on the other hand, showed up to be a respectively rare indication for psychotherapeutic interventions in its proper sense. Thus the question was arising how to apply Frankl's valuable meaning-centered concept of man (which he called "Existential Analysis") in a genuine way to other neurosis and to personality disorders, so far "unspecific indications" to Logotherapy. This paper gives an outline and methodological foundation of "Existential Analysis Psychotherapy". A case study finally is illustrating its phenomenological proceeding.

  18. Psychotherapy patient transfer: secondhand rose. (United States)

    Sederer, L


    The author uses the analogy of the marketplace to examine the dynamics of the transfer of psychotherapy patients in university clinic settings. The outgoing therapist is the seller, the prospective therapist the buyer, and the patient the commodity--the secondhand Rose. Marketing techniques that are used in this buyers' market allow no active patient participation and are therefore antithetical to the tenets of psychotherapy. The author suggests early clarification of therapeutic goals, assignment of therapists on the basis of patient choice, and explanation of time frames and limits as means for ameliorating the problems he describes.

  19. With Doug: an Eastern Orthodox--Gestalt framework for pastoral psychotherapy in the armed forces. (United States)

    Alexander, David


    In military behavioral healthcare, a short-term, solutions-focused system often privileges cognitive techniques over existential, affective, or psychodynamic approaches to care. Pastoral psychotherapy, which often privileges existential and person-centered care, has the potential to prove a pivotal complement in treating the whole person. This article offers an existential approach to pastoral psychotherapy in the military using integrated concepts and applications from Gestalt Therapy and Eastern Orthodox pastoral care.

  20. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and behaviors by teaching skills to: Control intense emotions Reduce self-destructive behaviors Improve relationships With DBT, ... concrete things they can do to manage their emotions when certain challenging situations arise and they are ...

  1. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... behaviors Improve relationships With DBT, people learn tools, exercises, and concrete things they can do to manage ... symptoms and problem BPD behaviors, relieve symptoms of depression, and improve quality of life. Dynamic Deconstructive Therapy ( ...

  2. [Attitudes toward psychotherapy in the general population]. (United States)

    Petrowski, Katja; Hessel, Aike; Körner, Annett; Weidner, Kerstin; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas


    Attitudes towards psychotherapy are important predictors for the acceptance and usage of psychotherapy. A survey examined attitudes towards psychotherapy in a sample representative of the German population including 2089 persons between 14 to 92 years of age. Two thirds of the sample indicated a positive attitude towards psychotherapy. Men as well as individuals with lower education reported a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than women and persons with higher educational level. Education had a medium effect size (d=0.44). Individuals with somatoform symptoms did not indicate a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than the general population. Even though the majority of the population has a more positive attitude towards psychotherapy, this positive attitude does not apply for all groups of the -population.

  3. Disappointed Love and Suicide: A Randomized Controlled Trial of "Abandonment Psychotherapy" Among Borderline Patients. (United States)

    Andreoli, A; Burnand, Y; Cochennec, M-F; Ohlendorf, P; Frambati, L; Gaudry-Maire, D; Di Clemente, Th; Hourton, G; Lorillard, S; Canuto, A; Frances, A


    To determine whether ambulatory psychotherapy targeted to abandonment experiences and fears can reduce suicidality and improve outcome in borderline patients referred to the emergency room with major depressive disorder and self-destructive behavior severe enough to require medical/surgical treatment and a brief psychiatric hospitalization. A total of 170 subjects were randomized at hospital discharge into three treatment groups: treatment as usual (TAU), abandonment psychotherapy delivered by certified psychotherapists, and abandonment psychotherapy delivered by nurses. Assessments were performed before randomization and at 3-month follow-up. Continued suicidality and other outcome measures were significantly worse in the treatment-as-usual as compared to both abandonment psychotherapy groups, but there were no differences between the two psychotherapy groups. These results suggest the efficacy of manualized psychotherapy that specifically targets the abandonment fears and experiences that are so common as precipitants to suicidal and self-destructive acts in borderline patients. It does not appear that formal psychotherapy training is associated with better outcomes.

  4. Depressed patients’ preferences for type of psychotherapy: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrondi A


    Full Text Available Antoine Yrondi,1 Julie Rieu,1 Claire Massip,1 Vanina Bongard,2 Laurent Schmitt1 1Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, 2Public Health Service, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse, France Background: The treatment recommendations for depressed patients by the American Psychiatric Association encourage a focus on the patient’s preferences. The focus of this study was the preference of depressed inpatients for the type of psychotherapy. Methods: Twenty-nine subjects of both sexes who were hospitalized with a major depressive episode were interviewed at 5-day intervals with the same questions after the depressive episode resolved, as indicated by a score less than 7 on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS. The selection of items was performed by expert consensus. Results: The supportive psychotherapy scores were the highest, followed by psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The two sessions conducted at 5-day intervals showed no significant difference, which reflected the stability of choices and preferences of patients. Conclusion: In this study, the patients preferred supportive psychotherapy as first-line therapy compared to psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. Keywords: depression, depressive disorder, psychodynamic psychotherap, supportive psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy

  5. Psychotherapy via Videoconferencing: A Review (United States)

    Simpson, Susan


    Research into the use of videoconferencing for clinical purposes, in particular psychotherapy, is gradually expanding. A number of case studies and case series have suggested that videoconferencing can be clinically effective and acceptable to patients. Nevertheless, there is a lack of methodologically rigorous studies with adequate sample sizes…

  6. Palmistry, tarot cards, and psychotherapy. (United States)

    Pejic, Nicholas G


    The author summarizes his experience with palm and Tarot card readers in New Orleans. The history, practice, and psychodynamics of palmistry and Tarot are explored. It's postulated that these practices are forms of archaic psychotherapy, which employ supportive treatment and placebo. These tactics are used to elicit hope for its clients.

  7. Beyond Psychobabble: Careers in Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Mariani, Matthew


    Describes the five largest psychotherapy occupations (psychiatrist, clinical/counseling psychologist, clinical social worker, marriage and family therapist, clinical mental health counselor) and looks at training requirements, types of practices, trends, and related occupations. Lists professional associations and references for further…

  8. The Effect of Contingent Reinforcement on Target Variables in Outpatient Psychotherapy for Depression: A Successful and Unsuccessful Case Using Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Landes, Sara J.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.; Brown, Keri R.; Baruch, David E.; Holman, Gareth I.


    The current study investigated a behavior-analytic treatment, functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP), for outpatient depression utilizing two single-subject A/A+B designs. The baseline condition was cognitive behavioral therapy. Results demonstrated treatment success in 1 client after the addition of FAP and treatment failure in the 2nd. This…

  9. Culture and demoralization in psychotherapy. (United States)

    de Figueiredo, John M; Gostoli, Sara


    In most societies, members of a culture have attempted to help each other in times of trouble with various types of healing methods. Demoralization - an individual experience related to a group phenomenon - responds to certain elements shared by all psychotherapies. This article has three objectives: (1) to review the theoretical background leading to our current views on culture and demoralization in psychotherapy, (2) to discuss the methodological challenges faced in the cross-cultural study of demoralization and psychotherapy, and (3) to describe the clinical applications and research prospects of this area of inquiry. Demoralization follows a shattering of the individual's assumptive world and it is different from homeostatic responses to a stressful situation or from depressive disorders. Only a few comparative studies of this construct across cultures have been undertaken. The presentation of distress may vary widely from culture to culture and even within the same culture. To avoid 'category fallacy', it is important to understand the idioms of distress peculiar to a cultural group. A cultural psychiatrist or psychotherapist would have to identify patient's values and sentiments, reconstruct his/her personal and collective ambient worlds, and only then study demoralization. The limitations of our current diagnostic systems have resulted in methodological challenges. Cultural clinicians should consider using a combination of both 'clinimetric' and 'perspectivistic' approaches in order to arrive at a diagnosis and identify the appropriate intervention. The presenting problem has to be understood in the context of the patient's individual, social and cultural background, and patients unfamiliar with Western-type psychotherapies have to be prepared to guide their own expectations before the former are used. Future research should identify the gaps in knowledge on the effectiveness of cultural psychotherapy at reversing or preventing demoralization.

  10. Does Acceptance and Relationship Focused Behavior Therapy Contribute to Bupropion Outcomes? A Randomized Controlled Trial of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Smoking Cessation (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth V.; Kohlenberg, Barbara S.; Hayes, Steven C.; Pierson, Heather M.; Piasecki, Melissa P.; Antonuccio, David O.; Palm, Kathleen M.


    This study evaluated a treatment combining bupropion with a novel acceptance and relationship focused behavioral intervention based on the acceptance and relationship context (ARC) model. Three hundred and three smokers from a community sample were randomly assigned to bupropion, a widely used smoking cessation medication, or bupropion plus…

  11. Treatment Differences in the Therapeutic Relationship and Introject during a 2-Year Randomized Controlled Trial of Dialectical Behavior Therapy versus Nonbehavioral Psychotherapy Experts for Borderline Personality Disorder (United States)

    Bedics, Jamie D.; Atkins, David C.; Comtois, Katherine A.; Linehan, Marsha M.


    Objective: The present study explored the role of the therapeutic relationship and introject during the course of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993) for the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Method: Women meeting "DSM-IV" criteria for borderline personality disorder (N = 101) were randomized to receive DBT or community…

  12. Changes in sexual behavior of HIV-infected older adults enrolled in a clinical trial of standalone group psychotherapies targeting depression. (United States)

    Lovejoy, Travis I; Heckman, Timothy G; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B; Kochman, Arlene


    By 2015, one-half of all HIV-positive persons in the U.S. will be 50-plus years of age, and as many as 30 % of older adults living with HIV/AIDS continue to engage in unprotected sexual intercourse. Contemporary positive prevention models often include mental health treatment as a key component of HIV prevention interventions. This secondary data analysis characterized longitudinal patterns of sexual behavior in HIV-positive older adults enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of group mental health interventions and assessed the efficacy of psychosocial treatments that targeted depression to reduce sexual risk behavior. Participants were 295 HIV-positive adults ≥50 years of age experiencing mild to severe depressive symptoms, randomized to one of three study conditions: a 12-session coping improvement group intervention, a 12-session interpersonal support group intervention, or individual therapy upon request. Approximately one-fifth of participants reported one or more occasions of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse with HIV-negative sexual partners or persons of unknown HIV serostatus over the study period. Changes in sexual behavior did not vary by intervention condition, indicating that standalone treatments that target and reduce depression may be insufficient to reduce sexual risk behavior in depressed HIV-positive older adults.

  13. Effects of group psychotherapy on mental and behavioral disorders due to use of alcohol%团体心理治疗对酒精所致精神和行为障碍患者的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 鲍建军; 康建华


    Objective To research the curative effect of group psychotherapy on mental and behavioral disorders due to use of alcohol .Methods In July 2012 to June 2013 ,120 cases of male patients with mental and behavioral disorders due to use of alcohol were divided into study group and control group by the method of taking the odd and even number randomly .Their average ages were 45.12 years old,and the average time of drink was 15.15 years.The patients who were given regular alternative medicine treatment were enrolled as the control group ,the patients who were given group psychotherapy combined with regular alternative medicine treatment were enrolled as the study group .All the patients before and after treatment in 4 weeks,8 weeks,12 weeks were asked to do the questionnaires ,such as self-rating anxiety scale(SAS),self-rating depression scale ( SDS) ,simplified coping style questionnaire ,and follow-up 3 months after discharge . Analysis of variance ( ANOVA ) , t test and χ2 test were used to compare the differences between the two groups.Results Compared to the study group and the control group ,the results of SAS,SDS in 8 weeks,12 weeks were statistically significant (t =2.79,2.68,all P<0.05;t =2.82,2.43,all P <0.05);After 12 weeks of treatment ,the positive and negative coping style scores were statistically significant ( t=2.11 ,2.17 , all P<0.05 );3 months after discharge ,the ratio of the number of conservation withdrawal patients between the two groups was statistically significant:the ratio of the number of conservation withdrawal patients in study group was more than the control group (χ2 =8.155 , P =0.004 ) .Conclusion Compared to the regular alternative medicine treatment , the psychotherapy combined with regular alternative medicine treatment for mental and behavioral disorders due to use of alcohol is better to ease the patient ′s negative mood,improve the negative coping style ,reduce the relapse rate .%目的:研究团体心理治疗对酒精所

  14. [Integrative approach in the psychotherapy of borderline personality disorder]. (United States)

    Kuritárné Szabó, Ildikó


    In the last 20 years six psychotherapy methods have been developed specifically for borderline personality disorder. Solid RCT evidences suggests the efficacy of all the methods. Roughly equivalent improvement was obtained from the different types of psychotherapies. Today we have reached a new phase of the borderline "psychotherapy boom", the integrative approach. According to the integrative treatment advocates we should not choose among these effective treatments but we can incorporate in the therapy all the components that work. The integrative approach uses general factors common to all effective therapies, combined with specific treatment techniques taken from different therapies in order to treat the given patient's psychopathology. These common factors are: coherent framework; attention to strategies for building strong positive alliance and maintaining patient motivation; creating a safe and structured therapeutic environment; clear treatment frame; transparency of the goals and roles; focus upon presenting problems; higher level therapeutic activity; here-and-now focus; and facilitating self-reflection. Treatment focuses on change while maintaining a validating and supportive stance. General strategies can be supplemented by more specific techniques such as cognitive-behavioral interventions for reducing maladaptive behavior, training for developing emotion regulation skills and interpersonal skills coming from dialectical behavior therapy. Methods drawn from psychodynamic approaches can be used for the modification of underlying interpersonal cognitive-emotional schemas.

  15. Integrating self-help books into psychotherapy. (United States)

    Campbell, Linda F; Smith, Thomas P


    This article describes a systematic and integral method of incorporating self-help books into psychotherapy as a collaborative function. We address the distinctions between self-help and bibliotherapy, consider bibliotherapy as adjunctive or integrative to psychotherapy, and outline the multiple uses of bibliotherapy for clinical purposes. How to apply self-help books in psychotherapy and ways to select books are illustrated by a case example. Indications and contraindications for bibliotherapy in therapy are outlined.

  16. Psychotherapy of the dying patient. (United States)

    Stedeford, A


    The psychotherapeutic aspects of the care of the 49 terminally ill patients described in the preceeding paper are discussed. Their differing ways of coping with the stress of dying and the range of psychotherapeutic strategies used in treatment are described. The work suggests that the therapist's use of psychological insights can improve his understanding of the emotional pain of terminal illness, and well-aimed psychotherapy can contribute to its relief.

  17. [Problems of bilinguism in psychotherapy]. (United States)

    Fadda, S; Müller, C


    The authors have attempted an introductory study of problems which are inherent to psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy and psychoanalysis conducted in the second language of a bilingual therapist. This situation seems to be more complex than is usually admitted in current literature. The main problem encountered by the authors in their personal practice stems from the fact that the process of identification becomes complex when the therapist is confronted with regressive and/or progressive shifts in the course of the treatment.

  18. Videoconferencing psychotherapy: a systematic review. (United States)

    Backhaus, Autumn; Agha, Zia; Maglione, Melissa L; Repp, Andrea; Ross, Bridgett; Zuest, Danielle; Rice-Thorp, Natalie M; Lohr, James; Thorp, Steven R


    Individuals with mental health problems may face barriers to accessing effective psychotherapies. Videoconferencing technology, which allows audio and video information to be shared concurrently across geographical distances, offers an alternative that may improve access. We conducted a systematic literature review of the use of videoconferencing psychotherapy (VCP), designed to address 10 specific questions, including therapeutic types/formats that have been implemented, the populations with which VCP is being used, the number and types of publications related to VCP, and available satisfaction, feasibility, and outcome data related to VCP. After electronic searches and reviews of reference lists, 821 potential articles were identified, and 65 were selected for inclusion. The results indicate that VCP is feasible, has been used in a variety of therapeutic formats and with diverse populations, is generally associated with good user satisfaction, and is found to have similar clinical outcomes to traditional face-to-face psychotherapy. Although the number of articles being published on VCP has increased in recent years, there remains a need for additional large-scale clinical trials to further assess the efficacy and effectiveness of VCP.

  19. Cognitive-behavioral therapy versus other PTSD psychotherapies as treatment for women victims of war-related violence: a systematic review. (United States)

    Dossa, N Inès; Hatem, Marie


    Although war-trauma victims are at a higher risk of developing PTSD, there is no consensus on the effective treatments for this condition among civilians who experienced war/conflict-related trauma. This paper assessed the effectiveness of the various forms of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) at lowering PTSD and depression severity. All published and unpublished randomized controlled trials studying the effectiveness of CBT at reducing PTSD and/or depression severity in the population of interest were searched. Out of 738 trials identified, 33 analysed a form of CBTs effectiveness, and ten were included in the paper. The subgroup analysis shows that cognitive processing therapy (CPT), culturally adapted CPT, and narrative exposure therapy (NET) contribute to the reduction of PTSD and depression severity in the population of interest. The effect size was also significant at a level of 0.01 with the exception of the effect of NET on depression score. The test of subgroup differences was also significant, suggesting CPT is more effective than NET in our population of interest. CPT as well as its culturallyadapted form and NET seem effective in helping war/conflict traumatised civilians cope with their PTSD symptoms. However, more studies are required if one wishes to recommend one of these therapies above the other.

  20. Open access meta-analysis for psychotherapy research. (United States)

    Baldwin, Scott A; Del Re, A C


    Meta-analysis has played a key role in psychotherapy research for nearly 40 years. There is now an opportunity for technology to assist with transparent and open meta-analyses. The authors describe an open-access database of effect sizes and a corresponding web application for performing meta-analyses, viewing the database, and downloading effect sizes. The initial databases provide effect sizes for family therapy for delinquency studies and for alliance-outcome correlations in individual psychotherapy. Disciplinary norms about data sharing and openness are shifting. Furthermore, meta-analyses of behavioral interventions have been criticized for lacking transparency and openness. The database and web application are aimed at facilitating data sharing and improving the transparency of meta-analyses. The authors conclude with a discussion of future directions for the database.

  1. A Functional Analytic Approach to Group Psychotherapy (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Luc


    This article provides a particular view on the use of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy (FAP) in a group therapy format. This view is based on the author's experiences as a supervisor of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy Groups, including groups for women with depression and groups for chronic pain patients. The contexts in which this approach…

  2. Patterns of Symptomatic Recovery in Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Kopta, Stephen Mark; And Others


    Used psychotherapy dosage model in which effect was probability of recovery to compare treatment response rates for psychological symptoms. Administered symptom checklists to 854 psychotherapy outpatients at intake and during treatment. Chronic distress symptoms demonstrated fastest average response rate, whereas characterological symptoms…

  3. Practice Parameter for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy with Children (United States)

    Medicus, Jennifer


    This Practice Parameter describes the principles of psychodynamic psychotherapy with children and is based on clinical consensus and available research evidence. It presents guidelines for the practice of child psychodynamic psychotherapy, including indications and contraindications, the setting, verbal and interactive (play) techniques, work with…

  4. Individual psychotherapy as an adjunct to group psychotherapy. (United States)

    Amaranto, E A; Bender, S S


    This paper describes a form of combined psychotherapy in which the individual sessions are used as an adjunct to group therapy. Each group member is seen regularly in individual sessions to focus primarily on the member's ongoing group work. The individual sessions are scheduled on a rotating basis. Typically, each group member is seen in an individual session once every four weeks. Additional individual sessions are available only when immediate attention is appropriate and necessary. The group is viewed as the primary therapeutic component. A cost-effective therapeutic approach that uses both individual and group methods, this modality lends itself well to a clinic and to a private practice setting.

  5. Reduction of suicidal ideation in patients undergoing psychotherapy in the day hospital for the treatment of neurotic and behavioral disorders and neurotic symptoms reported by them before the hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Rodziński


    Patients initially reporting SI constituted approximately 1/3 in both genders and were characterized by greater intensity of neurotic disorders. Among those, women with particularly higher intensity of Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, Neurasthenia and Autonomic disorders and women reporting episodes of uncontrollable hunger seemed to suffer from SI that were more resistant to the psychotherapy. As such, those subgroups of women require special attention and diligent selection of the therapeutic methods.

  6. Sterbenlassen. Vom Ende einer Psychotherapie


    Ranefeld, Johannes


    Reflexionen zum Ende einer psychoanalytischen Psychotherapie; ein Ende, an das es sich nur zögernd und ausweichend annähern läßt. Sterben ist letztendlich ein einsames Geschäft, wir halten den Tod für ansteckend und verfahren nach der Regel: "Man darf nicht zulassen, daß er einem ins Gesicht atmet" (Michael Connelly 1996, The Poet). Dennoch wird ver­sucht, beschreibend ein Konzept der Annäherungen zu skizzieren.

  7. The renewal of humanism in psychotherapy: a roundtable discussion. (United States)

    Schneider, Kirk J; Längle, Alfried


    This special section highlights the renewal of humanism in psychotherapy. For the purposes of this special section, humanism is defined as a philosophical perspective whose subject matter is the whole human being. In psychotherapy, humanism places special emphasis on the personal, interpersonal, and contextual dimensions of therapy and on clients' reflections on their relationship with self, others, and the larger psychosocial world. The contributors to this special section-Bruce Wampold, David Elkins, Steven Hayes, Robert Stolorow, Jurgen Kriz, Lillian Comas-Diaz, and the authors of this introduction-are each leaders in their respective therapeutic specialties: research and training, cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychoanalytic therapy, European therapy, and multicultural therapy. In the manner of a "roundtable," each contributor was asked to provide a short article on the renewal of humanism in his or her respective specialty followed by brief comments on the initial round of articles. The conclusion of these reflections is that the renewal of humanism is a viable and growing phenomenon among the leading specialty areas of psychotherapy. The corollary conclusion is that although many theoretical and practical questions remain, humanism is (1) a foundational element of therapeutic effectiveness; (2) a pivotal (and needed) dimension of therapeutic training; and (3) a critical contributor to societal well-being.

  8. [Body-centered psychotherapy IKP (Institute of Body-Centered Psychotherapy): holistic psychotherapy]. (United States)

    Maurer-Groeli, Y


    Body centered Psychotherapy IKP is treated in this article under the aspect of a holistic approach. First the theory and the system of science are summarised and shown as to which amount they are changing concerning knowledge of details and wholeness. It is pointed out that the actual paradigma "to the depth" has to be completed by that of "wideness". The way of holistic-multirelational thinking, stating a diagnosis and doing therapy is demonstrated along a case study going on at the background of a therapeutic encounter-relationship which is emotionally warm (Gestalt-approach).

  9. Computational psychotherapy research: scaling up the evaluation of patient-provider interactions. (United States)

    Imel, Zac E; Steyvers, Mark; Atkins, David C


    In psychotherapy, the patient-provider interaction contains the treatment's active ingredients. However, the technology for analyzing the content of this interaction has not fundamentally changed in decades, limiting both the scale and specificity of psychotherapy research. New methods are required to "scale up" to larger evaluation tasks and "drill down" into the raw linguistic data of patient-therapist interactions. In the current article, we demonstrate the utility of statistical text analysis models called topic models for discovering the underlying linguistic structure in psychotherapy. Topic models identify semantic themes (or topics) in a collection of documents (here, transcripts). We used topic models to summarize and visualize 1,553 psychotherapy and drug therapy (i.e., medication management) transcripts. Results showed that topic models identified clinically relevant content, including affective, relational, and intervention related topics. In addition, topic models learned to identify specific types of therapist statements associated with treatment-related codes (e.g., different treatment approaches, patient-therapist discussions about the therapeutic relationship). Visualizations of semantic similarity across sessions indicate that topic models identify content that discriminates between broad classes of therapy (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy vs. psychodynamic therapy). Finally, predictive modeling demonstrated that topic model-derived features can classify therapy type with a high degree of accuracy. Computational psychotherapy research has the potential to scale up the study of psychotherapy to thousands of sessions at a time. We conclude by discussing the implications of computational methods such as topic models for the future of psychotherapy research and practice.

  10. Review of self-relations in the psychotherapy process. (United States)

    Auerbach, John S


    Reviews the book, Self-Relations in the Psychotherapy Process by J. Christopher Muran (see record 2000-16556-000). The self is alive and well and living in psychology, at least if the contributors to J. Christopher Muran's stimulating volume, Self-Relations in the Psychotherapy Process, are to be taken seriously. The self is a central construct in psychoanalytic, humanistic, and cognitive-behavioral theories, but nowadays even some radical behaviorists find the self to be an important concept. Thus, the present is a propitious time for a book that presents the major theoretical approaches to the self in psychotherapy and, fortunately for us, Muran, by gathering the views of leading psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive-behavioral, and radical behavioral thinkers, has assembled a volume of almost uniformly high quality. Inspired by postmodernism, especially by the growing popularity of dialogic and perspectival epistemologies, Muran has a constructed this book as a set of six dialogues among contributors of varying theoretical persuasions, and although I doubt that dialogic and perspectival epistemologies are necessarily postmodern, I nevertheless find that this volume's dialogic structure makes for interesting reading and adds to its intellectual contributions. Because Muran's contention, with which I agree, is that the self is not an isolated entity but rather part of a relational matrix, it is perhaps necessary for this book to be structured dialogically. Whether postmodern or not, this book is an important one, one that conveys a great deal about what it means to be human as we enter the 21st century. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruša Zaletel


    Full Text Available In their article, the authors present the findings of the study in which they conceptualized the method of psychotherapy with the Parent ego state. Their aim was to explore whether this method could be divided into individual, content-wise separate chronological phases which can be observed with the majority of clients. By using a modified method of content analysis of five psychotherapy transcripts and a video recording of a psychotherapy session, nine chronological phases were identified. In order to illustrate the individual phases, excerpts from the transcripts and the video recording of psychotherapy have been included. The article proposes under what conditions can this method be used, and presents some of its limitations.

  12. Psychotherapy: from exorcism to cognitive theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durval Mazzei Nogueira Filho

    Full Text Available The author discusses aspects of psychotherapeutic action. He defends the rationality of the procedure, comments on the splintering of the field of psychotherapy and discusses the usefulness of applying the scientific methodology to this field of knowledge.

  13. Comparative Psychotherapy: Rational-Emotive Therapy Versus Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Stuttering (United States)

    Moleski, Richard; Tosi, Donald J.


    The present study examined the efficacy of rational-emotive psychotherapy and systematic desensitization in the treatment of stuttering. Both therapies, making extensive use of in vivo behavioral assignments, were examined under the presence and absence of in vivo tasks. Results show that rational-emotive therapy was more effective in reducing…

  14. Impact of Cluster C Personality Disorders on Outcomes of Contrasting Brief Psychotherapies for Depression. (United States)

    Hardy, Gillian E.; And Others


    Study compares 27 depressed clients diagnosed with Cluster C personality disorder (PD) with 87 depressed clients without the diagnosis. All clients completed cognitive-behavioral or psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy. Treatment length did not influence outcome for PD clients. PD clients whose depression was also relatively severe showed…

  15. Psychotherapy for Depression in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Comparative Outcome Studies (United States)

    Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; Andersson, Gerhard; van Oppen, Patricia


    Although the subject has been debated and examined for more than 3 decades, it is still not clear whether all psychotherapies are equally efficacious. The authors conducted 7 meta-analyses (with a total of 53 studies) in which 7 major types of psychological treatment for mild to moderate adult depression (cognitive-behavior therapy, nondirective…

  16. A Model of Therapist Competencies for the Empirically Supported Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescent Depression (United States)

    Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Mufson, Laura H.; Schniering, Carolyn A.


    In order to treat adolescent depression, a number of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) have been developed from both the cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A) frameworks. Research has shown that in order for these treatments to be implemented in routine clinical practice (RCP), effective therapist…

  17. John Bowlby and couple psychotherapy. (United States)

    Clulow, Christopher


    The centenary of John Bowlby's birth provides a context for considering the policy, research and practice legacies that he left for practitioners working in many different fields supporting couples and families. Part historical, and part forwardlooking, this paper considers the links between attachment in the infant-parent dyad that was at the heart of Bowlby's concern and the nature of the affective ties that bind couples together in adult romantic relationships. An overview of the influence of his theory on family policy and adult attachment research is followed by an appreciation of its significance for the practice of couple psychotherapy. The paper concludes with a comment on the implications of current neuroscience knowledge for therapeutic technique.

  18. Psychotherapy - insights from bhagavad gita. (United States)

    Reddy, M S


    Spoken and written commentary on Bhagavad Gita, the distilled spiritual essence of Vedas and Upanishads, is aplenty. Mahatma Gandhi was quoted as saying that whenever he had a problem Bhagavad Gita offered an answer and the solution. For a student of psychology Bhagavad Gita offers a valuable case study for lessons in psychotherapy - resolution of conflict and successful resumption of action from a state of acute anxiety and guilt laden depression that precipitated inaction. This presentation makes a humble attempt to discuss the therapy process involved in Bhagavad Gita in which Lord Krishna helped the grief-stricken Arjuna through dialogue and discussion. The focus would be on the conflict and diagnosis of patient, the background setting of the situation, personality of patient, technique of therapy, underlying psychological concepts/ principles/theories, the Guru - Sishya concept, etc.

  19. Glucocorticoids enhance extinction-based psychotherapy. (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Bentz, Dorothée; Michael, Tanja; Bolt, Olivia C; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Margraf, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Frank H


    Behavioral exposure therapy of anxiety disorders is believed to rely on fear extinction. Because preclinical studies have shown that glucocorticoids can promote extinction processes, we aimed at investigating whether the administration of these hormones might be useful in enhancing exposure therapy. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 40 patients with specific phobia for heights were treated with three sessions of exposure therapy using virtual reality exposure to heights. Cortisol (20 mg) or placebo was administered orally 1 h before each of the treatment sessions. Subjects returned for a posttreatment assessment 3-5 d after the last treatment session and for a follow-up assessment after 1 mo. Adding cortisol to exposure therapy resulted in a significantly greater reduction in fear of heights as measured with the acrophobia questionnaire (AQ) both at posttreatment and at follow-up, compared with placebo. Furthermore, subjects receiving cortisol showed a significantly greater reduction in acute anxiety during virtual exposure to a phobic situation at posttreatment and a significantly smaller exposure-induced increase in skin conductance level at follow-up. The present findings indicate that the administration of cortisol can enhance extinction-based psychotherapy.

  20. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy: toward an integrative model. (United States)

    Karasu, T B


    The author reviews historical trends, hypotheses, and problems in the application of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy and uses research findings to develop an integrative model. He portrays a chronology of models over three decades; an "additive" relationship represents the decade of 1970 to 1980. He presents factors that must be considered in determining the effects of pharmacotherapy plus psychotherapy and recommends refinement of these variables in future research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine


    Full Text Available Emotional experience is stored within the amygdala and the limbic system of the brain as affect, visceral, and physiological sensation without symbolization and language. These significant memories are expressed in affect and through our bodily movements and gestures. Such body memories are unconscious non-symbolized patterns of self-in-relationship. Several methods of a body centered psychotherapy are described and clinical case examples illustrate the use of expressive methods within a relational psychotherapy.

  2. Reducing inadvertent clinical errors: Guidelines from functional analytic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Tsai, Mavis; Mandell, Tien; Maitland, Daniel; Kanter, Jonathan; Kohlenberg, Robert J


    Two common types of clinical errors, inadvertently reinforcing client problem behaviors or inadvertently punishing client improvements, are conceptualized from the viewpoint of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP), a treatment that harnesses the power of the therapeutic relationship. Understanding the functions of client behaviors such as incessant talking and over compliance can lead to more compassionate and effective intervention, and a functional analysis of seemingly problematic behaviors such as silence and lack of cooperation indicate how they may be client improvements. Suggestions are provided for how to more accurately conceptualize whether client behaviors are problems or improvements, and to increase awareness of therapist vulnerabilities that can lead to errors. While FAP is rooted in a functional contextual philosophy, the goal of this article is to offer a framework that crosses theoretical boundaries to decrease the likelihood of clinical errors and to facilitate client growth. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Psychotherapy is an ethical endeavor: Balancing science and humanism in clinical practice. (United States)

    Allen, Jon G


    The author proposes that psychotherapy is best grounded in scienceinformed humanism and, more specifically, that psychotherapists at least implicitly promote ethical, moral--and indeed, virtuous--behavior. In doing so, therapists are challenged continually to engage in making evaluative moral judgments without being judgmental. He contends that psychotherapists, and psychologists especially, are overly reliant on science and might benefit from being more explicit in their ethical endeavors by being better informed about the illuminating philosophical literature on ethics. He highlights the concept of mentalizing, that is, attentiveness to mental states in self and others, such as needs, feelings, and thoughts. He proposes that mentalizing in the context of attachment relationships is common to all psychotherapies, and that this common process is best understood conjointly from the perspectives of developmental psychology and ethics. The author defends the thesis that employing psychotherapy to promote ethical, moral, and virtuous functioning can be justified on scientific grounds insofar as this functioning is conducive to health.

  4. Review of neuropsychotherapy: how the neurosciences inform effective psychotherapy and neuropsychotherapie (neuropsychotherapy). (United States)

    Draguns, Juris G


    Reviews the book, Neuropsychotherapie (Neuropsychotherapy) and its English translation, Neuropsychotherapy: How the Neurosciences Inform Effective Psychotherapy, by Klaus Grawe (2004). In the last two decades, momentous advances have occurred in neuroscientific knowledge of complex human behavior and experience. At the same time, there has been a steady accretion of research-based information on the technique, process, and outcome of psychotherapy. In Neuropsychotherapie, Klaus Grawe has undertaken the integration of these two trends. He proceeds from the expectation that the breakthroughs in neuroscience are crucial both for the understanding of psychotherapy and for the further enhancement of its effectiveness. Grawe's book is a landmark and a breakthrough, and its impact will be felt for a great many years. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Psychotherapy Outcome Research: Issues and Questions. (United States)

    Shean, Glenn


    Emphasis on identifying evidence-based therapies (EBTs) has increased markedly. Lists of EBTs are the rationale for recommendations for how psychotherapy provider training programs should be evaluated, professional competence assessed, and licensure and reimbursement policies structured. There are however methodological concerns that limit the external validity of EBTs. Among the most salient is the circularity inherent in randomized control trials (RCTs) of psychotherapy that constrains the manner in which the psychological problems are defined, psychotherapy can be practiced, and change evaluated. RCT studies favor therapies that focus of specific symptoms and can be described in a manual, administered reliably across patients, completed in relatively few sessions, and involve short-term evaluations of outcome. The epistemological assumptions of a natural science approach to psychotherapy research limit how studies are conducted and assessed in ways that that advantage symptom-focused approaches and disadvantage those approaches that seek to bring broad recovery-based changes. Research methods that are not limited to RCTs and include methodology to minimize the effects of "therapist allegiance" are necessary for valid evaluations of therapeutic approaches that seek to facilitate changes that are broader than symptom reduction. Recent proposals to adopt policies that dictate training, credentialing, and reimbursement based on lists of EBTs unduly limit how psychotherapy can be conceptualized and practiced, and are not in the best interests of the profession or of individuals seeking psychotherapy services.

  6. Outcome in psychotherapy: the past and important advances. (United States)

    Lambert, Michael J


    Fifty years after the 1963 debate between Strupp and Eysenck, as recorded in their articles in Psychotherapy, it is clear that Eysenck overstated the case against psychoanalysis and dynamic psychotherapy (Bergin, 1971), while inflating the magnitude of improvement in untreated individuals (Lambert, 1976). Eysenck was probably correct about the beneficial effects of behavior therapies, but did not foresee that behavior therapy would be supplanted by cognitive behavior therapies (CBT) and eclectic mixtures of CBT that incorporate elements of eastern religion, humanistic interventions, and psychodynamic constructs. Fortunately, most of the treatments that have been tested in rigorous investigations have been found to be effective, but few have distinguished themselves as uniquely superior. Many of the problems of how to measure the effects of treatment have been solved and suggest that about two thirds of treated individuals improve or recover. This leaves a sizable portion of nonresponding individuals, but emerging methods involving in tracking treatment response are being used to decrease deterioration and enhance positive outcomes.

  7. Psychotherapies: An Integration of Eastern Cultural Thoughts and Western Therapeutic Skills in the Chinese Practice%心理治疗在中国:西方治疗技术与东方文化思想的结合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Psychotherapies were introduced into China and developed quite well in the past two decades.The author suggests that the development of psychotherapies for the Chinese should be integrated the traditional cultural issues with the different schools of Western psychotherapies. This article reviews the traditional cultures,which deeply influenced the people's mind and behavioral patterns; and the common kinds of modern psychotherapies practiced in China now.Particularly, the author suggests that the therapeutic skills to learn and experiments to collect, as well as cultural issues to concern will be focused on more by the Chinese therapists.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Kurpatov


    approaches. V.N. Myasishchev's theory of personality relations in association with its universality, as well as pathogenetic psychotherapy may be the basis for the integration of other methods of psychotherapy

  9. Efficacy of group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials. (United States)

    Barkowski, Sarah; Schwartze, Dominique; Strauss, Bernhard; Burlingame, Gary M; Barth, Jürgen; Rosendahl, Jenny


    Group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) is an established treatment supported by findings from primary studies and earlier meta-analyses. However, a comprehensive summary of the recent evidence is still pending. This meta-analysis investigates the efficacy of group psychotherapy for adult patients with SAD. A literature search identified 36 randomized-controlled trials examining 2171 patients. Available studies used mainly cognitive-behavioral group therapies (CBGT); therefore, quantitative analyses were done for CBGT. Medium to large positive effects emerged for wait list-controlled trials for specific symptomatology: g=0.84, 95% CI [0.72; 0.97] and general psychopathology: g=0.62, 95% CI [0.36; 0.89]. Group psychotherapy was also superior to common factor control conditions in alleviating symptoms of SAD, but not in improving general psychopathology. No differences appeared for direct comparisons of group psychotherapy and individual psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. Hence, group psychotherapy for SAD is an efficacious treatment, equivalent to other treatment formats.

