WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavior results suggested

  1. How Interviewers' Nonverbal Behaviors Can Affect Children's Perceptions and Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerigogna, Jehanne; Ost, James; Akehurst, Lucy; Fluck, Mike

    2008-01-01

    We conducted two studies to examine how interviewers' nonverbal behaviors affect children's perceptions and suggestibility. In the first study, 42 8- to 10-year-olds watched video clips showing an interviewer displaying combinations of supportive and nonsupportive nonverbal behaviors and were asked to rate the interviewer on six attributes (e.g.,…

  2. Age and interviewer behavior as predictors of interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukala, Karolina; Polczyk, Romuald

    2014-05-01

    The main objective was to explore the influence of interviewer behavior-abrupt versus friendly-and the age of participants on interrogative suggestibility. The study involved 42 young adults and 50 elderly participants. The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale 2 was used. Data analysis involved a 2-factor between-subjects design (interviewer behavior × age) and mediation analysis. The scores of elderly participants were significantly lower than younger adults on memory indices and significantly higher on some suggestibility indexes. Some suggestibility indices in the abrupt experimental condition were higher than those in the friendly experimental condition. Elderly participants who were interviewed under the abrupt condition were more likely to change their answers after receiving negative feedback than younger adults. Memory quality was a mediator of the relationship between age and the tendency to yield to suggestive questions. Self-appraisal of memory was a mediator between both age and interviewer behavior and the tendency to change answers after negative feedback. Mechanisms of the relationship between age, interviewer behavior, and suggestibility are discussed on the basis of the mediational analyses. The findings suggest that a friendly manner should be adopted when interrogating witnesses.

  3. Regulating professional behavior: codes of ethics or law? Suggested criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Liron A

    2013-09-01

    This paper suggests considering a few parameters when making policy decisions as to the proper "tool" to regulate professional behavior: law or professional ethics. This is done on the background of understanding the place of codes of professional ethics between "pure" ethics and law. Suggested criteria are then illustrated using a few examples. Further discourse may reveal additional factors to support a more rational process of decision-making in this field.

  4. General Parenting Strategies: Practical Suggestions for Common Child Behavior Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavan, Michael G; Saxena, Shailendra K; Rafiq, Naureen

    2018-05-15

    Parents often seek guidance from physicians on child behavior problems. Questions may range from general parenting strategies to managing specific child behaviors. Physicians and their staff can identify problematic parent-child interactions or behaviors within the office setting and assist parents by providing effective monitoring tools for behavior problems. Effective strategies for influencing a child's behavior include positive reinforcement to increase appropriate behavior, extinction (planned ignoring) for most low-level problematic behaviors, and time-out from reinforcement for more problematic behaviors. Written contracting provides parents the opportunity to communicate with their children about important behaviors and strengthens the commitment of each party to improve behavior. Parents should be cautioned about the use of punishment (e.g., scolding, taking away privileges or possessions) because it suppresses behavior only temporarily. Physicians should discourage physical or corporal punishment because it is related to negative parent-child relationships, increased aggressiveness, antisocial behavior, lower cognitive ability, lower self-esteem, mental health problems, and increased risk of physical abuse.

  5. Mobbing Experiences of Instructors: Causes, Results, and Solution Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celep, Cevat; Konakli, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate possible mobbing problems in universities, their causes and results, and to attract attention to precautions that can be taken. Phenomenology as one of the qualitative research methods was used in the study. Sample group of the study was selected through the criteria sampling method and eight instructors…

  6. The role of warning behaviors in threat assessment: an exploration and suggested typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Meloy, J; Hoffmann, Jens; Guldimann, Angela; James, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of warning behaviors offers an additional perspective in threat assessment. Warning behaviors are acts which constitute evidence of increasing or accelerating risk. They are acute, dynamic, and particularly toxic changes in patterns of behavior which may aid in structuring a professional's judgment that an individual of concern now poses a threat - whether the actual target has been identified or not. They require an operational response. A typology of eight warning behaviors for assessing the threat of intended violence is proposed: pathway, fixation, identification, novel aggression, energy burst, leakage, directly communicated threat, and last resort warning behaviors. Previous research on risk factors associated with such warning behaviors is reviewed, and examples of each warning behavior from various intended violence cases are presented, including public figure assassination, adolescent and adult mass murder, corporate celebrity stalking, and both domestic and foreign acts of terrorism. Practical applications and future research into warning behaviors are suggested. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER IN THE MEDICAL SETTING: Suggestive Behaviors, Syndromes, and Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a personality dysfunction that is characterized by disinhibition and impulsivity, which oftentimes manifest as self-regulation difficulties. Patients with this disorder have always been present in medical settings, but have been described as "difficult patients" rather than patients with borderline personality disorder. According to empirical findings, a number of behaviors and medical syndromes/diagnoses are suggestive of borderline personality disorder. Suggestive behaviors in the medical setting may include aggressive or disruptive behaviors, the intentional sabotage of medical care, and excessive healthcare utilization. Suggestive medical syndromes and diagnoses in the medical setting may include alcohol and substance misuse (including the abuse of prescription medications), multiple somatic complaints, chronic pain, obesity, sexual impulsivity, and hair pulling. While not all-inclusive or diagnostic, these behaviors and syndromes/diagnoses may invite further clinical evaluation of the patient for borderline personality disorder.

  8. Not all group hypnotic suggestibility scales are created equal: individual differences in behavioral and subjective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sean M; Lynn, Steven Jay; Pekala, Ronald J

    2009-03-01

    To examine the influence of hypnotic suggestibility testing as a source of individual differences in hypnotic responsiveness, we compared behavioral and subjective responses on three scales of hypnotic suggestibility: The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS: A; Shor, R. E., Orne, E. C. (1962). Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. Berlin: Consulting Psychologists Press); the Carleton University Responsiveness to Suggestion Scale (CURSS; Spanos, N. P., Radtke, H. L., Hodgins, D. C., Stam, H. J., Bertrand, L. D. (1983b). The Carleton University Responsiveness to Suggestion Scale: Normative data and psychometric properties. Psychological Reports, 53, 523-535); and the Group Scale of Hypnotic Ability (GSHA; Hawkins, R., Wenzel, L. (1999). The Group Scale of Hypnotic Ability and response booklet. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27, 20-31). Behavioral and subjective responses to the CURSS were significantly different than those on the HGSHS: A and GSHA. More participants were classified as "low suggestible" on the CURSS and they reported subjective experiences more similar to everyday mentation. Attitudes and expectancies of participants who received the GSHA were less predictive of responding, but rates of responding and subjective experiences were similar on the GSHA and the HGSHS: A. Discussion focuses on implications for the use of group hypnotic suggestibility scales.

  9. Is working memory working against suggestion susceptibility? Results from extended version of DRM paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciaszek Patrycja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates relationship between working memory efficiency, defined as the result of its’ processing & storage capacity (Oberauer et al., 2003 and the tendency to (1 create assosiative memory distortions (false memories, FM; (2 yield under the influence of external, suggesting factors. Both issues were examined using extended version of Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure (1959, 1995, modified in order to meet the study demands. Suggestion was contained in an ostentatious feedback information the participants (N=88 received during the DRM procedure. Working memory (WM was measured by standardized tasks (n-back, Jaeggi et al., 2010; automatic-ospan, Unsworth et al., 2005. Study included 3 conditions, differing in the quality of suggestion (positive, negative or neutral. Participants were assigned into 3 groups, depending on results they achieved completing the WM tasks. Obtained results alongside the previously set hypothesis, revealed that (1 WM impacts individuals’ tendency to create false memories in DRM and (2 that the individuals showing higher rates in WM tasks are less willing to yield to suggestion compared to those with lesser ones. It also showed that the greater amount to shift (Gudjonsson, 2003, emerges under the negative suggestion condition (collating positive. Notwithstanding that the interaction effect did not achieve saliency, both analyzed factors (WM and suggesting content are considered as meaningful to explain memory suggestion susceptibility in presented study. Although, obtained results emphasize the crucial role of WM efficiency, that is believed to decide the magnitude of feedback that is influential in every subject. Therefore, issue demands further exploration.

  10. The integration of behavioral health interventions in children's health care: services, science, and suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, David J; Perrin, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Because the integration of mental or behavioral health services in pediatric primary care is a national priority, a description and evaluation of the interventions applied in the healthcare setting is warranted. This article examines several intervention research studies based on alternative models for delivering behavioral health care in conjunction with comprehensive pediatric care. This review describes the diverse methods applied to different clinical problems, such as brief mental health skills, clinical guidelines, and evidence-based practices, and the empirical outcomes of this research literature. Next, several key treatment considerations are discussed to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of these interventions. Some practical suggestions for overcoming key service barriers are provided to enhance the capacity of the practice to deliver behavioral health care. There is moderate empirical support for the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility of these interventions for treating internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Practical strategies to extend this work and address methodological limitations are provided that draw upon recent frameworks designed to simplify the treatment enterprise (e.g., common elements). Pediatric primary care has become an important venue for providing mental health services to children and adolescents due, in part, to its many desirable features (e.g., no stigma, local setting, familiar providers). Further adaptation of existing delivery models may promote the delivery of effective integrated interventions with primary care providers as partners designed to address mental health problems in pediatric healthcare.

  11. Nucleon resonance electroproduction at high momentum transers: Results from SLAC and suggestions for CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppel, C. [Virginia Union Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Nucleon resonance electroproduction results from SLAC Experiment E14OX are presented. A CEBAF facility with doubled energy would enable similar high momentum transfer measurements to be made with greater accuracy. Of particular interest are the Delta P{sub 33}(1232) resonance form factor and R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}, the ratio of the longitudinal and transverse components of the cross section. A suggestion is made to study these quantities in conjunction with Bloom-Gilman duality.

  12. Are Suicidal Behaviors Contagious in Adolescence?: Using Longitudinal Data to Examine Suicide Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrutyn, Seth; Mueller, Anna S

    2014-04-01

    Though Durkheim argued that strong social relationships protect individuals from suicide, we posit that these relationships have the potential to increase individuals' vulnerability when they expose them to suicidality. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we evaluate whether new suicidal thoughts and attempts are in part responses to exposure to the suicide attempts of role models, specifically friends and family. We find that the suicide attempts of role models do in fact trigger new suicidal thoughts and in some cases attempts, even after significant controls are introduced. Moreover, we find that these effects fade with time, that girls are more vulnerable to them than boys, and that the relationship to the role model-for teenagers at least-matters. Friends appear to be more salient role models for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that exposure to suicidal behaviors in significant others may teach individuals new ways to deal with emotional distress, namely by becoming suicidal. This reinforces the idea that the structure - and content - of social networks conditions their role in preventing suicidality. Specifically, social ties can be conduits of not just social support, but also anti-social behaviors, like suicidality.

  13. Are Suicidal Behaviors Contagious in Adolescence?: Using Longitudinal Data to Examine Suicide Suggestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrutyn, Seth; Mueller, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Though Durkheim argued that strong social relationships protect individuals from suicide, we posit that these relationships have the potential to increase individuals’ vulnerability when they expose them to suicidality. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we evaluate whether new suicidal thoughts and attempts are in part responses to exposure to the suicide attempts of role models, specifically friends and family. We find that the suicide attempts of role models do in fact trigger new suicidal thoughts and in some cases attempts, even after significant controls are introduced. Moreover, we find that these effects fade with time, that girls are more vulnerable to them than boys, and that the relationship to the role model—for teenagers at least—matters. Friends appear to be more salient role models for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that exposure to suicidal behaviors in significant others may teach individuals new ways to deal with emotional distress, namely by becoming suicidal. This reinforces the idea that the structure – and content – of social networks conditions their role in preventing suicidality. Specifically, social ties can be conduits of not just social support, but also anti-social behaviors, like suicidality. PMID:26069341

  14. Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) Observations Suggest Widespread Occurrence and Complex Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, D. E.; Grimm, R. E.; Wagstaff, K.; Bue, B. D.; Michaels, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    RSL are described as narrow dark features that incrementally lengthen down steep slopes during warm seasons, fade in cold seasons, and recur annually. HiRISE observations from 5+ Mars years have allowed us to confirm 100 RSL sites and identify more than 600 candidate RSL sites. Detailed analysis of a few RSL sites has been performed using computer assisted analysis. RSL occur in low-albedo (dust-poor) regions with a latitude range of 42.2°N - 53.1°S. They are densely clustered throughout Valles Marineris (VM), in the light-toned layered deposits of Margaritifer and SW Arabia Terrae, Cerberus Fossae, and well-preserved impact craters in Chryse and Acidalia Planitae (CAP). RSL sites are also found at lower densities throughout the low-albedo highland terrains. RSL incrementally lengthen when their slopes are warm, thus the season at which RSL lengthen is dependent on latitude and slope orientation. While RSL occur on all slope orientation there is a large bias to W-facing and equatorial facing slopes. During the RSL activity season, RSL lengthening does not appear to be constant: (1) CAP RSL initially quickly lengthen and slow their lengthening rate by about an order of magnitude as temperatures increase, (2) many VM RSL sites possess RSL that fade at the same time that neighboring RSL on the same slope incrementally lengthen, and (3) some RSL sites in the southern mid-latitudes show at least two pulses of RSL activity - during the southern fall and summer RSL incrementally lengthen, fade, and then start incrementally lengthening again followed by fading as temperatures cool. The correlation of RSL activity to surface temperature, spectrally-derived hydrated salts, and quick fading all point to a wet formation mechanism. However, water sources remain problematic as water budgets suggest a much greater amount of water than could be trapped from the atmosphere. Additionally, some RSL occur in locations where subsurface discharge via an aquifer would be challenging

  15. GIFT GIVING BEHAVIORS OF CONSUMERS AND AN INNOVATIVE E-BUSINESS MODEL SUGGESTION

    OpenAIRE

    Apaydin, Fahri

    2017-01-01

    Consumersgive each other gifts for various reasons in every culture and they spendconsiderable amount of time and money on gift giving activity. Thus, giftgiving behavior which is a need of consumers to be satisfied deserves a lot ofacademic studies and in this conceptual paper, gift giving behavior is examinedin details after a comprehensive literature review. E-business is exponentiallydeveloping and digital marketing is trying to find out solutions for theproblems of consumers more efficie...

  16. Multimarker analysis suggests the involvement of BDNF signaling and microRNA biosynthesis in suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulay, Attila J; Réthelyi, János M

    2016-09-01

    Despite moderate heritability estimates the genetics of suicidal behavior remains unclear, genome-wide association and candidate gene studies focusing on single nucleotide associations reported inconsistent findings. Our study explored biologically informed, multimarker candidate gene associations with suicidal behavior in mood disorders. We analyzed the GAIN Whole Genome Association Study of Bipolar Disorder version 3 (n = 999, suicidal n = 358) and the GAIN Major Depression: Stage 1 Genomewide Association in Population-Based Samples (n = 1,753, suicidal n = 245) datasets. Suicidal behavior was defined as severe suicidal ideation or attempt. Candidate genes were selected based on literature search (Geneset1, n = 35), gene expression data of microRNA genes, (Geneset2, n = 68) and their target genes (Geneset3, n = 11,259). Quality control, dosage analyses were carried out with PLINK. Gene-based associations of Geneset1 were analyzed with KGG. Polygenic profile scores of suicidal behavior were computed in the major depression dataset both with PRSice and LDpred and validated in the bipolar disorder data. Several nominally significant gene-based associations were detected, but only DICER1 associated with suicidal behavior in both samples, while only the associations of NTRK2 in the depression sample reached family wise and experiment wise significance. Polygenic profile scores negatively predicted suicidal behavior in the bipolar sample for only Geneset2, with the strongest prediction by PRSice at Pt  suicide and the cross-disorder association of DICER1. Polygenic risk prediction of the selected miRNA genes indicates that the miRNA system may play a mediating role, but with considerable pleiotropy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Small-scale demographic structure suggests preemptive behavior in a flocking shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyrer, J.; Lok, T.; Brugge, M.; Dekinga, A.; van Gils, J.A.; Sandercock, B.K.; Piersma, T.

    2012-01-01

    Under the ideal-free distribution, omniscient individuals with similar habitat requirements that are free to move should be distributed such that no individual can improve fitness by changing sites; deviations would indicate trade-offs and constraints on ranging behavior. We studied site occupancy

  18. Facultative methanotrophy: false leads, true results, and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jeremy D; DiSpirito, Alan A; Vuilleumier, Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    Methanotrophs are a group of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms characterized by their ability to utilize methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Early studies suggested that growth on methane could be stimulated with the addition of some small organic acids, but initial efforts to find facultative methanotrophs, i.e., methanotrophs able to utilize compounds with carbon-carbon bonds as sole growth substrates were inconclusive. Recently, however, facultative methanotrophs in the genera Methylocella, Methylocapsa, and Methylocystis have been reported that can grow on acetate, as well as on larger organic acids or ethanol for some species. All identified facultative methanotrophs group within the Alphaproteobacteria and utilize the serine cycle for carbon assimilation from formaldehyde. It is possible that facultative methanotrophs are able to convert acetate into intermediates of the serine cycle (e.g. malate and glyoxylate), because a variety of acetate assimilation pathways convert acetate into these compounds (e.g. the glyoxylate shunt of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway, the citramalate cycle, and the methylaspartate cycle). In this review, we summarize the history of facultative methanotrophy, describe scenarios for the basis of facultative methanotrophy, and pose several topics for future research in this area. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigations of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation - results, conclusions and suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; Horwacik, T; Marczewska, B; Ochab, E; Olko, P

    2002-01-01

    In frame of a research project undertaken in collaboration with Polish airlines LOT, analysis of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation has been performed. The applied methods included measurements of radiation doses with thermoluminescent detectors (MTS-N, MCP-N) and track detectors (CR-39) and also calculations of route doses with the CARI computer code. The obtained results indicate that aircrews of nearly all airplanes, with exception of these flying only on ATR aircraft, exceed regularly or may exceed in some conditions, effective doses of 1 mSv. In case of Boeing-767 aircrews such exceeding occurs always, independently of solar activity. Investigations revealed, that during these periods of the solar cycle, when intensity of cosmic radiation is high, exceeding of 6 mSv level is also possible. These results indicate, that according to Polish and European regulations it is necessary for airlines to provide regular estimations of radiation exposure of aircrews. Basing on the obtained results a system for pe...

  20. Response expectancies, treatment credibility, and hypnotic suggestibility: mediator and moderator effects in hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Leonard S; Shores, Jessica S; Coursen, Elizabeth L; Menario, Deanna J; Farris, Catherine D

    2007-04-01

    Several studies have shown that response expectancies are an important mechanism of popular psychological interventions for pain. However, there has been no research on whether response expectancies and treatment credibility independently mediate hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions and whether the pattern of mediation is affected by experience with the interventions. Also, past research has indicated that hypnotic pain interventions may be moderated by hypnotic suggestibility. However, these studies have typically failed to measure the full range of suggestibility and have assessed pain reduction and suggestibility in the same experimental context, possibly inflating the association between these variables. To clarify the mediator role of response expectancies and treatment credibility, and the moderator role of hypnotic suggestibility in the hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral reduction of pain. Approximately 300 participants were assessed for suggestibility. Then, as part of an apparently unrelated experiment, 124 of these individuals received analogue cognitive-behavioral, hypnotic, or placebo control pain interventions. Response expectancies and credibility independently mediated treatment. The extent of mediation increased as participants gained more experience with the interventions. Suggestibility moderated treatment and was associated with relief only from the hypnotic intervention. Response expectancies and treatment credibility are unique mechanisms of hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts relief from hypnotic pain interventions and this association is not simply an artifact of measuring suggestibility and pain reduction in the same experimental context. The relationship between suggestibility and hypnotic pain reduction appears to be linear in nature.

  1. Testing for variation in taxonomic extinction probabilities: a suggested methodology and some results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Nichols, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Several important questions in evolutionary biology and paleobiology involve sources of variation in extinction rates. In all cases of which we are aware, extinction rates have been estimated from data in which the probability that an observation (e.g., a fossil taxon) will occur is related both to extinction rates and to what we term encounter probabilities. Any statistical method for analyzing fossil data should at a minimum permit separate inferences on these two components. We develop a method for estimating taxonomic extinction rates from stratigraphic range data and for testing hypotheses about variability in these rates. We use this method to estimate extinction rates and to test the hypothesis of constant extinction rates for several sets of stratigraphic range data. The results of our tests support the hypothesis that extinction rates varied over the geologic time periods examined. We also present a test that can be used to identify periods of high or low extinction probabilities and provide an example using Phanerozoic invertebrate data. Extinction rates should be analyzed using stochastic models, in which it is recognized that stratigraphic samples are random varlates and that sampling is imperfect

  2. Tidal triggering of earthquakes suggests poroelastic behavior on the San Andreas Fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorey, Andrew A.; Elst, Nicholas J. van der; Johnson, Paul Allan

    2016-01-01

    Tidal triggering of earthquakes is hypothesized to provide quantitative information regarding the fault's stress state, poroelastic properties, and may be significant for our understanding of seismic hazard. To date, studies of regional or global earthquake catalogs have had only modest successes in identifying tidal triggering. We posit that the smallest events that may provide additional evidence of triggering go unidentified and thus we developed a technique to improve the identification of very small magnitude events. We identify events applying a method known as inter-station seismic coherence where we prioritize detection and discrimination over characterization. Here we show tidal triggering of earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault. We find the complex interaction of semi-diurnal and fortnightly tidal periods exposes both stress threshold and critical state behavior. Lastly, our findings reveal earthquake nucleation processes and pore pressure conditions – properties of faults that are difficult to measure, yet extremely important for characterizing earthquake physics and seismic hazards.

  3. Tidal triggering of earthquakes suggests poroelastic behavior on the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorey, Andrew; Van Der Elst, Nicholas; Johnson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Tidal triggering of earthquakes is hypothesized to provide quantitative information regarding the fault's stress state, poroelastic properties, and may be significant for our understanding of seismic hazard. To date, studies of regional or global earthquake catalogs have had only modest successes in identifying tidal triggering. We posit that the smallest events that may provide additional evidence of triggering go unidentified and thus we developed a technique to improve the identification of very small magnitude events. We identify events applying a method known as inter-station seismic coherence where we prioritize detection and discrimination over characterization. Here we show tidal triggering of earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault. We find the complex interaction of semi-diurnal and fortnightly tidal periods exposes both stress threshold and critical state behavior. Our findings reveal earthquake nucleation processes and pore pressure conditions – properties of faults that are difficult to measure, yet extremely important for characterizing earthquake physics and seismic hazards.

  4. Dietary options and behavior suggested by plant biomarker evidence in an early human habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Clayton R.; Ashley, Gail M.; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2016-03-01

    The availability of plants and freshwater shapes the diets and social behavior of chimpanzees, our closest living relative. However, limited evidence about the spatial relationships shared between ancestral human (hominin) remains, edible resources, refuge, and freshwater leaves the influence of local resources on our species' evolution open to debate. Exceptionally well-preserved organic geochemical fossils-biomarkers-preserved in a soil horizon resolve different plant communities at meter scales across a contiguous 25,000 m2 archaeological land surface at Olduvai Gorge from about 2 Ma. Biomarkers reveal hominins had access to aquatic plants and protective woods in a patchwork landscape, which included a spring-fed wetland near a woodland that both were surrounded by open grassland. Numerous cut-marked animal bones are located within the wooded area, and within meters of wetland vegetation delineated by biomarkers for ferns and sedges. Taken together, plant biomarkers, clustered bone debris, and hominin remains define a clear spatial pattern that places animal butchery amid the refuge of an isolated forest patch and near freshwater with diverse edible resources.

  5. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Collins, Thomas S; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E; Mills, David A

    2016-06-14

    Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir Wine production is a multi-billion-dollar global industry for which microbial control and wine chemical composition are crucial aspects of quality. Terroir is an important feature of consumer appreciation and wine culture, but the many factors that contribute to terroir are nebulous. We show that grape and wine microbiota exhibit regional patterns that correlate with wine chemical composition, suggesting that the grape microbiome may influence terroir In addition to enriching our understanding of how growing region and wine properties interact, this may provide further economic incentive for agricultural and enological practices that maintain regional

  6. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Collins, Thomas S.; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir. PMID:27302757

  7. Suggestions for Layout and Functional Behavior of Software-Based Voice Switch Keysets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides communication services for a number of real time environments, including Space Shuttle Propulsion support and International Space Station (ISS) payload operations. In such settings, control team members speak with each other via multiple voice circuits or loops. Each loop has a particular purpose and constituency, and users are assigned listen and/or talk capabilities for a given loop based on their role in fulfilling the purpose. A voice switch is a given facility's hardware and software that supports such communication, and may be interconnected with other facilities switches to create a large network that, from an end user perspective, acts like a single system. Since users typically monitor and/or respond to several voice loops concurrently for hours on end and real time operations can be very dynamic and intense, it s vital that a control panel or keyset for interfacing with the voice switch be a servant that reduces stress, not a master that adds it. Implementing the visual interface on a computer screen provides tremendous flexibility and configurability, but there s a very real risk of overcomplication. (Remember how office automation made life easier, which led to a deluge of documents that made life harder?) This paper a) discusses some basic human factors considerations related to keysets implemented as application software windows, b) suggests what to standardize at the facility level and what to leave to the user's preference, and c) provides screen shot mockups for a robust but reasonably simple user experience. Concepts apply to keyset needs in almost any type of operations control or support center.

  8. Knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adults concerning nonalcoholic beverages suggest some lack of comprehension related to sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Kim, Hyeyoung; Gao, Zhifeng; House, Lisa A

    2014-02-01

    Key recommendations in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate are to reduce the intake of added sugars, particularly from sugar-sweetened beverages, and drink water instead of "sugary" beverages. However, little is known about consumer knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding sugars in beverages. We hypothesized that consumers would have limited or inaccurate knowledge of the sugars in beverages and that their beverage consumption behaviors would not reflect their primary concerns related to sugars in beverages. An online survey was completed by 3361 adults 18 years and older residing throughout the United States. Water was consumed in the highest amounts followed by (in descending amounts) other beverages (includes coffee and tea), added sugar beverages, milk, diet drinks, and 100% fruit juice and blends. Participants primarily associated the term "sugary" with beverages containing added sugars; however, almost 40% identified 100% fruit juice as sugary. Some participants misidentified the types of sugars in beverages, particularly with respect to milk and 100% fruit juices. Generally, beverage choices were consistent with stated concerns about total, added, or natural sugars; however, less than 40% of participants identified added sugars as a primary concern when choosing beverages despite public health recommendations to reduce the intake of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages. Results suggest that there may be a considerable level of consumer misunderstanding or confusion about the types of sugars in beverages. More consumer research and education are needed with the goal of helping consumers make more informed and healthy beverage choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayoko Ueda

    Full Text Available As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear, B-type (only the eye position is clear, and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear. A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.

  10. Hypnosis, suggestions, and altered states of consciousness: experimental evaluation of the new cognitive-behavioral theory and the traditional trance-state theory of "hypnosis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T X; Wilson, S C

    1977-10-07

    Sixty-six subjects were tested on a new scale for evaluating "hypnotic-like" experiences (The Creative Imagination Scale), which includes ten standardized test-suggestions (e.g. suggestions for arm heaviness, finger anesthesia, time distortion, and age regression). The subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (Think-With Instructions, trance induction, and Control), with 22 subjects to each group. The new Cognitive-Behavioral Theory predicted that subjects exposed to preliminary instructions designed to demonstrate how to think and imagine along with the suggested themes (Think-With Instructions) would be more responsive to test-suggestions for anesthesia, time distortion, age regression, and so on, than subjects exposed to a trance-induction procedure. On the other hand, the traditional Trance State Theory predicted that a trance induction would be more effective than Think-With Instructions in enhancing responses to such suggestions. Subjects exposed to the Think-With Instructions obtained significantly higher scores on the test-suggestions than those exposed either to the traditional trance-induction procedure or to the control treatment. Scores of subjects who received the trance-induction procedure were not significantly different from those of the subjects who received the control treatment. The results thus supported the new Cognitive-Behavioral Theory and contradicted the traditional Trance State Theory of hypnosis. Two recent experiments, by De Stefano and by Katz, confirmed the above experimental results and offered further support for the Cognitive-Behavioral Theory. In both recent experiments, subjects randomly assigned to a "Think-With Instructions" treatment were more responsive to test-suggestions than those randomly assigned to a traditional trance-induction treatment.

  11. The α-fetoprotein knock-out mouse model suggests that parental behavior is sexually differentiated under the influence of prenatal estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthieu; Pawluski, Jodi L.; Brock, Olivier; Douhard, Quentin; Bakker, Julie

    2010-01-01

    In rodent species, sexual differentiation of the brain for many reproductive processes depends largely on estradiol. This was recently confirmed again by using the α-fetoprotein knockout (AFP-KO) mouse model, which lacks the protective actions of α-fetoprotein against maternal estradiol and as a result represents a good model to determine the contribution of prenatal estradiol to the sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. Female AFP-KO mice were defeminized and masculinized with regard to their neuroendocrine responses as well as sexual behavior. Since parental behavior is also strongly sexually differentiated in mice, we used the AFP-KO mouse model here to ask whether parental responses are differentiated prenatally under the influence of estradiol. It was found that AFP-KO females showed longer latencies to retrieve pups to the nest and also exhibited lower levels of crouching over the pups in the nest in comparison to WT females. In fact, they resembled males (WT and AFP-KO). Other measures of maternal behavior, for example the incidence of infanticide, tended to be higher in AFP-KO females than in WT females but this increase failed to reach statistical significance. The deficits observed in parental behavior of AFP-KO females could not be explained by any changes in olfactory function, novelty recognition or anxiety. Thus our results suggest that prenatal estradiol defeminizes the parental brain in mice. PMID:20109458

  12. A Missing Link in Suggestibility Research: What Is Known About the Behavior of Field Interviewers in Unstructured Interviews With Young Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstrap, Livia L.

    2004-01-01

    Despite suggestibility researchers' focus on adult behaviors that distort children's reports, whether behaviors examined in experimental work are used in the field is unknown. The current study presents a mutually exclusive and exhaustive hierarchical coding system that reflects interview questioning behaviors of concern in experimental work. The…

  13. Behavioral Treatment of Drooling: A Methodological Critique of the Literature with Clinical Guidelines and Suggestions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Burg, Jan J. W.; Didden, Robert; Jongerius, Peter H.; Rotteveel, Jan J.

    2007-01-01

    Many children with mental retardation and developmental disabilities suffer from the consequences of chronic drooling. Behavioral treatment for drooling should be considered before other, more intrusive treatments such as medication and surgery are implemented. However, empirical studies on behavioral procedures are scarce. This article reviews 19…

  14. Repertoire Analysis of Antibody CDR-H3 Loops Suggests Affinity Maturation Does Not Typically Result in Rigidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeliazko R. Jeliazkov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies can rapidly evolve in specific response to antigens. Affinity maturation drives this evolution through cycles of mutation and selection leading to enhanced antibody specificity and affinity. Elucidating the biophysical mechanisms that underlie affinity maturation is fundamental to understanding B-cell immunity. An emergent hypothesis is that affinity maturation reduces the conformational flexibility of the antibody’s antigen-binding paratope to minimize entropic losses incurred upon binding. In recent years, computational and experimental approaches have tested this hypothesis on a small number of antibodies, often observing a decrease in the flexibility of the complementarity determining region (CDR loops that typically comprise the paratope and in particular the CDR-H3 loop, which contributes a plurality of antigen contacts. However, there were a few exceptions and previous studies were limited to a small handful of cases. Here, we determined the structural flexibility of the CDR-H3 loop for thousands of recent homology models of the human peripheral blood cell antibody repertoire using rigidity theory. We found no clear delineation in the flexibility of naïve and antigen-experienced antibodies. To account for possible sources of error, we additionally analyzed hundreds of human and mouse antibodies in the Protein Data Bank through both rigidity theory and B-factor analysis. By both metrics, we observed only a slight decrease in the CDR-H3 loop flexibility when comparing affinity matured antibodies to naïve antibodies, and the decrease was not as drastic as previously reported. Further analysis, incorporating molecular dynamics simulations, revealed a spectrum of changes in flexibility. Our results suggest that rigidification may be just one of many biophysical mechanisms for increasing affinity.

  15. Behavioral Treatment of Drooling: A Methodological Critique of the Literature With Clinical Guidelines and Suggestions for Future Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, J.J.W. van der; Didden, H.C.M.; Jongerius, P.H.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Many children with mental retardation and developmental disabilities suffer from the consequences of chronic drooling. Behavioral treatment for drooling should be considered before other, more intrusive treatments such as medication and surgery are implemented. However, empirical studies on

  16. Behavioral treatment of drooling: a methodological critique of the literature with clinical guidelines and suggestions for future research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, J.J.W. van der; Didden, R.; Jongerius, P.H.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Many children with mental retardation and developmental disabilities suffer from the consequences of chronic drooling. Behavioral treatment for drooling should be considered before other, more intrusive treatments such as medication and surgery are implemented. However, empirical studies on

  17. Localization and Behaviors in Null Mice Suggest that ASIC1 and ASIC2 Modulate Responses to Aversive Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Margaret P.; Gong, Huiyu; Parsons, Meredith G.; Kundert, Jacob R.; Reznikov, Leah R.; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Chaloner, Kathryn; Buchanan, Gordon F.; Wemmie, John A.; Richerson, George B.; Cassell, Martin D.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) generate H+-gated Na+ currents that contribute to neuronal function and animal behavior. Like ASIC1, ASIC2 subunits are expressed in the brain and multimerize with ASIC1 to influence acid-evoked currents and facilitate ASIC1 localization to dendritic spines. To better understand how ASIC2 contributes to brain function, we localized the protein and tested the behavioral consequences of ASIC2 gene disruption. For comparison, we also localized ASIC1 and studied ...

  18. The Influence of Parenting toward Religious Behavior and Study Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulisna Yulisna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the results of research concerning empirical description of the parenting and its influences on religious behavior and students’ study results in the subject of PAI (Pendidikan Agama Islam/Islamic Education. The research method used is qualitative and quantitative methods. The population of the research is all students and their parents in the fifth grade of elementary school in one group of Pulau Kijang, in Reteh Subdistrict, Indragiri Hilir, Riau. The sampling used the technique of cluster sampling for 80 students and 80 parents. The results of the research show that the parenting determines the height and low of students’ religious behavior and PAI study results. Students who have high and average religious behavior are educated by the parents having the authoritative parenting, while the students having low religious behavior are those who are educated by authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, authoritarian-authoritative combination, and authoritative-permissive combination parentings. Meanwhile, students who have the high study results are educated by the parents having the authoritative parenting, while the students whose study results are average are educated by the authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, authoritarian-authoritative combination, and authoritative-permissive combination parentings. 

  19. Progesterone Exerts a Neuromodulatory Effect on Turning Behavior of Hemiparkinsonian Male Rats: Expression of 3α-Hydroxysteroid Oxidoreductase and Allopregnanolone as Suggestive of GABAA Receptors Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Yunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing amount of evidence for a neuroprotective role of progesterone and its neuroactive metabolite, allopregnanolone, in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. By using a model of hemiparkinsonism in male rats, injection of the neurotoxic 6-OHDA in left striatum, we studied progesterone’s effects on rotational behavior induced by amphetamine or apomorphine. Also, in order to find potential explanatory mechanisms, we studied expression and activity of nigrostriatal 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase, the enzyme that catalyzes progesterone to its active metabolite allopregnanolone. Coherently, we tested allopregnanolone for a possible neuromodulatory effect on rotational behavior. Also, since allopregnanolone is known as a GABAA modulator, we finally examined the action of GABAA antagonist bicuculline. We found that progesterone, in addition to an apparent neuroprotective effect, also increased ipsilateral expression and activity of 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase. It was interesting to note that ipsilateral administration of allopregnanolone reversed a clear sign of motor neurodegeneration, that is, contralateral rotational behavior. A possible GABAA involvement modulated by allopregnanolone was shown by the blocking effect of bicuculline. Our results suggest that early administration of progesterone possibly activates genomic mechanisms that promote neuroprotection subchronically. This, in turn, could be partially mediated by fast, nongenomic, actions of allopregnanolone acting as an acute modulator of GABAergic transmission.

  20. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 15 satellites resulting in Prader-Willi syndrome suggest a complex mechanism for uniparental disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth-Fijel, S.; Gunter, K.; Olson, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We report two cases of PWS in which there was abnormal meiosis I segregation of chromosome 15 following a rare translocation event between the heteromorphic satellite regions of chromosomes 14 and 15 and an apparent meiotic recombination in the unstable region of 15q11.2. PWS and normal appearing chromosomes in case one prompted a chromosome 15 origin analysis. PCR analysis indicated maternal isodisomy for the long arm of chromosome. However, only one chromosome 15 had short arm heteromorphisms consistent with either paternal or maternal inheritance. VNTR DNA analysis and heteromorphism data suggest that a maternal de novo translocation between chromosome 14 and 15 occurred prior to meiosis I. This was followed by recombination between D15Z1 and D15S11 and subsequent meiosis I nondisjunction. Proband and maternal karyotype display a distamycin A-DAPI positive region on the chromosome 14 homolog involved in the translocation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of ONCOR probes D15S11, SNRPN, D15S11 and GABRB 3 were normal, consistent with the molecular data. Case two received a Robertsonian translocation t(14;15)(p13;p13) of maternal origin. Chromosome analysis revealed a meiosis I error producing UPD. FISH analysis of the proband and parents showed normal hybridization of ONCOR probes D15Z1, D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10 and GABRB3. In both cases the PWS probands received a structurally altered chromosome 15 that had rearranged with chromosome 14 prior to meiosis. If proper meiotic segregation is dependent on the resolution of chiasmata and/or the binding to chromosome-specific spindle fibers, then it may be possible that rearrangements of pericentric or unstable regions of the genome disrupt normal disjunction and lead to uniparental disomy.

  1. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent: retrospective results from a tertiary clinic suggesting an association with facial dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D; Thyssen, J P

    2016-10-01

    Chemicals used for the manufacturing of rubber are known causes of allergic contact dermatitis on the hands. Recent European studies have suggested a decrease in thiuram contact allergy. Moreover, while an association with hand dermatitis is well established, we have recently observed several clinical cases with allergic facial dermatitis to rubber. To evaluate temporal trends of contact allergy to rubber accelerators from the European baseline series in a tertiary patch test clinic in Denmark, and examine associations with anatomical locations of dermatitis. Patch test and clinical data collected in a Danish tertiary dermatology clinic in Gentofte, Herlev, Copenhagen between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2014 were analysed. The following rubber accelerators or mixtures in petrolatum from the European baseline patch test series were included: thiuram mix 1.0%, mercaptobenzothiazole 2.0% and mercapto mix 1.0%. The overall prevalence of contact allergy to rubber accelerators was 3.1% with no significant change during the study period (P trend = 0.667). Contact allergy to thiuram mix was the most prevalent and was significantly associated with occupational contact dermatitis, hand dermatitis, age >40 years and facial dermatitis in adjusted binary logistic regression analysis. Current clinical relevance of contact allergy to thiuram mix was 59.3%. Patients with contact allergy to mercapto mix and mercaptobenzothiazole had a concomitant reaction to thiuram mix in 35.2% (19/54) and 35.4% (17/48) of the cases respectively. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent. Clinicians should be aware of the hitherto unexplored clinical association with facial dermatitis. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  2. The Influence of Parenting toward Religious Behavior and Study Result

    OpenAIRE

    Yulisna Yulisna; Hadi Arbiyanto; Munawar Rahmat

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the results of research concerning empirical description of the parenting and its influences on religious behavior and students’ study results in the subject of PAI (Pendidikan Agama Islam/Islamic Education). The research method used is qualitative and quantitative methods. The population of the research is all students and their parents in the fifth grade of elementary school in one group of Pulau Kijang, in Reteh Subdistrict, Indragiri Hilir, Riau. The ...

  3. Collective Schema, As a New Concept Suggesting and a View to Proverbs from Cognitive Behavioral Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat SANLI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Behavioral Tharapy doctrine and clinical accumulation have shown that there is a causal link between moods, paradigms, and assessments. These cognitive contents are named as automatic thoughts and schemas. Rational- adaptive automatic thoughts and schemas while bring to person good mood, irrational-maladaptive automatic thoughts and schemas bring to patology. On the other hand this cognitive structures have fed by accepted culture by society and components of this culture such as songs and proverbs which possess necessity and rules. The basic aim of this study is put forth concept of “collective schema” which will be assessable content in Cognitive Behavioral Approach , and clarifying bases of this concept deal with proverbs. In this sense, adaptive and maladaptive aspects of collective shema concept, have been commented, cognitive disortions which fed by maladaptive schemas deal with collective aspect, have been categorised and illustrated with proverbs. With this study we aimed create a groundwork for previous studies. [JCBPR 2016; 5(2.000: 85-93

  4. Preparing for severe contrast media reactions in children - results of a national survey, a literature review and a suggested protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.; Paterson, A.; Edgar, D.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To identify current practices within paediatric radiology in the UK with regard to the use of prophylactic medication, prior to administering intravenous (IV) radiocontrast medium (RCM). In addition, the pre-injection risk management strategies of the departments questioned was to be evaluated, and using consensus opinion, a protocol for managing patients identified as being at high risk for an adverse reaction to RCM was to be outlined. Materials and methods: An online survey of paediatric radiology consultants representing all geographic regions of the UK was carried out. The questions asked included an assessment of the risk factors for adverse reactions to RCM, and how such reactions are anticipated and managed. The questionnaire asked about the perceived indications for, and the use of prophylactic medication prior to RCM administration. Results: A response rate of 51% was achieved. The majority of respondents felt that a history of previous RCM reaction was an indication to administer prophylactic drugs prior to a further dose of RCM. No other risk factor was believed to require prophylactic medication. Conclusion: Using information obtained from the survey, a literature search was performed to assess the evidence available in support of each practice. A protocol was devised to identify children at risk of an adverse reaction to RCM, and guide the use of prophylactic medication in this group of patients. The survey highlighted considerable variability in the risk-assessment and management practices within paediatric radiology in the UK. The derived protocol may guide radiologists' management of children at risk for an RCM reaction.

  5. A study of the influence of task familiarity on user behaviors and performance with a MeSH term suggestion interface for PubMed bibliographic search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Muh-Chyun; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Wu, Wan-Ching

    2013-09-01

    Previous research has shown that information seekers in biomedical domain need more support in formulating their queries. A user study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a metadata based query suggestion interface for PubMed bibliographic search. The study also investigated the impact of search task familiarity on search behaviors and the effectiveness of the interface. A real user, user search request and real system approach was used for the study. Unlike tradition IR evaluation, where assigned tasks were used, the participants were asked to search requests of their own. Forty-four researchers in Health Sciences participated in the evaluation - each conducted two research requests of their own, alternately with the proposed interface and the PubMed baseline. Several performance criteria were measured to assess the potential benefits of the experimental interface, including users' assessment of their original and eventual queries, the perceived usefulness of the interfaces, satisfaction with the search results, and the average relevance score of the saved records. The results show that, when searching for an unfamiliar topic, users were more likely to change their queries, indicating the effect of familiarity on search behaviors. The results also show that the interface scored higher on several of the performance criteria, such as the "goodness" of the queries, perceived usefulness, and user satisfaction. Furthermore, in line with our hypothesis, the proposed interface was relatively more effective when less familiar search requests were attempted. Results indicate that there is a selective compatibility between search familiarity and search interface. One implication of the research for system evaluation is the importance of taking into consideration task familiarity when assessing the effectiveness of interactive IR systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimentally increasing sedentary behavior results in decreased life satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan K. Edwards

    2017-03-01

    behavior-inducing randomized controlled intervention on life satisfaction. Methods: Active, young adults between the ages of 18-35 were recruited and randomly assigned into a sedentary behavior intervention group (n = 26 or a control group (n = 13. The intervention group participants were instructed to eliminate all exercise and restrict daily steps (as measured via pedometry to 5000 or less per day for one week. The control group was instructed to maintain regular levels of exercise and other physical activity for one week. Both groups completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS pre-intervention and immediately post-intervention. Results: There was a significant group x time interaction (F = 32.75, P < 0.001, with post-hoc contrast tests indicating decreased SWLS score (indicating lower levels of life satisfaction in the intervention group during Visit 2 (post-intervention compared with Visit 1 (pre-intervention; this corresponded with a mean absolute (Visit 2 minus Visit 1 change of -8.58 (95% CI: -5.91, -11.24 for SWLS scores in the intervention group (31.1% reduction. Conclusion: A one-week sedentary behavior-inducing intervention may negatively impact life satisfaction in an active, young adult population. Regular physical activity may be imperative in avoiding negative life satisfaction-related consequences.

  7. Speaking with and without words : An analysis of foster children’s expressions and behaviors that are suggestive of prior sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, Susanna; Batstra, Laura; Grietens, Hans

    2018-01-01

    This exploratory study reports on foster children’s informal self-disclosures of previously unknown histories of sexual abuse. Data were collected from 40 children’s files, and an inductive thematic analysis of verbal and behavioral expressions was conducted. Findings suggest that foster children’s

  8. Senior travelers' trip chaining behavior : survey results and data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The research team conducted a survey of travel and activity scheduling behavior to better understand senior : citizens trip chaining behavior in the Chicago metropolitan areas most populous counties. The team used an : internet-based, prompted ...

  9. Investigating and Managing the Characteristics of Travel Behavior and Travel Patterns for the University of Kufa and Suggestion a Future Transportation Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Athab Al-Jameel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Educational institutions are one of the main trip generators and distributors in the cities around the world. The main campus of the University of Kufa has more than 10 faculties with more than 12,000 people (staff and students. This makes the university is one of the high attracting area of trips in the city. These attracted trips use different modes of transportation such as taxi, private car, min-bus and even walking mode. This study aims to investigate the travel behavior and travel patterns for the current trips and put the suitable suggestions for shifting the travel characteristics using efficient modern modes of transportation. More than 4000 samples have been investigated using interviews asking about the origin, the purpose of trips and the mode of trips. The results of this analysis indicate the urgent need for improving the current transportation system by encouraging public transport such as bus and tram. Moreover, there is a need for improving the design and traffic management for the gates of the university.

  10. Experimentally increasing sedentary behavior results in decreased life satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Meghan K.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: No study has experimentally manipulated sedentary behavior and evaluated its effect on life satisfaction. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a free-living, sedentary behavior-inducing randomized controlled intervention on life satisfaction. Methods: Active, young adults between the ages of 18-35 were recruited and randomly assigned into a sedentary behavior intervention group (n = 26) or a control group (n = 13). The intervention group par...

  11. Preliminary Results From a Newly Established Behavioral Health Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Maragakis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI have higher rates of preventable diseases such as diabetes in comparison to the general population. While multifaceted, these high rates of preventable diseases in the population with SMI may be partially attributed to limited access to primary care. A new program, the Behavioral Health Home (BHH, which allows for the delivery of somatic care coordination and population-based care, may provide this population with the much needed somatic coordination and education it requires. Methods: The impact of the population-based health management program of the BHH identification and severity rating of glucose metabolism disorders was assessed during the initial 10 months of the BHH. Results: Multiple patients were identified who either were not having hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels drawn per recommended guidelines for individuals prescribed antipsychotic medications or were within diabetic range but did not have a diagnosis of diabetes. Mixed results occurred in regard to patients’ HbA1c levels while engaging in the BHH. Conclusion: This case study provides some initial evidence for the utility of the BHH in regard to identifying patients who need preventive care.