  10. First Steps in FAP: Experiences of Beginning Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Therapist with an Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Client (United States)

    Manduchi, Katia; Schoendorff, Benjamin


    Practicing Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) for the first time can seem daunting to therapists. Establishing a deep and intense therapeutic relationship, identifying FAP's therapeutic targets of clinically relevant behaviors, and using contingent reinforcement to help clients emit more functional behavior in the therapeutic relationship all…

  11. Change mechanisms of schema-centered group psychotherapy with personality disorder patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Tschacher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study addressed the temporal properties of personality disorders and their treatment by schema-centered group psychotherapy. It investigated the change mechanisms of psychotherapy using a novel method by which psychotherapy can be modeled explicitly in the temporal domain. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: 69 patients were assigned to a specific schema-centered behavioral group psychotherapy, 26 to social skills training as a control condition. The largest diagnostic subgroups were narcissistic and borderline personality disorder. Both treatments offered 30 group sessions of 100 min duration each, at a frequency of two sessions per week. Therapy process was described by components resulting from principal component analysis of patients' session-reports that were obtained after each session. These patient-assessed components were Clarification, Bond, Rejection, and Emotional Activation. The statistical approach focused on time-lagged associations of components using time-series panel analysis. This method provided a detailed quantitative representation of therapy process. It was found that Clarification played a core role in schema-centered psychotherapy, reducing rejection and regulating the emotion of patients. This was also a change mechanism linked to therapy outcome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The introduced process-oriented methodology allowed to highlight the mechanisms by which psychotherapeutic treatment became effective. Additionally, process models depicted the actual patterns that differentiated specific diagnostic subgroups. Time-series analysis explores Granger causality, a non-experimental approximation of causality based on temporal sequences. This methodology, resting upon naturalistic data, can explicate mechanisms of action in psychotherapy research and illustrate the temporal patterns underlying personality disorders.

  12. Obstacles to early career psychiatrists practicing psychotherapy. (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A; Plakun, Eric M; Lazar, Susan G; Mellman, Lisa


    Though psychiatric residents are expected to be competent psychotherapists on graduation, further growth in skill and versatility requires continued experience in their ongoing career. Maturity as a psychotherapist is essential because a psychiatrist is the only mental health provider who, as a physician, can assume full responsibility for biopsychosocial patient care and roles as supervisor, consultant, and team leader. Graduating residents face an environment in which surveys show a steady and alarming decline in practice of psychotherapy by psychiatrists, along with a decline in job satisfaction. High educational debts, practice structures, intrusive management, and reimbursement policies that devalue psychotherapy discourage early career psychiatrists from a practice style that enables providing it. For the early-career psychiatrist there is thus the serious risk of being unable to develop a critical mass of experience or a secure identity as a psychiatric psychotherapist. Implementation of parity laws and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect the situation in unpredictable ways that call for vigilance and active response. Additional service and administrative demands may result from the ACA, creating ethical dilemmas about meeting urgent patient needs versus biopsychosocial standards of care. The authors recommend 1) vigorous advocacy for better payment levels for psychotherapy and freedom from disruptive management; 2) aggressive action against violations of the parity act, 3) active preparation of psychiatric residents for dealing with career choices and the environment for providing psychotherapy in their practice, and 4) post-graduate training in psychotherapy through supervision/consultation, continuing education courses, computer instruction, and distance learning.

  13. The real relationship in psychotherapy supervision. (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward


    While the real relationship has long been addressed in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, the matter of the real relationship in psychotherapy supervision has yet to receive any attention. Ample supervisory focus has indeed been given to the working alliance and transference-countertransference configuration (including parallel processes), but after a century of psychotherapy supervision, any mention whatsoever of real relationship phenomena is absent. In this paper, the following hypotheses are proposed: The real relationship (1) is a crucial component of the supervision relationship that has transtheoretical implications; (2) exists from the moment supervision begins until its end; (3) is the forever silent yet forever substantive contributor to supervisory process and outcome; (4) exerts a significant impact on (a) the development and establishment of the supervisory working alliance and (b) the unfolding and eventual utilization of the transference-countertransference experience in the supervisory situation; (5) consists of at least two dimensions in supervision--realism and genuineness--that vary along valence and magnitude continua (building on the works of Greenson and Gelso), and (6) deserves a place of eminence equal to the working alliance and transference-countertransference configuration if supervision theory, practice, and research are to be most fully informed. The possibility of using recent real relationship research in psychotherapy as a prototype to inform future research in supervision is presented, and two case examples are provided to illustrate the seeming power of real relationship phenomena in psychotherapy supervision.

  14. From medicine to psychotherapy: the placebo effect. (United States)

    Justman, Stewart


    If placebos have been squeezed out of medicine to the point where their official place in in clinical trials designed to identify their own confounding effect, the placebo effect nevertheless thrives in psychotherapy. Not only does psychotherapy dispose of placebo effects that are less available to medicine as it becomes increasingly technological and preoccupied with body parts, but factors of the sort inhibiting the use of placebos in medicine have no equivalent in psychology. Medicine today is disturbed by the placebo effect in a way psychotherapy is not. Psychotherapy does not have to grapple with such a disconcerting paradox as successful sham surgery, and unlike those physicians who once pretended to treat the patient's body while actually attempting to treat the mind, the psychotherapist can treat the mind in all frankness. Perhaps it is because psychotherapy is less burdened by doubts about the placebo effect that it was able to come to its aid when it was orphaned by medicine. It is vain to expect something with so long a history as the placebo effect to disappear from the practices of healing.

  15. Effects of Psychotherapy Training and Intervention Use on Session Outcome (United States)

    Boswell, James F.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Wasserman, Rachel H.


    Objective: This study was an investigation of the relationships among therapist training variables, psychotherapy process, and session outcome in a psychotherapy training clinic. The aims were to assess the relationship between "training as usual" and intervention use in individual psychotherapy, to investigate the relationship between therapist…

  16. Analyses of therapist variables in a series of psychotherapy sessions with two child clients. (United States)

    Mook, B


    Studied the process of child psychotherapy by means of an analyses of therapist verbal behaviors. Audio-video recordings were made of nine intermittent psychotherapy sessions with 2 child clients, aged 8 and 12. A randomized mastertape of 4-minute segments was rated for empathic understanding and respect by means of the Carkhuff scales. Transcripts were categorized by means of the Hill Counselor Verbal Response Category System, and a preliminary set of 12 grammatical variables. Transcripts were minutized, and all the therapist variables were intercorrelated and factor-analyzed. According to the research expectations, high levels of interrater reliabilities for the Carkhuff scales and relatively high agreement levels for Hill's system were found. Analyses of the therapist variables demonstrated the nature of the therapeutic interventions as well as the pattern of change across successive psychotherapy sessions. The overall verbal response behavior of each therapist was summarized best through the factor analyses. Communalities and individual differences between the therapists were discussed. Future directions for the study of therapist variables in child psychotherapy process research were indicated.

  17. Spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels


    WE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWED THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON SPIRITUALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY INTEGRATED GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group......, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from...... other types of group psychotherapies, was not fully conceptualized or understood either. However, clear and delimited conceptualization of spiritual and religious factors is crucial in order to be able to conclude the direct influences of spiritual or religious factors on outcomes. Implications...

  18. New parity, same old attitude towards psychotherapy? (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A


    Full parity of health insurance benefits for treatment of mental illness, including substance use disorders, is a major achievement. However, the newly-published regulations implementing the legislation strongly endorse aggressive managed care as a way of containing costs for the new equality of coverage. Reductions in "very long episodes of out-patient care," hospitalization, and provider fees, along with increased utilization, are singled out as achievements of managed care. Medical appropriateness as defined by expert medical panels is to be the basis of authorizing care, though clinicians are familiar with a history of insurance companies' application of "medical necessity" to their own advantage. The regulations do not single out psychotherapy for attention, but long-term psychotherapy geared to the needs of each patient appears to be at risk. The author recommends that the mental health professions strongly advocate for the growing evidence base for psychotherapy including long-term therapy for complex mental disorders; respect for the structure and process of psychotherapy individualized to patients' needs; awareness of the costs of aggressive managed care in terms of money, time, administrative burden, and interference with the therapy; and recognition of the extensive training and experience required to provide psychotherapy as well as the stresses and demands of the work. Parity in out-of-network benefits could lead to aggressive management of care given by non-network practitioners. Since a large percentage of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals stay out of networks, implementation of parity for out-of-network providers will have to be done in a way that respects the conditions under which they would be willing and able to provide services, especially psychotherapy, to insured patients. The shortage of psychiatrists makes this an important access issue for the insured population in need of care.

  19. Psychotherapies in Acute and Transient Psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel González de Chávez


    Full Text Available From a comprehensive and global view -psychological, biological and social - acute and transient psychoses could be considered identity breakdowns with fragmentation of its structure, paranoid mechanism and cognitive regression. Psychotherapies favour evolution of psychotic identity through disorder awareness and knowledge of aspects of patients that make them more vulnerable to psychotic experiences. We underline the key role of group psychotherapy to improve therapeutic relationships and best use of patient’s coping strategies in the chronology of therapeutic interventions and recovery process of these patients.

  20. Teaching focus in psychotherapy: a training essential. (United States)

    Summers, Richard F; Xuan, Yan; Tavakoli, Donald N


    Practical application of psychodynamic therapy technique requires that the therapist focus the treatment. The authors review the current evidence about focus in psychotherapy, which suggests that it has a beneficial impact on outcome and patient satisfaction. The core psychodynamic problem is proposed as a valuable conceptual model for providing focus for patient, psychotherapist, and supervisor. The authors narrate a case history from the perspective of both the psychotherapist and the supervisor to demonstrate the opportunities and challenges in using this concept. Finally, the authors suggest that a focus on focus is desirable in residency psychotherapy training programs, and they make suggestions for educational methods that enhance resident training in this area.

  1. Using Animal-assisted Therapy to Enrich Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Amerine, Jeanne Louise; Hubbard, Grace B


    Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of many psychological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). AAT can be used as an adjunct to other forms of psychotherapy. With AAT, the animal becomes a part of the treatment plan. Outcomes for clients that are associated with the use of AAT include (1) increased sense of comfort and safety, (2) increased motivation, (3) enhanced self-esteem, (4) increased prosocial behaviors, and (5) decreased behavioral problems. AAT provides a bridge for the therapist to develop a therapeutic relationship with a client, and the animal can provide supportive reassurance for the therapist. The amount of data that supports the benefits of AAT for the treatment of those with mental illnesses is growing, but evidence-based research that supports its use is lacking. Further research is needed.

  2. A micro-process analysis of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy's mechanism of change. (United States)

    Busch, Andrew M; Kanter, Jonathan W; Callaghan, Glenn M; Baruch, David E; Weeks, Cristal E; Berlin, Kristoffer S


    This study sought to clarify the micro-process of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) by using the Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Rating Scale (FAPRS) to code every client and therapist turn of speech over the course of successful treatment of an individual meeting diagnostic criteria for depression and histrionic personality disorder. Treatment consisted of cognitive behavioral therapy alone followed by the addition of FAP techniques in a unique A / A+B design. In-session client behavior improved following the shift to FAP techniques, and micro-process data suggested that client behavior was effectively shaped by in-vivo FAP procedures. These results support FAP's purported mechanisms of change and highlight the advantages of utilizing molecular coding systems to explore these mechanisms.

  3. Meaning-centered psychotherapy: a form of psychotherapy for patients with cancer. (United States)

    Thomas, Lori P Montross; Meier, Emily A; Irwin, Scott A


    Caring for patients with cancer involves addressing their myriad physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs. Although many cancer treatments focus on physical or psychological needs, few treatments specifically target the basic need for meaning and spiritual well-being in this population. This article describes the creation and evolution of a new psychotherapy devoted to these needs, a therapy termed "meaning-centered psychotherapy." In this article, a detailed description of meaning-centered psychotherapy is provided. An explanation of the current research findings related to this treatment are also offered, with information about the various group and individual treatments as well as the new expansions for use with cancer survivors or nursing staff. Overall, meaning-centered psychotherapy shows promise for enhancing meaning and spiritual well-being among patients with cancer and offers exciting possibilities for future research in other areas.

  4. Psychotherapy and medication management strategies for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougle CJ


    Full Text Available Kelda H Walsh, Christopher J McDougleDepartment of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a chronic anxiety disorder. While medication and psychotherapy advances have been very helpful to patients, many patients do not respond adequately to initial trials of serotonergic medication or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT and require multiple treatment trials or combination therapies. Comorbidity may also influence treatment response. The role of streptococcal infections in pediatric OCD has become an area of intense scrutiny and controversy. In this article, current treatment methods for OCD will be reviewed, with special attention to strategies for treating OCD in children and in patients with comorbid tic disorders. Alternative psychotherapy strategies for patients who are highly anxious about starting CBT, such as cognitive therapy or augmentation with D-cycloserine, will be reviewed. Newer issues regarding use of antibiotics, neuroleptics, and glutamate modulators in OCD treatment will also be explored.Keywords: OCD, exposure/response prevention therapy, PANDAS, tic disorder

  5. Psychotherapy in Australia: clinical psychology and its approach to depression. (United States)

    Kavanagh, David J; Littlefield, Lyn; Dooley, Roger; O'Donovan, Analise


    In Australia, clinical psychology training is dominated by cognitive and behavioral treatments (CBTs), although there is exposure to other theoretical orientations. Since 2001, over 20% of general medical practitioners (GPs) have received training in CBT, and psychiatry training increasingly incorporates CBT elements. Psychotherapy by medical practitioners is financially supported by universal health care funding with supplementation by patients and their private health insurance. Federally funded health benefits for up to 12 psychology consultations per year are provided on referral from GPs and psychiatrists, and initial takeup has been very strong. Mrs. A would be a typical patient for such a referral. However, she would not fulfill criteria for priority access from state-funded mental health services. Mrs. A would probably consult a GP and receive antidepressants, although she may also access a range of other community support programs. Access to and acceptance of psychotherapy would be greater in urban areas, and if she were of Anglo-Saxon and non-indigenous origin.

  6. The Mathematics of Psychotherapy: A Nonlinear Model of Change Dynamics. (United States)

    Schiepek, Gunter; Aas, Benjamin; Viol, Kathrin


    Psychotherapy is a dynamic process produced by a complex system of interacting variables. Even though there are qualitative models of such systems the link between structure and function, between network and network dynamics is still missing. The aim of this study is to realize these links. The proposed model is composed of five state variables (P: problem severity, S: success and therapeutic progress, M: motivation to change, E: emotions, I: insight and new perspectives) interconnected by 16 functions. The shape of each function is modified by four parameters (a: capability to form a trustful working alliance, c: mentalization and emotion regulation, r: behavioral resources and skills, m: self-efficacy and reward expectation). Psychologically, the parameters play the role of competencies or traits, which translate into the concept of control parameters in synergetics. The qualitative model was transferred into five coupled, deterministic, nonlinear difference equations generating the dynamics of each variable as a function of other variables. The mathematical model is able to reproduce important features of psychotherapy processes. Examples of parameter-dependent bifurcation diagrams are given. Beyond the illustrated similarities between simulated and empirical dynamics, the model has to be further developed, systematically tested by simulated experiments, and compared to empirical data.

  7. Group psychotherapies for depression in persons with HIV: A systematic review. (United States)

    Honagodu, Abhijit Ramanna; Krishna, Murali; Sundarachar, Rajesh; Lepping, Peter


    Studies investigating effectiveness of group psychotherapy intervention in depression in persons with HIV have showed varying results with differing effect sizes. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of group psychotherapy in depression in persons with HIV has been conducted to present the best available evidence in relation to its effect on depressive symptomatology. Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials. Selected studies were quality assessed and data extracted by two reviewers. If feasible, it was planned to conduct a meta-analysis to obtain a pooled effect size of group psychotherapeutic interventions on depressive symptoms. Odds ratio for drop out from group was calculated. The studies were assessed for their quality using the Quality Rating Scale and other parameters for quality assessment set out by COCHRANE. The quality of reporting of the trials was compared against the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist for non-pharmacological studies (CONSORT-NPT). Four studies met the full inclusion criteria for systematic review. The trials included in the review examined group interventions based on the Cognitive behavioral therapy model against other therapeutic interventions or waiting list controls. In all four studies, group psychotherapy was an effective intervention for reducing depressive symptoms in persons with HIV in comparison to waiting list controls. The reported benefits from the group psychotherapy in comparison to active controls were less impressive. There were no statistically significant differences in drop outs at post treatments across group psychotherapy, wait list control, and other active interventions. The methodological quality of the studies varied. The quality of reporting of the studies was sub-optimal. The results of this systematic review support that group psychological interventions for depression in persons with HIV have a significant effect on depressive

  8. A dynamic systems approach to psychotherapy: A meta-theoretical framework for explaining psychotherapy change processes. (United States)

    Gelo, Omar Carlo Gioacchino; Salvatore, Sergio


    Notwithstanding the many methodological advances made in the field of psychotherapy research, at present a metatheoretical, school-independent framework to explain psychotherapy change processes taking into account their dynamic and complex nature is still lacking. Over the last years, several authors have suggested that a dynamic systems (DS) approach might provide such a framework. In the present paper, we review the main characteristics of a DS approach to psychotherapy. After an overview of the general principles of the DS approach, we describe the extent to which psychotherapy can be considered as a self-organizing open complex system, whose developmental change processes are described in terms of a dialectic dynamics between stability and change over time. Empirical evidence in support of this conceptualization is provided and discussed. Finally, we propose a research design strategy for the empirical investigation of psychotherapy from a DS approach, together with a research case example. We conclude that a DS approach may provide a metatheoretical, school-independent framework allowing us to constructively rethink and enhance the way we conceptualize and empirically investigate psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. [SOPHO-NET - a research network on psychotherapy for social phobia]. (United States)

    Leichsenring, Falk; Salzer, Simone; Beutel, Manfred E; von Consbruch, Katrin; Herpertz, Stephan; Hiller, Wolfgang; Hoyer, Jürgen; Hüsing, Johannes; Irle, Eva; Joraschky, Peter; Konnopka, Alexander; König, Hans-Helmut; de Liz, Therese; Nolting, Björn; Pöhlmann, Karin; Ruhleder, Mirjana; Schauenburg, Henning; Stangier, Ulrich; Strauss, Bernhard; Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Vormfelde, Stefan V; Weniger, Godehard; Willutzki, Ulrike; Wiltink, Jörg; Leibing, Eric


    This paper presents the Social Phobia Psychotherapy Research Network (SOPHO-NET). SOPHO-NET is among the five research networks on psychotherapy funded by "Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung". The research program encompasses a coordinated group of studies of social phobia. In the central project (Study A), a multi-center randomized controlled trial, refined models of manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and manualized short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) are compared in the treatment of social phobia. A sample of n=512 outpatients will be randomized to either CBT, STPP or wait list. For quality assurance and treatment integrity, a specific project has been established (Project Q). Study A is complemented by four interrelated projects focusing on attachment style (Study B1), cost-effectiveness (Study B2), polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (Study C1) and on structural and functional deviations of hippocampus and amygdala (Study C2). Thus, the SOPHO-NET program allows for a highly interdisciplinary research of psychotherapy in social phobia.

  10. Innovative uses of psychodynamic group psychotherapy. (United States)

    Buchele, B J


    Psychodynamic group psychotherapy is gaining renewed attention as an effective form of treatment, due in part to increasing economic constraints that make other forms of treatment less accessible. The author highlights some innovative applications of both extended and time-limited groups. She also describes specific issues that can be addressed effectively in homogeneous time-limited group therapy.

  11. Toward a Neurobiology of Child Psychotherapy (United States)

    Kay, Jerald


    Brain imaging studies have demonstrated that psychotherapy alters brain structure and function. Learning and memory, both implicit and explicit, play central roles in this process through the creation of new genetic material that leads to increased synaptic efficiency through the creation of new neuronal connections. Although there is substantial…

  12. Psychotherapy: The Listening Voice. Rogers and Erickson. (United States)

    Leva, Richard A.

    The views of Carl Rogers and Milton H. Erickson are combined in this book on psychotherapy. The first section focuses on belief systems, views of man, new views of the unconscious, and a philosophy for change. Erickson and his relationship to myth, the nature of man and the goal of counseling, trance, and a radical view of the unconscious are…

  13. Interventions and Strategies in Counseling and Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Watts, Richard E., Ed.; Carlson, Jon, Ed.

    This book acknowledges the contributions of Alfred Adler and illustrates the many ways in which Adlerian ideas underpin and influence contemporary therapeutic approaches. It brings together today's leading thinkers to address the practice of counseling and psychotherapy from a social-cognitive perspective. Contributors apply the basic ideas of…

  14. Existential psychotherapy of students as learning strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    According to parts of the existential psychology and psychotherapy the individual's exploration and compliance of his or her life project is central to the experience of living a meaningful life. In many ways, becoming a fully adult individual is about identifying and taking responsibility for th...

  15. Analytic and Systemic Specialized Incest Group Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Henriette Kiilsholm; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Stig Bernt;

    PURPOSE: Women with long-term sequalae of child sexual abuse (CSA) were randomly assigned to analytic (Group A) or systemic group psychotherapy (Group S). Pre-post-analysis indicated that both therapies led to significant improvement, but overall Group S had significantly better outcome than Group...

  16. Attrition in Psychotherapy: A Survival Analysis (United States)

    Roseborough, David John; McLeod, Jeffrey T.; Wright, Florence I.


    Purpose: Attrition is a common problem in psychotherapy and can be defined as clients ending treatment before achieving an optimal response. Method: This longitudinal, archival study utilized data for 3,728 clients, using the Outcome Questionnaire 45.2. A Cox regression proportional hazards (hazard ratios) model was used in order to better…

  17. Play and the Art of Psychotherapy (United States)

    American Journal of Play, 2014


    Terry Marks-Tarlow is a clinical and consulting psychologist and psychotherapist and a member of the teaching faculty at the Reiss Davis Child Study Center in Los Angeles. She is the author of "Awakening Clinical Intuition: An Experiential Workbook for Psychotherapists"; "Psyche's Veil: Psychotherapy, Fractals, and…

  18. Psychodynamic psychotherapy for the depressive syndrome. (United States)

    Cameron, P M


    Historical approaches of psychotherapy for depression are contrasted with current psychotherapeutic strategies. Now more strategies are focused, structured, time-limited, observable, testable, researchable and data based. The following depressive syndromes are reviewed in terms of the literature that demonstrates the effectiveness of psychotherapy: major depressive disorder, bipolar depressive disorder, depression associated with medical illness such as cancer, myocardial infarction and stroke, resistant depression post-traumatic stress disorder, grief reactions and depression during adolescence, mid-life and the geriatric period of the life cycle. A conceptual model favoring tripartite focus of intervention is recommended. Psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression must consider intrapsychic, interpersonal and family dynamics as well as social supports. A model for each population needs to be studied and developed further. Recommendations for current research are suggested. In the individual modification of psychotherapeutic approaches we must consider the varying maturity of ego defenses and the ego strength of the individual patient. Forty well-designed studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of psychotherapy in the depressive syndromes are quoted in this paper.

  19. Multicultural Approaches in Psychotherapy: A Rejoinder (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Leach, Mark M.; Wampold, Bruce; Rodolfa, Emil


    In this rejoinder, the authors address several issues raised by R. L. Worthington and F. R. Dillon (2011) and C. R. Ridley and M. Shaw-Ridley (2011) regarding (a) the measurement of multicultural competencies (MCCs), (b) sampling considerations in multicultural research, and (c) the conceptual frame of multicultural psychotherapy research. The…

  20. A Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Approach to the Emotional Problems of Exceptionally and Profoundly Gifted Adolescents and Adults: A Psychiatrist's Experience (United States)

    Grobman, Jerald


    An eclectic form of psychodynamic psychotherapy is presented to address the emotional problems of exceptionally and profoundly gifted adolescents and adults. The approach includes cognitive/behavioral techniques as well as psychologically informed mentoring, coaching, and advising. Once a psychodynamic formulation was established, it was used to…

  1. How treatment affects the brain: meta-analysis evidence of neural substrates underpinning drug therapy and psychotherapy in major depression. (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Guariglia, Paola


    The idea that modifications of affect, behavior and cognition produced by psychotherapy are mediated by biological underpinnings predates the advent of the modern neurosciences. Recently, several studies demonstrated that psychotherapy outcomes are linked to modifications in specific brain regions. This opened the debate over the similarities and dissimilarities between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. In this study, we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to investigate the effects of psychotherapy (PsyTh) and pharmacotherapy (DrugTh) on brain functioning in Major Depression (MD). Our results demonstrate that the two therapies modify different neural circuits. Specifically, PsyTh induces selective modifications in the left inferior and superior frontal gyri, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus and middle cingulate cortex, as well as in the right middle frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus. Otherwise, DrugTh selectively affected brain activation in the right insula in MD patients. These results are in line with previous evidence of the synergy between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy but they also demonstrate that the two therapies have different neural underpinnings.

  2. Interrupting the reenactment cycle: psychotherapy of a sexually traumatized boy. (United States)

    Ellis, P L; Piersma, H L; Grayson, C E


    This case study describes the course in psychotherapy of an eight-year-old boy who had been sexually traumatized at an early age by his biological father. He was seen for 35 individual sessions during a three-month hospitalization. Many of the problems evidenced at admission were conceptualized as ineffective attempts to reenact and master the original trauma. Hospitalization provided an environment in which acting-out behaviors could be controlled in a manner sufficient to allow anxiety to be utilized in psychodynamically oriented therapy. A key element in psychotherapeutic work was the recognition that the boy struggled with positive as well as negative feelings toward his abusing father. Individual therapy provided a context in which these ambivalent feelings could be expressed, which ultimately allowed for developmental progression.

  3. Intersubjectivity and narcissism in group psychotherapy: how feedback works. (United States)

    Cohen, B D


    In group psychotherapy, inter-subjectivity is complicated by the number and quality of therapist-member, member-member, and member-group relations. Inter-member feedback structures the relational process. However, fears of narcissistic injury engender resistance to this form of engagement. The nature of the narcissistic belief system that motivates such resistance is discussed. Then, two models of feedback are presented: the cybernetic and the inter-subjective. In the cybernetic model, feedback is intended to inform recipients about themselves and to change their behavior accordingly. As such, this model is consistent with narcissistic beliefs in the power of others' perceptions to control one's being, identity, or value. The inter-subjective model focuses, instead, on what feedback tells recipients about their donors' worlds. This model and some of its parameters are exemplified clinically.

  4. The mind-body relationship in psychotherapy: grounded cognition as an explanatory framework. (United States)

    Leitan, Nuwan D; Murray, Greg


    As a discipline, psychology is defined by its location in the ambiguous space between mind and body, but theories underpinning the application of psychology in psychotherapy are largely silent on this fundamental metaphysical issue. This is a remarkable state of affairs, given that psychotherapy is typically a real-time meeting between two embodied agents, with the goal of facilitating behavior change in one party. The overarching aim of this paper is to problematize the mind-body relationship in psychotherapy in the service of encouraging advances in theory and practice. The paper briefly explores various psychotherapeutic approaches to help explicate relationships between mind and body from these perspectives. Themes arising from this analysis include a tendency toward dualism (separation of mind and body from the conceptualization of human functioning), exclusivism (elimination of either mind or body from the conceptualization of human functioning), or mind-body monism (conceptualization of mind and body as a single, holistic system). We conclude that the literature, as a whole, does not demonstrate consensus, regarding the relationship between mind and body in psychotherapy. We then introduce a contemporary, holistic, psychological conceptualization of the relationship between mind and body, and argue for its potential utility as an organizing framework for psychotherapeutic theory and practice. The holistic approach we explore, "grounded cognition," arises from a long philosophical tradition, is influential in current cognitive science, and presents a coherent empirically testable framework integrating subjective and objective perspectives. Finally, we demonstrate how this "grounded cognition" perspective might lead to advances in the theory and practice of psychotherapy.

  5. Aaron Temkin BECK: After Cricitical Thinking to A Creative Psychotherapy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet DİNÇ


    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the cognitive psychotherapy all around the world including Turkey. According to American Institute of Cognitive Therapy; cognitive psychotherapy is the fastest growing and most rigorously studied kind of talk therapy and it is practiced around the world, taking hold in places from the Middle East to Japan. Cognitive psychotherapy was designed first by Aaron Temkin Beck in 1950’s. He has published over 450 articles and authored or co-authored seventeen books and he has been listed as one of the “10 individuals who shaped the face of American Psychiatry” and one of the 5 most influential psychotherapists of all time since then. Beck’s groundbreaking systematic research established for the first time the efficacy of any psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Moreover he not only developed and tested an effective short-term treatment (cognitive therapy for depression, but he and his former students have successfully adapted cognitive therapy to a wide range of other psychiatric disorders as well. Numerous controlled clinical trials have now demonstrated that cognitive therapy is effective in a variety of psychiatric conditions including depression, bulimia nervosa, hypochondriasis, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, substance abuse, body dysmorphic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Therefore knowing the father of cognitive therapy and his journey from 1950’s to 2010’s will help to understand cognitive therapy and its development during these years. This article aims to give an overview of the historical background to contemporary cognitive and cognitive-behavioral approaches to psychotherapy by focusing on Beck’s life, characteristics and works.

  6. Groups as a part of integrated treatment plans : Inpatient psychotherapy for outpatients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, H


    Group psychotherapy in Germany is well established as part of an integrative treatment plan in inpatient treatment. Outpatient group psychotherapy, however, is conceptualized as a separate treatment option in competition with individual therapy. German guidelines for outpatient psychotherapy exclude


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Černetič


    Full Text Available The article explores the relationship between Integrative Psychotherapy and mindfulness on a theoretical as well as practical level. Although mindfulness is not an explicit constituent of Integrative Psychotherapy, the two are arguably a natural fit. Mindfulness has the potential to enhance internal and external contact, a central concept in Integrative Psychotherapy, as well as strengthen a client’s Adult ego state. This article presents a case study whereby Integrative Psychotherapy is analysed from the perspective of mindfulness. Within the course of therapy, parallels were observed between the client's increased mindfulness, improved internal and external contact, strengthened Adult ego state, mastery of introjections, as well as diminished feelings of guilt, improved mood, self care and ability to engage in appropriate separation and individuation. These gains support the conclusion that Integrative Psychotherapy and mindfulness are inherently related and that explicit incorporation of mindfulness may enhance the therapeutic process of Integrative Psychotherapy.

  8. Psychotherapeutic process of cognitive-behavioral intervention in HIV-infected persons: results from a controlled, randomized prospective clinical trial. (United States)

    Znoj, Hans-Jörg; Messerli-Burgy, Nadine; Tschopp, Simone; Weber, Rainer; Christen, Lisanne; Christen, Stephan; Grawe, Klaus


    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the possible mechanisms of behavioral change in a cognitive-behavioral intervention supporting medication adherence in HIV-infected persons. A total of 60 persons currently under medical treatment were randomized to psychotherapy or usual care and were compared with a sociodemographically matched group of general psychotherapy clients. Outcome measures included therapy adherence using medication event-monitoring system psychotherapeutic processes and changes of experience and behavior. The general psychotherapy group was initially more distressed than HIV psychotherapy patients and reached higher levels of psychotherapeutic effect. In the HIV psychotherapy patients, a significant effect was found for maintaining adherence to medical treatment (Weber et al., 2004). These findings show that psychotherapy is a beneficial intervention for HIV-infected persons, and therapeutic alliance and activation of resources do not differ from a general psychotherapy treatment. Differential effects were detected for specific process variables, namely problem actuation.

  9. The Dodo Bird and Common Factors in Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Trancas


    Full Text Available Since its inception, the theoretical exploration of psychotherapy has originated diverse ideas on the mechanisms underlying its effectiveness. The authors focus on one of the founding moments of the theory of common factors in psychotherapy and subsequently explore its theoretical grounds and conceptual evolution. Criticism to the construct and exposure of its fragilities are also approached. Some consequences of this knowledge relating to the practice and training of psychotherapy are put forward.

  10. Psychotherapy and Psychosocial Treatment: Recent Advances and Future Directions. (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M


    Psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment have been shown to be effective forms of treatment of a range of individual and complex comorbid disorders. The future role of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment depends on several factors, including full implementation of mental health parity, correction of underlying false assumptions that shape treatment, payment priorities and research, identification and teaching of common factors or elements shared by effective psychosocial therapies, and adequate teaching of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment.

  11. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant. (United States)

    Callender, J S


    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy.

  12. Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Pincus, Aaron L; Cain, Nicole M; Wright, Aidan G C


    This article briefly summarizes the empirical and clinical literature underlying a contemporary clinical model of pathological narcissism. Unlike the DSM Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), this clinical model identifies and differentiates between two phenotypic themes of dysfunction-narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability-that can be expressed both overtly and covertly in patients' ways of thinking, feeling, behaving, and participating in treatment. Clinical recognition that narcissistic patients can and often do present for psychotherapy in vulnerable states of depression, anxiety, shame, and even suicidality increases the likelihood of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment planning. This article provides case examples derived from psychotherapies with narcissistic patients to demonstrate how narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability concurrently present in patients who seek treatment.

  13. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy: a contemporary perspective. (United States)

    Sandberg, Larry S; Busch, Fredric N


    A contemporary perspective on psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy views both treatments as somatic in nature. Abandoning Cartesian dualism frees the clinician to consider therapeutic options based on the best available evidence rather than falsely dichotomizing approaches as biological or psychological. Evidence-based medicine is a helpful though limited paradigm upon which to base treatment decisions. Instead, clinicians should strive for an evidence-informed approach that is patient centered. This approach is illustrated in relation to depressive illness where moderators of outcome are examined (illness severity, history of trauma, personality disorders, patient preference) that will influence clinical recommendations on combining treatment. Psychotherapy is increasingly proving to be a valuable therapeutic modality across the severity spectrum, a finding at odds with current treatment practices.

  14. The outcome problem in psychotherapy: a reply. (United States)

    Eysenck, H J


    This reprinted article originally appeared in Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, & Practice, 1964(MONTH), 1(3), 97-100. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1966-01631-001). Comments on the original article by H. H. Strupp (see record 1965-15636-001). In his recent article in this journal, Strupp (1963) has this to say in relation to the outcome problem in psychotherapy: "A brief review of Eysenck's (1952) widely quoted survey, which capitalized upon and added considerably to the existing confusion may be instructive." In reply I would like to suggest that Strupp's review is, in the lawyer's phrase, irrelevant, incompetent and immaterial. Fortunately, the points I wish to make are so simple that they will not take up much space.

  15. Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy? (United States)

    Holmes, J


    John Bowlby bemoaned the separation between the biological and psychological approaches in psychiatry, and hoped that attachment theory, which brings together psychoanalysis and the science of ethology, would help bridge the rift between them. Recent findings in developmental psychology have delineated features of parent-infant interaction, especially responsiveness, attunement, and modulation of affect, which lead to either secure or insecure attachment. Similar principles can be applied to the relationship between psychotherapist and patient--the provision of a secure base, the emergence of a shared narrative ('autobiographical competence'), the processing of affect, coping with loss--these are common to most effective psychotherapies and provide the basis for a new interpersonal paradigm within psychotherapy. Attachment theory suggests they rest on a sound ethological and hence biological foundation.

  16. A semiotic approach to suitability for psychotherapy. (United States)

    Meltzer, J D


    At the beginning of my career as a psychotherapist I interviewed a number of patients in an effort to find one who seemed to be a good prospect for long-term psychotherapy. While interviewing with this purpose in mind, I was struck by the fact that a number of the people I spoke with gave me a sense of being extremely suitable for this sort of therapy, but that others seemed quite unsuitable. An informal survey among my peers as well as among more senior therapists revealed that they were not unfamiliar with the phenomenon. The present empirical study of the semiotic aspects of suitability for psychotherapy grew out of this early experience.

  17. Remote psychotherapy for terminally ill cancer patients. (United States)

    Cluver, Jeffrey S; Schuyler, Dean; Frueh, B Christopher; Brescia, Frank; Arana, George W


    We conducted a feasibility study of remote psychotherapy in 10 terminally ill cancer patients with diagnoses of adjustment disorder or major depression. Subjects received six sessions of individual cognitive therapy with the same therapist. Sessions alternated between face-to-face sessions and remote sessions delivered by analogue videophone. After each therapy session, a brief questionnaire was used to evaluate the subjects' level of satisfaction with the session, sense of connectedness to the therapist and overall progress being made in the therapy. Nine patients completed the study. Of 53 completed therapy sessions, 21 were by videophone and 32 were conducted face to face. Participants reported strong positive perceptions and acceptance after almost all therapy sessions, regardless of service delivery mode. The study suggests that there may be a role for the delivery of psychotherapy using low-bandwidth videophones.

  18. DFP: Psychotherapie der Angststörungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doering S


    Full Text Available Die Psychotherapie stellt eine wirksame Behandlung für alle Angststörungen dar. Die Kombination mit einer (antidepressiven Pharmakotherapie dürfte oft sinnvoll sein, ist jedoch nur bei der Panikstörung empirisch untermauert. Bei allen Angststörungen sind verhaltenstherapeutische Ansätze am besten in ihrer Wirksamkeit belegt. Inzwischen sind – außer für die spezifischen Phobien – auch psychodynamische Ansätze manualisiert und empirisch evaluiert. Entspannungsverfahren werden bei der sozialen Phobie und der Panikstörung empfohlen und sind oft Bestandteil umfassender Behandlungsprogramme. Komorbide Störungen – insbesondere Persönlichkeitsstörungen – verschlechtern den Outcome der Angstbehandlung. Für die Zukunft sind weitere Untersuchungen zur langfristigen Wirksamkeit der Psychotherapie sowie zur Behandlung von Angstpatienten mit komorbiden Störungen notwendig.

  19. Applied philosophy and psychotherapy: Heraclitus as case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Beukes


    Full Text Available This article investigates a recent attempt to apply philosophy within the discipline of psychotherapy and to investigate the somewhat undefined realm of philosophical counselling. After introducing the claims of this interdisciplinary exercise and after addressing the problems involved in crossing the boundaries between philosophy and psychotherapy, the article elaborates on  Alex Howard’s (2000 [Philosophy for counselling and psychotherapy: Pythagoras to post-modernism. London: Macmillan] attempt to make explicit use of philosophy in psychotherapy, using his interpretation and application of Heraclitus’ philosophy as case study.



    Richard G. Erskine


    Emotional experience is stored within the amygdala and the limbic system of the brain as affect, visceral, and physiological sensation without symbolization and language. These significant memories are expressed in affect and through our bodily movements and gestures. Such body memories are unconscious non-symbolized patterns of self-in-relationship. Several methods of a body centered psychotherapy are described and clinical case examples illustrate the use of expressive methods within a re...

  1. Recognition of psychotherapy effectiveness: the APA resolution. (United States)

    Campbell, Linda F; Norcross, John C; Vasquez, Melba J T; Kaslow, Nadine J


    In August 2012, the American Psychological Association (APA) Council of Representatives voted overwhelmingly to adopt as APA policy a Resolution on the Recognition of Psychotherapy Effectiveness. This invited article traces the origins and intentions of that resolution and its protracted journey through the APA governance labyrinth. We summarize the planned dissemination and projected results of the resolution and identify several lessons learned through the entire process.

  2. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in major depressive disorder. (United States)

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas


    In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients.

  3. The Arts, Crafts, and Sciences of Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Benjamin, Lorna Smith


    Contemporary training and practice of psychotherapy and the research that supports it is the subject of this review. I discuss it in the light of what I value most from my own professional training, which was, in my opinion, highly privileged by comparison with what is offered today. A minimal hoped-for outcome is that younger readers will find valuable tidbits here and there that will be useful in their own versions of psychotherapy. A maximal hope is that a few individuals who choose to maintain clinical skills as well as emphasize psychotherapy research might be encouraged to follow their instincts toward excellence. They would allow their curiosity to bloom and their work to be creative and more adherent to the rules of natural science than time allows in these days of dashboards that count funding associated with numbers of publications, grants, teaching, and service hours. Admittedly, that path less well traveled would be risky, because what truly is new takes time to develop and implement and the outcomes when research truly can disconfirm hypotheses (as distinct from fail to confirm them) are, well, uncertain.

  4. Analyses of client variables in a series of psychotherapy sessions with two child clients. (United States)

    Mook, B


    Studied the process of child psychotherapy by means of analyses of client verbal behaviors. Audio-video recordings were made of nine intermittent psychotherapy sessions with 2 child clients, aged 8 and 12. A randomized mastertape of 4-minute segments was rated for self-exploration by means of the Carkhuff scale. Transcripts were categorized by means of an extended Snyder system and a preliminary set of grammatical variables. Transcripts then were minutized, and all client variables were intercorrelated and factor-analyzed. According to the research expectations, a high level of interrater reliability for the Carkhuff scale and high levels of interjudge agreement for the extended Snyder system were found. Analyses of the client variables demonstrated the nature of each client's verbal responding as well as their pattern of change across successive therapy sessions. The overall verbal response behavior of each client was summarized best through the factor analyses. Communalities and individual differences between the clients were discussed. Future directions for the study of client variables in child psychotherapy process research were suggested.

  5. Client attachment security predicts alliance in a randomized controlled trial of two psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Sofie; Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Poulsen, Stig Bernt;


    Objective: This study investigated the relation between clients’ attachment patterns and the therapeutic alliance in two psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa. Method: Data derive from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychoanalytic psychotherapy for bulimia...... nervosa. Client attachment patterns were assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview. Independent raters scored audiotapes of early, middle, and late therapy sessions for 68 clients (175 sessions) using the Vanderbilt Therapeutic Alliance Scale. Results: Client attachment security was found...... to be a significant (p = .007) predictor of alliance levels at the three measured time points, with clients higher on attachment security developing stronger alliances with their therapists in both treatments as compared to clients higher on attachment insecurity. No evidence was found to support a hypothesized...

  6. Psychotherapy in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: implications for treatment and research. (United States)

    Philipsen, Alexandra


    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for co-occurring psychiatric disorders and negative psychosocial consequences in adulthood. Previous trials of psychotherapeutic programs for adult ADHD were based on cognitive behavioral psychotherapeutic approaches and showed significant effects. Targets of psychotherapeutic interventions include not only coping with the core symptoms and associated problems such as depression and anxiety, but also probable consequences such as low self-esteem. Improvements in ADHD symptomatology and associated symptoms have been reported after psychotherapeutic treatment. The support of other participants is strongly regarded as helpful by patients in group therapy. This manuscript provides an overview of psychotherapy approaches and results of studies evaluating programs developed to treat adults with ADHD. Finally, the specific requirements of psychotherapy for adult ADHD as well as further research questions will be discussed.

  7. The role of self-image as a predictor of psychotherapy outcome. (United States)

    Ryum, Truls; Vogel, Patrick A; Walderhaug, Eirik P; Stiles, Tore C


    The present study examined the relationship between self-image and outcome in psychotherapy. Patients (n = 170) received treatment-as-usual at a university clinic, and met diagnostic criteria for mostly anxiety and depression related disorders. Self-image was measured with the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB-I) introject pre and post-treatment. Using multiple regression analyses, higher levels of Self-ignore and Self-blame pre-treatment predicted a poorer treatment outcome in terms of symptoms (SCL-90-R) and interpersonal problems (IIP-64), respectively. Increase in Self-love and decrease in Self-blame (pre to post) predicted reduced symptoms at post-treatment, whereas decrease in Self-attack and Self-control, as well as increase in Self-affirm, predicted reduced interpersonal problems. The results suggest that self-image improvement may be important in order to achieve a good outcome in psychotherapy.

  8. [Diagnosis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy for personality disordered persons]. (United States)

    Minakawa, Kuninao


    The author uses PubMed searches on clinical studies on personality disorders and finds that the borderline personality disorder is most extensively researched. Mary Zanarini summeries there are four kinds of psychotherapies that are proved to be effective in the treatment of BPD patients, including mentalization based treatment, transference focused therapy, dialectic behavior therapy and schema focused therapy. They are all effective to improve the severity of impulsivity and self-destructiveness. The author then reviews McGlashan's series of extensive follow-up studies on BPD and other mental disorders at Chestnut Lodge back in 1980's. The data tells us that both symptomatic stability and level of social adaptation in the long term outcome of BPDs varied to be very poor to recovered. The outcome seem to be heavily relied on the intimate relationship BPDs could enjoy or not. This finding was also noted in a five year Tokyo BPDs follow-up studies by Moriya, Ikuta and Minakawa in 1990's. Both impulsivity and self-destructiveness get always worse along with loss or threatened loss of love object. Therefore all psychotherapies for BPDs should be directed to improve their pathological object relations although it would be extremely difficult to attain. The author finally points it out that the primary prevention of BPDs should be designed and begin a program on a trial basis in a community soon because there are many empirical studies to show the mothers with BPD tend to be frightened by her baby and/or frighten her baby and this pattern of communication is the first epigenetic expression of BPDs.

  9. Psychotherapy Augmentation through Preconscious Priming


    Borgeat, François; O’Connor, Kieron; Amado, Danielle; St-Pierre-Delorme, Marie-Ève


    Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked) priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy. Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women) completed a 36-weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioral therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming conditi...

  10. Exploring Psychotherapy Clients' Independent Strategies for Change While in Therapy (United States)

    Mackrill, Thomas


    Psychotherapy research usually describes how client change is caused by therapist interventions. This article describes how clients change by continuing to use and revising the strategies for change that they bring with them when they first enter therapy. This article presents data from a qualitative diary study of psychotherapy. Three cases…

  11. Holism in Psychotherapy and Spiritual Direction: A Course Correction (United States)

    Sperry, Len; Mansager, Erik


    The authors offer a course correction for understanding the term holism as used in spiritually oriented psychotherapy literature. This is done to allow the relationship between psychotherapy and spirituality to expand beyond limited dualistic conceptualizations, They first address numerous sources from which spiritually oriented psychotherapy…

  12. Psychotherapy for chronic major depression and dysthymia: A meta analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van A.; Schuurmans, J.; Oppen, van P.C.; Hollon, S.D.; Andersson, G.


    Abstract Although several studies have examined the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depression and dysthymia, no meta-analysis has been conducted to integrate results of these studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of 16 randomized trials examining the effects of psychotherapy on chronic depressi

  13. Rorschach and MMPI-2 Indices of Early Psychotherapy Termination. (United States)

    Hilsenroth, Mark J.; And Others


    Investigates the differences between 97 patients who had prematurely terminated psychotherapy and 81 who had participated in individual psychotherapy for at least 6 months and 24 sessions on selected Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and Rorschach variables. Theoretical implications of interpersonal variables are discussed in…

  14. The Psychotherapy Research Project of the Menninger Foundation: An Overview. (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert S.


    Studied processes and outcomes of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Followed 42 subjects over natural course of treatment, with 100 percent follow-up 2-3 years posttermination. Some follow-ups extended over 30-year study. Psychoanalysis achieved more limited outcomes than predicted; psychotherapies often achieved more than…

  15. Is There Room for Criticism of Studies of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy? (United States)

    Thombs, Brett D.; Jewett, Lisa R.; Bassel, Marielle


    Comments on the original article, "The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy," by J. Shedler. Shedler declared unequivocally that "empirical evidence supports the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy" (p. 98). He did not mention any specific criticisms that have been made of evidence on psychodynamic psychotherapies or address possible distinctions…

  16. Using Media to Teach How Not to Do Psychotherapy (United States)

    Gabbard, Glen; Horowitz, Mardi


    Objective: This article describes how using media depictions of psychotherapy may help in teaching psychiatric residents. Methods: Using the HBO series "In Treatment" as a model, the authors suggest how boundary transgressions and technical errors may inform residents about optimal psychotherapeutic approaches. Results: The psychotherapy vignettes…

  17. Use of Psychotherapy by Rural and Urban Veterans (United States)

    Cully, Jeffrey A.; Jameson, John P.; Phillips, Laura L.; Kunik, Mark E.; Fortney, John C.


    Purpose: To examine whether differences exist between rural and urban veterans in terms of initiation of psychotherapy, delay in time from diagnosis to treatment, and dose of psychotherapy sessions. Methods: Using a longitudinal cohort of veterans obtained from national Veterans Affairs databases (October 2003 through September 2004), we extracted…

  18. The Grandmaternal Transference in Parent-Infant/Child Psychotherapy (United States)

    Dugmore, Nicola


    The psychic significance of the figure of the grandmother in psychodynamic psychotherapy has received scant attention. This paper develops the concept of the "grandmaternal transference" in parent-infant psychotherapy and explores its identification, its possible functions and its therapeutic significance. The grandmaternal transference has…

  19. Therapy 101: A Psychotherapy Curriculum for Medical Students (United States)

    Aboul-Fotouh, Frieda; Asghar-Ali, Ali Abbas


    Objective: This pilot project, designed and taught by a resident, created a curriculum to introduce medical students to the practice of psychotherapy. Medical students who are knowledgeable about psychotherapy can become physicians who are able to refer patients to psychotherapeutic treatments. A search of the literature did not identify a…

  20. Solicited diary studies of psychotherapy in qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward


    Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...... their pertinence to the field. Limitations and potential critiques regarding the use of diaries are also addressed....

  1. Psychiatric Residents' Views of Quality of Psychotherapy Training and Psychotherapy Competencies: A Multisite Survey (United States)

    Calabrese, Christina; Sciolla, Andres; Zisook, Sidney; Bitner, Robin; Tuttle, Jeffrey; Dunn, Laura B.


    Objective: Few studies of residents' attitudes toward psychotherapy training exist. The authors examined residents' perceptions of the quality of their training, support for training, their own competence levels, and associations between self-perceived competence and perceptions of the training environment. Methods: An anonymous, web-based…

  2. Near-death experiences and psychotherapy. (United States)

    Griffith, Linda J


    Psychiatrists are likely to come into contact with patients who have had near-death experiences, who may have a variety of reactions to the experience, and who may benefit from psychotherapy. We may also have opportunities to work with individuals who are reacting to others who have had such experiences. There is much a psychiatrist can offer to these people, including listening respectfully, being nonjudgemental, normalizing the experience, providing education, and assisting with integrating the experience into their lives to develop or maintain the best possible functioning.

  3. Use of a horror film in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Turley, J M; Derdeyn, A P


    Modern improvements in the technology of cinematic special effects have ushered in a new genre of vivid and graphic horror film. The numerous sequels of these films attest to their popularity among adolescents and young adults. Considerable concern has arisen on the part of parents, professionals, and policymakers regarding adverse effects of these films upon children. The authors discuss the meaning of a horror film to a troubled 13-year-old boy and describe the use of the film in his psychotherapy. The modern horror film serves many of the same functions for the adolescent that the traditional fairy tale serves for the younger child.

  4. An Integrative Psychotherapy of Postpartum Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Merle-Fishman


    Full Text Available Becoming a mother is a time of transition, transformation and sometimes trauma. The immediacy of meeting the needs of an infant, combined with the immediacy of becoming a mother, often collide to produce depression, anxiety and stress. Shame, confusion, isolation and cultural expectations often prevent women from seeking the postpartum support they need, which may result in long lasting depression, anxiety and unresolved trauma. Integrative Psychotherapy, Transactional Analysis and Attachment Theory offer ways to understand postpartum adjustment as well as methodologies for addressing this unique developmental event in the life of women.

  5. Review of Psychotherapy as a human science. (United States)

    Langan, Robert


    Reviews the book, Psychotherapy as a human science by Daniel Burston and Roger Frie (see record 2006-12980-000). In this book, the authors show how philosophical assumptions pervade therapeutic praxis. "In our view, philosophy is inherent to the very practice of psychotherapy" (p. 2). There is a "common ground that unites the therapists of today with the philosophers of the past" (p. 17). Their effort succeeds brilliantly in reconnecting psychology and philosophy and, by that homecoming, to ground psychotherapy (including contemporary psychoanalysis) as a "human science." The book begins by sketching ideas about truth we inherit from the Greeks, then shows how Descartes and Pascal helped launch the Enlightenment with their thinking about truth and the limits of reason. Kant, Hegel, and Marx broaden the scope to include reason, the unconscious, and the course of history. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche interject angst and authenticity. Dilthey proposes a human science neither scientistic nor irrational. Husserl launches phenomenology as the proper study of experience; Scheler, Jaspers and Heidegger react in their particular ways. Freud and Jung come to loggerheads over the unconscious. Buber, Binswanger, and Boss further develop existential-phenomenological perspectives in terms of human interrelatedness. Confrontation with the other and the limits of reciprocity engage Sartre, Lacan, and Laing. Psychoanalysis grows intersubjectively through the work of Sullivan, Fromm, Merleau-Ponty, Benjamin, and Stolorow. Postmodernism's excess, Frie and Burston conclude, requires acknowledgment of an authentic self answerable for choices in life: '...[W]e are both determined by, and exercise our agency in determining, the communicative contexts in which we exist" (p. 262). Psychotherapy from this existential-phenomenological perspective becomes "a rigorous exploration of our ways of making meaning--both consciously and unconsciously" (p. 263). The book ends, then, with an affirmation

  6. The supervisory needs of neophyte psychotherapy trainees. (United States)

    Duryee, J; Brymer, M; Gold, K


    This article focuses on the difficulties facing the neophyte trainee in the field of psychotherapy. Three areas of such difficulties are identified, defined, and discussed: feelings of inadequacy and incompetence, anxieties concerning supervisors, and confusion concerning multiple theoretical views of clinical work. Two vignettes from the early training of the paper's junior authors illustrate and discuss these problems and their resolution in applied contexts. A conclusion is offered which emphasizes the value of supervisory recognition of these dimensions of trainees' experience, as well as their potential for modeling processes of growth that are likely to help supervisees' patients as well.

  7. Rates and predictors of referral for individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and medications among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with PTSD. (United States)

    Mott, Juliette M; Barrera, Terri L; Hernandez, Caitlin; Graham, David P; Teng, Ellen J


    This study examined rates of referral for medication, individual psychotherapy, and group psychotherapy within a Veterans Affairs (VA) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) specialty mental health clinic. Participants were 388 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who were referred for PTSD treatment following a mental health evaluation required for all new VA enrollees. The majority of the sample was referred for medication (79 %), with comparatively fewer referrals for individual (39 %) or group psychotherapy (24 %). Forty percent of participants were referred for combined medication and psychotherapy. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics were examined to determine whether these variables predicted referral type. Female veterans and those with lower clinician ratings of overall functioning were more likely to be referred for individual therapy. Group psychotherapy referrals were more common in veterans who were older, unemployed, identified as an ethnic minority, and had a comorbid anxiety disorder. There were no significant predictors of medication referral.

  8. Movement Coordination in Psychotherapy: Synchrony of Hand Movements is Associated with Session Outcome. A Single-Case Study. (United States)

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang


    Previous work has shown that nonverbal behavior was associated with both session-level outcome and global outcome in psychotherapy. Nonverbal synchrony--here the coordination between patient's and psychotherapist's movement behavior--is a facet of nonverbal behavior that has recently been studied with video-based motion energy analysis (MEA). The present study aimed to replicate and extend these findings by using direct acquisition of movement data. In a single-case analysis, we monitored patient's and therapist's hand movements with a high-resolution accelerometric measurement system (Vitaport (r)). In addition to these behavioral data, both patient and therapist provided session-level ratings of various factors relevant to the psychotherapy process, which were assessed with post-session questionnaires. The patient-therapist coordination of hand movements, i.e. nonverbal synchrony, in (N = 27) sessions of this dyadic psychotherapy was positively associated with progress reported in post-session questionnaires. Sessions with good evaluations concerning the quality of therapeutic alliance were characterized by high movement coordination. Thus, accelerometric data of this therapy dyad confirmed previous findings gained through video analyses: The coordination of nonverbal behavior shown by patient and therapist was an indicator of beneficial processes occurring within sessions. This replication study showed that nonverbal synchrony embodies important aspects of the alliance. Its assessment and quantification may provide therapists important additional information on processes that usually occur outside conscious awareness, but that nevertheless influence core aspects of the therapy.

  9. A systematic review of depression psychotherapies among Latinos. (United States)

    Collado, Anahí; Lim, Aaron C; MacPherson, Laura


    For decades, the literature has reported persistent treatment disparities among depressed Latinos. Fortunately, treatment development and evaluation in this underserved population has expanded in recent years. This review summarizes outcomes across 36 unique depression treatment studies that reported treatment outcomes for Latinos. Results indicated that there was significant variability in the quality of RCT and type/number of cultural adaptations. The review suggested that there might a relation between cultural adaptations with treatment outcomes; future studies are warranted to confirm this association. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy was the most evaluated treatment (CBT; n=18, 50% of all evaluations), followed by Problem Solving Therapy (PST; n=4), Interpersonal Therapy (IPT; n=4), and Behavioral Activation (BA; n=3). CBT seems to fare better when compared to usual care, but not when compared to a contact-time matched control condition or active treatment. There is growing support for PST and IPT as efficacious depression interventions among Latinos. IPT shows particularly positive results for perinatal depression. BA warrants additional examination in RCT. Although scarce, telephone and in-home counseling have shown efficacy in reducing depression and increasing retention. Promotora-assisted trials require formal assessment. Limitations and future directions of the depression psychotherapy research among Latinos are discussed.

  10. Metacognitive mastery dysfunctions in personality disorder psychotherapy. (United States)

    Carcione, Antonino; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Pedone, Roberto; Popolo, Raffaele; Conti, Laura; Fiore, Donatella; Procacci, Michele; Semerari, Antonio; Dimaggio, Giancarlo


    Individuals with personality disorders (PDs) have difficulties in modulating mental states and in coping with interpersonal problems according to a mentalistic formulation of the problem. In this article we analyzed the first 16 psychotherapy sessions of 14 PD patients in order to explore whether their abilities to master distress and interpersonal problems were actually impaired and how they changed during the early therapy phase. We used the Mastery Section of the Metacognition Assessment Scale, which assesses the use of mentalistic knowledge to solve problems and promote adaptation. We explored the hypotheses that a) PD patients had problems in using their mentalistic knowledge to master distress and solve social problems; b) the impairments were partially stable and only a minimal improvement could be observed during the analyzed period; c) patients' mastery preferences differed from one another; d) at the beginning of treatment the more effective strategies were those involving minimal knowledge about mental states. Results seemed to support the hypotheses; the patients examined had significant difficulties in mastery abilities, and these difficulties persisted after 16 sessions. Moreover, the attitudes towards problem-solving were not homogenous across the patients. Lastly, we discuss implications for assessment and treatment of metacognitive disorders in psychotherapy.

  11. Psychotherapy, psychoanalysis and urban poverty in Argentina. (United States)

    Epele, Maria Esther


    Based on ethnographic research carried out in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, this paper examines the views of social actors on the psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy focused on marginalized populations. From Foucault's perspective on the forms of truth-telling, the aim of this paper is to analyze, as a preliminary research report, treatments according to the native ways of speaking and listening, which dominate the description of therapeutic experiences of patients who come to the treatment without any professional intermediation. The neoliberal transformations of the past decades in Argentina changed both the landscape of the public health system and the daily lives of marginalized people. Considering such changes, this paper examines the ways in which verbal actions (speaking and listening) take place in psychotherapy and mark the course not only of treatments but also the temporal rhythms of their development, and their various levels of efficacy. Finally, the discussion focuses on how ways of speaking and listening in treatments are modeled not only by institutional dynamics but also by the characteristics these verbal activities take in everyday life under the logics of power that prevail over them.

  12. [New Developments in Video Games for Psychotherapy]. (United States)

    Brezinka, Veronika


    A literature survey on new developments in the area of video games and psychotherapy of children and adolescents was conducted. Despite the omnipresence of computers and the internet, development of therapeutic games seems rather slow. The video game Treasure Hunt was introduced in 2008 to support treatment of children with internalizing and externalizing disorders. Camp Cope-A-Lot was developed for treatment of anxious children, whereas the self-help game SPARX is directed at depressed adolescents. Rage-Control is a biofeedback game for children with anger problems. The game Zoo U aims to assess and train social skills of primary school children. Ricky and the Spider for young children with obsessive compulsive disorder is meant to support the cognitive-behavioural treatment of these patients. Clash- Back is a French game for adolescents with externalizing problems. Possible reasons for the relatively slow development of therapeutic games are the high methodological demands concerning an evaluation as well as the high costs of game development. Nonetheless, computers and the internet are bound to influence psychotherapy with children and adolescents in the long run.

  13. Religious Cognitive-Emotional Therapy :A New Form of Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Rajaei


    Full Text Available "nFrom the ancient times up to this date, it has been thought that religion and spirituality have important effects on human being's mental life. However, some psychologists and psychotherapists have ignored this role ,and thus neglected to study the effects of applying religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. However, many psychologists and psychotherapists have recently studied the relationship between religion or spirituality and mental health ; or used religious interventions in psychotherapies . Although different kinds of religious psychotherapies have been proposed, no comprehensive theory has been presented in this area. In this article a scientific ,comprehensive and applied spiritual method of psychotherapy is suggested . Religious Cognitive- Emotional Therapy (RCET is a new form of cognitive therapy that uses the basic religious beliefs and insights in psychotherapy. RCET is a new integration of cognitive, humanistic, and existential psychotherapies that takes into account religious beliefs and insights of the clients. RCET is an effective method of psychotherapy for the treatment of those who suffer from identity crisis , depression , and anxiety ; and it can be developed to address other psychological disorders as well . Because RCET is a new approach, practically is needed to do further theoretical research in this area.

  14. Religious cognitive-emotional therapy: a new form of psychotherapy. (United States)

    Rajaei, Ali Reza


    From the ancient times up to this date, it has been thought that religion and spirituality have important effects on human being's mental life. However, some psychologists and psychotherapists have ignored this role, and thus neglected to study the effects of applying religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. However, many psychologists and psychotherapists have recently studied the relationship between religion or spirituality and mental health; or used religious interventions in psychotherapies. Although different kinds of religious psychotherapies have been proposed, no comprehensive theory has been presented in this area. In this article a scientific, comprehensive and applied spiritual method of psychotherapy is suggested. Religious Cognitive- Emotional Therapy (RCET) is a new form of cognitive therapy that uses the basic religious beliefs and insights in psychotherapy. RCET is a new integration of cognitive, humanistic, and existential psychotherapies that takes into account religious beliefs and insights of the clients. RCET is an effective method of psychotherapy for the treatment of those who suffer from identity crisis, depression, and anxiety; and it can be developed to address other psychological disorders as well. Because RCET is a new approach, practically is needed to do further theoretical research in this area.

  15. Religious Cognitive–Emotional Therapy: A New Form of Psychotherapy (United States)


    From the ancient times up to this date, it has been thought that religion and spirituality have important effects on human being's mental life. However, some psychologists and psychotherapists have ignored this role, and thus neglected to study the effects of applying religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. However, many psychologists and psychotherapists have recently studied the relationship between religion or spirituality and mental health; or used religious interventions in psychotherapies. Although different kinds of religious psychotherapies have been proposed, no comprehensive theory has been presented in this area. In this article a scientific, comprehensive and applied spiritual method of psychotherapy is suggested. Religious Cognitive- Emotional Therapy (RCET) is a new form of cognitive therapy that uses the basic religious beliefs and insights in psychotherapy. RCET is a new integration of cognitive, humanistic, and existential psychotherapies that takes into account religious beliefs and insights of the clients. RCET is an effective method of psychotherapy for the treatment of those who suffer from identity crisis, depression, and anxiety; and it can be developed to address other psychological disorders as well. Because RCET is a new approach, practically is needed to do further theoretical research in this area. PMID:22952497

  16. Effects of group interpersonal psychotherapy and group cognitive behavioral therapy on social anxiety in college students%团体人际心理干预与团体认知行为干预对社交焦虑的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄慧兰; 刘新民


    目的:比较团体人际心理干预和团体认知行为干预对大学生社交焦虑的疗效.方法:方便选取1314 名大学生,采用交往焦虑量表(Interaction Anxiousness Scale,IAS)进行测试,筛取IAS 总分≥49 分(高焦虑者)275人.参照美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第四版(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,DSM-IV)关于社交焦虑障碍诊断标准的症状学描述,根据自愿的原则,选取社交焦虑程度较重的大学生45 名,随机分为3组,每组15人:IPT 组,采用团体人际心理干预,每周1次,共8周;CBT 组,实施认知行为干预,每周1 次,共8 周;对照组,实验过程中不予干预.各组在干预前测定社交回避及苦恼量表(Social Avoidance and Distress Scale,SADS),干预后再进行IAS和SADS的测定,比较IPT 组、CBT 组干预前后的疗效及其差别.结果:干预前3 组间IAS 总分、SADS 总分、回避因子分、苦恼因子分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);干预后IPT 组与CBT 组的社交焦虑水平均低于对照组,而IPT 组与CBT 组间各项指标差异无统计学意义.IPT 组干预后各项指标得分均低于干预前;CBT 组干预后SADS 总分、回避因子分、苦恼因子分低于干预前;对照组各项指标前后差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:团体人际心理干预与团体认知行为干预均能有效缓解社交焦虑水平,人际心理干预可作为治疗社交焦虑的一个重要手段.%Objective: To compare the effects of group interpersonal psychotherapy (IRT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on social anxiety in college students.Methods: Totally 1314 students were selected by convenience sampling.They were assessed with the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) and 275 students whose scores ≥49 were chosen.Then 45 students with more serious symptoms were chosen according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-Ⅳ) diagnostic criteria on social anxiety disorder.They were randomly

  17. Resting-state connectivity predictors of response to psychotherapy in major depressive disorder. (United States)

    Crowther, Andrew; Smoski, Moria J; Minkel, Jared; Moore, Tyler; Gibbs, Devin; Petty, Chris; Bizzell, Josh; Schiller, Crystal Edler; Sideris, John; Carl, Hannah; Dichter, Gabriel S


    Despite the heterogeneous symptom presentation and complex etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), functional neuroimaging studies have shown with remarkable consistency that dysfunction in mesocorticolimbic brain systems are central to the disorder. Relatively less research has focused on the identification of biological markers of response to antidepressant treatment that would serve to improve the personalized delivery of empirically supported antidepressant interventions. In the present study, we investigated whether resting-state functional brain connectivity (rs-fcMRI) predicted response to Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression, an empirically validated psychotherapy modality designed to increase engagement with rewarding stimuli and reduce avoidance behaviors. Twenty-three unmedicated outpatients with MDD and 20 matched nondepressed controls completed rs-fcMRI scans after which the MDD group received an average of 12 sessions of psychotherapy. The mean change in Beck Depression Inventory-II scores after psychotherapy was 12.04 points, a clinically meaningful response. Resting-state neuroimaging data were analyzed with a seed-based approach to investigate functional connectivity with four canonical resting-state networks: the default mode network, the dorsal attention network, the executive control network, and the salience network. At baseline, the MDD group was characterized by relative hyperconnectivity of multiple regions with precuneus, anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex seeds and by relative hypoconnectivity with intraparietal sulcus, anterior insula, and dACC seeds. Additionally, connectivity of the precuneus with the left middle temporal gyrus and connectivity of the dACC with the parahippocampal gyrus predicted the magnitude of pretreatment MDD symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that response to psychotherapy in the MDD group was predicted by pretreatment

  18. Neuropsychologically informed strategic psychotherapy in teenagers and adults with ADHD. (United States)

    Seidman, Larry J


    Stimulants are the primary treatment for ADHD. Psychotherapy may augment pharmacologic treatment. In this article, we discuss strategies psychotherapists may use in working with teenagers and adults, including individuals who reject medications or take them suboptimally. Individuals with ADHD often have other psychiatric issues, including affective or cognitive comorbidities. Having ADHD does not protect people from the difficulties of life, and psychotherapy can help to disentangle "ADHD" from other issues. A psychotherapist knowledgeable about ADHD assessment can improve diagnostic precision. Psychotherapy can integrate forms of treatment in which the central goal is increasing mastery and competence of the individual.

  19. The application of Peplau's theory to group psychotherapy. (United States)

    Lego, S


    This paper illustrates the application of Hildegard Peplau's Interpersonal Theory of Nursing to group psychotherapy. The phases of the nurse-patient relationship, including orientation, identification, exploitation and resolution, are described as they relate to group psychotherapy, and clinical examples are presented. The clinical examples also demonstrate the patient's movement in group therapy through the steps of the learning process: observation, description, analysis, formulation, validation, testing, integration and utilization. Finally, the roles of the nurse including stranger, resource person, teacher, leader, surrogate and counsellor are described as they occur in group psychotherapy.

  20. The Psychotherapy Process with Adolescents: A First Pilot Study and Preliminary Comparisons between Different Therapeutic Modalities Using the "Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-Set" (United States)

    Bychkova, Tetyana; Hillman, Saul; Midgley, Nick; Schneider, Celeste


    An innovative methodology is presented for describing the therapeutic processes involved in five types of adolescent treatments: psychoanalysis, psychodynamic psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, mentalisation-based treatment and interpersonal psychotherapy. Using the "Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-Set" (APQ), 18 experienced clinicians…

  1. A Case Study of Adult Examination Anxiety Disorder by Eclectic Psychotherapy%运用综合心理疗法治疗一例成人考试焦虑症的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓旭阳; 何家声; 郭晋林


    Objective:This is a case study in which a 30-year-old male suffering from Examination Anxiety Disorder was treated by Eclectic Psychotherapy. Methods: Using Eclectic Psychotherapy, an approach that combines principles of Client Centeed Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, Rational Emotion Therapy (RET),and Behavior Therapy, the patient was treated for a total of 22 sessions.Results: The study showed obvious therapeutic effect for Eclectic Psychotherapy. The patient reported complete relief of his examination anxiety symptoms at conclusion of treatment. Follow-up by telephone at 1 month and 6 months after treatment showed that the patient remained stable and well.Conclusion: Eclectic Psychotherapy is an efficient way for treating symptoms of severe Examination Anxiety Disorder, both in terms of permanent cure and temporary relief.

  2. Qualitative psychotherapy research: the journey so far and future directions. (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M


    This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures.

  3. Examining the Therapeutic Relationship and Confronting Resistances in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (United States)

    Gentile, Julie P.; Gillig, Paulette Marie


    Psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective for a variety of mental health symptoms. This form of psychotherapy uses patient self reflection and self examination, as well as the therapeutic relationship between the patient and psychiatrist, to explore maladaptive coping strategies and relationship patterns of the patient. A thorough understanding of resistance and the core conflictual relationship theme afford the psychiatrist the ability to facilitate this work. In this article, the composite case illustrates some of the psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques that can be employed in a psychotherapy case. In this example, the case is about a certified public accountant that came to treatment because of an acute stressor that put her career goals at risk. An acute episode or event can bring to light chronic and ongoing symptoms, which have had a remitting and relapsing course, and leave the patient unable to compensate on his or her own. PMID:21686147

  4. College Psychotherapy at a Hong Kong Counseling Center (United States)

    Leung, Eugenie Y.


    This article presents an online interview about college psychotherapy at a Hong Kong counseling center. The interview discusses how students generally feel about going for counseling or therapy and how common it is in Hong Kong.

  5. Efficacy of group psychotherapy to reduce depressive symptoms among HIV-infected individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Himelhoch, Seth; Medoff, Deborah R; Oyeniyi, Gloria


    Depressed mood is highly prevalent among HIV-infected individuals. Some but not all studies have found group psychotherapy to be efficacious in this population. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blinded, randomized controlled trials to examine efficacy of group psychotherapy treatment among HIV infected with depressive symptoms. We used PubMed, the Cochrane database, and a search of bibliographies to find controlled clinical trials with random assignment to group psychotherapy or control condition among HIV infected patients with depressive symptoms. The principal measure of effect size was the standard difference between means on validated depression inventories. We identified 8 studies that included 665 subjects: 5 used cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 2 used supportive therapy, and 1 used coping effectiveness training. Three of the 8 studies reported significant effects. The pooled effect size from the random effects model was 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23-0.53) representing a moderate effect. Heterogeneity of effect was not found to be significant (p = 0.69; I(2) = 0%). Studies reporting use of group CBT had a pooled effect size from the random effects model of 0.37 (95% CI: 0.18-0.56) and was significant. Studies reporting the use of group supportive psychotherapy had a pooled effect size from the random effects model 0.58 (95% CI: -0.05-1.22) and was nonsignificant. The results of this study suggest that group psychotherapy is efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms among, HIV-infected individuals. Of note, women were nearly absent from all studies. Future studies should be directed at addressing this disparity.

  6. Feedback in Group Psychotherapy for Eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Poulsen, Stig; Lindschou, Jane


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of client feedback in group psychotherapy on attendance and treatment outcome for patients with eating disorders. METHOD: We conducted a randomized clinical trial with central randomization stratified for diagnosis and treatment type according to a computer......-generated allocation sequence concealed to the investigators. One-hundred and 59 adult participants, diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or eating disorder not otherwise specified according to DSM-IV, were included. Eighty participants were allocated to the experimental group, and 79 participants...... outcome was rate of attendance to treatment sessions; the secondary outcome was severity of eating disorder symptoms measured with the Eating Disorder Examination interview. Exploratory outcomes were psychological distress measured with the Symptom Checklist-90-R and the Outcome Rating Scale, social...

  7. The Use of Dreams in Psychotherapy (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Bohusch, Claudia; Kahl, Johanna; Mader, Andrea; Somesan, Alexandra


    Since the publication of Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams, dream interpretation has been a standard technique often used in psychotherapy. However, empirical studies about the frequency of working on dreams in therapy are lacking. The present study elicited, via a self-developed questionnaire, various aspects of work on dreams applied by psychotherapists in private practice. The findings indicate that dreams were often used in therapy, especially in psychoanalysis. In addition, a significant relationship was found between the frequency of the therapists' working on their own dreams and frequency of work on dreams in therapy. Because work on dreams was rated as beneficial for the clients, further studies investigating the effectiveness and the process of working on dreams will be of interest. PMID:10793127

  8. Analysis of transference in Gestalt group psychotherapy. (United States)

    Frew, J E


    In Gestalt therapy, transference is viewed as a contact boundary disturbance which impairs the patient's ability to accurately perceive the present therapy situation. The boundary disturbances in Gestalt therapy most closely related to the analytic notion of transference are projection, introjection, and confluence. In Gestalt group psychotherapy, group members interfere with the process of need identification and satisfaction by distorting their contact with each other through projecting, introjecting, and being confluent. The Gestalt group therapist uses interventions directed to individuals and to the group to increase participants' awareness of these boundary disturbances and of the present contact opportunities available to them when these disturbances are resolved. In formulating interventions, the leader is mindful of the function of boundary disturbances to the group-as-a-whole as well as to individuals.

  9. Preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy. (United States)

    Sobel, H J


    This study investigated preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy among a sample of 40 SES class III and IV adult females and 67 college freshmen who had never been actual therapy patients. A scaled survey assessed general preference, preference given an imagined long-standing depressive disorder, preference given an imagined specific phobia, and preference for the therapist-patient relationship. Three audio tapes were designed, each describing one of the modalities. High inter-rater reliability and agreement were determined by three independent judges. Results showed that young females had a general preference for gestalt therapy. Young and old females, but not young males, significantly preferred behavioural therapy for a specific phobia. Under forced-choice conditions the group as a whole significantly preferred gestalt therapy. No differences were found for the relationship or preference given a depressive disorder. Preference was hypothesized as a cognitive structure with potential use in therapist-client matching.

  10. Forgiveness in psychotherapy: the key to healing. (United States)

    Menahem, Sam; Love, Melanie


    The process of forgiveness in psychotherapy involves both letting go of resentment toward the offender and replacing the resentment with mindful awareness and empathy. By reconceptualizing past transgressions with a kinder, more equivocal outlook, clients attain a shift in perspective that is spiritual and cognitive in nature, thereby reducing symptomology and enhancing their quality of life. Such insights bring clients toward their inner Buddha nature, which transcends the suffering associated with clinging to past hurts and resentment. This process is facilitated by techniques such as concentrative meditation and identifying with transgressors through perspective taking. Forgiveness therapy improves clients' sense of well-being by promoting feelings of peacefullness toward oneself as well as others.