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Patients and Results of Violent Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Oznur

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: High levels of anger and aggression in post-traumatic stress disorder lead to unfavorable social, legal, physical and economic results to family members and the other social layers as much as patients. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the relation between both alcohol-cigarette consumption ratios and anger levels, characteristics of aggressive behaviors and the judicial outcome in cases diagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder due to armed conflict. METHODS: 38 cases diagnosed as post-traumatic stress disorder were included to the study. Pre- and post-traumatic alcohol/cigarette consumption amounts and aggressive behaviors are determined. Impact of Events Scale (Revised (IES-R was used for evaluating post-traumatic stress disorder symptom patterns and severity, Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used for measuring anger and aggression levels, and Taylor and #8217;s Violence Rating Scale was used for evaluating the judicial outcome of aggression. RESULTS: 23 of cases (60.6% were married with children, 13 of cases (34.25 were single and 2 of cases (5.2% were divorced.18 of cases (47.4% were graduate. IES-R total score was 66,9 +/- 12,7, Buss Perry total score was 111,3 +/- 20,5, and Taylor and #8217;s Violence Rate was 2,5 +/- 1,0. When the pre- and post-traumatic aggressive behaviors were compared; physical violence to the partner was increased more than ten times, Physical and verbal violence to social individuals were increased more than four and seven times, respectively. And also it is observed that inflicting damage to property was increased 17 times, reckless driving was increased 11 times, and self-mutilation was increased 5 times. Alcohol consumption was determined as 0 (0 - 126 g/day for pre-trauma cases and 16.5 (0 - 294 g/day for post-trauma cases. Cigarette smoking was determined as 5 (0 and #8211; 40 cigarette/day for pre-trauma cases and 30 (0 -60 cigarette/day for post-trauma cases. CONCLUSION: Post

  13. Controlled study of child health supervision: behavioral results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guteilus, M F; Kirsch, A D; MacDonald, S; Brooks, M R; McErlean, T

    1977-09-01

    Extensive child health supervision, with emphasis on counseling and anticipatory guidance, was provided for the first three years of life to an experimental series of 47 normal first-born black infants from low-income families living in the environs of Children's Hospital in Washington, D.C. The mothers were unmarried schoolgirls in normal physical and mental health. A control series consisted of 48 similar mother-child dyads from the same area. Data were collected, in part by an outside evaluator, at yearly intervals on both experimental and control series in a form suitable for coding on computer cards. Comparison of differences in behavioral results between the two series showed statistically significant findings in favor of the experimental children, as well as numerous favorable trends during the first six years of life. Positive effects became evident in diet and eating, habits, in some developmental problems of growing up (such as toilet training), and in certain abstract qualities including self-confidence. Significant differences were also noted between the experimental and control mothers for various child rearing practices and personality characteristics. No significant difference or trend favored the control series. We believe that a causal relationship existed between the intervention and at least some of the significant findings.

  14. The psychological behaviorism theory of pain and the placebo: its principles and results of research application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Peter S; Hekmat, Hamid; Staats, Arthur W

    2004-01-01

    The psychological behaviorism theory of pain unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive-behavioral theories of pain and facilitates development of a common vocabulary for pain research across disciplines. Pain investigation proceeds in seven interacting realms: basic biology, conditioned learning, language cognition, personality differences, pain behavior, the social environment, and emotions. Because pain is an emotional response, examining the bidirectional impact of emotion is pivotal to understanding pain. Emotion influences each of the other areas of interest and causes the impact of each factor to amplify or diminish in an additive fashion. Research based on this theory of pain has revealed the ameliorating impact on pain of (1) improving mood by engaging in pleasant sexual fantasies, (2) reducing anxiety, and (3) reducing anger through various techniques. Application of the theory to therapy improved the results of treatment of osteoarthritic pain. The psychological behaviorism theory of the placebo considers the placebo a stimulus conditioned to elicit a positive emotional response. This response is most powerful if it is elicited by conditioned language. Research based on this theory of the placebo that pain is ameliorated by a placebo suggestion and augmented by a nocebo suggestion and that pain sensitivity and pain anxiety increase susceptibility to a placebo.

  15. Teacher Behavior and Student Outcomes : Results of a European Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panayiotou, A.; Kyriakides, L.; Creemers, B.P.M.; McMahon, L.; Vanlaar, G.; Pfeifer, M.; Rekalidou, G.; Bren, M.

    This study investigates the extent to which the factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness are associated with student achievement gains in six different European countries. At classroom level, the dynamic model refers to eight factors relating to teacher behavior in the

  16. Energy Challenges: Isolating Results Due to Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Kelly; Pallant, Eric; Bradshaw-Wilson, Casey; Choate, Beth; Carbone, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Approximately 700 colleges and universities have committed to climate neutrality, which will require significant reductions in energy consumption. This paper aims to explore the effectiveness of an Annual Energy Challenge in curtailing electricity use by changing consumption behaviors at one liberal arts college.…

  17. Behavioral Effects of a Novel Benzofuranyl-Piperazine Serotonin-2C Receptor Agonist Suggest a Potential Therapeutic Application in the Treatment of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Rodriguez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are the only effective pharmacological treatments for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD. Nonetheless, their generally limited efficacy, side-effects, and delayed onset of action require improved medications for this highly prevalent disorder. Preclinical and clinical findings have suggested serotonin2C (5-HT2C receptors as a potential drug target. Data in rats and mice are presented here on the effects of a novel 5-HT2C receptor agonist ((3S-3-Methyl-1-[4-(trifluoromethyl-7-benzofuranyl]-piperazine (CPD 1 with high potency and full efficacy at 5-HT2C receptors and less potency and partial agonism at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors. Effects of CPD 1 on consummatory (schedule-induced polydipsia in rats and non-consummatory behaviors (marble-burying and nestlet-shredding in mice that are repetitive and non-habituating were studied. We also evaluated the effects of CPD 1 in rats with isoproterenol- and deprivation-induced drinking in rats to compare with the polydipsia studies. The SSRIs, fluoxetine, and chlomipramine decreased the high rates of drinking in rats engendered by a schedule of intermittent food delivery (schedule-induced polydipsia. The effects of fluoxetine, but not of d-amphetamine, were prevented by the selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB242084. The 5-HT2C receptor agonists Ro 60-0175 and CPD 1 also decreased drinking, but unlike the SSRIs and Ro 60-0175, CPD 1 dose-dependently decreased excessive drinking without affecting lever press responses that produced food. The effects of CPD 1 were prevented by SB242084. CPD 1 also suppressed drinking induced by isoproterenol and by water deprivation without affecting normative drinking behavior. CPD 1, like fluoxetine, also suppressed marble-burying and nestlet-shredding in mice at doses that did not affect rotarod performance or locomotor activity. The behavioral specificity of effects of CPD 1 against repetitive and excessive behaviors

  18. 40 CFR Figure C-1 to Subpart C of... - Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 C Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-1 Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Suggested Format for Reporting Test... Difference Table C-1 spec. Pass or fail Low 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm 3 4 5 6 Medium 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm...

  19. Lack of promoter IV-driven BDNF transcription results in depression-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, K; Jin, L; Jha, S

    2010-10-01

    Transcription of Bdnf is controlled by multiple promoters, in which promoter IV contributes significantly to activity-dependent Bdnf transcription. We have generated promoter IV mutant mice [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-KIV] in which promoter IV-driven expression of BDNF is selectively disrupted by inserting a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-STOP cassette within the Bdnf exon IV locus. BDNF-KIV animals exhibited depression-like behavior as shown by the tail suspension test (TST), sucrose preference test (SPT) and learned helplessness test (LHT). In addition, BDNF-KIV mice showed reduced activity in the open field test (OFT) and reduced food intake in the novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT). The mutant mice did not display anxiety-like behavior in the light and dark box test and elevated plus maze tests. Interestingly, the mutant mice showed defective response inhibition in the passive avoidance test (PAT) even though their learning ability was intact when measured with the active avoidance test (AAT). These results suggest that promoter IV-dependent BDNF expression plays a critical role in the control of mood-related behaviors. This is the first study that directly addressed the effects of endogenous promoter-driven expression of BDNF in depression-like behavior. © 2010 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  20. Strengthening the Focus on Business Results: The Need for Systems Approaches in Organizational Behavior Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyten, Cloyd

    2009-01-01

    Current Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) research and practice may be characterized as either behavior focused or results focused. These two approaches stem from different origins and have different characteristics. The behavior-focused approach stems from applied behavior analysis (ABA) methods and emphasizes direct observation of and…

  1. Sleep Behavior and Examination Results of Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Colin Michael; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that sleep, and particularly REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, plays an important role in information processing, this study found no relationship between any aspect of sleep, in particular time of arousal during the week and on weekends, and academic performance. (MLW)

  2. Navigating behavioral energy sufficiency. Results from a survey in Swiss cities on potential behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Roman; Moser, Corinne; Blumer, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Many countries have some kind of energy-system transformation either planned or ongoing for various reasons, such as to curb carbon emissions or to compensate for the phasing out of nuclear energy. One important component of these transformations is the overall reduction in energy demand. It is generally acknowledged that the domestic sector represents a large share of total energy consumption in many countries. Increased energy efficiency is one factor that reduces energy demand, but behavioral approaches (known as "sufficiency") and their respective interventions also play important roles. In this paper, we address citizens' heterogeneity regarding both their current behaviors and their willingness to realize their sufficiency potentials-that is, to reduce their energy consumption through behavioral change. We collaborated with three Swiss cities for this study. A survey conducted in the three cities yielded thematic sets of energy-consumption behavior that various groups of participants rated differently. Using this data, we identified four groups of participants with different patterns of both current behaviors and sufficiency potentials. The paper discusses intervention types and addresses citizens' heterogeneity and behaviors from a city-based perspective.

  3. Sadness, suicide, and sexual behavior in Arkansas: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick

    2013-12-01

    We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.

  4. Experimental data suggesting that inflammation mediated rat liver mitochondrial dysfunction results from secondary hypoxia rather than from direct effects of inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelheid eWeidinger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response (SIR comprises direct effects of inflammatory mediators (IM and indirect effects, such as secondary circulatory failure which results in tissue hypoxia (HOX. These two key components, SIR and HOX, cause multiple organ failure (MOF. Since HOX and IM occur and interact simultaneously in vivo, it is difficult to clarify their individual pathological impact. To eliminate this interaction, precision cut liver slices (PCLS were used in this study aiming to dissect the effects of HOX and IM on mitochondrial function, integrity of cellular membrane and the expression of genes associated with inflammation. HOX was induced by incubating PCLS or rat liver mitochondria at pO2<1% followed by reoxygenation (HOX/ROX model. Inflammatory injury was stimulated by incubating PCLS with IM (IM model. We found upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression only in the IM model, while heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression was upregulated only in the HOX/ROX model. Elevated expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6 was found in both models reflecting converging pathways regulating the expression of this gene. Both models caused damage to hepatocytes resulting in the release of alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The leakage of aspartate aminotransferase (AST was observed only during the hypoxic phase in the HOX/ROX model. The reoxygenation phase of HOX, but not IM, drastically impaired mitochondrial electron supply via complex I and II. Additional experiments performed with isolated mitochondria showed that free iron, released during HOX, is likely a key prerequisite of mitochondrial dysfunction induced during the reoxygenation phase. Our data suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction, previously observed in in vivo SIR-models is the result of secondary circulatory failure inducing HOX rather than the result of a direct interaction of IM with liver cells.

  5. Electrical and thermal behavior of unsaturated soils: experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouveau, Marie; Grandjean, Gilles; Leroy, Philippe; Philippe, Mickael; Hedri, Estelle; Boukcim, Hassan

    2016-05-01

    When soil is affected by a heat source, some of its properties are modified, and in particular, the electrical resistivity due to changes in water content. As a result, these changes affect the thermal properties of soil, i.e., its thermal conductivity and diffusivity. We experimentally examine the changes in electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity for four soils with different grain size distributions and clay content over a wide range of temperatures, from 20 to 100 °C. This temperature range corresponds to the thermal conditions in the vicinity of a buried high voltage cable or a geothermal system. Experiments were conducted at the field scale, at a geothermal test facility, and in the laboratory using geophysical devices and probing systems. The results show that the electrical resistivity decreases and the thermal conductivity increases with temperature up to a critical temperature depending on soil types. At this critical temperature, the air volume in the pore space increases with temperature, and the resulting electrical resistivity also increases. For higher temperatures , the thermal conductivity increases sharply with temperature up to a second temperature limit. Beyond it, the thermal conductivity drops drastically. This limit corresponds to the temperature at which most of the water evaporates from the soil pore space. Once the evaporation is completed, the thermal conductivity stabilizes. To explain these experimental results, we modeled the electrical resistivity variations with temperature and water content in the temperature range 20 - 100°C, showing that two critical temperatures influence the main processes occurring during heating at temperatures below 100 °C.

  6. Assessing the Impact of Antidrug Advertising on Adolescent Drug Consumption: Results From a Behavioral Economic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Lauren G.; Morwitz, Vicki G.; Putsis, William P.; Sen, Subrata K.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether adolescents’ recall of antidrug advertising is associated with a decreased probability of using illicit drugs and, given drug use, a reduced volume of use. Methods. A behavioral economic model of influences on drug consumption was developed with survey data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents to determine the incremental impact of antidrug advertising. Results. The findings provided evidence that recall of antidrug advertising was associated with a lower probability of marijuana and cocaine/crack use. Recall of such advertising was not associated with the decision of how much marijuana or cocaine/crack to use. Results suggest that individuals predisposed to try marijuana are also predisposed to try cocaine/crack. Conclusions. The present results provide support for the effectiveness of antidrug advertising programs. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1346–1351) PMID:12144995

  7. Suggestive Linkage of the Child Behavior Checklist Juvenile Bipolar Disorder Phenotype to 1p21, 6p21, and 8q21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Alysa E.; Biederman, Joseph; Ferreira, Manuel A. R.; Wong, Patricia; Smoller, Jordan W.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Several studies have documented a profile of elevated scores on the Attention Problems, Aggressive Behavior and Anxious/Depressed scales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in youth with bipolar disorder. The sum of these scales, referred to as the CBCL Juvenile Bipolar Disorder (JBD) phenotype, has modest diagnostic utility, and…

  8. Male-typical courtship, spawning behavior, and olfactory sensitivity are induced to different extents by androgens in the goldfish suggesting they are controlled by different neuroendocrine mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ratna; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-06-01

    Male-typical reproductive behaviors vary greatly between different species of fishes with androgens playing a variety of roles that appear especially important in the gonochorist cypriniform fishes. The goldfish is an important model for the cypriniformes and while it is clear that male goldfish are fully feminized by prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α), it is not clear whether females will exhibit normal levels of male-typical reproductive behaviors as well as olfactory function when treated with androgens. To answer this question, we exposed sexually-regressed adult female goldfish to several types of androgen and monitored their tendencies to court (inspect females) and mate (spawn, or attempt to release gametes) while monitoring their olfactory sensitivity until changes in these attributes were maximized. Untreated adult males (intact) were included to determine the extent of masculinization. Treatments included the natural androgens, 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone (KT and T), administered via capsules (KT+T-implanted fish); the artificial androgen, methyltestosterone (MT), administered via capsules (MT-C); and MT administered in the fishes' water (MT-B). Male-typical olfactory sensitivity to a pheromone (15keto-PGF2α) increased in all androgen-treated groups and by week 6 was fully equivalent to that of males. Male-typical courtship behavior increased in all androgen-treated groups although slowly, and only MT-B females came to exhibit levels equivalent to those of males after 18weeks. In contrast, male-typical mating activity increased only slightly, with MT-B females reaching levels one-third that of males after 30weeks. We conclude that while androgens fully masculinize olfactory sensitivity and courtship behavior in goldfish, mating behavior is controlled by a different neuroendocrine mechanism(s) that has yet to be fully elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Results of a multinational study suggest the need for rapid diagnosis and early antiviral treatment at the onset of herpetic meningoencephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Cag, Yasemin; Ozturk-Engin, Derya

    2015-01-01

    survived, with sequelae. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.05), Glasgow Coma Scale score (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.93), and symptomatic periods of 2 to 7 days (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.79) and >7 days (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.72 to 8.15) until the commencement...... of treatment predicted unfavorable outcomes. The outcome in HME patients is related to a combination of therapeutic and host factors. This study suggests that rapid diagnosis and early administration of antiviral treatment in HME patients are keys to a favorable outcome....

  10. Loss of Niemann-Pick C1 or C2 protein results in similar biochemical changes suggesting that these proteins function in a common lysosomal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayali S Dixit

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in the endolysosomal system. NPC disease results from a defect in either of two distinct cholesterol-binding proteins: a transmembrane protein, NPC1, and a small soluble protein, NPC2. NPC1 and NPC2 are thought to function closely in the export of lysosomal cholesterol with both proteins binding cholesterol in vitro but they may have unrelated lysosomal roles. To investigate this possibility, we compared biochemical consequences of the loss of either protein. Analyses of lysosome-enriched subcellular fractions from brain and liver revealed similar decreases in buoyant densities of lysosomes from NPC1 or NPC2 deficient mice compared to controls. The subcellular distribution of both proteins was similar and paralleled a lysosomal marker. In liver, absence of either NPC1 or NPC2 resulted in similar alterations in the carbohydrate processing of the lysosomal protease, tripeptidyl peptidase I. These results highlight biochemical alterations in the lysosomal system of the NPC-mutant mice that appear secondary to lipid storage. In addition, the similarity in biochemical phenotypes resulting from either NPC1 or NPC2 deficiency supports models in which the function of these two proteins within lysosomes are linked closely.

  11. Neurexin Dysfunction in Adult Neurons Results in Autistic-like Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Rabaneda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs comprise a group of clinical phenotypes characterized by repetitive behavior and social and communication deficits. Autism is generally viewed as a neurodevelopmental disorder where insults during embryonic or early postnatal periods result in aberrant wiring and function of neuronal circuits. Neurexins are synaptic proteins associated with autism. Here, we generated transgenic βNrx1ΔC mice in which neurexin function is selectively impaired during late postnatal stages. Whole-cell recordings in cortical neurons show an impairment of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the βNrx1ΔC mice. Importantly, mutant mice exhibit autism-related symptoms, such as increased self-grooming, deficits in social interactions, and altered interaction for nonsocial olfactory cues. The autistic-like phenotype of βNrx1ΔC mice can be reversed after removing the mutant protein in aged animals. The defects resulting from disruption of neurexin function after the completion of embryonic and early postnatal development suggest that functional impairment of mature circuits can trigger autism-related phenotypes.

  12. Adverse childhood experiences, gender, and HIV risk behaviors: Results from a population-based sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice.

  13. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  14. Causal beliefs about obesity and associated health behaviors: results from a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coups Elliot J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several genetic variants are associated with obesity risk. Promoting the notion of genes as a cause for obesity may increase genetically deterministic beliefs and decrease motivation to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors. Little is known about whether causal beliefs about obesity are associated with lifestyle behaviors. Study objectives were as follows: 1 to document the prevalence of various causal beliefs about obesity (i.e., genes versus lifestyle behaviors, and 2 to determine the association between obesity causal beliefs and self-reported dietary and physical activity behaviors. Methods The study data were drawn from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS. A total of 3,534 individuals were included in the present study. Results Overall, 72% of respondents endorsed the belief that lifestyle behaviors have 'a lot' to do with causing obesity, whereas 19% indicated that inheritance has 'a lot' to do with causing obesity. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that the belief that obesity is inherited was associated with lower reported levels of physical activity (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.77-0.99 and fruit and vegetable consumption (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76-0.99. In contrast, the belief that obesity is caused by lifestyle behaviors was associated with greater reported levels of physical activity (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.62, but was not associated with fruit and vegetable intake (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.90-1.28. Conclusions Causal beliefs about obesity are associated with some lifestyle behaviors. Additional research is needed to determine whether promoting awareness of the genetic determinants of obesity will decrease the extent to which individuals will engage in the lifestyle behaviors essential to healthy weight management.

  15. The Association between Dry Eye Disease and Physical Activity as well as Sedentary Behavior: Results from the Osaka Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Kawashima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the association of dry eye disease (DED with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods. The cross-sectional survey conducted included Japanese office workers who use visual display terminals (n=672. DED was assessed according to the Japanese Dry Eye Diagnostic Criteria, and participants were categorized into “definite DED,” “probable DED,” or “non-DED” groups based on the results of DED examinations. Physical activity and sedentary behavior of participants were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, and physical activity level was calculated in metabolic equivalent units per week (MET, min/week. Participants were classified as having a high, moderate, or low level of physical activity. Results. Participants with abnormal tear break-up time (BUT (≤5 s were involved in sedentary behavior for significantly longer duration than those with normal BUT (P=0.035. Non-DED participants (14.5% tended to have higher levels of physical activity than definite DED participants (2.5%. Participants with definite DED had significantly lower MET scores than those with non-DED (P=0.025. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that a lower level of physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with DED; however, longitudinal/intervention studies with large groups of participants are needed to validate these findings.

  16. The Association between Dry Eye Disease and Physical Activity as well as Sedentary Behavior: Results from the Osaka Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the association of dry eye disease (DED) with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods. The cross-sectional survey conducted included Japanese office workers who use visual display terminals (n = 672). DED was assessed according to the Japanese Dry Eye Diagnostic Criteria, and participants were categorized into "definite DED," "probable DED," or "non-DED" groups based on the results of DED examinations. Physical activity and sedentary behavior of participants were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and physical activity level was calculated in metabolic equivalent units per week (MET, min/week). Participants were classified as having a high, moderate, or low level of physical activity. Results. Participants with abnormal tear break-up time (BUT) (≤5 s) were involved in sedentary behavior for significantly longer duration than those with normal BUT (P = 0.035). Non-DED participants (14.5%) tended to have higher levels of physical activity than definite DED participants (2.5%). Participants with definite DED had significantly lower MET scores than those with non-DED (P = 0.025). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that a lower level of physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with DED; however, longitudinal/intervention studies with large groups of participants are needed to validate these findings.

  17. Predelinquent Behavior in Males: Perspectives and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Herbert; Kohl, Marilyn

    1978-01-01

    Discusses several approaches for solving the problem of delinquency including Quay's empirical system, Warren's theoretical system, Hogan's theory of moral conduct, and Bandura's social learning theory. (Author/RK)

  18. Novel results on fluence dependence and annealing behavior of oxygenated and non-oxygenated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, C; Lozano, M; Campabadal, F; Santander, J; Fonseca, L; Ullán, M; Moreno, A J D

    2002-01-01

    This work presents the latest results on electrical properties degradation of silicon radiation detectors manufactured at the Institut de Microelectronica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM) subjected to proton irradiation at CERN, Switzerland, for high-energy physics (HEP) applications. The evolution of full depletion voltage and leakage current with fluence as well as their annealing behavior with time were studied. The results obtained extend the previous understanding of the role played by technology and oxygenated material in hardening silicon radiation detectors. (15 refs).

  19. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  20. Deletion of Fmr1 results in sex-specific changes in behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Suzanne O; Reynolds, Conner D; Smith, Gregory D; Holley, Andrew J; Escobar, Brianna; Chandler, Matthew A; Volquardsen, Megan; Jefferson, Taylor; Pandian, Ashvini; Smith, Tileena; Huebschman, Jessica; Lugo, Joaquin N

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we used a systemic Fmr1 knockout in order to investigate both genotype- and sex-specific differences across multiple measures of sociability, repetitive behaviors, activity levels, anxiety, and fear-related learning and memory. Fragile X syndrome is the most common monogenic cause of intellectual disability and autism. Few studies to date have examined sex differences in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, though clinical data support the idea of differences in both overall prevalence and phenotype between the sexes. Using wild-type and systemic homozygous Fmr1 knockout mice, we assessed a variety of behavioral paradigms in adult animals, including the open field test, elevated plus maze, nose-poke assay, accelerating rotarod, social partition task, three-chambered social task, and two different fear conditioning paradigms. Tests were ordered such that the most invasive tests were performed last in the sequence, and testing paradigms for similar behaviors were performed in separate cohorts to minimize testing effects. Our results indicate several sex-specific changes in Fmr1 knockout mice, including male-specific increases in activity levels, and female-specific increases in repetitive behaviors on both the nose-poke assay and motor coordination on the accelerating rotarod task. The results also indicated that Fmr1 deletion results in deficits in fear learning and memory across both sexes, and no changes in social behavior across two tasks. These findings highlight the importance of including female subjects in preclinical studies, as simply studying the impact of genetic mutations in males does not yield a complete picture of the phenotype. Further research should explore these marked phenotypic differences among the sexes. Moreover, given that treatment strategies are typically equivalent between the sexes, the results highlight a potential need for sex-specific therapeutics.

  1. Sleep and aggression in substance-abusing adolescents: results from an integrative behavioral sleep-treatment pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Patricia L; Bootzin, Richard R; Smith, Leisha; Cousins, Jennifer; Cameron, Michael; Stevens, Sally

    2006-04-01

    To examine whether change in total sleep time during an integrative, behavioral sleep intervention is associated with aggression. Specifically, we tested whether adolescents who reported experiencing aggressive thoughts or actions after treatment had worse treatment trajectories (e.g., less total sleep time across treatment) than adolescents with no aggressive thoughts or actions after treatment. Nonpharmacologic open trial with 9 weeks of weekly assessment. University of Arizona Sleep Research Laboratory Twenty-three adolescents recently treated for substance abuse in outpatient community centers. Six-week integrative, behavioral sleep intervention. Weekly sleep-summary indexes were calculated from daily sleep diaries and entered as dependent variables in a series of growth-curve analyses. Statistically significant Session x Post-treatment Aggressive Ideation interactions emerged when predicting changes in total sleep time, gamma13 = 9.76 (SE = 4.12), p aggressive ideation and the frequency of substance use, as assessed at baseline. A similar pattern of results was seen for self-reported aggressive actions occurring during conflicts. These pilot data suggest that inadequate sleep in substance-abusing adolescents may contribute to the experiencing of aggressive thoughts and actions. Limitations include a small sample size and a restricted assessment of aggression. Nonetheless, these findings lend preliminary support to the breadth of therapeutic effectiveness of an integrative, behavioral sleep-therapy program for adolescents with a history of substance abuse and related behaviors.

  2. Early Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Berberich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009–2012, two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group, located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany, have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ants’ behavior will be carried out. In addition, other parameters (climate, geotectonic and biological, which may influence behavior, will be included in the analysis.

  3. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  4. Increased variability of bone tissue mineral density resulting from estrogen deficiency influences creep behavior in a rat vertebral body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Navalgund, Anand R; Tee, Boon Ching; Noble, Garrett J; Hart, Richard T; Lee, Hye Ri

    2012-11-01

    Progressive vertebral deformation increases the fracture risk of a vertebral body in the postmenopausal patient. Many studies have observed that bone can demonstrate creep behavior, defined as continued time-dependent deformation even when mechanical loading is held constant. Creep is a characteristic of viscoelastic behavior, which is common in biological materials. We hypothesized that estrogen deficiency-dependent alteration of the mineral distribution of bone at the tissue level could influence the progressive postmenopausal vertebral deformity that is observed as the creep response at the organ level. The objective of this study was thus to examine whether the creep behavior of vertebral bone is changed by estrogen deficiency, and to determine which bone property parameters are responsible for the creep response of vertebral bone at physiological loading levels using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. Correlations of creep parameters with bone mineral density (BMD), tissue mineral density (TMD) and architectural parameters of both OVX and sham surgery vertebral bone were tested. As the vertebral creep was not fully recovered during the post-creep unloading period, there was substantial residual displacement for both the sham and OVX groups. A strong positive correlation between loading creep and residual displacement was found (r=0.868, pcreep behavior of the OVX group (pcreep caused progressive, permanent reduction in vertebral height for both the sham and OVX groups. In addition, estrogen deficiency-induced active bone remodeling increased variability of trabecular TMD in the OVX group. Taken together, these results suggest that increased variability of trabecular TMD resulting from high bone turnover influences creep behavior of the OVX vertebrae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Examining behavioral processes through which lifestyle interventions promote weight loss: results from PREMIER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Stevens, Victor J; Coughlin, Janelle W; Rubin, Richard R; Brantley, Phillip J; Funk, Kristine L; Svetkey, Laura P; Jerome, Gerald J; Dalcin, Arlene; Charleston, Jeanne; Appel, Lawrence J

    2014-04-01

    To examine the behavioral processes through which lifestyle interventions impacted weight loss. The analyses were limited to overweight and obese Black and White adults randomized to a PREMIER lifestyle intervention (N = 501). Structural equation modeling was conducted to test the direct and indirect relationships of session attendance, days of self-monitoring diet and exercise, change in diet composition and exercise, and 6-month weight change. Greater session attendance was associated with increased self-monitoring, which was in turn significantly related to reduction in percent energy from total fat consumed. Change in percent energy from fat and self-monitoring was associated with 6-month percent change in weight. Both a decrease in fat intake and increase in self-monitoring are potential mediators of the relationship between attendance and weight change. The findings provide a reasonable model that suggests regular session attendance and use of behavioral strategies like self-monitoring are associated with improved behavioral outcomes that are associated with weight loss. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  6. Results and code prediction comparisons of lithium-air reaction and aerosol behavior tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.

    1986-03-01

    The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) Fusion Safety Support Studies include evaluation of potential safety and environmental concerns associated with the use of liquid lithium as a breeder and coolant for fusion reactors. Potential mechanisms for volatilization and transport of radioactive metallic species associated with breeder materials are of particular interest. Liquid lithium pool-air reaction and aerosol behavior tests were conducted with lithium masses up to 100 kg within the 850-m 3 containment vessel in the Containment Systems Test Facility. Lithium-air reaction rates, aerosol generation rates, aerosol behavior and characterization, as well as containment atmosphere temperature and pressure responses were determined. Pool-air reaction and aerosol behavior test results were compared with computer code calculations for reaction rates, containment atmosphere response, and aerosol behavior. The volatility of potentially radioactive metallic species from a lithium pool-air reaction was measured. The response of various aerosol detectors to the aerosol generated was determined. Liquid lithium spray tests in air and in nitrogen atmospheres were conducted with lithium temperatures of about 427 0 and 650 0 C. Lithium reaction rates, containment atmosphere response, and aerosol generation and characterization were determined for these spray tests

  7. Early Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ant behavior will be carried out. Abstract Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)). They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of

  8. The personality trait of behavioral inhibition modulates perceptions of moral character and performance during the trust game: behavioral results and computational modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milen L. Radell

    2016-02-01

    against the neutral partner. Overall, the results suggest inhibited individuals may be predisposed to interpret neutral or ambiguous information more negatively which could, at least in part, account for the tendency to avoid unfamiliar people characteristic of behaviorally inhibited temperament, as well as its relationship to anxiety disorders.

  9. Preliminary results of the comparison of the electrochemical behavior of a thioether and biphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, W.; Jones, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    An electrochemical cell was constructed to explore the feasibility of using electrochemical techniques to simulate the tribochemistry of various substances. The electrochemical cell was used to study and compare the behavior of a thioether 1,3-bis(phenylthio) benzene and biphenyl. It is found that under controlled conditions biphenyl undergoes a reversible reduction to a radical anion whereas the thioether undergoes an irreversible reduction yielding several products. The results are discussed in relationship to boundary lubrication.

  10. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  11. Effective Filtering of Query Results on Updated User Behavioral Profiles in Web Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sadesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Web with tremendous volume of information retrieves result for user related queries. With the rapid growth of web page recommendation, results retrieved based on data mining techniques did not offer higher performance filtering rate because relationships between user profile and queries were not analyzed in an extensive manner. At the same time, existing user profile based prediction in web data mining is not exhaustive in producing personalized result rate. To improve the query result rate on dynamics of user behavior over time, Hamilton Filtered Regime Switching User Query Probability (HFRS-UQP framework is proposed. HFRS-UQP framework is split into two processes, where filtering and switching are carried out. The data mining based filtering in our research work uses the Hamilton Filtering framework to filter user result based on personalized information on automatic updated profiles through search engine. Maximized result is fetched, that is, filtered out with respect to user behavior profiles. The switching performs accurate filtering updated profiles using regime switching. The updating in profile change (i.e., switches regime in HFRS-UQP framework identifies the second- and higher-order association of query result on the updated profiles. Experiment is conducted on factors such as personalized information search retrieval rate, filtering efficiency, and precision ratio.

  12. Neighborhood Ethnic Diversity and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in 3 Year Olds: Results from the Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flink, Ilse J. E.; Prins, Rick G.; Mackenbach, Johan J. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that neighborhood ethnic diversity may be important when it comes to understanding ethnic inequalities in mental health. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether neighborhood ethnic diversity moderated the association between the ethnic minority status and child behavioral and emotional problems. Methods We included 3076 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. At child age 3-years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5). Individual-level data, assessed with questionnaires, was combined with neighborhood-level data. Multi-level logistic regression models predicted the Odds Ratios for the CBCL total problems score as a function of maternal ethnic background and neighborhood ethnic diversity, computed with the Racial Diversity Index and categorized into tertiles. Interaction on the additive scale was assessed using Relative Access Risk due to Interaction. Results Being from an ethnic minority was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.88–4.04) and adjusted models (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.79–3.92). Residing in a high diversity neighborhood was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.13–3.64) but not in adjusted models (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.51–1.57). When stratifying by the three levels of neighborhood ethnic diversity, ethnic inequalities in behavioral and emotional problems were greatest in low diversity neighborhoods (OR 5.24, 95%CI 2.47–11.14), smaller in high diversity neighborhoods (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.66–5.99) and smallest in medium diversity neighborhoods (OR 1.59, 95% CI 0.90–2.82). Tests for interaction (when comparing medium to low diversity neighborhoods) trended towards negative on both the additive and multiplicative scale for the maternal-report (RERI: −3.22, 95% CI −0.70–0.59; Ratio of ORs: 0.30, 95% CI 0.12–0

  13. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Disaster-Exposed Youth with Posttraumatic Stress: Results from a Multiple-Baseline Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Leslie K.; Weems, Carl F.

    2011-01-01

    Youth traumatized by natural disasters report high levels of posttraumatic stress such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, and depression. Research suggests that cognitive behavioral therapies are promising interventions for symptom reduction; however, few cognitive behavioral treatments have been systematically…

  14. Channels Coordination Game Model Based on Result Fairness Preference and Reciprocal Fairness Preference: A Behavior Game Forecasting and Analysis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Chuan; Wang, Kaihong; Huang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    In a distribution channel, channel members are not always self-interested, but altruistic in some conditions. Based on this assumption, this paper adopts a behavior game method to analyze and forecast channel members’ decision behavior based on result fairness preference and reciprocal fairness preference by embedding a fair preference theory in channel research of coordination. The behavior game forecasts that a channel can achieve coordination if channel members consider behavior elemen...

  15. Healthy Living Behaviors Among Chinese-American Preschool-Aged Children: Results of a Parent Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomitz, Virginia Rall; Brown, Alison; Lee, Victoria; Must, Aviva; Chui, Kenneth Kwan Ho

    2017-07-17

    Associations between diet, physical activity, parenting, and acculturation among Chinese-American children are understudied. Parents/caregivers of children attending child-care programs in Boston Chinatown completed a self-administered survey on demographics, child's diet, physical activities, anthropometrics, and parenting practices. Associations were evaluated in multivariable regression analysis, stratified by survey language preference, a proxy for acculturation. Responding Asian families = 132; 86.4% were immigrants; 75.8% completed the Chinese-version survey. Children (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 1.1 years) did not eat vegetables (31.8%), or play actively outside (45.4%) daily, 64.8% watched television/screens daily; 32.6% were overweight/obese (based on parent report). Parenting practices associated with obesity were apparent. Although healthy-living behavioral outcomes were less prevalent among less acculturated parents; multivariable adjustment attenuated the observed significant differences. Findings suggest opportunities for improvement in study children's diet and healthy-living behaviors, and underscore the need for further research on acculturation, and parenting styles in this population.

  16. Behavioral economics holds potential to deliver better results for patients, insurers, and employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, George; Asch, David A; Volpp, Kevin G

    2013-07-01

    Many programs being implemented by US employers, insurers, and health care providers use incentives to encourage patients to take better care of themselves. We critically review a range of these efforts and show that many programs, although well-meaning, are unlikely to have much impact because they require information, expertise, and self-control that few patients possess. As a result, benefits are likely to accrue disproportionately to patients who already are taking adequate care of their health. We show how these programs could be made more effective through the use of insights from behavioral economics. For example, incentive programs that offer patients small and frequent payments for behavior that would benefit the patients, such as medication adherence, can be more effective than programs with incentives that are far less visible because they are folded into a paycheck or used to reduce a monthly premium. Deploying more-nuanced insights from behavioral economics can lead to policies with the potential to increase patient engagement and deliver dividends for patients and favorable cost-effectiveness ratios for insurers, employers, and other relevant commercial entities.

  17. Correlating labeling chemistry and in-vitro test results with the biological behavior of radiolabeled proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies possess enormous potential for delivery of therapeutic amounts of radionuclides to target antigens in vivo, in particular for tumor imaging and therapy. Translation of this concept into practice has encountered numerous problems. Specifically whereas general protein radiolabeling methods are applicable to antibodies, immunological properties of the antibodies are often compromised resulting in reduced in-vivo specificity for the target antigens. The bifunctional chelating agent approach shows the most promise, however, development of other agents will be necessary for widespread usefulness of this technique. The effects of labeling chemistry on the in-vivo behavior of several monoclonal antibodies are described. 30 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  18. Comparison of aerosol behavior codes with experimental results from a sodium fire in a containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhiaubet, G.; Kissane, M.P.; Seino, H.; Miyake, O.; Himeno, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The containment expert group (CONT), a subgroup of the CEC fast reactor Safety Working Group (SWG), has carried out several studies on the behavior of sodium aerosols which might form in a severe fast reactor accident during which primary sodium leaks into the secondary containment. These studies comprise an intercalibration of measurement devices used to determine the aerosol particle size spectrum, and the analysis and comparison of codes applied to the determination of aerosol behavior in a reactor containment. The paper outlines the results of measurements of typical data made for aerosols produced in a sodium fire and their comparison with results from different codes (PARDISEKO, AEROSIM, CONTAIN, AEROSOLS/B2). The sodium fire experiment took place at CEN-Cadarache (France) in a 400 m 3 vessel. The fire lasted 90 minutes and the aerosol measurements were made over 10 hours at different locations inside the vessel. The results showed that the suspended mass calculated along the time with different codes was in good agreement with the experiment. However, the calculated aerosol deposition on the walls was diverging and always significantly lower than the measured values

  19. Health Care Use and HIV-Related Behaviors of Black and Latina Transgender Women in 3 US Metropolitan Areas: Results From the Transgender HIV Behavioral Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Damian J; Padgett, Paige M; Pitts, Nicole; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Bingham, Trista; Carlos, Juli-Ann; McCann, Pamela; Prachand, Nikhil; Risser, Jan; Finlayson, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    HIV prevalence estimates among transgender women in the United States are high, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities. Despite increased HIV risk and evidence of racial disparities in HIV prevalence among transgender women, few data are available to inform HIV prevention efforts. A transgender HIV-related behavioral survey conducted in 2009 in 3 US metropolitan areas (Chicago, Houston, and Los Angeles County), used respondent-driven sampling to recruit 227 black (n = 139) and Latina (n = 88) transgender women. We present descriptive statistics on sociodemographic, health care, and HIV-risk behaviors. Of 227 transgender women enrolled, most were economically and socially disadvantaged: 73% had an annual income of less than $15,000; 62% lacked health insurance; 61% were unemployed; and 46% reported being homeless in the past 12 months. Most (80%) had visited a health care provider and over half (58%) had tested for HIV in the past 12 months. Twenty-nine percent of those who reported having an HIV test in the past 24 months self-reported being HIV positive. Most of the sample reported hormone use (67%) in the past 12 months and most hormone use was under clinical supervision (70%). Forty-nine percent reported condomless anal sex in the past 12 months and 16% reported ever injecting drugs. These findings reveal the socioeconomic challenges and behavioral risks often associated with high HIV risk reported by black and Latina transgender women. Despite low health insurance coverage, the results suggest opportunities to engage transgender women in HIV prevention and care given their high reported frequency of accessing health care providers.

  20. Does the evidence make a difference in consumer behavior? Sales of supplements before and after publication of negative research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburt, Jon C; Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Miller, Franklin G

    2008-09-01

    To determine if the public consumption of herbs, vitamins, and supplements changes in light of emerging negative evidence. We describe trends in annual US sales of five major supplements in temporal relationship with publication of research from three top US general medical journals published from 2001 through early 2006 and the number of news citations associated with each publication using the Lexus-Nexis database. In four of five supplements (St. John's wort, echinacea, saw palmetto, and glucosamine), there was little or no change in sales trends after publication of research results. In one instance, however, dramatic changes in sales occurred following publication of data suggesting harm from high doses of vitamin E. Results reporting harm may have a greater impact on supplement consumption than those demonstrating lack of efficacy. In order for clinical trial evidence to influence public behavior, there needs to be a better understanding of the factors that influence the translation of evidence in the public.

  1. Fire behavioral changes as a result of sudden oak death in coastal California forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Vlachovic; C. Lee; H. Scanlon; J.M. Varner; R. Glebocki; B.D. Graham; D.M. Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    Field observations and anecdotal evidence suggest that sudden oak death (SOD), a disease caused by the pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, may alter fuel loading in affected forests. Though it is reasonable to assume that a disease resulting in leaf blight, dead branches, and tree mortality would increase forest fuels, little work has been done to...

  2. Broadening measures of success: results of a behavioral health translational research training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Julie A; Williamson, Heather J; Eaves, Emery R; Levin, Bruce L; Burton, Donna L; Massey, Oliver T

    2017-07-24

    While some research training programs have considered the importance of mentoring in inspiring professionals to engage in translational research, most evaluations emphasize outcomes specific to academic productivity as primary measures of training program success. The impact of such training or mentoring programs on stakeholders and local community organizations engaged in translational research efforts has received little attention. The purpose of this evaluation is to explore outcomes other than traditional academic productivity in a translational research graduate certificate program designed to pair graduate students and behavioral health professionals in collaborative service-learning projects. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with scholars, community mentors, and academic mentors were conducted regarding a translational research program to identify programmatic impacts. Interviews were transcribed and coded by the research team to identify salient themes related to programmatic outcomes. Results are framed using the Translational Research Impact Scale which is organized into three overarching domains of potential impact: (1) research-related impacts, (2) translational impacts, and (3) societal impacts. This evaluation demonstrates the program's impact in all three domains of the TRIS evaluation framework. Graduate certificate participants (scholars) reported that gaining experience in applied behavioral health settings added useful skills and expertise to their present careers and increased their interest in pursuing translational research. Scholars also described benefits resulting from networks gained through participation in the program, including valuable ties between the university and community behavioral health organizations. This evaluation of the outcomes of a graduate certificate program providing training in translational research highlights the need for more community-oriented and practice-based measures of success. Encouraging practitioner

  3. Assessing barriers to change in drinking behavior: results of an online employee screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseltine, Robert H; Demarco, Frank J; Wallenstein, Gene V; Jacobs, Douglas G

    2009-01-01

    The impact of alcohol abuse on worker productivity is considerable and appears to be increasing over time. Although early screening and intervention may help prevent or reduce the damaging health and productivity effects of problem drinking, barriers to behavioral change may render broad-based prevention efforts ineffectual. This study examined the correlates of two potential barriers to changes in drinking behavior--underestimation of drinking and lack of knowledge of helping resources--using data from web-based employee alcohol screenings. Anonymous screening data from 1185 employees of ten companies participating in the 2003 National Alcohol Screening Day were analyzed. The AUDIT, a 10-item screening instrument developed by the World Health Organization, was used to measure drinking behavior; employees' subjective assessments of their drinking were also obtained. Over 53% of participants subjectively underestimated their drinking relative to their AUDIT results, and 58% of respondents did not know whether their medical insurance included benefits for alcohol treatment. Logistic regression analysis revealed that younger and male respondents tended to have the highest AUDIT scores and also (along with married respondents) were most likely to underestimate their drinking. Younger, unmarried respondents were least likely to be aware of their alcohol treatment insurance benefits. Current corporate efforts to curtail problem drinking among employees may not adequately address barriers to change. Targeting at-risk employee groups for alcohol screening and dissemination of information about health insurance benefits and treatment options is recommended, as is providing personalized feedback based on screening results to raise awareness of at-risk drinking and available helping resources.

  4. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  5. Cancer and the LGBTQ Population: Quantitative and Qualitative Results from an Oncology Providers’ Survey on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L. Tamargo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite growing social acceptance, the LGBTQ population continues to face barriers to healthcare including fear of stigmatization by healthcare providers, and providers’ lack of knowledge about LGBTQ-specific health issues. This analysis focuses on the assessment of quantitative and qualitative responses from a subset of providers who identified as specialists that treat one or more of the seven cancers that may be disproportionate in LGBTQ patients. Methods: A 32-item web-based survey was emailed to 388 oncology providers at a single institution. The survey assessed: demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors. Results: Oncology providers specializing in seven cancer types had poor knowledge of LGBTQ-specific health needs, with fewer than half of the surveyed providers (49.5% correctly answering knowledge questions. Most providers had overall positive attitudes toward LGBTQ patients, with 91.7% agreeing they would be comfortable treating this population, and would support education and/or training on LGBTQ-related cancer health issues. Conclusion: Results suggest that despite generally positive attitudes toward the LGBTQ population, oncology providers who treat cancer types most prevalent among the population, lack knowledge of their unique health issues. Knowledge and practice behaviors may improve with enhanced education and training on this population’s specific needs.

  6. Cancer and the LGBTQ Population: Quantitative and Qualitative Results from an Oncology Providers’ Survey on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamargo, Christina L.; Sanchez, Julian A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite growing social acceptance, the LGBTQ population continues to face barriers to healthcare including fear of stigmatization by healthcare providers, and providers’ lack of knowledge about LGBTQ-specific health issues. This analysis focuses on the assessment of quantitative and qualitative responses from a subset of providers who identified as specialists that treat one or more of the seven cancers that may be disproportionate in LGBTQ patients. Methods: A 32-item web-based survey was emailed to 388 oncology providers at a single institution. The survey assessed: demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors. Results: Oncology providers specializing in seven cancer types had poor knowledge of LGBTQ-specific health needs, with fewer than half of the surveyed providers (49.5%) correctly answering knowledge questions. Most providers had overall positive attitudes toward LGBTQ patients, with 91.7% agreeing they would be comfortable treating this population, and would support education and/or training on LGBTQ-related cancer health issues. Conclusion: Results suggest that despite generally positive attitudes toward the LGBTQ population, oncology providers who treat cancer types most prevalent among the population, lack knowledge of their unique health issues. Knowledge and practice behaviors may improve with enhanced education and training on this population’s specific needs. PMID:28991160

  7. Guided Web-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Perfectionism: Results From Two Different Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Shafran, Roz; Wade, Tracey D; Kothari, Radha; Egan, Sarah J; Ekberg, Linda; Wiss, Maria; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard

    2018-04-26

    Perfectionism can become a debilitating condition that may negatively affect functioning in multiple areas, including mental health. Prior research has indicated that internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy can be beneficial, but few studies have included follow-up data. The objective of this study was to explore the outcomes at follow-up of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy with guided self-help, delivered as 2 separate randomized controlled trials conducted in Sweden and the United Kingdom. In total, 120 participants randomly assigned to internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy were included in both intention-to-treat and completer analyses: 78 in the Swedish trial and 62 in the UK trial. The primary outcome measure was the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Concern over Mistakes subscale (FMPS CM). Secondary outcome measures varied between the trials and consisted of the Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ; both trials), the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9; Swedish trial), the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7; Swedish trial), and the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21; UK trial). Follow-up occurred after 6 months for the UK trial and after 12 months for the Swedish trial. Analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between pretreatment and follow-up in both studies. Intention-to-treat within-group Cohen d effect sizes were 1.21 (Swedish trial; 95% CI 0.86-1.54) and 1.24 (UK trial; 95% CI 0.85-1.62) for the FMPS CM. Furthermore, 29 (59%; Swedish trial) and 15 (43%; UK trial) of the participants met the criteria for recovery on the FMPS CM. Improvements were also significant for the CPQ, with effect sizes of 1.32 (Swedish trial; 95% CI 0.97-1.66) and 1.49 (UK trial; 95% CI 1.09-1.88); the PHQ-9, effect size 0.60 (95% CI 0.28-0.92); the GAD-7, effect size 0.67 (95% CI 0.34-0.99); and the DASS-21, effect size 0.50 (95% CI 0.13-0.85). The results are promising for the use of

  8. Evaluating Behaviorally Oriented Aviation Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) Training and Programs: Methods, Results, and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James C.; Thomas, Robert L., III

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of Aviation Resource Management Programs on aviation culture and performance has compelled a considerable body of research (Taylor & Robertson, 1995; Taylor, 1998; Taylor & Patankar, 2001). In recent years new methods have been applied to the problem of maintenance error precipitated by factors such as the need for self-assessment of communication and trust. The present study - 2002 -- is an extension of that past work. This research project was designed as the conclusion of a larger effort to help understand, evaluate and validate the impact of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) training programs, and other MRM interventions on participant attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and ultimately on enhanced safety performance. It includes research and development of evaluation methodology as well as examination of psychological constructs and correlates of maintainer performance. In particular, during 2002, three issues were addressed. First, the evaluation of two (independent & different) MRM programs for changing behaviors was undertaken. In one case we were able to further apply the approach to measuring written communication developed during 2001 (Taylor, 2002; Taylor & Thomas, 2003). Second, the MRM/TOQ surveys were made available for completion on the internet. The responses from these on-line surveys were automatically linked to a results calculator (like the one developed and described in Taylor, 2002) to aid industry users in analyzing and evaluating their local survey data on the internet. Third, the main trends and themes from our research about MRM programs over the past dozen years were reviewed.