  11. Psychotherapy in residential treatment: historical development and critical issues. (United States)

    Zimmerman, D Patrick


    In a time of concern with policies of managed care, more limited financial resources, and reduced lengths of residential treatment for troubled children and adolescents in the United States, we seem to be confronted ironically with an ever larger number of children who are growing up in circumstances of social dis-organization and personal despair. Faced with this dilemma, considerations of issues related to the provision of therapeutic services within residential treatment were provided by an examination of the historical development of the concepts of the milieu and residential care in the United States. The historical review revealed how the emergence of differing theories of psychotherapy has influenced the creation of various models of residential care. Several tensions have persisted over the years in the effort to provide therapy services within the broader residential setting. Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral methodologies currently have come to the forefront in many aspects of milieu treatment in group care for children and adolescents in the United States. This article concluded with a critique of some potential impacts associated with those perspectives on individual and group treatment and on our views of the individual and culture in general. This discussion did not attempt to provide answers to all the stresses that can emerge in a residential setting that strives to provide a range of mental health services, nor was it intended to present an exclusively rejecting, strident criticism of the medical model or behaviorally oriented therapies. The intent was to point out some of the limitations of relying exclusively on those perspectives and to show that an amalgamation of treatment models can have real consequences for children in group care. A continued awareness of those potential consequences is essential to mitigate their potentially antitherapeutic effects.

  12. Applications of Mindfulness in Psychotherapy – Contemporary Dilemmas


    Škodlar, Borut


    Mindfulness has without doubt been the fastest spreading and most popular concept in psychotherapy in the last two decades. Its influence exceeds that of any other individual concept or approach in modern psychotherapy. However, there are many dilemmas, open questions and controversies related to this rapid, almost fanatic spread, which obviously compensates for a certain lack in modern Euro- and Americo-centric societies. Similarly, we are witnessing in the West a lack of reflection, a proce...



    Sriram, T.G.


    SUMMARY Psychotherapy is being increasingly recognised as an important treatment modality for various mental health problems. However, minimal efforts have been made to examine the utility of psychotherapy from the public health perspective, especially for developing countries. This paper outlines the present situation in developing countries with respect to the magnitude of mental health and related problems requiring psychotherapeutic help, the existing health and mental health facilities, ...

  14. [Brief psychotherapy in clinical medicine patients]. (United States)

    Knobel, M


    The criteria that "illness is biographical crisis od the individual" and that the only medicine is "personal medicine" is stressed. Clinical medicine, which covers medicine in its entirety, demands conceptual and doctrinal reaffirmations so that gradually the patient can come to be dealt with as a human being fron a holistic point of view, which commences with his complaint and consultation, continues with the interview and semiology, to finish with the diagnosis and therapy which, although in some cases it may be surgical, is still medical and integral. All the steps mentioned are bio-socio-cultural thus, whether in the practice of general clinical medicine or in the most specialized and technologically sophisticated clinical medicine, the animist component is not lacking and demands a minimum degree of "psychosomatic" Knowledge. The use of a psychotherapeutic technique is proposed which, while based on the psychoanalysis theory, is distanced technically from it as a "psychotherapy on limited time and goals", which abbreviates the disease, and is projected not as the "focus" of therapeutic work, but as a re-evaluation of the "life style" of each individual, and tends to help to develop a "project for life" suited to the possible personal, familiar and social well-being of the "patient". Technically speaking, this modality of brief psychotherapy is based on the nonuse of transferential interpretations, on impeding the regression od the patient, on facilitating a cognitice-affective development of his conflicts and thus obtain an internal object mutation which allows the transformation of the "past" into true history, and the "present" into vital perspectives. This technique is within reach of every health professional.

  15. Abandono de psicoterapia com crianças Child psychotherapy dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Kuhn Deakin


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar uma amostra de 24 crianças que completaram 12 meses de psicoterapia psicanalítica com uma amostra de 38 crianças que interromperam prematuramente o tratamento. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo em dois grupos de crianças; tratamento quase-experimental de medida única antes do início da psicoterapia psicanalítica individual. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes nas seguintes variáveis: sexo, sintomas, frequência dos atendimentos, capacidade da criança de controlar as emoções e os impulsos, medida pelo teste Rorschach e nas escalas de sociabilidade, queixas somáticas e comportamentos internalizantes, tais como ansiedade e depressão, medidas pelo Child Behavior Checklist. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo revelou que a psicoterapia psicanalítica é efetiva no tratamento da criança do sexo feminino que apresenta transtornos internalizantes, tais como ansiedade e depressão, tem maior descontrole de emoções e impulsos e recebe atendimento com uma frequência de duas vezes por semana por pelo menos 12 meses.OBJECTIVE: To compare a sample of 24 children who completed 12 months of psychoanalytical psychotherapy with a sample of 38 children who dropped out from treatment before 12 months of intervention. METHOD: Quantitative study involving two groups of children. Quasi-experimental treatment of single measure before the beginning of individual psychoanalytical psychotherapy. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in the following variables: gender, symptoms, frequency of sessions, child's impulse and emotion control (measured using the Rorschach test and sociability scales, somatic complaints and internalizing behaviors, such as anxiety and depression (measured using the Child Behavior Checklist. CONCLUSIONS: CThe results revealed that child psychoanalytical psychotherapy is effective in the treatment of female children with internalizing disorders, such as

  16. [Acceptance and mindfulness-based cognitive-behavioral therapies]. (United States)

    Ngô, Thanh-Lan


    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the main approaches in psychotherapy. It teaches the patient to examine the link between dysfunctional thoughts and maladaptive behaviors and to re- evaluate the cognitive biases involved in the maintenance of symptoms by using strategies such as guided discovery. CBT is constantly evolving in part to improve its' effectiveness and accessibility. Thus in the last decade, increasingly popular approaches based on mindfulness and acceptance have emerged. These therapies do not attempt to modify cognitions even when they are biased and dysfunctional but rather seek a change in the relationship between the individual and the symptoms. This article aims to present the historical context that has allowed the emergence of this trend, the points of convergence and divergence with traditional CBT as well as a brief presentation of the different therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. Hayes (2004) described three successive waves in behavior therapy, each characterized by "dominant assumptions, methods and goals": traditional behavior therapy, cognitive therapy and therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. The latter consider that human suffering occurs when the individual lives a restricted life in order avoid pain and immediate discomfort to the detriment of his global wellbeing. These therapies combine mindfulness, experiential, acceptance strategies with traditional behavior principles in order to attain lasting results. There are significant points of convergence between traditional CBT and therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. They are both empirically validated, based upon a theoretical model postulating that avoidance is key in the maintenance of psychopathology and they recommend an approach strategy in order to overcome the identified problem. They both use behavioral techniques in the context of a collaborative relationship in order to identify precise problems and to

  17. Using a cross-contextual qualitative diary design to explore client experiences of psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas


    Qualitative research in counselling and psychotherapy has largely been based on interviews carried out with clients and therapists. Other approaches to qualitative data collection are possible. The present paper presents a diary design for qualitative psychotherapy research. The study explores...

  18. Clinical Thanatology and Psychotherapy: Some Reflections on Caring for the Dying Person. (United States)

    Feigenberg, Loma; Shneidman, Edwin S.


    Explores the relationship between psychotherapy and clinical thanatology relative to working with dying patients and their survivors. Eight special characteristics of thanatological exchanges are explained including comments on time, transference, aspirations, and empathy. Conversation, heirarchical exchange, psychotherapy, and thanatological…

  19. Nonverbal synchrony of head- and body-movement in psychotherapy: different signals have different associations with outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eRamseyer


    Full Text Available Objective: The coordination of patient’s and therapist’s bodily movement – nonverbal synchrony – has been empirically shown to be associated with psychotherapy outcome. This finding was based on dynamic movement patterns of the whole body. The present paper is a new analysis of an existing dataset (Ramseyer & Tschacher, 2011, which extends previous findings by differentiating movements pertaining to head and upper-body regions. Method: In a sample of 70 patients (37 female, 33 male treated at an outpatient psychotherapy clinic, we quantified nonverbal synchrony with an automated objective video-analysis algorithm (Motion Energy Analysis, MEA. Head- and body-synchrony was quantified during the initial 15 minutes of video-recorded therapy sessions. Micro-outcome was assessed with self-report post-session questionnaires provided by patients and their therapists. Macro-outcome was measured with questionnaires that quantified attainment of treatment goals and changes in experiencing and behavior at the end of therapy. Results: The differentiation of head- and body-synchrony showed that these two facets of motor coordination were differentially associated with outcome. Head-synchrony predicted global outcome of therapy, while body-synchrony did not, and body-synchrony predicted session outcome, while head-synchrony did not. Conclusions: The results pose an important amendment to previous findings, which showed that nonverbal synchrony embodied both outcome and interpersonal variables of psychotherapy dyads. The separation of head- and body-synchrony suggested that distinct mechanisms may operate in these two regions: Head-synchrony embodied phenomena with a long temporal extension (overall therapy success, while body-synchrony embodied phenomena of a more immediate nature (session-level success. More explorations with fine-grained analyses of synchronized phenomena in nonverbal behavior may shed additional light on the embodiment of

  20. Problems of process-efficiency studies in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Meyer, A E


    Three areas of psychotherapy research can be delimited of which differential efficiency research promises to be the most fruitful, because it will eventually inform us which interventions with what kind of patient and what kind of problem will be the most constructive. One problem it can solve is the so-called equivalence paradox. This epitheton designates the fact, that in spite of the enormous differences in theory and interventions between the different kinds of psychotherapies, their results are not remarkably divergent. One quite popular hypothesis is that this is due to common factors, commun to any and every kind of psychotherapy. Our results indicate that this explanation is too simplistic because it uses a monosubstance-doses-effect-relationship model and disregards interaction. One other avenue is the relevant events approach. Our examples yield equivocal results. Nevertheless this remains a promising field of investigation. Finally there are time series analyses which are probably most germane to the field of psychotherapies. One illustration with a case of negative psychotherapy outcome is presented. Time series analysis is able to show that the patient changed to a negativistic attitude in the middle of session, whereas the psychoanalyst only changed at the beginning of session 10 respectively in its middle.

  1. Applications of Mindfulness in Psychotherapy – Contemporary Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut ŠKODLAR


    Full Text Available Mindfulness has without doubt been the fastest spreading and most popular concept in psychotherapy in the last two decades. Its influence exceeds that of any other individual concept or approach in modern psychotherapy. However, there are many dilemmas, open questions and controversies related to this rapid, almost fanatic spread, which obviously compensates for a certain lack in modern Euro- and Americo-centric societies. Similarly, we are witnessing in the West a lack of reflection, a process of limitless idealization, and the search for a panacea. This all flows with a tint of colonialism, presumptuously taking over ideas, concepts and techniques without a proper study of the primary sources, and with all the accompanying negative side-effects: profiteering, self-promotion, unethical conduct, empty promises of instant rewards, and so on. In the present paper, the development of interest in mindfulness in psychotherapy, as well as the research findings and dilemmas, and concepts and mechanisms of applying mindfulness in psychotherapy, will be reviewed. The main purpose of the paper is to contribute to the critical reflection in studying and applying mindfulness in psychotherapy.

  2. Report of the Psychotherapy Task Force of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry


    Ritvo, Rachel; Al-mateen, Cheryl; Ascherman, Lee; Beardslee, William; Hartmann, Lawrence; Lewis, Owen; Papilsky, Shirley; Sargent, John; Sperling, Eva; Stiener, Gregory; Szigethy, Eva


    In this task force report, the authors define the field of child and adolescent psychotherapy; review the state of the field with respect to advocacy, training, research, and clinical practice; and recommend steps to ensure that psychotherapy remains a core competence of child and adolescent psychiatrists. (The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1999; 8:93–102)

  3. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Strategies Scale (United States)

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.


    Most everyday child and adolescent psychotherapy does not follow manuals that document the procedures. Consequently, usual clinical care has remained poorly understood and rarely studied. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) is an observational measure of youth psychotherapy procedures…

  4. Culturally Adapted Psychotherapy and the Legitimacy of Myth: A Multilevel Model, Direct Comparison Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Benish, Steven G.


    Culturally adapted psychotherapy has potential to improve psychotherapy outcomes for ethnic and racial minorities and solve a decades-long conundrum that alteration of specific ingredients does not improve psychotherapy outcomes. Adaptation of the cultural explanation of illness, known as the anthropological Myth in universal healing practices…

  5. Harm reduction psychotherapy: an innovative alternative to classical addictions theory. (United States)

    Denning, Patt


    Harm Reduction Psychotherapy is an innovative treatment for people with alcohol and other drug problems. Unlike the traditional disease model of addiction, HRP uses a biopsychosocial approach to understand the complexities of drug use, abuse, and addiction. In other words, in the context of HRP, addiction is not the primary issue. Rather, it is an interactive phenomenon in which the relative weight of biology, psychology, and social factors varies for each person and for each drug he or she uses. HRP allows us to assess each person individually and to plan treatment that is tailored to the individual's relationship with alcohol and other drugs. It also incorporates other important problems: emotional disorders, family problems, social alienation, and medical complications. These issues are discussed at the beginning of consultation, without patients having to focus solely on their alcohol or drug problem. The unique aspect to HRP is that patients do not have to commit to abstinence as a condition of, or even necessarily as a goal of, treatment. HRP seeks to identify and work with the barriers to treatment adherence in any patient. It is clear that most medical patients have some difficulty understanding and adhering to medical recommendations and treatment protocols. However, drug users have particular problems that must be identified. HRP helps people create individual strategies to decrease harmful alcohol and drug use. It uses a nonjudgmental and collaborative approach to actively encourage individuals to explore their own barriers to change and to choose among a range of options such as abstinence, moderation, or other short-term goals. Motivational interviewing can be used to motivate behavioral change with the goal of reducing the effects of adverse consequences.

  6. Making a case for case studies in psychotherapy training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward; Iwakabe, Shigeru


    The evidence debate in psychotherapy pays little attention to developing an evidence base for training practices. Understanding effective training requires an examination of what makes training work. This article examines the role of case studies in psychotherapy training. This has not been...... articulated explicitly or researched systematically in spite of its cardinal importance. An analysis of the role of case studies in psychotherapy training is presented. Reading, watching, or hearing about cases can offer novice psychotherapists access to a closed world; access to psychological theory...... in action; access to whole courses of therapy; access to different approaches; access to significant moments; access to the therapeutic relationship; access to a wide range of client types; access to working in different contexts; and the opportunity of identifying with therapists and clients. Writing...

  7. Psychotherapy training: Suggestions for core ingredients and future research. (United States)

    Boswell, James F; Castonguay, Louis G


    Despite our considerable depth and breadth of empirical knowledge on psychotherapy process and outcome, research on psychotherapy training is somewhat lacking. We would argue, however, that the scientist-practitioner model should not only guide practice, but also the way our field approaches training. In this paper we outline our perspective on the crucial elements of psychotherapy training based on available evidence, theory, and clinical experience, focusing specifically on the structure, key components, and important skills to be learned in a successful training program. In addition, we derive specific research directions based on the crucial elements of our proposed training perspective, and offer general considerations for research on training, including method and measurement issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Parent-Infant Psychotherapy and Postpartum Depression: The Fathers Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena da Rosa Silva


    Full Text Available Given the specificities of postpartum maternal depression, the literature recommends that fathers become involved in psychological interventions within this context. This study presents an investigation of the participation of fathers in parent-infant psychotherapy in the context of maternal postpartum depression. Two families participated in this study, both with a child aged between 7 and 8 months old, whose mothers showed depressive symptoms. These families participated in parent-infant psychotherapy lasting approximately 12 sessions. Analysis of the fathers’ participation in psychotherapy showed that their presence during sessions enables the therapy to address aspects of parenthood, and also reduce the feeling of mothers as being the only ones responsible for the family’s process of change. In regard to the technique, the presence of fathers during sessions allows the therapist to see and address the issues concerning mother-father-infant during sessions.

  9. The renewal of humanism in psychotherapy: summary and conclusion. (United States)

    Schneider, Kirk J; Längle, Alfried


    This article summarizes and discusses the main themes to emerge from this special section on the renewal of humanism in psychotherapy. It is concluded that (1) despite some controversies, humanism is both a viable and growing influence among the leading specialty areas of psychotherapy; (2) humanism is a foundational element of effectiveness among these specialty areas; and (3) humanistic training is essential to the development of trainees in the aforementioned specialty areas. The implications of these findings for each of the specialty areas, for the profession of psychotherapy, and for the public at large are elaborated, concluding with a call for a reassessment of priorities in the research, practice, and training of standardized mental health delivery.

  10. [Psychotherapy in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder]. (United States)

    George, Gisèle


    Alone or used with psychostimulants, psychotherapy is the keystone of the treatment in children attention deficit disorder hyperactivity (ADHD). This article explains in which matter psychotherapy is essential. To be well done, it's necessary before starting the treatment to analyze precisely the disorder and how it interferes with the child's environment. It describes how this functional analysis must be done in order to be more precise in the choice of the treatment objectives. This article explains why in children ADHD treatment, the individual therapy must be associated with a family training and describes briefly the more studied and recognized psychotherapy techniques in those children ADHD and how other partners (teacher, speech or motor therapist) are also useful.

  11. Learning how to ask in ethnography and psychotherapy. (United States)

    Krause, Inga-Britt


    To social anthropologists an affinity with psychotherapy lies in the view that this discipline is a social science. Increasingly, social anthropologists offer comments and analyse their own data using psychotherapeutic or psychoanalytic frames of reference. At the same time, a methodological crisis has developed in ethnography. This is a crisis of how to carry out an ethnographic enquiry in a disciplined manner without either claiming to be a detached observer on the one hand or explaining away the subjective experiences of informants or clients with too much interpretation on the other. The aim of this paper is to address this crisis and to suggest ways in which ethnographers can use techniques from one type of psychotherapy, namely systemic or family psychotherapy in order to access social and psychological aspects of the lives of their informants. The paper achieves this by describing systemic psychotherapy and its theoretical foundations in the ethnographic work of Gregory Bateson. It then reviews the mainly medical anthropology literature in which the connection between psychotherapy and anthro pology has been discussed. While this literature has suggested a narrative and a performative approach to ethnographic data and, therefore, to informants, it has not extended the analytic frame to include the ethnographer him/herself within these frames. Clinical case material is presented to demonstrate how such an inclusion is central to the practice of systemic psychotherapy and to show that this type of material is ethnographic. The techniques of double description, hypothesising and circular questioning are described and demonstrated, and it is argued that adapting these to an ethnographic enquiry will enhance the validity of the anthropological project.

  12. Misuse of statistical test in three decades of psychotherapy research. (United States)

    Dar, R; Serlin, R C; Omer, H


    This article reviews the misuse of statistical tests in psychotherapy research studies published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology in the years 1967-1968, 1977-1978, and 1987-1988. It focuses on 3 major problems in statistical practice: inappropriate uses of null hypothesis tests and p values, neglect of effect size, and inflation of Type I error rate. The impressive frequency of these problems is documented, and changes in statistical practices over the past 3 decades are interpreted in light of trends in psychotherapy research. The article concludes with practical suggestions for rational application of statistical tests.

  13. Psychotherapy: Adaptation or Walking Together? (A Roadside Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bychkova


    Full Text Available The article concerns psychotherapeutic work in the perspective of existential approach. Two trends are discerned in modern psychotherapy regardless of the known division into different schools – the adaptation therapy, and the one viewing a person in the context of his Personal being in the world. Therapy here is understood as the Way of mutual personal growth of both the therapist and the client. Distinction is singled out as one of the central points in forming the meanings, essential for both the normal development of a child and in psychotherapy, and remaining significant for spiritual growth in adults. 

  14. Beyond Mindfulness: Buddha Nature and the Four Postures in Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Sacamano, James; Altman, Jennifer K


    We propose to incorporate the contextual view of the Buddhist teachings of the Three Turnings into applications of mindfulness in psychotherapy; specifically by applying the teaching of the Four Postures, which are expressions of innate health in ordinary life activities. This practice may expand understanding of the core mechanisms of different modalities of mindfulness and psychotherapy, thereby supporting clinicians in guiding clients on a healing path that is in natural alignment with each individual. By its allegiance to inherent wakefulness (Buddha Nature), this teaching supports clients in appreciating their own inherent health and the health of the world around them.

  15. [Institutional psychotherapy, caring for patients and the place of care]. (United States)

    Drogoul, Frank


    Institutional psychotherapy was developed in the specific context of the "assassination" of the Spanish revolution. There are two distinct movements or two periods. The first, based around Georges Daumézon and Henri Ey gave birth to the sector. The second, around FrançoisTosquelles and Jean Oury emphasised the asylum as the place of care. The function of institutional psychotherapy is to care not only for the patients but also the place of treatment. To fulfil this function, it has a tool box: transfer, the fight against the overvaluation of hierarchy as well as the function of the therapeutic club.

  16. The renewal of humanism in European psychotherapy: developments and applications. (United States)

    Längle, Alfried A; Kriz, Jürgen


    In Europe, humanistic psychotherapy is becoming increasingly widespread. Not only are the explicitly "humanistic" psychotherapies being robustly used, they are increasingly being integrated into approaches not traditionally viewed as humanistic. One can therefore observe a progression in the personalization of methodology within European modes of practice. In the past several decades, humanistic psychology has inspired the expanding use of existential-phenomenological modes of practice. This theoretical base, coupled with recent trends in person-centered systems theory, points toward an invigorating future for humanistic forms of practice in Europe, despite the political trends toward psychotherapeutic practice in Germany.

  17. Psychosis and the dynamics of the psychotherapy process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Harder, Susanne


    The role of psychotherapy in the treatment of psychoses remains controversial but there is improving acceptance that an understanding of the dynamics of the psychological processes involved in treatment and in the disorder itself may be important. Psychosis is understood as a detachment of the 's......The role of psychotherapy in the treatment of psychoses remains controversial but there is improving acceptance that an understanding of the dynamics of the psychological processes involved in treatment and in the disorder itself may be important. Psychosis is understood as a detachment...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Hmylova


    Full Text Available The tendency of psychotherapy modern concepts referring to the short-term forms having been taken into account, we carried out the research aimed at the study of short-term form personality-oriented psychotherapy effect on the anxiety disorder dynamics. 103 patients with neurotic disorders were examined in the neurosis and psychotherapy department of the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Research Institute. The findings revealed the situational and personal anxiety level to be objectively decreased in the short-term group psychotherapy course. The short-term group psychotherapy was proved to bean effective method in anxiety disorders treatment considering indications and limitations.

  19. Basics of the ascetical (christian) psychotherapy. (United States)

    Ilievski, N


    It is obvious that contemporary man is suffering. His sufferings often seem pointless and causeless. Modern science more and more comes to reveal and acknowledge that human sufferings have a psychosomatic basis. In some of the cases, these sufferings are noogenic neuroses. They do not originate from the psychological dimension but from the noological or spiritual one of human existence. The pointlessness of life is the basic cause for the noogenic neurosis and depression from which the humankind suffers. e. Hence, the many escapes from such experienced reality into various addictions. Possible way towards healing is to retrieve one's meaning of life, to strengthen his will to meaning. Religion has always been - and still remains - a powerful and appealing purpose that fulfills the life and being of the believers. This article demonstrates the systematization of the spiritual development of a person presented in a table of the harmony of the ascetic-hesychastic struggle, according which everyone can find his place on the ladder of spiritual development, become aware, and reconciliate the mode of personal struggle according to his spiritual development. The reconciliation of the primary function of the mind with its secondary function - the intellect, is of an essential importance. Contemporary religious psychology do not regard man merely as a biological or a psychological being. The subject matter of research is the human being as a whole, as a spiritual person that is characterized by autonomy, regarding the biological and psychological processes. The importance of understanding the spiritual level of human existence enables holistic approach and experiencing of the human personality as a whole. Furthermore, it offers new perspectives of psychotherapeutic action not only within the range of the classical psychotherapeutic modalities but also within the range of the applied Christian Psychotherapy.

  20. The effectiveness of individual interpersonal psychotherapy as a treatment for major depressive disorder in adult outpatients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Hees Madelon L J M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This systematic review describes a comparison between several standard treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD in adult outpatients, with a focus on interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT. Methods Systematic searches of PubMed and PsycINFO studies between January 1970 and August 2012 were performed to identify (C-RCTs, in which MDD was a primary diagnosis in adult outpatients receiving individual IPT as a monotherapy compared to other forms of psychotherapy and/or pharmacotherapy. Results 1233 patients were included in eight eligible studies, out of which 854 completed treatment in outpatient facilities. IPT combined with nefazodone improved depressive symptoms significantly better than sole nefazodone, while undefined pharmacotherapy combined with clinical management improved symptoms better than sole IPT. IPT or imipramine hydrochloride with clinical management showed a better outcome than placebo with clinical management. Depressive symptoms were reduced more in CBASP (cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy patients in comparison with IPT patients, while IPT reduced symptoms better than usual care and wait list condition. Conclusions The differences between treatment effects are very small and often they are not significant. Psychotherapeutic treatments such as IPT and CBT, and/or pharmacotherapy are recommended as first-line treatments for depressed adult outpatients, without favoring one of them, although the individual preferences of patients should be taken into consideration in choosing a treatment.

  1. Effectiveness of Positive Psychotherapy in Improving Opiate Addicts’ Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Porzoor


    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of positive psychotherapy based on quality of life in improving opiate addicts’ quality of life. Method: A quasi experimental research design long with control group and pre-test, post-test and follow-up was employed for the conduct of this study. All the opiate addicts referring to treatment centers of Ardebil city in 2013 constituted the statistical population of the study and the number of 36 participants was selected as the sample via purposive sampling and randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. Quality-of-life-based psychotherapy was conducted on the experimental group in 8 sessions while the control group received no intervention. Quality of life questionnaire was used for data collection purposes. Results: The results suggested the effectiveness of the intervention in quality of life. Conclusion: This intervention, which is formed from the combination positive psychology and cognitive-behavioral approach, can be used as an effective treatment method.

  2. Neuroimaging of psychotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review. (United States)

    Thorsen, Anders Lillevik; van den Heuvel, Odile A; Hansen, Bjarne; Kvale, Gerd


    The symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) include intrusive thoughts, compulsive behavior, anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility, which are associated with dysfunction in dorsal and ventral corticostriato-thalamocortical (CSTC) circuits. Psychotherapy involving exposure and response prevention has been established as an effective treatment for the affective symptoms, but the impact on the underlying neural circuits is not clear. This systematic review used the Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO databases to investigate how successful therapy may affect neural substrates of OCD. Sixteen studies measuring neural changes after therapy were included in the review. The studies indicate that dysfunctions in neural function and structure are partly reversible and state-dependent for affective symptoms, which may also apply to cognitive symptoms. This is supported by post-treatment decreases of symptoms and activity in the ventral circuits during symptom provocation, as well as mainly increased activity in dorsal circuits during cognitive processing. These effects appear to be common to both psychotherapy and medication approaches. Although neural findings were not consistent across all studies, these findings indicate that people with OCD may experience functional, symptomatic, and neural recovery after successful treatment.

  3. Effectiveness of Spiritually Augmented Psychotherapy on Dysfunctional Attitudes in Patients with Dysthymic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrollah Ebrahimi


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of spiritually augmented psychotherapy (SAPT on the dysfunctional attitudes of patients with dysthymic disorder. Methods: A mixed qualitative and quantitative method was used in the present study. SAPT model was prepared in the first phase, and in the second phase, a double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed. The study subjects consisted of 62 patients with dysthymic disorder selected from several clinical centers of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran. The participants were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups and 1 control group. The first group received 8 sessions of SAPT treatment, the second group also had 8 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT which was specific to dysthymic disorder, and third group were under antidepressant treatment. The Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale was used to evaluate all the participants in 4 measurement stages. The data were analyzed using repeated measures MANCOVA. Results: Findings showed that SAPT had higher efficacy on the modification of dysfunctional attitudes than CBT and medication (p < 0.05. Conclusion: These findings supported the efficacy of psychotherapy enriched with cultural structures and spiritual teachings.

  4. Process and technique factors associated with patient ratings of session safety during psychodynamic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Siegel, Deborah F; Hilsenroth, Mark J


    This study investigates the relationships between patient ratings of in-session safety with psychotherapeutic techniques and process. Ninety-four participants received Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (STDP) at a university-based clinic. Patient experiences of therapeutic process were self-assessed early in treatment using the Session Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ Stiles, 1980). Techniques implemented in session were identified using the Comparative Psychotherapy Process Scale (CPPS: Hilsenroth et al., 2005). Alliance was evaluated with the Combined Alliance Short Form-Patient Version (CASF-P; Hatcher and Barends, 1996). Safety significantly correlated with session depth, smoothness, and positivity. Safety was significantly related to the interaction of psychodynamic-interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral techniques, but to neither individual subscale Safety significantly correlated with CASF-P Total, Confident Collaboration, and Bond. Patient experiences of safety are consistent with exploration and depth of session content. Integration of some CB techniques within a psychodynamic model may facilitate a sense of safety. Safety is notably intertwined with the therapeutic relationship.

  5. 心理咨询与心理治疗%Psychological counseling and psychotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范青; 陈涵; 陈珏


    Psychological counseling is to solve the problem of the patients in the process of negotiation and help, while the purpose of psychotherapy is the treatment with modulation and correction. This paper elaborates the suitable individuals for psychological counseling/psychotherapy as well as psychological treatment including the psychoanalytic therapy, behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, clients center therapy, family therapy and Morita therapy.%心理咨询是在协商与帮助患者过程中达到解决问题的目的,心理治疗则是按治疗方法对患者进行调治和矫正,本文阐述适合心理咨询/心理治疗的人群以及主要的心理治疗方法,包括精神分析治疗、行为治疗、认知治疗、咨客中心疗法、家庭治疗和森田治疗。

  6. Impact of a CBT psychotherapy group on post-operative bariatric patients. (United States)

    Beaulac, Julie; Sandre, Daniella


    Psychological difficulties for patients seeking bariatric surgery are greater and in the post-operative phase, a significant minority go on to experience significant psychosocial difficulties, increasing their risk of poorer post-operative adjustment and associated weight regain. 17 post-operative patients participated in an eight-week cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) based psychotherapy group at the Ottawa Hospital. A pre-post design with a 3-month follow-up investigated the impact of the group on emotional eating, general as well as obesity-specific adjustment, psychological distress, and attachment. There were significant and meaningful improvements in patients' level of psychological distress, perceived difficulties in their lives, and weight-related adjustment that were maintained at a 3-month follow-up period. Although statistical change was not significant, there were also meaningful improvements in emotional overeating and relationship anxiety and avoidance. The intervention also appeared to be acceptable to patients in that attendance and satisfaction were good. Findings suggest that a short-term CBT psychotherapy group led to significant and meaningful benefits in psychological wellbeing for post-surgical bariatric patients.

  7. Determining adolescents' suitability for inpatient psychotherapy: utility of the clinician-rated Readiness for Inpatient Psychotherapy Scale with an adolescent inpatient sample. (United States)

    Haggerty, Greg; Siefert, Caleb; Stoycheva, Valentina; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Baity, Matthew; Zodan, Jennifer; Mehra, Ashwin; Chand, Vijay; Blais, Mark A


    Growing economic pressure on inpatient services for adolescents has resulted in fewer clinicians to provide individual psychotherapy. As a result, inpatient treatment trends have favored group psychotherapy modalities and psychopharmacological interventions. Currently, no clinician-rated measures exist to assist clinicians in determining who would be able to better utilize individual psychotherapy on inpatient units. The current study sought to demonstrate the utility of the Readiness for Inpatient Psychotherapy Scale with an adolescent inpatient sample. This study also used the RIPS as it is intended to be used in everyday practice. Results from the authors' analyses reveal that the RIPS demonstrates good psychometrics and interrater reliability, as well as construct validity.

  8. The role of hope in psychotherapy with older adults. (United States)

    Bergin, L; Walsh, S


    The positive impact of psychotherapy upon the mental health problems of older people is increasingly accepted. However little attention has been paid to the role of hope in working therapeutically with older adults. Three relevant bodies of literature, namely adult psychotherapy, hope in older adulthood, and coping with chronic and terminal illness, provide a starting point for examining the therapeutic uses of hope. However, it is argued that these literatures cannot provide a sufficiently comprehensive conceptualisation of hope in psychotherapy with elders. Firstly, it is considered that hope in therapy is directly affected by key experiences of ageing, namely: facing physical and/or cognitive deterioration and facing death. Also, these three bodies of literature have tended to dichotomise hope as either beneficial and adaptive or dysfunctional and maladaptive. A developmental perspective is used to critique this dichotomy and a clinical framework is provided which examines the role and utility of hope in older adult psychotherapy from a more integrated viewpoint embedded in the client's life history. The framework is comprised of three types of 'hope work': 'facilitating realistic hope,' 'the work of despair' and 'surviving not thriving'. Suggestions are made about how this work may be carried out and with whom.

  9. Changes in Studying Abilities as Perceived by Students Attending Psychotherapy (United States)

    Härkäpää, Kristiina; Junttila, Outi; Lindfors, Olavi; Järvikoski, Aila


    In rehabilitative psychotherapy, the goal is to support and improve the person's working and studying capacity and to secure his/her staying in or entering the workforce. In this qualitative study, the aim was to describe the changes students experienced in their studying ability and the advancement of their studies as a result of the therapy…

  10. Addressing Anger Using Sensorimotor Psychotherapy and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (United States)

    Flynn, Sarah M.


    A young woman initiated counselling services at a community agency to address her explosive anger that was a remnant of childhood physical and emotional abuse. Sensorimotor psychotherapy was used to help this client learn how to monitor and regulate her sensorimotor processes. In conjunction with this approach, Cognitive behavioural therapy was…

  11. Benchmarks for Psychotherapy Efficacy in Adult Major Depression (United States)

    Minami, Takuya; Wampold, Bruce E.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Kircher, John C.; Brown, George S.


    This study estimates pretreatment-posttreatment effect size benchmarks for the treatment of major depression in adults that may be useful in evaluating psychotherapy effectiveness in clinical practice. Treatment efficacy benchmarks for major depression were derived for 3 different types of outcome measures: the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression…

  12. Integrating Spirituality into Counselling and Psychotherapy: Theoretical and Clinical Perspectives (United States)

    Daniels, Carla; Fitzpatrick, Marilyn


    In recent decades, spirituality has become a prominent focus of psychological inquiry. As research begins to elucidate the role of spiritual beliefs and behaviours in mental health and the influences of spirituality in psychotherapy, developing therapist competency in this domain has increased in importance. This article will first situate…

  13. Logotherapy as a Bridge Between Religion and Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Crumbaugh, James C.

    Frankl's logotherapy, a technique of searching for meaning in life, is presented as a counseling theory which borders religion but does not overlap, by taking both the mentally healthy individual and the patient in psychotherapy to this boundary, and challenging him/her to decide whether religion can be an integral part of life meaning and…

  14. Child-Parent Psychotherapy and Traumatic Exposure to Violence (United States)

    Reyes, Vilma; Lieberman, Alicia


    This article illustrates the multidimensional impact of violence during infancy and the effectiveness of a relationship-focused treatment, child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), in addressing the traumatic consequences of exposure to violence. The authors describe the treatment of a 3-year-old boy and his mother and highlight three key points: (a)…

  15. The Selection of Patients for Psychotherapy by College Students. (United States)

    Bringmann, Wolfgang G.; Abston, Nathaniel, Jr.

    Research on the cognitive activity of clinicians during the initial interview has revealed that mental health professionals are often guided by social stereotypes of attractiveness in their choice of patients for intensive individual or group psychotherapy. Specifically, YAVIS patients (young, attractive, verbal, intelligent, successful) are…

  16. The Development of a Psychotherapy Service at Amherst College (United States)

    May, Robert R.


    This description of counseling and psychotherapy services at Amherst College begins with our heritage from the "mental hygiene" movement of the nineteenth century, the founding of the first university mental health services and the later development of a counseling center tradition. By tracing the evolution at Amherst, from a brief…

  17. A Psychosynthetic Model of Personality and its Implications for Psychotherapy (United States)

    Haronian, Frank


    A psychosynthetic model of personality was presented as well as several inferences for an eclectic but systematic approach to psychotherapy which embraces a variety of methods, can be ordered in a reasonable sequence, and used within a therapist-client relationship which is existentially structured. (Author/RK)

  18. Effectiveness of Child Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy in a Clinical Outpatient Setting (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth Kuhn; Tiellet Nunes, Maria Lucia


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of child psychoanalytic psychotherapy in a clinical outpatient setting in a city in southern Brazil. Three psychological tests (Rorschach, Bender and WISC III) were administered to 23 children, aged 6-11 years old, and the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) was completed by the parents. All…

  19. Counselling and Psychotherapy in Dialogue with Complementary and Alternative Medicine (United States)

    Lees, John


    Counselling and psychotherapy is attracting government interest and intervention, for instance the proposal to regulate the profession by the Health Professions Council. Many therapists see this as a threat to its fundamental principles due to the fact that government policy is influenced by the medical model and managerialism. This article looks,…

  20. Time-Limited Psychotherapy: An Interactional Stage Model. (United States)

    Tracey, Terence J.

    One model of successful time-limited psychotherapy characterizes the therapy as a movement through three interactional stages: the early rapport attainment stage, the middle conflict stage, and the final resolution stage. According to this model, these stages are indicated by the relative presence of communicational harmony. To examine the…

  1. The Practice of Psychotherapy in Mexico: Past and Present (United States)

    Stark, Marcella D.; Frels, Rebecca K.; Chavez, Rafael Reyes; Sharma, Bipin


    This article explores the history of psychotherapy in Mexico and describes past and current practices of psychological services, training, and supervision for Mexican international students in the United States. Sample curricula, texts, and universities in Mexico are listed. Implications for training underscore the importance of collaboration and…

  2. Inherent Self, Invented Self, Empty Self: Constructivism, Buddhism, and Psychotherapy (United States)

    McWilliams, Spencer A.


    Constructivist and Buddhist approaches to counseling and psychotherapy share increasing popularity as well as similar epistemological assumptions and understanding of human dysfunction and its amelioration. These approaches can be seen as consistent with postmodern psychology, which is distinguished from a realist or foundationalist view. This…

  3. Methods and Mechanisms in the Efficacy of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (United States)

    McKay, Dean


    Comments on the original article, "The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy," by J. Shedler. Shedler summarized a large body of research that shows psychodynamic therapy to have a substantial effect size, comparable to that for many empirically supported treatments. This is an important finding, in part refuting the concerns raised by Bornstein…

  4. The Use of Digital Narratives to Enhance Counseling and Psychotherapy (United States)

    Pillay, Yegan


    Technological advances have impinged on every aspect of contemporary phenomenological experiences, including counseling and psychotherapy. The author explores the intersection of narrative therapy, specifically the traditional memory book, with the advances in information technology in the formulation of the digital memory book. The digital memory…

  5. (Re)placing Multiculturalism in Counselling and Psychotherapy (United States)

    Moodley, Roy


    Since multiculturalism is not fully theorised it has created much confusion in counselling and psychotherapy. It has been criticised for ignoring questions of power relations, and for emphasising the cultural differences of ethnic minority groups rather than focus on their similar predicaments of racism, sexism, misogyny, homophobia and economic…

  6. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Halder


    Full Text Available Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  7. Correlates of empathic understanding among neophyte trainees in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Puleo, S G; Schwartz, R C


    Results are summarized of an empirical study testing the associations among various academic, demographic, and personal characteristics and rated empathic understanding among 93 neophyte psychotherapy trainees from six universities. Multiple regression analyses suggested that completion of a graduate group counseling course with a specific personal growth component was the only characteristic significantly correlated with ratings of empathic understanding.

  8. Positive Group Psychotherapy Modified for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Tomasulo, Daniel J.


    Mental health disorders are considerably more prevalent among people with intellectual disabilities than in the general population, yet research on psychotherapy for people with dual diagnosis is scarce. However, there is mounting evidence to show that adults with a dual diagnosis can find help through group therapy and have more productive and…

  9. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder


    Susmita Halder; Akash Kumar Mahato


    Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  10. Interpersonal psychotherapy for postpartum depression: a systematic review. (United States)

    Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Calugi, Simona; Rucci, Paola; Savino, Mario; Mauri, Mauro; Dell'Osso, Liliana


    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a dynamically informed and present-focused psychotherapy originally conceived for patients with unipolar depression and subsequently modified for other disorders, including postpartum depression (PPD). The aim of this paper is to review the evidence on the efficacy of IPT for PPD. We conducted a systematic review of studies published between 1995 and April 2013 assessing the efficacy of IPT for PPD using PubMed and PsycINFO. We included the following: (i) articles that presented a combination of at least two of the established terms in the abstract, namely, interpersonal [all fields] and ("psychotherapy" [MeSH terms] or psychotherapy [all fields]) and (perinatal [all fields] or postpartum [all fields]) and ("depressive disorder" [MeSH terms] or ("depressive" [all fields] and "disorder" [all fields]) or depressive disorder [all fields] or "depression" [all fields] or depression [MeSH terms]); (ii) manuscripts in English; (iii) original articles; and (iv) prospective or retrospective observational studies (analytical or descriptive), experimental, or quasi-experimental. Exclusion criteria were as follows: (i) other study designs, such as case reports, case series, and reviews; (ii) non-original studies including editorials, book reviews, and letters to the editor; and (iii) studies not specifically designed and focused on IPT. We identified 11 clinical primary trials assessing the efficacy of IPT for PPD, including 3 trials with group interventions (G-IPT) and one that required the presence of the partner (PA-IPT). We also identified six studies interpersonal-psychotherapy-oriented preventive interventions for use in pregnancy. IPT studies showed overall clinical improvement in the most commonly used depression measures in postpartum depressed women (EPDS, HDRS, BDI) and often-full recovery in several cases of treated patients. Evidence from clinical trials indicates that, when administered in monotherapy (or in combination with

  11. The Behavioral Treatment of Childhood Nocturnal Enuresis. (United States)

    Wagner, William G.


    Notes that of the treatments attempted for nocturnal enuresis, pharmacotherapy, individual psychotherapy, and behavioral conditioning, the most effective is behavioral conditioning with a urine alarm. Reviews the enuresis literature and provides recommendations for use of the urine alarm approach. (Author/ABB)

  12. An Integrative Psychotherapy Approach to Foster Community Engagement and Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Case Study Illustration. (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Whitesel, Frankie; Lysaker, Paul H


    This case study illustrates the use of a long-term integrative psychotherapy approach with a middle- aged man with chronic schizophrenia and a mood disorder. The case of "Holst" describes a man with a history of insecure attachment and trauma who later went on to contract a serious chronic illness, precipitating the onset of psychotic symptoms, depression, and chronic suicidal ideation, resulting in multiple hospitalizations. Combining metacognition-oriented therapy with elements of cognitive behavioral therapy and psychiatric rehabilitation, this approach fostered significantly improved community functioning and attainment of personal goals over time. Through the journey of therapy, the patient also developed a more coherent narrative about his life, established a stable sense of self, and became an active agent in the world. This case illustration demonstrates that these three different approaches can be used in a sequential and complementary fashion to foster recovery in the midst of serious physical and mental illness.

  13. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng


    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  14. Impulsivity and Stillness: NADA, Pharmaceuticals, and Psychotherapy in Substance Use and Other DSM 5 Disorders. (United States)

    Carter, Kenneth; Olshan-Perlmutter, Michelle


    Pharmaceuticals and psychotherapy are commonly used in the management of impulsivity.  The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol is an adjunctive therapy that involves the bilateral insertion of 1 to 5 predetermined ear needle points. One of the main benefits reported by patients, providers, and programs utilizing NADA is the sense of stillness, centering, and well-being. The induction of this attitude is seen as contributing to improved clinical outcomes including engagement and retention.  The attitude of stillness is also suggestive of a pathway to mitigating impulsivity. Impulsivity is associated with substance use disorders and other DSM 5 diagnoses.  Impulsivity has characteristics that are manifested clinically in behaviors such as disinhibition, poor self-control, lack of deliberation, thrill seeking, risk-taking. NADA holds promise as a useful treatment adjunct in the comprehensive management of disorders for which impulsivity is a prominent component.

  15. Using Movement to Regulate Emotion: Neurophysiological Findings and Their Application in Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Shafir


    Full Text Available Emotion regulation is a person’s active attempt to manage their emotional state by enhancing or decreasing specific feelings. Peripheral theories of emotion argue that the origins of emotions stem from bodily responses. This notion has been reformulated in neurophysiological terms by Damasio, who claimed that emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with conscious feelings. This proposition implies that through deliberate control of motor behavior and its consequent proprioception and interoception, one could regulate his emotions and affect his feelings. This concept is used in dance/movement (psychotherapy where, by guiding to move in a certain way, the therapist helps the client to evoke, process, and regulate specific emotions. Exploration and practice of new and unfamiliar motor patterns can help the client to experience new unaccustomed feelings. The idea that certain motor qualities enhance specific emotions is utilized by the therapist also when she mirrors the client’s movements or motor qualities in order to feel what the client feels, and empathize with them. Because of the mirror neurons, feeling what the client feels is enabled also through observation and imagination of their movements and posture. This principle can be used by verbal therapists as well, who should be aware of its bi-directionality: clients seeing the therapist’s motor behavior are unconsciously affected by the therapist’s bodily expressions. Additional implications for psychotherapy, of findings regarding mirror neurons activation, are discussed.

  16. Using Movement to Regulate Emotion: Neurophysiological Findings and Their Application in Psychotherapy (United States)

    Shafir, Tal


    Emotion regulation is a person’s active attempt to manage their emotional state by enhancing or decreasing specific feelings. Peripheral theories of emotion argue that the origins of emotions stem from bodily responses. This notion has been reformulated in neurophysiological terms by Damasio, who claimed that emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with conscious feelings. This proposition implies that through deliberate control of motor behavior and its consequent proprioception and interoception, one could regulate his emotions and affect his feelings. This concept is used in dance/movement (psycho)therapy where, by guiding to move in a certain way, the therapist helps the client to evoke, process, and regulate specific emotions. Exploration and practice of new and unfamiliar motor patterns can help the client to experience new unaccustomed feelings. The idea that certain motor qualities enhance specific emotions is utilized by the therapist also when she mirrors the client’s movements or motor qualities in order to feel what the client feels, and empathize with them. Because of the mirror neurons, feeling what the client feels is enabled also through observation and imagination of their movements and posture. This principle can be used by verbal therapists as well, who should be aware of its bi-directionality: clients seeing the therapist’s motor behavior are unconsciously affected by the therapist’s bodily expressions. Additional implications for psychotherapy, of findings regarding mirror neurons activation, are discussed. PMID:27721801

  17. Case sampling for psychotherapy practice, theory, and policy guidance: Qualities and quantities. (United States)

    Krause, Merton S


    Random sampling of cases is usually infeasible for psychotherapy research, so opportunistic and purposive sampling must be used instead. Such sampling does not justify generalizations from sample to population-distribution statistics, but does justify reporting what independent-variable value configurations are associated with what dependent-variable value configurations. This allows only the generalization that these associations occur at least that frequently in the population sampled from, which is enough for suggesting and testing some psychotherapy theories and informing some psychotherapy practice. Although psychotherapy practice is a longitudinal process, formal psychotherapy outcome research is so far most feasible and most widely done in the form of two-phase cross-sectional input-outcome studies. Thus, the analysis of sampling for psychotherapy research here will be in terms of the independent- and dependent-variable value configurations produced in such two-phase studies.

  18. Individual psychotherapy for schizophrenia: trends and developments in the wake of the recovery movement. (United States)

    Hamm, Jay A; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Kukla, Marina; Lysaker, Paul H


    Although the role and relative prominence of psychotherapy in the treatment of schizophrenia has fluctuated over time, an analysis of the history of psychotherapy for schizophrenia, focusing on findings from the recovery movement, reveals recent trends including the emergence of the development of integrative psychotherapy approaches. The authors suggest that the recovery movement has revealed limitations in traditional approaches to psychotherapy, and has provided opportunities for integrative approaches to emerge as a mechanism for promoting recovery in persons with schizophrenia. Five approaches to integrative psychotherapy for persons with schizophrenia are presented, and a shared conceptual framework that allows these five approaches to be compatible with one another is proposed. The conceptual framework is consistent with theories of recovery and emphasizes interpersonal attachment, personal narrative, and metacognitive processes. Implications for future research on integrative psychotherapy are considered.

  19. Hidden points of view in cross-cultural psychotherapy and ethnography. (United States)

    Krause, Inga-Britt


    This article examines the challenges posed by cross-cultural psychotherapy in a creolized world, and the way this intersects with issues faced by the ethnographer. It proposes 'the relational subject,' implicit in systemic psychotherapy and social anthropology, as a framework for an understanding of communication. In cross-cultural psychotherapy, this assumption is central to non-discriminatory and equitable treatment. Drawing on Bateson's ethnographic work, the article connects 'the relational subject' to what Bateson, following Whitehead, called 'the fallacy of misplaced concreteness' and later referred to as 'context.' The article examines the choices of 'context' first in ethnography and systemic psychotherapy and then in Bateson's own analysis of the Naven ritual. It is suggested that cross-cultural psychotherapy is psychotherapy in which the therapist keeps in mind, both her own and her client's contexts. This means an assessment of process (performative aspects) as well as content (semiotic aspects) and attention to 'moments' rather than longer sequences in the therapy.

  20. Aaron Temkin BECK: After Cricitical Thinking to A Creative Psychotherapy Theory


    Mehmet DİNÇ


    There is growing interest in the cognitive psychotherapy all around the world including Turkey. According to American Institute of Cognitive Therapy; cognitive psychotherapy is the fastest growing and most rigorously studied kind of talk therapy and it is practiced around the world, taking hold in places from the Middle East to Japan. Cognitive psychotherapy was designed first by Aaron Temkin Beck in 1950’s. He has published over 450 articles and authored or co-authored sevent...

  1. [Aspects of psychotherapy in diabetes mellitus with accompanying alcoholic intoxication]. (United States)

    Sidorov, P I; Novikova, I A; Solov'ev, A G


    120 patients with different types of diabetes mellitus were divided into groups by the presence and intensity of accompanying alcoholic intoxication: group 1--no alcohol intake; group 2--rare alcohol intake; group 3--moderate alcohol intake; group 4--alcoholic abuse. Experimental psychological methods were used together with psychotherapeutic approaches: Wiesbaden's questionnaire (WIPPF), Lusher's and MMPI tests. For each group of the patients some recommendations are given for application of the above techniques. Thus in patients from the 1-3 groups it is worthwhile to perform a positive psychotherapy directed to the development of the body/sensation sphere (according to WIPPF), that is a care about physical and mental state (including autotraining and training of communication). In the alcohol abusing patients the main point should be fantasy/future sphere (according to WIPPF) in the ranges of the same positive psychotherapy directed to forming positive world view and correction of the interpersonal relations.

  2. Amelioration of transference resistance: substitute therapists in milieu group psychotherapy. (United States)

    Sperling, M B; Kibel, H D; Loutsch, E M


    Building upon Wolf's (1949) notion of the use of an alternate session in group psychotherapy, this paper suggests that an alternate therapist substituting for an absent regular therapist in milieu group psychotherapy can facilitate similar therapeutic benefits. The mechanism of this process of overcoming transference resistance is seen as twofold: (1) sessions with a substitute therapist allow patients to confront the infantilization often present in a milieu setting and experiment with more autonomous ego functioning. (2) Sessions with a substitute therapist create conditions which are apart from the ongoing process of the therapy group, thereby allowing for a therapeutic splitting process to develop wherein transference feelings about the regular therapist can be expressed to his or her "alter ego." Several case vignettes are presented in order to illustrate the clinical utility of a substitute therapist.

  3. Kant, cognitive psychotherapy, and the hardening of the categories. (United States)

    Nevid, Jeffrey S


    Contemporary models of psychotherapy owe a considerable intellectual debt to philosophy, even though the contributions of philosophers to contemporary practice in the field often go unrecognized. A case in point is Kant's epistemology, which is foundational to cognitive approaches to psychotherapy. Here, it is argued that the rigid use of certain judgments represented in Kant's conceptual scheme underlies patterns of distorted or dysfunctional thinking associated with emotional disorders. Kantian judgments of necessity, disjunction, particularity and universality have counterpoints in contemporary conceptions of cognitive distortions. Moreover, Kantian epistemology has important therapeutic implications with respect to helping people with emotional disorders recognize and challenge rigidly held judgments or categories of understanding. The Kantian perspective also leads us to consider the cognitive frameworks or thought structures that underlie dysfunctional thinking patterns.

  4. Prediction of outcome of brief psychotherapy from therapist interpretive interventions. (United States)

    Marziali, E A


    This study replicated Malan's 1976 analysis of psychodynamic interpretations and corrected the major methodological fault in his work: the use of therapist notes for rating the interpretive elements. In this study, the sessions of 25 patients treated in brief dynamic psychotherapy were audiotaped and the ratings of the interpretive interventions were made directly from the audiotapes. Malan's findings were supported. There was a positive association between more favorable outcome, measured on five psychodynamic scales, and the frequency with which therapist interpretations referred to emotions experienced in the transference relationship that were similar to those experienced in relationships with parents and other important persons. The results of this replication indicate that these therapist-offered explanations about the meanings of significant current and past interpersonal relationships contribute to the outcome of brief psychotherapy.

  5. Buddhist psychology, psychotherapy and the brain: a critical introduction. (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan D


    Buddhist psychology is increasingly informing psychotherapeutic practice in the western world. This article: (a) provides a general background to Buddhist tradition; (b) outlines the central tenets of Buddhist psychology, with particular emphasis on the practice of meditation; (c) provides an overview of research into the effects of Buddhist practice on the brain; (d) outlines the relationships between Buddhist psychology and existing forms of psychotherapy; (e) provides an overview of Buddhist approaches to specific psychiatric disorders and the psychological aspects of physical disorders; and (f) discusses the emergence of Buddhist psychotherapy in western societies and explores likely future developments. There is a need for further research into the neuroscientific correlates of Buddhist concepts of mind and the evidence-base for the use of specific techniques (e.g., meditation) in psychotherapeutic practice.

  6. Social Integration as Professional Field: Psychotherapy in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Johnsson


    Full Text Available The present article describes and analyses the emergence and development of a professional field called social integration. Ideas, theories, and occupational practices forming this field are explored, particularly those related to the development of a new discipline, that of psychotherapy. The development of three occupations (psychiatry, psychology and social work and their professionalisation is described through their qualitative and quantitative take‑offs in particular historical periods. Three periods are identified: formation, 1850-1920, when psychiatry was defined as a medical sub-discipline; consolidation, 1920-1945, with the institutionalisation of psychiatric care, and with psychoanalysis and mental hygiene as qualitatively new cognitive bases for practitioners; and professionalisation, 1945-1980, with the deinstitutionalisation of psychiatric care and the professionalisation of psychologists and social workers. New ideas on subjectivity and individualism, new welfare state institutions, as well as collaborative professionalism all favoured the creation of psychotherapy as professional knowledge, and a possible new profession of psychotherapists.

  7. Psychosis and the dynamics of the psychotherapy process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Harder, Susanne


    The role of psychotherapy in the treatment of psychoses remains controversial but there is improving acceptance that an understanding of the dynamics of the psychological processes involved in treatment and in the disorder itself may be important. Psychosis is understood as a detachment of the 's......The role of psychotherapy in the treatment of psychoses remains controversial but there is improving acceptance that an understanding of the dynamics of the psychological processes involved in treatment and in the disorder itself may be important. Psychosis is understood as a detachment...... of the 'self' from the 'world which results in changed abilities in inter-subjective relating to oneself and others. This understanding has led to guidelines for psychotherapists who engage in treatment of psychoses and these are summarized in this article. As a result of the disturbance in the inter...

  8. Clinical algorithms as a tool for psychotherapy with Latino clients. (United States)

    Manoleas, Peter; Garcia, Betty


    Clinical algorithms have the advantage of being able to integrate clinical, cultural, and environmental factors into a unified method of planning and implementing treatment. A model for practice is proposed that uses 3 algorithms as guides for conducting psychotherapy with Latino clients, the uses of which are illustrated in a single, ongoing case vignette. The algorithm format has the additional advantage of easily adapting itself for data gathering for research purposes.

  9. Psychotherapy after acquired brain injury: Is less more?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Coetzer


    Full Text Available This paper considers the challenges and dilemmas facing psychotherapists working with neurological patients, and in particular those who work in the context of under-resourced brain injury rehabilitation healthcare systems. Through the subjective process of reflective practice integral to clinical supervision, the author attempts to identify five core aspects of psychotherapy intended to augment post-acute long- term rehabilitation programmes and interventions after acquired brain injury.

  10. Form and structure and their function in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Rothenberg, A


    Psychotherapy is a creative process with the same types of effects and determinants as other creative activities in fields such as literature, visual arts, and science. In all of these activities, a focus on form and structure serves to generate new and valuable resultants or creations. As shown in the example of the poet Richard Wilbur's creation of a poem, his focus on rhyme and other formal features generated a new and valuable emotional tension in the poem. In psychotherapy, the creation consists of new and valuable aspects or structural features of personality. This creative result in therapy is produced in part by therapists' focus on form in terms of sequences, style of verbal and non-verbal presentation, and the phases of encounter, growth, and separation. As shown in the psychotherapy session excerpted, the therapist's lack of attention to the critical theme initiated by the patient at the beginning of the session (encounter) as well as to the meanings of connections between sequences in the following interactions (growth) led to a non-creative or destructive suicidal threat at the end (separation). The overall creative result arises also from therapists' attention to patients' approaches to the overall structure of psychotherapy as a regularly occurring timed experience in which the therapist does not directly intervene in the patient's life. This structural organization provides a trial domain for the patient in which creative growth and personal welfare can be facilitated. Both patient and therapist need to focus on any attempts to undermine the structural organization and its meaning. Similarly, in creative activities in other fields, writers, artists, and scientists characteristically focus on form, in a detailed as well as general way, in order to facilitate both aesthetic and social growth and welfare.

  11. [On the problem of psychodiagnosis in psychiatry and psychotherapy]. (United States)

    Szewczyk, H; Littmann, E


    Owing to the changed concept of psychiatry and psychotherapy, greater demands are also being made on psychodiagnostics. The article deals with the prerequisites, possible significance and application of the clinical methods and psychological tests, describes the problems of standardization and quality testing and discusses indications and problems of the different groups of methods. The demands of the clinician addressed to test designers are dealt with, as well as the question of which group of methods should be used and by whom.

  12. P-1139 - Increased utilization of health care services after psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten Munthe; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Stig Bernt;


    Background Psychotherapeutic treatment is associated with significant reduction of symptoms in patients, and it is generally assumed that treatment improves health and decreases the need for additional health care. The present study investigates the long-term changes in utilization of health care...... a long-term period psychotherapy patients increased their utilization of health care services with a factor 3 compared to a control group....

  13. Psychotherapie mit Videotelefon - Telemental Health by using Videoconferencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Reisinger


    Full Text Available All areas of life are covered by the technological development, the use of computer and Internet. This media world does not stop in front of the carefully protected, therapeutic areas. It seems to be necessary to examine the possibilities of psychotherapy or psychotherapeutic counseling with videophone. In this qualitative research, different kind of aspects by psyhotherapists will be presented of how to engage in psychotherapy by using videophone. Furthermore are shown the specifics of the therapeutic relationship, the limits shown in a screen-to-screen treatment and the expectations of the psychotherapists for the future. Examining this subject it became clear that the experts act very carefully when selecting the patients and keep staying within their self-imposed limits. In this area the development of a sound relationship and a successful therapy is possible. For the future, experts hope that the question of the legal general regulations and the protection of quality will be solved. Psychotherapy with videophone shall be offered in addition to mental health care but the presence-therapy should not be replaced.

  14. Psychotherapy as cultural discourse [Psychoterapia jako dyskurs kulturowy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józefik, Barbara


    Full Text Available It is impossible to think about psychotherapy without reference to the cultural context. In order to understand the development of this domain it is helpful to apply the concept of cultural discourse. When we think about the over one hundred years` history of psychotherapy it becomes clear that understanding of a person, his/her difficulties, psychopathology, the role of a psychotherapist, psychotherapy and its limitations have been changing. It depended on the acknowledged epistemological horizon. Therefore it is important to observe the process of creating discourses related to psychotherapeutic “reality”. These discourses are not simply descriptive but they participate in creation of reality. They are not neutral, on the contrary, their application has broad practical, theoretical, ethical and legal consequences. An attempt to describe the culture, or better cultures, we are immersed in, is an attempt to describe the identity of contemporary psychotherapists. This article, referring to the constructionists` perspective and works of Michael Foucault, presents how cultural changes influence psychotherapists` ways of thinking, their practice and presence in social space.

  15. Physiologic evidence for the interpersonal role of laughter during psychotherapy. (United States)

    Marci, Carl D; Moran, Erin K; Orr, Scott P


    The role of laughter during psychotherapy is poorly understood. This study examined 10 unique sessions of psychodynamic psychotherapy with digital videotape and simultaneous measures of skin conductivity (SC) from patients and therapists. Independent observers coded laugh episodes using published criteria. Observers identified 167 laugh responses. Of the 119 patient laughs, 91 (76.5%) were patient as speaker, compared with 28 (23.4%) as nonspeaker audience. In contrast, of the 48 therapist laughs, only five (10.4%) were therapist as speaker, whereas 43 (90.3%) were as nonspeaker audience. The difference was highly significant (p < .001). Physiologic data showed that mean SC level increased regardless of role as patient, therapist, speaker, or audience (p < .001). Two-factor analysis of variance indicated that SC change scores were significantly larger when patients and therapists laughed together compared with laughing alone (p < .05). The results support an empirically based approach to the study of laughter and the use of psychophysiology as a measure of process during psychotherapy.

  16. Sign-language interpretation in psychotherapy with deaf patients. (United States)

    Porter, A


    Sporadic encounters with deaf patients seeking psychotherapy present a challenge to general clinicians outside of specialized services for the deaf. Skills for working with people who do not share one's own language mode and culture are not routinely taught in most training programs, so clinicians may be unprepared when they first encounter a deaf patient. While it would be ideal to be able to match deaf patients with therapists fluent in their preferred language mode, this is often not feasible in smaller centers. Working with a trained professional sign-language interpreter can be a productive alternative, as long as patient, therapist, and interpreter understand and are comfortable with the process. Peer-reviewed literature on sign language interpretation in psychotherapy is sparse, but some practical guidelines can be gleaned from it and supplemented by information provided by the deaf community through the Internet. This paper arose from one psychiatric resident's first experience of psychotherapy working with a sign-language interpreter, and summarizes the literature search that resulted from a quest for understanding of deaf culture and experience, of the unique characteristics of sign language, and of the effects on the therapeutic relationship of the presence of the interpreter.

  17. Learning through the lens: ethical considerations in videotaping psychotherapy. (United States)

    Funkenstein, Amy B; Kessler, Katherine Ann; Schen, Cathy R


    Psychiatry training programs have begun to use technology to enhance psychotherapy teaching. Videotaped interviews provide a window into the psychotherapeutic exchange, demystifying the process and capturing verbal and nonverbal interactions, facial expression, and tone of voice-which can illustrate therapeutic elements such as the alliance and resistance. The process of videotaping psychotherapeutic interviews, however, introduces issues related to consent, ethics, and the dynamics of therapy. By examining two cases in which residents asked their patients to videotape a session for didactic purposes and encountered divergent outcomes, we explore the ethical issues unique to providing informed consent for videotaping psychotherapy. Informed consent must be given verbally and in writing. Verbal consent must include discussion of the risks and benefits of therapy. The discussion must also include the risks inherent in memorializing sensitive material on an external device, with disclosure of the logistics of how data will be stored, who will view the recorded material, and when it will be destroyed. Therapists should be aware of the coercive power inherent in the physician-patient relationship and should individualize each informed consent procedure with this knowledge in mind. Despite these potential pitfalls, videotaping sessions provides a wealth of information about both patients and therapists that can improve psychotherapy teaching and supervision, and indirectly improve patient care.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Maria Popescu


    Full Text Available One of the most important tendencies in child psychotherapy is the integration of various psychotherapeutic approaches and technical interventions belonging to different orientations. Based on the Harry Potter stories, the „Wizarding School” structured group therapy program is a 12-step integratively oriented program applicable in personal development, individual and group therapy for children aged 6 to 13 (at present being adapted for adult psychotherapy. The program takes place within a fairy tale, being therefore a type of informal hypnotic trance. The interventions are drawn from the lessons described in Harry Potter’s story at Hogwarts, based on the fundamental principles of child psychotherapy and including elements of play therapy, art therapy, hypnotherapy, cognitive- behavioural therapy, transactional analysis, supportive therapy, family therapy and person centred therapy. From a theoretical point of view the program is based on elements from a number of psychotherapeutic approaches, the main concept being that we need to create a therapeutic myth that is acceptable to a child. The program is not suitable for children with structural deficits, who have difficulties in making the difference between fantasy and reality.

  19. Behaviorism (United States)

    Moore, J.


    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  20. NICE recommendations for psychotherapy in depression: Of limited clinical utility. (United States)

    McQueen, D; Smith, P St John


    In 2009/10 NICE partially updated its guidelines on the treatment and management of depression in adults. Due to methodological shortcomings the recommendations for psychotherapy must be treated with caution. Despite recognising the heterogeneous and comorbid nature of depression, and the limitations of depression as a unitary diagnostic category, NICE treats depression as if it were a unitary entity differentiated only by severity. The guidance ignores important aetiological factors such as trauma, loss and maltreatment, personality and interpersonal difficulties. It excludes the largest naturalistic studies on clinical populations treated in the National Health Service on the grounds that they are observational studies conducted in heterogeneous groups with mixed neurotic disorders. It unquestioningly accepts that the "brand" of psychotherapy has construct validity, and ignores psychotherapy process research indicating significant commonalities, and overlap, between treatment modalities and evidence that individual practitioner effects are larger than the differences between treatment modalities. It fails to consider patient differences and preferences, which are known to influence uptake, completion and response. It takes an exclusively short-term perspective on a chronic relapsing disorder. It does not consider the evidence for longer-term treatments. It is of special concern that NICE misrepresents the findings of its own systematic review by implying that CBT and IPT are superior treatments. NICE's systematic review actually found no evidence of superiority between CBT, IPT, psychodynamic psychotherapy, or counselling. Based on the exclusion of much clinically relevant research demonstrating the effectiveness of psychodynamic psychotherapy and counselling many commentators have alleged a bias towards CBT in the guidance. With regard to service delivery NICE proposes the replacement of psychiatric assessment and individualised treatment plans, with an unproven


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Almeida


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to adapt and develop a Portuguese manual for the Observer Measure of Affect Regulation (O-MAR; Watson & Prosser, 2006, an observational measure of clients’ emotion regulation in psychotherapy. Since the scale has not yet been adapted to Portuguese, initially a translation was performed. Then, to elaborate the manual, the middle 20 minutes of 20 therapy sessions were observed and classified and 2 illustrative excerpts were selected by consensus for each level of analysis of the various domains of the scale. All these videotaped sessions were collected in a randomized clinical trial carried out in Portugal for the treatment of depression, comparing 2 empirically supported models for the treatment of this disorder – cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion-focused therapy. All the participants were initially evaluated and diagnosed with mild or moderate major depressive disorder, and they attended 16 sessions of psychotherapy.

  2. [Treatment manual for psychotherapy of acute and posttraumatic stress disorders after multiple ICD shocks]. (United States)

    Jordan, J; Titscher, G; Kirsch, H


    In view of the inceasing number of implanted defibrillators in all industrial nations, the number of people who have suffered so-called multiple shocks (electrical storm, ES) also increases. Common complaints are severe and continuously recurrent massive anxiety, panic attacks, fear of death, helplessness and hopelessness, depression, nervosity and irritability as well as reclusive and uncontrollable avoidance behaviour, intrusions, nightmares, flashbacks, sleeplessness and the inability to show feelings and limitation of future perspectives. Because people with an ICD are often physically (very) ill and after multiple ICD shocks are additionally very insecure, it would seem logical if the inpatient treatment would be carried out in an institution which has close connections and is also spatially close to a cardiology department. The basis of the diagnostics is the clinical anamnesis and a systematic exploration of the trauma situation and the resulting complaints. As an additional diagnostic element psychological test procedures should be implemented to determine the core symptomatic (anxiety, depression, trauma symptoms). Psychological test procedures should be included in the diagnostics so that at the end of treatment it is obvious even to the patient which alterations have occurred. The core element of inpatient treatment is daily intensive psychotherapy and includes deep psychologically well-founded psychotherapy and behavioral therapeutic-oriented anxiety therapy as well as cognitive restructuring and elements of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). A follow-up examination within 4 months of the multiple shocks episode is recommended because symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder often occur after a long latent time period.

  3. Mirror neurons: their implications for group psychotherapy. (United States)

    Schermer, Victor L


    Recently discovered mirror neurons in the motor cortex of the brain register the actions and intentions of both the organism and others in the environment. As such, they may play a significant role in social behavior and groups. This paper considers the potential implications of mirror neurons and related neural networks for group therapists, proposing that mirror neurons and mirror systems provide "hard-wired" support for the group therapist's belief in the centrality of relationships in the treatment process and exploring their value in accounting for group-as-a-whole phenomena. Mirror neurons further confirm the holistic, social nature of perception, action, and intention as distinct from a stimulus-response behaviorism. The implications of mirror neurons and mirroring processes for the group therapist role, interventions, and training are also discussed.

  4. A Pilot Use of Team-Based Learning in Psychiatry Resident Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Education (United States)

    Touchet, Bryan K.; Coon, Kim A.


    Objective: Demonstrating psychotherapy competency in trainees will test the resources of psychiatry training programs. The authors outline the phases of team-based learning (TBL). Methods: The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Tulsa (OUCM-T), Department of Psychiatry reorganized its psychodynamic psychotherapy didactic course using TBL.…

  5. Creative Uses of Factor Analysis in Psychotherapy Research: Past Examples and Future Possibilities. (United States)

    Adams, James M.

    Factor analysis is a statistical method of reducing a set number of variables by finding similarities between them. This paper reviews the potential of factor analysis, focusing on exploratory factor analysis, in research on psychotherapy. Within the field of psychotherapy, the use of factor analysis can be classified into three groups. The first…

  6. Computer-Aided psychotherapy for anxiety disorders: A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Marks, I.M.; Straten, van A.; Cavanagh, K; Gega, L.; Andersson, G.


    Computer-aided psychotherapy (CP) is said to (1) be as effective as face-to-face psychotherapy, while requiring less therapist time, for anxiety disorder sufferers, (2) speed access to care, and (3) save traveling time. CP may be delivered on stand-alone or Internet-linked computers, palmtop compute

  7. [The importance of social psychological and clinical factors for prescribing group psychotherapy for neurosis patients]. (United States)

    Grineva, I M; Khokholeva, A A; Obora, V V; Karagodina, E G; Lazarenko, A N


    Socio-psychological and clinical factors and their significance for group psychotherapy were investigated in 62 patients with neuroses. The obtained statistically valid differences of some characteristic aspects between groups of patients with positive and negative directives. This indicates the necessity of differential approach to group psychotherapy and active individual and group work on the creation of positive motivation to this type of treatment.

  8. Gestalt Therapy: Student Perceptions of Fritz Perls in "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy" (United States)

    Reilly, Joe; Jacobus, Veronica


    The "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy" ("TAP") videotape series introduces students to three major schools of psychotherapy: client-centered therapy, Gestalt therapy, and rational-emotive therapy. A sample of undergraduate students viewed the "TAP" series. The students were surveyed about their observations of…

  9. Weighing the Evidence for Psychotherapy Equivalence: Implications for Research and Practice (United States)

    Westmacott, Robin; Hunsley, John


    In the past two decades, numerous meta-analyses have been published that examine the question of psychotherapy equivalence. Hunsley and Di Giulio (2002) critically reviewed this literature and concluded that there was abundant evidence that the Dodo bird verdict of equivalence across psychotherapies is false. In this article, we summarize and…

  10. Individual psychotherapy for schizophrenia: trends and developments in the wake of the recovery movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamm JA


    Full Text Available Jay A Hamm,1 Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon,2 Marina Kukla,3 Paul H Lysaker11Richard L Roudebush VA Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Bar-Ilan University, Department of Psychology, Ramat Gan, Israel; 3Health Services Research and Development Center of Excellence on Implementing Evidence-Based Practice, Richard L Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Although the role and relative prominence of psychotherapy in the treatment of schizophrenia has fluctuated over time, an analysis of the history of psychotherapy for schizophrenia, focusing on findings from the recovery movement, reveals recent trends including the emergence of the development of integrative psychotherapy approaches. The authors suggest that the recovery movement has revealed limitations in traditional approaches to psychotherapy, and has provided opportunities for integrative approaches to emerge as a mechanism for promoting recovery in persons with schizophrenia. Five approaches to integrative psychotherapy for persons with schizophrenia are presented, and a shared conceptual framework that allows these five approaches to be compatible with one another is proposed. The conceptual framework is consistent with theories of recovery and emphasizes interpersonal attachment, personal narrative, and metacognitive processes. Implications for future research on integrative psychotherapy are considered.Keywords: schizophrenia, psychotherapy, recovery, metacognition, psychosis, integrative psychotherapy

  11. A Review of Psychotherapy Outcome Research: Considerations for School-Based Mental Health Providers (United States)

    Zirkelback, Emily A.; Reese, Robert J.


    Evaluating psychotherapeutic outcome is an important endeavor given psychology's focus on identifying effective treatments. There is ample evidence to suggest that psychotherapy interventions for children and adolescents are effective. Unfortunately, the child and adolescent psychotherapy outcome literature lags behind the adult-focused outcome…

  12. Can Two Psychotherapy Process Measures Be Dependably Rated Simultaneously? A Generalizability Study (United States)

    Ulvenes, Pal G.; Berggraf, Lene; Hoffart, Asle; Levy, Raymon A.; Ablon, J. Stuart; McCullough, Leigh; Wampold, Bruce E.


    Observer ratings in psychotherapy are a common way of collecting information in psychotherapy research. However, human observers are imperfect instruments, and their ratings may be subject to variability from several sources. One source of variability can be raters' assessing more than 1 instrument at a time. The purpose of this research is to…

  13. Culturally Adapted Psychotherapy and the Legitimacy of Myth: A Direct-Comparison Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Benish, Steven G.; Quintana, Stephen; Wampold, Bruce E.


    Psychotherapy is a culturally encapsulated healing practice that is created from and dedicated to specific cultural contexts (Frank & Frank, 1993; Wampold, 2007; Wrenn, 1962). Consequently, conventional psychotherapy is a practice most suitable for dominant cultural groups within North America and Western Europe but may be culturally incongruent…

  14. Solicited Diary Studies of Psychotherapy in Qualitative Research - Pros and Cons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas


    Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...... their pertinence to the field. Limitations and potential critiques regarding the use of diaries are also addressed....

  15. Relative efficacy of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depression; a meta-analysis,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, de S.C.M.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Schoevers, R.; Jonghe, de F.


    Abstract We investigated the efficacy of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for depression by searching for RCT's. Studies were classified according to chronicity and severity and a meta-analysis was applied. Ten studies were included. Remission did not differ between psychotherapy (38%) and pharmaco

  16. Recognizing Social Class in the Psychotherapy Relationship: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Low-Income Clients (United States)

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cole, Odessa D.; Nitzarim, Rachel S.


    The process of psychotherapy among 16 low-income clients was explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967) in order to understand and identify their unique experiences and needs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 women and 4 men who had attended at least 6 sessions of psychotherapy within 6 months of the…

  17. Nonverbal Synchrony in Psychotherapy: Coordinated Body Movement Reflects Relationship Quality and Outcome (United States)

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang


    Objective: The authors quantified nonverbal synchrony--the coordination of patient's and therapist's movement--in a random sample of same-sex psychotherapy dyads. The authors contrasted nonverbal synchrony in these dyads with a control condition and assessed its association with session-level and overall psychotherapy outcome. Method: Using an…

  18. Zen Buddhism and the Psychotherapy of Milton Erickson: A Transcendence of Theory and Self. (United States)

    Becker, Susan Kelly; Forman, Bruce D.