  9. Behavioral symptoms of eating disorders in Native Americans: results from the ADD Health Survey Wave III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Rosselli, Francine; Holtzman, Niki; Dierker, Lisa; Becker, Anne E; Swaney, Gyda

    2011-09-01

    To examine prevalence and correlates (gender, Body Mass Index) of disordered eating in American Indian/Native American (AI/NA) and white young adults. We examined data from the 10,334 participants (mean age 21.93 years, SD = 1.8) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health) Wave III for gender differences among AI/NA participants (236 women, 253 men) and ethnic group differences on measures of eating pathology. Among AI/NA groups, women were significantly more likely than men to report loss of control and embarrassment due to overeating. In gender-stratified analyses, a significantly higher prevalence of AI/NA women reported disordered eating behaviors compared with white women; there were no between group differences in prevalence for breakfast skipping or having been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Among men, disordered eating behaviors were uncommon and no comparison was statistically significant. Our study offers a first glimpse into the problem of eating pathology among AI/NA individuals. Gender differences among AI/NA participants are similar to results reported in white samples. That AI/NA women were as likely as white women to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder is striking in light of well documented under-utilization of mental health care among AI/NA individuals. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Results of Complex Research of GSS "SBIRS-Geo 2" Behavior in the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P.; Sukhov, K. P.; Karpenko, G. F.; Motrunich, I. I.

    2017-04-01

    The new generation of geosynchronous satellites SBIRS of US Air Force early warning system series (Satellite Early Warning System) replaced the previous DSP-satellite series (Defense Support Program). Currently from the territory of Ukraine, several GSS of DSP series and one "SBIRS-Geo 2" are available to observation. During two years of observations, we have received and analyzed for two satellites more than 30 light curves in B, V, R photometric system. As a result of complex research, we propose a model of "SBIRS-Geo" 2 orbital behavior compared with the same one of the DSP-satellite. To control the entire surface of the Earth with 15-16 sec interval, including the polar regions, 4 SBIRS satellites located every 90 deg. along the equator are enough in GEO orbit. Since DSP-satellites provide the coverage of the Earth's surface to 83 deg. latitudes with a period of 50 sec, DSP-satellites should be 8. All the conclusions were made based on an analysis of photometric and coordinate observations using the simulation of the dynamics of their orbital behavior.

  11. Cognitive abilities and functional capacity in older adults: results from the modified Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jing Ee; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between cognitive and functional abilities was examined in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Self and informant (e.g., spouse) reports of participants' functional status were obtained on the modified Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (mSIB-R). Participants also completed measures of processing speed, episodic memory, executive functioning, and verbal ability. Results showed that the mSIB-R correlated positively with cognitive variables. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that each mSIB-R factor is predicted by somewhat different cognitive variables, after adjusting for demographic, health, and motor variables. This report-based measure was as accurate as a performance-based measure in classifying cognitive groups. Informant social/cognitive engagement and self physical/environment engagement factors showed the most promise in this regard. The findings reveal links between cognitive and functional abilities in a sample with varying degrees of cognitive impairment.

  12. Risk behaviors of 15–21 year olds in Mexico lead to a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections: results of a survey in disadvantaged urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conde-Glez Carlos J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the fact that adolescents are more likely to participate in high-risk behaviors, this sector of the population is particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs and resultant health problems. Methods A survey was carried out among adolescents from poor homes in 204 small-urban areas of Mexico. Information was collected in relation to risk behaviors and socio-economic environment. A sub-group of the participants also provided blood and urine samples which were analyzed to detect sexually transmitted infections. Results The presence of Chlamydia was detected in nearly 8% of participants who had stated that they were sexually active (18% and approximately 12% were positive for herpes type 2-specific antibodies. For both, a greater proportion of girls resulted positive compared to boys. The presence of these biological outcomes of sexual risk behavior was associated with other risk behaviors (smoking, but not with self-reported indicators of protected sex (reported use of condom during most recent sexual activity. Conclusion The results presented in this study show a startlingly high prevalence of HSV-2 among sexually active Mexican adolescents in poor urban areas, suggesting that this group has participated to a great extent in risky sexual practices. The relationships between socioeconomic environment and adolescent risk behavior need to be better understood if we are to design preventive interventions that modify the determinants of risk behaviors.

  13. Physical activity and sedentary behavior of cancer survivors and non-cancer individuals: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roy B; Phillips, Allison; Herrick, Kirsten; Helou, Marieka; Rafie, Carlin; Anscher, Mitchell S; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Ning, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary behavior are associated with a higher quality of life and lower mortality rates for cancer survivors, a growing population group. Studies detailing the behavior of cancer survivors are limited. Therefore, we investigated physical activity and sedentary behavior of cancer survivors using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010. Participants were those who provided physical activity and sedentary behavior data. Those who were pregnant, physical activity, compared to non-cancer participants. These patterns are similar for breast and prostate cancer survivors, with prostate cancer survivors more likely to engage in physical activity for more than one hour per day (OR = 1.98, 95% CI (1.05, 3.71)). Our findings suggest that cancer survivors tend to have more physical activity, but they are also more likely to engage in sedentary behavior.

  14. Cancer and the LGBTQ Population: Quantitative and Qualitative Results from an Oncology Providers' Survey on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamargo, Christina L; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Sanchez, Julian A; Schabath, Matthew B

    2017-10-07

    Despite growing social acceptance, the LGBTQ population continues to face barriers to healthcare including fear of stigmatization by healthcare providers, and providers' lack of knowledge about LGBTQ-specific health issues. This analysis focuses on the assessment of quantitative and qualitative responses from a subset of providers who identified as specialists that treat one or more of the seven cancers that may be disproportionate in LGBTQ patients. A 32-item web-based survey was emailed to 388 oncology providers at a single institution. The survey assessed: demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors. Oncology providers specializing in seven cancer types had poor knowledge of LGBTQ-specific health needs, with fewer than half of the surveyed providers (49.5%) correctly answering knowledge questions. Most providers had overall positive attitudes toward LGBTQ patients, with 91.7% agreeing they would be comfortable treating this population, and would support education and/or training on LGBTQ-related cancer health issues. Results suggest that despite generally positive attitudes toward the LGBTQ population, oncology providers who treat cancer types most prevalent among the population, lack knowledge of their unique health issues. Knowledge and practice behaviors may improve with enhanced education and training on this population's specific needs.

  15. Mutation of the CH1 Domain in the Histone Acetyltransferase CREBBP Results in Autism-Relevant Behaviors in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zheng

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are a group of neurodevelopmental afflictions characterized by repetitive behaviors, deficits in social interaction, and impaired communication skills. For most ASD patients, the underlying causes are unknown. Genetic mutations have been identified in about 25 percent of ASD cases, including mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting that dysregulated chromatin or DNA function is a critical component of ASD. Mutations in the histone acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP, CREBBP cause Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS, a developmental disorder that includes ASD-like symptoms. Recently, genomic studies involving large numbers of ASD patient families have theoretically modeled CBP and its paralog p300 (EP300 as critical hubs in ASD-associated protein and gene interaction networks, and have identified de novo missense mutations in highly conserved residues of the CBP acetyltransferase and CH1 domains. Here we provide animal model evidence that supports this notion that CBP and its CH1 domain are relevant to autism. We show that mice with a deletion mutation in the CBP CH1 (TAZ1 domain (CBPΔCH1/ΔCH1 have an RTS-like phenotype that includes ASD-relevant repetitive behaviors, hyperactivity, social interaction deficits, motor dysfunction, impaired recognition memory, and abnormal synaptic plasticity. Our results therefore indicate that loss of CBP CH1 domain function contributes to RTS, and possibly ASD, and that this domain plays an essential role in normal motor function, cognition and social behavior. Although the key physiological functions affected by ASD-associated mutation of epigenetic regulators have been enigmatic, our findings are consistent with theoretical models involving CBP and p300 in ASD, and with a causative role for recently described ASD-associated CBP mutations.

  16. Learning semantic query suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Bron, M.; Hollink, L.; Huurnink, B.; de Rijke, M.

    2009-01-01

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide

  17. Weight-related behaviors among non-overweight adolescents: results from the Korean national survey from 2005 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayoung

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight misperception, unhealthy diet practices, and factors associated with these weight-related behaviors among Korean adolescents. The subjects were a nationally representative sample of non-overweight students (52,515 in 2005, 64,084 in 2006, and 67,113 in 2007) in middle and high schools who completed the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The prevalence of weight-related behaviors and factors associated with these behaviors were assessed using a complex sampling design. Of non-overweight students, 14.9% of boys and 22.2% of girls reported their weight as overweight/obese. Dieting within the last year was reported by 19.8% of boys and 41.8% of girls. Of those who attempted dieting, 17.1% of boys and 24.6% of girls indicated practicing at least one unhealthy diet behavior within the last month. Overweight misperceptions were independently associated with diet attempts and unhealthy diets after adjustment for weight status, and demographic, social, and psychological factors. Additionally, these weight-related behaviors were also associated with psychosocial factors such as low school achievement, sadness, suicidal ideation, increased stress perception, and cigarette or alcohol use. In conclusion, the high prevalence of inappropriate weight-related behaviors suggests a need for comprehensive approaches to improve weight-related behaviors in non-overweight Korean adolescents.

  18. Long-Term Creep Behavior of the Intervertebral Disk: Comparison between Bioreactor Data and Numerical Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A. P. G., E-mail: apgcastro@dem.uminho.pt [Center for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minho, Guimarães (Portugal); INSIGNEO Institute for in silico Medicine, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Paul, C. P. L. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Research Institute MOVE, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Detiger, S. E. L.; Smit, T. H.; Royen, B. J. van [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Research Institute MOVE, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Skeletal Tissue Engineering Group Amsterdam, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pimenta Claro, J. C. [Center for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minho, Guimarães (Portugal); Mullender, M. G. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Research Institute MOVE, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Alves, J. L. [Center for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minho, Guimarães (Portugal)

    2014-11-20

    The loaded disk culture system is an intervertebral disk (IVD)-oriented bioreactor developed by the VU Medical Center (VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands), which has the capacity of maintaining up to 12 IVDs in culture, for approximately 3 weeks after extraction. Using this system, eight goat IVDs were provided with the essential nutrients and submitted to compression tests without losing their biomechanical and physiological properties, for 22 days. Based on previous reports (Paul et al., 2012, 2013; Detiger et al., 2013), four of these IVDs were kept in physiological condition (control) and the other four were previously injected with chondroitinase ABC (CABC), in order to promote degenerative disk disease (DDD). The loading profile intercalated 16 h of activity loading with 8 h of loading recovery to express the standard circadian variations. The displacement behavior of these eight IVDs along the first 2 days of the experiment was numerically reproduced, using an IVD osmo-poro-hyper-viscoelastic and fiber-reinforced finite element (FE) model. The simulations were run on a custom FE solver (Castro et al., 2014). The analysis of the experimental results allowed concluding that the effect of the CABC injection was only significant in two of the four IVDs. The four control IVDs showed no signs of degeneration, as expected. In what concerns to the numerical simulations, the IVD FE model was able to reproduce the generic behavior of the two groups of goat IVDs (control and injected). However, some discrepancies were still noticed on the comparison between the injected IVDs and the numerical simulations, namely on the recovery periods. This may be justified by the complexity of the pathways for DDD, associated with the multiplicity of physiological responses to each direct or indirect stimulus. Nevertheless, one could conclude that ligaments, muscles, and IVD covering membranes could be added to the FE model, in order to improve its accuracy and properly describe the

  19. Long-Term Creep Behavior of the Intervertebral Disc: Comparison between Bioreactor Data and Numerical Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    APG eCastro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Loaded Disc Culture System (LDCS is an Intervertebral Disc (IVD-oriented bioreactor developed by the VU Medical Center (VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, which has the capacity of maintaining up to 12 IVDs in culture, for approximately 3 weeks after extraction. Using this system, 8 goat IVDs were provided with the essential nutrients and submitted to compression tests without losing their biomechanical and physiological properties, for 22 days. Based on previous reports (Detiger et al., 2013; Paul et al., 2013, 2012, 4 of these IVDs were kept in physiological condition (control and the other 4 were previously injected with chondroitinase ABC (CABC, in order to promote Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD. The loading profile intercalated 16h of activity loading with 8h of loading recovery to express the standard circadian variations.The displacement behavior of these 8 IVDs along the first 2 days of the experiment was numerically reproduced, using an IVD osmo-poro-hyper-viscoelastic and fiber-reinforced Finite Element (FE model. The simulations were run on a custom FE solver (Castro et al., 2014.The analysis of the experimental results allowed concluding that the effect of the CABC injection was only significant in 2 of the 4 IVDs. The 4 control IVDs showed no signs of degeneration, as expected. In what concerns to the numerical simulations, the IVD FE model was able to reproduce the generic behavior of the two groups of goat IVDs (control and injected. However, some discrepancies were still noticed on the comparison between the injected IVDs and the numerical simulations, namely on the recovery periods. This may be justified by the complexity of the pathways for DDD, associated with the multiplicity of physiological responses to each direct or indirect stimulus. Nevertheless, one could conclude that ligaments, muscles and IVD covering membranes could be added to the FE model, in order to improve its accuracy and properly describe the recovery

  20. Breast Cancer Knowledge among College Students: Influencing Factors and Resultant Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Mary F.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Merianos, Ashley L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Many misconceptions about breast cancer exist. College students have the opportunity to perform breast cancer risk-reducing behaviors. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess breast cancer knowledge among university students and examine the influence of breast cancer knowledge on health behaviors for breast cancer prevention.…

  1. The effect of stress tolerance on dynamics of activity-travel behavior : numerical simulation results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psarra, I.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The primary and secondary effects of various spatial and transportation policies can be evaluated with models of activity–travel behavior. Whereas existing activity-based models of travel demand simulate a typical day, dynamic models simulate behavioral response to endogenous or exogenous change,

  2. Worry as a Predictor of Nutrition Behaviors: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Bergman, Hannah E.; Klein, William M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Worry has been shown to predict a variety of health behaviors, such as cancer screening, yet there are few studies linking worry and nutrition. This study used nationally representative data from National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey ("n" = 3,397) to examine the association between health-related worry and a variety of…

  3. Influence of assessment setting on the results of functional analyses of problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.; Rispoli, M.

    2010-01-01

    Analogue functional analyses are widely used to identify the operant function of problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. Because problem behavior often occurs across multiple settings (e.g., homes, schools, outpatient clinics), it is important to determine whether the

  4. Peer Crowd Identification and Adolescent Health Behaviors: Results From a Statewide Representative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey W; Stalgaitis, Carolyn A; Charles, John; Madden, Patrick A; Radhakrishnan, Anjana G; Saggese, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Peer crowds are macro-level subcultures that share similarities across geographic areas. Over the past decade, dozens of studies have explored the association between adolescent peer crowds and risk behaviors, and how they can inform public health efforts. However, despite the interest, researchers have not yet reported on crowd size and risk levels from a representative sample, making it difficult for practitioners to apply peer crowd science to interventions. The current study reports findings from the first statewide representative sample of adolescent peer crowd identification and health behaviors. Weighted data were analyzed from the 2015 Virginia Youth Survey of Health Behaviors ( n = 4,367). Peer crowds were measured via the I-Base Survey™, a photo-based peer crowd survey instrument. Frequencies and confidence intervals of select behaviors including tobacco use, substance use, nutrition, physical activity, and violence were examined to identify high- and low-risk crowds. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios for each crowd and behavior. Risky behaviors clustered in two peer crowds. Hip Hop crowd identification was associated with substance use, violence, and some depression and suicidal behaviors. Alternative crowd identification was associated with increased risk for some substance use behaviors, depression and suicide, bullying, physical inactivity, and obesity. Mainstream and, to a lesser extent, Popular, identities were associated with decreased risk for most behaviors. Findings from the first representative study of peer crowds and adolescent behavior identify two high-risk groups, providing critical insights for practitioners seeking to maximize public health interventions by targeting high-risk crowds.

  5. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  6. Explaining behavior change after genetic testing: the problem of collinearity between test results and risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanshawe, Thomas R; Prevost, A Toby; Roberts, J Scott; Green, Robert C; Armstrong, David; Marteau, Theresa M

    2008-09-01

    This paper explores whether and how the behavioral impact of genotype disclosure can be disentangled from the impact of numerical risk estimates generated by genetic tests. Secondary data analyses are presented from a randomized controlled trial of 162 first-degree relatives of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Each participant received a lifetime risk estimate of AD. Control group estimates were based on age, gender, family history, and assumed epsilon4-negative apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype; intervention group estimates were based upon the first three variables plus true APOE genotype, which was also disclosed. AD-specific self-reported behavior change (diet, exercise, and medication use) was assessed at 12 months. Behavior change was significantly more likely with increasing risk estimates, and also more likely, but not significantly so, in epsilon4-positive intervention group participants (53% changed behavior) than in control group participants (31%). Intervention group participants receiving epsilon4-negative genotype feedback (24% changed behavior) and control group participants had similar rates of behavior change and risk estimates, the latter allowing assessment of the independent effects of genotype disclosure. However, collinearity between risk estimates and epsilon4-positive genotypes, which engender high-risk estimates, prevented assessment of the independent effect of the disclosure of an epsilon4 genotype. Novel study designs are proposed to determine whether genotype disclosure has an impact upon behavior beyond that of numerical risk estimates.

  7. Does the Evidence Make a Difference in Consumer Behavior? Sales of Supplements Before and After Publication of Negative Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Miller, Franklin G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine if the public consumption of herbs, vitamins, and supplements changes in light of emerging negative evidence. Methods We describe trends in annual US sales of five major supplements in temporal relationship with publication of research from three top US general medical journals published from 2001 through early 2006 and the number of news citations associated with each publication using the Lexus-Nexis database. Results In four of five supplements (St. John’s wort, echinacea, saw palmetto, and glucosamine), there was little or no change in sales trends after publication of research results. In one instance, however, dramatic changes in sales occurred following publication of data suggesting harm from high doses of vitamin E. Conclusion Results reporting harm may have a greater impact on supplement consumption than those demonstrating lack of efficacy. In order for clinical trial evidence to influence public behavior, there needs to be a better understanding of the factors that influence the translation of evidence in the public. PMID:18618194

  8. Role Behavior of the Coach and the Participants as Essential for the Results of Individual Coaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Møller

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individual coaching has become a popular intervention tool to increase manager’s (named coaches) affective commitment, competences and effectiveness in conducting healthy organizational changes. The aim of this chapter is to explore the influence of the role behavior of the coach...... succeeded and supported substantial changes in the Company’s approach to safety. The safety manager solved 69% of the coaching tasks. However, the safety manager did not change her role behavior substantially and this intervention was categorized as partly failed. In this case, the role behaviors...... of the coach and the safety manager and the power relation between these lead to implementation failure. Lessons learned and possible solutions: Role behaviors of the coach and the participants are important for the implementation of individual coaching interventions. The theory of individual coaching needs...

  9. The manifestation of disturbing behavior on adolescents as a result of using violent video-games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticja Papa Gusho

    2017-07-01

    can cause a remodeling in teenager’s behavior, accompanied by a psychological vitality, which in many cases could be negative, especially when this experience is direct. The study doesn’t have a generalizing character.

  10. Primary preventive programs for risk behavior: Results from a study in high poverty areas of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brito-Navarrete

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Educational interventions that provide mothers with strategies and knowledge regarding the cognitive and emotional development of their preschool children, have an impact on mother–child relationship, promoting interpersonal affective behavior and mother responsiveness to the needs of their children and they also promote the development of self-control and regulation of children, which allow them a functional social adjustment, thus preventing the onset of antisocial behavior.

  11. Sexual Behaviors of U.S. Men by Self-Identified Sexual Orientation: Results From the 2012 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Fu, Tsung-Chieh Jane; Schick, Vanessa; Reece, Michael; Sanders, Stephanie; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Although a large body of previous research has examined sexual behavior and its relation to risk in men of diverse sexual identities, most studies have relied on convenience sampling. As such, the vast majority of research on the sexual behaviors of gay and bisexual men, in particular, might not be generalizable to the general population of these men in the United States. This is of particular concern because many studies are based on samples of men recruited from relatively "high-risk" venues and environments. To provide nationally representative baseline rates for sexual behavior in heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men in the United States and compare findings on sexual behaviors, relationships, and other variables across subgroups. Data were obtained from the 2012 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior, which involved the administration of an online questionnaire to a nationally representative probability sample of women and men at least 18 years old in the United States, with oversampling of self-identified gay and bisexual men and women. Results from the male participants are included in this article. Measurements include demographic characteristics, particularly sexual identity, and their relations to diverse sexual behaviors, including masturbation, mutual masturbation, oral sex, vaginal sex, and anal sex. Behaviors with male and female partners were examined. Men of all self-identified sexual identities reported engaging in a range of sexual behaviors (solo and partnered). As in previous studies, sexual identity was not always congruent for gender of lifetime and recent sexual partners. Patterns of sexual behaviors and relationships vary among heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men. Several demographic characteristics, including age, were related to men's sexual behaviors. The results from this probability study highlight the diversity in men's sexual behaviors across sexual identities, and these data allow generalizability to the broader population of

  12. Selenium exposure results in reduced reproduction in an invasive ant species and altered competitive behavior for a native ant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Riva, Deborah G.; Trumble, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Competitive ability and numerical dominance are important factors contributing to the ability of invasive ant species to establish and expand their ranges in new habitats. However, few studies have investigated the impact of environmental contamination on competitive behavior in ants as a potential factor influencing dynamics between invasive and native ant species. Here we investigated the widespread contaminant selenium to investigate its potential influence on invasion by the exotic Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, through effects on reproduction and competitive behavior. For the fecundity experiment, treatments were provided to Argentine ant colonies via to sugar water solutions containing one of three concentrations of selenium (0, 5 and 10 μg Se mL −1 ) that fall within the range found in soil and plants growing in contaminated areas. Competition experiments included both the Argentine ant and the native Dorymyrmex bicolor to determine the impact of selenium exposure (0 or 15 μg Se mL −1 ) on exploitation- and interference-competition between ant species. The results of the fecundity experiment revealed that selenium negatively impacted queen survival and brood production of Argentine ants. Viability of the developing brood was also affected in that offspring reached adulthood only in colonies that were not given selenium, whereas those in treated colonies died in their larval stages. Selenium exposure did not alter direct competitive behaviors for either species, but selenium exposure contributed to an increased bait discovery time for D. bicolor. Our results suggest that environmental toxins may not only pose problems for native ant species, but may also serve as a potential obstacle for establishment among exotic species. - Highlights: • Argentine ant colonies exposed to selenium had reduced fecundity compared to unexposed colonies. • Viability of offspring was negatively impacted by selenium. • Queen survival was reduced in colonies

  13. Clustering of health-related behaviors among early and mid-adolescents in Tuscany: results from a representative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Panatto, Donatella; Domnich, Alexander; Arata, Lucia; Pammolli, Andrea; Simi, Rita; Giacchi, Mariano Vincenzo; Amicizia, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto

    2018-03-01

    A huge amount of literature suggests that adolescents' health-related behaviors tend to occur in clusters, and the understanding of such behavioral clustering may have direct implications for the effective tailoring of health-promotion interventions. Despite the usefulness of analyzing clustering, Italian data on this topic are scant. This study aimed to evaluate the clustering patterns of health-related behaviors. The present study is based on data from the Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in Tuscany in 2010, which involved 3291 11-, 13- and 15-year olds. To aggregate students' data on 22 health-related behaviors, factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis were performed. Factor analysis revealed eight factors, which were dubbed in accordance with their main traits: 'Alcohol drinking', 'Smoking', 'Physical activity', 'Screen time', 'Signs & symptoms', 'Healthy eating', 'Violence' and 'Sweet tooth'. These factors explained 67% of variance and underwent cluster analysis. A six-cluster κ-means solution was established with a 93.8% level of classification validity. The between-cluster differences in both mean age and gender distribution were highly statistically significant. Health-compromising behaviors are common among Tuscan teens and occur in distinct clusters. These results may be used by schools, health-promotion authorities and other stakeholders to design and implement tailored preventive interventions in Tuscany.

  14. Astrocyte-specific disruption of SynCAM1 signaling results in ADHD-like behavioral manifestations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula S Sandau

    Full Text Available SynCAM1 is an adhesion molecule involved in synaptic differentiation and organization. SynCAM1 is also expressed in astroglial cells where it mediates astrocyte-to astrocyte and glial-neuronal adhesive communication. In astrocytes, SynCAM1 is functionally linked to erbB4 receptors, which are involved in the control of both neuronal/glial development and mature neuronal and glial function. Here we report that mice carrying a dominant-negative form of SynCAM1 specifically targeted to astrocytes (termed GFAP-DNSynCAM1 mice exhibit disrupted diurnal locomotor activity with enhanced and more frequent episodes of activity than control littermates during the day (when the animals are normally sleeping accompanied by shorter periods of rest. GFAP-DNSynCAM1 mice also display high levels of basal activity in the dark period (the rodent's awake/active time that are attenuated by the psychostimulant D,L-amphetamine, and reduced anxiety levels in response to both avoidable and unavoidable provoking stimuli. These results indicate that disruption of SynCAM1-dependent astroglial function results in behavioral abnormalities similar to those described in animals model of attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD, and suggest a hitherto unappreciated contribution of glial cells to the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  15. Antioxidant Treatment with N-acetyl Cysteine Prevents the Development of Cognitive and Social Behavioral Deficits that Result from Perinatal Ketamine Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarron Phensy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Alterations of the normal redox state can be found in all stages of schizophrenia, suggesting a key role for oxidative stress in the etiology and maintenance of the disease. Pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptors can disrupt natural antioxidant defense systems and induce schizophrenia-like behaviors in animals and healthy human subjects. Perinatal administration of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR antagonist ketamine produces persistent behavioral deficits in adult mice which mimic a range of positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms that characterize schizophrenia. Here we tested whether antioxidant treatment with the glutathione (GSH precursor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC can prevent the development of these behavioral deficits. On postnatal days (PND 7, 9 and 11, we treated mice with subanesthetic doses (30 mg/kg of ketamine or saline. Two groups (either ketamine or saline treated also received NAC throughout development. In adult animals (PND 70–120 we then assessed behavioral alterations in a battery of cognitive and psychomotor tasks. Ketamine-treated animals showed deficits in a task of cognitive flexibility, abnormal patterns of spontaneous alternation, deficits in novel-object recognition, as well as social interaction. Developmental ketamine treatment also induced behavioral stereotypy in response to an acute amphetamine challenge, and it impaired sensorimotor gating, measured as reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI of the startle response. All of these behavioral abnormalities were either prevented or strongly ameliorated by NAC co-treatment. These results suggest that oxidative stress is a major factor for the development of the ketamine-induced behavioral dysfunctions, and that restoring oxidative balance during the prodromal stage of schizophrenia might be able to ameliorate the development of several major symptoms of the disease.

  16. Gestational Exposure to the Synthetic Cathinone Methylenedioxypyrovalerone Results in Reduced Maternal Care and Behavioral Alterations in Mouse Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László I. Gerecsei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The member of synthetic cathinone family, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV, is a frequently used psychoactive drug of abuse. The objective of our study was to determine the effect of MDPV (administered from the 8th to the 14th day of gestation on the behavior of neonatal and adolescent mice, as well as its effect on maternal care. We measured maternal care (pup retrieval test, nest building, locomotor activity (open field test, and motor coordination (grip strength test of dams, whereas on pups we examined locomotor activity at postnatal day 7 and day 21 (open field test and motor coordination on day 21 (grip strength test. On fresh-frozen brain samples of the dams we examined the expression of two important peptides implicated in the regulation of maternal behavior and lactation: tuberoinfundibular peptide 39 (TIP39 mRNA in the thalamic posterior intralaminar complex, and amylin mRNA in the medial preoptic nucleus. We detected decreased birth rate and survival of offspring, and reduced maternal care in the drug-treated animals, whereas there was no difference between the motility of treated and control mothers. Locomotor activity of the pups was increased in the MDPV treated group both at 7 and 21 days of age, while motor coordination was unaffected by MDPV treatment. TIP39 and amylin were detected in their typical location but failed to show a significant difference of expression between the drug-treated and control groups. The results suggest that chronic systemic administration of the cathinone agent MDPV to pregnant mice can reduce birth rate and maternal care, and it also enhances motility (without impairment of motor coordination of the offspring.

  17. SmallWorld Behavior of the Worldwide Active Volcanoes Network: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spata, A.; Bonforte, A.; Nunnari, G.; Puglisi, G.

    2009-12-01

    We propose a preliminary complex networks based approach in order to model and characterize volcanoes activity correlation observed on a planetary scale over the last two thousand years. Worldwide volcanic activity is in fact related to the general plate tectonics that locally drives the faults activity, that in turn controls the magma upraise beneath the volcanoes. To find correlations among different volcanoes could indicate a common underlying mechanism driving their activity and could help us interpreting the deeper common dynamics controlling their unrest. All the first evidences found testing the procedure, suggest the suitability of this analysis to investigate global volcanism related to plate tectonics. The first correlations found, in fact, indicate that an underlying common large-scale dynamics seems to drive volcanic activity at least around the Pacific plate, where it collides and subduces beneath American, Eurasian and Australian plates. From this still preliminary analysis, also more complex relationships among volcanoes lying on different tectonic margins have been found, suggesting some more complex interrelationships between different plates. The understanding of eventually detected correlations could be also used to further implement warning systems, relating the unrest probabilities of a specific volcano also to the ongoing activity to the correlated ones. Our preliminary results suggest that, as for other many physical and biological systems, an underlying organizing principle of planetary volcanoes activity might exist and it could be a small-world principle. In fact we found that, from a topological perspective, volcanoes correlations are characterized by the typical features of small-world network: a high clustering coefficient and a low characteristic path length. These features confirm that global volcanoes activity is characterized by both short and long-range correlations. We stress here the fact that numerical simulation carried out in

  18. The Association between Dry Eye Disease and Physical Activity as well as Sedentary Behavior: Results from the Osaka Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the association of dry eye disease (DED) with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods. The cross-sectional survey conducted included Japanese office workers who use visual display terminals (n = 672). DED was assessed according to the Japanese Dry Eye Diagnostic Criteria, and participants were categorized into “definite DED,” “probable DED,” or “non-DED” groups based on the results of DED examinations. Physical activity and sedentary behavior of participants were ...

  19. Results based on 124 cases of breast cancer and 97 controls from Taiwan suggest that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP309) in the MDM2 gene promoter is associated with earlier onset and increased risk of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ying-Fang; Leu, Jyh-Der; Chen, Su-Mei; Lin, I-Feng; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that the single nucleotide polymorphism 309 (SNP309, T -> G) in the promoter region of the MDM2 gene is important for tumor development; however, with regards to breast cancer, inconsistent associations have been reported worldwide. It is speculated that these conflicting results may have arisen due to different patient subgroups and ethnicities studied. For the first time, this study explores the effect of the MDM2 SNP309 genotype on Taiwanese breast cancer patients. Genomic DNA was obtained from the whole blood of 124 breast cancer patients and 97 cancer-free healthy women living in Taiwan. MDM2 SNP309 genotyping was carried out by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. The multivariate logistic regression and the Kaplan-Meier method were used for analyzing the risk association and significance of age at diagnosis among different MDM2 SNP309 genotypes, respectively. Compared to the TT genotype, an increased risk association with breast cancer was apparent for the GG genotype (OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.04 to 8.95), and for the TG genotype (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 0.90 to 5.00) after adjusting for age, cardiovascular disease/diabetes, oral contraceptive usage, and body mass index, which exhibits significant difference between cases and controls. Furthermore, the average ages at diagnosis for breast cancer patients were 53.6, 52 and 47 years for those harboring TT, TG and GG genotypes, respectively. A significant difference in median age of onset for breast cancer between GG and TT+TG genotypes was obtained by the log-rank test (p = 0.0067). Findings based on the current sample size suggest that the MDM2 SNP309 GG genotype may be associated with both the risk of breast cancer and an earlier age of onset in Taiwanese women

  20. Nutritional and lifestyle risk behaviors and their association with mental health and violence among Pakistani adolescents: results from the National Survey of 4583 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Saadiyah; Shah, Nadia; Jawed, Nida; Inam, Sumera; Shafique, Kashif

    2015-04-28

    Unhealthy behaviors are associated with mental health problems and violence in adolescents, yet their combined association has been understudied. Using the Global School Health Survey, this study examined the association between combined unhealthy behaviors (including fast food, soft drink, smoking, other tobacco products and physical inactivity) and anxiety, suicidal ideation and involvement in physical fight among Pakistani adolescents. Data were obtained from the Global School Health Survey conducted in Pakistan (2009). The study population consisted of school going adolescents aged 13 to 15 years. Association of combined unhealthy behaviors with anxiety, suicidal ideation and involvement in physical fight were studied through secondary analysis. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis by complex sample method, accounting for cluster sampling technique used for data collection. Of the total 4583 students, weighted percentage and unweighted count for one, two, three and four or more unhealthy behaviors was 39.4% (n = 1770), 22.1% (n = 963), 5.9% (n = 274) and 1.2% (n = 62) respectively. The weighted prevalence for anxiety, suicidal ideation and involvement in physical fight were 8.4%, 7.3% and 37.4% respectively. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjustment showed that students who had four or more unhealthy behaviors had higher odds of; being anxious (OR 2.45, 95%CI 1.31-4.59, p value 0.004), suicide ideation (OR 4.56, 95%CI 2.58-8.07, p value <0.001) and being involved in physical fight (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.63-6.08, p value <0.001) as compared to those who had not adopted any unhealthy behaviors. This study suggests that the co-occurrence of unhealthy behaviors is associated with anxiety, suicidal ideation and physical fight among adolescents. These findings should be considered when developing interventions to combat detrimental outcomes of unhealthy behaviors during adolescence.

  1. Are You Suggesting That's My Hand? The Relation Between Hypnotic Suggestibility and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Guilmette, D N; Longo, M R; Moore, J W; Oakley, D A; Halligan, P W; Mehta, M A; Deeley, Q

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility (HS) is the ability to respond automatically to suggestions and to experience alterations in perception and behavior. Hypnotically suggestible participants are also better able to focus and sustain their attention on an experimental stimulus. The present study explores the relation between HS and susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Based on previous research with visual illusions, it was predicted that higher HS would lead to a stronger RHI. Two behavioral output measures of the RHI, an implicit (proprioceptive drift) and an explicit (RHI questionnaire) measure, were correlated against HS scores. Hypnotic suggestibility correlated positively with the implicit RHI measure contributing to 30% of the variation. However, there was no relation between HS and the explicit RHI questionnaire measure, or with compliance control items. High hypnotic suggestibility may facilitate, via attentional mechanisms, the multisensory integration of visuoproprioceptive inputs that leads to greater perceptual mislocalization of a participant's hand. These results may provide insight into the multisensory brain mechanisms involved in our sense of embodiment.

  2. Dewatering behavior of fine oil sands tailings : A summary of laboratory results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.; van Tol, A.F.; van Paassen, L.A.; Vardon, P.J.; Sego, D.C.; Wilson, G.W.; Beier, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the disposal technology for fine oil sands tailings, the appropriate engineering properties of the tailings should be ascertained. A laboratory study was conducted by Delft University of Technology (the Netherlands) on the geotechnical properties and dewatering behavior of the fine oil

  3. Improving safety climate and behavior through a multifaceted intervention : Results from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, B.A.C.; Tummers, L.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341028274; Steijn, B.

    Interventions aimed at increasing priority for employee safety could lead to better safety climate and safety behavior of employees. However, current studies reporting on safety climate interventions lack diversity in contexts and settings, they focus mainly on supervisors and do not take into

  4. The Role of Emotions, Motivation, and Learning Behavior in Underachievement and Results of an Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obergriesser, Stefanie; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that various individual factors play an important role in the underachievement of gifted students. Most often discussed as predictors of underachievement are motivation, learning behavior, and emotions. To examine which specific constructs from these fields simultaneously predict underachievement among gifted fourth graders,…

  5. Screening diagnostics of antivital experiences and propensity toward impulsive, autoagressive behavior in adolescents (preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannikov G.S.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of methods for revealing antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in educational institutions is one of the key steps in developing strategies for the primary prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to develop an effective screening diagnostic package aimed at identifying antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior. The survey methods we used were: Beck Hopelessness Scale, Russell Loneliness Scale, A.G. Shmelev Suicide Risk Questionnaire, PDQ-IV Borderline disorder and Narcissism scales. At the first stage we examined 750 minors aged 12-18 and identified risk group (85 people – 11.4%, which included adolescents with high levels of both individual scales, and their combination. At the second stage we examined 10 adolescents at risk. In 7 of them (70% were identified antivital, suicidal thoughts of passive or compulsive nature, signs of subjective and objective socio- psychological maladjustment. Our preliminary conclusion is that high levels of hopelessness and loneliness in adolescents are stable predictors of mental and emotional distress and psychosocial maladjustment in the period of psychological crises and decompensation of character accentuation of borderline and narcissistic types. These scales can be recommended for primary screening of antivital (depressive experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in adolescents.

  6. The effect of emotional responses on endogenous dynamics of activity-travel behavior: numerical simulation results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psarra, I.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The current study aims at developing a model of endogenous dynamics of activity-travel behavior. Endogenous dynamics are induced by stress, which is regarded as dissatisfaction with current habits. It is assumed that people try to alleviate stress by hierarchically trying short-term and then

  7. Simulating endogenous dynamics of activity-travel behavior : results of numerical simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psarra, I.; Liao, F.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Modelling the dynamics of activity-travel behavior constitutes the next challenge on the international research agenda. Long-term dynamics relate to changes in opportunities or constraints, such as residential and job choice, while short-term decisions relate to day-to-day experiences. Due to a

  8. Improving safety climate and behavior through a multifaceted intervention: Results from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.C. Bronkhorst (Babette); L.G. Tummers (Lars); A.J. Steijn (Bram)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractInterventions aimed at increasing priority for employee safety could lead to better safety climate and safety behavior of employees. However, current studies reporting on safety climate interventions lack diversity in contexts and settings, they focus mainly on supervisors and do not

  9. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Suicidal Ideation in Schizophrenia: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Katy; Hansen, Lars; Turkington, Douglas; Kingdon, David

    2007-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of suicide. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce symptoms in schizophrenia. This study examines whether CBT also changes the level of suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia compared to a control group. Ninety ambulatory patients with symptoms of schizophrenia resistant to…

  10. Predicting the potential for risky behavior among those "too young" to drink as the result of appealing advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, E W; Knaus, C

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 273 children in Washington state used a predrinking behavior index as a behavioral outcome to assess media effects on precursors to drinking among children for whom alcohol consumption is not yet occurring. It also examined age trends in relevant beliefs and behaviors. Perceptions of advertising desirability, the extent to which it seemed appealing, increased steadily from third to ninth grade, whereas identification with portrayals, the degree to which individuals wanted to emulate portrayals, leveled off after sixth grade. Expectancies, positive social benefits perceived to be associated with drinking alcohol, also increased with age, particularly between sixth and ninth grade. When demographics and grade level were controlled, desirability predicted identification, and both predicted expectancies, which is consistent with media decision-making theory. Expectancies correlated with alcohol predrinking behavior, and expectancies predicted risky behavior, with demographics and grade level controlled. Predrinking behavior and reported risky behavior were correlated. The results provide cross-sectional support for the view that beliefs and desires developing by third grade prime children for future decisions regarding substance use.

  11. Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder: results from a pilot randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tina R; Fersch-Podrat, Rachael K; Rivera, Maribel; Axelson, David A; Merranko, John; Yu, Haifeng; Brent, David A; Birmaher, Boris

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) versus psychosocial treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BP). We recruited participants 12-18 years of age with a primary BP diagnosis (I, II, or operationalized not otherwise specified [NOS] criteria) from a pediatric specialty clinic. Eligible patients were assigned using a 2:1 randomization structure to either DBT (n=14) or psychosocial TAU (n=6). All patients received medication management from a study-affiliated psychiatrist. DBT included 36 sessions (18 individual, 18 family skills training) over 1 year. TAU was an eclectic psychotherapy approach consisting of psychoeducational, supportive, and cognitive behavioral techniques. An independent evaluator, blind to treatment condition, assessed outcomes including affective symptoms, suicidal ideation and behavior, nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, and emotional dysregulation, quarterly over 1 year. Adolescents receiving DBT attended significantly more therapy sessions over 1 year than did adolescents receiving TAU, possibly reflecting greater engagement and retention; both treatments were rated as highly acceptable by adolescents and parents. As compared with adolescents receiving TAU, adolescents receiving DBT demonstrated significantly less severe depressive symptoms over follow-up, and were nearly three times more likely to demonstrate improvement in suicidal ideation. Models indicate a large effect size, for more weeks being euthymic, over follow-up among adolescents receiving DBT. Although there were no between-group differences in manic symptoms or emotional dysregulation with treatment, adolescents receiving DBT, but not those receiving TAU, evidenced improvement from pre- to posttreatment in both manic symptoms and emotional dysregulation. DBT may offer promise as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation for

  12. Status and results of the theoretical and experimental investigations on the LWR fuel rod behavior under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocek, M.; Hofmann, P.; Leistikow, S.; Class, G.; Meyder, R.; Raff, S.; Erbacher, F.; Hofmann, G.; Ihle, P.; Karb, E.; Fiege, A.

    1978-09-01

    In this report the status of knowledge is described which has been gathered up to the end of 1977 of the LWR fuel rod behavior in loss-of-coolant accidents. The majority of results indicated have been derived from studies on the fuel rod behavior performed within the framework of the Nuclear Safety Project (PNS); partly, also the results of cooperating research establishments and fm international exchange of experience are referred to. The report has been subdivided into two complete parts: Part I provides a survey of the most significant results of the theoretical and experimental research projects on fuel rod behavior. Part II describes by detailed individual presentations the status as well as the results with respect to the major central subjects. (orig.) 891 RW 892 AP [de

  13. Examining the Effects of Displaying Clicker Voting Results on High School Students' Voting Behaviors, Discussion Processes, and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yu-Ta; Lee, Yu-Hsien; Li, Tsung-Yen; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between students' clicking behaviors, discussion processes, learning outcomes, and a prominent feature of clicker systems--the whole class' response results aggregated by clickers in real time. The results indicate that, while teaching Newton's laws of motion, displaying the real-time responses of the whole…

  14. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  15. Conformational changes in Sindbis virions resulting from exposure to low pH and interactions with cells suggest that cell penetration may occur at the cell surface in the absence of membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, Angel M.; Ferreira, Davis; Horton, Michelle; Saad, Ali; Tsuruta, Hiro; Johnston, Robert; Klimstra, William; Ryman, Kate; Hernandez, Raquel; Chiu Wah; Brown, Dennis T.

    2004-01-01

    Alphaviruses have the ability to induce cell-cell fusion after exposure to acid pH. This observation has served as an article of proof that these membrane-containing viruses infect cells by fusion of the virus membrane with a host cell membrane upon exposure to acid pH after incorporation into a cell endosome. We have investigated the requirements for the induction of virus-mediated, low pH-induced cell-cell fusion and cell-virus fusion. We have correlated the pH requirements for this process to structural changes they produce in the virus by electron cryo-microscopy. We found that exposure to acid pH was required to establish conditions for membrane fusion but that membrane fusion did not occur until return to neutral pH. Electron cryo-microscopy revealed dramatic changes in the structure of the virion as it was moved to acid pH and then returned to neutral pH. None of these treatments resulted in the disassembly of the virus protein icosahedral shell that is a requisite for the process of virus membrane-cell membrane fusion. The appearance of a prominent protruding structure upon exposure to acid pH and its disappearance upon return to neutral pH suggested that the production of a 'pore'-like structure at the fivefold axis may facilitate cell penetration as has been proposed for polio (J. Virol. 74 (2000) 1342) and human rhino virus (Mol. Cell 10 (2002) 317). This transient structural change also provided an explanation for how membrane fusion occurs after return to neutral pH. Examination of virus-cell complexes at neutral pH supported the contention that infection occurs at the cell surface at neutral pH by the production of a virus structure that breaches the plasma membrane bilayer. These data suggest an alternative route of infection for Sindbis virus that occurs by a process that does not involve membrane fusion and does not require disassembly of the virus protein shell

  16. Shopping behavior for ADHD drugs: results of a cohort study in a pharmacy database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, M Soledad; Fife, Daniel; Berwaerts, Joris; Yuan, Yingli; Mastrogiovanni, Greg

    2014-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications are subject to abuse, misuse, and diversion. Obtaining ADHD prescriptions from multiple prescribers or filled across multiple pharmacies, known as 'doctor shopping', may reflect such unsanctioned use. We sought to create a definition of shopping behavior that differentiated ADHD medications from medications with low risk of diversion, i.e. asthma medications, and describe the incidence, frequency, and demography of shopping behavior. This was a retrospective cohort study in a pharmacy database-LRx-covering 65 % of US retail pharmacies. Subjects had ADHD or asthma medication dispensed between February 2011 and January 2012. We followed subjects for 18 months to assess the number with overlapping dispensings from different prescribers, and the number of prescribers and pharmacies involved in those dispensings. We included 4,402,464 subjects who were dispensed ADHD medications, and 6,128,025 subjects who were dispensed asthma medications. Overlapping prescriptions from two or more prescribers dispensed by three or more pharmacies was four times more frequent in the ADHD cohort than in the asthma cohort. Using this definition, ADHD medication shopping behavior was more common among experienced users than naïve users, and was most common in subjects aged 10-39 years. Among subjects who shopped, 57.4 % shopped only once (accounting for 22.4 % of episodes), and 9.2 % shopped six or more times (accounting for 42.0 % of episodes). Shoppers more often received stimulant ADHD drugs than non-stimulants. Overlapping prescriptions by different prescribers and filled at three or more pharmacies defines ADHD medication shopping. Shopping behavior is most common in adolescents and younger adults. A small proportion of shoppers is responsible for a large number of shopping episodes.