    Compares Zen Buddhism and psychotherapy of Milton Erickson. Explores their similarities with respect to theory, change relationship between teacher/student and therapist/client, and acceptance of nature. Compares Ericksonian psychotherapy with Zen-based Morita therapy to concretize philosophical underpinnings of both systems. (Author/ABL)

  19. Psychotherapeutic process of cognitive-behavioral intervention in HIV-infected persons: Results from a controlled, randomized prospective clinical trial


    Znoj, H J; Messerli-Burgy, N; Tschopp, S; Weber, R.; Christen, L; Christen, S; Grawe, K


    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the possible mechanisms of behavioral change in a cognitive-behavioral intervention supporting medication adherence in HIV-infected persons. A total of 60 persons currently under medical treatment were randomized to psychotherapy or usual care and were compared with a sociodemographically matched group of general psychotherapy clients. Outcome measures included therapy adherence using medication event-monitoring system psychotherapeutic process...

  20. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic therapy for depression in Parkinson's disease patients. (United States)

    Xie, Cheng-Long; Wang, Xiao-Dan; Chen, Jie; Lin, Hua-Zhen; Chen, Yi-He; Pan, Jia-Lin; Wang, Wen-Wen


    Numerous practice guidelines have recommended cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy as a treatment of choice for depression in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, no recent meta-analysis has examined the effects of brief psychotherapy (which includes both CBT and psychodynamic therapy) for adult depression in PD. We decided to conduct such a systematic review and meta-analysis. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of brief psychotherapy compared with control groups, other support nursing, or pharmacotherapy. The quality of included studies was strictly evaluated. Twelve studies including 766 patients met all inclusion criteria. The result showed that brief psychotherapy could evidently improve the HAMD (p analysis by types of brief psychotherapy, the efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy was better than CBT (SMD = -2.02 vs SMD = -0.90) for the outcome measure according to HAMD scale. Meanwhile, we found brief psychotherapy in China was more effective than in US (SMD = -1.54 vs SMD = -1.23), and in low quality studies was more efficacious than in high quality studies (SMD = -1.50 vs SMD = -1.33). Time of brief psychotherapy treatment above 6 weeks was superior to studies with less than 6 weeks treatment. We found brief psychotherapy is probable effective in the management of depression in PD patients. But one reason to undermine the validity of findings is high clinical heterogeneity and low methodological quality of the included trials.

  1. Emotional regulation: implications for the psychobiology of psychotherapy. (United States)

    Stein, Dan J


    A range of studies have contributed to understanding the psychobiology of emotional regulation. Functional imaging studies have demonstrated that cortico-limbic circuitry plays an important role in mediating processes such as reappraisal and suppression. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be important in conscious reframing, while ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex may be particularly important in emotion evaluation. Gene variants and early environments impact underlying emotional regulation and its neurobiology. It may be hypothesized that during interventions such as psychotherapy there are improvements in emotional regulation, together with the normalization of related psychobiological mechanisms.

  2. Clients experience of video recordings of their psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Jensen, Karen Boelt; Madsen, Ninna Skov

    the current relatively widespread use video one finds only a very limited numbers empirical study of how these recordings is experienced by the clients. Aim: After a brief discussion of the pro and cons of the use of video recordings this paper presents a qualitative, explorative study of clients’ experiences......Background: Due to the development of technologies and the low costs video recording of psychotherapy sessions have gained ground in training and supervision. While some praise the advantages others decline to use this technological aid for ethical, theoretical or clinical reasons. Despite...

  3. [Experience in using ketamine preparations in the psychotherapy of alcoholism]. (United States)

    Sivolap, Iu P; Savchenkov, V A


    After careful clinical examination 64 alcoholics (48 males and 16 females) aged 21-52 were assigned to ketamin aversive psychotherapeutic procedure supposed to make the patients emotionally concerned with their disease and suggestible of alcohol intolerance. Ketamin caused in 55 patients (85.5%) oneiroid clouding of consciousness with occasional catatonic inclusions, 9 patients (14.5%) became delirious. Ketamin-induced high suggestibility created beneficial conditions for psychotherapy. A 2-year follow-up of 42 patients registered complete abstinence in 15 patients. The results obtained with ketamin are comparable to those achieved with conventional methods. This alternative approach needs further research, especially as analytical opportunities are concerned.

  4. The Perception of Changes Among Participants of Drug Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Opora


    Full Text Available The positive changes among addicted people usually don’t happen by themselves, but they are results of the process which stays under the impact of the aspirations, values and priorities of the person at the moment. Enhancing the motivation of addicted people requires a huge effort from them what helps in making changes in the life style. The presented article contains results of the research. The main aim was describing critical events, which appeared among people addicted to drugs and made them to change their life styles. Additionally the article describes an classifies changes which were noticed by the participants of the stationary psychotherapy of drug addiction.

  5. [EMDR: method of psychotherapy for the treatment of trauma]. (United States)

    Havelka, Judit


    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a method of psychotherapy that has been extensively researched for the treatment of trauma. The current treatment guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association and the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies designate EMDR as an effective treatment for PTSD.In this article the author writes about the history of this "breakthrough therapy" and describes EMDR as a standardized protocol. In the second part describes trauma recovery where she uses EMDR in treating post-traumatic stress disorder in a case study about a 25 year old woman, who has been a rubbery survivor.

  6. [Inpatient treatment of depression. Should one combine psychotherapy and drugs?]. (United States)

    Huber, T J


    Antidepressants as well as different psychotherapeutic strategies have been proven efficacious in the treatment of unipolar depression. In the clinical setting both are often combined using psychotherapeutic methods varying from psychoeducation to formal psychotherapy. The present article provides a critical overview of the evidence base for this combination in the inpatient treatment of depression. The current literature is contradictory and difficult to compare. However, combination therapy appears advantageous in therapy-resistant, chronic and severe forms of depressive disorders. Much further research is needed to facilitate well-founded guidelines.

  7. Man-boy lovers: assessment, counseling, and psychotherapy. (United States)

    van Naerssen, A


    Clinical experiences with 36 males, between the ages of 21 and 60 are described. All of them felt an enduring sexual attraction for boys. Sixteen males were treated for sexual identity conflicts. For eight of them this ended in a positive self-labeling as pedophile, the others had severe problems with accepting sexuality as positive and lustful. Twenty males were treated for identity management problems and counseled how to handle their relationships with boys. Several modalities of interpersonal interaction in man-boy relationships are proposed and the ways conflicts can arise within these frames of reference are explored in counseling and psychotherapy.

  8. 阿德勒心理治疗方法与当代心理治疗整合精神的契合%Adler Psychological Therapy's Link with the Spirit of Contemporary Psychotherapy Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    励骅; 郭本禹


    It is true that no single method of treatment from any schools can satisfy the needs of all ehents and apply to all psychological problems and situations. The rise of the integrative movement, to some extent, broke the individualistic manacles of the fractions, elimi- nated the discrimination among different schools, promoted their communications and dialogues. The study of Adler~ psychotherapy can help us discover those important contributions overlooked in the past that there has been a close relationship between Adler~ psychother- apy and contemporary practice. Adlerb psychotherapy, cognitive therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy share a great deal of common ground, such as attention to the conceptual framework of the client, with the present - -oriented method. All Adler~ psychotherapy and cognitive therapy lay great emphasis on it. It is important to understand the patients within their own conceptual framework. The view of Adler is that expectations and aspirations of future as a current center to a large extent determine the way people recall the past and act in the present. Cognitive therapy also concerns the feelings of the client. Adlerb psychotherapy, constructivist psychotherapy and social constructivist psychotherapy all have achieved apparent resonance in such aspects as view of reality, principles of treatment, and social cultural origin of psychological development. The Adlerian and the constructivist theories agree that human perception renders external reality or truth subjective and only approximately knowable. The Adler theory and constructivist theory assert that humans are to con- struct their own personality and subsequently the creative motivation for themselves and others and the perception and interpretation of the world. Adler and constructivism emphasize that it is important that a person, as an active and motivated agent, creatively and rou- tinely participates in the construction of her own psychological world. In addition, Adler is

  9. Transfer of manualized Short Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (STPP for social phobia into clinical practice: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leweke Frank


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychodynamic psychotherapy is frequently applied in the treatment of social phobia. Nevertheless, there has been a lack of studies on the transfer of manualized treatments to routine psychodynamic practice. Our study is the first one to examine the effects of additional training in a manualized Short Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (STPP procedure on outcome in routine psychotherapy for social phobia. This study is an extension to a large multi-site RCT (N = 512 comparing the efficacy of STPP to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT of Social Phobia. Methods/Design The manualized treatment is designed for a time limited approach with 25 individual sessions of STPP over 6 months. Private practitioners will be randomized to training in manualized STPP vs. treatment as usual without a specific training (control condition. We plan to enrol a total of 105 patients (84 completers. Assessments will be conducted before treatment starts, after 8 and 15 weeks, after 25 treatment sessions, at the end of treatment, 6 months and 12 months after termination of treatment. The primary outcome measure is the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Remission from social phobia is defined scoring with 30 or less points on this scale. Discussion We will investigate how the treatment can be transferred from a controlled trial into the less structured setting of routine clinical care. This question represents Phase IV of psychotherapy research. It combines the benefits of randomized controlled and naturalistic research. The study is genuinely designed to promote faster and more widespread dissemination of effective interventions. It will answer the questions whether manualized STPP can be implemented into routine outpatient care, whether the new methods improve treatment courses and outcomes and whether treatment effects reached in routine psychotherapeutic treatments are comparable to those of the controlled, strictly manualized treatment of the main study

  10. Prescribing Clinicians’ Perspectives on Evidence-Based Psychotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin R. Barnett


    Full Text Available Evidence-based psychotherapies (EBP for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder are not utilized to their full extent within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA. VA provides care to many persons with PTSD and has been in the forefront of clinical practice guidelines and EBP training and dissemination. Yet VA continues to find EBP implementation difficult. Veterans with PTSD often initially present to prescribing clinicians, who then help make care decisions. It is therefore critical that these clinicians correctly screen and triage appropriate mental health care. The purpose of this study was to assess VA prescribing clinicians’ knowledge, perceptions, and referral behaviors related to EBPs for PTSD and to identify facilitators and barriers to implementing EBPs within VA. We conducted qualitative interviews with 26 VA prescribing clinicians. Limited access to EBPs was the most commonly noted barrier. The clinicians we interviewed also held specific beliefs and behaviors that may delay or deter EBPs. Strategies to improve utilization also emerged. Findings suggest the need for increased access to EBPs, training to optimize the role of prescribing clinicians in helping Veterans with PTSD make appropriate care decisions, and specific organizational changes to facilitate access and effective referral systems for EBPs.

  11. Novel activity-dependent approaches to therapeutic hypnosis and psychotherapy: the general waking trance. (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Erickson-Klein, Roxanna; Rossi, Kathryn


    This paper presents a highly edited version of a videotape made in 1980 by Marion Moore, M.D., showing Milton H. Erickson and Moore demonstrating novel, activity-dependent approaches to hand-levitation and therapeutic hypnosis on their subject, Ernest Rossi. Erickson's naturalistic and utilization approach is described in his very direct and surprising induction in a trance challenged patient. These novel, and surprising inductions are examples of how Erickson was prescient in developing activity-dependent approaches to therapeutic hypnosis and psychotherapy several generations before modern neuroscience documented the activity-dependent molecular-genomic mechanisms of memory, learning, and behavior change. Erickson describes a case where he utilized what he called, "The General Waking Trance" when he "dared" not use an obvious hypnotic induction. It is proposed that the states of intense mental absorption and response attentiveness that are facilitated by the general waking trance are functionally related to the three conditions neuroscientists have identified as novelty, enrichment, and exercise (both mental and physical), which can turn on activity-dependent gene expression and activity-dependent brain plasticity, that are the molecular-genomic and neural basis ofmemory, learning, consciousness, and behavior change. We recommend that the next step in investigating the efficacy of therapeutic hypnosis will be in partnering with neuroscientists to explore the possibilities and limitations of utilizing the activity-dependent approaches to hypnotic induction and the general waking trance in facilitating activity-dependent gene expression and brain plasticity.

  12. An expressive virtual audience with flexible behavioral styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, N.; Brinkman, W.P.; Riemsdijk, M.B. van; Neerincx, M.A.


    Currently, expressive virtual humans are used in psychological research, training, and psychotherapy. However, the behavior of these virtual humans is usually scripted and therefore cannot be modified freely at runtime. To address this, we created a virtual audience with parameterized behavioral sty

  13. Psychiatric evaluation and psychotherapy in the patient's second language. (United States)

    Oquendo, M A


    Use of a patient's second language in psychiatric evaluation and treatment has a variety of effects. Patients frequently undergo psychiatric evaluation in their second language, yet competence in a second language varies depending on the phase of illness. Evaluation of bilingual patients should ideally be done in both their languages, preferably by a bilingual clinician or by a monolingual clinician with the help of an interpreter trained in mental health issues. Cultural nuances may be encoded in language in ways that are not readily conveyed in translation, even when the patient uses equivalent words in the second language. The monolingual clinician may clarify these nuances through consultation with a clinician who shares the patient's first language and culture or with an interpreter. In psychotherapy, patients may use a second language as a form of resistance, to avoid intense affect. Therapists may use language switching to overcome this resistance and to decrease emotional intensity, if necessary. Psychotherapy can also be affected by the attitudes toward speaking that are part of the patient's culture. Discussions with bilingual and bicultural consultants can elucidate these effects for the therapist who is unfamiliar with the patient's culture.

  14. Psychotherapy for depression among patients with advanced cancer. (United States)

    Akechi, Tatsuo


    Cancer causes profound suffering for patients, and previous reports have demonstrated that psychological distress, particularly depression, is frequently observed in advanced and/or terminally ill cancer patients. Such depression can lead to serious and far-reaching negative consequences in patients with advanced cancer: reducing their quality of life and causing severe suffering, a desire for early death, and suicide, as well as psychological distress in family members. For the management of their distress, cancer patients are more likely to prefer psychotherapeutic interventions to pharmacotherapy, and psychotherapy is known to be effective for the management of depression among advanced cancer patients. Hence, psychotherapy is an important treatment strategy for alleviating their depression. Furthermore, patients with advanced and/or terminal cancer suffer from various physical symptoms and are forced to face a continuous decline in physical function. In addition, psychological defense mechanisms such as denial are frequently observed in these patients. Hence, an individually tailored and careful psychotherapeutic approach should be followed, which considers the specific nature of the advanced and/or terminal cancer. This review focuses on psychological interventions that can be utilized in the clinical oncology practice to ameliorate depression among advanced and/or terminally ill cancer patients, rather than focusing on the level of evidence for each intervention. In addition, the current review introduces some novel therapeutic strategies that have not yet been proved to be effective but show promise for future studies.

  15. Attachment-Focused Psychotherapy and the Wounded Self. (United States)

    Spiegel, Eric B


    The concept of the "wounded self" (Wolfe, 2005) offers an integrative theoretical framework for self-wounds and their developmental origins. Alladin (2013, 2014, 2016) integrated hypnotherapy into this model to comprehensively address the unconscious protective mechanisms and maladaptive conscious cognitive strategies of the wounded self. The purpose of this article is to propose how an attachment-focused psychotherapy could be utilized in working with the wounded self. With its emphasis on developmental maturation through the frame of the attachment relationship, attachment theory is well-positioned to offer conceptual and treatment insights in treating the wounded self. E. B. Spiegel's (2016) attunement, representation, and mentalization approach to attachment-focused psychotherapy described how hypnosis can be utilized across attachment processes of attunement, representation, and mentalization toward structural maturation and developmental repair of patients with histories of complex relational trauma. In this article, the attunement, representation, and mentalization attachment approach and associated interventions are further explicated in the treatment of self-wounds in the borderline and narcissistic spectrums of personality organization. These principles of conceptualization and treatment interventions are then applied in a case example.

  16. Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients attending Psychotherapy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zena Al-Sharbati


    Full Text Available Objectives: There is significant evidence that psychotherapy is a pivotal treatment for persons diagnosed with Axis I clinical psychiatric conditions; however, a psychotherapy service has only recently been established in the Omani health care system. This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of attendees at a psychotherapy clinic at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: An analysis was carried out of 133 new referrals to the Psychotherapy Service at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital. Results: The majority of referrals were females (59%, aged 18–34 years, employed (38%, had ≤12 years of formal education (51%, and were single (54%. A total of 43% were treated for anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder, while 22% were treated for depression. A total of 65% were prescribed psychotropic medications. The utilisation of the Psychotherapy Service and its user characteristics are discussed within the context of a culturally diverse Omani community which has unique personal belief systems such as in supernatural powers (Jinn, contemptuous envy (Hassad, evil eye (Ain and sorcery (Sihr which are often used to explain the aetiology of mental illness and influence personal decisions on utilising medical and psychological treatments. Conclusion: Despite the low number of referrals to the Psychotherapy Service, there is reason to believe that psychotherapy would be an essential tool to come to grips with the increasing number of mental disorders in Oman.

  17. Do Patients Look Up Their Therapists Online? An Exploratory Study Among Patients in Psychotherapy (United States)

    Sawyer, Adam


    Background The use of the Internet as a source of health information is growing among people who experience mental health difficulties. The increase in Internet use has led to questions about online information-seeking behaviors, for example, how psychotherapists and patients use the Internet to ascertain information about each other. The notion of psychotherapists seeking information about their patients online (patient-targeted googling, PTG) has been identified and explored. However, the idea of patients searching for information online about their psychotherapists (therapist-targeted googling, TTG) and the associated motives and effects on the therapeutic relationship remain unclear. Objective This study investigated former and current German-speaking psychotherapy patients’ behavior and attitudes relating to TTG. In addition, patients’ methods of information gathering, motives, and success in searching for information were examined. Furthermore, patients’ experiences and perceptions of PTG were explored. Methods Overall, 238 former and current psychotherapy patients responded to a new questionnaire specifically designed to assess the frequency, motives, use, and outcomes of TTG as well as experiences and perceptions of PTG. The study sample was a nonrepresentative convenience sample recruited online via several German-speaking therapy platforms and self-help forums. Results Of the 238 former and current patients who responded, 106 (44.5%) had obtained information about their therapists; most of them (n=85, 80.2%) had used the Internet for this. Besides curiosity, motives behind information searches included the desire to get to know the therapist better by attempting to search for both professional and private information. TTG appeared to be associated with phases of therapy in which patients felt that progress was not being made. Patients being treated for personality disorders appear to engage more frequently in TTG (rphi = 0.21; P=.004). In general

  18. A Video-conferencing Peer Consultation Group for Psychotherapy by Early-Career Psychiatrists. (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A


    To enhance the further development of psychodynamic psychotherapy skills in early-career psychiatrists (ECPs), the author describes a project being initiated by the American College of Psychoanalysts. The format will be biweekly peer consultation groups in which an experienced psychoanalyst will participate. The focus will be on actual case experiences of the ECPs, drawn from their work with any patient with whom psychotherapy skills are being used. To make the opportunity available to ECPs who do not live where they have access to advanced psychotherapy courses or consultation, the "virtual grand rounds" will be conducted by video-conferencing.

  19. The use of Buddhist mindfulness meditation in psychotherapy: a case report from Sri Lanka. (United States)

    de Zoysa, Piyanjali


    Buddhist practices have been increasingly influencing psychotherapy. For over 20 centuries, Buddhism has been the religion of a majority of Sri Lankans. However, there is little documentation of the use of Buddhist practices in psychotherapy in Sri Lanka. This paper presents a case study in which Theravadan Buddhist mindfulness meditation and cognitive therapy practices were used in the treatment of a client with depressive disorder. The paper also summarizes the influence of Buddhist concepts and mindfulness meditation on psychotherapy and illustrate how Buddhist doctrine and practices can be considered a psychotherapeutic method.

  20. Attachment Theory and Psychotherapy Research - Editor's Introduction to a Special Section. (United States)

    Strauss, B M


    This article introduces the special section dealing with research on attachment and psychotherapy. Although John Bowlby conceptualized his theory as a tool for clinicians to acquire a better understanding of the development of psychopathology and emotional distress, it took a long time until clinical researchers started to make use of Bowlby's theory. During the last decade, a large number of studies have been published showing that attachment theory could be very useful within different fields of psychotherapy research, such as differentiating psychopathology, therapist characteristics, and aspects of the therapeutic alliance. These fields are briefly stressed and related to the articles in the special section emphasizing some future directions of attachment response within psychotherapy.

  1. A Review of Schema Psychotherapy%图式心理疗法述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Schema Therapy is also properly called Schema- Focused Cognitive Therapy. Schema therapy integrates elements of cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, object relations, and gestalt therapy into one unified, systematic ,innovative approach of psychotherapy. Schema Therapy consists of two main stages. First is the assessment phase, in which schemas are identified during the initial sessions. Next is the behavioral change stage ,during which the client is actively involved in replacing negative, habitual thoughts and behaviors with new, healthy cognitive and behavioral options. Schema Therapy combines help people with long- term mental health problems including personality disorders and chronic depression.%图式疗法也称图式聚焦疗法,是在整合了认知疗法、行为疗法、客体关系、格式塔理论的有利元素基础上,而形成的一个统一性、系统性、创新性的心理疗法.图式疗法包括两个主要的阶段,一是评定阶段,这一阶段主要用来识别、评定来访者的图式;二是改变阶段,在这一阶段来访者由消极、适应不良的思维和行为习惯转变为积极、健康的认知和行动.图式疗法对治疗人格障碍、慢性抑郁症等长期的心理问题有很好的效果.

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Nature and Relation to Non-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. (United States)

    Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; Keefe, John R; DeRubeis, Robert J


    Since the introduction of Beck's cognitive theory of emotional disorders, and their treatment with psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral approaches have become the most extensively researched psychological treatment for a wide variety of disorders. Despite this, the relative contribution of cognitive to behavioral approaches to treatment are poorly understood and the mechanistic role of cognitive change in therapy is widely debated. We critically review this literature, focusing on the mechanistic role of cognitive change across cognitive and behavioral therapies for depressive and anxiety disorders.

  3. 支持性心理疗法在老年抑郁症患者中的应用效果%The Effect of Supportive Psychotherapy in Elderly Patients With Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨对老年抑郁症患者实施支持性心理疗法的临床效果。方法随机选取本院2013年7月~2015年2月期间收治的老年抑郁症患者64例,对患者在常规抗抑郁药物治疗的基础上行支持性心理疗法,对患者治疗前后其汉密度焦虑量表(HAMA)、汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评分的变化情况进行观察记录。结果患者经过治疗后,其抑郁、焦虑情绪均下降,差异具有显著性(P<0.05)。结论对老年抑郁症患者实施支持性心理治疗,能够有效改善患者的抑郁、焦虑情绪,有利于促进其生活质量的改善。%Objective To investigate elderly patients with depression implementation of clinical effect supportive psychotherapy.Methods From July 2013 to February 2015 Elderly patients with depression treated in during the 64 cases, patients in the conventional antidepressant therapy based on the uplink supportive psychotherapy for patients before and after treatment of their Chinese density Anxiety table (HAMA), Hamilton depression Scale (HAMD) score changes were observed and recorded.Results The patients after treatment, the depression and anxiety were significantly lower, the difference was significant (P<0.05).ConclusionElderly patients with depression implement supportive psychotherapy can effectively improve the patient's depression, anxiety, and promoting the improvement of their quality of life.

  4. Coming out of the sex therapy closet: using experiential psychotherapy with sexual problems and concerns. (United States)

    Kleinplatz, Peggy J


    Mahrer's Experiential Psychotherapy provides a valuable alternative to conventional sex therapy with individuals and couples. Experiential Psychotherapy uses the sexual complaint as it would any situation or scene described at the outset of therapy, as an entry point to the client's deeper experiencing. Several of the advantages of the methods employed are listed. Specifically, the ways in which Experiential Psychotherapy is ideally suited to dealing with forbidden, haunting, and disturbing sexual feelings, fantasies, and urges are highlighted. Clinical illustrations are presented of experiential dream work with a sexual assault survivor and of a couple referred for treatment of his erectile dysfunction and her low sexual desire. Experiential Psychotherapy effects profound changes in the person(s), connections within and with others, and in bodily phenomena. These outcomes, including freer choices, heightened pleasure and embodiment, extend beyond the predominant treatment paradigm's amelioration of sexual symptoms and disorder.

  5. Practical Implications of Metacognitively Oriented Psychotherapy in Psychosis : Findings From a Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Steven; van Donkersgoed, Rozanne J. M.; Aleman, Andre; van der Gaag, Mark; Wunderink, Lex; Arends, Johan; Lysaker, Paul H.; Pijnenborg, Marieke


    In preparation for a multicenter randomized controlled trial, a pilot study was conducted investigating the feasibility and acceptance of a shortened version (12 vs. 40 sessions) of an individual metacognitive psychotherapy (Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy [MERIT]). Twelve participants

  6. Therapeutic hypnosis, psychotherapy, and the digital humanities: the narratives and culturomics of hypnosis, 1800-2008. (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Mortimer, Jane; Rossi, Kathryn


    Culturomics is a new scientific discipline of the digital humanities-the use of computer algorithms to search for meaning in large databases of text and media. This new digital discipline is used to explore 200 years of the history of hypnosis and psychotherapy in over five million digitized books from more than 40 university libraries around the world. It graphically compares the frequencies of English words about hypnosis, hypnotherapy, psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and their founders from 1800 to 2008. This new perspective explore issues such as: Who were the major innovators in the history of therapeutic hypnosis, psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy? How well does this new digital approach to the humanities correspond to traditional histories of hypnosis and psychotherapy?

  7. Eysenck, Strupp, and 50 years of psychotherapy research: a personal perspective. (United States)

    Barlow, David H; Boswell, James F; Thompson-Hollands, Johanna


    In this article, we review the status of psychotherapy research at the time of the founding of the journal Psychotherapy, and trace its history over the past 50 years, spanning the career of the first author. We trace this history in the context of the development of treatments for panic disorder and agoraphobia emanating from our research program. In so doing, we discuss the early visions of Strupp and Eysenck and the realization of many of their own goals for psychotherapy research. We conclude with a view toward the future based on cumulative knowledge of psychotherapy and psychopathology and, in the context of that knowledge, the type of ideal research programs that will be required.

  8. Acceptability of psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and self-directed therapies in Australians living with chronic hepatitis C. (United States)

    Stewart, Benjamin J R; Turnbull, Deborah; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina A; Harley, Hugh A J; Andrews, Jane M


    Despite the prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in chronic hepatitis C (CHC), treatment is under-researched. Patient preferences are likely to affect treatment uptake, adherence, and success. Thus, the acceptability of psychological supports was explored. A postal survey of Australian CHC outpatients of the Royal Adelaide Hospital and online survey of Australians living with CHC was conducted, assessing demographic and disease-related variables, psychosocial characteristics, past experience with psychological support, and psychological support acceptability. The final sample of 156 patients (58 % male) had significantly worse depression, anxiety, stress, and social support than norms. The most acceptable support type was individual psychotherapy (83 %), followed by bibliotherapy (61 %), pharmacotherapy (56 %), online therapy (45 %), and group psychotherapy (37 %). The most prominent predictor of support acceptability was satisfaction with past use. While individual psychotherapy acceptability was encouragingly high, potentially less costly modalities including group psychotherapy or online therapy may be hampered by low acceptability, the reasons for which need to be further explored.

  9. Examining the therapeutic relationship and confronting resistances in psychodynamic psychotherapy: a certified public accountant case. (United States)

    Manetta, Christopher T; Gentile, Julie P; Gillig, Paulette Marie


    Psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective for a variety of mental health symptoms. This form of psychotherapy uses patient self reflection and self examination, as well as the therapeutic relationship between the patient and psychiatrist, to explore maladaptive coping strategies and relationship patterns of the patient. A thorough understanding of resistance and the core conflictual relationship theme afford the psychiatrist the ability to facilitate this work. In this article, the composite case illustrates some of the psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques that can be employed in a psychotherapy case. In this example, the case is about a certified public accountant that came to treatment because of an acute stressor that put her career goals at risk. An acute episode or event can bring to light chronic and ongoing symptoms, which have had a remitting and relapsing course, and leave the patient unable to compensate on his or her own.

  10. Effectiveness of intensive group psychotherapy in treatment of neurotic and personality disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Mielimąka


    Intensive, short-term group psychotherapy with elements of individual therapy is an effective treatment for neurotic disorders. The majority of treated persons obtains a significant symptomatic improvement and a reduction in the severity of neurotic personality traits.

  11. Communication patterns in a psychotherapy following traumatic brain injury: A quantitative case study based on symbolic dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilpin Adele MK


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of psychotherapy in the treatment of traumatic brain injury is receiving increased attention. The evaluation of psychotherapy with these patients has been conducted largely in the absence of quantitative data concerning the therapy itself. Quantitative methods for characterizing the sequence-sensitive structure of patient-therapist communication are now being developed with the objective of improving the effectiveness of psychotherapy following traumatic brain injury. Methods The content of three therapy session transcripts (sessions were separated by four months obtained from a patient with a history of several motor vehicle accidents who was receiving dialectical behavior therapy was scored and analyzed using methods derived from the mathematical theory of symbolic dynamics. Results The analysis of symbol frequencies was largely uninformative. When repeated triples were examined a marked pattern of change in content was observed over the three sessions. The context free grammar complexity and the Lempel-Ziv complexity were calculated for each therapy session. For both measures, the rate of complexity generation, expressed as bits per minute, increased longitudinally during the course of therapy. The between-session increases in complexity generation rates are consistent with calculations of mutual information. Taken together these results indicate that there was a quantifiable increase in the variability of patient-therapist verbal behavior during the course of therapy. Comparison of complexity values against values obtained from equiprobable random surrogates established the presence of a nonrandom structure in patient-therapist dialog (P = .002. Conclusions While recognizing that only limited conclusions can be based on a case history, it can be noted that these quantitative observations are consistent with qualitative clinical observations of increases in the flexibility of discourse during therapy. These

  12. The spirit of Jungian group psychotherapy: from taboo to totem. (United States)

    Ettin, M F


    Practitioners of analytical psychology were late in coming to the practice of group psychotherapy because Carl Jung effectively forbade the treatment of individuals in stranger groups. This article explores Jung's objections to group therapy and, by way of a conceptual review of the literature, expands on the practice that grew up proximate to his death. It is argued that Jungian theory is especially conducive to collective treatment because it is concerned with the relationship between oppositions (whether in persons or between people) and uses synthetic and symbolic processes to bring about an integration of the one with the many. For Jungians who espouse a theory of symbolic transformation, archetype, and myth, the group is embodied in individuals and can be accessed by working with individuals in groups.

  13. The role of edge-sensing in experiential psychotherapy. (United States)

    Glanzer, David; Early, Annmarie


    In experiential psychotherapy three modes of experiencing are managed in parallel--experiencing in the domain of explicit knowing, experiencing in implicit knowing, and experiencing in the zone of emergent formation where the other two meet. Gendlin (1996) argued that therapy is a "process that centrally involves experience before it becomes one of a set of defined 'packages' and again afterword when it dips back into the prepackaged zone at the edge of experiencing" (p. 4). In Gendlin's terms, the "edge" is where the prepackaged and packaged zones meet. Encounter at the edge, what we call edge sensing, is dwelling in the meeting point between what is known explicitly and what is known in an implicit bodied way. This encounter extends to dyadic encounter at the interpersonal edge in the therapeutic relationship. Edge sensing is an intrasubjective and intersubjective process crucial for the moving forward process of change.

  14. Theoretical Basis of the Psychoanalytic Approach to Psychotherapy of Autism

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    Aldo Spelic


    Full Text Available In the modern scientific and professional environment psychoanalytic psychotherapy is placed in the background regarding its possibilities in the treatment of autism. This position, expressed by the question of possibilities of its use in the therapy of autism, is identified by the author as a result of the existing dichotomy (‘splitting’ in ‘organic’ and ‘psychic’ concepts of its etiology. To overcome the above constraint the author, on the base of his twenty years of psychotherapeutic experiences with eight autistic children, suggests the possibility of developing such concept of autistic psychogenesis and based on it a therapeutic approach. In support of his therapeutic observations, in this article were used contributions of contemporary researches by intersubjectivists, whose results speak in favour of the thesis.

  15. [Are there specific factors in the psychotherapy of anorexia nervosa?]. (United States)

    Zipfel, Stephan; Resmark, Gaby


    The present literature review examines the question of how general and specific factors can be differentiated in the psychotherapy of anorexia nervosa. Over the past 10 years different research trends have appeared. On the one hand subclassifications of new therapy approaches from several schools of therapy have been propagated (e.g. CBT-E, FPT), on the other hand generic treatment manuals have been published that are rather adapted to patients needs (e.g. SSCM, TTM). On a third way, currently therapy manuals for special subgroups have been developed, e.g. for chronic patients with anorexia nervosa or family-based manuals for adolescents. A completely different direction follows those approaches that are based on neuropsychological models and deficits in anorexia nervosa. Overall, the results of current studies have been promising, however, there has not been a winner yet, the race is still open!

  16. Culture analysis and metaphor psychotherapy with Arab-Muslim clients. (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan


    Attempting to reveal unconscious content and promoting self-actualization may be counterproductive for clients who come from collectivistic cultures. Such treatment goals may expose clients to harsh confrontations with the family. Clients with dependency traits, low ego-strength, and strict families may be helped through metaphor psychotherapy or culture analysis. Metaphor therapy makes it possible to deal symbolically and indirectly with unconscious content; culture analysis can pave the way to reveal unconscious needs and enable clients to establish a new order within their belief systems and within their families. The present article describes these two therapy methods and illustrates their clinical use with an Arab-Muslim suffering from depression. Through such therapy anchored in his own culture and religion, the client altered his beliefs, became satisfied with himself, and found successful ways to adapt to his family.

  17. Towards a feminist empowerment model of forgiveness psychotherapy. (United States)

    McKay, Kevin M; Hill, Melanie S; Freedman, Suzanne R; Enright, Robert D


    In recent years Enright and Fitzgibbon's (2000) process model of forgiveness therapy has received substantial theoretical and empirical attention. However, both the process model of forgiveness therapy and the social-cognitive developmental model on which it is based have received criticism from feminist theorists. The current paper considers feminist criticisms of forgiveness therapy and uses a feminist lens to identify potential areas for growth. Specifically, Worell and Remer's (2003) model of synthesizing feminist ideals into existing theory was consulted, areas of bias within the forgiveness model of psychotherapy were identified, and strategies for restructuring areas of potential bias were introduced. Further, the authors consider unique aspects of forgiveness therapy that can potentially strengthen existing models of feminist therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Embracing Life with AIDS: Psychotherapy through Guided Imagery and Music

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    Kenneth E. Bruscia


    Full Text Available This case describes individual psychotherapy with Matt, a 26-year old man recently infected with the AIDS virus.  In the eleven sessions, Guided Imagery and Music (GIM was used as the main technique within a psychodynamic orientation.  Through an intense process of imagery transformation, Matt gained insight into how traumatic events from his past prevented him from coping with the emotional challenges of living with AIDS.  Ultimately, this led him to confront one of the most important questions of his life:  Shall I live dead, or shall I die living?

  19. The ethical practice of psychotherapy: easily within our reach. (United States)

    Barnett, Jeffrey E


    Psychotherapists confront a myriad of ethical dilemmas as they endeavor to provide effective services. This issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session on Ethics in Psychotherapy provides psychotherapists with thoughtful reviews, case examples, and practical guidance in the major areas of ethics. Following this brief introduction, the subsequent seven articles cover Informed consent; confidentiality, privilege, and their limits; treatment of minors and their families; business matters of practice (e.g., money, fees, bartering, advertising); clinical competence and scope of practice; boundaries and nonsexual multiple relationships; and termination and abandonment. This issue is designed to promote ethical practice, to provide guidance on common ethical dilemmas, and to prevent ethical challenges before they occur.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article is an answer to the growing interest arisen byAnalytic Psychology, a school of thought that compilesthe work of the Swiss doctor Carl G. Jung (1875-1961. There exists a wide lack of information in our society onthe contents of this school and thus this article seeks to offer wide review of its foundations. Given the fact thatthe aforementioned lack of knowledge is even greater in relation to its contributions to clinical work this paperpresents the main contributions made by this approach to psychotherapy. Finally, a mention is made of thedevelopments, revisions and postjunguian schools that have evolved from the original ideas of Jung to our days, aswell as interesting encounter points with other psychoanalitical approaches.

  1. Moral Dilemmas and Existential Issues Encountered Both in Psychotherapy and Philosophical Counseling Practices

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    Beatrice A. Popescu


    Full Text Available This paper stems from clinical observations and empirical data collected in the therapy room over six years. It investigates the relationship between psychotherapy and philosophical counseling, proposing an integrative model of counseling. During cognitive behavior therapy sessions with clients who turn to therapy in order to solve their clinical issues, the author noticed that behind most of the invalidating symptoms classified by the DSM-5 as depression, anxiety, hypochondriac and phobic complaints, usually lies a lack of existential meaning or existential scope and clients are also tormented by moral dilemmas. Following the anamnestic interview and the psychological evaluation, rarely the depression or anxiety diagnosed on Axis I is purely just a sum of invalidating symptoms, which may disappear if treated symptomatically. When applying the Sentence Completion Test, an 80 items test of psychodynamic origin and high-face validity, most of the clients report an entire plethora of conscious or unconscious motivations, distorted cognitions or irrational thinking but also grave existential themes such as scope or meaning of life, professional identity, fear of death, solitude and loneliness, freedom of choice and liberty. Same issues are approached in the philosophical counseling practice, but no systematic research has been done yet in the field. Future research and investigation is needed in order to assess the importance of moral dilemmas and existential issues in both practices.