  17. Psychoeducational Psychotherapy and Omega-3 Supplementation Improve Co-Occurring Behavioral Problems in Youth with Depression: Results from a Pilot RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrea S; Arnold, L Eugene; Wolfson, Hannah L; Fristad, Mary A

    2017-07-01

    This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated benefits of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and Individual-Family Psychoeducational Psychotherapy (PEP; a family-focused, cognitive-behavioral therapy) for behavior problems among youth with depression. Participants aged 7-14 with DSM-IV-TR depressive disorders (N = 72; 56.9 % male) were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment conditions: PEP + omega-3, PEP monotherapy (with pill placebo), omega-3 monotherapy, or placebo (without active intervention). At screen, baseline, and 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 weeks post-baseline, parents completed the SNAP-IV, which assesses attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, and overall behavior problems. At screen, baseline (randomization), 6 and 12 weeks, parents completed the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), which includes Intensity and Problem scales for child behavior problems. Youth who had a completed SNAP-IV or ECBI for at least two assessments during treatment (n = 48 and 38, respectively) were included in analyses of the respective outcome. ClinicalTrials.gov.:NCT01341925. Linear mixed effects models indicated a significant effect of combined PEP + omega-3 on SNAP-IV Total (p = 0.022, d = 0.80) and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity trajectories (p = 0.008, d = 0.80), such that youth in the combined group saw greater behavioral improvement than those receiving only placebo. Similarly, youth in combined treatment had more favorable ECBI Intensity trajectories than youth who received no active treatment (p = 0.012, d = 1.07). Results from this pilot RCT suggest that combined PEP + omega-3 is a promising treatment for co-occurring behavior symptoms in youth with depression.

  18. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  19. School vending machine purchasing behavior: results from the 2005 YouthStyles survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Olivia M; Yaroch, Amy L; Moser, Richard P; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Agurs-Collins, Tanya

    2010-05-01

    Competitive foods are often available in school vending machines. Providing youth with access to school vending machines, and thus competitive foods, is of concern, considering the continued high prevalence of childhood obesity: competitive foods tend to be energy dense and nutrient poor and can contribute to increased energy intake in children and adolescents. To evaluate the relationship between school vending machine purchasing behavior and school vending machine access and individual-level dietary characteristics, we used population-level YouthStyles 2005 survey data to compare nutrition-related policy and behavioral characteristics by the number of weekly vending machine purchases made by public school children and adolescents (N = 869). Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using age- and race/ethnicity-adjusted logistic regression models that were weighted on age and sex of child, annual household income, head of household age, and race/ethnicity of the adult in study. Data were collected in 2005 and analyzed in 2008. Compared to participants who did not purchase from a vending machine, participants who purchased >or=3 days/week were more likely to (1) have unrestricted access to a school vending machine (OR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.13-2.59); (2) consume regular soda and chocolate candy >or=1 time/day (OR = 3.21; 95% CI = 1.87-5.51 and OR = 2.71; 95% CI = 1.34-5.46, respectively); and (3) purchase pizza or fried foods from a school cafeteria >or=1 day/week (OR = 5.05; 95% CI = 3.10-8.22). Future studies are needed to establish the contribution that the school-nutrition environment makes on overall youth dietary intake behavior, paying special attention to health disparities between whites and nonwhites.

  20. Sadness, suicide, and drug misuse in Arkansas: results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaley, Sean; Mancino, Michael J; Messias, Erick

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to drugs is unfortunately common among high school students and its use has been linked to depression and suicide risk. We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of drug abuse and to measure its association with teen suicidality. Three types of substance misuse were reported by more than 10% of Arkansas high school students: cannabis (33.3% ever use). inhalants (18.7% ever use). and prescription drugs without a prescription (13.2% ever use). We found in all suicide outcomes a stronger association with prescription drug abuse, followed by inhalant abuse, then cannabis abuse.

  1. Mindfulness skills in borderline personality disorder patients during dialectical behavior therapy: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroud, Nader; Nicastro, Rosetta; Jermann, Françoise; Huguelet, Philippe

    2012-09-01

    One of the components of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is the use of mindfulness skills as a core component of treatment for subjects with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In this study, we investigated changes in and correlates of mindfulness skills over a 1-year follow-up including a 4-week session of intensive DBT followed by 10 months of standard DBT. Fifty-two BPD subjects were assessed several times using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS) which describes mindfulness in four discrete dimensions: observing (Obs), describing (Des), acting with awareness (AwA) and accepting without judgment (AwJ). AwJ was the only dimension that increased significantly over time after adjustment for potential confounding factors (β = 0.24; P = 0.0002). Increases in AwJ correlated with improvement in BPD symptoms. This study highlights the usefulness of investigating changes in mindfulness dimensions during DBT. AwJ is a possible mechanism for positive change. Encouraging this skill should lead to a more adaptive response to problematic situations and counteract impulsive and problematic behaviors. The lack of specific control groups means that these findings are preliminary and replication is required.

  2. Preventing Child Behavior Problems in the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study: Results from Preschool to Secondary School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Lösel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview of the prevention part of the long-term Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study, which combines a prospective longitudinal and experimental design. Findings up to five years after intervention are reported. From a sample of 609 families with kindergarten children, subgroups participated in the universal prevention program EFFEKT (child social skills training, a parent training and a combination of both or were assigned to equivalent control groups. The short-term evaluation showed significant effects in mediating constructs (social problem solving and parenting behavior and in educators’ratings of children’s social behavior. In a follow-up after two to three years, school report cards showed fewer children with multiple behavior problems. In a further follow up after four to five years program children reported fewer externalizing and internalizing problems than the control group. There were no significant effects in the mothers’ reports on their children’s behavior. Most significant effect sizes ranged between d = 0.20 and d = 0.40. The findings suggest various positive long-term effects of the intervention. However, one need to be cautious with regard to over-generalizing the positive findings, because effectsizes vary over time and the positive findings could not be replicated in all investigated variables.

  3. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  4. Change in Parental Depressive Symptoms in Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutus, Dunja; Keller, Ferdinand; Sachser, Cedric; Pfeiffer, Elisa; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2017-03-01

    Depressive symptoms are frequently described in parents whose children have been exposed to traumatic events. Hence, including nonoffending parents in trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) for children and adolescents may help both children and their parents to cope with the trauma. Up to now, three randomized controlled trials have investigated parental depressive symptoms after TF-CBT. Given the ambiguous results, further effectiveness trials are needed to investigate parental benefit from TF-CBT. The aim of this study is to determine whether TF-CBT is superior to waitlist (WL) regarding change in parental depressive symptoms. Parents, N = 84, whose children (age 6-17 years) were randomly assigned to either 12 sessions of TF-CBT (n = 40) or to WL condition (n = 44) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) for pre-post comparison. The group difference was tested through repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVA). The change in parental depressive symptoms was additionally categorized using the reliable change index. Repeated-measures ANOVA indicated a significant time effect F(1, 82) = 2.55, p = 0.02, and no significant time-group interaction F(1, 82) = 1.09, p = 0.30, suggesting a similar reduction in parental depressive symptoms in both groups. Across both conditions, most of the parents remained unchanged (n = 62), some of them improved (n = 17), and a few deteriorated (n = 5). There was no significant difference between the conditions (χ 2 (2) = 1.74; p = 0.42). Contrary to findings of several previous studies, our results suggest no superiority of TF-CBT in comparison with WL regarding change in depressive symptoms in parents. This might be due to different types of the child's trauma. Parental benefit from TF-CBT was found in samples of sexually abused, but not in children and adolescents exposed to diverse trauma types.

  5. Mothers say "baby" and their newborns do not choose to listen: a behavioral preference study to compare with ERP results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Moon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously published results from neonatal brain evoked response potential (ERP experiments revealed different brain responses to the single word baby depending on whether it was recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar female. These results are consistent with behavioral preference studies in which infants altered pacifier sucking to contingently activate recordings of the maternal vs. an unfamiliar female voice, but the speech samples were much longer and information-rich than in the ERP studies. Both types of neonatal voice recognition studies imply postnatal retention of prenatal learning. The preference studies require infant motor and motivation systems to mount a response in addition to voice recognition. The current contingent sucking preference study was designed to test neonatal motivation to alter behavior when the reward is the single word baby recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar speaker. Results showed an absent or weak contingent sucking response to the brief maternal voice sample, and they demonstrate the complementary value of electrophysiological and behavioral studies for very early development. Neonates can apparently recognize the maternal voice in brief recorded sample (previous ERP results but they are not sufficiently motivated by it to alter sucking behavior.

  6. Is Young Adulthood a Critical Period for Suicidal Behavior among Sexual Minorities? Results from a US National Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jessica N; Rice, Cara E; Lanza, Stephanie T; Russell, Stephen T

    2018-03-29

    The developmental timing of suicide-related disparities between heterosexuals and sexual minorities (i.e., lesbian/gay and bisexual (LGB) people) is an understudied area that has critical prevention implications. In addition to developmentally situated experiences that shape risk for suicidality in the general population, sexual minorities also experience unique social stressors (e.g., anti-LGB stigma) that may alter their risk for suicidal behavior at different ages. Using a nationally representative US sample of adults, we assessed age-varying rates of suicidal behavior among heterosexuals and sexual minorities ages 18 to 60 and the age-varying association between anti-LGB discrimination and suicidal behavior. We also tested whether these age-varying prevalences and associations differed for men and women and for sexual minorities who did and did not endorse a sexual minority identity. Results indicate a critical period for suicide behavior risk for sexual minorities during young adulthood, with the highest rates of risk at age 18 followed by a steady decline until the early 40s. Disparities were particularly robust for sexual minorities who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. This pattern was present for both men and women, though sexual minority women in their 30s were more likely to report suicidal behavior than heterosexuals and sexual minority men. Sexual minorities who experienced anti-LGB discrimination were more likely to report suicidal behavior, but the significance of this association was limited to those under 30. The effect of discrimination on suicidal behavior was stronger among young adult sexual minority men, relative to sexual minority women, but was present for a wider age range for sexual minority women (until age 30) relative to sexual minority men (until age 25).

  7. Treatment Adherence in Child and Adolescent Chronic Migraine Patients: Results From the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Amitriptyline Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Ramsey, Rachelle R; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Slater, Shalonda; Hommel, Kevin; Kroner, John W; LeCates, Susan; Kabbouche, Marielle A; O'Brien, Hope L; Kacperski, Joanne; Allen, Janelle R; Peugh, James; Hershey, Andrew D; Powers, Scott W

    2017-10-01

    To examine treatment adherence among children and adolescents with chronic migraine who volunteered to be in a clinical trial using 3 measures: treatment session attendance, therapy homework completion, and preventive medication use by daily diary. Analyses are secondary from a trial of 135 youth aged 10 to 17 years diagnosed with chronic migraine and with a Pediatric Migraine Disability Score over 20. Participants were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral therapy plus amitriptyline (CBT+A, N=64) or headache education plus amitriptyline (HE+A, N=71). Therapists recorded session attendance. Completion of homework/practice between sessions was reported to therapists by patients. Patients reported preventive medication adherence using a daily headache diary. Mean session attendance adherence out of 10 treatment sessions was 95% for CBT+A and 99% for HE+A. CBT+A participants reported completing a mean of 90% of home practice of CBT skills between the 10 sessions. Participants reported taking amitriptyline daily at a mean level of 90% when missing diaries were excluded and 79% when missing diaries were considered as missed doses of medication. Our findings demonstrate that youth with chronic migraine who agree to be a part of a clinical trial do quite well at attending therapy sessions, and report that they are adherent to completing home/practice between sessions and taking medication. These results lend further support to consideration of CBT+A as a first-line treatment for youth with chronic migraine and suggest that measurement of adherence when this treatment is provided in practice will be important.

  8. An Exploration of Mate Similarity for Criminal Offending Behaviors: Results from a Multi-Generation Sample of Dutch Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weijer, Steve G A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2017-09-01

    There has been a growing body of research examining mate and spousal similarity on antisocial behaviors. The results of these studies have shown varying degrees of similarity between mates and spouses, but the precise mechanisms accounting for such similarity have remained somewhat elusive. The current study builds off this line of research and examines spousal similarity on criminal offending behaviors. Moreover, we also examine the potential factors that might account for spousal similarity. This study analyzed data drawn from two generations of Dutch spouses. The analyses revealed statistically significant associations between mates on criminal offending prior to marriage, a finding that is directly in line with an assortative mating explanation of spousal similarity. In addition, the analyses also revealed that criminal offending between spouses becomes even more similar after marriage, a finding that is line with a behavioral contagion explanation of spousal similarity. We conclude by discussing the limitations of the study along with the implications that these findings have for criminological research.

  9. Caregiving associated with selected cancer risk behaviors and screening utilization among women: cross-sectional results of the 2009 BRFSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Katherine W

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Informal caregiving is increasingly common as the U.S. population ages, and there is concern that caregivers are less likely than non-caregivers to practice health-promoting behaviors, including cancer screening. We examined caregiving effects on cancer risk behaviors and breast and cervical cancer screening in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Methods Women age ≥41 with data on breast and cervical cancer screening were included (weighted frequency 3,478,000 women. Cancer screening was classified according to American Cancer Society guidelines. We evaluated the association of caregiving with cancer risk behaviors (obesity, physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking status, and fruit/vegetable consumption and cancer screening (mammography, clinical breast exam [CBE], and Pap test using logistic regression overall and with stratification on age ( Results Caregivers had greater odds of being obese, physically active, and current smokers. Subgroup analyses revealed that caregiving was associated with obesity in younger women and whites, and with less obesity in older women. Also, caregiving was associated with smoking only among younger women and non-whites. Caregivers had greater odds of ever having had a mammogram or CBE, yet there was no association with mammogram, CBE, or Pap test within guidelines. Conclusions Caregiving was associated with some health behaviors that increase cancer risk, yet not with cancer screening within guidelines. Effects of caregiving by age and race require confirmation by additional studies.

  10. A Consumer-Driven Approach To Increase Suggestive Selling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, Don; Austin, John; Sanford, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in improving suggestive selling behavior of sales staff focuses on a study that examined the efficacy of a consumer-driven approach to improve suggestive selling behavior of three employees of a fast food franchise. Reports that consumer-driven intervention increased suggestive selling…

  11. Children's eating behavior, feeding practices of parents and weight problems in early childhood: results from the population-based Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pauline W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight problems that arise in the first years of life tend to persist. Behavioral research in this period can provide information on the modifiable etiology of unhealthy weight. The present study aimed to replicate findings from previous small-scale studies by examining whether different aspects of preschooler’s eating behavior and parental feeding practices are associated with body mass index (BMI and weight status -including underweight, overweight and obesity- in a population sample of preschool children. Methods Cross-sectional data on the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, Child Feeding Questionnaire and objectively measured BMI was available for 4987 four-year-olds participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Results Thirteen percent of the preschoolers had underweight, 8% overweight, and 2% obesity. Higher levels of children’s Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food and parental Restriction were associated with a higher mean BMI independent of measured confounders. Emotional Undereating, Satiety Responsiveness and Fussiness of children as well as parents’ Pressure to Eat were negatively related with children’s BMI. Similar trends were found with BMI categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Part of the association between children’s eating behaviors and BMI was accounted for by parental feeding practices (changes in effect estimates: 20-43%, while children’s eating behaviors in turn explained part of the relation between parental feeding and child BMI (changes in effect estimates: 33-47%. Conclusions This study provides important information by showing how young children’s eating behaviors and parental feeding patterns differ between children with normal weight, underweight and overweight. The high prevalence of under- and overweight among preschoolers suggest prevention interventions targeting unhealthy weights should start early in life. Although

  12. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Processing of plane strain compression test results for investigation of AISI-304 stainless steel constitutive behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, Sergey A.; Puzino, Yuriy A.; Bober, Stanislav A.; Kliber, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    The paper is oriented toward the determination of constitutive equation constants by the inverse analysis of plane strain compression test results. The interpretation of such results is complicated by the inhomogeneity of strain rate distribution in the specimen caused by rigid ends, the lateral spreading of a specimen friction and the variation of temperature during the test. The results of plane strain compression tests of AISI-304 stainless steel are presented and significant deviations of temperature are observed at higher strain rates. Finite element simulation was performed to estimate the inhomogeneity of strain rate within the specimen and evaluate the effect of friction on the test results. Constitutive equations of the material were obtained by inverse analysis minimizing the deviations between the measured load values and the ones predicted by numerical simulation. Keywords: PSCT, AISI-304, Gleeble, constitutive equations, hot forming, FEM, inverse analysis.

  14. Cognitive Task Analysis of Business Jet Pilots' Weather Flying Behaviors: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorella, Kara; Pliske, Rebecca; Hutton, Robert; Chrenka, Jason

    2001-01-01

    This report presents preliminary findings from a cognitive task analysis (CTA) of business aviation piloting. Results describe challenging weather-related aviation decisions and the information and cues used to support these decisions. Further, these results demonstrate the role of expertise in business aviation decision-making in weather flying, and how weather information is acquired and assessed for reliability. The challenging weather scenarios and novice errors identified in the results provide the basis for experimental scenarios and dependent measures to be used in future flight simulation evaluations of candidate aviation weather information systems. Finally, we analyzed these preliminary results to recommend design and training interventions to improve business aviation decision-making with weather information. The primary objective of this report is to present these preliminary findings and to document the extended CTA methodology used to elicit and represent expert business aviator decision-making with weather information. These preliminary findings will be augmented with results from additional subjects using this methodology. A summary of the complete results, absent the detailed treatment of methodology provided in this report, will be documented in a separate publication.

  15. Acceptance-based versus standard behavioral treatment for obesity: Results from the mind your health randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Evan M; Butryn, Meghan L; Manasse, Stephanie M; Crosby, Ross D; Goldstein, Stephanie P; Wyckoff, Emily P; Thomas, J Graham

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, as well as potential moderators and mediators, of a revised acceptance-based behavioral treatment (ABT) for obesity, relative to standard behavioral treatment (SBT). Participants with overweight and obesity (n = 190) were randomized to 25 sessions of ABT or SBT over 1 year. Primary outcome (weight), mediator, and moderator measurements were taken at baseline, 6 months, and/or 12 months, and weight was also measured every session. Participants assigned to ABT attained a significantly greater 12-month weight loss (13.3% ± 0.83%) than did those assigned to SBT (9.8% ± 0.87%; P = 0.005). A condition by quadratic time effect on session-by-session weights (P = 0.01) indicated that SBT had a shallower trajectory of weight loss followed by an upward deflection. ABT participants were also more likely to maintain a 10% weight loss at 12 months (64.0% vs. 48.9%; P = 0.04). No evidence of moderation was found. Results supported the mediating role of autonomous motivation and psychological acceptance of food-related urges. Behavioral weight loss outcomes can be improved by integrating self-regulation skills that are reflected in acceptance-based treatment, i.e., tolerating discomfort and reduction in pleasure, enacting commitment to valued behavior, and being mindfully aware during moments of decision-making. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  16. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  17. Treatment satisfaction with tadalafil or tamsulosin vs placebo in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): results from a randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelke, Matthias; Giuliano, François; Baygani, Simin K; Melby, Thomas; Sontag, Angelina

    2014-10-01

    To assess treatment satisfaction with tadalafil or tamsulosin vs placebo in a 12-week, randomised, double-blind study of men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). After a 4-week placebo lead-in period, men aged ≥45 years with an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of ≥13 and a maximum urinary flow rate of ≥4 to ≤15 mL/s received placebo (172 men), tadalafil 5 mg (171), or tamsulosin 0.4 mg (168) once daily for 12 weeks. Treatment Satisfaction Scale-BPH (TSS-BPH) responses were assessed based on median treatment differences using the van Elteren test. Overall treatment satisfaction was greater for tadalafil vs placebo (P = 0.005), based on greater satisfaction with efficacy (P = 0.003); neither overall treatment satisfaction nor satisfaction with efficacy was greater for tamsulosin vs placebo (P ≥ 0.409). For individual questions, 66.5% of men rated tadalafil treatment as 'effective/very effective' (Question 1, Q1) vs placebo (P = 0.011), 72.6% would 'definitely/probably recommend their treatment' (Q3; P = 0.043), 71.8% were generally 'very satisfied/satisfied with their medication' (Q8; P BPH by baseline age (≤65/>65 years), history of erectile dysfunction (yes/no), LUTS/BPH severity (IPSS

  18. Some results of periodical analysis of the behavior of unit 4 at the Dukovany NPP - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirsa, P.

    1993-01-01

    The results of a detailed spectral analysis of noise signals recorded at the unit 4 reactor of the Dukovany NPP during and after the start-up stage are presented. The changes in the noise source signal spectra during the start-up and in normal operation were evaluated by multidimensional autoregression analysis. The temperature dependence of the signal spectra peaks from individual detectors is described. The sources of the peaks at 27.9 and 37 Hz during normal operation were identified as standing pressure waves in the primary circuit of the reactor. 3 tabs., 23 figs., 6 refs

  19. Leadership models and behaviors for sales executives. What drives success and the best results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dünnweber Matthias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the effectiveness of the best leadership models and behaviours that are used by sales executives. Although, the impact of the most common characteristics and behaviours used in sales have been researched very well, recent research has only very limited results on a comparison of the most successful leadership personality traits and behaviours depending on companies’ situation and the context. In this paper we analyse two different situations: dynamic environment and stable environment. The context in this paper refers to the area sales. The paper will provide an explanation of the most successful leadership style used in sales and the characteristics of it and why they are also very useful in a sales process. Additionally, we will analyse the effectiveness of these characteristics in the two different situations of a company and exclusively in the sales context. We argue that the characteristics can be defined as the most effective one in every situation and context. We will develop a theoretical overview that shows clearly the best leadership traits and behaviours for each of the two situations in sales that is based on a literature research. The theoretical frameworks will be adjusted and confirmed with three senior sales executives from three different industries. The results of this paper will provide sales executives useful and easy to understand information about the advantages and disadvantages of the different leadership traits and behaviours depending on the context in and situation.

  20. Endogenous attention modulates attentional and motor interference from distractors: Evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eMartín-Arévalo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Selective visual attention enhances the processing of relevant stimuli and filters out irrelevant stimuli and/or distractors. However, irrelevant information is sometimes processed, as demonstrated by the Simon effect (Simon & Rudell, 1967. We examined whether fully irrelevant distractors (task and target-irrelevant produce interference (measured as the Simon effect, and whether endogenous orienting modulated this interference. Despite being fully irrelevant, distractors were attentionally coded (as reflected by the distractor-related N2pc component, and interfered with the processing of the target response (as reflected by the target-related LRP component. Distractor’s attentional capture depended on endogenous attention, and their interference with target responses was modulated by both endogenous attention and distractor location repetition. These results demonstrate both endogenous attentional and motor modulations over the Simon effect produced by fully irrelevant distractors.

  1. The association between risk perception and behavior. Results of structural equation modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundmo, T.; Hestad, H.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: there are at least four hypotheses about the association between risk perception and behaviour. The first one is that perceived risk caused by risk exposure may awake a person's 'attention' towards the potentially-hazardous risk source, and hence cause safer behaviour. The second hypothesis is that the affective reactions may be seen as reactions to stress, i.e. a strain factor, which may reduce a person's ability to cope with risk and therefore cause enhanced risk behaviour. The third hypothesis is that risk judgements and risk behaviours are both dependent variables which do not affect each other. Consequently, a positive correlation between perceived risk and behaviour may be caused by the fact that perception and behaviour both are affected by the same predictor variables. Risk perception contain a rational as well as an emotional 'component'. The fourth hypothesis is that rational judgements of risk and emotional reactions to risk may be related differently to risk behaviour. In the present study the rational judgements and the affective reactions are split and different measures are aimed at determining both the components. The core aim of this paper is to determine whether or not they are differently related to risk behaviour. The results are based on a self-completion questionnaire survey which was carried out among employees (n=814) at 14 plants within the industrial company Norsk Hydro in 1997 and 1998. The plants belonged to several divisions within the company. The results showed that the rational and emotional components of risk perception were related differently to risk behaviour. The rational risk judgements had a moderate direct as well as an indirect effect on risk behaviour. The affective reactions to risk were caused by the probability judgements and did not affect risk behaviour. (authors)

  2. The association between risk perception and behavior. Results of structural equation modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundmo, T.; Hestad, H. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dragvoll (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: there are at least four hypotheses about the association between risk perception and behaviour. The first one is that perceived risk caused by risk exposure may awake a person's 'attention' towards the potentially-hazardous risk source, and hence cause safer behaviour. The second hypothesis is that the affective reactions may be seen as reactions to stress, i.e. a strain factor, which may reduce a person's ability to cope with risk and therefore cause enhanced risk behaviour. The third hypothesis is that risk judgements and risk behaviours are both dependent variables which do not affect each other. Consequently, a positive correlation between perceived risk and behaviour may be caused by the fact that perception and behaviour both are affected by the same predictor variables. Risk perception contain a rational as well as an emotional 'component'. The fourth hypothesis is that rational judgements of risk and emotional reactions to risk may be related differently to risk behaviour. In the present study the rational judgements and the affective reactions are split and different measures are aimed at determining both the components. The core aim of this paper is to determine whether or not they are differently related to risk behaviour. The results are based on a self-completion questionnaire survey which was carried out among employees (n=814) at 14 plants within the industrial company Norsk Hydro in 1997 and 1998. The plants belonged to several divisions within the company. The results showed that the rational and emotional components of risk perception were related differently to risk behaviour. The rational risk judgements had a moderate direct as well as an indirect effect on risk behaviour. The affective reactions to risk were caused by the probability judgements and did not affect risk behaviour. (authors)

  3. Mechanical Behavior of Nanostructured and Ultrafine Grained Materials under Shock Wave Loadings. Experimental Data and Results of Computer Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Features of mechanical behavior of nanostructured (NS) and ultrafine grained (UFG) metal and ceramic materials under quasistatic and shock wave loadings are discussed in this report. Multilevel models developed within the approach of computational mechanics of materials were used for simulation mechanical behavior of UFG and NS metals and ceramics. Comparisons of simulation results with experimental data are presented. Models of mechanical behavior of nanostructured metal alloys takes into account a several structural factors influencing on the mechanical behavior of materials (type of a crystal lattice, density of dislocations, a size of dislocation substructures, concentration and size of phase precipitation, and distribution of grains sizes). Results show the strain rate sensitivity of the yield stress of UFG and polycrystalline alloys is various in a range from 103 up to 106 1/s. But the difference of the Hugoniot elastic limits of a UFG and coarse-grained alloys may be not considerable. The spall strength, the yield stress of UFG and NS alloys are depend not only on grains size, but a number of factors such as a distribution of grains sizes, a concentration and sizes of voids and cracks, a concentration and sizes of phase precipitation. Some titanium alloys with grain sizes from 300 to 500 nm have the quasi-static yield strength and the tensile strength twice higher than that of coarse grained counterparts. But the spall strength of the UFG titanium alloys is only 10 percents above than that of coarse grained alloys. At the same time it was found the spall strength of the bulk UFG aluminium and magnesium alloys with precipitation strengthening is essentially higher in comparison of coarse-grained counterparts. The considerable decreasing of the strain before failure of UFG alloys was predicted at high strain rates. The Hugoniot elastic limits of oxide nanoceramics depend not only on the porosity, but also on sizes and volume distribution of voids.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Andersson, Gerhard; Rück, Christian; Lindefors, Nils

    2011-11-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly prevalent and associated with a substantial societal economic burden, primarily due to high costs of productivity loss. Cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) is an effective treatment for SAD and the most established in clinical practice. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has demonstrated efficacy in several trials in recent years. No study has however investigated the cost-effectiveness of ICBT compared to CBGT from a societal perspective, i.e. an analysis where both direct and indirect costs are included. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of ICBT compared to CBGT from a societal perspective using a prospective design. We conducted a randomized controlled trial where participants with SAD were randomized to ICBT (n=64) or CBGT (n=62). Economic data were assessed at pre-treatment, immediately following treatment and six months after treatment. Results showed that the gross total costs were significantly reduced at six-month follow-up, compared to pre-treatment in both treatment conditions. As both treatments were equivalent in reducing social anxiety and gross total costs, ICBT was more cost-effective due to lower intervention costs. We conclude that ICBT can be more cost-effective than CBGT in the treatment of SAD and that both treatments reduce societal costs for SAD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Could the eventual results of the NSABP* 39/RTOG** 0413 trial for partial breast irradiation (PBI) be improved by combining spherical applicators and whole breast irradiation? Radiobiology suggests it may.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, B J

    2010-01-01

    There may be unacceptable risks associated with the relatively large single doses of irradiation prescribed over five days instead of over six weeks for three of the four trial arms of the NSABP39/RTOG 0413 clinical trial seeking to enlist 4,300 patients. The first arm prescribes 60 Gray (Gy) in two Gy fractions over six weeks, which is the present standard. The dose implications of the other three arms with reference to this standard were examined using the ID2 formalism. Particularly poor (non-homogeneous) dose distributions characterise spherical applicators like "MammoSite" used as a sole device for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). The alternative treatment, APBI done by 3-D conformal radiation, may also have a drawback, namely a sudden sharp cut-off in dose which may cause cosmetic problems due to circumscribed fibrosis and edema. Some recently published results from this trial reveal an alarming level of complications. The possible causes of these complications and poor cosmetic outcomes and how to avoid them are examined. An obstacle to the more widespread use of the "MammoSite type of device is that the device is not allowed closer than 5-7 mm from the skin or ribs; a possible remedy for this restriction is offered. It is also intended to make the relevant radiobiological principles usable for surgical oncologists.

  6. Developing and Evaluating Digital Interventions to Promote Behavior Change in Health and Health Care: Recommendations Resulting From an International Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Yardley, Lucy; West, Robert; Patrick, Kevin; Greaves, Felix

    2017-06-29

    Devices and programs using digital technology to foster or support behavior change (digital interventions) are increasingly ubiquitous, being adopted for use in patient diagnosis and treatment, self-management of chronic diseases, and in primary prevention. They have been heralded as potentially revolutionizing the ways in which individuals can monitor and improve their health behaviors and health care by improving outcomes, reducing costs, and improving the patient experience. However, we are still mainly in the age of promise rather than delivery. Developing and evaluating these digital interventions presents new challenges and new versions of old challenges that require use of improved and perhaps entirely new methods for research and evaluation. This article discusses these challenges and provides recommendations aimed at accelerating the rate of progress in digital behavior intervention research and practice. Areas addressed include intervention development in a rapidly changing technological landscape, promoting user engagement, advancing the underpinning science and theory, evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and addressing issues of regulatory, ethical, and information governance. This article is the result of a two-day international workshop on how to create, evaluate, and implement effective digital interventions in relation to health behaviors. It was held in London in September 2015 and was supported by the United Kingdom's Medical Research Council (MRC), the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), the Methodology Research Programme (PI Susan Michie), and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation of the United States (PI Kevin Patrick). Important recommendations to manage the rapid pace of change include considering using emerging techniques from data science, machine learning, and Bayesian approaches and learning from other disciplines including computer science and engineering. With regard to assessing and promoting engagement, a key

  7. Developing and Evaluating Digital Interventions to Promote Behavior Change in Health and Health Care: Recommendations Resulting From an International Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Lucy; West, Robert; Patrick, Kevin; Greaves, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Devices and programs using digital technology to foster or support behavior change (digital interventions) are increasingly ubiquitous, being adopted for use in patient diagnosis and treatment, self-management of chronic diseases, and in primary prevention. They have been heralded as potentially revolutionizing the ways in which individuals can monitor and improve their health behaviors and health care by improving outcomes, reducing costs, and improving the patient experience. However, we are still mainly in the age of promise rather than delivery. Developing and evaluating these digital interventions presents new challenges and new versions of old challenges that require use of improved and perhaps entirely new methods for research and evaluation. This article discusses these challenges and provides recommendations aimed at accelerating the rate of progress in digital behavior intervention research and practice. Areas addressed include intervention development in a rapidly changing technological landscape, promoting user engagement, advancing the underpinning science and theory, evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and addressing issues of regulatory, ethical, and information governance. This article is the result of a two-day international workshop on how to create, evaluate, and implement effective digital interventions in relation to health behaviors. It was held in London in September 2015 and was supported by the United Kingdom’s Medical Research Council (MRC), the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), the Methodology Research Programme (PI Susan Michie), and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation of the United States (PI Kevin Patrick). Important recommendations to manage the rapid pace of change include considering using emerging techniques from data science, machine learning, and Bayesian approaches and learning from other disciplines including computer science and engineering. With regard to assessing and promoting engagement, a key

  8. Dynamical Behavior of a Rigid Body with One Fixed Point (Gyroscope. Basic Concepts and Results. Open Problems: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Ganchev Nikolov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the dynamic behavior of a rigid body with one fixed point (gyroscope has a long history. A number of famous mathematicians and mechanical engineers have devoted enormous time and effort to clarify the role of dynamic effects on its movement (behavior – stable, periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic. The main objectives of this review are: 1 to outline the characteristic features of the theory of dynamical systems and 2 to reveal the specific properties of the motion of a rigid body with one fixed point (gyroscope.This article consists of six sections. The first section addresses the main concepts of the theory of dynamical systems. Section two presents the main theoretical results (obtained so far concerning the dynamic behavior of a solid with one fixed point (gyroscope. Section three examines the problem of gyroscopic stabilization. Section four deals with the non-linear (chaotic dynamics of the gyroscope. Section five is a brief analysis of the gyroscope applications in engineering. The final section provides conclusions and generalizations on why the theory of dynamical systems should be used in the study of the movement of gyroscopic systems.

  9. Sexual behaviors among older adults in Spain: results from a population-based national sexual health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2012-01-01

    The Spanish National Sexual Health Survey (SNSHS) is designed to examine sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and sexual health among the Spanish population. To describe sexual activity and behaviors of Spaniards aged ≥ 65 years old focusing on gender differences. A population-based descriptive study was conducted using individual data from the SNSHS. The number of subjects aged ≥ 65 years included was 1,939 (1,118 women, 821 men). Sexual activity, frequency, sexual behaviors, sexual practices, and reasons for lack of sexual activity were assessed from questions included in the survey. Subjects who reported having any sexual practice including giving or receiving kissing and hugging, vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or masturbation, with at least one partner in the previous 12 months were considered as sexually active. We analyzed sociodemographic characteristics, self-rated physical and sexual health, comorbid conditions, and medications using multivariate logistic regression models. Overall, 62.3% of men and 37.4% of elderly women were sexually active (P practices were kissing, hugging, and vaginal intercourse. The most common reasons for sexual inactivity were: partner was physically ill (23%), lack of interest (21%), and the man was a widower (23%). This study provided data on sexual activity in older Spanish adults and has identified potential factors that appear to influence sexuality in the elderly with some gender differences. Current results can have implications for healthcare providers for addressing these concerns in an effective manner. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers’ Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Anna; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Eli, Karin; Lindberg, Louise; Nyman, Jonna; Marcus, Claude; Nowicka, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Insight into parents’ perceptions of their children’s eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children’s eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers’ eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Materials and Methods Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM), adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC). CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators. Results 478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese). A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06) after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30) indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37). Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71). Discussion The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers’ eating behaviors. Parental

  11. A randomized, controlled trial of group cognitive-behavioral therapy for compulsive buying disorder: posttreatment and 6-month follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mueller, Ulrike; Silbermann, Andrea; Reinecker, Hans; Bleich, Stefan; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized trial comparing the efficacy of a group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention designed for the treatment of compulsive buying disorder to a waiting list control (WLC) group. Thirty-one patients with compulsive buying problems according to the criteria developed by McElroy et al. were assigned to receive active treatment (12 weekly sessions and 6-month follow-up) and 29 to the WLC group. The treatment was specifically aimed at interrupting and controlling the problematic buying behavior, establishing healthy purchasing patterns, restructuring maladaptive thoughts and negative feelings associated with shopping and buying, and developing healthy coping skills. Primary outcome measures were the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (YBOCS-SV), and the German Compulsive Buying Scale (G-CBS). Secondary outcome measures were the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R). The study was completed between November 2003 and May 2007 at the University Hospital of Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany. Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences between the CBT and the WLC groups on the primary outcome variables (outcome-by-time-by-group effect, Pillai's trace, F = 6.960, df = 1, p = .002). The improvement was maintained during the 6-month follow-up. The treatment did not affect other psychopathology, e.g., compulsive hoarding, impulsivity, or SCL-90-R scores. We found that lower numbers of visited group therapy sessions and higher pretreatment hoarding traits as measured with the SI-R total score were significant predictors for nonresponse. The results suggest that a disorder-specific cognitive-behavioral intervention can significantly impact compulsive buying behavior.

  12. Impact of Baseline Physical Activity and Diet Behavior on Metabolic Syndrome in a Pharmaceutical Trial: Results from NAVIGATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Kim M.; Sun, Jie-Lena; Thomas, Laine; Bales, Connie W.; Califf, Robert M.; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J.; Holman, Rury R.; McMurray, John J.V.; Bethel, M. Angelyn; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Haffner, Steven M.; Kraus, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The cardiometabolic risk cluster metabolic syndrome (MS) includes ≥3of elevated fasting glucose, hypertension, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c), and increased waist circumference. Each can be affected by physical activity and diet. Our objective was to determine whether determine whether baseline physical activity and/or diet behavior impact MS in the course of a large pharmaceutical trial. Materials/Methods This was an observational study from NAVIGATOR, a double-blind, randomized (nateglinide, valsartan, both, or placebo), controlled trial between 2002 and 2004. We studied data from persons (n=9306) with impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or CVD risk factors; 7118 with pedometer data were included in this analysis. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day pedometer records; diet behavior was self-reported on a 6-item survey. An MS score (MSSc) was calculated using the sum of each MS component, centered around the Adult Treatment Panel III threshold, and standardized according to sample standard deviation. Excepting HDL-c, assessed at baseline and year 3, MS components were assessed yearly. Follow-up averaged 6 years. Results For every 2000-stepincrease in average daily steps, there was an associated reduction in average MSSc of 0.29(95%CI−0.33to−0.25).For each diet behavior endorsed, there was an associated reduction in average MSSc of 0.05 (95%CI−0.08 to −0.01).Accounting for the effects of pedometer steps and diet behavior together had minimal impact on parameter estimates with no significant interaction. Relations were independent of age, sex, race, region, smoking, family history of diabetes, and use of nateglinide, valsartan, aspirin, antihypertensive, and lipid-lowering agent. Conclusions Baseline physical activity and diet behavior were associated independently with reductions in MSSc such that increased attention to these lifestyle elements providescardiometabolic

  13. Thinking about dying and trying and intending to die: results on suicidal behavior from a large Web-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Rafael M F; Mazzochi, Leonardo; Lara, Diogo R; Ottoni, Gustavo L

    2015-03-01

    Suicide is an important worldwide public health problem. The aim of this study was to characterize risk factors of suicidal behavior using a large Web-based sample. The data were collected by the Brazilian Internet Study on Temperament and Psychopathology (BRAINSTEP) from November 2010 to July 2011. Suicidal behavior was assessed by an instrument based on the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire. The final sample consisted of 48,569 volunteers (25.9% men) with a mean ± SD age of 30.7 ± 10.1 years. More than 60% of the sample reported having had at least a passing thought of killing themselves, and 6.8% of subjects had previously attempted suicide (64% unplanned). The demographic features with the highest risk of attempting suicide were female gender (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.65 to 2.00); elementary school as highest education level completed (OR = 2.84, 95% CI = 2.48 to 3.25); being unable to work (OR = 5.32, 95% CI = 4.15 to 6.81); having no religion (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.90 to 2.29); and, only for female participants, being married (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.32) or divorced (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.41 to 1.96). A family history of a suicide attempt and of a completed suicide showed the same increment in the risk of suicidal behavior. The higher the number of suicide attempts, the higher was the real intention to die (P < .05). Those who really wanted to die reported more emptiness/loneliness (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.35 to 1.85), disconnection (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.30 to 1.81), and hopelessness (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.49 to 2.03), but their methods were not different from the methods of those who did not mean to die. This large Web survey confirmed results from previous studies on suicidal behavior and pointed out the relevance of the number of previous suicide attempts and of a positive family history, even for a noncompleted suicide, as important risk factors. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  15. OCD-like behavior is caused by dysfunction of thalamo-amygdala circuits and upregulated TrkB/ERK-MAPK signaling as a result of SPRED2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, M; Weber, M; Post, A M; Popp, S; Grein, J; Zechner, M; Guerrero González, H; Kreis, A; Schmitt, A G; Üçeyler, N; Lesch, K-P; Schuh, K

    2018-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disease affecting about 2% of the general population. It is characterized by persistent intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualized behaviors. While gene variations, malfunction of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits, and dysregulated synaptic transmission have been implicated in the pathogenesis of OCD, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we show that OCD-like behavior in mice is caused by deficiency of SPRED2, a protein expressed in various brain regions and a potent inhibitor of Ras/ERK-MAPK signaling. Excessive self-grooming, reflecting OCD-like behavior in rodents, resulted in facial skin lesions in SPRED2 knockout (KO) mice. This was alleviated by treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. In addition to the previously suggested involvement of cortico-striatal circuits, electrophysiological measurements revealed altered transmission at thalamo-amygdala synapses and morphological differences in lateral amygdala neurons of SPRED2 KO mice. Changes in synaptic function were accompanied by dysregulated expression of various pre- and postsynaptic proteins in the amygdala. This was a result of altered gene transcription and triggered upstream by upregulated tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)/ERK-MAPK signaling in the amygdala of SPRED2 KO mice. Pathway overactivation was mediated by increased activity of TrkB, Ras, and ERK as a specific result of SPRED2 deficiency and not elicited by elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Using the MEK inhibitor selumetinib, we suppressed TrkB/ERK-MAPK pathway activity in vivo and reduced OCD-like grooming in SPRED2 KO mice. Altogether, this study identifies SPRED2 as a promising new regulator, TrkB/ERK-MAPK signaling as a novel mediating mechanism, and thalamo-amygdala synapses as critical circuitry involved in the pathogenesis of OCD.

  16. Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers' Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Anna; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Eli, Karin; Lindberg, Louise; Nyman, Jonna; Marcus, Claude; Nowicka, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM), adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC). CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators. 478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese). A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06) after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30) indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37). Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71). The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors. Parental pressure to eat was strongly associated with children's food

  17. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  18. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  19. The Effect Of Islamic Education Learning Pai And Learning Results To Students Religious Behavior Of Stisip Widyapuri Mandiri Sukabumi Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Abdullah Mumin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to measure the level of the effect of Islamic Education learning and learning result on religious behaviour in STISIP Widyapuri Mandiri Sukabumi. The method used in this research is quantitative analysis based on inferential statistical model. The data collection is done by using observation techniques interviews and questionnaires. The researcher analize the data by using logic analysis for qualitative and statistical analysis for quantitative data by using descriptive statistics regression and correlation. Based on the hypothesis test simultaneously PAI learning and learning result have a positive and significant effect on students religious behaviour. Partially only PAI learning alone has a positive and significant impact on religious behavior.

  20. Exact results for the behavior of the thermodynamic Casimir force in a model with a strong adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantchev, Daniel M.; Vassilev, Vassil M.; Djondjorov, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    When massless excitations are limited or modified by the presence of material bodies one observes a force acting between them generally called Casimir force. Such excitations are present in any fluid system close to its true bulk critical point. We derive exact analytical results for both the temperature and external ordering field behavior of the thermodynamic Casimir force within the mean-field Ginzburg-Landau Ising type model of a simple fluid or binary liquid mixture. We investigate the case when under a film geometry the boundaries of the system exhibit strong adsorption onto one of the phases (components) of the system. We present analytical and numerical results for the (temperature-field) relief map of the force in both the critical region of the film close to its finite-size or bulk critical points as well as in the capillary condensation regime below but close to the finite-size critical point.

  1. Latina Adolescents Health Risk Behaviors and Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts: Results from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish

    2017-06-01

    Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are more common in Latina adolescents than White or African-American adolescents. Several health risk behaviors have been identified as being associated with Latina adolescent suicides. However, to date, no study has identified the consistency and stability of these risk behaviors over time. This study utilized the national Youth Risk Behaviors Survey from 2001 to 2013 to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and health risk behaviors associated with suicidal behaviors in Latina adolescents. Our analysis found the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts varied significantly over the 13-year study span, decreasing from 2001 to 2009 and increased from 2011 to 2013. The analyses found 11 health risk behaviors that were significantly associated with both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts that did not vary over time. The stability of these 11 health risk behaviors associated with suicidal behaviors could be useful to school personnel to identify early at risk Latina adolescents who may benefit from school and community mental health resources.

  2. Home grocery delivery improves the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants: Results of an 8-week pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemeier Heather M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household food availability is consistently linked to dietary intake; yet behavioral weight control treatment includes only minimal instruction on how to change the home environment to support dietary goals. This pilot study examined whether it is feasible to change the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants through the use of a commercially available grocery home delivery service. Methods Overweight participants (N = 28; BMI = 31.7 ± 3.6 kg/m2; 89.3% women, 47.9 ± 9.5 years were randomly assigned to 8-weeks of standard behavioral weight loss (SBT or to SBT plus home food delivery (SBT+Home. SBT+Home participants were instructed to do their household grocery shopping via an online service affiliated with a regional supermarket chain and were reimbursed for delivery charges. Results Compared to SBT, SBT+Home produced significantly greater reductions in the total number of foods in the home (p = .01 and number of foods that were high in fat (p = .002. While the groups did not differ in 8-week weight losses, within SBT+Home there was a trend for the number of home deliveries to be associated with weight loss (p = .08. Participants reported that the home delivery service was easy to use and that it helped decrease impulse purchases and lead to healthier choices; however, few planned to continue using the service after the study. Conclusion Encouraging weight loss participants to use a commercially available online grocery ordering and home delivery service reduces the overall number of food items in the home and decreases access to high-fat food choices. More research is needed to determine whether this is a viable strategy to strengthen stimulus control and improve weight loss outcomes.

  3. Behavioral deficits during early stages of aging in Caenorhabditis elegans result from locomotory deficits possibly linked to muscle frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Charles F; Chow, David K; David, Lawrence; Cooke, Carol A; Gami, Minaxi S; Iser, Wendy B; Hanselman, Keaton B; Goldberg, Ilya G; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2004-12-01

    Many behavioral responses require the coordination of sensory inputs with motor outputs. Aging is associated with progressive declines in both motor function and muscle structure. However, the consequences of age-related motor deficits on behavior have not been clearly defined. Here, we examined the effects of aging on behavior in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. As animals aged, mild locomotory deficits appeared that were sufficient to impair behavioral responses to sensory cues. In contrast, sensory ability appeared well maintained during aging. Age-related behavioral declines were delayed in animals with mutations in the daf-2/insulin-like pathway governing longevity. A decline in muscle tissue integrity was correlated with the onset of age-related behavioral deficits, although significant muscle deterioration was not. Treatment with a muscarinic agonist significantly improved locomotory behavior in aged animals, indicating that improved neuromuscular signaling may be one strategy for reducing the severity of age-related behavioral impairments.

  4. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  5. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  6. Applying the theory of planned behavior to explore HAART adherence among HIV-positive immigrant Latinos: elicitation interview results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissman, Aaron T; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Rojas, Gabriela; Langdon, Sarah E; Wilkin, Aimee M; Rhodes, Scott D

    2011-12-01

    This study explored influences on intention to adhere to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among immigrant Latinos living with HIV/AIDS in the southeastern USA. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership completed individual in-depth interviews with 25 immigrant Latinos, based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), to explore beliefs toward HAART adherence and HIV testing. Participants identified (a) seven outcomes of treatment adherence (e.g., "feeling good" and "controlling the virus"), (b) six groups of persons influencing adherence (e.g., family, partner/spouse), and (c) nine impediments to adherence (e.g., appointment scheduling, side effects of treatment). Fear of deportation, perceived costs of services, and barriers to communication emerged as impediments to both HAART adherence and HIV testing. The findings suggest the utility of TPB in identifying factors to enhance HAART adherence among immigrant Latinos. Future research should explore the extent to which these identified TPB components quantitatively influence adherence intention and immunological and virological outcomes. Culturally congruent interventions for immigrant Latinos may need to focus on facilitators of adherence, influential referent groups, and destigmatizing HIV/AIDS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavioral activation for smoking cessation and mood management following a cardiac event: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Busch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation following hospitalization for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS significantly reduces subsequent mortality. Depressed mood is a major barrier to cessation post-ACS. Although existing counseling treatments address smoking and depression independently in ACS patients, no integrated treatment addresses both. We developed an integrated treatment combining gold standard cessation counseling with behavioral activation-based mood management; Behavioral Activation Treatment for Cardiac Smokers (BAT-CS. The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to test feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of BAT-CS vs. Standard of Care (SC. Methods Participants were recruited during hospitalization for ACS and were randomly assigned to BAT-CS or SC. The nicotine patch was offered in both conditions. Smoking, mood, and stress outcomes were collected at end-of-treatment and 24-week follow-up. Results Fifty-nine participants (28 BAT-CS, 31 SC were recruited over 42 weeks, and assessment completion was above 80% in both conditions. Treatment acceptability and fidelity were high. At 24 week follow-up adjusted odds ratios favoring BAT-CS were 1.27 (95% CI: 0.41–3.93 for 7-day point prevalence abstinence and 1.27 (95% CI: 0.42–3.82 for continuous abstinence. Time to first smoking lapse was significantly longer in BAT-CS (62.4 vs. 31.8 days, p = 0.03. At 24-weeks, effect sizes for mood and stress outcomes ranged from η2 partial of.07–.11, with significant between treatment effects for positive affect, negative affect, and stress. Conclusions The design of this study proved feasible and acceptable. Results provide preliminary evidence that combining behavioral activation with standard smoking cessation counseling could be efficacious for this high risk population. A larger trial with longer follow-up is warranted. Trial registration NCT01964898 . First received by clinicaltrials.gov October 15, 2013.

  8. Dietary and physical activity behaviors related to obesity-specific quality of life and work productivity: baseline results from a worksite trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Beresford, Shirley A.A; Henderson, Jo Ann; McTiernan, Anne; Xiao, Liren; Wang, C.Y.; Patrick, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (QoL) and reduced productivity; less is known about the effect of dietary factors. This study investigated how dietary behaviors, physical activity, and Body Mass Index (BMI) relate to weight-specific QoL and work productivity. The study was conducted in 31 small blue-collar and service industry worksites in Seattle. Participants were 747 employees (33.5% non-White). Measures included self-reported servings of fruits and vegetables, dietary behaviors such as fast food consumption, Godin free-time physical activity scores, measured height and weight, Obesity and Weight Loss Quality of Life (OWLQOL) scores, and Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) scores. Baseline data were analyzed using linear mixed models separately for men (n=348) and women (n=399), since gender modified the effects. BMI was negatively associated with OWLQOL in both women (pincrease in BMI was 30% (95% CI: 25%, 44%) for women and 14% (95% CI: 10%, 17%) for men. BMI was positively associated with productivity loss only in women (exp(slope)=1.46, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.11, p=0.04). Eating while doing another activity was negatively associated with OWLQOL scores in men (p=0.0006, independent of BMI) and with productivity in women (p=0.04, effect diminished when adjusting for BMI). Fast food meals were associated with decreased productivity for men (p=0.038, independent of BMI). Results suggest the obesogenic dietary behaviors and higher BMI are associated with decreased QoL and productivity variously in women and men. PMID:22142517

  9. Internet Use and Access, Behavior, Cyberbullying, and Grooming: Results of an Investigative Whole City Survey of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toaff, Joseph; Pulvirenti, Giuliana; Settanni, Chiara; Colao, Emma; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Cemicetti, Riccardo; Cotugno, David; Perrotti, Giuseppe; Meschesi, Viviana; Montera, Roberto; Zepponi, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Background According to the Digital Agenda for Europe, the way children use the Internet and mobile technologies has changed dramatically in the past years. Objective The aims of this study were to: (1) breakdown the modalities of access and use of the Internet by teenagers to assess risks and risky behaviors; and (2) provide scientific data to evaluate and counsel safe use of the Internet and new technologies by teenagers. Methods The study was conducted under the program “Strategies for a Better Internet for Children” started in May 2012 by the European Commission. It represents the main result of the project launched by Telecom Italia, “Anche io ho qualcosa da dire” (I too have something to say), thanks to which many contributions were collected and used to develop a survey. The questionnaire was structured in 45 questions, covering three macro areas of interest. It was approved by the Department Board at University of Magna Graecia’s School of Medicine. After authorization from the regional high school authority, it was administered to all 1534 students (aged 13-19 years) in the city of Catanzaro, Italy. Results The data was broken down into three main groups: (1) describing education and access to the Internet; (2) methods of use and social networking; and (3) perception and evaluation of risk and risky behaviors. Among noteworthy results in the first group, we can mention that the average age of first contact with information technologies was around 9 years. Moreover, 78.87% (1210/1534) of the interviewed students reported having access to a smartphone or a tablet. Among the results of the second group, we found that the most used social networks were Facebook (85.78%, 1316/1534), YouTube (61.14%, 938/1534), and Google+ (51.56%, 791/1534). About 71.31% (1094/1534) of the interviewed teenagers use their name and surname on social networks, and 40.09% (615/1534) of them knew all their Facebook contacts personally. Among the results of the third group

  10. When Autistic Behavior Suggests a Disease Other than Classic Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Mark D

    2017-02-01

    Most neurodevelopmental disorders are defined by their clinical symptoms and many disorders share common features. Recently there has been an increase in the number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, although concerns have been raised about the accuracy of the reported prevalence rates. This article reviews the essential features of autism spectrum disorder and describes other conditions that may include similar symptoms that may be misdiagnosed as autism spectrum disorder (primary communication disorders, anxiety disorders, attachment disorders, intellectual disability, vision and hearing impairment, and normal variations). An approach to differential diagnosis is discussed with particular attention to evaluation of young children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal-hydraulically controlled blowdown tests in the experimental facility COSIMA to study PWR fuel behavior: experimental and theoretical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Class, G.; Hain, K.; Meyder, R.

    1978-01-01

    The fuel behavior in the blow-down phase of a LOCA is of importance for fuel rods with high internal pressure and high rod power, because of the effects on clad failure of the small cladding deformations occurring. The operating results of the COSIMA facility show that, on the basis of the new developments for measuring technique and fuel rod simulators performed, reactor relevant blow-down performances can be conducted in a controlled and reproduceable manner. The mechanical and thermal-hydraulic states occurring in the test bed may be subject to computational checking. This permits on one hand to improve the computing models and on the other yields a confirmation of the high state of development of the available computer codes. Therefore it appears that, with the results from COSIMA and the associated theoretical work in the field of the blow-down process, difficult to treat experimentally, an essential contribution to verifying the models for accident calculations is given. The work scheduled for the next about 1 1/2 years will serve to further support the rather preliminary results and to extend the range of then application. (orig.) [de

  12. Internet Use and Access, Behavior, Cyberbullying, and Grooming: Results of an Investigative Whole City Survey of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismara, Marco Flavio Michele; Toaff, Joseph; Pulvirenti, Giuliana; Settanni, Chiara; Colao, Emma; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Cemicetti, Riccardo; Cotugno, David; Perrotti, Giuseppe; Meschesi, Viviana; Montera, Roberto; Zepponi, Barbara; Rapetto, Umberto; Marotta, Rosa

    2017-08-29

    According to the Digital Agenda for Europe, the way children use the Internet and mobile technologies has changed dramatically in the past years. The aims of this study were to: (1) breakdown the modalities of access and use of the Internet by teenagers to assess risks and risky behaviors; and (2) provide scientific data to evaluate and counsel safe use of the Internet and new technologies by teenagers. The study was conducted under the program "Strategies for a Better Internet for Children" started in May 2012 by the European Commission. It represents the main result of the project launched by Telecom Italia, "Anche io ho qualcosa da dire" (I too have something to say), thanks to which many contributions were collected and used to develop a survey. The questionnaire was structured in 45 questions, covering three macro areas of interest. It was approved by the Department Board at University of Magna Graecia's School of Medicine. After authorization from the regional high school authority, it was administered to all 1534 students (aged 13-19 years) in the city of Catanzaro, Italy. The data was broken down into three main groups: (1) describing education and access to the Internet; (2) methods of use and social networking; and (3) perception and evaluation of risk and risky behaviors. Among noteworthy results in the first group, we can mention that the average age of first contact with information technologies was around 9 years. Moreover, 78.87% (1210/1534) of the interviewed students reported having access to a smartphone or a tablet. Among the results of the second group, we found that the most used social networks were Facebook (85.78%, 1316/1534), YouTube (61.14%, 938/1534), and Google+ (51.56%, 791/1534). About 71.31% (1094/1534) of the interviewed teenagers use their name and surname on social networks, and 40.09% (615/1534) of them knew all their Facebook contacts personally. Among the results of the third group, we found that 7.69% (118/1534) of the

  13. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    findings indicate that repeated, intermittent social defeats throughout entire adolescence in hamsters impact their adult responses at multiple levels. Our results also suggest that the “social threat” group may serve as an appropriate control. This study further suggest that the alterations of behavioral responses and neurobiological functions in the body and brain might provide potential markers to measure the negative consequences of chronic social defeats. PMID:27375450

  14. Treatment of Internet Addiction with Anxiety Disorders: Treatment Protocol and Preliminary Before-After Results Involving Pharmacotherapy and Modified Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veruska Andrea; Freire, Rafael; Zugliani, Morená; Cirillo, Patricia; Santos, Hugo Henrique; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; King, Anna Lucia

    2016-03-22

    The growth of the Internet has led to significant change and has become an integral part of modern life. It has made life easier and provided innumerous benefits; however, excessive use has brought about the potential for addiction, leading to severe impairments in social, academic, financial, psychological, and work domains. Individuals addicted to the Internet usually have comorbid psychiatric disorders. Panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are prevalent mental disorders, involving a great deal of damage in the patient's life. This open trial study describes a treatment protocol among 39 patients with anxiety disorders and Internet addiction (IA) involving pharmacotherapy and modified cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Of the 39 patients, 25 were diagnosed with PD and 14 with GAD, in addition to Internet addiction. At screening, patients responded to the MINI 5.0, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impressions Scale, and the Young Internet Addiction Scale. At that time, IA was observed taking into consideration the IAT scale (cutoff score above 50), while anxiety disorders were diagnosed by a psychiatrist. Patients were forwarded for pharmacotherapy and a modified CBT protocol. Psychotherapy was conducted individually, once a week, over a period of 10 weeks, and results suggest that the treatment was effective for anxiety and Internet addiction. Before treatment, anxiety levels suggested severe anxiety, with an average score of 34.26 (SD 6.13); however, after treatment the mean score was 15.03 (SD 3.88) (Paddiction scores was observed, from 67.67 (SD 7.69) before treatment, showing problematic internet use, to 37.56 (SD 9.32) after treatment (Panxiety, the correlation between scores was .724. This study is the first research into IA treatment of a Brazilian population. The improvement was remarkable due to the complete engagement of patients in therapy, which contributed to the success of the

  15. Behavioral Risk Profile of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Survey with Randomized Response Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Zhu Geng

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study employed RRTs in a survey containing questions on sexual behavior among MSM, and the results showed that RRT might be a useful tool to obtain truthful feedback on sensitive information such as sexual behavior from the respondents, especially in traditional Chinese cultural settings.

  16. Behavior of pre-irradiated fuel under a simulated RIA condition. Results of NSRR Test JM-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sasajima, Hideo; Mori, Yukihide; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Kobayashi, Shinsho; Kamata, Hiroshi; Homma, Kozo; Sakai, Haruyuki.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents results from the power burst experiment with pre-irradiated fuel rod, Test JM-5, conducted in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). The data concerning test method, pre-irradiation, pre-pulse fuel examination, pulse irradiation, transient records and post-pulse fuel examination are described, and interpretations and discussions of the results are presented. Preceding to the pulse irradiation in the NSRR, test fuel rod was irradiated in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) up to a fuel burnup of 25.7 MWd/kgU with average linear heat rate of 33.4 kW/m. The fuel rod was subjected to the pulse irradiation resulting in a desposited energy of 223 ± 7 cal/g·fuel (0.93 ± 0.03 kJ/g·fuel) and a peak fuel enthalpy of 167 ± 5 cal/g·fuel (0.70 ± 0.02 kJ/g·fuel) under stagnant water cooling condition at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Test fuel rod behavior was assessed from pre- and post-pulse fuel examinations and transient records during the pulse. The Test JM-5 resulted in cladding failure. More than twenty small cracks were found in the post-test cladding, and most of the defects located in pre-existing locally hydrided region. The result indicates an occurrence of fuel failure by PCMI (pellet/cladding mechanical interaction) in combination with decreased integrity of hydrided cladding. (author)

  17. The influence of suggestibility on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

    2011-06-01

    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  19. Changes in health risk behaviors of elementary school students in northern Taiwan from 2001 to 2003: results from the child and adolescent behaviors in long-term evolution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Lee-Lan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has indicated that children's behaviors have long-term effects on later life. Hence it is important to monitor the development of health risk behaviors in childhood. This study examined the changes in health risk behaviors in fourth- to sixth-grade students in northern Taiwan from 2001 to 2003. Methods The Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-Term Evolution (CABLE study collected data from 1,820 students from 2001 to 2003 (students were 9 or 10 years old in 2001. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the aggregation of health risk behaviors. A linear growth curve model was used to determine whether health risk behaviors changed over time. Results Of the 13 behaviors, staying up late and eating snacks late at night were the most prevalent (82.3% of subjects in 2001, 81.8% in 2002, 88.5% in 2003 and second most prevalent (68.7%, 67.4%, 71.6% behaviors, respectively, from 2001 to 2003. The three least prevalent health risk behaviors were chewing betel nut (1.0%, 0.4%, 0.2%, smoking (1.4%, 1.0%, 0.8%, and drinking alcohol (8.5%, 6.0%, 5.2%. The frequencies of swearing and staying up late showed the greatest significant increases with time. On the other hand, suppressing urination and drinking alcohol decreased over time. Using exploratory factor analysis, we aggregated the health risk behaviors into three categories: unhealthy habits, aggressive behaviors, and substance use. Although students did not display high levels of aggressive behavior or experimentation with substances, the development of these behaviors in a small proportion of students should not be ignored. The results of the linear growth curve model indicated that unhealthy habits and aggressive behaviors increased over time. However, substance use slightly decreased over time. Conclusion We found that some health risk behaviors increased with time while others did not. Unhealthy habits and aggressive behaviors increased, whereas

  20. Behavioral Economics, Wearable Devices, and Cooperative Games: Results From a Population-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mierlo, Trevor; Hyatt, Douglas; Ching, Andrew T; Fournier, Rachel; Dembo, Ron S

    2016-01-28

    ,000 (95% CI 3850, 4150) at time of redemption, and 50.4% (n=61) of exchanges were for fitness or outdoor products, while 4.1% (n=5) were for food-related items. Participants were most likely to complete challenges when rewards were between 201-300 GOODcoins. The purpose of this study is to form a baseline for future research. Overall, results indicate that challenges and incentives may be effective for connected and active members, and may play a role in achieving daily-recommended activity guidelines. Registrants were typically younger, walking was the primary activity, and rewards were mainly exchanged for fitness or outdoor products. Remaining to be determined is whether members were already physically active at time of registration and are representative of healthy adherers, or were previously inactive and were incentivized to change their behavior. As challenges are gamified, there is an opportunity to investigate the role of superusers and healthy adherers, impacts on behavioral norms, and how cooperative games and incentives can be leveraged across stratified populations. Study limitations and future research agendas are discussed.

  1. Results of a Pilot Study to Ameliorate Psychological and Behavioral Outcomes of Minority Stress Among Young Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan Grant; Hart, Trevor A; Kidwai, Ammaar; Vernon, Julia R G; Blais, Martin; Adam, Barry

    2017-09-01

    Project PRIDE (Promoting Resilience In Discriminatory Environments) is an 8-session small group intervention aimed at reducing negative mental and behavioral health outcomes resulting from minority stress. This study reports the results of a one-armed pilot test of Project PRIDE, which aimed to examine the feasibility and potential for efficacy of the intervention in a sample of 33 gay and bisexual men aged 18 to 25. The intervention appeared feasible to administer in two different sites and all participants who completed posttreatment (n = 22) or follow-up (n = 19) assessments reported high satisfaction with the intervention. Small to large effect sizes were observed for increases in self-esteem; small effect sizes were found for decreases in loneliness and decreases in minority stress variables; and small and medium effect sizes were found for reductions in alcohol use and number of sex partners, respectively. Overall, Project PRIDE appears to be a feasible intervention with promise of efficacy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for irritable bowel syndrome: results from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paxling Björn

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is highly prevalent and is associated with a substantial economic burden. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT has been shown to be effective in treating IBS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a new treatment alternative, internet-delivered CBT based on exposure and mindfulness exercises. Methods Participants (N = 85 with IBS were recruited through self-referral and were assessed via a telephone interview and self-report measures on the internet. Participants were randomized to internet-delivered CBT or to a discussion forum. Economic data was assessed at pre-, post- and at 3-month and 1 year follow-up. Results Significant cost reductions were found for the treatment group at $16,806 per successfully treated case. The cost reductions were mainly driven by reduced work loss in the treatment group. Results were sustained at 3-month and 1 year follow-up. Conclusions Internet-delivered CBT appears to generate health gains in IBS treatment and is associated with cost-savings from a societal perspective.

  3. THE BEHAVIOR OF TRANSVERSE WAVES IN NONUNIFORM SOLAR FLUX TUBES. I. COMPARISON OF IDEAL AND RESISTIVE RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume; Oliver, Ramón; Goossens, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. Kink waves are a type of transverse MHD waves in magnetic flux tubes that are damped due to resonant absorption. The theoretical study of kink MHD waves in solar flux tubes is usually based on the simplification that the transverse variation of density is confined to a nonuniform layer much thinner than the radius of the tube, i.e., the so-called thin boundary approximation. Here, we develop a general analytic method to compute the dispersion relation and the eigenfunctions of ideal MHD waves in pressureless flux tubes with transversely nonuniform layers of arbitrary thickness. Results for kink waves are produced and compared with fully numerical resistive MHD eigenvalue computations in the limit of small resistivity. We find that the frequency and resonant damping rate are the same in both ideal and resistive cases. The actual results for thick nonuniform layers deviate from the behavior predicted in the thin boundary approximation and strongly depend on the shape of the nonuniform layer. The eigenfunctions in ideal MHD are very different from those in resistive MHD. The ideal eigenfunctions display a global character regardless of the thickness of the nonuniform layer, while the resistive eigenfunctions are localized around the resonance and are indistinguishable from those of ordinary resistive Alfvén modes. Consequently, the spatial distribution of wave energy in the ideal and resistive cases is dramatically different. This poses a fundamental theoretical problem with clear observational consequences

  4. CRIEPI's research results (2006-2011) and clarified future issues on alteration behavior of bentonite barrier by alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shingo; Nakamura, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yukihisa; Hironaga, Michihiko

    2013-01-01

    In radioactive waste disposal facilities, bentonite barrier would be altered by alkaline solutions which arise by leaching of cementitious materials. Consequently suitable properties of the bentonite barrier would be degraded for a long time period. In CRIEPI, the investigation on the alteration of the bentonite under alkaline conditions was started in 2006, and several CRIEPI reports have been published. Specifically, we have investigated the kinetics of montmorillonite dissolution, the mineralogical alteration of compacted bentonite (with high- and low-dry density) and the change of permeability of the compacted bentonite (with high- and low-dry density) during alteration under the alkaline conditions. Furthermore, stability of saponite, which has similar physical properties to the bentonite, under the alkaline conditions was also examined. In this report, we show the outline of those research results, and lay out the clarified future issues extracted from our results. Ten clarified future issues were divided three categories as follows: 1) the estimation of the alteration behavior of the bentonite by alkaline solutions, 2) the elucidation of the mechanism of physical properties (e.g., permeability, swelling properties and mechanistic properties) change of the compacted bentonites during alteration, and 3) the development of the model building and simulation technology concerning the change in physical properties during alteration under alkaline conditions. (author)

  5. The role of friends' disruptive behavior in the development of children's tobacco experimentation: results from a preventive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Vuijk, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Having friends who engage in disruptive behavior in childhood may be a risk factor for childhood tobacco experimentation. This study tested the role of friends' disruptive behavior as a mediator of the effects of a classroom based intervention on children's tobacco experimentation. 433 Children (52%

  6. Sexual behavior in the United States: results from a national probability sample of men and women ages 14-94.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debby; Reece, Michael; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dodge, Brian; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2010-10-01

    Despite a demonstrated relationship between sexual behaviors and health, including clinical risks, little is known about contemporary sexual behavior. To assess the rates of sexual behavior among adolescents and adults in the United States. We report the recent (past month, past year) and lifetime prevalence of sexual behaviors in a nationally representative probability sample of 5,865 men and women ages 14 to 94 in the United States (2,936 men, 2,929 women). Behaviors assessed included solo masturbation, partnered masturbation, giving and receiving oral sex, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse. Masturbation was common throughout the lifespan and more common than partnered sexual activities during adolescence and older age (70+). Although uncommon among 14- to 15-year olds, in the past year 18.3% of 16- to 17-year-old males and 22.4% of 16- to 17-year-old females performed oral sex with an other-sex partner. Also in the past year, more than half of women and men ages 18 to 49 engaged in oral sex. The proportion of adults who reported vaginal sex in the past year was highest among men ages 25-39 and for women ages 20-29, then progressively declined among older age groups. More than 20% of men ages 25-49 and women ages 20-39 reported anal sex in the past year. Same-sex sexual behaviors occurring in the past year were uncommonly reported. Men and women engage in a diverse range of solo and partnered sexual behaviors throughout the life course. The rates of contemporary sexual behavior provided in this report will be valuable to those who develop, implement, and evaluate programs that seek to improve societal knowledge related to the prevalence of sexual behaviors and to sexual health clinicians whose work to improve sexual health among the population often requires such rates of behavior. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Exploring the Great Schism in the Social Sciences: Confirmation Bias and the Interpretation of Results Relating to Biological Influences on Human Behavior and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winking, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The nature-nurture debate is one that biologists often dismiss as a false dichotomy, as all phenotypic traits are the results of complex processes of gene and environment interactions. However, such dismissiveness belies the ongoing debate that is unmistakable throughout the biological and social sciences concerning the role of biological influences in the development of psychological and behavioral traits in humans. Many have proposed that this debate is due to ideologically driven biases in the interpretation of results. Those favoring biological approaches have been accused of a greater willingness to accept biological explanations so as to rationalize or justify the status quo of inequality. Those rejecting biological approaches have been accused of an unwillingness to accept biological explanations so as to attribute inequalities solely to social and institutional factors, ultimately allowing for the possibility of social equality. While it is important to continue to investigate this topic through further research and debate, another approach is to examine the degree to which the allegations of bias are indeed valid. To accomplish this, a convenience sample of individuals with relevant postgraduate degrees was recruited from Mechanical Turk and social media. Participants were asked to rate the inferential power of different research designs and of mock results that varied in the degree to which they supported different ideologies. Results were suggestive that researchers harbor sincere differences of opinion concerning the inferential value of relevant research. There was no suggestion that ideological confirmation biases drive these differences. However, challenges associated with recruiting a large enough sample of experts as well as identifying believable mock scenarios limit the study's inferential scope.

  8. On the development of a theory of traveler attitude-behavior interrelationships. Volume 3 : executive summary : overview of methods, results, and conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    The executive summary of this Final Report offers an overview of : methods, results, and conclusions which support the development of a : theory of traveler attitude-behavior interrelationships. Such a theory : will be useful in the design of transpo...

  9. Failure behavior of concrete pile and super-structure dynamic response as a result of soil liquefaction during earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Shogo; Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Hachimori, Wataru; Tamura, Shuji; Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    In past earthquake disasters, numerous building structure piles were damaged by soil liquefaction occurring during the earthquake. Damage to these piles, because they are underground, is difficult to find. The authors aim to develop a monitoring method of pile damage based on superstructure dynamic response. This paper investigated the relationship between the damage of large cross section cementitious piles and the dynamic response of the super structure using a centrifuge test apparatus. A dynamic specimen used simple cross section pile models consisting of aluminum rod and mortar, a saturated soil (Toyoura sand) of a relative density of 40% and a super structure model of a natural period of 0.63sec. In the shaking table test under a 50G field (length scale of 1/50), excitation was a total of 3 motions scaled from the Rinkai wave at different amplitudes. The maximum acceleration of each of the excitations was 602gal, 336gal and 299gal. The centrifuge test demonstrated the liquefaction of saturated soil and the failure behavior of piles. In the test result, the damage of piles affected the predominant period of acceleration response spectrum on the footing of the superstructure.

  10. Feasibility and acceptability of shared decision-making to promote alcohol behavior change among women Veterans: Results from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Traci H; Wright, Patricia; White, Penny; Booth, Brenda M; Cucciare, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Although rates of unhealthy drinking are high among women Veterans with mental health comorbidities, most women Veterans with mental comorbidities who present to primary care with unhealthy drinking do not receive alcohol-related care. Barriers to alcohol-related treatment could be reduced through patient-centered approaches to care, such as shared decision-making. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a telephone-delivered shared decision-making intervention for promoting alcohol behavior change in women Veterans with unhealthy drinking and co-morbid depression and/or probable post-traumatic stress disorder. We used 3, 2-hour focus group discussions with 19 women Veterans to identify barriers and solicit recommendations for using the intervention with women Veterans who present to primary care with unhealthy drinking and mental health comorbidities. Transcripts from the focus groups were qualitatively analyzed using template analysis. Although participants perceived that the intervention was feasible and acceptable for the targeted patient population, they identified the treatment delivery modality, length of telephone sessions, and some of the option grid content as potential barriers. Facilitators included strategies for enhancing the telephone-delivered shared decision-making sessions and diversifying the treatment options contained in the option grids. Focus group feedback resulted in preliminary adaptations to the intervention that are mindful of women Veterans' individual preferences for care and realistic in the everyday context of their busy lives.

  11. Seasonal behavior of radon decay products in indoor air and resulting radiation dose to human respiratory tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.A. Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of radiation hazard of indoor radon is largely due to the radon progenies, which are inhaled and deposited in the human respiratory tract. It is essential to evaluate aerodynamic characteristics of the radon progenies, which are either attached or unattached to aerosol particles, because the dose is strongly dependent on the location of deposition in respiratory tract and hence on the aerodynamic characteristics of the aerosol particles. This paper presents the seasonal behavior of radon decay products in indoor air under domestic conditions at Nagoya University, Japan. A low pressure cascade impactor as an instrument for classifying aerosol sizes and imaging plate as a radiation detector have been employed to characterize the activity size distribution of short-lived radon decay products. In parallel, radon and its progenies concentrations were measured. Taking into account the progeny characteristics, the inhalation dose in the different seasons was also estimated based on a lung dose model with the structure that is related to the ICRP66 respiratory tract model. The result evident that, the highest dose 0.22 mSvy−1 was observed during the winter where the highest value of equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon (EEC and lowest value of the activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD were found in this season; whereas, the dose in spring appeared to be lowest 0.02 mSvy−1.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Group and Internet Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Adolescents: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruin, Eduard J; van Steensel, Francisca J A; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2016-08-01

    To investigate cost-effectiveness of adolescent cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) in group- and Internet-delivered formats, from a societal perspective with a time horizon of 1 y. Costs and effects data up to 1-y follow-up were obtained from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing Internet CBTI to face-to-face group CBTI. The study was conducted at the laboratory of the Research Institute of Child Development and Education at the University of Amsterdam, and the academic youth mental health care center UvAMinds in Amsterdam. Sixty-two participants meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria for insomnia were randomized to face-to-face group CBTI (GT; n = 31, age = 15.6 y ± 1.8, 71.0% girls) or individual Internet CBTI (IT; n = 31, age = 15.4 y ± 1.5, 83.9% girls). The intervention consisted of six weekly sessions and a 2-mo follow up booster-session of CBTI, consisting of psychoeducation, sleep hygiene, restriction of time in bed, stimulus control, cognitive therapy, and relaxation techniques. GT sessions were held in groups of six to eight adolescents guided by two trained sleep therapists. IT consisted of individual Internet therapy with preprogrammed content similar to GT, and guided by trained sleep therapists. Outcome measures were subjective sleep efficiency (SE) ≥ 85%, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). Analyses were conducted from a societal perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated using bootstrap sampling, and presented in cost-effectiveness planes. Primary analysis showed costs over 1 y were higher for GT but effects were similar for IT and GT. Bootstrapped ICERs demonstrated there is a high probability of IT being cost-effective compared to GT. Secondary analyses confirmed robustness of results. Internet CBTI is a cost-effective treatment compared to group CBTI for adolescents, although effects were largely similar for both formats

  13. Health care seeking behavior for diarrhea in children under 5 in rural Niger: results of a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djibo Ali

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea remains the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. Health care seeking behavior for diarrhea varies by context and has important implications for developing appropriate care strategies and estimating burden of disease. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of children under five with diarrhea who consulted at a health structure in order to identify the appropriate health care levels to set up surveillance of severe diarrheal diseases. Methods A cluster survey was done on 35 clusters of 21 children under 5 years of age in each of four districts of the Maradi Region, Niger. Caretakers were asked about diarrhea of the child during the recall period and their health seeking behavior in case of diarrhea. A weighted cluster analysis was conducted to determine the prevalence of diarrhea, as well as the proportion of consultations and types of health structures consulted. Results In total, the period prevalence of diarrhea and severe diarrhea between April 24th and May 21st 2009 were 36.8% (95% CI: 33.7 - 40.0 and 3.4% (95% CI: 2.2-4.6, respectively. Of those reporting an episode of diarrhea during the recall period, 70.4% (95% CI: 66.6-74.1 reported seeking care at a health structure. The main health structures visited were health centers, followed by health posts both for simple or severe diarrhea. Less than 10% of the children were brought to the hospital. The proportion of consultations was not associated with the level of education of the caretaker, but increased with the number of children in the household. Conclusions The proportion of consultations for diarrhea cases in children under 5 years old was higher than those reported in previous surveys in Niger and elsewhere. Free health care for under 5 years old might have participated in this improvement. In this type of decentralized health systems, the WHO recommended hospital-based surveillance of

  14. Thermo-mechanical behavior of retro-reflector and resulting parallelism error of laser beams for Wendelstein 7-X interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, X.B., E-mail: pengxb@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, 230031 Hefei Anhui (China); Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Hirsch, M.; Köppen, M.; Fellinger, J.; Bykov, V.; Schauer, F. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Vliegenthart, W. [TNO, Stieltjesweg 1, P.O. Box 2600, 2628 CK Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • The criterion for thermo-mechanical design of W7-X interferometer retro-reflector. • Thermo-mechanical analysis of retro-reflector with two different methods. • The most flexible part in the retro-reflector is spring washer. • Calculation of parallelism error between the incoming and reflected laser beams. • The parallelism error is much lower than the design limit 28 arcs. - Abstract: A 10 channels interferometer will be used in the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) for plasma density control and density profile tracking with laser beams passing through the plasma. Due to complex shape of non-planar modular coils and divertor structure, there are no large poloidally opposite ports on the plasma vessel (PV). Therefore 10 in-vessel Corner Cube Retro-reflectors (CCRs) will be used. The CCRs are integrated in the water cooled heat shield and exposed directly to thermal loads from plasma radiation. Thermo-mechanical issues are very important for the design of the CCR because deformation and flatness as well as mutual angles of the three reflecting surfaces would affect the parallelism of the laser beams and the functionality of the interferometer. Intensive work has been done to explore a suitable design for the CCR concerning thermo-mechanical behavior. Previous studies Ye et al. (2008, 2009) and Köppen et al. (2011) focused on structural optimization to decrease thermal stress in the reflecting plates under the thermal loads, and on computation and check of curvature radii of the deformed reflecting surfaces with the design criterion that the curvature radius must be bigger than 200 m. The paper presents detailed thermo-mechanical analysis of the current improved CCR under thermal loads and bolt preloads. The results of the thermo-mechanical analysis were used for the study of the resulting parallelism error of the laser beams with newly developed and more reasonable design criterion.

  15. Thermo-mechanical behavior of retro-reflector and resulting parallelism error of laser beams for Wendelstein 7-X interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, X.B.; Hirsch, M.; Köppen, M.; Fellinger, J.; Bykov, V.; Schauer, F.; Vliegenthart, W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The criterion for thermo-mechanical design of W7-X interferometer retro-reflector. • Thermo-mechanical analysis of retro-reflector with two different methods. • The most flexible part in the retro-reflector is spring washer. • Calculation of parallelism error between the incoming and reflected laser beams. • The parallelism error is much lower than the design limit 28 arcs. - Abstract: A 10 channels interferometer will be used in the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) for plasma density control and density profile tracking with laser beams passing through the plasma. Due to complex shape of non-planar modular coils and divertor structure, there are no large poloidally opposite ports on the plasma vessel (PV). Therefore 10 in-vessel Corner Cube Retro-reflectors (CCRs) will be used. The CCRs are integrated in the water cooled heat shield and exposed directly to thermal loads from plasma radiation. Thermo-mechanical issues are very important for the design of the CCR because deformation and flatness as well as mutual angles of the three reflecting surfaces would affect the parallelism of the laser beams and the functionality of the interferometer. Intensive work has been done to explore a suitable design for the CCR concerning thermo-mechanical behavior. Previous studies Ye et al. (2008, 2009) and Köppen et al. (2011) focused on structural optimization to decrease thermal stress in the reflecting plates under the thermal loads, and on computation and check of curvature radii of the deformed reflecting surfaces with the design criterion that the curvature radius must be bigger than 200 m. The paper presents detailed thermo-mechanical analysis of the current improved CCR under thermal loads and bolt preloads. The results of the thermo-mechanical analysis were used for the study of the resulting parallelism error of the laser beams with newly developed and more reasonable design criterion

  16. Association between parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior among adult offspring: results from the cross-sectional South African Stress and Health survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies have demonstrated a link between parental psychopathology and offspring suicidal behavior. However, it remains unclear what aspects of suicidal behavior among adult offspring are predicted by specific parental mental disorders, especially in Africa. This study set out to investigate the association between parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior among their adult offspring in a South African general population sample. Method Parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior in offspring were assessed using structured interviews among 4,315 respondents from across South Africa. The WHO CIDI was used to collect data on suicidal behavior, while the Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria Interview was used to assess prior parental psychopathology. Bivariate and multivariate survival models tested the associations between the type and number parental mental disorders (including suicide) and lifetime suicidal behavior in the offspring. Associations between a range of parental disorders and the onset of subsequent suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts) among adult offspring were tested. Results The presence of parental psychopathology significantly increased the odds of suicidal behavior among their adult offspring. More specifically, parental panic disorder was associated with offspring suicidal ideation, while parental panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and suicide were significantly associated with offspring suicide attempts. Among those with suicidal ideation, none of the tested forms of parental psychopathology was associated with having suicide plans or attempts. There was a dose–response relationship between the number of parental disorders and odds of suicidal ideation. Conclusions Parental psychopathology increases the odds of suicidal behavior among their adult offspring in the South African context, replicating results found in other regions. Specific parental disorders predicted the onset and

  17. Sexual behaviors, relationships, and perceived health status among adult women in the United States: results from a national probability sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debby; Reece, Michael; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dodge, Brian; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2010-10-01

    Past surveys of sexual behavior have demonstrated that female sexual behavior is influenced by medical and sociocultural changes. To be most attentive to women and their sexual lives, it is important to have an understanding of the continually evolving sexual behaviors of contemporary women in the United States. The purpose of this study, the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), was to, in a national probability survey of women ages 18-92, assess the proportion of women in various age cohorts who had engaged in solo and partnered sexual activities in the past 90 days and to explore associations with participants' sexual behavior and their relationship and perceived health status. Past year frequencies of masturbation, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse were also assessed. A national probability sample of 2,523 women ages 18 to 92 completed a cross-sectional internet based survey about their sexual behavior. Relationship status; perceived health status; experience of solo masturbation, partnered masturbation, giving oral sex, receiving oral sex, vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, in the past 90 days; frequency of solo masturbation, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse in the past year. Recent solo masturbation, oral sex, and vaginal intercourse were prevalent among women, decreased with age, and varied in their associations with relationship and perceived health status. Recent anal sex and same-sex oral sex were uncommonly reported. Solo masturbation was most frequent among women ages 18 to 39, vaginal intercourse was most frequent among women ages 18 to 29 and anal sex was infrequently reported. Contemporary women in the United States engage in a diverse range of solo and partnered sexual activities, though sexual behavior is less common and more infrequent among older age cohorts. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. 10 non seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors: therapeutic results and behavior at the University Hospital in the last 10 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Xavier, F.; Cepellini, R.; Fresco, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Retrospectively analyze about the characteristics, therapeutic behavior and treatment results in patients with non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumours (NSGCT) Stage III assisted in the University Hospital. Materials and Methods: The medical records of patients (pts) with histologically reviewed of NSGCT assisted in the Department of Clinical Oncology, Hospital das Clinicas (H C), among January 2000 and December 2009. We analyzed in detail the clinico pathological features of those belonging to pts with stage III tumors TNM classification. Results: 23 pts were included; median age 24 years (range: 17-40); median follow-up: 19 months (range: 2-104). Stadiums: I: 9/23; II: 7/23; III: 7/23. Among ptes E III.They corresponded to: high risk: 3/7; means: 3/7; Low: 1/7. Only in 1 patient (pte) of the E III It is not explicitly consisted risk rating in history but, based on data present is able to allocate retrospectively. The chemotherapy was the first line chosen, PE B plan pts 6/7 and 1/7 VIP (pte. athlete). All patients received 4 sets of PE B / VIP (including low risk). Imaging responses post chemotherapy (Q T): Complete: 1/7; Partial: 5/7; Stabilization: 1/7. In the 7 pts M T post Q T were normal. In 4 of the 7 pts who achieved partial response and normalized MTwe proceeded to surgery residual mass. The current status of patients is alive: 6/23; Dead: 4/23; monitoring loss (PDS): 13/23. The patients E III: Live 2/7, 4/7 dead, PDS 1/7.4 E III patients were dead with diagnosis (high risk 3/4, 1/4 medium). He did not make the survival analysis given the low and high percentage of patients PDS. Conclusions: In the last 10 years only 7 patients with NSGCT E III attended the H C (0.7 / year). Overall front line management adjusted to the recommendations international but the management of patients with residual mass and not normal M T necessarily. While the number of patients is too low to definitive conclusions, the C R rate to Q T 1st line impresses be

  19. Community-based interventions to enhance knowledge, protective attitudes and behaviors towards canine rabies: results from a health communication intervention study in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China canine rabies poses a serious public health problem in that human mortality ranks the second highest globally. While rabies health education interventions are advocated by WHO to be critical components of modern rabies control and prevention programs, available studies have not adequately investigated the relative efficacy of their implementation in at-risk populations. This study aims to measure and compare the effect on knowledge and protective behavior towards rabies of health education interventions that include a novel Short Messaging Service via cell phone (SMS and rabies health information sessions (IS. Methods The study used a between-subject design involving repeated measures of rabies-related KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice. A total of 350 randomly selected villagers were randomly allocated into three intervention (SMS, IS and SMS + IS and one control group. The content of SMS and IS covered topics about rabies prevention and route of transmission. The SMS intervention consisted of ten separate messages delivered three times two weeks after the pretest; the IS intervention was conducted once immediately after the pretest. A validated questionnaire was used to capture demographic information and KAP information. Ordinary Least Squares regression was used to contrast the effects of interventions. Results Our results indicate that overall SMS outperforms IS at improving knowledge and protective behavior against rabies. Our results suggest that a combined intervention of SMS and IS can result in higher scores than any of the two in isolation. The impact of SMS, IS and SMS + IS is greatest on knowledge, followed by attitude and practice scores. Conclusion This study demonstrated that health communication modes based on SMS, IS and a combination of the two are all effective to improve rabies-related KAP in the short term. These findings highlight the potential usefulness of SMS as an additional tool

  20. Central nervous system-specific knockout of steroidogenic factor 1 results in increased anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping; Kim, Ki Woo; Ikeda, Yayoi; Anderson, Kimberly K; Beck, Laurel; Chase, Stephanie; Tobet, Stuart A; Parker, Keith L

    2008-06-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) plays key roles in adrenal and gonadal development, expression of pituitary gonadotropins, and development of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH). If kept alive by adrenal transplants, global knockout (KO) mice lacking SF-1 exhibit delayed-onset obesity and decreased locomotor activity. To define specific roles of SF-1 in the VMH, we used the Cre-loxP system to inactivate SF-1 in a central nervous system (CNS)-specific manner. These mice largely recapitulated the VMH structural defect seen in mice lacking SF-1 in all tissues. In multiple behavioral tests, mice with CNS-specific KO of SF-1 had significantly more anxiety-like behavior than wild-type littermates. The CNS-specific SF-1 KO mice had diminished expression or altered distribution in the mediobasal hypothalamus of several genes whose expression has been linked to stress and anxiety-like behavior, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, the type 2 receptor for CRH (Crhr2), and Ucn 3. Moreover, transfection and EMSAs support a direct role of SF-1 in Crhr2 regulation. These findings reveal important roles of SF-1 in the hypothalamic expression of key regulators of anxiety-like behavior, providing a plausible molecular basis for the behavioral effect of CNS-specific KO of this nuclear receptor.

  1. Risk-perception and dangerous driving among adolescents: Outcome- and behavior-focused questions yield opposite results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Fearghal; Gormley, Michael

    2016-10-01

    While some studies have found that those who perceive a behavior to be more risky are less likely to engage in it, others have found that those who engage in more risky behaviors see themselves as being more at-risk. Using an online questionnaire we investigated whether such conflicting findings may be due to the types of risk-questions employed in past studies. We assessed risk-perception using outcome-focused questions (e.g. the likelihood of being in an accident) and a behavior-focused question (the riskiness of speeding). Participants who reported engaging in more risky driving gave higher estimates of their chances of experiencing a negative outcome. However, those same participants gave lower estimates of the general riskiness of risky driving. Drivers may think about the risks of risky driving in different ways depending on the focus of the questions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Road pricing as an impetus for environment-friendly travel behavior : Results from a stated adaptation experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, D.; Cools, M.; Moons, E.; Wets, G.; Arentze, Theo A.; Timmermans, Harry J P

    2009-01-01

    An important policy instrument for governments to modify travel behavior and manage the increasing travel demand is the introduction of a congestion pricing system. In this study, the influence of a detailed classification of activities is examined to assess likely traveler response to congestion

  3. Parent training in foster families with children with behavior problems : Follow-up results from a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Overbeek, G.J.; Oort, F.J.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The present randomized controlled trial examined the four months follow-up effectiveness of Parent Management Training Oregon (PMTO) for parents with foster children (aged 4–12) with severe externalizing behavior problems in long-term foster care arrangements. The aim of PMTO, a relative long and

  4. The Variation in Student Achievement and Behavior within a Portfolio Management Model: Early Results from New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachin, Andrew J.; Welsh, Richard Osbourne; Brewer, Dominic James

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of states experimented with alternative governance structures in response to pressure to raise student achievement. Post-Katrina experimentation in New Orleans was widely regarded as a model example of new governance reforms and provided a unique opportunity to learn about the variation in student achievement and behavior within…

  5. Child- And Family-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Development and Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Graczyk, Patricia A.; Henry, David B.; Carbray, Julie A.; Heidenreich, Jodi; Miklowitz, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CFF-CBT), a new developmentally sensitive psychosocial intervention for pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) that is intended for use along with medication. CFF-CBT integrates principles of family-focused therapy with those of CBT. The theoretical framework is based on (1)…

  6. Parenting Styles and Health-Related Behavior in Childhood and Early Adolescence: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohaus, Arnold; Vierhaus, Marc; Ball, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the development of health-related behavior during childhood and adolescence and the protective influence of an authoritative parenting style. The study is based on two samples followed from Grades 2 through 5 and from Grades 4 through 7. The first sample consisted of 432 second graders with a mean age of 7.9 years at the…

  7. Type D personality, suboptimal health behaviors and emotional distress in adults with diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES–The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefs, G.M.; Speight, J.; Pouwer, F.; Pop, V.J.M.; Bot, M.; Denollet, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Type D personality – defined as high negative affectivity (NA) and high social inhibition (SI) – has been associated with adverse cardiovascular prognosis. We explored the differential associations of Type D personality and its constituent components with health behaviors, emotional distress

  8. Relationship between Eating Behaviors and Physical Activity among Primary and Secondary School Students: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Pascale; Turcotte, Sylvain; Perreault, Gino

    2013-01-01

    Background: With a view toward developing concerted efforts in fostering healthy eating habits and a physically active lifestyle among young people, a study was carried out to explore associations between eating behavior and physical activity (PA). Methods: In the school district, questionnaires were completed at home by parents of primary school…

  9. Etiological Distinctions between Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behavior: Results from a Nuclear Twin Family Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 103 studies Burt ("Clinical Psychology Review," 29:163-178, 2009a) highlighted the presence of etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior, such that AGG was more heritable than was RB, whereas RB was more influenced by the shared…

  10. Results Of A Lifestyle Intervention Involving Healthy Diet, Exercise and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Jiskoot (Geranne); R. Timman (Reinier); A. Beerthuizen (Annemerle); Dietz de Loos, A (Alexandra); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); J.S.E. Laven (Joop)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstract_Context_ Long-term weight loss is important for women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Although no protocol exist for effective and long-term weight loss in this population. Three-component interventions including diet, exercise, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have shown

  11. Communicating uncertainty: lessons learned and suggestions for climate change assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, A.; Dessai, S.