  2. Combined treatment of borderline personality disorder with interpersonal psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy: predictors of response. (United States)

    Bellino, Silvio; Bozzatello, Paola; Bogetto, Filippo


    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by affective instability, impulsive behaviors, and disturbed interpersonal relationships. A previous study of our group found that combined therapy with interpersonal psychotherapy adapted to BPD (IPT-BPD) and fluoxetine was superior to single pharmacotherapy in BPD patients. The aim of the present study was to examine what clinical factors predicted response to combined therapy in patients evaluated in the previous efficacy study. The subgroup of 27 patients allocated to combined therapy was analyzed. Patients were treated for 32 weeks with fluoxetine 20-40 mg/day plus IPT-BPD. Patients were assessed at baseline and week 32 with an interview for demographic and clinical variables, CGI-S, HDRS, HARS, SOFAS, BPDSI, and SAT-P. Statistical analysis was performed with multiple regression. The difference of CGI-S score between baseline and week 32 (∆CGI-S) was the dependent variable. Factors significantly and independently related to ∆CGI-S were the BPDSI total score and the items abandonment, affective instability, and identity. Patients with more severe BPD psychopathology and with a higher degree of core symptoms such as fear of abandonment, affective instability, and identity disturbance have a better chance to improve with combined therapy with fluoxetine and IPT-BPD.

  3. Moral Dilemmas and Existential Issues Encountered Both in Psychotherapy and Philosophical Counseling Practices. (United States)

    Popescu, Beatrice A


    This paper stems from clinical observations and empirical data collected in the therapy room over six years. It investigates the relationship between psychotherapy and philosophical counseling, proposing an integrative model of counseling. During cognitive behavior therapy sessions with clients who turn to therapy in order to solve their clinical issues, the author noticed that behind most of the invalidating symptoms classified by the DSM-5 as depression, anxiety, hypochondriac and phobic complaints, usually lies a lack of existential meaning or existential scope and clients are also tormented by moral dilemmas. Following the anamnestic interview and the psychological evaluation, rarely the depression or anxiety diagnosed on Axis I is purely just a sum of invalidating symptoms, which may disappear if treated symptomatically. When applying the Sentence Completion Test, an 80 items test of psychodynamic origin and high-face validity, most of the clients report an entire plethora of conscious or unconscious motivations, distorted cognitions or irrational thinking but also grave existential themes such as scope or meaning of life, professional identity, fear of death, solitude and loneliness, freedom of choice and liberty. Same issues are approached in the philosophical counseling practice, but no systematic research has been done yet in the field. Future research and investigation is needed in order to assess the importance of moral dilemmas and existential issues in both practices.

  4. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for major depression following perinatal loss: a pilot randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer E; Price, Ann Back; Kao, Jennifer Chienwen; Fernandes, Karen; Stout, Robert; Gobin, Robyn L; Zlotnick, Caron


    This randomized controlled pilot trial examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of an adapted interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for major depressive disorder (MDD) following perinatal loss (miscarriage, stillbirth, or early neonatal death). Fifty women who experienced a perinatal loss within the past 18 months, whose current depressive episode onset occurred during or after the loss, were randomized to the group IPT adapted for perinatal loss (the Group IPT for Major Depression Following Perinatal Loss manual developed for this study is available at no cost by contacting either of the first two authors) or to the group Coping with Depression (CWD), a cognitive behavioral treatment which did not focus on perinatal loss nor social support. Assessments occurred at baseline, treatment weeks 4 and 8, post-treatment, and 3 and 6 months after the end of treatment. IPT was feasible and acceptable in this population. Although some participants were initially hesitant to discuss their losses in a group (as occurred in IPT but not CWD), end of treatment satisfaction scores were significantly (p = 0.001) higher in IPT than in CWD. Confidence intervals around between-groups effect sizes favored IPT for reductions in depressive symptoms during treatment as well as for improvement in mode-specific targets (social support, grief symptoms) and recovery from a post-traumatic stress disorder over follow-up. This group IPT treatment adapted for MDD after perinatal loss is feasible, acceptable, and possibly efficacious.

  5. Augmentation of Psychotherapy through Alternative Preconscious Priming: A Case Series Exploring Effects on Residual Symptoms (United States)

    Zidani, Melha; Audet, Jean-Sébastien; Borgeat, François; Aardema, Frederick; O’Connor, Kieron Philip; Khazaal, Yasser


    The current paper describes a case series using a new strategy for facilitating change based on Augmentation of Psychotherapy through Alternative Preconscious Priming (APAP) (1) in the treatment of eight treatment-resistant patients suffering from social phobia or generalized anxiety disorder. The patients had previously only shown a partial response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) despite good treatment adherence. The patients completed APAP using a computerized program, which consisted of three steps during which alternative, more functional thoughts and beliefs relevant to the idiosyncratic difficulties experienced by the patients were formulated. Subsequently, these formulations were recorded and mixed with masking relaxing music, which the patient listened to in a passive state twice daily for 20 min for a period of 8 weeks. This case series aimed to assess the effect and acceptability of APAP using quantitative and qualitative measures administered before, after, and 16 weeks’ posttreatment. Results showed a reduction in dysfunctional idiosyncratic thoughts reported by most patients, as well as mild improvements in anxiety and important improvements in quality of life. APAP could be a valuable addition to CBT by facilitating or enhancing cognitive and symptom change. Further studies are needed to confirm these promising results. PMID:28197107

  6. A comparison between psychotherapy and social pedagogy from the perspective of (achieved) changes



    The thesis is theoretical. The main purpuse of this thesis is a comparison of percieved changes that are conected to psychotherapy and social pedagogy. The concept of change is the main concept in the helping professions. There are many studies that confirm psychoterapy to be effective and efficient. Social pedagogy also focus some attention to effect and measuring of effect. In diploma thesis achived or percieved changes are compared. A comparison between psychotherapy and social pedagogy h...

  7. Supervisees' and supervisors' experiences of group climate in group supervision in psychotherapy. Effects of admission procedure


    Sundin, EC; Ogren, M


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different admission procedures (high school grades/scholastic aptitude test (SAT) versus high school grades/SAT + interview) to a program in professional psychology on students' and supervisors' experiences of the group climate in psychotherapy supervision groups during an eighteen-month clinical practicum. A self-rating scale constructed to measure experiences of group climate in group supervision in psychotherapy was used. The res...

  8. Group psychotherapies for depression in persons with HIV: A systematic review


    Honagodu, Abhijit Ramanna; Krishna, Murali; Sundarachar, Rajesh; Lepping, Peter


    Studies investigating effectiveness of group psychotherapy intervention in depression in persons with HIV have showed varying results with differing effect sizes. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of group psychotherapy in depression in persons with HIV has been conducted to present the best available evidence in relation to its effect on depressive symptomatology. Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials. Selected studies were quality asse...

  9. Introduction to the special section "Big'er' Data": Scaling up psychotherapy research in counseling psychology. (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Imel, Zac E


    This article introduces the special section on utilizing large data sets to explore psychotherapy processes and outcomes. The increased use of technology has provided new opportunities for psychotherapy researchers. In particular, there is a rise in large databases of tens of thousands clients. Additionally, there are new ways to pool valuable resources for meta-analytic processes. At the same time, these tools also come with limitations. These issues are introduced as well as brief overview of the articles.

  10. Tales from the edge : sufferers’ perspectives of the role of psychotherapy in recovery from anorexia nervosa



    As a psychotherapist working in the field of eating disorders, I have a long-standing interest in accessing the subjective expertise of a wider group of sufferers, including what it is like and what it means to suffer from anorexia, the factors that help to support recovery and the role psychotherapy plays in contributing towards the recovery process. This study provides a timely addition to the literature on the nature and role of psychotherapy as a treatment for anorexia. Stu...

  11. [Psychotherapy impact on effectiveness of in-hospital physical rehabilitation in patients with acute coronary syndrome]. (United States)

    Sumin, A N; Khaĭredinova, O P; Sumina, L Iu; Variushkina, E V; Doronin, D V; Galimzianov, D M; Masin, A N; Gol'dberg, G A


    Of 103 patients with acute coronary syndrome (mean age 51.6 +/- 0.9 years) 47 patients participated in 5 group psychotherapeutic sessions added to conversional rehabilitation program. Psychotherapy included progressive muscular relaxation, neurolinguistic programming, eriksonian hypnosis, therapeutic metaphora. Psychotherapy decreased the hear rate, number of ventricular extrasystoles, stimulated tonicity of the parasympathetic nervous system. Compared to the controls, the test patients developed higher exercise tolerance and lower reactivity of the central hemodynamics in all the exercise tests.

  12. Examining the Therapeutic Relationship and Confronting Resistances in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: A Certified Public Accountant Case


    Manetta, Christopher T.; Gentile, Julie P.; Gillig, Paulette Marie


    Psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective for a variety of mental health symptoms. This form of psychotherapy uses patient self reflection and self examination, as well as the therapeutic relationship between the patient and psychiatrist, to explore maladaptive coping strategies and relationship patterns of the patient. A thorough understanding of resistance and the core conflictual relationship theme afford the psychiatrist the ability to facilitate this work. In this article, the composite c...

  13. Bibliotherapy as an adjunct to psychotherapy for depression in older adults. (United States)

    Floyd, Mark


    Bibliotherapy, reading a self-help book for the treatment of psychological problems, has been shown to be effective as a "stand-alone" treatment for depression. Many practitioners recommend self-help books as an adjunct to treatment. This article offers some guidelines for the use of bibliotherapy as an adjunct to individual psychotherapy with depressed older adults. Two clinical cases demonstrate how bibliotherapy can be used effectively in conjunction with individual psychotherapy.

  14. Group supervision in a private setting: Practice and method for theory and practice in psychotherapy

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    Graziana Mangiacavallo


    Full Text Available The report aims to tell the experience of a supervision group in a private setting. The group consists of professional psychotherapists driven by the more experienced practitioner, who shares a clinical reasoning on psychotherapy with younger colleagues. The report aims to present the supervision group as a methode and to showcase its features. The supervision group becomes a container of professional experiences that speak of the new way of doing psychotherapy

  15. Pharmacotherapy for the soul and psychotherapy for the body. (United States)

    Groleger, Urban


    The "mind-body" dualism has shaped the development of psychiatry. At the very beginning psychiatry was related to the mind and the rest of the medicine to the body. The main reasons for such division were lack of biological evidence for psychiatric disorders and wrong beliefs about demonic origins of "lunacy". But although the development of science offered more than enough biological evidence to understand brain as an organ of origin for psychiatric disorders, the dualism of mind and body remained alive even in the modern classification systems. One of the consequences was another dualism that differ biological (e.g. pharmacotherapy) from psychological therapy (e.g. psychotherapy) as completely different approaches. The purpose of this article is to offer enough evidence to reframe the existing dualisms into a different paradigm. In every illness both mind and body can be affected to a different extent. Which part of an illness is body and which part is mind is often difficult to differentiate even when we compare a person with broken leg with a person with acute stress reaction. For that reason it might be an over-simplification to differentiate sharply between biological and psychological therapies. The evidence show that psychotherapy influences biology of the brain and that pharmacotherapy influences psychological, social and developmental dimensions of the diseased person as well as overall well-being and functionality. In the era where medicine discovered psychology and psychiatry discovered biology, the debates and divisions that steam out of past dualisms should end. Every practising physician regardless of the medical discipline uses in everyday practice both biological and psychological approaches to help the patient successfully.

  16. Early-stage psychotherapy produces elevated frontal white matter integrity in adult major depressive disorder.

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    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychotherapy has demonstrated comparable efficacy to antidepressant medication in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Metabolic alterations in the MDD state and in response to treatment have been detected by functional imaging methods, but the underlying white matter microstructural changes remain unknown. The goal of this study is to apply diffusion tensor imaging techniques to investigate psychotherapy-specific responses in the white matter. METHODS: Twenty-one of forty-five outpatients diagnosed with major depression underwent diffusion tensor imaging before and after a four-week course of guided imagery psychotherapy. We compared fractional anisotropy in depressed patients (n = 21 with healthy controls (n = 22, and before-after treatment, using whole brain voxel-wise analysis. RESULTS: Post-treatment, depressed subjects showed a significant reduction in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. As compared to healthy controls, depressed subjects demonstrated significantly increased fractional anisotropy in the right thalamus. Psychopathological changes did not recover post-treatment, but a novel region of increased fractional anisotropy was discovered in the frontal lobe. CONCLUSIONS: At an early stage of psychotherapy, higher fractional anisotropy was detected in the frontal emotional regulation-associated region. This finding reveals that psychotherapy may induce white matter changes in the frontal lobe. This remodeling of frontal connections within mood regulation networks positively contributes to the "top-down" mechanism of psychotherapy.

  17. Research on psychotherapy integration: building on the past, looking to the future. (United States)

    Castonguay, Louis G; Eubanks, Catherine F; Goldfried, Marvin R; Muran, J Christopher; Lutz, Wolfgang


    Integration has become an important and influential movement within psychotherapy practice, reflected by the fact that many treatment providers now identify as integrative. However, integration has not had as great an influence on psychotherapy research. The goal of this paper is to highlight the growing body of research on psychotherapy integration, and to identify future directions for research that may strengthen the integration movement as well as the field of psychotherapy as a whole. We first summarize the past 25 years of research on integration, with a focus on four approaches to integration: theoretical integration, technical eclectic, common factors, and assimilative integration. Next, we identify directions of research within these four areas that could strengthen and support integrative practice. We then propose ways in which the perspective of integrationists could contribute to psychotherapy research in the critical areas of harmful effects, therapist effects, practice-oriented research, and training. We end this paper by suggesting that a greater collaboration between integrationists and psychotherapy researchers will help to create a unified landscape of knowledge and action that will benefit all participants and advance the field.

  18. [On the present situation in psychotherapy and its implications - A critical analysis of the facts]. (United States)

    Tschuschke, Volker; Freyberger, Harald J


    The currently dominating research paradigm in evidence-based medicine is expounded and discussed regarding the problems deduced from so-called empirically supported treatments (EST) in psychology and psychotherapy. Prevalent political and economic as well as ideological backgrounds influence the present dominance of the medical model in psychotherapy by implementing the randomized-controlled research design as the standard in the field. It has been demonstrated that randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are inadequate in psychotherapy research, not the least because of the high complexity of the psychotherapy and the relatively weak role of the treatment concept in the change process itself. All major meta-analyses show that the Dodo bird verdict is still alive, thereby demonstrating that the medical model in psychotherapy with its RCT paradigm cannot explain the equivalence paradox. The medical model is inappropriate, so that the contextual model is proposed as an alternative. Extensive process-outcome research is suggested as the only viable and reasonable way to identify highly complex interactions between the many factors regularly involved in change processes in psychotherapy.

  19. Psychotherapy utilization for acute depression within the Veterans Affairs health care system. (United States)

    Burnett-Zeigler, Inger E; Pfeiffer, Paul; Zivin, Kara; Glass, Joseph E; Ilgen, Mark A; Flynn, Heather A; Austin, Karen; Chermack, Stephen T


    This study examined the demographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidities associated with the receipt of psychotherapy. The sample included 217,816 VA patients with a new depression diagnosis. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined the relationships between the independent variables and the initiation of individual, group, or both individual and group psychotherapy within 90 days of a new diagnosis. Eighteen percent of VA patients received some form of psychotherapy. Veterans received a greater mean number of group therapy than individual therapy visits. Veterans who were female, younger than 35, unmarried, and with substance use, anxiety, or personality disorders were more likely to receive individual therapy only. Veterans who were male, 35-49 years old, Black, Other, or Hispanic, and with substance-use or anxiety disorders were more likely to receive group therapy only than no psychotherapy. Veterans who were male, 35-49 years old, Black, or Other race and with substance-use or anxiety disorders were more likely to receive both individual and group psychotherapy. Increased efforts are needed to encourage early initiation of psychotherapy treatment among depressed veterans.

  20. A manifesto of community-focused psychotherapy for the social participation: Does individual and group psychotherapy still meet the care needs of the society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Bruschetta


    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical, on a social-political level, of development of psychotherapy, seen as the health discipline, especially in that part of the world called West, scientifically established itself through the evaluation of the effectiveness of its two most common types of setting: Individual and Group- Psychotherapy. Through a social-anthropological interpretation of mental processes which it underpins, and a group analytical analysis of organizational and institutional dynamics that led to its evolution, the authors highlight the significant impasse in which psychotherapy finds itself today compared to new and more pervasive forms of mental suffering. Following on of the latest scientific research on the functioning of the mind and of new policy proposals from the World Health Organization, it is suggested so a form of basic psychotherapy, focused on the quality of the mental health of human contexts, defined Community-Focused Psychotherapy. This new form of psychotherapy is wrong simply understood as a new setting, alongside the classic individual, group, or family setting, but as a political-cultural background and a theoretical-methodological framework, so for different psychotherapeutic treatment (individual, group , family put in place in cases of specific psychopathological symptoms, as for a number of other clinical and social programs, carried out by professionals, workers and (formerly users, who support the empowerment of people, with serious psychological disorders or severe mental illness, in their own social contexts of belonging, and in their own recovery, through the active participation of all those therapeutic processes that support their care. 


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article analyzes the persistent divorce between clinicalpractice and research in psychotherapy, examining theunderlying reasons in both contexts. With respect to clinicalpractice, the article discusses the characteristics of theteaching of psychotherapy, therapeutic schools as communities,and the fear of research. In the case of research in psychotherapy,the article analyzes research results regarding theeffectiveness of psychotherapy, the therapeutic alliance, andthe elements of the process. Finally, it presents some of thetransformations in research and its dissemination, which cancontribute to closing the gap between practice and science inpsychotherapy.

  2. D-Cycloserine Augmentation of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Directions for Pilot Research in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; McKay, Dean; Reid, Jeannette M.; Geller, Daniel A.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.


    This paper discusses a recent translational success in combining behavioral psychotherapy with a novel medication, d-cycloserine (DCS), to augment cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The literature on behavioral theory of exposure-based therapies is provided, followed by a discussion of the role of DCS in enhancing extinction…

  3. Outcome of systemic and analytic group psychotherapy for adult women with history of intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, M; Kristensen, Ellids


    Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA.......Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA....

  4. Psychotherapy with a 3-Year-Old Child: The Role of Play in the Unfolding Process (United States)

    Salcuni, Silvia; Di Riso, Daniela; Mabilia, Diana; Lis, Adriana


    Few studies have investigated the outcomes and process of psychodynamic psychotherapies with children. Among the limited number of studies, some only paid attention to play and verbal production, as they are fundamental aspects in assessing the psychotherapy process. This paper focuses on an empirical investigation of a 3-year, once-a-week psychodynamic psychotherapy carried out with a 3-year-old girl. A process-outcome design was implemented to evaluate play and verbal discourse in in the initial, middle, and final parts of 30 psychotherapy sessions. Repeated measurements of standardized play categories (the Play Category System and the Affect in Play Scale—Preschool version) and verbal discourse (Verbal Production) were analyzed. To increase the clinical validity of the study, data from the assessment phase and vignettes from the sessions were reported to deepen the patient’s picture during the unfolding therapy process. Parent reports before and after the therapy were also included. Empirically measured changes in play and verbal production were fundamental in evaluating the young patient’s psychotherapy process. Verbal production and discourse ability progressively increased and took the place of play, which instead became more symbolic. Developmental issues as well as psychotherapy’s influence on the patient’s change, were discussed in relation to the role of play in enhancing the development of verbal dialog and the expression of the child’s emotions, needs, and desires. PMID:28101070

  5. What clinicians want: findings from a psychotherapy practice research network survey. (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Sylvestre, John; Balfour, Louise; Chyurlia, Livia; Evans, Jane; Fortin-Langelier, Benjamin; Francis, Kylie; Gandhi, Jasmine; Huehn, Linda; Hunsley, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Kinley, Jackie; Koszycki, Diana; Leszcz, Molyn; Lybanon-Daigle, Vanessa; Mercer, Deanna; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Presniak, Michelle; Ravitz, Paula; Ritchie, Kerri; Talbot, Jeanne; Wilson, Brian


    Practice research networks may be one way of advancing knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) in psychotherapy. In this study, we document this process by first asking clinicians what they want from psychotherapy research. Eighty-two psychotherapists in 10 focus groups identified and discussed psychotherapy research topics relevant to their practices. An analysis of these discussions led to the development of 41 survey items. In an online survey, 1,019 participants, mostly practicing clinicians, rated the importance to their clinical work of these 41 psychotherapy research topics. Ratings were reduced using a principal components analysis in which 9 psychotherapy research themes emerged, accounting for 60.66% of the variance. Two postsurvey focus groups of clinicians (N = 22) aided in interpreting the findings. The ranking of research themes from most to least important were-Therapeutic Relationship/Mechanisms of Change, Therapist Factors, Training and Professional Development, Client Factors, Barriers and Stigma, Technology and Adjunctive Interventions, Progress Monitoring, Matching Clients to Therapist or Therapy, and Treatment Manuals. Few differences were noted in rankings based on participant age or primary therapeutic orientation. Postsurvey focus group participants were not surprised by the top-rated items, as they were considered most proximal and relevant to therapists and their work with clients during therapy sessions. Lower ranked items may be perceived as externally imposed agendas on the therapist and therapy. We discuss practice research networks as a means of creating new collaborations consistent with KTE goals. Findings of this study can help to direct practitioner-researcher collaborations.

  6. Psychotherapy for Personality Disorders in a Natural Setting: A Pilot Study over Two Years of Treatment. (United States)

    Kolly, Stéphane; Kramer, Ueli; Maillard, Pauline; Charbon, Patrick; Droz, Jessica; Frésard, Emmanuelle; Berney, Sylvie; Despland, Jean-Nicolas


    Long-term assessment of the effects of psychotherapy for personality disorders (PDs) in a natural environment is an important task. Such research contributes to enlarge the practice-based evidence, embedded in broad collaborations between clinicians and researchers in psychotherapy for PDs. The present pilot study used rigorous assessment procedures and incorporated feedback loops of outcome information to the therapists in demonstrating the effects of psychotherapy for PD in a natural setting. The number of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), criteria for any PD was the primary outcome (along with psychological distress, depression, impulsiveness, and quality of life as secondary measures), assessed at intake, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of psychotherapy for N = 13 patients with PD. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Results demonstrated a large pre-post effect (d = 2.22) for the observer-rated measure (primary outcome), and small to medium effects for the secondary outcomes; these results were corroborated by a steady decrease of symptoms over all five time points, which was significant for several outcomes. These results add a piece to the literature by demonstrating the effects of long-term psychotherapy for PDs in increasingly diverse contexts and suggest that practice-oriented research can be carried out in a collaborative and systematic manner.

  7. Psychotherapy research needs theory. Outline for an epistemology of the clinical exchange. (United States)

    Salvatore, Sergio


    This paper provides an analysis of a basic assumption grounding the clinical research: the ontological autonomy of psychotherapy-based on the idea that the clinical exchange is sufficiently distinguished from other social objects (i.e. exchange between teacher and pupils, or between buyer and seller, or interaction during dinner, and so forth). A criticism of such an assumption is discussed together with the proposal of a different epistemological interpretation, based on the distinction between communicative dynamics and the process of psychotherapy-psychotherapy is a goal-oriented process based on the general dynamics of human communication. Theoretical and methodological implications are drawn from such a view: It allows further sources of knowledge to be integrated within clinical research (i.e. those coming from other domains of analysis of human communication); it also enables a more abstract definition of the psychotherapy process to be developed, leading to innovative views of classical critical issues, like the specific-nonspecific debate. The final part of the paper is devoted to presenting a model of human communication--the Semiotic Dialogical Dialectic Theory--which is meant as the framework for the analysis of psychotherapy.

  8. Maintaining boundaries in psychotherapy: Covert narcissistic personality characteristics and psychotherapists. (United States)

    Luchner, Andrew F; Mirsalimi, Hamid; Moser, Casey J; Jones, Rebecca A


    The psychological literature to date has identified more than one form of narcissism: the more well-known grandiose form, and the less familiar and recognized covert form. Although the distinction between these two narcissistic types has been identified with regard to better conceptualizing client dynamics, there has been much less written about how covert narcissistic tendencies and traits may affect psychotherapists and psychotherapy. This paper uses psychodynamic theory to highlight the role that covert narcissistic characteristics may have on the psychotherapists' ability to maintain boundaries, potentially leading to boundary transgressions (existing along a continuum from therapeutically useful to maladaptive and anti-therapeutic). Specific therapeutic situations have been delineated to increase therapists' recognition and awareness of themes that may emerge and compromise the boundaries between themselves and their clients. Areas of focus include narcissism and its forms, the possible connection between covert narcissism in psychotherapists and the impact on managing boundaries, the potential therapeutic implications of covert narcissistic tendencies in psychotherapists, and the implications of covert narcissistic personality characteristics on treatment, supervision, and training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The symbolic and concrete: Psychotic adolescents in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Pestalozzi, Julia


    Unique disturbances in symbolisation are characteristic of the pathology of schizophrenia. Drawing on the case vignette of a psychotic adolescent, the author discusses theoretical problems in the symbolisation process in general and then in psychosis, in particular the relation between 'concretism' as a thought disorder and other psychotic defences. The ability to symbolise on the one hand and to maintain sufficiently stable ego boundaries on the other hand are examined in their relation. The author's clinical experience supports her hypothesis that there is a close relationship between the impairment of the symbolisation process in the adolescent or adult psychotic patient and his/her inability to engage in symbolic play as a child. Special attention is paid to the role of early trauma and consequent pathology of object relations for disturbances of symbolic play in childhood. Regression to concrete thinking is understood as the chance of the psychotic patient to give some meaning to reality in an unreal, delusional world and as his/her last chance to communicate at all. Conclusions are drawn for psychoanalytic techniques in the treatment of patients who are deeply regressed in this respect. Special attention is given to the particular circumstances and challenges of adolescence and to providing psychoanalytic psychotherapy to adolescent psychotic patients.

  10. The complexities of power in feminist multicultural psychotherapy supervision. (United States)

    Arczynski, Alexis V; Morrow, Susan L


    The goal of the present study was to understand how current feminist multicultural supervisors understand and implement their feminist multicultural principles into clinical supervision. We addressed this aim by answering the following research question: How do self-identified feminist multicultural psychotherapy supervisors conceptualize and practice feminist supervision that is explicitly multicultural? The perspectives of 14 participant supervisors were obtained by using semistructured initial interviews, follow-up interviews, and feedback interviews and were investigated via a feminist constructivist grounded theory design and analysis. Most participants identified as counseling psychologists (n = 12), women (n = 11) and temporarily able-bodied (n = 11); but they identified with diverse racial/ethnic, sexual, spiritual/religious, generational, and nationality statuses. A 7-category empirical framework emerged that explained how the participants anticipated and managed power in supervision. The core category, the complexities of power in supervision, explained how participants conceptualized power in supervisory relationships. The 6 remaining categories were bringing history into the supervision room, creating trust through openness and honesty, using a collaborative process, meeting shifting developmental (a)symmetries, cultivating critical reflexivity, and looking at and counterbalancing the impact of context. Limitations of the study, implications for research, and suggestions to use the theoretical framework to transform supervisory practice and training are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Group affective learning in training for psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. (United States)

    Scharff, Jill Savege; Scharff, David E


    This paper describes The Group Affective Model, a method for teaching psychoanalytic concepts and their clinical application, using multi-channel teaching, process and review in group settings, and learning from experience in an open systems learning community for psychoanalysts and psychotherapists. This innovation arose in response to criticism of existing methods in psychoanalytic education that have subordinated the primary educational task to that of the training analysis. Noticing this split between education and training analysis, between cognition and affect, and between concepts of individual and group unconscious processes, we developed the Group Affective Model for teaching and learning psychoanalysis and psychotherapy in an open psychological space in which students and faculty experience individual and group processes of digestion, assimilation, and review, which demonstrate the concepts in action and make them available for internalization selectively. We discuss our philosophy and our educational stance. We describe our institution and our participants. We give examples of teaching situations that we have studied to provide some insight about assimilation and internalization of the concepts and clinical approaches being taught. We discuss the transferability of the Group Affective Model to other teaching settings and psychoanalytic training institutions and propose it as the fourth pillar of psychoanalytic training, next to analytic treatment, clinical supervision, and didactic seminars.

  12. Psychotherapies for PTSD: what do they have in common?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schnyder


    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, research and clinical practice related to the field of traumatic stress have developed tremendously. In parallel with the steady accumulation of basic knowledge, therapeutic approaches have been developed to treat people suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other trauma-related psychological problems. Today, a number of evidence-based treatments are available. They differ in various ways; however, they also have a number of commonalities. Given this situation, clinicians may wonder which treatment program to use, or more specifically, which treatment components are critical for a successful therapy. In this article, seven pioneers who have developed empirically supported psychotherapies for trauma-related disorders were asked to compose an essay of three parts: first, to provide a brief summary of the treatment they have developed; second, to identify three key interventions that are common and critical in treating PTSD; and third, to suggest important topics and future directions for research. The paper ends with a summary highlighting the identified commonalities (psychoeducation; emotion regulation and coping skills; imaginal exposure; cognitive processing, restructuring, and/or meaning making; emotions; and memory processes, pointing to future directions such as trying to better understand the underlying mechanisms of action, and developing treatments that are tailored to the needs of different patient groups.

  13. 心理疗法在脑卒中治疗上的临床应用进展%Clinical Application Advances of Psychotherapy in Stroke Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Stroke is one of the most common diseases endangering the health of the elderly, which often results in higher incidence of mental disorder,reduces quality of life of patients,greatly influencing the prognosis.Appropriate psychotherapy to patients with severe mental disorders after stroke is beneficial to improve the treatment compliance of patients, promote the patient's recovery, shorten hospitalization time and reduce medical costs.Major psychotherapies used for stroke include behavior therapy, supportive therapy, cognitive therapy , psychoanalytic therapy, music therapy, interpersonal therapy, integrative psychotherapy,etc..%脑卒中是危害中老年人身体健康的常见病之一,且脑卒中后心理障碍发生率高,降低患者生活质量,对患者预后的影响大.对脑卒中后发生严重心理障碍的患者给予适当的心理疗法有利于提高患者的治疗依从性,促进患者的康复,缩短住院治疗时间,减少医疗费用.在脑卒中治疗上主要运用的心理疗法有行为疗法、支持疗法、认知疗法、心理分析疗法、音乐疗法、人际关系疗法、综合性心理治疗等.

  14. The balanced performativity as strategic focus in educational psychotherapy and coaching. An application of Aristotle’s ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    The presentation aims at presenting the idea of balanc ed performativity as a strategic tool and focus in educational psychotherapy and coaching. By revitalizing the Aristotelian idea of the balance d life in working with anxiety and stress management among students, it is possible to initiat e...... of educational coaching and psychotherapy...

  15. Unprecedented Times in the Professionalisation and State Regulation of Counselling and Psychotherapy: The Role of the Higher Education Institute (United States)

    Murphy, David


    This article considers a number of issues facing those involved in counselling and psychotherapy training within United Kingdom Higher Education Institutes. It is proposed that the increasing professionalisation of counselling and psychotherapy has significant implications for lecturers and trainers. The article will explore the tension between…

  16. A Paradigm for Single-Case Research: The Time Series Study of a Long-Term Psychotherapy for Depression. (United States)

    Jones, Enrico E.; And Others


    Study articulates model for single-case research in psychotherapy. Saw patient with major depressive disorder for 2.5 years of psychotherapy. Videotaped sessions and obtained assessments of change at regular intervals. Used time-series analysis to model fluctuations in therapy process. Bidirectional analysis of causal effects showed that influence…

  17. Evaluation of the effects of group psychotherapy on cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis with cognitive dysfunction and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bilgi


    Full Text Available Objective This study will evaluate how decreasing depression severity via group psychotherapy affects the cognitive function of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS who are also diagnosed with depression and cognitive dysfunction. Method MS patients completed the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. The group members diagnosed with depression and cognitive dysfunction underwent group psychotherapy for 3 months. Upon completion of psychotherapy, both tests were readministered. Results Depression and cognitive dysfunction were comorbid in 15 (13.9% of patients. Although improvement was detected at the end of the 3-month group psychotherapy intervention, it was limited to the BDI and the Paced Auditory Test. Conclusion Group psychotherapy might decrease cognitive impairment in MS patients.

  18. MAOA gene hypomethylation in panic disorder—reversibility of an epigenetic risk pattern by psychotherapy (United States)

    Ziegler, C; Richter, J; Mahr, M; Gajewska, A; Schiele, M A; Gehrmann, A; Schmidt, B; Lesch, K-P; Lang, T; Helbig-Lang, S; Pauli, P; Kircher, T; Reif, A; Rief, W; Vossbeck-Elsebusch, A N; Arolt, V; Wittchen, H-U; Hamm, A O; Deckert, J; Domschke, K


    Epigenetic signatures such as methylation of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene have been found to be altered in panic disorder (PD). Hypothesizing temporal plasticity of epigenetic processes as a mechanism of successful fear extinction, the present psychotherapy-epigenetic study for we believe the first time investigated MAOA methylation changes during the course of exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in PD. MAOA methylation was compared between N=28 female Caucasian PD patients (discovery sample) and N=28 age- and sex-matched healthy controls via direct sequencing of sodium bisulfite-treated DNA extracted from blood cells. MAOA methylation was furthermore analyzed at baseline (T0) and after a 6-week CBT (T1) in the discovery sample parallelized by a waiting time in healthy controls, as well as in an independent sample of female PD patients (N=20). Patients exhibited lower MAOA methylation than healthy controls (P<0.001), and baseline PD severity correlated negatively with MAOA methylation (P=0.01). In the discovery sample, MAOA methylation increased up to the level of healthy controls along with CBT response (number of panic attacks; T0–T1: +3.37±2.17%), while non-responders further decreased in methylation (−2.00±1.28% P=0.001). In the replication sample, increases in MAOA methylation correlated with agoraphobic symptom reduction after CBT (P=0.02–0.03). The present results support previous evidence for MAOA hypomethylation as a PD risk marker and suggest reversibility of MAOA hypomethylation as a potential epigenetic correlate of response to CBT. The emerging notion of epigenetic signatures as a mechanism of action of psychotherapeutic interventions may promote epigenetic patterns as biomarkers of lasting extinction effects. PMID:27045843

  19. Would Confucius benefit from psychotherapy? The compatibility of cognitive behaviour therapy and Chinese values. (United States)

    Hodges, Julie; Oei, Tian P S


    The purpose of the present paper is to explore the conceptual compatibility between cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and the common values of Chinese Culture. In order to address such a question, the distinctive processes attributed to CBT (e.g., teaching of skills, emphasis on homework, cognitive processes, present/future focus), as summarized in the meta-analysis by Blagys and Hilsenroth [(2002). Distinctive activities of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of the comparative psychotherapy process literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 671-706], and the core values of Chinese Culture, determined through an integration of The Hofstede Project, [Hofstede, G.H. (1980). Culture's consequences: International differences in work related values. Beverly Hills: Sage]. The Chinese Value Survey [Chinese Culture Connection (1987). Chinese values and the search for culture-free dimensions of culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18, 143-164]. The Schwartz Value Survey [Schwartz, S.H. (1994). Cultural dimensions of values: Towards an understanding of national differences. In Kim, U., Trandis, H.C., Katiticibasi, C., Choi, S.C., & Yoon, G. (eds.), Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method and application (pp. 85-119). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage] were used. A strong degree of compatibility between the two was found and it is argued that rather than developing new indigenized therapies, with some structural changes to the processes of CBT, this therapy can be effective for Chinese clients. It is further proposed that Chinese clients may benefit from challenging their irrational cognitions that are bound up in their strict adherence to social norms. Future recommendations for increasing the compatibility of CBT to Chinese culture are discussed.

  20. Computer-aided psychotherapy based on multimodal elicitation, estimation and regulation of emotion. (United States)

    Cosić, Krešimir; Popović, Siniša; Horvat, Marko; Kukolja, Davor; Dropuljić, Branimir; Kovač, Bernard; Jakovljević, Miro


    Contemporary psychiatry is looking at affective sciences to understand human behavior, cognition and the mind in health and disease. Since it has been recognized that emotions have a pivotal role for the human mind, an ever increasing number of laboratories and research centers are interested in affective sciences, affective neuroscience, affective psychology and affective psychopathology. Therefore, this paper presents multidisciplinary research results of Laboratory for Interactive Simulation System at Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb in the stress resilience. Patient's distortion in emotional processing of multimodal input stimuli is predominantly consequence of his/her cognitive deficit which is result of their individual mental health disorders. These emotional distortions in patient's multimodal physiological, facial, acoustic, and linguistic features related to presented stimulation can be used as indicator of patient's mental illness. Real-time processing and analysis of patient's multimodal response related to annotated input stimuli is based on appropriate machine learning methods from computer science. Comprehensive longitudinal multimodal analysis of patient's emotion, mood, feelings, attention, motivation, decision-making, and working memory in synchronization with multimodal stimuli provides extremely valuable big database for data mining, machine learning and machine reasoning. Presented multimedia stimuli sequence includes personalized images, movies and sounds, as well as semantically congruent narratives. Simultaneously, with stimuli presentation patient provides subjective emotional ratings of presented stimuli in terms of subjective units of discomfort/distress, discrete emotions, or valence and arousal. These subjective emotional ratings of input stimuli and corresponding physiological, speech, and facial output features provides enough information for evaluation of patient's cognitive appraisal deficit

  1. Concurrent sex therapy and psychoanalytic psychotherapy by separate therapists: effectiveness and implications. (United States)

    Levay, A; Weissberg, J; Blaustein, A


    Since the publication of Masters and Johnson's Human Sexual Inadequacy in 1970, sex therapy has become an established, though controversial, new approach to the treatment of sexual disorders. Masters and Johnson adopted the position that any other form of psychotherapy should be avoided or suspended during the two- or three-week period of sex therapy. Helen Kaplan, in considering sex therapy to be a type of psychotherapy, has stressed that the skillful trained psychotherapist uses his awareness of the psychodynamics and unconscious conflicts of the couple in modifying and tailoring the sex therapy program to their individual needs. In the present study, sex therapy, utilizing a second therapist, was introduced into an ongoing psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

  2. Assessing personality change in psychotherapy with the SWAP-200: a case study. (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Shedler, Jonathan; Gazzillo, Francesco


    Many studies document the efficacy of psychotherapy for acute syndromes such as depression, but less is known about personality change in patients treated for personality pathology. The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200; Westen & Shedler, 1999a, 1999b) is an assessment tool that measures a broad spectrum of personality constructs and is designed to bridge the gap between the clinical and empirical traditions in personality assessment. In this article, we demonstrate the use of the SWAP-200 as a measure of change in a case study of a patient diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. We collected assessment data at the start of treatment and after 2 years of psychotherapy. The findings illustrate the personality processes targeted in intensive psychotherapy for borderline personality.