    2005-01-01

    Assessments of climate change face the task of making information about uncertainty accessible and useful to decision-makers. The literature in behavior economics provides many examples of how people make decisions under conditions of uncertainty relying on inappropriate heuristics, leading to inconsistent and counterproductive choices. Modern risk communication practices recommend a number of methods to overcome these hurdles, which have been recommended for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports. This paper evaluates the success of the most recent IPCC approach to uncertainty communication, based on a controlled survey of climate change experts. Evaluating the results from the survey, and from a similar survey recently conducted among university students, the paper suggests that the most recent IPCC approach leaves open the possibility for biased and inconsistent responses to the information. The paper concludes by suggesting ways to improve the approach for future IPCC assessment reports. (authors)

  12. Apps seeking theories: results of a study on the use of health behavior change theories in cancer survivorship mobile apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer Dahlke, Deborah; Fair, Kayla; Hong, Y Alicia; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Pulczinski, Jairus; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-03-27

    Thousands of mobile health apps are now available for use on mobile phones for a variety of uses and conditions, including cancer survivorship. Many of these apps appear to deliver health behavior interventions but may fail to consider design considerations based in human computer interface and health behavior change theories. This study is designed to assess the presence of and manner in which health behavior change and health communication theories are applied in mobile phone cancer survivorship apps. The research team selected a set of criteria-based health apps for mobile phones and assessed each app using qualitative coding methods to assess the application of health behavior change and communication theories. Each app was assessed using a coding derived from the taxonomy of 26 health behavior change techniques by Abraham and Michie with a few important changes based on the characteristics of mHealth apps that are specific to information processing and human computer interaction such as control theory and feedback systems. A total of 68 mobile phone apps and games built on the iOS and Android platforms were coded, with 65 being unique. Using a Cohen's kappa analysis statistic, the inter-rater reliability for the iOS apps was 86.1 (Papps, 77.4 (Papps were consistently higher than those of the Android platform apps. For personalization and tailoring, 67% of the iOS apps (24/36) had these elements as compared to 38% of the Android apps (12/32). In the area of prompting for intention formation, 67% of the iOS apps (34/36) indicated these elements as compared to 16% (5/32) of the Android apps. Mobile apps are rapidly emerging as a way to deliver health behavior change interventions that can be tailored or personalized for individuals. As these apps and games continue to evolve and include interactive and adaptive sensors and other forms of dynamic feedback, their content and interventional elements need to be grounded in human computer interface design and health

  13. Failure to Report Effect Sizes: The Handling of Quantitative Results in Published Health Education and Behavior Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Szucs, Leigh E; Reyes, Jovanni V; Ji, Qian; Wilson, Kelly L; Thompson, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Given the American Psychological Association's strong recommendation to always report effect sizes in research, scholars have a responsibility to provide complete information regarding their findings. The purposes of this study were to (a) determine the frequencies with which different effect sizes were reported in published, peer-reviewed articles in health education, promotion, and behavior journals and (b) discuss implications for reporting effect size in social science research. Across a 4-year time period (2010-2013), 1,950 peer-reviewed published articles were examined from the following six health education and behavior journals: American Journal of Health Behavior, American Journal of Health Promotion, Health Education & Behavior, Health Education Research, Journal of American College Health, and Journal of School Health Quantitative features from eligible manuscripts were documented using Qualtrics online survey software. Of the 1,245 articles in the final sample that reported quantitative data analyses, approximately 47.9% (n = 597) of the articles reported an effect size. While 16 unique types of effect size were reported across all included journals, many of the effect sizes were reported with little frequency across most journals. Overall, odds ratio/adjusted odds ratio (n = 340, 50.1%), Pearson r/r(2) (n = 162, 23.8%), and eta squared/partial eta squared (n = 46, 7.2%) accounted for the most frequently used effect size. Quality research practice requires both testing statistical significance and reporting effect size. However, our study shows that a substantial portion of published literature in health education and behavior lacks consistent reporting of effect size. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  14. Sexual behaviors, relationships, and perceived health among adult men in the United States: results from a national probability sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dodge, Brian; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2010-10-01

    To provide a foundation for those who provide sexual health services and programs to men in the United States, the need for population-based data that describes men's sexual behaviors and their correlates remains. The purpose of this study was to, in a national probability survey of men ages 18-94 years, assess the occurrence and frequency of sexual behaviors and their associations with relationship status and health status. A national probability sample of 2,522 men aged 18 to 94 completed a cross-sectional survey about their sexual behaviors, relationship status, and health. Relationship status; health status; experience of solo masturbation, partnered masturbation, giving oral sex, receiving oral sex, vaginal intercourse and anal intercourse, in the past 90 days; frequency of solo masturbation, vaginal intercourse and anal intercourse in the past year. Masturbation, oral intercourse, and vaginal intercourse are prevalent among men throughout most of their adult life, with both occurrence and frequency varying with age and as functions of relationship type and physical health status. Masturbation is prevalent and frequent across various stages of life and for both those with and without a relational partner, with fewer men with fair to poor health reporting recent masturbation. Patterns of giving oral sex to a female partner were similar to those for receiving oral sex. Vaginal intercourse in the past 90 days was more prevalent among men in their late 20s and 30s than in the other age groups, although being reported by approximately 50% of men in the sixth and seventh decades of life. Anal intercourse and sexual interactions with other men were less common than all other sexual behaviors. Contemporary men in the United States engage in diverse solo and partnered sexual activities; however, sexual behavior is less common and more infrequent among older age cohorts. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  16. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  17. Music to whose ears? The effect of social norms on young people's risk perceptions of hearing damage resulting from their music listening behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliver, Megan; Carter, Lyndal; Macoun, Denise; Rosen, Jenny; Williams, Warwick

    2012-01-01

    Professional and community concerns about the potentially dangerous noise levels for common leisure activities has led to increased interest on providing hearing health information to participants. However, noise reduction programmes aimed at leisure activities (such as music listening) face a unique difficulty. The noise source that is earmarked for reduction by hearing health professionals is often the same one that is viewed as pleasurable by participants. Furthermore, these activities often exist within a social setting, with additional peer influences that may influence behavior. The current study aimed to gain a better understanding of social-based factors that may influence an individual's motivation to engage in positive hearing health behaviors. Four hundred and eighty-four participants completed questionnaires examining their perceptions of the hearing risk associated with listening to music listening and asking for estimates of their own and their peer's music listening behaviors. Participants were generally aware of the potential risk posed by listening to personal stereo players (PSPs) and the volumes likely to be most dangerous. Approximately one in five participants reported using listening volumes at levels perceived to be dangerous, an incidence rate in keeping with other studies measuring actual PSP use. However, participants showed less awareness of peers' behavior, consistently overestimating the volumes at which they believed their friends listened. Misperceptions of social norms relating to listening behavior may decrease individuals' perceptions of susceptibility to hearing damage. The consequences of hearing health promotion are discussed, along with suggestions relating to the development of new programs.

  18. Data for FUMEX: Results from fuel behavior studies at the OECD Halden Reactor Project for model validation and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenack, W.

    1997-01-01

    Investigations of phenomena associated with extended or high burn-up are an important part of the fuel and materials testing programme carried out at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. The in-core studies comprise long term fuel rod behavior as well as the response to power ramps. Performance is assessed through measurements of fuel centre temperature, rod pressure, elongation of cladding and fuel stack, and cladding diameter changes obtained during full power reactor operation. Data from fuel behavior studies at the OECD Halden Reactor Project, provided for the IAEA co-ordinated research programme FUMEX, are used to elucidate short and long-term developments of fuel behavior. The examples comprise: fuel conductivity degradation manifested as a gradual temperature increase with burn-up; the influence of a combination of small gap/high fission gas release on fuel centre temperature (situation at high burn-up); fission gas release during normal operation and power ramps, and the possibility of a burn-up enhancement; PCMI reflected by cladding elongation, also for the case of a nominally open gap, and the change of interaction onset with burn-up. (author). 10 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  19. Data for FUMEX: Results from fuel behavior studies at the OECD Halden Reactor Project for model validation and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesenack, W [Institutt for Energiteknikk, Halden (Norway). OECD Halden Reaktor Projekt

    1997-08-01

    Investigations of phenomena associated with extended or high burn-up are an important part of the fuel and materials testing programme carried out at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. The in-core studies comprise long term fuel rod behavior as well as the response to power ramps. Performance is assessed through measurements of fuel centre temperature, rod pressure, elongation of cladding and fuel stack, and cladding diameter changes obtained during full power reactor operation. Data from fuel behavior studies at the OECD Halden Reactor Project, provided for the IAEA co-ordinated research programme FUMEX, are used to elucidate short and long-term developments of fuel behavior. The examples comprise: fuel conductivity degradation manifested as a gradual temperature increase with burn-up; the influence of a combination of small gap/high fission gas release on fuel centre temperature (situation at high burn-up); fission gas release during normal operation and power ramps, and the possibility of a burn-up enhancement; PCMI reflected by cladding elongation, also for the case of a nominally open gap, and the change of interaction onset with burn-up. (author). 10 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab.

  20. Policing behaviors, safe injection self-efficacy, and intervening on injection risks: Moderated mediation results from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Patterson, Thomas L; Abramovitz, Daniela; Vera, Alicia; Martinez, Gustavo; Staines, Hugo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    We aim to use conditional or moderated mediation to simultaneously test how and for whom an injection risk intervention was efficacious at reducing receptive needle sharing among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSWs-IDUs) in Mexico. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial. A total of 300 FSW-IDUs participated in Mujer Mas Segura in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and were randomized to an interactive injection risk intervention or a didactic injection risk intervention. We measured safe injection self-efficacy as the hypothesized mediator and policing behaviors (being arrested and syringe confiscation) as hypothesized moderators. In total, 213 women provided complete data for the current analyses. Conditional (moderated) mediation showed that the intervention affected receptive needle sharing through safe injection self-efficacy among women who experienced syringe confiscation. On average, police syringe confiscation was associated with lower safe injection self-efficacy (p = .04). Among those who experienced syringe confiscation, those who received the interactive (vs. didactic) intervention reported higher self-efficacy, which in turn predicted lower receptive needle sharing (p = .04). Whereas syringe confiscation by the police negatively affected safe injection self-efficacy and ultimately injection risk behavior, our interactive intervention helped to "buffer" this negative impact of police behavior on risky injection practices. The theory-based, active skills building elements included in the interactive condition, which were absent from the didactic condition, helped participants' self-efficacy for safer injection in the face of syringe confiscation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The Role of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in Uncontrolled Alcohol Drinking and Relapse Behavior Resulting from Exposure to Stressful Events

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thiele, Todd E; Knapp, Darin J; Breese, George; McCown, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    .... An interesting candidate is neuropeptide Y (NPY). Recent evidence suggests that low NPY levels promote high alcohol consumption, and it has been established the NPY protects against stress and anxiety...

  2. Does Sodium Knowledge Affect Dietary Choices and Health Behaviors? Results From a Survey of Los Angeles County Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, George; Wickramasekaran, Ranjana N; Kuo, Tony; Robles, Brenda

    2017-11-22

    In 2010, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched a local sodium-reduction initiative to address the rising prevalence of high blood pressure (hypertension) and related cardiovascular conditions in the population. To inform this effort, we evaluated self-reported knowledge and health behaviors related to sodium intake among Los Angeles County residents. We administered 3 cross-sectional Internet panel surveys on knowledge about dietary sodium to a sample of Los Angeles County adults, at intervals from December 2014 through August 2016. Multinomial and logistic regression models were constructed to describe associations between sodium knowledge and self-reported health behaviors. A total of 7,067 panel subjects clicked into the online survey, and 2,862 completed the survey (adjusted response rate = 40.5%). Only 102 respondents (3.6%) were able to accurately report the recommended milligrams of sodium that an average adult should consume daily (1,500 mg to 2300 mg). Knowing about daily sodium intake recommendations was associated with increased odds of using Nutrition Facts labels to make food purchase decisions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59-7.60) and with decreased odds of taking measures to prevent hypertension (AOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.19-0.74). Los Angeles County residents had a limited knowledge of recommended daily sodium intake. Efforts to increase understanding of these recommendations may encourage wider engagement in healthy behaviors. Health agencies should integrate sodium reduction messages in their diet and nutrition educational efforts.

  3. Help-Seeking Behavior for Children with Acute Respiratory Infection in Ethiopia: Results from 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astale, Tigist; Chenault, Michelene

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in Ethiopia. While facilities have been implemented to address this problem they are underused due to a lack in help-seeking behavior. This study investigates factors related to the help-seeking behavior of mothers for children with acute respiratory infection using data from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. Data on 11,030 children aged 0-59 months obtained through interviewing women aged 15-49 years throughout Ethiopia was available. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors are related to help-seeking behavior for acute respiratory infection. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 773(7%) of the children were reported to have symptoms of acute respiratory infection while treatment was sought for only 209 (27.2%). The odds ratio for acute respiratory infection was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0) for rural residence with only 25.2% of these mothers seeking help compared to 46.4% for mothers with an urban residence. Smaller family size, younger mothers' age and having had prenatal care had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for both urban and rural residences. Highest wealth index had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for rural residence only, whereas primary education or higher had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for urban residence. Children from rural areas are more at risk for acute respiratory infection while their mothers are less likely to seek help. Nevertheless, there is also underuse of available services in urban areas. Interventions should target mothers with less education and wealth and older mothers. Expanding prenatal care among these groups would encourage a better use of available facilities and subsequently better care for their children.

  4. Home grocery delivery improves the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants: results of an 8-week pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Amy A; Raynor, Hollie A; Niemeier, Heather M; Wing, Rena R

    2007-11-14

    Household food availability is consistently linked to dietary intake; yet behavioral weight control treatment includes only minimal instruction on how to change the home environment to support dietary goals. This pilot study examined whether it is feasible to change the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants through the use of a commercially available grocery home delivery service. Overweight participants (N = 28; BMI = 31.7 +/- 3.6 kg/m2; 89.3% women, 47.9 +/- 9.5 years) were randomly assigned to 8-weeks of standard behavioral weight loss (SBT) or to SBT plus home food delivery (SBT+Home). SBT+Home participants were instructed to do their household grocery shopping via an online service affiliated with a regional supermarket chain and were reimbursed for delivery charges. Compared to SBT, SBT+Home produced significantly greater reductions in the total number of foods in the home (p = .01) and number of foods that were high in fat (p = .002). While the groups did not differ in 8-week weight losses, within SBT+Home there was a trend for the number of home deliveries to be associated with weight loss (p = .08). Participants reported that the home delivery service was easy to use and that it helped decrease impulse purchases and lead to healthier choices; however, few planned to continue using the service after the study. Encouraging weight loss participants to use a commercially available online grocery ordering and home delivery service reduces the overall number of food items in the home and decreases access to high-fat food choices. More research is needed to determine whether this is a viable strategy to strengthen stimulus control and improve weight loss outcomes.

  5. A cost analysis of implementing a behavioral weight loss intervention in community mental health settings: Results from the ACHIEVE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ellen M; Jerome, Gerald J; Dalcin, Arlene T; Gennusa, Joseph V; Goldsholl, Stacy; Frick, Kevin D; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Appel, Lawrence J; Daumit, Gail L

    2017-06-01

    In the ACHIEVE randomized controlled trial, an 18-month behavioral intervention accomplished weight loss in persons with serious mental illness who attended community psychiatric rehabilitation programs. This analysis estimates costs for delivering the intervention during the study. It also estimates expected costs to implement the intervention more widely in a range of community mental health programs. Using empirical data, costs were calculated from the perspective of a community psychiatric rehabilitation program delivering the intervention. Personnel and travel costs were calculated using time sheet data. Rent and supply costs were calculated using rent per square foot and intervention records. A univariate sensitivity analysis and an expert-informed sensitivity analysis were conducted. With 144 participants receiving the intervention and a mean weight loss of 3.4 kg, costs of $95 per participant per month and $501 per kilogram lost in the trial were calculated. In univariate sensitivity analysis, costs ranged from $402 to $725 per kilogram lost. Through expert-informed sensitivity analysis, it was estimated that rehabilitation programs could implement the intervention for $68 to $85 per client per month. Costs of implementing the ACHIEVE intervention were in the range of other intensive behavioral weight loss interventions. Wider implementation of efficacious lifestyle interventions in community mental health settings will require adequate funding mechanisms. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  6. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. The Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatment on the Sexual Behavior of Gay and Bisexual Men: Key Results from the "Restore" Study | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | "The Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatment on the Sexual Behavior of Gay and Bisexual Men: Key Results from the 'Restore' Study" will be presented by B.R. Simon Rosser, PhD, MPH, Professor of the Division of Epidemiology & Community Health and Director of HIV/STI Intervention & Prevention Studies at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health in Minneapolis,

  8. Evaluation of thermal displacement behavior of high temperature piping system in power-up test of HTTR. No. 1 results up to 20 MW operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawa, Satoshi; Kojima, Takao; Sumita, Junya; Tachibana, Yukio

    2002-03-01

    Temperature of the primary cooling system of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, HTTR, becomes very high because the coolant temperature at the reactor outlet reaches 950degC, and 400degC at inlet of the reactor. Therefore, it is important to confirm the thermal displacement behavior of the high temperature piping system in the primary cooling system from the viewpoint of the structural integrity. Moreover, newly designed 3-dimensional floating support system is adopted to the cooling system, it is meaningful to verify the thermal displacement behavior of the piping system applied the 3-dimensional floating support system. In the power-up test (up to 20 MW operation), thermal displacement behavior of the high temperature piping system was measured. This paper describes the experimental and analytical results of thermal displacement characteristics of the high temperature piping system. The results showed that the resistance force induced from the supporting system effects to the thermal displacement behavior of cooling system, and the analytical results have a good agreement with the experimental results by optimizing the resistant force of the floating support system. Additionally, structural integrity at the 30 MW operation was confirmed by the analysis. (author)

  9. Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Zoltán; Brown, Elizabeth; Hutton, Sam; Kirsch, Irving; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Wright, Daniel B

    2009-12-01

    We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities (including inhibition). Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C. Under the guise of an unrelated study, 180 of these participants also completed: a version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that is normally distributed in non-clinical populations; a latent inhibition task, a spatial negative priming task, and a memory task designed to measure negative priming. The data ruled out even moderate correlations between hypnotic suggestibility and all the measures of dissociation and cognitive inhibition overall, though they also indicated gender differences. The results are a challenge for existing theories of hypnosis.

  10. Electromagnetic response behavior of binary metallic nanoparticles: a comparison of results from a few models of different schematicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, S.; Arrighini, G.P.; Guidotti, C.

    2003-01-01

    The light absorption of isolated bimetallic alloy nanoparticles composed of Au and Ag is investigated theoretically according to the traditional Mie theory and use of dielectric data. Particular attention is turned to establish the dependence of the absorption on both particle size and composition. The complex dielectric function of clusters involving 254 and 440 active electrons and different stoichiometry has been evaluated on the basis of various models of different degrees of schematicity (Drude theory, noninteracting quantum gas confined in a box, DFT approach), assuming in any case a simple combining rule for the alloy dielectric behavior. The interband contribution to the dielectric function is approximately estimated so as to assess the role of bound-electron effects

  11. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  12. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  13. Exposure to bullying behaviors as a predictor of mental health problems among Norwegian nurses: results from the prospective SUSSH-survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reknes, Iselin; Pallesen, Ståle; Magerøy, Nils; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Einarsen, Ståle

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between workplace bullying and mental health problems are well documented in previous cross-sectional studies, but knowledge on how this relationship develops over time is still scarce. The aim of this study was to explore the prospective relationship between exposure to bullying behaviors at baseline, and increased symptoms of mental health problems (anxiety, depression, fatigue) one year later. Furthermore, the reverse relationship was investigated. This is a prospective longitudinal study, where members of the Norwegian Nurses Organization answered identical questions regarding workplace bullying and mental health problems, at baseline (2008-2009) and follow-up (2010). Altogether, 1582 nurses completed both questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that exposure to bullying behaviors at baseline predicted subsequent increased symptoms of anxiety and fatigue, after adjusting for baseline symptoms of anxiety and fatigue respectively, age, gender, night work and job demands. Moreover, symptoms of anxiety, depression and fatigue at baseline predicted increased exposure to bullying behaviors one year later, after adjusting for exposure to bullying behaviors at baseline, age, gender, night work and job demands. In this study we find support for a reciprocal relationship between exposure to bullying behaviors and symptoms of anxiety and fatigue, respectively. Thus, the results may indicate a vicious circle where workplace bullying and mental health problems mutually affect each other negatively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Suggestion for Restoring Public Support for Public Schools: Learn to Invite Patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck, Flora N.; Russell, Gene; Wedel, Mack

    1998-01-01

    Proposes that the increasing disavowal of public schools results from experience with day-by-day disinviting behaviors. The suggested remedy is for educators to evaluate their on-the-job responses to their patrons. Wherever subminimal interpersonal conditions are identified, participants should learn to invite people to education. Presents a case…

  15. Predictors of participation in parenting workshops for improving adolescent behavioral and mental health: results from the common sense parenting trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Charles B; Mason, W Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P; Thompson, Ronald W; Fernandez, Kate; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Oats, Robert G

    2015-04-01

    Engaging and retaining participants are crucial to achieving adequate implementation of parenting interventions designed to prevent problem behaviors among children and adolescents. This study examined predictors of engagement and retention in a group-based family intervention across two versions of the program: a standard version requiring only parent attendance for six sessions and an adapted version with two additional sessions that required attendance by the son or daughter. Families included a parent and an eighth grader who attended one of five high-poverty schools in an urban Pacific Northwest school district. The adapted version of the intervention had a higher rate of engagement than the standard version, a difference that was statistically significant after adjusting for other variables assessed at enrollment in the study. Higher household income and parent education, younger student age, and poorer affective quality in the parent-child relationship predicted greater likelihood of initial attendance. In the adapted version of the intervention, parents of boys were more likely to engage with the program than those of girls. The variables considered did not strongly predict retention, although retention was higher among parents of boys. Retention did not significantly differ between conditions. Asking for child attendance at workshops may have increased engagement in the intervention, while findings for other predictors of attendance point to the need for added efforts to recruit families who have less socioeconomic resources, as well as families who perceive they have less need for services.

  16. The Effect of Changes in Physical Activity on Sedentary Behavior: Results From a Randomized Lifestyle Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Juned; de Chavez, Peter John; Craft, Lynette L; Freedson, Patty; Spring, Bonnie

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether changes in physical activity (PA) have an impact on sedentary behavior (SB) during a lifestyle intervention. Study design was a randomized trial. Participants (n = 204) were individuals with low PA and high sedentary leisure screen time from the Chicago area. Participants were randomized to either increase PA (iPA) or decrease sedentary leisure (dSED). The intervention consisted of decision support, coaching, and financial incentives. For iPA participants, the goal was at least 60 min/d of self-reported moderate-tovigorous-intensity PA (MVPA). For dSED participants the goal was less than 90 min/d of sedentary leisure screen time. Daily accelerometer-based measures of SB and bout-corrected MVPA were obtained. Linear mixed-effects models were fit to estimate the effect of the intervention on MVPA and total SB and to estimate the effect of daily changes in MVPA on daily SB. The iPA participants increased their bout-corrected MVPA by 14 min/d (p much of this time by reducing their SB.

  17. Adult informal caregivers reporting financial burden in Hawaii, Kansas, and Washington: Results from the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Claudia T; Bouldin, Erin D; Anderson, Lynda A; McGuire, Lisa C; Salvail, Florentina R; Simmons, Katrina Wynkoop; Andresen, Elena M

    2011-10-01

    Given the unpaid nature of the work, informal caregiving can create a financial burden for caregivers. Little has been done to identify specific predictors of experiencing financial burden. This study investigated demographic and health factors comparing caregivers who reported having or not having financial burden. Data are derived from adult caregivers (N = 3,317) as part of the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in Hawaii, Kansas, and Washington. The adjusted odds ratios for reporting a financial burden were estimated for demographic and other risk factors. Caregivers who reported a financial burden were younger, had lower incomes, were more likely to be current smokers, have had a stroke, and rate their health as fair or poor compared to caregivers who did not report a financial burden. Caregivers who were younger (ages 18-34), resided with care recipients, spent 20-39 hours per week providing care, and reported having a disability were at a statistically significantly higher odds of reporting a financial burden. Given the current economic difficulties faced by many Americans, further insights into the perceived financial burdens experienced by informal caregivers as well as linkages to policy and programs designed to support caregivers are critical for public health professionals to address the expanding needs in states and communities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Preliminary paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results from 17 to 22 ka sediment of Jeju Island, Korea: Geomagnetic excursional behavior or rock magnetic anomalies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeon-Seon; Sohn, Young Kwan; Lee, Jin-Young; Kim, Jin Cheul

    2018-05-01

    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic investigations were performed on a 64-cm-thick section of nonmarine unconsolidated muddy sediment from the Gosan Formation on Jeju Island, Korea. This sediment was recently dated to have been deposited between 22 and 17 kyr BP calibrated, with a sedimentation rate of 13-25 cm/kyr, based on many radiocarbon ages. Interestingly, stepwise alternating field (AF) demagnetization revealed characteristic natural remanent magnetizations with anomalous directions, manifested by marked deviations from the direction of today's axial dipole field, for some separate depth levels. On the other hand, stepwise thermal (TH) demagnetization showed more complex behavior, resulting in the identification of multiple remanence components. For all TH-treated specimens, consistently two different components are predominant: a low-temperature component unblocked below 240-320 °C entirely having normal-polarity apparently within the secular variation range of the Brunhes Chron, and a high-temperature component with unblocking temperatures (Tubs) between 240-320 and 520-580 °C that have anomalous directions, concentrated in the 13-34-cm-depth interval ( 17-19 ka in inferred age) and possibly below 53 cm depth (before 20 ka). Rock magnetic results also infer the dominance of low-coercivity magnetic particles having 300 and 580 °C Curie temperature as remanence carriers, suggestive of (titano)maghemite and/or Ti-rich titanomagnetite and magnetite (or Ti-poor titanomagnetite), respectively. A noteworthy finding is that AF demagnetizations in this study often lead to incomplete separation of the two remanence components possibly due to their strongly overlapping AF spectra. The unusual directions do not appear to result from self-reversal remanences. Then, one interpretation is that the low-temperature components are attributable to post-depositional chemical remanences, associated possibly with the later formation of the mineral phase having Tub 300

  19. A Survey of Functional Behavior Assessment Methods Used by Behavior Analysts in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Anthony C.; Pratt, Leigh A.; Normand, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially…

  20. Concussion attitudes, behaviors, and education among youth ages 12-17: Results from the 2014 YouthStyles survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, Zoe; Hoffman, Rosanne; Sarmiento, Kelly; Hays, Cameron

    2018-02-01

    This study assessed young athletes' (ages 12 to 17) concussion attitudes and behaviors, particularly their self-reported experience learning about concussion and intentions to report a concussion and disparities in these experiences. We used data from Porter Novelli's 2014 YouthStyles survey that is conducted each year to gather insights about American consumers. Of the 1,005 respondents, 57% reported sports participation. Fourteen percent reported they may have had a previous concussion, and among them 41% reported having a concussion more than once while playing sports. Males (17.7%) were significantly more likely to report having a concussion than females (10.0%; χ 2 (1)=7.01, p=0.008). Fifty-five percent of respondents reported having learned about what to do if they think they may have a concussion, and 92% reported that they would tell their coach if they thought they sustained a concussion while playing youth or high school sports. Youth from higher income families ($75,000-$124,999) were significantly more likely than youth from lower income families (less than $35,000) to report that they learned about what do if they suspected that they had a concussion. Age of athlete, parental income level, athlete's sex, and living in a metro versus non-metro area led to disparities in athletes' concussion education. There is a need for increased access to concussion education and an emphasis on customizing concussion education efforts to meet the needs of different groups. We identified athletes' self-reported previously sustained concussions and predictors of education related to concussion. Further research is needed to explore the age, gender and income gaps in concussion education among athletes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy positively affects fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis: Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Lizanne E; Beckerman, Heleen; Collette, Emma H; Twisk, Jos Wr; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Dekker, Joost; Knoop, Hans; de Groot, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Fatigue is a common symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS) and often restricts societal participation. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may alleviate MS-related fatigue, but evidence in literature is inconclusive. To evaluate the effectiveness of CBT to improve MS-related fatigue and participation. In a multi-center, assessor-masked, randomized controlled trial, participants with severe MS-related fatigue were assigned to CBT or control treatment. CBT consisted of 12 individual sessions with a psychologist trained in CBT, the control treatment consisted of three consultations with a MS nurse, both delivered over 16 weeks. Assessments were at baseline, 8, 16 (i.e. post-intervention), 26, and 52 weeks post-baseline. Primary outcomes were the Checklist Individual Strength-fatigue subscale (CIS20r fatigue) and the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire (IPA). Data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle, using mixed-model analysis. Between 2011 and 2014, 91 patients were randomized (CBT: n = 44; control: n = 47). Between-group analysis showed a positive post-intervention effect for CBT on CIS20r fatigue (T16: -6.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) = -10.7; -2.7) points) that diminished during follow-up (T52: 0.5 (95% CI = -3.6; 4.4)). No clinically relevant effects were found on societal participation. Severe MS-related fatigue can be reduced effectively with CBT in the short term. More research is needed on how to maintain this effect over the long term.

  2. Testing increases suggestibility for narrative-based misinformation but reduces suggestibility for question-based misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Jessica A; Chan, Jason C K

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies have found that recalling details of an event following its occurrence can increase people's suggestibility to later presented misinformation. However, several other studies have reported the opposite result, whereby earlier retrieval can reduce subsequent eyewitness suggestibility. In the present study, we investigated whether differences in the way misinformation is presented can modulate the effects of testing on suggestibility. Participants watched a video of a robbery and some were questioned about the event immediately afterwards. Later, participants were exposed to misinformation in a narrative (Experiment 1) or in questions (Experiment 2). Consistent with previous studies, we found that testing increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented via a narrative. Remarkably, when misinformation was presented in questions, testing decreased suggestibility. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Reconceptualizing Children's Suggestibility: Bidirectional and Temporal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstrap, Livia L.; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Forty-one children (3 to 7 years) were exposed to a staged event and later interviewed by 1 of 41 professional interviewers. All interviews were coded with a detailed, mutually exclusive, and exhaustive coding scheme capturing adult behaviors (leading questions vs. neutral) and child behaviors (acquiescence vs. denial) in a temporally organized…

  4. Differences in behavioral health disorders and unmet treatment needs between medical marijuana users and recreational marijuana users: Results from a national adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yeun; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2017-11-01

    Available data suggest that medical marijuana users may have more mental health problems than recreational marijuana users. There is limited information about differences in behavioral health disorders and unmet treatment needs between medical and recreational marijuana users. We compared past-year prevalence of behavioral health disorders and unmet treatment needs across three marijuana subgroups (recreational use only, medical use only, and both). Sex-stratified logistic regression was performed to determine their associations with marijuana use status. We analyzed data from adults (≥18 years) who used marijuana in the past year (N=15,440) from 2013 to 2014 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Among 15,440 past-year marijuana users, 90.2% used recreational marijuana only, 6.2% used medical marijuana only, and 3.6% used both. Both users had the highest prevalence of behavioral health disorders and unmet treatment needs overall, with no significant sex differences. In the sex-specific logistic regression analysis, medical only users and both users showed somewhat different patterns of associations (reference group=recreational only users). Medical only users had decreased odds of alcohol or drug use disorders, and unmet need for alcohol or drug treatment among males and females. Additionally, female medical only users had decreased odds of opioid use disorder. Both users had increased odds of major depressive episode, hallucinogen use disorder, and unmet need for mental health services among males, and cocaine use disorder among females. Different approaches tailored to individuals' sex and motives for marijuana use is needed for the prevention and treatment of behavioral health problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Description of premixing with the MC3D code including molten jet behavior modeling. Comparison with FARO experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthoud, G.; Crecy, F. de; Meignen, R.; Valette, M. [CEA-G, DRN/DTP/SMTH, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    1998-01-01

    The premixing phase of a molten fuel-coolant interaction is studied by the way of mechanistic multidimensional calculation. Beside water and steam, corium droplet flow and continuous corium jet flow are calculated independent. The 4-field MC3D code and a detailed hot jet fragmentation model are presented. MC3D calculations are compared to the FARO L14 experiment results and are found to give satisfactory results; heat transfer and jet fragmentation models are still to be improved to predict better final debris size values. (author)

  6. Help seeking in school by Israeli Arab minority adolescents with emotional and behavioral problems: results from the Galilee Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeem, Raida; Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Farbstein, Ilana; Khamaisi, Raseem; Ifrah, Anneke; Sheikh Muhammad, Ahmad; Fennig, Sylvana; Apter, Alan

    2016-01-01

    showed that for high risk adolescents, only religion remained significantly associated with help-seeking in school: Muslim students were 2 times more likely to seek help than Druze students. In the low-risk group, students who do not feel comfortable at home were 3.3 times more likely to seek help than those who feel comfortable at home. The main sources of consultation for both risk groups were the school counselor and the grade teacher. A constellation of factors may be associated with help-seeking in school by minority Israeli Arab adolescents: they are students at higher risk for an emotional or behavioral disorder, they have more socio-economic hardship, they feel less comfortable at home and they are more likely to live in the larger Muslim cities. Adolescents with less family support and particularly those not classified as being at high risk, are more likely to seek help from school counselors and teachers. The school staff may need additional training to care for the mental health needs of students. There is a need to integrate the school mental health services with the other government agencies that provide services to children and adolescents.

  7. Models of cognitive behavior in nuclear power plant personnel. A feasibility study: summary of results. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Roth, E.M.; Hanes, L.F.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of a feasibility study to determine if the current state of models of human cognitive activities can serve as the basis for improved techniques for predicting human error in nuclear power plants emergency operations. Based on the answer to this question, two subsequent phases of research are planned. Phase II is to develop a model of cognitive activities, and Phase III is to test the model. The feasibility study included an analysis of the cognitive activities that occur in emergency operations and an assessment of the modeling concepts/tools available to capture these cognitive activities. The results indicated that a symbolic processing (or artificial intelligence) model of cognitive activities in nuclear power plants is both desirable and feasible. This cognitive model can be built upon the computational framework provided by an existing artificial intelligence system for medical problem solving, called Caduceus. The resulting cognitive model will increase the capability to capture the human contribution to risk in probabilistic risk assessment studies. Volume 1 summarizes the major findings and conclusions of the study. Volume 2 provides a complete description of the methods and results, including a synthesis of the cognitive activities that occur during emergency operations, and a literature review on cognitive modeling relevant to nuclear power plants. 19 refs

  8. Results from In-pile experiments on LWR fuel rod behavior under LOCA conditions with unirradiated rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepold, L.; Karb, E.H.; Pruessmann, M.

    1981-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the FR2-in-pile tests at KfK (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe) with unirradiated test rods. The in-pile tests with the objective of investigating the influence of a nuclear environment on the mechanisms of fuel rod failure were being performed with irradiated and unirradiated single rods of a PWR design in the DK loop of the FR2 reactor. The main parameter of the test program was the burnup, ranging from 2.500 to 35.000 MWd/t. The program with unirradiated specimens comprised the series A and B with a total of 14 tests. (orig.) [de

  9. Analysing the Hydraulic Actuator-based Knee Unit Kinematics and Correlating the Numerical Results and Walking Human Knee Joint Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Trukhanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art machinery development enables people with lost lower limb to continue their previous life despite a loss. International companies dealing with this area pursue a minimization of human behaviour problems because of amputation. Researches to create an optimal design of the artificial knee joint are under way.The work task was to define analytical relationships of changing kinematic parameters of the human walking on the flat surface such as an angle of the knee joint, knee point (moment, definition of reduced knee actuator (A load, as well as to compare obtained results with experimental data.As an A in created design, the article proposes to use a controlled shock absorber based on the hydraulic cylinder.A knee unit is a kinematic two-tier mechanism. One of the mechanism links performs rotational motion, and the other is rotation-translational to provide a rotation of the first one.When studying the hydraulic actuator device dynamics, as a generalized coordinate a coordinate of the piston x (or ρ position is chosen while in the study of link movements an angle β is preferable.Experimental data are obtained for a human with the body weight of 57.6 kg walking on the flat surface to estimate a value of the knee joint angle, speed, acceleration, torque, and capacity in the knee joint and are taken from the published works of foreign authors.A trigonometric approximation was used for fitting the experimental data. The resulting dependence of the reduced load on the stock of A is necessary to perform the synthesis of A. The criterion for linear mechanisms mentioned in the D.N. Popov’s work is advisable to use as a possible criterion for optimization of A.The results obtained are as follows:1. Kinematics linkage mechanism is described using relationships for dependencies of its geometrical parameters, namely a cylinder piston stroke x (or ρ and a links angle β.2. Obtained polynomials of kinematic relationships allow a synthesis of

  10. A FOCAL GROUP STUDY OF PATIENT’S EXPERIENCES, PERCEPTIONS AND OPINIONS ABOUT NON-HEALTHY BEHAVIORS RESULTING IN LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "S. S. Tavafian

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic low back pain hold various perceptions, experiences and beliefs about their pain which are based on prior learning and social influence. This study was employed to earn perceptions and beliefs of patients regarding low back pain to apply in health education planning. Eight focus group discussions including 6-10 people taking part in each of them was performed. Subjects included volunteers who recruited from Rheumatology Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Science and met the criteria of being women, 18 years of age or older, having chronic low back pain diagnosed by physician and not having experience of surgical operation in last two years. Participants were interviewed regarding two themes: experiences of subjects about non-healthy behaviors resulted in low back pain and the causes of non-healthy behaviors. The results showed that the most common non healthy behavior was hard manual work with improper posture. About 50% of participants stated they had performed hard manual work because they did not have any knowledge about the effects and consequences of it. The rest of participants mentioned other factors such as lack of belief, positive attitude, skills and social support. This study proposes that in addition to knowledge, factors such as attitude, perceptions and beliefs of patients should be considered in health education planning.

  11. Long-term leaching behavior of simulated Savannah River Plant waste glass: Part 1, MCC-1 leachability results, four-year leaching data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Stone, J.A.; Chandler, G.T.; Williams, S.

    1986-08-01

    Long-term leaching data were obtained on SRP 131/TDS waste glass using MCC-1 or slightly modified MCC-1 standard leaching tests. Experiments were conducted out to four years at 40 0 C and 3-1/2 years at 90 0 C. These experiments have produced the longest standardized leaching data currently available in the waste management community. Long-term leaching data provide important input to modeling of waste glass behavior and ultimate prediction of waste glass performance. In this study, the leaching behavior of SRP waste glass was found to be excellent; leachates based on a variety of elements were not only very low, but also improved with increasing time. In addition to these data, results are also reported from another independent Savannah River study. Leaching behavior at 40 0 C and 90 0 C was assessed not only for a similar SRP 131 waste glass composition, but also for extreme waste glass compositions involving high-iron and high-aluminum waste. In addition, these experiments were performed using not only a standard deionized water leachant, but also simplified brine and silicate groundwater simulations. These two large data bases will be summarized and correlated along with some of the more interesting results recently reported in another study, a two-year leaching program performed on a similar SRP waste glass composition at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories

  12. "Straight Talk" for African-American heterosexual men: results of a single-arm behavioral intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Henny, Kirk; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Bond, Keosha T; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Greene, Emily; Koblin, Beryl A

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, heterosexual transmission is the second leading cause of HIV/AIDS, and two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 occurred among African-Americans. Few HIV prevention interventions have been designed specifically for African-American heterosexual men not seeking clinical treatment. Here we report results of a single-arm intervention trial of a theory-based HIV prevention intervention designed to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. We tested our hypothesis using McNemar discordant pairs exact test for binary variables and paired t-tests for continuous variables. We observed statistically significant declines in mean number of total and new female partners, unprotected sex partners, and partner concurrency in both primary and nonprimary sex partnerships between baseline and 3 months postintervention.

  13. Effects of substrate type and arsenic dosage level on arsenic behavior in grassland microcosms. Part I. Preliminary results on 74As transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draggan, S.

    1977-01-01

    Microcosm design is an important factor in interpreting results obtained from studies of the environmental effects, mobility and persistence of contaminants. The behavior of pentavalent arsenic and a radioarsenic tracer was studied in three substrate types exposed to differing levels of stable As dosage. Soil cores excised intact from a natural grassland ecosystem were considered to most reliably represent the natural system under study since they retained the soil structure, and closely simulated the abiotic and biotic complexity, of the grassland ecosystem. The behavior of 74 As in the components of intact soil core microcosms differed appreciably from that observed for the other microcosm types where soil underwent manipulation. These differences were explained primarily on the basis of differences in soil structure

  14. A Web-Based Data Collection Platform for Multisite Randomized Behavioral Intervention Trials: Development, Key Software Features, and Results of a User Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Riddhi A; Mugavero, Michael J; Amico, Rivet K; Keruly, Jeanne; Quinlivan, Evelyn Byrd; Crane, Heidi M; Guzman, Alfredo; Zinski, Anne; Montue, Solange; Roytburd, Katya; Church, Anna; Willig, James H

    2017-06-16

    Meticulous tracking of study data must begin early in the study recruitment phase and must account for regulatory compliance, minimize missing data, and provide high information integrity and/or reduction of errors. In behavioral intervention trials, participants typically complete several study procedures at different time points. Among HIV-infected patients, behavioral interventions can favorably affect health outcomes. In order to empower newly diagnosed HIV positive individuals to learn skills to enhance retention in HIV care, we developed the behavioral health intervention Integrating ENGagement and Adherence Goals upon Entry (iENGAGE) funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), where we deployed an in-clinic behavioral health intervention in 4 urban HIV outpatient clinics in the United States. To scale our intervention strategy homogenously across sites, we developed software that would function as a behavioral sciences research platform. This manuscript aimed to: (1) describe the design and implementation of a Web-based software application to facilitate deployment of a multisite behavioral science intervention; and (2) report on results of a survey to capture end-user perspectives of the impact of this platform on the conduct of a behavioral intervention trial. In order to support the implementation of the NIAID-funded trial iENGAGE, we developed software to deploy a 4-site behavioral intervention for new clinic patients with HIV/AIDS. We integrated the study coordinator into the informatics team to participate in the software development process. Here, we report the key software features and the results of the 25-item survey to evaluate user perspectives on research and intervention activities specific to the iENGAGE trial (N=13). The key features addressed are study enrollment, participant randomization, real-time data collection, facilitation of longitudinal workflow, reporting, and reusability. We found 100% user

  15. FEM effective suggestion of guitar construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Dániel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modal analysis of the whole guitar construction was performed. The results of eigenfrequencies were obtained. Stress in strings affects not only static loading of material, but also shift of eigenfrequencies. From obtained natural frequencies for solved spectrum such frequencies were used which coincides with assumed ribs new positions of ribs were suggested. Other ribs which do not carry out the mechanical function were removed. Also static reaction was evaluated and new position of ribs was adjusted. For final model new eigenfrequencies were computed and compared with previous ones. Significant changes were revealed in low frequencies (bellow 400 Hz where fewer amounts of natural shapes were obtained. Approximately 50% were lost by adding of ribs. For chosen frequencies of equal temperament the harmonic analysis was performed. The analysis proved ability of oscillation for frequencies far of natural frequencies. The final model satisfies the requirement of minimization of static stress in material due to strings and allows very effective oscillation of top the guitar resonance board. In comparison with literature good agreement in amplitude size of front board and amount of modes in appropriate frequencies were achieved. Suggested model even offers higher amount of natural shapes in comparison with literature, namely in high frequencies. From additional comparison of eigenfrequencies and natural shapes the influence of ribs position on natural shapes was approved.

  16. Dinosaur peptides suggest mechanisms of protein survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Antonio, James D; Schweitzer, Mary H; Jensen, Shane T; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P R O

    2011-01-01

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  17. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  18. Elastic wave scattering methods: assessments and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The author was asked by the meeting organizers to review and assess the developments over the past ten or so years in elastic wave scattering methods and to suggest areas of future research opportunities. He highlights the developments, focusing on what he feels were distinct steps forward in our theoretical understanding of how elastic waves interact with flaws. For references and illustrative figures, he decided to use as his principal source the proceedings of the various annual Reviews of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). These meetings have been the main forum not only for presenting results of theoretical research but also for demonstrating the relevance of the theoretical research for the design and interpretation of experiment. In his opinion a quantitative NDE is possible only if this relevance exists, and his major objective is to discuss and illustrate the degree to which relevance has developed

  19. Experimental Setup for Determining Ammonia-Salt Adsorption and Desorption Behavior Under Typical Heat Pump Conditions. Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Pal, M.; De Boer, R.; Veldhuis, J.B.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    For the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the performance of a salt-ammonia sorption reactor/heat exchanger a new test-rig was developed. This test-rig enables the measurement of the performance in adsorption and desorption mode of different sorption reactor designs. It measures the speed of uptake and release of ammonia gas of various salt-ammonia reactions under well-controlled and well-monitored process conditions, similar to the heat pump conditions. The test-rig measures the ammonia uptake and release under controlled pressure and temperature conditions. Temperatures of the salt reactor can be varied from ambient temperature up to 200{sup o}C and the ammonia pressure can be varied between 0.02 to 2 MPa. These conditions can be set independently and repeated at regular time-intervals. Besides NH3-mass-flow meters, pressure and temperature sensors, the setup also contains an endoscope to observe any macroscopic structural changes in the material during uptake and release of ammonia. Measurements so far have shown a liquid phase of LiCl.3NH3 at pressures of 0.5 MPa and temperatures exceeding 90{sup o}C. Voilent foaming is observed at 120{sup o}C resulting in salt losses. A correlation was determined between the reaction rate of MgCl{sub 2}(2-6)NH3 and the relative pressure gradient yielding a reaction time of about 1500 seconds for a relative pressure difference of 1. Multiple sorption cycles of the CaCl{sub 2}(2-4)NH3 reaction, showed a reduced activity from 85% of the theoretical maximum sorbed mass at the first sorption cycle, to 15% after 300+ cycles.

  20. First results for fluid dynamics, neutronics and fission product behavior in HTR applying the HTR code package (HCP) prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allelein, H.-J., E-mail: h.j.allelein@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Institute for Reactor Safety and Reactor Technology, RWTH Aachen University, 52064 Aachen (Germany); Kasselmann, S.; Xhonneux, A.; Tantillo, F.; Trabadela, A.; Lambertz, D. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    To simulate the different aspects of High Temperature Reactor (HTR) cores, a variety of specialized computer codes have been developed at Forschungszentrum Jülich (IEK-6) and Aachen University (LRST) in the last decades. In order to preserve knowledge, to overcome present limitations and to make these codes applicable to modern computer clusters, these individual programs are being integrated into a consistent code package. The so-called HTR code package (HCP) couples the related and recently applied physics models in a highly integrated manner and therefore allows to simulate phenomena with higher precision in space and time while at the same time applying state-of-the-art programming techniques and standards. This paper provides an overview of the status of the HCP and reports about first benchmark results for an HCP prototype which couples the fluid dynamics and time dependent neutronics code MGT-3D, the burn up code TNT and the fission product release code STACY. Due to the coupling of MGT-3D and TNT, a first step towards a new reactor operation and accident simulation code was made, where nuclide concentrations calculated by TNT lead to new cross sections, which are fed back into MGT-3D. Selected operation scenarios of the HTR-Module 200 concept plant and the HTTR were chosen to be simulated with the HCP prototype. The fission product release during normal operation conditions will be calculated with STACY based on a core status derived from SERPENT and MGT-3D. Comparisons will be shown against data generated by SERPENT and the legacy codes VSOP99/11, NAKURE and FRESCO-II.

  1. Computer-enhanced interventions for drug use and HIV risk in the emergency room: preliminary results on psychological precursors of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Erin E; Walton, Maureen A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Chermack, Stephen T; Bohnert, Amy S B; Barry, Kristen L; Booth, Brenda M; Blow, Frederic C

    2014-01-01

    This article describes process data from a randomized controlled trial among 781 adults recruited in the emergency department who reported recent drug use and were randomized to: intervener-delivered brief intervention (IBI) assisted by computer, computerized BI (CBI), or enhanced usual care (EUC). Analyses examined differences between baseline and post-intervention on psychological constructs theoretically related to changes in drug use and HIV risk: importance, readiness, intention, help-seeking, and confidence. Compared to EUC, participants receiving the IBI significantly increased in confidence and intentions; CBI patients increased importance, readiness, confidence, and help-seeking. Both groups increased relative to the EUC in likelihood of condom use with regular partners. Examining BI components suggested that benefits of change and tools for change were associated with changes in psychological constructs. Delivering BIs targeting drug use and HIV risk using computers appears promising for implementation in healthcare settings. This trial is ongoing and future work will report behavioral outcomes. © 2013.

  2. Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.

    1971-01-01

    The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

  3. Cognitive Behavioral Social Rhythm Group Therapy for Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and sleep disturbance: Results from an open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Patricia L; Kelly, Monica; Warner, Lesley; Quan, Stuart F; Krakow, Barry; Bootzin, Richard R

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Social Rhythm Therapy (CBSRT) is a group psychotherapy tailored for Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and sleep disturbances. The aims of this study were to introduce and present initial outcomes of Cognitive Behavioral Social Rhythm Therapy (CBSRT), a 12-week skills group therapy designed to improve sleep and mood by reducing chaotic or isolated lifestyles in Veterans with PTSD. Twenty-four male Veterans with at least moderate PTSD and MDD participated in this open trial. Main outcomes were the daily sleep diary for sleep disturbances, the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) for PTSD, and the Hamilton Depression Rating scale for MDD. Veterans improved on all measures (a) with large within subject effects on PTSD symptoms, MDD symptoms, and sleep quality, and (b) with 46-58% of the sample receiving clinically significant benefits on MDD and PTSD symptoms respectively. The consistency of social rhythms was associated with the average reduction in global CAPS scores over time. Only 13% of participants dropped-out of the group therapy prematurely suggesting that this new group therapy is relatively well-tolerated by Veterans. Future research that employs a control condition is necessary to establish efficacy of CBSRT. Data from this initial pilot study demonstrate that CBSRT may be an effective group treatment option for Veterans presenting with all three symptom complaints. These data also suggest that daily routine may be an important mechanism to consider in the treatment of PTSD symptoms comorbid with depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidentiality and Suggestibility: A New Research Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cagla; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that acquisition of mental-state language may influence conceptual development. We examine this possibility by investigating the conceptual links between evidentiality in language and suggestibility. Young children are disproportionately suggestible and tend to change their reports or memories when questioned. The authors…

  5. Differences in gorilla nettle-feeding between captivity and the wild: local traditions, species typical behaviors or merely the result of nutritional deficiencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Shelly

    2011-11-01

    Behavioral and cognitive studies on captive apes often pay little attention to the specific environmental conditions of their study subjects. A recent report form Byrne et al. (Anim Cogn doi: 10.1007/s10071-011-0403-8, 2011), comparing nettle-feeding techniques between captive and wild gorillas, claimed to document "the strongest evidence yet to come from any great ape that observational learning of a skilled conspecific" can allow social learning and culture in gorillas. An earlier study with similar findings placed emphasis instead on the many similarities and claims for species typical behavior, thus a genetic hypothesis instead of a cultural hypothesis. This commentary aims at formulating a third environmental hypothesis based on path-dependent behavioral differences owing to different diet and availability of nutritional resources of wild and captive gorillas. Captive diet provides gorillas with a much lower concentration of fibers. Gorillas are hindgut fermenters, and this deficit of natural fermentation of fibers may impact their health and their behavior in zoos. Results of Byrne et al.'s study will be discussed comparing feeding choice and availability of nutritional resources of wild and captive gorillas, showing that in captivity gorilla, motivation to consume certain food or certain plant parts may differ drastically from that of wild gorillas. This view does not intend to deny that social learning and culture may exist in gorillas, but to guide and encourage future works investigating social learning in great apes to take more accurately into account the living conditions and, when comparing populations, the possible environmental differences. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  6. Reduction in 2-year recurrent risk score and improved behavioral outcomes after participation in the "Beating Heart Problems" self-management program: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Barbara M; Worcester, Marian U C; Higgins, Rosemary O; Elliott, Peter C; Le Grande, Michael R; Mitchell, Fiona; Navaratnam, Hema; Turner, Alyna; Grigg, Leeanne; Tatoulis, James; Goble, Alan J

    2013-01-01

    While behavior change can improve risk factor profiles and prognosis after an acute cardiac event, patients need assistance to achieve sustained lifestyle changes. We developed the "Beating Heart Problems" cognitive-behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing program to support patients to develop behavioral and cognitive self-management skills. We report the results of a randomized controlled trial of the program. Patients (n = 275) consecutively admitted to 2 Melbourne hospitals after acute myocardial infarction (32%), coronary artery bypass graft surgery (40%), or percutaneous coronary intervention (28%) were randomized to treatment (T; n = 139) or control (C; n = 136). T group patients were invited to participate in the 8-week group-based program. Patients underwent risk factor screening 6 weeks after hospital discharge (before randomization) and again 4 and 12 months later. At both the followups, T and C groups were compared on 2-year risk of a recurrent cardiac event and key behavioral outcomes, using both intention-to-treat and "completers only" analyses. Patients ranged in age from 32 to 75 years (mean = 59.0 years; SD - 9.1 years). Most patients (86%) were men. Compared with the C group patients, T group patients tended toward greater reduction in 2-year risk, at both the 4- and 12-month followups. Significant benefits in dietary fat intake and functional capacity were also evident. The "Beating Heart Problems" program showed modest but important benefit over usual care at 4 and, to a lesser extent, 12 months. Modifications to the program such as the inclusion of booster sessions and translation to online delivery are likely to improve outcomes.

  7. Examining the Effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes: Results from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Mitchell, Mary M.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a universal, schoolwide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 9,000 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. SWPBIS aims to alter school…

  8. The Effect of Memory Trace Strength on Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdek, Kathy; Roe, Chantal

    1995-01-01

    Examined the conditions under which children's memory is resistant to suggestibility versus vulnerable to suggestibility. Results suggest that children have more accurate memory for an event that occurred to them frequently, and that they are less vulnerable to suggestive influences such as biased interviewing procedures than they would be for an…

  9. Estimation of Source Term Behaviors in SBO Sequence in a Typical 1000MWth PWR and Comparison with Other Source Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Han, Seok Jung; Ahn, Kwang Il; Fynan, Douglas; Jung, Yong Hoon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Since the Three Mile Island (TMI) (1979), Chernobyl (1986), Fukushima Daiichi (2011) accidents, the assessment of radiological source term effects on the environment has been a key concern of nuclear safety. In the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the long-term SBO (station blackout) accident occurs. Using the worst case assumptions like in Fukushima accident on the accident sequences and on the availability of safety systems, the thermal hydraulic behaviors, core relocation and environmental source terms behaviors are estimated for long-term SBO accident for OPR-1000 reactor. MELCOR code version 1.8.6 is used in this analysis. Source term results estimated in this study is compared with other previous studies and estimated results in Fukushima accidents in UNSCEAR-2013 report. This study estimated that 11 % of iodine can be released to environment and 2% of cesium can be released to environment. UNSCEAR-2013 report estimated that 2 - 8 % of iodine have been released to environment and 1 - 3 % of cesium have been released to the environment. They have similar results in the aspect of release fractions of iodine and cesium to environment.

  10. Suggestions for an updated fusion power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1976-02-01

    This document contains suggestions for a revised CTR Program strategy which should allow us to achieve equivalent goals while operating within the above constraints. The revised program is designed around three major facilities. The first is an upgrading of the present TFTR facility which will provide a demonstration of the generation of tens of megawatts electric equivalent originally envisioned for the 1985 EPR. The second device is the TTAP which will allow the integration and optimization of the plasma physics results obtained from the next generation of plasma physics experiments. The improvement in tokamak reactor operation resulting from this optimization of fusion plasma performance will enable an EPR to be designed which will produce several hundred megawatts of electric power by 1990. This will move the fusion program much closer to its goal of commercial fusion power by the turn of the century. In addition to this function the TTAP will serve as a prototype of the 1990 EPR system, thus making more certain the successful operation of this device. The third element of this revised program is an intense radiation damage facility which will provide the radiation damage information necessary for the EPR and subsequent fusion reactor facilities. The sum total of experience gained from reacting plasma experiments on TFTR, reactor grade plasma optimization and technological prototyping on TTAP, and end of life radiation damage results from the intense neutron facility will solve all of the presently foreseen problems associated with a tokamak fusion power reactor except those associated with the external nuclear systems. These external system problems such as tritium breeding and optimal power recovery can be developed in parallel on the 1990 EPR

  11. Some Suggestions for Teaching Ethics in Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsch, Martin

    2007-01-01

    No one can doubt nowadays that ethics in business is an important issue. Recent corporate scandals involving corporations such as Enron, WorldCom, and Freddie Mac, to name just a few, have exposed highly questionable business practices and criminal behavior. In this paper, the author would like to distinguish between illegal practices and legal,…

  12. Effects of stereotypes and suggestion on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory, Mally; Nachson, Israel; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the interactive effect of stereotype and suggestion on accuracy of memory was examined by presenting 645 participants (native Israelis and immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia) with three versions of a story about a worker who is waiting in a manager's office for a meeting. All versions were identical except for the worker's name, which implied a Russian or an Ethiopian immigrant or a person of no ethnic origin. Each participant was presented with one version of the story. After an hour delay, the participants' memories were tested via two questionnaires that differed in terms of level of suggestion. Data analyses show that (a) when a suggestion matched the participant's stereotypical perception, the suggestion was incorporated into memory but (b) when the suggestion contradicted the stereotype, it did not influence memory. The conclusion was that recall is influenced by stereotypes but can be enhanced by compatible suggestions.

  13. Behavioural Decision Making and Suggestional Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Molz, Günter

    2001-01-01

    Common features between the domains of behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are discussed. These features are allocated in two aspects. First, behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are traditionally considered to provoke inadequate human behaviour. In this article arguments are put forward against this interpretation: Actions induced by non-rational decisions and / or by suggestional processes often have adaptive functions. Second, two common themat...

  14. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  15. Personality Styles and Suggestibility: A Differential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R.; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between personality styles measured with the Portuguese adaptation of the Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised – MIPS-R and interrogative suggestibility assessed by the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale – GSS1. Hypotheses predicted individual differences in suggestibility and that these differences correspond to differences in individuals’ personality styles. The study was conducted with a sample of 258 individuals (M age ...

  16. Maxillectomy defects: a suggested classification scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinmoladun, V I; Dosumu, O O; Olusanya, A A; Ikusika, O F

    2013-06-01

    The term "maxillectomy" has been used to describe a variety of surgical procedures for a spectrum of diseases involving a diverse anatomical site. Hence, classifications of maxillectomy defects have often made communication difficult. This article highlights this problem, emphasises the need for a uniform system of classification and suggests a classification system which is simple and comprehensive. Articles related to this subject, especially those with specified classifications of maxillary surgical defects were sourced from the internet through Google, Scopus and PubMed using the search terms maxillectomy defects classification. A manual search through available literature was also done. The review of the materials revealed many classifications and modifications of classifications from the descriptive, reconstructive and prosthodontic perspectives. No globally acceptable classification exists among practitioners involved in the management of diseases in the mid-facial region. There were over 14 classifications of maxillary defects found in the English literature. Attempts made to address the inadequacies of previous classifications have tended to result in cumbersome and relatively complex classifications. A single classification that is based on both surgical and prosthetic considerations is most desirable and is hereby proposed.

  17. Quantitative histological models suggest endothermy in plesiosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna V. Fleischle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Plesiosaurs are marine reptiles that arose in the Late Triassic and survived to the Late Cretaceous. They have a unique and uniform bauplan and are known for their very long neck and hydrofoil-like flippers. Plesiosaurs are among the most successful vertebrate clades in Earth’s history. Based on bone mass decrease and cosmopolitan distribution, both of which affect lifestyle, indications of parental care, and oxygen isotope analyses, evidence for endothermy in plesiosaurs has accumulated. Recent bone histological investigations also provide evidence of fast growth and elevated metabolic rates. However, quantitative estimations of metabolic rates and bone growth rates in plesiosaurs have not been attempted before. Methods Phylogenetic eigenvector maps is a method for estimating trait values from a predictor variable while taking into account phylogenetic relationships. As predictor variable, this study employs vascular density, measured in bone histological sections of fossil eosauropterygians and extant comparative taxa. We quantified vascular density as primary osteon density, thus, the proportion of vascular area (including lamellar infillings of primary osteons to total bone area. Our response variables are bone growth rate (expressed as local bone apposition rate and resting metabolic rate (RMR. Results Our models reveal bone growth rates and RMRs for plesiosaurs that are in the range of birds, suggesting that plesiosaurs were endotherm. Even for basal eosauropterygians we estimate values in the range of mammals or higher. Discussion Our models are influenced by the availability of comparative data, which are lacking for large marine amniotes, potentially skewing our results. However, our statistically robust inference of fast growth and fast metabolism is in accordance with other evidence for plesiosaurian endothermy. Endothermy may explain the success of plesiosaurs consisting in their survival of the end-Triassic extinction

  18. Health-related factors correlate with behavior trends in physical activity level in old age: longitudinal results from a population in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Manoel CSA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity in leisure time is common among elderly in Brazil and this finding is particularly alarming considering that this population is greatly affected by chronic diseases. The identification of health factors that influence physical activity level (PAL will help in the development of strategies for increasing PAL older adults. The current research aimed to identify variables that independently affect behavior trends in PAL over the course of two years among elderly. Methods A survey entitled the Epidoso Project ("Epidemiology of aging" studied 1,667 community-based older individuals in São Paulo city, Brazil over the course of two years. Physical activity level was determined through questions about frequency and duration of physical activities. Body Mass Index was calculated; functional capacity was assessed through the ADL (activities of daily living scale; cognition was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination; and mental health was assessed through the Dysthymia Screening. Experiences of falls and fractures were also assessed. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their self-report of Physical Activity Level: a - Regularly Active; b - Insufficiently Active and c - Physically Inactive. Behavior trends in PAL were also measured after two years. Multivariate regression model methodology was used to test associations longitudinally. Results Results from the final model demonstrated that the risk of a not favorable behavior trend in PAL, which included the group who remained physically inactive and the group that displayed decreased PAL, in this cohort of older adults was significantly increased if the individual was female (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.60-3.89; P , older (80 y vs. 65 y, OR = 6.29, 95% CI = 2.69-14.67; P , dependent on help from others for activities in the ADL scale (moderate-severe = 4-7+ vs. 0 ADLs (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.20-4.21; P or had experienced a history of falls with

  19. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Monika

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES. Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; p. More 8th graders consumed breakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; p. A dose–response relationship was observed such that overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents who consumed breakfast daily (14.6% was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2% or never (22.9% consumed breakfast (p. This relationship was statistically significant for boys (15.4 % vs. 16.5% vs. 26.0; p but not for girls. Intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables was 5.5 (95% CI 2.4-12.5, 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 and 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.5 times higher among those who consumed breakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image satisfaction; and positive

  20. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  1. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  2. Perceived Discrimination, Psychological Distress, and Current Smoking Status: Results From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race Module, 2004–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppone, Luke J.; Alcaraz, Kassandra; McQueen, Amy; Guido, Joseph J.; Carroll, Jennifer K.; Shacham, Enbal; Morrow, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between perceived discrimination and smoking status and whether psychological distress mediated this relationship in a large, multiethnic sample. Methods. We used 2004 through 2008 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module to conduct multivariate logistic regression analyses and tests of mediation examining associations between perceived discrimination in health care and workplace settings, psychological distress, and current smoking status. Results. Regardless of race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination was associated with increased odds of current smoking. Psychological distress was also a significant mediator of the discrimination–smoking association. Conclusions. Our results indicate that individuals who report discriminatory treatment in multiple domains may be more likely to smoke, in part, because of the psychological distress associated with such treatment. PMID:22420821

  3. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on open-field behavior in rats: application of randomized fostering technique and mapping results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, T.

    1986-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given X-irradiation (150 R) on Day 17 of gestation. After birth, all male pups were pooled once and then assigned randomly to irradiated mothers and control mothers. Offspring were administered an open-field test at about 7 weeks of age. The analysis was performed on the basis of two approaches: In the per subject approach, individual subject data (aggregation across Day 2 through Day 4) were treated as the basic unit of statistical analysis. In the per litter approach, double aggregation (aggregation across Day 2 through Day 4 for each subject and aggregation across subjects within each litter) was used. The per subject approach was slightly more sensitive as to the treatment effect, but it induced a reduction in the magnitude of eta squared. A principal component analysis was performed using eta squared together with those of several reference groups. Results were plotted on a map constructed from component scores. The characteristics of behavior in X-irradiated rats were very similar to those of the earlier stage of trials in terms of the location on the map. The postnatal maternal effect on open-field behavior was not serious and was adequately negligible in practice. A new fostering procedure was proposed and its advantages discussed

  4. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-01-01

    Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence ...

  5. Health status, health conditions, and health behaviors among Amish women. Results from the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study (CePAWHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kirk; Yost, Berwood; Flaherty, Sean; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Chase, Gary A; Weisman, Carol S; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2007-01-01

    We performed one of the first systematic, population-based surveys of women in Amish culture. We used these data to examine health status and health risks in a representative sample of 288 Amish women ages 18-45 living in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in particular for risks associated with preterm and low birthweight infants, compared with a general population sample of 2,002 women in Central Pennsylvania. Compared with women in the general population, Amish women rated their physical health approximately at the same level, but reported less stress, fewer symptoms of depression, and had higher aggregate scores for mental health. Amish women reported low levels of intimate partner violence, high levels of social support, and they perceived low levels of unfair treatment owing to gender compared with the general population. Amish women also reported higher fertility, fewer low birthweight babies, but the same number of preterm births as the general population. The findings suggest that these outcomes may be due to higher levels of social support and better preconceptional behavior among Amish women.

  6. APPROACH AND TREATMENT OF SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR IN THE CLINICAL PRACTICE OF DIFFERENT GROUPS OF HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN SPAIN: RESULTS OF THE PROJECT EUREGENA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Muñoz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the WHO (World Health Organization and the European Union, suicide is considered to be a health problem of prime importance and to be one of the principal causes of unnatural death. In Spain, the number of suicides has increased 12% since 2005 . The Research Project “European Regions Enforcing Actions against Suicide (EUREGENAS, funded by the Health Program 2008-2013, has as main objective the description of an integrated model of Mental Health orientated to the prevention of suicide. The differences that allow distinguishing the meaning of prevention in suicide behavior are described and explained through a qualitative methodological strategy and through the creation of discussion groups formed by different groups of health professionals. The results highlight the existing differences between the diverse health professionals who come more in contact with this problem and it shows as well the coincidence of meaning that suicide has to be considered as a priority in the field of health.

  7. Perceived discrimination, psychological distress, and current smoking status: results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Jason Q; Peppone, Luke J; Alcaraz, Kassandra; McQueen, Amy; Guido, Joseph J; Carroll, Jennifer K; Shacham, Enbal; Morrow, Gary R

    2012-05-01

    We examined the association between perceived discrimination and smoking status and whether psychological distress mediated this relationship in a large, multiethnic sample. We used 2004 through 2008 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module to conduct multivariate logistic regression analyses and tests of mediation examining associations between perceived discrimination in health care and workplace settings, psychological distress, and current smoking status. Regardless of race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination was associated with increased odds of current smoking. Psychological distress was also a significant mediator of the discrimination-smoking association. Our results indicate that individuals who report discriminatory treatment in multiple domains may be more likely to smoke, in part, because of the psychological distress associated with such treatment.

  8. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...... and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  10. Rosemary tea consumption results to anxiolytic- and anti-depressant-like behavior of adult male mice and inhibits all cerebral area and liver cholinesterase activity; phytochemical investigation and in silico studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Katsikoudi, Antigoni; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Kellici, Tahsin F; Iatrou, Grigoris; Lamari, Fotini N; Tzakos, Andreas G; Margarity, Marigoula

    2015-07-25

    Our aim was to investigate the possible effects of regular drinking of Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf infusion on behavior and on AChE activity of mice. Rosemary tea (2% w/w) phytochemical profile was investigated through LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n). Adult male mice were randomly divided into two groups: "Rosemary-treated" that received orally the rosemary tea for 4weeks and "control" that received drinking water. The effects of regular drinking of rosemary tea on behavioral parameters were assessed by passive avoidance, elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests. Moreover, its effects on cerebral and liver cholinesterase (ChE) isoforms activity were examined colorimetricaly. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of diterpenes, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives in rosemary tea; the major compounds were quantitatively determined. Its consumption rigorously affected anxiety/fear and depression-like behavior of mice, though memory/learning was unaffected. ChE isoforms activity was significantly decreased in brain and liver of "rosemary treated" mice. In order to explain the tissue ChE inhibition, principal component analysis, pharmacophore alignment and molecular docking were used to explore a possible relationship between main identified compounds of rosemary tea, i.e. rosmarinic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, caffeic acid and known AChE inhibitors. Results revealed potential common pharmacophores of the phenolic components with the inhibitors. Our findings suggest that rosemary tea administration exerts anxiolytic and antidepressant effects on mice and inhibits ChE activity; its main phytochemicals may function in a similar way as inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  12. Seven Salutary Suggestions for Counselor Stamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Cynthia J.

    2004-01-01

    Counselor stamina is deemed essential in the midst of a consistently challenging, complex, and changing mental health care environment. Rather than perpetuating conversations about "burnout" and "burnout prevention," this article provides a salutary or health-promoting perspective. Seven suggestions for counselor stamina are presented and…

  13. Interrogative Suggestibility in an Adolescent Forensic Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-five juvenile offenders in residential care completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and their scores were matched for IQ and memory with those of 60 adult offenders. The juveniles gave in significantly more to interrogative pressure through negative feedback but were no more yielding to leading questions than adults. (JPS)

  14. Evidence Suggesting Absence of Mitochondrial DNA Methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechta, Mie; Ingerslev, Lars R; Fabre, Odile

    2017-01-01

    , 16S, ND5 and CYTB, suggesting that mtDNA supercoiled structure blocks the access to bisulfite conversion. Here, we identified an artifact of mtDNA bisulfite sequencing that can lead to an overestimation of mtDNA methylation levels. Our study supports that cytosine methylation is virtually absent...

  15. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...

  16. Do astrophysical measurements suggest massive neutrinos?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, H.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the solar neutrino puzzle and suggest modification in the standard solar model. It has been observed that the discrepancy between experimental measurements and theoretically produced values can be removed by considering neutrinos to process non-zero mass. (author)

  17. The role of tag suggestions in folksonomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, D.G.F.M.; Halpin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Most tagging systems support the user in the tag selection process by providing tag suggestions, or recommendations, based on a popularity measurement of tags other users provided when tagging the same resource. The majority of theories and mathematical models of tagging found in the literature

  18. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  19. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  20. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  1. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  2. The association between patient-reported self-management behavior, intermediate clinical outcomes, and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the KORA-A study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxy, Michael; Mielck, Andreas; Hunger, Matthias; Schunk, Michaela; Meisinger, Christa; Rückert, Ina-Maria; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Holle, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the impact of diabetes self-management behavior (SMB) on long-term outcomes. We aimed to examine the association among patient-reported SMB, intermediate clinical outcomes, and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Data were collected from 340 patients with type 2 diabetes of the KORA-A study (1997/1998) who were recruited from two previous population-based surveys (n = 161) and a myocardial infarction registry (n = 179) in southern Germany. Based on previous methodological work, a high level of SMB was defined as being compliant with at least four of six different self-care dimensions, comprising physical exercise, foot care, blood glucose self-monitoring, weight monitoring, having a diet plan, and keeping a diabetes diary. The vital status of the participants was observed until 2009. Multivariable linear, logistic, and Cox regression models were applied to assess the association with intermediate clinical outcomes at baseline and to predict mortality over the follow-up period, adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioral, and disease-related factors. In the cross-sectional perspective, a high level of SMB was weakly associated with a lower glycated hemoglobin A1c level (-0.44% [-4.8 mmol/mol] [95% CI -0.88 to 0.00]), but not with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, or the presence of microalbuminuria, peripheral arterial disease, or polyneuropathy. During a mean follow-up time of 11.6 years, 189 patients died. SMB was a preventive factor for all-cause (hazard ratio 0.61 [95% CI 0.40-0.91]) and cardiovascular mortality (0.65 [95% CI 0.41-1.03]). Although measuring SMB is difficult and the used operationalization might be limited, our results give some indication that a high level of SMB is associated with prolonged life expectancy in patients with type 2 diabetes and highlight the potential impact of the patients' active contribution on the long-term trajectory of the disease. We assume that the used proxy for SMB

  3. Perceptions about the cause of schizophrenia and the subsequent help seeking behavior in a Pakistani population – results of a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf Wajeeha

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a cultural variability around the perception of what causes the syndrome of schizophrenia. Generally patients with schizophrenia are considered dangerous. They are isolated and treatment is delayed. Studies have shown favorable prognosis with good family and social support, early diagnosis and management. Duration of untreated psychosis is a bad prognostic indicator. We aimed to determine the perceptions regarding the etiology of schizophrenia and the subsequent help seeking behavior. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 404 people at the out patient departments of Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi. Data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Questions were related to a vignette of a young man displaying schizophrenic behavior. Data was analyzed on SPSS v 14. Results The mean age of the participants was 31.4 years (range = 18–72 and 77% of them were males. The majorities were graduates (61.9% and employed (50%. Only 30% of the participants attributed 'mental illness' as the main cause of psychotic symptoms while a large number thought of 'God's will' (32.3%, 'superstitious ideas' (33.1%, 'loneliness' (24.8% and 'unemployment' (19.3% as the main cause. Mental illness as the single most important cause was reported by only 22%. As far as management is concerned, only 40% reported psychiatric consultation to be the single most important management step. Other responses included spiritual healing (19.5% and Sociachanges (10.6 while 14.8% of respondents said that they would do nothing. Gender, age, family system and education level were significantly associated with the beliefs about the cause of schizophrenia (p Conclusion Despite majority of the study population being well educated, only a few recognized schizophrenia as a mental illness and many held superstitious beliefs. A vast majority of Pakistanis have non-biomedical beliefs about the cause of schizophrenia. Their

  4. “The Internet is a Mask”: High School Students' Suggestions for Preventing Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Leandra N.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Interactions through technology have an important impact on today's youth. While some of these interactions are positive, there are concerns regarding students engaging in negative interactions like cyberbullying behaviors and the negative impact these behaviors have on others. The purpose of the current study was to explore participant suggestions for both students and adults for preventing cyberbullying incidents. Methods: Forty high school students participated in individual, semi-structured interviews. Participant experiences and perceptions were coded using constant comparative methods to illustrate ways in which students and adults may prevent cyberbullying from occurring within their school and community. Results: Students reported that peers would benefit from increasing online security, as well as becoming more aware of their cyber-surroundings. Regarding adult-provided prevention services, participants often discussed that there is little adults can do to reduce cyberbullying. Reasons included the difficulties in restricting online behaviors or providing effective consequences. However, some students did discuss the use of in-school curricula while suggesting that adults blame people rather than technology as potential ways to prevent cyberbullying. Conclusion: Findings from the current study indicate some potential ways to improve adult efforts to prevent cyberbullying. These strategies include parent/teacher training in technology and cyberbullying, interventions focused more on student behavior than technology restriction, and helping students increase their online safety and awareness. PMID:25157306

  5. Is a video-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia as efficacious as a professionally administered treatment in breast cancer? Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Josée; Ivers, Hans; Savard, Marie-Hélène; Morin, Charles M

    2014-08-01

    To assess the short-term efficacy of a video-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) as compared to a professionally administered CBT-I and to a no-treatment group. Randomized controlled trial. Radio-oncology department of a public hospital affiliated with Université Laval (CHU de Québec). Two hundred forty-two women with breast cancer who had received radiation therapy in the past 18 mo and who had insomnia symptoms or were using hypnotic medications were randomized to: (1) professionally administered CBT-I (PCBT-I; n = 81); (2) video-based CBT-I (VCBT-I; n = 80); and (3) no treatment (CTL; n = 81). PCBT-I composed of six weekly, individual sessions of approximately 50 min; VCBT-I composed of a 60-min animated video + six booklets. Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) total score and sleep parameters derived from a daily sleep diary and actigraphy, collected at pretreatment and posttreatment. PCBT-I and VCBT-I were associated with significantly greater sleep improvements, assessed subjectively, as compared to CTL. However, relative to VCBT-I, PCBT-I was associated with significantly greater improvements of insomnia severity, early morning awakenings, depression, fatigue, and dysfunctional beliefs about sleep. The remission rates of insomnia (ISI insomnia (CBT-I) using a video format appears to be a valuable treatment option, but face-to-face sessions remain the optimal format for administering CBT-I efficaciously in patients with breast cancer. Self-help interventions for insomnia may constitute an appropriate entry level as part of a stepped care model. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00674830. Savard J, Ivers H, Savard MH, Morin CM. Is a video-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia as efficacious as a professionally administered treatment in breast cancer? Results of a randomized controlled trial.

  6. Attitudes and behaviors of Japanese physicians concerning withholding and withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment for end-of-life patients: results from an Internet survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bito Seiji

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence concerning how Japanese physicians think and behave in specific clinical situations that involve withholding or withdrawal of medical interventions for end-of-life or frail elderly patients is yet insufficient. Methods To analyze decisions and actions concerning the withholding/withdrawal of life-support care by Japanese physicians, we conducted cross-sectional web-based internet survey presenting three scenarios involving an elderly comatose patient following a severe stroke. Volunteer physicians were recruited for the survey through mailing lists and medical journals. The respondents answered questions concerning attitudes and behaviors regarding decision-making for the withholding/withdrawal of life-support care, namely, the initiation/withdrawal of tube feeding and respirator attachment. Results Of the 304 responses analyzed, a majority felt that tube feeding should be initiated in these scenarios. Only 18% felt that a respirator should be attached when the patient had severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. Over half the respondents felt that tube feeding should not be withdrawn when the coma extended beyond 6 months. Only 11% responded that they actually withdrew tube feeding. Half the respondents perceived tube feeding in such a patient as a "life-sustaining treatment," whereas the other half disagreed. Physicians seeking clinical ethics consultation supported the withdrawal of tube feeding (OR, 6.4; 95% CI, 2.5–16.3; P Conclusion Physicians tend to harbor greater negative attitudes toward the withdrawal of life-support care than its withholding. On the other hand, they favor withholding invasive life-sustaining treatments such as the attachment of a respirator over less invasive and long-term treatments such as tube feeding. Discrepancies were demonstrated between attitudes and actual behaviors. Physicians may need systematic support for appropriate decision-making for end-of-life care.

  7. Using Culturally Sensitive Media Messages to Reduce HIV-associated Sexual Behavior in High-risk African-American Adolescents: Results from a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClemente, Ralph; Farber, Naomi; Romer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To test the long-term effects of a mass media intervention that used culturally and developmentally appropriate messages to enhance HIV-preventive beliefs and behavior of high-risk African-American adolescents. Methods Television and radio messages were delivered over three years in two cities (Syracuse, NY and Macon, GA) that were randomly selected within each of two regionally matched city pairs with the other cities (Providence, RI and Columbia, SC) serving as controls. African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 (N = 1710), recruited in the four cities over a 16-month period, completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at recruitment and again at 3, 6, 12 and 18-months post-recruitment to assess the long-term effects of the media program. To identify the unique effects of the media intervention, youth who completed at least one follow-up and who did not test positive for any of three sexually transmitted infections at recruitment or at 6 and 12-month follow-up were retained for analysis (N=1346). Results The media intervention reached virtually all of the adolescents in the trial and produced a range of effects including improved normative condom-use negotiation expectancies and increased sex refusal self-efficacy. Most importantly, older adolescents (ages 16-17) exposed to the media program exhibited a less risky age trajectory of unprotected sex than those in the non-media cities. Conclusions Culturally tailored mass media messages delivered consistently over time have the potential to reach a large audience of high-risk adolescents, to support changes in HIV-preventive beliefs, and to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors among older youth. PMID:21856515

  8. The Epidemiology of Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes in Adulthood: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Saha, Tulshi D.; Smith, Sharon M.; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Pickering, Roger P.; Ruan, W. June; Huang, Boji; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present current, nationally representative U.S. findings on prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, disability and treatment of DSM-5 antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and syndromal adult antisocial behavior without conduct disorder before age 15 (AABS). Method Face-to-face interviews with respondents (n=36,309) in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III. DSM-5 alcohol, nicotine, specific drug use disorders, and selected mood, anxiety, trauma-related, eating, and personality disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule–5. Results Prevalences of ASPD and AABS were 4.3% and 20.3%, highest among male, white, Native American, younger, and unmarried respondents, those with high school or less education, lower incomes, and Western residence. Both antisocial syndromes were significantly associated with 12-month and lifetime substance use, dysthymia/persistent depressive, bipolar I, posttraumatic stress and borderline and schizotypal personality disorders (ORs=1.2-7.0). ASPD was additionally associated with 12-month agoraphobia and lifetime generalized anxiety disorder; AABS, with 12-month and lifetime major depressive and 12-month generalized anxiety disorders. Both were associated with significant disability (pantisocial respondents were untreated. Conclusions One in 4 U.S. adults exhibits syndromal antisocial behavior, with similar sociodemographic and psychiatric correlates and disability regardless of whether onset occurred before age 15, illustrating the clinical and public health significance of both ASPD and AABS. In addition to laying groundwork for estimates of social and economic costs, and further etiologic and nosologic research, these findings highlight the urgency of effectively preventing and treating antisocial syndromes, including investigation of whether treatment for comorbidity hastens symptomatic remission and improves

  9. Effects of Counselor Facilitative Level on Client Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Harry B.; Rowe, Wayne

    1977-01-01

    University students (N=48) were individually tested for suggestibility in one of three conditions. Results indicated subjects of higher rated experimenters would demonstrate more suggestibility than subjects of lower rated experimenters. Results did not indicate that subject interaction with lower rated experimenters would elicit less…

  10. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Rashed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed. Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  11. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, M. G.; Moklof, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed). Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  12. Application for Suggesting Restaurants Using Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Alexandra IANCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an application whose purpose is to make suggestions of restaurants to users. The application uses as input the descriptions of restaurants, reviews, user reviews available on the specialized Internet sites and blogs. In the application there are used processing techniques of natural language implemented using parsers, clustering algorithms and techniques for data collection from the Internet through web crawlers.

  13. Moving Forward: Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…

  14. Dietary Mercury Exposure Resulted in Behavioral Differences in Mice Contaminated with Fish-Associated Methylmercury Compared to Methylmercury Chloride Added to Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Bourdineaud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a potent neurotoxin, and humans are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. However, in classical toxicological studies, pure methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl is injected, given to drink or incorporated within feed assuming that its effects are identical to those of MeHg naturally associated to fish. In the present study, we wanted to address the question whether a diet containing MeHg associated to fish could result in observable adverse effects in mice as compared to a diet containing the same concentration of MeHg added pure to the diet and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of fish-associated mercury, if any. After two months of feeding, the fish-containing diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and MeHg-containing diets, encompassing altered behavioral performances as monitored in a Y-shaped maze and an open field, and an increased dopamine metabolic turnover in hippocampus, despite the fact that the fish-containing diet was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium compared to the fish-devoid diets.

  15. The Vote of the Mexican Immigrants. An Analysis of the Results of the 2006 Presidential Election, to the light of political behavior theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgt. Octavio Adolfo Pérez Preciado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2 of July of the 2006, the Mexican residents abroad could for the first time voted in a presidential election. According to the results given by the electoral federal institute (IFE, Felipe Calderon, candidate by the National Action Party (PAN of right oriented, was the one that obtained the majority of these suffrages, followed by Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, candidate of the “alliance for the good of the people,” of leftist orientation. These was the most competitive election ever take place in Mexico. In the essay, electoral results of this election are analyzed to the light of different theories about the voting behavior of the emigrants. We concludes the vote of the Mexicans abroad reproduces and reflects so much the way in which the emigrants in their native place vote, as well as the political and cultural influence that exerts the conduct of the voter the political and electoral system of the new country of residence.

  16. Telephone based cognitive behavioral therapy targeting major depression among urban dwelling, low income people living with HIV/AIDS: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelhoch, Seth; Medoff, Deborah; Maxfield, Jennifer; Dihmes, Sarah; Dixon, Lisa; Robinson, Charles; Potts, Wendy; Mohr, David C

    2013-10-01

    This pilot randomized controlled trial evaluated a previously developed manualized telephone based cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) intervention compared to face-to-face (f2f) therapy among low-income, urban dwelling HIV infected depressed individuals. The primary outcome was the reduction of depressive symptoms as measured by the Hamliton rating scale for depression scale. The secondary outcome was adherence to HAART as measured by random telephone based pill counts. Outcome measures were collected by trained research assistants masked to treatment allocation. Analysis was based on intention-to-treat. Thirty-four participants met eligibility criteria and were randomly assigned to receive T-CBT (n = 16) or f2f (n = 18). There was no statistically significant difference in depression treatment outcomes comparing f2f to T-CBT. Within group evaluation demonstrated that both the T-CBT and the f2f psychotherapy groups resulted in significant reductions in depressive symptoms. Those who received the T-CBT were significantly more likely to maintain their adherence to antiretroviral medication compared to the f2f treatment. None of the participants discontinued treatment due to adverse events. T-CBT can be delivered to low-income, urban dwelling HIV infected depressed individuals resulting in significant reductions in depression symptoms and improved adherence to antiretroviral medication. Clinical Trial.gov identifier: NCT01055158.

  17. Associations among health literacy, diabetes knowledge, and self-management behavior in adults with diabetes: results of a Dutch cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, I. van der; Uiters, E.; Rademakers, J.; Struijs, J.N.; Schuit, A.J.; Baan, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have examined the association between health literacy and self-management behavior, but few have explored ways through which this occurs. The present study examines to what extent health literacy is associated with diabetes self-management behavior and to what extent diabetes

  18. Associations among health literacy, diabetes knowledge, and self-management behavior in adults with diabetes: results of a dutch cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, I.; Uiters, E.; Rademakers, J.; Struijs, J.N.; Schuit, A.J.; Baan, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have examined the association between health literacy and self-management behavior, but few have explored ways through which this occurs. The present study examines to what extent health literacy is associated with diabetes self-management behavior and to what extent diabetes

  19. Associations among health literacy, diabetes knowledge, and self-management behavior in adults with diabetes : Results of a dutch cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Iris; Uiters, Ellen; Rademakers, Jany; Struijs, Jeroen N; Schuit, A.J.; Baan, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have examined the association between health literacy and self-management behavior, but few have explored ways through which this occurs. The present study examines to what extent health literacy is associated with diabetes self-management behavior and to what extent diabetes

  20. New dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1972-01-01

    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year.

  1. Do experiments suggest a hierarchy problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1997-09-01

    The hierarchy problem of the scalar sector of the standard model is reformulated, emphasizing the role of experimental facts that may suggest the existence of a new physics large mass scale, for instance indications of the instability of the matter, or indications in favor of massive neutrinos. In the see-saw model for the neutrino masses a hierarchy problem arises if the mass of the right-handed neutrinos is larger than approximatively 10 7 GeV: this problem, and its possible solutions, are discussed. (author)

  2. Responding to hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions: performance standards, imaginative suggestibility, and response expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric C; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the relative impact of hypnotic inductions and several other variables on hypnotic and nonhypnotic responsiveness to imaginative suggestions. The authors examined how imaginative suggestibility, response expectancies, motivation to respond to suggestions, and hypnotist-induced performance standards affected participants' responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions and their suggestion-related experiences. Suggestions were administered to 5 groups of participants using a test-retest design: (a) stringent performance standards; (b) lenient performance standards; (c) hypnosis test-retest; (d) no-hypnosis test-retest; and (e) no-hypnosis/hypnosis control. The authors found no support for the influence of a hypnotic induction or performance standards on responding to suggestions but found considerable support for the role of imaginative suggestibility and response expectancies in predicting responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions.

  3. The effect of posthypnotic suggestion, hypnotic suggestibility, and goal intentions on adherence to medical instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Claudia; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving; Meo, Maria; Santandrea, Maura

    2008-04-01

    The effects of implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion were investigated in 2 studies. In Experiment 1, participants with high levels of hypnotic suggestibility were instructed to take placebo pills as part of an investigation of how to best enhance compliance with medical instruction. In Experiment 2, participants with high, medium, and low levels of hypnotic suggestibility were asked to run in place, take their pulse rate before, and send an e-mail report to the experimenter each day. Experiment 1 revealed enhanced adherence as a function of both implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion. Experiment 2 failed to find any significant main effects but found a significant interaction between suggestibility and the effects of posthypnotic suggestion. Posthypnotic suggestion enhanced adherence among high suggestible participants but lowered it among low suggestibles.

  4. [Early diagnosis of HIV in Primary Care in Spain. Results of a pilot study based on targeted screening based on indicator conditions, behavioral criteria and region of origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, Cristina; Martín-Rabadán, María; Zarco, José; Aguado, Cristina; Carrillo, Ricard; Codinachs, Roger; Carmona, Jose Manuel; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of HIV infection in patients diagnosed with an indicator condition (IC) for HIV and/or risk behavior for their acquisition and/or coming from high prevalence countries. To determine the acceptability and feasibility of offering HIV testing based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria in Primary Care (PC). Cross-sectional study in a convenience sample. Six PC centers in Spain. The inclusion criteria were: patients between 16 and 65years old who presented at least one of the proposed ICs and/or at least one of the proposed behavioral and/or origin criteria. A total of 388 patients participated. HIV serology was offered to all patients who met the inclusion criteria. Description of IC frequency, behavioral and origin criteria. Prevalence of HIV infection. Level of acceptability and feasibility of the HIV screening based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria. A total of 174 patients had an IC (44.84%). The most common behavioral criterion was: having unprotected sex at some time in life with people who did not know their HIV status (298; 76.8%). Four HIV+ patients (1.03%) were diagnosed. All had an IC and were men who had sex with men. The level of acceptability in PC was high. Offering HIV testing to patients with IC and behavioral criteria is feasible and effective in PC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Leisure-Time Physical Activity Does not Attenuate the Association Between Occupational Sedentary Behavior and Obesity: Results From Alberta's Tomorrow Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Joshua A; Lo Siou, Geraldine; Lynch, Brigid M; Robson, Paula J; Friedenreich, Christine M; Csizmadi, Ilona

    2015-12-01

    Sedentary behavior has been proposed as a risk factor for obesity that is distinct from physical inactivity. This study aimed to examine the association between occupational sedentary behavior and obesity, and to determine if this association is independent of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Fully employed participants enrolled between 2001 and 2008 to Alberta's Tomorrow Project, a prospective cohort study in Alberta, Canada, were studied (n = 12,409). Associations between occupational sedentary behavior and waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) were examined using multiple binary and multinomial logistic regressions. In men, a positive association was observed between daily occupational sedentary hours and WC, WHR, BMI, and with high risk profiles that incorporated both BMI and WC (P < .01). Controlling for vigorous-intensity LTPA in all models strengthened associations between sedentary behavior and measures of obesity. In contrast, inverse associations were observed for occupational sedentary hours and WHR for women (P < .05). In fully employed men, occupational sedentary behavior was positively associated with obesity risk that was not attenuated by physical activity. In women, an increase in obesity risk was not observed with sedentary behavior. Gender differences in the health effects of sedentary behavior require further study.

  6. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  7. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo

    1992-01-01

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  8. Behavior of a VVER fuel element tested under severe accident conditions in the CORA facility. Test results of experiment CORA-W1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, S.; Hofmann, P.; Noack, V.; Schanz, G.; Schumacher, G.; Sepold, L.

    1994-01-01

    Test bundle CORA-W1 was without absorber material. As in the earlier CORA tests the test bundles were subjected to temperature transients of a slow heatup rate in a steam environment. The transient phases of the test were initiated with a temperature ramp rate of 1 K/s. With these conditions a so-called small-break LOCA was simulated. The temperature escalation due to the exothermal zirconium/niobium-steam reaction started at about 1200 C, leading the bundle to a maximum temperature of approximately 1900 C. With the movement of the melt also heat is transported to the lower region. Below 300 mm elevation the test bundle remained intact due to the axial temeprature distribution. W2 ist characterized by a strong oxidation above 300 mm elevation. Besides the severe oxidation the test bundle resulted in considerable fuel dissolution by ZrNb1/UO 2 interaction in the upper part, complete spacer destruction at 600 mm due to chemical interactions between steel and the ZSrNb1 cladding. Despite some specific features the material behavior of the VVER-1000 bundle is comparable to that observed in the PWR and BWR test using fuel elements typical for Western countries. (orig./HP) [de

  9. [Prevalence of risk health behavior among members of private health insurance plans: results from the 2008 national telephone survey Vigitel, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Oliveira, Martha Regina de; Moura, Erly Catarina de; Silva, Sara Araújo; Zouain, Cláudia Soares; Santos, Fausto Pereira Dos; Morais Neto, Otaliba Libanio de; Penna, Gerson de Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    This article aims at estimating the prevalence of adults engaging in protective and risk health behaviors among members of private health insurance plans. It was used a random sample of individuals over the age of 18 living in the Brazilian state capitals collected on 28,640 telephone interviews in 2008. The results showed that among males there was a high prevalence of the following risk factors: tobacco, overweight, low fruit and vegetable consumption, high meat with fat consumption and alcohol drinking. Among females we found a high prevalence of high blood pressure, diabetes, dyslipidemia and osteoporosis. Men were generally more physically active and women consumed more fruit and vegetables. As more educated males were lower was the prevalence of tobacco, high blood pressure, but also a higher prevalence of overweight, consumption of meat with fat, dyslipidemia and lower number of yearly check-ups done. For females, tobacco smoking, overweight, obesity, decreasing with schooling, and consumption of fruit and vegetables, physical activity, mammography and PAP test, increased with schooling. The health insurance user population constitutes about 26% of Brazilian people and the current study aims to accumulate evidence for health promotion actions by this public.

  10. The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS: results of a baseline biological and behavioral HIV surveillance survey in two MSM communities in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lane

    Full Text Available The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS is the assessment of the Project Boithato HIV prevention intervention for South African MSM. Boithato aims to increase consistent condom use, regular testing for HIV-negative MSM, and linkage to care for HIV-positive MSM. The MPMS baseline examined HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviors, and testing, care, and treatment behaviors among MSM in Gert Sibande and Ehlanzeni districts in Mpumalanga province, South Africa in order to effectively target intervention activities. We recruited 307 MSM in Gert Sibande and 298 in Ehlanzeni through respondent-driven sampling (RDS between September 2012-March 2013. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence estimates are 28.3% (95% CI 21.1%-35.3% in Gert Sibande, and 13.7% (95% CI 9.1%-19.6% in Ehlanzeni. Prevalence is significantly higher among MSM over age 25 [57.8% (95% CI 43.1%-72.9% vs. 17.9% (95% CI 10.6%-23.9%, P<0.001 in Gert Sibande; 34.5% (95%CI 20.5%-56.0% vs. 9.1% (95% CI 4.6%-13.9%, P<0.001 in Ehlanzeni]. In Gert Sibande, prevalence is higher among self-identified gay and transgender MSM vs. other MSM [39.3% (95%CI, 28.3%-47.9%, P<0.01], inconsistent condom users [38.1% (18.1%-64.2%, P<0.05], those with a current regular male partner [35.0% (27.1%-46.4%, P<0.05], and those with lifetime experience of intimate partner violence with men [40.4%, (95%CI 28.9%-50.9%, P<0.05]. Prevalence of previous HIV testing was 65.8% (95%CI 58.8%-74.0% in Gert Sibande, and 69.3% (95%CI 61.9%-76.8% in Ehlanzeni. Regular HIV testing was uncommon [(34.6%, (95%CI 27.9%-41.4% in Gert Sibande; 31.0% (95%CI 24.9%-37.8% in Ehlanzeni]. Among HIV-positive participants, few knew their status (28.1% in Gert Sibande and 14.5% in Ehlanzeni, or were appropriately linked to care (18.2% and 11.3%, respectively, or taking antiretroviral therapy (13.6% and 9.6% respectively. MPMS results demonstrate the importance of implementing interventions for MSM to increase consistent condom use, regular HIV testing, and

  11. Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict resolution in the Stroop Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama

    Full Text Available Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a "brain wave" machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion's contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion.

  12. Foraminal syringomyelia: suggestion for a grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versari, P P; D'Aliberti, G; Talamonti, G; Collice, M

    1993-01-01

    The standard treatment of foraminal syringomyelia includes foramen magnum decompression and duraplasty. Improvement or stabilization of the disease are achieved in most of cases. However, at least one third of patients are reported to receive little or no benefit. In this paper we retrospectively reviewed a series of 40 consecutive foramen magnum decompressions in order to identify the possible pre-operative outcome predictors. Based on clinical evolution, neurological impairment and radiological features, a scale of severity was fixed and retrospectively tested. A pre-operative score was obtained for each patient and was correlated with the surgical results. Then a four level grading system was derived. All grade I and grade II patients achieved good results (improvement or stabilization), whereas grade III patients showed intermediate behaviour and grade IV invariably worsened. On this basis, surgical results of foramen magnum decompression might be further improved provided that a careful pre-operative selection is made.