  3. The Adjective Check List as an outcome measure: assessment of personality change in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Itzhar-Nabarro, Zohar; Silberschatz, George; Curtis, John T


    To investigate the value of the Adjective Check List (ACL) as a psychotherapy outcome measure, the ACL and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) were administered at four times (before therapy, immediately after therapy, and at 6-month and 1-year follow-ups) to 38 patients in brief dynamic psychotherapy. High correlations between selected ACL scales and SCL-90-R Global Severity Index scores (GSI) were found. GSI change from before to after therapy correlated with change on the ACL scales. Changes from before to after therapy were detected for ACL scales at both the mean group and the individual levels. Because the ACL provides valuable information on personality dimensions as well as concurrent levels of distress, it is a particularly promising psychotherapy outcome measure.

  4. The pleasure of dissent: a critical theory of psychotherapy as an emancipatory practice. (United States)

    Sorrell, James H


    The intent of this paper is to examine the inherent contradictions in the practice of psychotherapy that, if left unexamined, ruin the emancipatory prospects that it holds. Critical theory and, more specifically, Jurgen Habermas' theory of communicative action is utilized as a starting point for reconceptualizing psychotherapy. This paper then establishes a phenomenological and ethical basis for solidarity despite the power differences and conflicting goals for therapists and clients. It draws heavily on a consideration of intersubjectivity and the self as fundamentally relational as conceived by theorists such as Schutz, Levinas, and Vygotsky. Through such an analysis psychotherapy will be constituted consciously as a free space for critique, dissent and action, allowing for a core experience of one's self as a source of power in the social field that will foster replication in society at large.

  5. Effects of cognitive therapy versus interpersonal psychotherapy in patients with major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Hansen, J L; Simonsen, Sebastian


    BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetime at tremendous suffering and cost. Cognitive therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy are treatment options, but their effects have only been limitedly compared in systematic reviews. METHOD: Using...... Cochrane systematic review methodology we compared the benefits and harm of cognitive therapy versus interpersonal psychotherapy for major depressive disorder. Trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Library's CENTRAL, Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, Psychlit, PsycInfo, and Science Citation Index...... trials with low risk of bias and low risk of random errors are needed, although the effects of cognitive therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy do not seem to differ significantly regarding depressive symptoms. Future trials should report on adverse events....

  6. Looking back, looking forward: A historical reflection on psychotherapy process research. (United States)

    Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M; Elkin, Irene; Kiesler, Donald J


    In 1983, a group of 14 prominent psychotherapy process researchers attended a workshop sponsored by the US National Institute of Mental Health. Although the previous decade had seen a marked emphasis on psychotherapy outcome research, there had also been several major advances in the field of process research. The goals of the workshop were to review the current state of the field, address methodological and conceptual issues, and provide recommendations to advance scholarship in this area. In this paper, we summarize the major themes of the workshop and consider the degree to which its recommendations have come to fruition via subsequent developments in the field. Although 30 years have passed since the workshop was held, its insights remain highly relevant to psychotherapy process research today.

  7. Clinical Observation on Xiaoyu Decoction (消郁汤) Plus Psychotherapy in Treating Functional Dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective: To explore the relationship between mental symptoms and functional dyspepsia (FD), and the effect of Xiaoyu decoction (XYD) plus psychotherapy on FD. Methods: SCL-90 scale and FD symptom scale were used to estimate the condition of 56 healthy subjects and 56 patients of FD before and after 4 weeks treatment with XYD plus psychotherapy. Results: There was significant difference in SCL-90 scales between the healthy subjects and the FD patients before treatment (P<0.01). After treatment, the mental symptoms and the symptom of FD in the patients were markedly improved, as compared with those before treatment, the difference was significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: Mental symptoms, such as depression and anxiety existed commonly in FD patients, were closely related to FD. XYD plus psychotherapy could cure it effectively.

  8. 存在心理治疗方法的理论省思%A Theoretical Relfection on the Methodology of Existential Psychotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Existential psychotherapy is an academic trend of thought separated from humanistic psychology in the mid 20th century. Some psychotherapists as such regard existential psychotherapy as their foundation of methodology, whose origin is rooted in the theories and conceptions of European existential philosophy, existentialist art and existential literature. They believe that good and effective psychotherapy is not based on some rigid and unchangeable procedure, but that the psychother-apist is willing to facilitate with his ego the relationship between therapist and client, make the latter have a reflection on his own mind, take steps to adjust his behavior and ifnally help him solve his problem in life. So the therapist and client’s mutual involvement in the process of existential psychotherapy has become a useful method for psychotherapists’ understanding the client. The effect of the therapist and client’s participation can be found out via the participation report, and it has three functions:helping a therapist supervise the contact and participation process of the therapy;facilitating the psychotherapist’s reflection on his treatment for a client; enabling his understanding of the treatment process and improving his future work. Nowadays the methods of participation in this therapy include case stories, case transcripts, single subject case studies, before/after ifeld studies, and grounded theoretical studies.%存在心理治疗是20世纪中叶从人本主义心理学中分离出来的学术思潮。其理论根源植根于在欧洲存在哲学。存在心理治疗有三种功能:帮助治疗师对其治疗中的联系和参与过程进行自我监督;促进存在心理治疗师对具体患者的治疗过程进行个性的反思,以制定针对性的治疗方案;有助于治疗师沟通,理解他对治疗过程的认识,为将来提供洞见、觉知、知识和实践智慧。存在心理治疗的参与方法包括:案例故事形容法、

  9. Effectiveness of group body psychotherapy for negative symptoms of schizophrenia: multicentre randomised controlled trial †


    Priebe, S.; Savill, M.; Wykes, T.; Bentall, R P; Reininghaus, U; Lauber, C; Bremner, S; Eldridge, S; Röhricht, F.


    Background\\ud Negative symptoms of schizophrenia have a severe impact\\ud on functional outcomes and treatment options are limited.\\ud Arts therapies are currently recommended but more\\ud evidence is required.\\ud \\ud Aims\\ud To assess body psychotherapy as a treatment for negative\\ud symptoms compared with an active control (trial registration:ISRCTN84216587).\\ud \\ud Method\\ud Schizophrenia out-patients were randomised into a\\ud 20-session body psychotherapy or Pilates group. The primary\\ud ou...

  10. Věc dobra a zla v psychoterapii (Matter of Good and Evil in Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Růžička


    Full Text Available Author considers the phenomena of good, evil and virtue in the context of psychical illness and psychotherapy. He starts with Greek philosophers: stoics, Aristhotheles, Platón, who good, evil and illness related to virtue and these considered as condition of (psychical good health. Good health is also, according to them the expression of virtues. Author adverts to the fact that psychical illness brings evil not only for patient but also brings foul habits into behaviour of patients toward others. At the same time he points out that psychotherapy does not take patient responsible because their bad behaviour and illness itself doesn’t makes them responsible. But at the same time he makes us aware that evil was committed. Psychotherapy liberates patients from the illness and consequently sets patients free from foul habits. He is also aware that it does not expiate patients automatically from guilt. It is not at last its task. Guilt is expiated in the process of regret, forgiveness and penance, as was recognized and laboured by Christian Europe. This act became the task of the patient during his or her recovery leading to free from illness. There is the question how and if ever psychotherapy should consider and also solve these problems. Technology of claiming and spreading of evil by misusing power were studied by Zimbardo and experimentally by Milgram. Artistic then described by Orwell in his fiction “1984”. At the end of the article the author returns to the founders of psychotherapy and adverts to good in their works and institualization of good into west civilization. He writes about the task of psychotherapy, its limitations and refers to good in the process of restoration of health and virtue. At the same time he warns against moralizing which psychotherapy was able to avoid and at the same time searches the possibility how not to miss the good and virtues. Because as Nusbaum says: “They are extremely frangible”. He also remains

  11. Religious Transformation Among Danish Pentecostals Following Personal Crisis and Group Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; la Cour, Peter; Buus, Niels


    The aim was to explore transformations of religiosity experienced by Danish Pentecostals following a crisis and religiously integrated group psychotherapy. The study included semistructured interviews with 18 participants. The qualitative method of interpretative phenomenological analysis...... was applied for generating and analyzing the data-material. The findings suggested that all participants encountered a secondary religious transformation following the personal crisis or religiously integrated group psychotherapy. From a religious development perspective, however, the transformations...... following the crisis could not all be considered mentally healthy although the religious transformations facilitated by the group therapy were mentally healthy from both developmental and meaning system perspectives....

  12. The Central Tenets of GIM: Consciousness and the Integration of Psychotherapy and Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Smith Goldberg


    Full Text Available Spirituality and psychotherapy are both inherent in the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music. This article discusses the integration of these aspects of GIM and the evolution of Helen Bonny's journey in this regard. Included are Bonny's early humanistic and transpersonal influences, along with her grounding philosophy of the healing aspects of music, the central tenets of GIM as she initially envisioned, and the development of GIM theory as it relates to this integration. A GIM case study illustrates how psychotherapy and spirituality work together in a holistic way. Current trends indicate that transpersonal practices are becoming more mainstream in many areas of the world.

  13. [Adaptation of psychodrama in psychotherapy of patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa]. (United States)

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta


    The aim of the article was an attempt to present selected theoretical motifs and moreover self experience in the adaptation of elements of psychodrama by Moreno in psychodynamic psychotherapy (individual and group psychotherapy) in a group of people with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Psychodrama through own creativity, spontaneity and taking action on the "here and now" stage helps to attain and intensify therapeutic aims which concern the consciousness of inner conflict of persons with anorexia and bulimia nervosa, which is translocated on their body.

  14. [Resource activation in clinical psychology and psychotherapy: review of theoretical issues and current research]. (United States)

    Groß, L J; Stemmler, M; de Zwaan, M


    This review summarises theoretical issues and current research on working with clients' resources and strengths in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Resource activation is considered as an important common factor in psychotherapy. In general, resource activation means an explicit focus on resources, strengths and potentials of the clients. After defining the term resources, considerations with regard to therapeutic attitude, principles of resource activation, approaches to resource diagnostics and different research strategies are presented. Current research focuses especially on the relation between resource activation and process variables in out-patient treatment.

  15. Evaluation of The Effects of Psychotherapy on Anxiety Among Mothers of Children With Leukemia


    shiva NAZARI*; Nahid MORADI; SADEGHI KOUPAEI, Mohammad Taghi


    How to Cite This Article: Nazari Sh, Moradi N, Sadeghi Koupaei MT. Evaluation of The Effects of Psychotherapy on Anxiety Among Mothers of Children With Leukemia. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1):52-57. ObjectiveChildren with leukemia and their families face a long period of medical treatment and uncertainty about the future. These families may suffer from short- and long-term emotional problems. The aim of the present study was to assess theeffect of supportive psychotherapy on the anxi...

  16. [Publicly funded programs of psychotherapy in Australia and England]. (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Dezetter, Anne


    Quebec's HealthCommissioner on the performance of the health system clearly highlighted gaps in the collaboration between primary care physicians and mental health specialists, decreased accessibility and inequity in access to effective mental health services such as psychotherapy.Objectives The aim of this article was to describe the implementation of two publicly funded programs of psychotherapy in Australia and England with similar gatekeeper systems to the one in Quebec.Findings Following the Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS) program introduced in Australia in 2003, one of the most important initiatives from the Council of Australian Governments' National Action Plan on Mental Health 2006-2011 was the Better Access Initiative which commenced in 2006. The plan included AUD1.2 billion in funding for integrating and improving the mental health care system. The purpose of Better Access was to improve the treatment and management of mental illnesses and increasing community access to mental health professionals and providing more affordable mental health care. GPs were encouraged to work more closely with mental health professionals. Under this program, these professionals are able to provide mental health services on a fee-for-service basis subsidized through Medicare. Access to psychological therapies is provided through private providers, rather than through fund holding arrangements. As of 2009 in Australia, 2 million people (1 in 11) had received over 11.2 million subsidized mental health services. A recent study showed clinical improvements in patients with depression associated with Better Access, concluding that the program is meeting previously unmet mental health needs.In the case of England, the IAPT - Improving Access to psychological Therapies-program enabled primary care trusts (PCTs) to implement evidence-based psychological therapies as recommended by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence for people suffering from

  17. Sensitivity analysis in multiple imputation in effectiveness studies of psychotherapy (United States)

    Crameri, Aureliano; von Wyl, Agnes; Koemeda, Margit; Schulthess, Peter; Tschuschke, Volker


    The importance of preventing and treating incomplete data in effectiveness studies is nowadays emphasized. However, most of the publications focus on randomized clinical trials (RCT). One flexible technique for statistical inference with missing data is multiple imputation (MI). Since methods such as MI rely on the assumption of missing data being at random (MAR), a sensitivity analysis for testing the robustness against departures from this assumption is required. In this paper we present a sensitivity analysis technique based on posterior predictive checking, which takes into consideration the concept of clinical significance used in the evaluation of intra-individual changes. We demonstrate the possibilities this technique can offer with the example of irregular longitudinal data collected with the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) and the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAQ) in a sample of 260 outpatients. The sensitivity analysis can be used to (1) quantify the degree of bias introduced by missing not at random data (MNAR) in a worst reasonable case scenario, (2) compare the performance of different analysis methods for dealing with missing data, or (3) detect the influence of possible violations to the model assumptions (e.g., lack of normality). Moreover, our analysis showed that ratings from the patient's and therapist's version of the HAQ could significantly improve the predictive value of the routine outcome monitoring based on the OQ-45. Since analysis dropouts always occur, repeated measurements with the OQ-45 and the HAQ analyzed with MI are useful to improve the accuracy of outcome estimates in quality assurance assessments and non-randomized effectiveness studies in the field of outpatient psychotherapy. PMID:26283989

  18. Psychotherapy Experiences of Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse. (United States)

    Thomas, Sandra P; Phillips, Kenneth D; Blaine, Susan K


    Cynicism about treatment of sex offenders pervades both professional and lay literature. A Cochrane review of randomized controlled trials concluded there is no evidence to support any psychological intervention for sex offenders, but RCT design has limitations for evaluating sex offender treatment. Rarely has a qualitative approach been used to explore perceptions of offenders themselves about their psychotherapy experiences. The purpose of this study was to discover the meaning of therapy experiences to 11 community-dwelling perpetrators of child sexual abuse. They had received therapy during incarceration or after release, or both. Secondary analysis was conducted of phenomenological interviews about participants' early life, during which they spontaneously revealed insights gleaned during therapy in adulthood. Rigor of the analysis was enhanced by reading transcripts aloud and thematizing them in an interdisciplinary interpretive group. Five interrelated themes constituted a gestalt comprising the essence of the therapy experience: "This treatment, it's just totally changed my whole world." Themes included: "It just stripped away all the pretense, all the lies, all the manipulation;" "I didn't understand myself; I found out all about myself through this;" "Nobody knew any of my secrets; that (therapy) was the first time that I got to tell my story;" "The group has become a family for me;" and "I'm very ashamed of what I've done; this treatment has really helped me, gave me a second chance." These findings stand in contrast to cynicism about sex offender therapy and lend support to the increased optimism expressed by several contemporary scholars.

  19. Decision making in the transtheoretical model of behavior change. (United States)

    Prochaska, James O


    Decision making is an integral part of the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Stage of change represents a temporal dimension for behavior change and has been the key dimension for integrating principles and processes of change from across leading theories of psychotherapy and behavior change. The decision-making variables representing the pros and cons of changing have been found to have systematic relationships across the stages of change for 50 health-related behaviors. Implications of these patterns of relationships are discussed in the context of helping patients make more effective decisions to decrease health risk behaviors and increase health-enhancing behaviors.

  20. The Comparsion of the Efficacy of Group Psychotherapy Based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and Mindfulness on Craving and Cognitive Emotion Regulation in Methamphetamine Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Kiani


    Full Text Available Aim: Today, third wave therapies in psychotherapy shift their attention from challenging cognitions to awareness and acceptance of feelings, emotions, cognitions and behaviors. Therefore, this research aimed to compare of efficacy of group psychotherapy based on acceptance and commitment therapy, with mindfulness on craving and cognitive emotion regulation in methamphetamine addicts. Method: Research method was semi experimental research design with pre-post test and follow up. The population of research was included all of methamphetamine addicts in baharestan, Isfahan. Drug abusers was 34 participants that refered to addiction rehabilitation centers and selected by snowball sampling and finaly divided to 2groups by radomization (acceptance and commitment therapy group and mindfulness groups. Each groups recieved treatment in 12 sessions (At First 2 sessions per week and at last 1 session per week. Two groups assessed by craving test (Ekhtiary, 1387 and cognitive emotion regulation (garnefski et al, 2002, in pretest, post test and follow up. Results: The results showed that two treatment groups had significant effect on craving intensity in post test and follow up. In addition, there was no significant difference in comparing of the efficacy of these two treatments on cognitive emotion regulation and it means that both two traetments had same effect on cognitive emotion regulatin. Conclusion: we can say that acceptance and commitmet therapy and mindfulnesshave effect on reduction psychopathology from using amphetamines due to same theraputic factors.

  1. [The relevance of zen-buddhism for dialectic-behavioral therapy]. (United States)

    Huppertz, Michael


    Dialectic-Behavioral Therapy is a specific psychotherapeutic approach to answer the needs of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder. It uses concepts and techniques of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and of Humanistic Psychotherapies. For a deeper understanding, it is necessary to include also its Zen-Buddhistic background. The experience of Zen-meditation and the basic philosophy of Zen-Buddhism will be explained. In the context of the historical relation between Zen-Buddhism and Psychotherapy, the position of the DBT will be specified. Finally it will be demonstrated how Zen-Buddhism inspired the practice of DBT and what kinds of problems arise when a modern psychotherapy uses the concept of a premodern conception of the world and human existence.

  2. Psychotherapy research at the start of the 21st century: the persistence of the art versus science controversy. (United States)

    Joyce, Anthony S; Wolfaardt, Ulrich; Sribney, Christine; Aylwin, A Scott


    This article offers an overview of prominent general trends in the field of psychotherapy research. We consider 3 areas of the literature: metaanalytic reviews addressing the effectiveness of psychotherapy, the movement to identify empirically supported treatments (EST), and research on the "common factor" or "contextual" models of psychotherapy. We present narrative reviews of selected literature associated with each area. The reviews highlight several issues currently confronting the field. Metaanalytic reviews underscore 2 conclusions: psychotherapy is superior to the absence of treatment, and different approaches to psychotherapy yield equivalent effects. In counterpoint to these findings, the EST movement emphasizes the empirical demonstration that specific psychotherapies have efficacy for specific disorders. Misinterpretation of EST findings has led to considerable controversy. Although EST research can identify causal effects of therapy, it has less capacity to explain how these effects come about. We suggest an appropriate perspective on EST findings. Considerable evidence supports the importance of common factors as mechanisms of change; at present, however, this evidence is predominantly correlational. We conclude that a blending of EST studies and research on the common factors represents the greatest potential for advancing the field. Studies to identify specific ESTs are key to validating the efficacy of psychotherapy approaches and need to be undertaken with the psychodynamic and experiential therapies. Greater emphasis on common factors in research, training, and practice can advance understanding about change processes in efficacious therapies, facilitate the development of sensitive clinicians, and increase the effectiveness of mental health services.

  3. Cognitive behavioral therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder


    Edna B. Foa


    Until the mid-1960s, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was considered to be treatment-resistant, as both psychodynamic psychotherapy and medication had been unsuccessful in significantly reducing OCD symptoms. The first real breakthrough came in 1966 with the introduction of exposure and ritual prevention. This paper will discuss the cognitive behavioral conceptualizations that influenced the development of cognitive behavioral treatments for OCD. There will be a brief discussion of the use...

  4. Ethnic Background, Socioeconomic Status, and Problem Severity as Dropout Risk Factors in Psychotherapy with Youth (United States)

    de Haan, Anna M.; Boon, Albert E.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Hoeve, Machteld; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.


    Background: Dropout from child and adolescent psychotherapy is a common phenomenon which can have negative consequences for the individual later in life. It is therefore important to gain insight on dropout risk factors. Objective: Several potential risk factors [ethnic minority status, a lower socioeconomic status (SES), and higher problem…

  5. Studying Psychotherapy Using the One-with-Many Design: The Therapeutic Alliance as an Exemplar (United States)

    Marcus, David K.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Baldwin, Scott A.


    Most psychotherapy research uses a one-with-many design, in which each therapist (the one) treats multiple clients (the many), which raises the challenge of nonindependent data. We present a statistical model for analyzing data from studies that use a one-with-many design. This model addresses the problems associated with nonindependence and can…

  6. Combining Psychotherapy and Medication for College Students with Severe Psychopathology: A Descriptive Study (United States)

    Cooper, Stewart E.; Nasr, Suhayl J.


    Given the extensive and increasing use of medications to augment psychotherapy in intervening with college students with more severe psychopathology, the absence of scholarship on this topic is surprising. This article briefly summarizes earlier published pieces on combining counseling with psychotropic treatment in college counseling center…

  7. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) in Ibero-America: Review of Current Status and Some Proposals (United States)

    Munoz-Martinez, Amanda; Novoa-Gomez, Monica; Gutierrez, Rochy Vargas


    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) has been making an important rise in Ibero-America in recent years. This paper presents a review of different contributions, problems and some proposals. Three principal topics are reviewed: (a) general characteristics and theoretical bases of FAP, (b) the uses of FAP and its relationship with other…

  8. Clinical Implications of Students' Use of Online Communication for College Psychotherapy (United States)

    Baron, Judith; Bierschwale, Deborah; Bleiberg, James R.


    Cases are presented to illustrate effects of online communication by students in psychotherapy in a university counseling center. In the first, a student's use of instant messaging to convey suicide threats exaggerated the level of the danger. In the second, a student used e-mail messages to his therapist to modulate the expression of feelings…

  9. Self-Disclosure and Outcome in Short-Term Group Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Coche, Erich; Polikoff, Barbara


    Explores whether self-disclosure in group psychotherapy produces better group outcome. Although the expected positive relationship between the two variables was found, results also indicate a need for caution in postulating a link between self-disclosure and improvement. (BP)

  10. Measuring the Real Relationship in Psychotherapy: Initial Validation of the Therapist Form (United States)

    Gelso, Charles J.; Kelley, Frances A.; Fuertes, Jairo N.; Marmarosh, Cheri; Holmes, Stacey E.; Costa, Catarina; Hancock, Gregory R.


    The development and initial validation of a therapist-rated measure of the real relationship in psychotherapy (the Real Relationship Inventory-Therapist Form [RRI-T]) is reported. Using a sample (n=80) of practicing psychotherapists and on the basis of prior theory, the authors developed a 24-item measure consisting of 2 subscales (Realism and…

  11. An Example of a Hakomi Technique Adapted for Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (United States)

    Collis, Peter


    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a model of therapy that lends itself to integration with other therapy models. This paper aims to provide an example to assist others in assimilating techniques from other forms of therapy into FAP. A technique from the Hakomi Method is outlined and modified for FAP. As, on the whole, psychotherapy…

  12. Psychotherapy Training for Residents: Reconciling Requirements with Evidence-Based, Competency-Focused Practice (United States)

    Weerasekera, Priyanthy; Manring, John; Lynn, David John


    Objective: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) changed the training requirements in psychotherapy, moving toward evidence-based therapies and emphasizing competence and proficiency as outcomes of training. This article examines whether the therapies…

  13. Frequency of Scholarship on Counselling Males in the "Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy" (United States)

    Hoover, Stuart M.; Bedi, Robinder P.; Beall, Lauren K.


    This article examines the frequency with which studies on boys/men are represented in Canadian counselling scholarship, as embodied in the "Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy" (CJCP). To address this question, a quantitative content analysis was conducted of articles published in CJCP from 2000 (Volume 34, Number 1) to 2011 (Volume…

  14. Psychotherapy and Traditional Healing for American Indians: Exploring the Prospects for Therapeutic Integration (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P.


    Multicultural advocates within professional psychology routinely call for "culturally competent" counseling interventions. Such advocates frequently cite and celebrate traditional healing practices as an important resource for developing novel integrative forms of psychotherapy that are distinctively tailored for diverse populations. Despite this…

  15. "Many Secrets Are Told around Horses": An Ethnographic Study of Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy (United States)

    Van Tiem, Jennifer


    This dissertation presents an ethnography of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) based on nine months of fieldwork at "Equine Healers," a non-profit organization in central Colorado that specialized in various therapeutic modalities associated with EAP. In bridging scholarly work around animals, a literature suffused with the notion of…

  16. Mommy Hates Daddy: A Child-Parent Psychotherapy Story of Engagement, Domestic Violence, and Intergenerational Ghosts (United States)

    Mays, Markita; Lieberman, Alicia F.


    The impacts of violence for young children and their caregivers are multidimensional. The story of 2-year-old Tyronne, his mother, Josephine, and his father, James, illustrates the use of a relationship-focused treatment, child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), in addressing the traumatic consequences of exposure to violence. This family's story…

  17. Moving from Dyads to Triads: Implementation of Child-Parent Psychotherapy with Fathers (United States)

    Iwaoka-Scott, A. Yuri; Lieberman, Alicia F.


    Including fathers is the next frontier for infant mental health. In this article, the authors describe the inclusion of fathers as equal partners in Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP), an evidence-based treatment for young children experiencing or at risk for mental health problems following exposure to violence and other adversities. The authors…

  18. Resistances in the first session of psychodrama psychotherapy group with adults. (United States)

    Drakulić, Aleksandra Mindoljević


    Resistance refers to all types of behaviour that oppose the exploration processes in the therapeutic process and inhibit work. Very common types of resistances, such as forgetting the time of session, being late, non-payment of sessions and such are found in every type of psychotherapy, including psychodrama psychotherapy. The attempt to break resistance in order to evoke changes could be dangerous as it represents the necessary defence mechanism and it is also a vital element of the person's functioning in therapy. In psychodrama, which is a type of action method of group psychotherapy, resistance can manifest through continuous verbalization of problems, in not wanting to act out the problem, the protagonist's typical non-verbal message or the most obvious manifestation: the absence of the protagonist. This paper will be on the typical resistance which the therapist has noticed during the first session of psychodrama psychotherapy, with a small group of adult clients. As the group was young and with undeveloped cohesiveness, resistance represented a certain balancing power for maintaining mental homeostasis of the group.

  19. Adding Psychotherapy to pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depressive disorders in adults: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Hollon, S.D.; Andersson, G.


    Objective: A considerable number of studies has examined whether adding psychotherapy to pharmacotherapy results in stronger effects than pharmacotherapy alone. However, earlier meta-analyses in this field have included only a limited number of available studies and did not conduct extended subgroup

  20. Interpersonal Mindfulness Informed by Functional Analytic Psychotherapy: Findings from a Pilot Randomized Trial (United States)

    Bowen, Sarah; Haworth, Kevin; Grow, Joel; Tsai, Mavis; Kohlenberg, Robert


    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP; Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1991) aims to improve interpersonal relationships through skills intended to increase closeness and connection. The current trial assessed a brief mindfulness-based intervention informed by FAP, in which an interpersonal element was added to a traditional intrapersonal mindfulness…

  1. Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: Anxiety Outcomes and Impact of Comorbidity (United States)

    Young, Jami F.; Makover, Heather B.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Mufson, Laura; Gallop, Robert J.; Benas, Jessica S.


    Given the frequent comorbidity of anxiety and depression, it is important to study the effects of depression interventions on anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on depression outcomes. This article reports on pooled anxiety and depression data from two randomized trials of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a…

  2. Efficacy and enlightenment: LSD psychotherapy and the Drug Amendments of 1962. (United States)

    Oram, Matthew


    The decline in therapeutic research with lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the United States over the course of the 1960s has commonly been attributed to the growing controversy surrounding its recreational use. However, research difficulties played an equal role in LSD psychotherapy's demise, as they frustrated researchers' efforts to clearly establish the efficacy of treatment. Once the Kefauver Harris Drug Amendments of 1962 introduced the requirement that proof of efficacy be established through controlled clinical trials before a drug could be approved to market, the value of clinical research became increasingly dependent on the scientific rigor of the trial's design. LSD psychotherapy's complex method of utilizing drug effects to catalyze a psychological treatment clashed with the controlled trial methodology on both theoretical and practical levels, making proof of efficacy difficult to obtain. Through a close examination of clinical trials performed after 1962, this article explores how the new emphasis on controlled clinical trials frustrated the progress of LSD psychotherapy research by focusing researchers' attention on trial design to the detriment of their therapeutic method. This analysis provides a new perspective on the death of LSD psychotherapy and explores the implications of the Drug Amendments of 1962.

  3. [Psychodiagnosis and psychotherapy in medico-social adaptation of patients with hemorrhagic diseases]. (United States)

    Germanov, V A; Pozhilenko, N S


    The investigations were conducted in 264 patients with hemorrhagic diseases. Based on the clinical and psychological analysis most of the patients were found to have borderline psychic disorders. Psychotherapy has promoted diminution of psychic disorders, and in patients with hemorrhagic thrombocytopathy it has resulted in decreased hemorrhage and improved platelet function.

  4. Subclinical psychotic experiences and bipolar spectrum features in depression : association with outcome of psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigman, J. T. W.; van Os, J.; Abidi, L.; Huibers, M. J. H.; Roelofs, J.; Arntz, A.; Kelleher, I.; Peeters, F. P. M. L.


    Background Subthreshold psychotic and bipolar experiences are common in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unknown if effectiveness of psychotherapy is altered in depressed patients who display such features compared with those without. The current paper aimed to investigate the impact

  5. Counselling and Psychotherapy, Complementary and Alternative Medicine and the Future of Healthcare (United States)

    Lees, John; Tovey, Phil


    The counselling and psychotherapy profession is undergoing considerable change as a result of government intervention in the form of regulation, funding and efficacy research. In this paper we argue that these changes, even though they challenge some of the basic ways of thinking which have come to underpin the profession since its inception, also…

  6. Frequency of Scholarship on Counselling Males in the "Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy" (United States)

    Hoover, Stuart M.; Bedi, Robinder P.; Beall, Lauren K.


    This article examines the frequency with which studies on boys/men are represented in Canadian counselling scholarship, as embodied in the "Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy" (CJCP). To address this question, a quantitative content analysis was conducted of articles published in CJCP from 2000 (Volume 34, Number 1) to…

  7. Patients with cluster A personality disorders in psychotherapy: an effectiveness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bartak; H. Andrea; M.D. Spreeuwenberg; M. Thunnissen; U.M. Ziegler; J. Dekker; F. Bouvy; E.F.M. Hamers; A.M.M.A. Meerman; J.J.V. Busschbach; R. Verheul; T. Stijnen; P.M.G. Emmelkamp


    Background: While psychopharmacological studies are common in patients with cluster A personality disorders, the effects of psychotherapy have received little attention. The aim of this study is to explore whether psychotherapeutic treatment yields health gains for these patients. Methods: The study

  8. Group Psychotherapy for Women with a History of Incest: The Research Base. (United States)

    Marotta, Sylvia A.; Asner, Kimberly K.


    Demonstrates the wide range of adequacy of current studies on group psychotherapy for women with incest histories. Because the studies differed in methodology and reporting, they were categorized and assessed by six criteria: design, sample, inclusion criteria, replicability, analysis, and outcome. Implications for both researchers and…

  9. Patients with Cluster A Personality Disorders in Psychotherapy: An Effectiveness Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bartak (Anna); H. Andrea (Helene); M.D. Spreeuwenberg (Marieke); M.M. Thunnissen (Moniek); U.M. Ziegler (Uli); J.J.M. Dekker (Jack)


    textabstractAbstract BACKGROUND: While psychopharmacological studies are common in patients with cluster A personality disorders, the effects of psychotherapy have received little attention. The aim of this study is to explore whether psychotherapeutic treatment yields health gains for these patien

  10. The Dodo-Bird Debate, Empirically Supported Relationships and Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Luc; de Sousa, Ana Carolina Aquino


    The dodo-bird verdict has haunted the literature on psychotherapy outcome since its early beginnings. It is based on the counter-intuitive finding that often highly diverging treatments do not differ much in effectiveness. There is evidence that much of the common effect of different treatments can be related to unspecific factors as opposed to…

  11. Trends in Psychotherapy Process Research: Samples, Measures, Researchers, and Classic Publications. (United States)

    Hill, Clara E.; And Others


    Examined psychotherapy studies published in "Journal of Counseling Psychology" (JCP) and "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" (JCCP) between 1978 and 1992. Found that JCP published mostly process, outcome, and analogue research, whereas JCCP published mostly outcome research. Most process and process-outcome studies across journals were…

  12. Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Parker, Ben; Turner, William


    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. Method: The Cochrane Collaboration's criteria for data synthesis and study quality assessment were used. Electronic bibliographic databases and web searches were used to identify randomized and…

  13. Interventions to Increase Attendance at Psychotherapy: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials (United States)

    Oldham, Mary; Kellett, Stephen; Miles, Eleanor; Sheeran, Paschal


    Objective: Rates of nonattendance for psychotherapy hinder the effective delivery of evidence-based treatments. Although many strategies have been developed to increase attendance, the effectiveness of these strategies has not been quantified. Our aim in the present study was to undertake a meta-analysis of rigorously controlled studies to…

  14. Trends in Psychotherapy Training: A National Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training (United States)

    Sudak, Donna M.; Goldberg, David A.


    Objective: The authors sought to determine current trends in residency training of psychiatrists. Method: The authors surveyed U.S. general-psychiatry training directors about the amount of didactic training, supervised clinical experience, and numbers of patients treated in the RRC-mandated models of psychotherapy (psychodynamic,…

  15. Psychometric properties of the Helping Alliance Questionnaire-I in psychodynamic psychotherapy for major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, Marielle; Van, Rien; Peen, Jaap; Oudejans, Suzan; Schoevers, Robert; Dekker, Jack


    The psychometric properties of the Helping Alliance Questionnaire-I were analyzed at two times in short-term psychoanalytic supportive psychotherapy for outpatient depression. Exploratory factor analysis conducted in 142 patients generated a model that was confirmed in a different validation sample

  16. The Counselling and Psychotherapy Profession in Canada: Regulatory Processes and Current Status (United States)

    Martin, Lorna; Turcotte, Michel; Matte, Laurent; Shepard, Blythe


    Like the Canadian landscape and culture, the status of professional regulation for counselling and psychotherapy is a mosaic reflecting the unique cultural, linguistic and contextual realities of Canada. Statutory regulation in Canada is constitutionally a provincial/territorial matter. In the past five years, a major movement towards professional…

  17. An Exploratory Study of the Defence Mechanisms Used in Psychotherapy by Adults Who Have Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Newman, D. W.; Beail, N.


    Problem: A significant concept in psychodynamic theory and practice is that of defence mechanisms. The identifications of defences is a key task of the therapist and these are then used in the formulation and form part of the therapist's interventions. Case studies of psychotherapy with adults who have intellectual disabilities (IDs) suggest that…

  18. Dropout and therapeutic alliance: a meta-analysis of adult individual psychotherapy. (United States)

    Sharf, Jennie; Primavera, Louis H; Diener, Marc J


    This meta-analytic review of 11 studies examined the relationship between psychotherapy dropout and therapeutic alliance in adult individual psychotherapy. Results of the meta-analysis demonstrate a moderately strong relationship between psychotherapy dropout and therapeutic alliance (d = .55). Findings indicate that clients with weaker therapeutic alliance are more likely to drop out of psychotherapy. The meta-analysis included a total of 1,301 participants, with an average of 118 participants per study, a standard deviation of 115 participants, and a range from 20 to 451 participants per study. Exploratory analyses were conducted to determine the influence of variables moderating the relationship between alliance and dropout. Client educational history, treatment length, and treatment setting were found to moderate the relationship between alliance and dropout. Studies with a larger percentage of clients who completed high school or higher demonstrated weaker relationships between alliance and dropout. Studies with lengthier treatments demonstrated stronger relationships between alliance and dropout. Inpatient settings demonstrated significantly larger effects than both counseling centers and research clinics. No significant differences were found between client-rated, therapist-rated, and observer/staff-rated alliance. Recommendations for clinicians and researchers are discussed.

  19. Implications of RDoC for the research and practice of psychotherapy. (United States)

    Hershenberg, Rachel; Goldfried, Marvin R


    The field of psychotherapy is at an important juncture. Recent changes in the field include (a) the skeptical reception of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and (b) NIMH's prioritization of an alternative classification system to guide translational and intervention research. Moreover, (c) the field continues to be held accountable to governmental agencies and third-party payers to demonstrate its empirical basis. Thus, psychological research as it relates to the practice of psychotherapy is at a crossroads. In this article, we provide a brief overview of several generations of psychotherapy outcome research, including the consequences that followed in the 1980s as psychotherapy research moved toward randomized controlled trials for clinical disorders. We delineate the inherent strengths and limitations of this movement and address how the NIMH has recently responded with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). We then address philosophical and practical implications of the emphasis on a neuroscientific conceptualization of psychological problems. Finally, we discuss opportunities for a next generation of convergent science that incorporates, rather than replaces, psychosocial variables across stages of translational research and treatment development.

  20. An Interpersonal Psychotherapy Approach to Counseling Student Athletes: Clinical Implications of Athletic Identity (United States)

    Heird, Emily Benton; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.


    Research has shown that disruptive circumstances in an athlete's career (temporary injury, permanent injury, retirement) can pose significant difficulties, especially if the athlete has developed a salient athletic identity at the expense of a multidimensional self-concept. The authors present an interpersonal psychotherapy approach to case…