  13. Suggestion for a natural gas development policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    First, this work presents some aspects concerning the reserves and the future of natural gas consumption in Brazil. Then, from the results of a case-study about the implementation of a natural gas distribution company in Fortaleza (Ceara), we analyse under which conditions the business of natural gas distribution is economically interesting (subject of the M.Sc. thesis developed by the author). In possession of this results, the author proposes directions for a Natural Gas Policy in Brazil, approaching also aspects of Tariffs Policy. (author)

  14. Faecal analysis suggests generalist diets in three species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overlap in other arthropod taxa ingested was low across species and seasons, suggesting an opportunistic component to their foraging behaviour. We distinguished plant matter in faecal samples of all species in all seasons, reflecting either voluntary or accidental ingestion. The results of this study suggest that the ...

  15. Suggestion on Information Sharing for AP implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hye Won; Kim, Min Su; Koh, Byung Marn [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Under the Additional Protocol, States should provide the IAEA with expanded declarations of activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle and other nuclear activities, and with expanded access to the relevant information and sites to allow the IAEA to verify the completeness of these declarations. The AP to the Safeguards Agreement (the Additional Protocol) was signed on June 21{sup st}, 1999 and entered into force on February 19{sup th}, 2004. ROK submitted initial declarations in August 2004. Since then, ROK has been submitting annual updated reports of initial declaration on every May 15{sup th}. To achieve successful implementation, it is necessary to collect the information for each individual article in Article 2 of the AP and verify the declared information provided by facility operators. Therefore, the cooperation among the ministries and offices concerned is a prerequisite for successful implementation of AP. Unfortunately, the formal procedure for inter-organizational information sharing and cooperation is not established. This paper will briefly outline the AP declarations and suggest the information sharing among the ministries, offices and organizations for effective and efficient implementation of AP. The State authority has responsibility for AP implementation and it should verify correctness and completeness of the information declared by facility operators before submitting the declarations. The close cooperation and information sharing among the ministries, offices and organizations are indispensable to effective and efficient implementation of AP.

  16. The Impact of a Cognitive Behavioral Pain Management Program on Sleep in Patients with Chronic Pain: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Catherine; Cunningham, Jennifer; Power, Camillus K; Horan, Sheila; Spencer, Orla; Fullen, Brona M

    2016-02-01

    To determine the impact of a cognitive behavioral pain management program on sleep in patients with chronic pain. Prospective nonrandomized controlled pilot study with evaluations at baseline and 12 weeks. Out-patient multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral pain management program in a university teaching hospital. Patients with chronic pain who fulfilled the criteria for participation in a cognitive behavioral pain management program. Patients assigned to the intervention group (n = 24) completed a 4 week cognitive behavioral pain management program, and were compared with a waiting list control group (n = 22). Assessments for both groups occurred at baseline and two months post cognitive behavioral pain management program. Outcome measures included self-report (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objective (actigraphy) sleep measures, pain and quality of life measures. Both groups were comparable at baseline, and all had sleep disturbance. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index correlated with only two of the seven objective sleep measures (fragmentation index r = 0.34, P = 0.02, and sleep efficiency percentage r = -0.31, P = 0.04). There was a large treatment effect for cognitive behavioral pain management program group in mean number of wake bouts (d = 0.76), where a significant group*time interaction was also found (P = 0.016), showing that the CBT-PMP group improved significantly more than controls in this sleep variable. Patients attending a cognitive behavioral pain management program have high prevalence of sleep disturbance, and actigraphy technology was well tolerated by the patients. Preliminary analysis of the impact of a cognitive behavioral pain management program on sleep is promising, and warrants further investigation.

  17. Exploring associations between perceived home and work neighborhood environments, diet behaviors, and obesity: Results from a survey of employed adults in Missouri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Tabak, PhD, RD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary behaviors are associated with obesity, and may be influenced by the environment. The objective of the current work was to investigate whether perceptions of built environment factors related to eating in the residential neighborhood will have different, independent associations with BMI and dietary behaviors than perceived built environment factors in the worksite neighborhood. In 2012–2013, a cross-sectional telephone-survey of Missouri adults (n = 2015 assessed perceptions of home and workplace built environment factors related to eating, dietary behaviors, and height and weight. Logistic regression models explored associations between perceived neighborhood built environment variables, diet, and obesity. The only variable associated with any of the outcomes explored in the fully adjusted models was the home neighborhood composite scale. None of the work environment variables were significantly associated with any of the health/behavior outcomes after adjustment. Few associations were found after adjustment for personal and job-related characteristics, and none were identified with the workplace neighborhood environment. While few home environment associations were found after adjustment, and none were identified with the perceived workplace neighborhood environment, the current study adds to the limited literature looking at associations between the perceived neighborhood around the workplace neighborhood and the perceived neighborhood around the home and dietary behaviors and obesity in adults. Future studies are needed to determine whether relationships between these environments and behavior exist, and if so, if they are causal and warrant intervention attempts.

  18. Different mechanisms of risperidone result in improved interpersonal trust, social engagement and cooperative behavior in patients with schizophrenia compared to trifluoperazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wai Shing; Wong, Ann Siu Wah; Chan, Fu; Pang, Alfred Hin Tat; Bond, Alyson Jane; Chan, Chau Kiu Raymond

    2016-05-01

    Atypical antipsychotic treatment (e.g. risperidone) has been found to improve social functioning more than standard antipsychotic treatment. However, it is unclear which specific social behaviors are implicated in this improvement. The current study employed an interactive puzzle game to examine how social behaviors contribute to the improvement of social functioning by comparing patients receiving risperidone with those receiving trifluoperazine. Scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, executive functioning, and social functioning were obtained from 24 patients with schizophrenia receiving either risperidone (n = 12) or trifluoperazine (n = 12), before their social behavior was measured in the interactive Tangrams Game. Immediately after the Tangrams Game, participants filled in two questionnaires measuring their interpersonal trust and rejection toward their game partner. Patients receiving risperidone showed more social engagement, cooperative behavior and interpersonal trust toward their game partners than those receiving trifluoperazine. Additional multivariate analysis of variance revealed that lower affiliative behavior was a function of positive symptoms; interpersonal trust had an impact on social engagement but executive functioning did not explain lower interpersonal trust or social disengagement. Improvement of social competence by risperidone might be related to the enhancement of both social behaviors and interpersonal trust as well as better symptom resolution. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  19. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Suggesting a new European language policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter H

    2004-01-01

    Conflict is the most intriguing aspect of contact linguistics. Throughout history ever since the Tower of Babel was left unfinished, contacts between speakers of different languages have unavoidably resulted in conflicts between speakers of those languages. Without any doubt, the European Union (EU)--above all after the decision to enlarge the community--has accepted the multidisciplinary symbolic function of language and culture as a basis for European political unification. Accordingly, European Union policy makers have had to analyze conflicts caused by monolingualism and multilingualism, all aspects of contact linguistics. Can these conflicts be solved, minimized or neutralized by strategies of language planning, language policies and language politics? Initial results of European language policy strategies permit at least a cautious measure of optimism and open broad perspectives for the future of a New Multilingualism which will be discussed in our contribution.

  1. Suggesting a New European Language Policy

    OpenAIRE

    H. Nelde, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Conflict is the most intriguing aspect of contact linguistics. Throughout history ever since the Tower of Bable was left unfinished, contacts between speakers of different languages have unavoidably resulted in conflicts between speakers of those languages. Without any doubt, the European Union (EU) – above all after the decision to enlarge the community – has accepted the multidisciplinary symbolic function of language and culture as a basis for European political unification....

  2. Suggestion of Islamic Insurance Company Model

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Ibrahim Nazal

    2015-01-01

    This study is one of very few studies which have investigated Islamic Insurance Companies as solution. It explained its operations also comparing with Traditional Insurance Companies and theoretical Islamic insurance models. As result to this study Islamic Insurance companies are profit organization. It helps Islamic banks but it costs customer to face expect risk. Islamic Insurance companies have many ways to get profits and consider all customers installments grants. Its operation gap comes...

  3. Dissociative tendencies and individual differences in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Cardeña, Etzel; Lindgren, Magnus

    2011-03-01

    Inconsistencies in the relationship between dissociation and hypnosis may result from heterogeneity among highly suggestible individuals, in particular the existence of distinct highly suggestible subtypes that are of relevance to models of psychopathology and the consequences of trauma. This study contrasted highly suggestible subtypes high or low in dissociation on measures of hypnotic responding, cognitive functioning, and psychopathology. Twenty-one low suggestible (LS), 19 low dissociative highly suggestible (LDHS), and 11 high dissociative highly suggestible (HDHS) participants were administered hypnotic suggestibility scales and completed measures of free recall, working memory capacity, imagery, fantasy-proneness, psychopathology, and exposure to stressful life events. HDHS participants were more responsive to positive and negative hallucination suggestions and experienced greater involuntariness during hypnotic responding. They also exhibited impaired working memory capacity, elevated pathological fantasy and dissociative symptomatology, and a greater incidence of exposure to stressful life events. In contrast, LDHS participants displayed superior object visual imagery. These results provide further evidence for two highly suggestible subtypes: a dissociative subtype characterised by deficits in executive functioning and a predisposition to psychopathology, and a subtype that exhibits superior imagery and no observable deficits in functioning.

  4. Automated Behavioral Text Messaging and Face-to-Face Intervention for Parents of Overweight or Obese Preschool Children: Results From a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Lisa; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Hekler, Eric B; Small, Leigh; Jacobson, Diana

    2016-03-14

    Children are 5 times more likely to be overweight at the age of 12 years if they are overweight during the preschool period. The purpose of this study was to establish the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effects of a cognitive behavioral intervention (TEXT2COPE) synergized with tailored mobile technology (mHealth) on the healthy lifestyle behaviors of parents of overweight and obese preschoolers delivered in a primary care setting. Fifteen preschooler-parent dyads recruited through primary care clinics completed a manualized 7-week cognitive behavioral skills building intervention. Beck's Cognitive Theory guided the TEXT2COPE intervention content and Fogg's Behavior Model guided the implementation. The intervention employed a combination of face-to-face clinic visits and ecological momentary interventions using text messaging (short message service, SMS). To enhance the intervention's relevance to the family's needs, parents dictated the wording of the text messages and also were able to adapt the frequency and timing of delivery throughout program implementation. Self-reported findings indicate that the program is feasible and acceptable in this population. The intervention showed preliminary effects with significant improvements on parental knowledge about nutrition (P=.001) and physical activity (P=.012) for their children, parental beliefs (P=.001) toward healthy lifestyles, and parental behaviors (P=.040) toward engaging in healthy lifestyle choices for their children. Effect sizes were medium to large for all variables. The timing, frequency, and wording of the text messages were tailored to the individual families, with 69% of parents (9/13) increasing the frequency of the tailored SMS from being sent once weekly to as many as 5 times a week. Utilizing a cognitive behavioral skills intervention with SMS has great potential for supporting clinical care of overweight and obese preschool children and their families. Further exploration of the

  5. Metacognition of agency is reduced in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin B; Hedman, Love R A

    2017-11-01

    A disruption in the sense of agency is the primary phenomenological feature of response to hypnotic suggestions but its cognitive basis remains elusive. Here we tested the proposal that distorted volition during response to suggestions arises from poor metacognition pertaining to the sources of one's control. Highly suggestible and control participants completed a motor task in which performance was reduced through surreptitious manipulations of cursor lag and stimuli speed. Highly suggestible participants did not differ from controls in performance or metacognition of performance, but their sense of agency was less sensitive to cursor lag manipulations, suggesting reduced awareness that their control was being manipulated. These results indicate that highly suggestible individuals have aberrant metacognition of agency and may be a valuable population for studying distortions in the sense of agency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of suggestibility in determinations of Miranda abilities: a study of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Richard; Harrison, Kimberly S; Rogstad, Jill E; LaFortune, Kathryn A; Hazelwood, Lisa L

    2010-02-01

    Traditionally, high levels of suggestibility have been widely assumed to be linked with diminished Miranda abilities, especially in relationship to the voluntariness of waivers. The current investigation examined suggestibility on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales in a multisite study of pretrial defendants. One important finding was the inapplicability of British norms to American jurisdictions. Moreover, suggestibility appeared unrelated to Miranda comprehension, reasoning, and detainees' perceptions of police coercion. In testing rival hypotheses, defendants with high compliance had significantly lower Miranda comprehension and ability to reason about exercising Miranda rights than their counterparts with low compliance. Implications of these findings to forensic practice are examined.

  7. Does the duration and time of sleep increase the risk of allergic rhinitis? Results of the 6-year nationwide Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeoung A Kwon

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis (AR is the most common chronic disorder in the pediatric population. Although several studies have investigated the correlation between AR and sleep-related issues, the association between the duration and time of sleep and AR has not been analyzed in long-term national data. This study investigated the relationship between sleep time and duration and AR risk in middle- and high-school students (adolescents aged 12-18. We analyzed national data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2007-2012. The sample size was 274,480, with an average response rate of 96.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between sleep and AR risk. Furthermore, to determine the best-fitted model among independent variables such as sleep duration, sleep time, and the combination of sleep duration and sleep time, we used Akaike Information Criteria (AIC to compare models. A total of 43,337 boys and 41,665 girls reported a diagnosis of AR at baseline. The odds ratio increased with age and with higher education and economic status of the parents. Further, students in mid-sized and large cities had stronger relationships to AR than those in small cities. In both genders, AR was associated with depression and suicidal ideation. In the analysis of sleep duration and sleep time, the odds ratio increased in both genders when sleep duration was <7 hours, and when the time of sleep was later than 24:00 hours. Our results indicate an association between sleep time and duration and AR. This study is the first to focus on the relationship between sleep duration and time and AR in national survey data collected over 6 years.

  8. Does the duration and time of sleep increase the risk of allergic rhinitis? Results of the 6-year nationwide Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeoung A; Lee, Minjee; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic disorder in the pediatric population. Although several studies have investigated the correlation between AR and sleep-related issues, the association between the duration and time of sleep and AR has not been analyzed in long-term national data. This study investigated the relationship between sleep time and duration and AR risk in middle- and high-school students (adolescents aged 12-18). We analyzed national data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2007-2012. The sample size was 274,480, with an average response rate of 96.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between sleep and AR risk. Furthermore, to determine the best-fitted model among independent variables such as sleep duration, sleep time, and the combination of sleep duration and sleep time, we used Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to compare models. A total of 43,337 boys and 41,665 girls reported a diagnosis of AR at baseline. The odds ratio increased with age and with higher education and economic status of the parents. Further, students in mid-sized and large cities had stronger relationships to AR than those in small cities. In both genders, AR was associated with depression and suicidal ideation. In the analysis of sleep duration and sleep time, the odds ratio increased in both genders when sleep duration was sleep was later than 24:00 hours. Our results indicate an association between sleep time and duration and AR. This study is the first to focus on the relationship between sleep duration and time and AR in national survey data collected over 6 years.

  9. An in-situ field ion microscope study of irradiated tungsten and tungsten alloys. II. The recovery behavior in Stages I and II: experimental results. Report No. 2347

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.L.; Seidman, D.N.

    1974-12-01

    The low temperature FIM isochronal annealing spectrum of four different purity levels of tungsten (resistivity ratios R of 5 . 10 4 , 1.5 . 10 4 , 50 and 15), irradiated in-situ with 30 keV W + ions to a dose of 5 . 10 12 ion cm -2 at 18 K, consisted of distinct recovery peaks at approximately 38, 50, 65 and 80 K with a small amount of recovery observed up to 120 K. The spectra were essentially identical between 18 and 120 K, but a fifth group of W specimens with approximately equal to 5 began to exhibit some deviations from the standard spectrum. This result indicates that the distribution of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) produced by the ion irradiations in the W FIM tips was such that the SIA-SIA reaction dominated the recovery behavior. The isochronal peak width at half-maximum for the 38 K long-range SIA migration peak and the Stage II peaks in pure W were shown to be approximately equal to the value predicted by a diffusion model. The isochronal recovery spectra for W--0.5 at. per cent and 3 at. per cent Re alloys were radically different from the isochronal recovery spectra of pure W. For both W--Re alloys, the amount of recovery for the long-range migration peak was suppressed, and, for the 3 at. per cent Re alloy, it was almost eliminated. High-purity W (R = 5 . 10 4 ), doped with 50-100 appm carbon, showed a 20 per cent reduction in the amount of recovery observed for the long-range migration peak at 38 K. (U.S.)

  10. The impact of hypnotic suggestibility in clinical care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H; Schnur, Julie B; David, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility has been described as a powerful predictor of outcomes associated with hypnotic interventions. However, there have been no systematic approaches to quantifying this effect across the literature. This meta-analysis evaluates the magnitude of the effect of hypnotic suggestibility on hypnotic outcomes in clinical settings. PsycINFO and PubMed were searched from their inception through July 2009. Thirty-four effects from 10 studies and 283 participants are reported. Results revealed a statistically significant overall effect size in the small to medium range (r = .24; 95% Confidence Interval = -0.28 to 0.75), indicating that greater hypnotic suggestibility led to greater effects of hypnosis interventions. Hypnotic suggestibility accounted for 6% of the variance in outcomes. Smaller sample size studies, use of the SHCS, and pediatric samples tended to result in larger effect sizes. The authors question the usefulness of assessing hypnotic suggestibility in clinical contexts.

  11. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai

    2016-09-09

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate suggestions individually and return the top-k best of them. However, the top-k suggestions have high redundancy with respect to the topics. To provide informative suggestions, the returned k suggestions are expected to be diverse, i.e., maximizing the relevance to the user query and the diversity with respect to topics that the user might be interested in simultaneously. In this paper, an objective function considering both factors is defined for evaluating a suggestion set. We show that maximizing the objective function is a submodular function maximization problem subject to n matroid constraints, which is an NP-hard problem. An greedy approximate algorithm with an approximation ratio O((Formula presented.)) is also proposed. Experimental results show that our suggestion outperforms other methods on providing relevant and diverse suggestions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  12. E-cigarette Use, Cigarette Smoking, Dual Use, and Problem Behaviors Among U.S. Adolescents: Results From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T; Veliz, Phil; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-08-01

    There is a need to obtain greater clarity regarding adolescents' e-cigarette use and the associations of use with a wider range of risk behaviors. This study examines the associations among past-month e-cigarette use only, traditional cigarette smoking only, dual use (i.e., concurrent e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking), school-related (i.e., truancy and poor academic performance) risk behaviors, and substance-related (i.e., alcohol use, binge drinking, marijuana use, illicit drug use, and nonmedical prescription drug use) risk behaviors. Data were collected via self-administered questionnaires from a nationally representative sample of 8,696 high school seniors. An estimated 9.9% of U.S. high school seniors reported past-month e-cigarette use only, 6.0% reported past-month cigarette smoking only, and 7.3% reported past-month dual use. School- and substance-related risk behaviors had strong associations with past-month e-cigarette use. Adolescents who only used e-cigarettes had significantly greater odds of all school- and substance-related risk behaviors relative to nonusers. Dual users had significantly greater odds of frequent/daily e-cigarette use as well as all school- and substance-related risk behaviors relative to those who only used e-cigarettes. Finally, adolescents who engaged in frequent/daily e-cigarette use had significantly greater odds of binge drinking, marijuana use, other illicit drug use and nonmedical prescription drug use, relative to experimental e-cigarette users. E-cigarette use is common among U.S. adolescents, and there are robust associations between e-cigarette use and school- and substance-related risk behaviors. There is evidence that e-cigarette use clusters with risk behaviors and appears to represent a problem behavior, especially dual use of e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Are Dysphoric Individuals More Suggestible or Less Suggestible Than Nondysphoric Individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, Wendy L.; Morris, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    Dysphoric individuals are shown to be susceptible to interrogative suggestion, whether in the form of leading questions or interrogative pressure. The association of a clinically relevant condition of dysphoria (depression) with relatively high levels of suggestibility was investigated in a college student population (N=139). Applicability to…

  14. Suggestibility under Pressure: Theory of Mind, Executive Function, and Suggestibility in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Aryn C.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old, completed a 4-phase study in which they experienced a live event and received a pressured, suggestive interview about the event a week later. Children were also administered batteries of theory of mind and executive function tasks, as well as the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which…

  15. Hypnotism as a Function of Trance State Effects, Expectancy, and Suggestibility: An Italian Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, Ronald J; Baglio, Francesca; Cabinio, Monia; Lipari, Susanna; Baglio, Gisella; Mendozzi, Laura; Cecconi, Pietro; Pugnetti, Luigi; Sciaky, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Previous research using stepwise regression analyses found self-reported hypnotic depth (srHD) to be a function of suggestibility, trance state effects, and expectancy. This study sought to replicate and expand that research using a general state measure of hypnotic responsivity, the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory: Hypnotic Assessment Procedure (PCI-HAP). Ninety-five participants completed an Italian translation of the PCI-HAP, with srHD scores predicted from the PCI-HAP assessment items. The regression analysis replicated the previous research results. Additionally, stepwise regression analyses were able to predict the srHD score equally well using only the PCI dimension scores. These results not only replicated prior research but suggest how this methodology to assess hypnotic responsivity, when combined with more traditional neurophysiological and cognitive-behavioral methodologies, may allow for a more comprehensive understanding of that enigma called hypnosis.

  16. Help-seeking behavior among Japanese school students who self-harm: results from a self-report survey of 18,104 adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furukawa TA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Norio Watanabe,1,* Atsushi Nishida,2,* Shinji Shimodera,3 Ken Inoue,4 Norihito Oshima,5 Tsukasa Sasaki,6 Shimpei Inoue,3 Tatsuo Akechi,1 Toshi A Furukawa,7 Yuji Okazaki81Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, 2Department of Schizophrenia Research, Tokyo Institute of Psychiatry, Tokyo, 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kochi Medical School, Kochi, 4Department Public Health, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi, 5Office for Mental Health Support, Division for Counseling and Support, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 6Health Service Center, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 7Department of Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, 8Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital, Tokyo, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with poor help-seeking among adolescents who self-harm and to explore the resources used for help.Methods: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted in 47 junior and 30 senior high schools in Japan. Adolescent self-harm was defined as an adolescent who had harmed himself or herself in the previous year, as in previous studies reported in Western countries. Poor help-seeking was defined as not consulting anyone despite reporting current psychological or somatic complaints. Information about sociodemographic and psychological factors possibly associated with help-seeking, such as suicidal thoughts, depression, anxiety, and psychotic-like experiences, was also collected. Regression analyses were performed to examine associated factors.Results: A total of 18,104 students (8620 aged 12–15 years, 9484 aged 15–18 years, accounting for 93% of all students in the relevant student classes, participated in the study. Two hundred and

  17. Association of sleep habits with behavior problems and resilience of 6- to 7-year-old children: results from the A-CHILD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Satomi; Fujiwara, Takeo; Ochi, Manami; Isumi, Aya; Kato, Tsuguhiko

    2018-05-01

    Childhood sleep habits are associated with mental health development; however, little is known about the impact of irregular bedtimes on the mental health of early school-aged children. The aims of this study were to examine the effect of weekday sleep habits (varying bedtimes depending on the night of the week and later than 22:00 h bedtime) on behavior problems, prosocial behavior, and resilience of children aged 6-7 years. Data were taken from the Adachi Child Health Impact of Living Difficulty (A-CHILD) study, which involved the participation of 4291 caregivers of first-grade children (6-7 years old) living in Adachi City, Tokyo. Resilience (using the Children's Resilient Coping Scale), behavior problems (using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire), both modified to range 0-100, and sleep habits were measured via a questionnaire filled out by caregivers. Propensity-score matching was used to determine the associations between irregular and late bedtime, behavior problems, prosocial behavior, and resilience. A total of 320 (7.5%) children showed irregular bedtime on school nights and 540 (13.6%) children went to bed later than 22:00 h. Children with irregular bedtimes on weekdays showed lower resilience (β = -3.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -5.90 to -1.10) and higher levels of behavior problems (β = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.13-5.46), especially hyperactivity/inattention (β = 5.76, 95% CI = 2.03 to 9.49) and peer relationship problems (β = 3.79, 95% CI = 1.02-6.55). On the other hand, no association between bedtime after 22:00 h and resilience or behavior problems was found. Among early school-aged children, irregular bedtime on weekdays may be a risk factor for lower resilience and behavior problems. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Religious Beliefs and Environmental Behaviors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of religion in the environment has yet to be empirically investigated in the country with the largest atheist population across the globe. Using data from the Chinese General Social Survey 2013, we examined the effects of religious beliefs on environmental behaviors in China. Dependent variables of private and public environmental behaviors were identified by factor analysis. The estimation revealed a contradictory result that most religious beliefs had negative effects on private environmental behaviors while having positive effects on public environmental behaviors. The findings suggest a religion–politics interactive mechanism to enhance pro-environmental behavior in China.

  19. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect in a non-hypnotic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated how the magnitude the word blindness suggestion effect on Stroop interference depended on hypnotic suggestibility when given as an imaginative suggestion (i.e. not post-hypnotic suggestion) and under conditions in which hypnosis was not mentioned. Hypnotic suggestibility is shown to be a significant predictor of the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect under these conditions. This is therefore the first study to show a linear relationship between the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect and hypnotic suggestibility across the whole hypnotizability spectrum. The results replicate previous findings showing that highs respond to the word blindness suggestion to a greater extent than lows but extend previous work by showing that the advantage for those higher on the hypnotizability spectrum occurs even in a non-hypnotic context. Negative attitudes about hypnosis may not explain the failure to observe similar effects of the word blindness suggestion in less hypnotizable individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Health Literacy Is Associated With Health Behaviors and Social Factors Among Older Adults : Results from the LifeLines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geboers, Bas; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Jansen, Carel J M; de Winter, Andrea F

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the associations between health literacy and various health behaviors and social factors among older adults, and whether social factors moderate the other associations. Data from 3,241 participants in the LifeLines Cohort Study were analyzed (mean baseline age = 68.9 years). Data

  1. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among college students and same-aged peers: results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortier, Philippe; Auerbach, Randy P.; Alonso, Jordi; Axinn, William G.; Cuijpers, Pim; Ebert, David D.; Green, Jennifer G.; Hwang, Irving; Kessler, Ronald C.; Liu, Howard; Nock, Matthew K.; Pinder-Amaker, Stephanie; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia; De Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; De Jonge, Peter; Karam, Elie G.; Kiejna, Andrzej; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Mcgrath, John J.; O’neill, Siobhan; Nakov, Vladimir; Pennell, Beth Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rapsey, Charlene; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel; Bruffaerts, Ronny

    Purpose: The primary aims are to (1) obtain representative prevalence estimates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB) among college students worldwide and (2) investigate whether STB is related to matriculation to and attrition from college. Methods: Data from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

  2. Sadness, Suicide, and Their Association with Video Game and Internet Overuse among Teens: Results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2007 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, Erick; Castro, Juan; Saini, Anil; Usman, Manzoor; Peeples, Dale

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between excessive video game/Internet use and teen suicidality. Data were obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a high school-based, nationally representative survey (N = 14,041 and N = 16,410, respectively). Teens who reported 5 hours or more of video games/Internet daily use, in the…

  3. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy and physical exercise in alleviating treatment-induced menopausal symptoms in patients with breast cancer: results of a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijts, S.F.A.; van Beurden, M.; Oldenburg, H.S.A.; Hunter, M.S.; Kieffer, J.M.; Stuiver, M.M.; Gerritsma, M.A.; Menke-Pluymers, M.B.E.; Plaisier, P.W.; Rijna, H.; Lopes Cardozo, A.M.F.; Timmers, G.; van der Meij, S.; van der Veen, H.; Bijker, N.; de Widt-Levert, L.M.; Geenen, M.M.; Heuff, G.; van Dulken, E.J.; Boven, E.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), physical exercise (PE), and of these two interventions combined (CBT/PE) on menopausal symptoms (primary outcome), body image, sexual functioning, psychological well-being, and health-related quality

  4. Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Physical Exercise in Alleviating Treatment-Induced Menopausal Symptoms in Patients With Breast Cancer: Results of a Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijts, S.F.A.; van Beurden, M.; Oldenburg, H.S.; Hunter, M.S.; Kieffer, J.M.; Stuiver, M.M.; Gerritsma, MA; Menke-Pluymers, M.B.E.; Plaisier, P.W.; Rijna, H.; Cardozo, A.M.F.L.; Timmers, G.; van der Meij, S.; van der Veen, H.; Bijker, N.; de Widt-Levert, L.M.; Geenen, M.M.; Heuff, G.; van Dulken, E.J.; Boven, E.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), physical exercise (PE), and of these two interventions combined (CBT/PE) on menopausal symptoms (primary outcome), body image, sexual functioning, psychological well-being, and health-related quality

  5. Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Physical Exercise in Alleviating Treatment-Induced Menopausal Symptoms in Patients With Breast Cancer: Results of a Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijts, Saskia F. A.; van Beurden, Marc; Oldenburg, Hester S. A.; Hunter, Myra S.; Kieffer, Jacobien M.; Stuiver, Martijn M.; Gerritsma, Miranda A.; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B. E.; Plaisier, Peter W.; Rijna, Herman; Lopes Cardozo, Alexander M. F.; Timmers, Gertjan; van der Meij, Suzan; van der Veen, Henk; Bijker, Nina; de Widt-Levert, Louise M.; Geenen, Maud M.; Heuff, Gijsbert; van Dulken, Eric J.; Boven, Epie; Aaronson, Neil K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), physical exercise (PE), and of these two interventions combined (CBT/PE) on menopausal symptoms (primary outcome), body image, sexual functioning, psychological well-being, and health-related quality

  6. Children's eating behavior, feeding practices of parents and weight problems in early childhood: Results from the population-based Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline); S.J. Roza (Sabine); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); J.D. Mackenbach (Joreintje ); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Weight problems that arise in the first years of life tend to persist. Behavioral research in this period can provide information on the modifiable etiology of unhealthy weight. The present study aimed to replicate findings from previous small-scale studies by examining

  7. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q

    2014-05-01

    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. "Ion" B-Dot and Faraday Cup Results Located Inside The Cathode Knob Of The Self Magnetic Pinch (Smp) Diode (A New Diagnostic For Diode Behavior?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarakis, Michael G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kiefer, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leckbee, Joshua J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nielsen, Dan S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ziska, Derek [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    the following sections we present some typical cable pick-up results and also our efforts to verify that the observed “current” scope traces were indeed not ion currents but instead cable charge pic-up. Interestingly enough we also discovered that the appearance of those “currents” are in synchronism with the A-K gap impedance variation (decrease) and the MITL sheath current re-trapping. Hence those B-dots or Faraday cups could be utilized as diode behavior diagnostics.

  9. Increased Cross-Gender Identification Independent of Gender Role Behavior in Girls with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Results from a Standardized Assessment of 4- to 11-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, Vickie; Zucker, Kenneth J; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Hines, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    While reports showing a link between prenatal androgen exposure and human gender role behavior are consistent and the effects are robust, associations to gender identity or cross-gender identification are less clear. The aim of the current study was to investigate potential cross-gender identification in girls exposed prenatally to high concentrations of androgens due to classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Assessment included two standardized measures and a short parent interview assessing frequency of behavioral features of cross-gender identification as conceptualized in Part A of the diagnostic criteria for gender identity disorder (GID) in the DSM-IV-TR. Next, because existing measures may have conflated gender role behavior with gender identity and because the distinction is potentially informative, we factor analyzed items from the measures which included both gender identity and gender role items to establish the independence of the two constructs. Participants were 43 girls and 38 boys with CAH and 41 unaffected female and 31 unaffected male relatives, aged 4- to 11-years. Girls with CAH had more cross-gender responses than female controls on all three measures of cross-gender identification as well as on a composite measure of gender identity independent of gender role behavior. Furthermore, parent report indicated that 5/39 (12.8 %) of the girls with CAH exhibited cross-gender behavior in all five behavioral domains which comprise the cross-gender identification component of GID compared to 0/105 (0.0 %) of the children in the other three groups combined. These data suggest that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally are more likely to show cross-gender identification than girls without CAH or boys with and without CAH. Our findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure could play a role in gender identity development in healthy children, and may be relevant to gender assignment in cases of prenatal hormone disruption

  10. DETERMINANTS OF UNSAFE HAMBURGER COOKING BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ralston, Katherine L.; Starke, Yolanda; Adu-Nyako, Kofi; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan

    1998-01-01

    We used a national hamburger preparation survey to estimate a simultaneous equation model of food safety knowledge, attitudes, and hamburger cooking behavior. The results suggest that food safety risk perceptions, palatability attributes, and food safety knowledge play important roles in determining food preparation behavior.

  11. Connections with nature and environmental behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Liuna; Xu, Jingke; Ye, Lijuan; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhou, Kexin

    2015-01-01

    The influence of environmental attitudes on environmental behaviors has long been discussed. However, few studies have addressed the foundation of such attitudes. In the present study, we explored primitive belief underlying environmental attitudes, i.e., connections with nature, and its relationship with pro-environmental behaviors. Specifically, we used scales, a computerized Implicit Association Test, and a situational simulation experiment to examine both explicit and implicit connections with nature, both deliberate and spontaneous environmental behaviors, and to find correlations between environmental connectedness and environmental behaviors. Results showed that explicit connectedness was positively correlated with deliberate environmental behaviors, while implicit connectedness was positively correlated with spontaneous environmental behaviors. Additionally, explicit and implicit connectedness was independent of each other. In conclusion, the current study confirms the positive role played by connections with nature in promoting environmental behavior, and accordingly suggests means to encourage pro-environmental behavior by enhancing people's connectedness to nature.

  12. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  13. Clarification of the memory artefact in the assessment of suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P

    2008-04-01

    effect on either of these measures; multiple presentation of the GSS2 produced a modest increase in recognition memory and a modest decrease in suggestibility; and replacing the GSS with the ASS3 produced a large increase in recognition memory and a large decrease in suggestibility. The results support earlier findings that the GSS is likely to overestimate how suggestible a person will be in relation to a personally significant event. This reflects poor recognition memory for the material being tested, rather than increased suggestibility per se. People with ID may in fact be relatively non-suggestible for well-remembered events, which would include personally significant events, particularly those witnessed recently.

  14. Belief in the paranormal and suggestion in the seance room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard; Greening, Emma; Smith, Matthew

    2003-08-01

    In Experiment 1, participants took part in a fake seance. An actor suggested that a table was levitating when, in fact, it remained stationary. After the seance, approximately one third of participants incorrectly reported that the table had moved. Results also showed a significant relationship between the reported movement of the table and belief in the paranormal, with a greater percentage of believers than disbelievers, reporting that the table had moved. Experiment 2 varied whether the suggestion was consistent, or inconsistent, with participants' belief in the paranormal. Results again showed that believers were more susceptible to suggestion than disbelievers, but only when the suggestion was consistent with their belief in the paranormal. Approximately one fifth of participants believed that the fake seances contained genuine paranormal phenomena.

  15. Structural and functional correlates of hypnotic depth and suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, William Jonathan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Vannucci, Manila; Venneri, Annalena

    2015-02-28

    This study explores whether self-reported depth of hypnosis and hypnotic suggestibility are associated with individual differences in neuroanatomy and/or levels of functional connectivity. Twenty-nine people varying in suggestibility were recruited and underwent structural, and after a hypnotic induction, functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess the correlation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) against the independent variables: depth of hypnosis, level of relaxation and hypnotic suggestibility. Functional networks identified with independent components analysis were regressed with the independent variables. Hypnotic depth ratings were positively correlated with GM volume in the frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with GM volume in the left temporal-occipital cortex. Relaxation ratings did not correlate significantly with GM volume and none of the independent variables correlated with regional WM volume measures. Self-reported deeper levels of hypnosis were associated with less connectivity within the anterior default mode network. Taken together, the results suggest that the greater GM volume in the medial frontal cortex and ACC, and lower connectivity in the DMN during hypnosis facilitate experiences of greater hypnotic depth. The patterns of results suggest that hypnotic depth and hypnotic suggestibility should not be considered synonyms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancing business intelligence by means of suggestive reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Cambria, Erik; Syed, Karim Bux Shah

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  17. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons. PMID:25054188

  18. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers’ choices and designers’ understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1 classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2 categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3 perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  19. [Tarantism in Spain in the eighteen century: latrodectism and suggestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Corral, I; Corral-Corral, C

    2016-10-16

    Tarantism is the disease caused by the bite of the tarantula, in which the music tarantella triggers an involuntary dance. It is known in Italy since the sixteenth century. To analyze the tarantism reported in Spain at the end of the eighteenth century, with special attention to its neurological aspects, and to propose its medical and psychopathological explanation. An epidemic of people affected by the tarantula bite occurred in Spain in 1782. Spanish doctors described appropriately the clinical effects, identical to those produced by the bite of the spider black widow (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus), which was at that time identified as a tarantula. The cases reported by Francisco Xavier Cid cured with the involuntary dance triggered by the tarantella, as was described in Italy since the sixteenth century. Our interpretation is that this curative effect of dance in Spain was induced by suggestion. In Spanish patients there were no behavioral disturbances, periodic recurrences or collective involvement as those reported by Italian authors, which suggest an hysterical phenomenon, probably a continuation of the dancing mania of the Middle Age. Tarantism reported in Spain in the eighteenth century includes two different phenomena: the systemic symptoms produced by the tarantula bite, which is actually latrodectism, and the curative effect of the tarantella, explained by suggestion. The psychiatric disturbances, with a hysterical nature, falsely associated to the tarantula bite, observed in Italy, were not present among the Spanish cases of tarantism in the eighteenth century.

  20. Line-item analysis of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist: results from two studies of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G; Kasper, William; Manos, George; Mathew, Suja; Marcus, Ronald; Owen, Randall; Mankoski, Raymond

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of aripiprazole in the treatment of discrete symptoms of irritability associated with autistic disorder, as well as other symptoms captured on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). This was a post hoc analysis of data from two 8-week, randomized, double-blind, multicenter trials to evaluate the efficacy of aripiprazole dosed flexibly (2-15 mg/day, n=47) or fixed (5, 10, or 15 mg/day, n = 166) versus placebo (flexibly dosed, n = 51; fixed dose, n = 52). The effects of treatment on the 58 ABC items were evaluated. Statistically significantly greater improvement was seen with aripiprazole versus placebo (p autistic disorder, particularly with respect to symptoms associated with tantrum behavior.

  1. Changes in Men's Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Knowledge and Behavior as a Result of Program Exposure: Findings From the Workplace POWERPLAY Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Stolp, Sean; Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Johnson, Steven T; Seaton, Cherisse; Sharp, Paul; Jones-Bricker, Margaret; Lamont, Sonia; Errey, Sally; Healy, Theresa; Medhurst, Kerensa; Christian, Holly; Klitch, Megan

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in physical activity and healthy eating knowledge and behaviors associated with the level of exposure to POWERPLAY, a men-centered workplace health promotion program. This study is based on a quasi-experimental prepost design. Using a computer assisted telephone interview survey, data regarding program exposure and physical activity and health eating knowledge and behaviors were collected from men (N = 103) in 4 workplaces. Exposure scores were calculated and participants were categorized as having low (n = 54) or high exposure (n = 49) to POWERPLAY. Compared with the low exposure group, those reporting high exposure scored significantly higher on physical activity knowledge (F (1, 99) =14.17, P workplace health promotion approach and may have an even greater impact when program exposure is augmented with environmental and policy changes.

  2. Predicting problem behaviors with multiple expectancies: expanding expectancy-value theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J

    2004-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this study, we expanded expectancy-value theory to evaluate the contributions of two competing expectancies to adolescent behavior problems. One hundred twenty-one high school students completed measures of behavior problems, expectancies for both acting out and academic effort, and perceived academic competence. Students' self-reported behavior problems covaried mostly with perceived competence and academic expectancies and only nominally with problem behavior expectancies. We suggest that behavior problems may result from students perceiving a lack of valued or feasible alternative behaviors, such as studying. We discuss implications for interventions and suggest that future research continue to investigate the contribution of alternative expectancies to behavioral decisions.

  3. The Influence of Daily Stress on Sedentary Behavior: Group and Person (N of 1) Level Results of a 1-Year Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Keith M; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Parsons, Faith E; Yoon, Sunmoo; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Alcantara, Carmela; Duran, Andrea T; Ensari, Ipek; Krupka, David J; Schwartz, Joseph E; Burg, Matthew M; Davidson, Karina W

    2018-05-24

    The purpose of this study, which used mobile technologies to continuously collect data over 1 year, was to examine the association of psychological stress with objectively measured sedentary behavior in adults at both the group (e.g. nomothetic approach) and individual (e.g. idiographic approach) level. Data were collected in an observational study of healthy adults (n=79) residing in the New York City metro area who were studied for 365 days from 2014-2015. Sedentary behavior was objectively measured via accelerometry. A smartphone-based electronic diary was used to assess level of stress ("Overall, how stressful was your day?"; 0-10 scale) and sources of stress. The end-of-day stress rating was not associated with total sedentary time (B= -1.34, p=0.767) at the group-level. When specific sources of stress were evaluated at the group-level, argument-related stress was associated with increased sedentariness; while running late- and work-related stress were associated with decreased sedentariness. There was a substantial degree of inter-individual variability in the relationship of stress with sedentary behavior. Both the level and sources of stress were associated with increased sedentariness for some, decreased sedentariness for others, and had no effect for many (within-person variance p-value stress on sedentary behavior varies by source of stress and from person-to-person. A precision medicine approach may be warranted to target reductions in sedentary time; although further studies are needed to confirm the observed findings in light of study limitations including a small sample size and enrollment of participants from a single, urban metropolitan area.

  4. A multidimensional measure of sexual orientation, use of psychoactive substances, and depression: results of a national survey on sexual behavior in france.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomond, Brigitte; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Michaels, Stuart

    2014-04-01

    Using data from a large national representative survey on sexual behavior in France (Contexte de la Sexualité en France), this study analyzed the relationship between a multidimensional measure of sexual orientation and psychoactive substance use and depression. The survey was conducted in 2006 by telephone with a random sample of the continental French speaking population between the ages of 18 and 69 years. The sample used for this analysis consisted of the 4,400 men and 5,472 women who were sexually active. A sexual orientation measure was constructed by combining information on three dimensions of sexual orientation: attraction, sexual behavior, and self-definition. Five mutually exclusive groups were defined for men and women: those with only heterosexual behavior were divided in two groups whether or not they declared any same-sex attraction; those with any same-sex partners were divided into three categories derived from their self-definition (heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual). The consumption of alcohol and cannabis, which was higher in the non-exclusively heterosexual groups, was more closely associated with homosexual self-identification for women than for men. Self-defined bisexuals (both male and female) followed by gay men and lesbians had the highest risk of chronic or recent depression. Self-defined heterosexuals who had same-sex partners or attraction had levels of risk between exclusive heterosexuals and self-identified homosexuals and bisexuals. The use of a multidimensional measure of sexual orientation demonstrated variation in substance use and mental health between non-heterosexual subgroups defined in terms of behavior, attraction, and identity.

  5. Social support and employment status modify the effect of intimate partner violence on depression symptom severity in women: results from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougé, Nathalie; Lehman, Erik B; McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) are significant health issues for U.S. women. Interaction effects between IPV and other psychosocial factors on the severity of depressive symptoms have not been fully explored. This study assessed effect modification, that is, how IPV interacts with sociodemographics, psychosocial factors and health risk behaviors, on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. We utilized cross-sectional data from female respondents (n = 16,106) of the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Survey. Sociodemographics, psychosocial variables, and health risk behaviors determined to be significantly associated with depression were tested for interaction effects with IPV. Weighted ordinal logistic regression and predicted probabilities illustrated the effect of IPV status on depressive symptom severity, stratified by interaction effects. Recent and lifetime IPV exposure were associated with more severe depressive symptoms compared with no IPV exposure. IPV history interacted with employment status and social support on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Overall, any IPV exposure was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women with low social support and unemployment, although the effect of recent (versus lifetime) IPV was most pronounced among women with high social support or employed women. Social support and employment status interact with IPV on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Therefore, social support or workplace interventions designed to improve depressive symptoms should examine IPV history. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical activity and other lifestyle behaviors in a Portuguese sample of adults: results from the Azorean Physical Activity and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rute; Santos, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Mota, Jorge

    2009-11-01

    The aims of this study were to describe physical activity (PA) prevalence and compare it with other countries and to investigate possible associations between PA and other lifestyle behaviors in Azorean adults. 9991 adults (5723 women), aged 37.8 +/- 9.5 years, of the 2004 Azorean Physical Activity and Health Study. IPAQ assessed PA. All other lifestyle behaviors (age, gender, education level, income, employment, marital status, number of children, meal frequency, sleep time, sitting time, body mass index and alcohol and tobacco consumptions) were also self-reported. 57.1% of the participants met current PA recommendations and 32.2% were categorized as Health Enhancing PA (HEPA). Women were less likely to achieve PA recommendations, as well as the HEPA level. In both genders, higher education level, employment status, higher income, and sitting for more than 3h/day were negative predictors of HEPA; and, having at least 5 meals/day was positive predictor for the same PA level. There is a significant proportion of Azoreans, particularly women, that does not do enough PA. Targeted programs for Azoreans aimed to increase PA levels should pay special attention on women, and consider a multifactorial approach, once several lifestyle behaviors seem to interact with PA levels, in this population.

  7. The Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatment on the Sexual Behavior of Gay and Bisexual Men: Key Results from the "Restore" Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. R. Simon Rosser, Ph.D., M.P.H., L.P., is professor and director of the HIV/STI Intervention and Prevention Studies (HIPS) Program, in the Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health at the University of Minnesota. He has advanced degrees in psychology, epidemiology, and behavioral medicine, with postdoctoral training in clinical/research sexology. An NIH-funded behavioral science researcher, and current chair of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Prevention Studies Section at NIH, Dr. Rosser conducted the first NIH-funded studies of Internet-based HIV prevention for men who use the Internet to seek sex with men, the effects of gay pornography on HIV risk, and most recently, an NCI-funded study of the effects of treatment on gay and bisexual prostate cancer survivors. Dr. Rosser has published around 100 papers and has been featured in U.S. News & World Report and the Washington Blade. Currently, he is conducting the first NCI-funded randomized controlled trial assessing the effects of a comprehensive approach to treating sexual and urinary dysfunction in gay and bisexual prostate cancer survivors. At the University of Minnesota, Dr. Rosser directs the graduate program for a minor in Sexual Health and teaches two courses: “Public Health Approaches to HIV/AIDS”, and “Sex, Sexuality, and Sexual Health.”

  8. The associations between cigarette smoking and health-related behaviors among Chinese school-aged adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2017-06-01

    The results suggested that cigarette smoking was associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors in adolescents, which should be considered in health promotion interventions to target multiple health behaviors.

  9. Effects of a behavioral intervention that emphasizes spices and herbs on adherence to recommended sodium intake: results of the SPICE randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryl A M; Cobb, Laura K; Miller, Edgar R; Woodward, Mark; Hottenstein, Annette; Chang, Alex R; Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; White, Karen; Charleston, Jeanne; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thomas, Letitia; Appel, Lawrence J

    2015-09-01

    For decades, dietary sodium intake in the United States has remained high, and few studies have examined strategies for maintaining recommended intakes. We examined the effects of a behavioral intervention, which emphasized spices and herbs, on the maintenance of sodium intake at the recommended intake of 1500 mg/d in individuals to whom the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans apply. We conducted a 2-phase study that included adults ≥18 y of age for whom Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends 1500 mg Na/d. The study was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, from 2012 to 2014. In phase 1, 55 individuals consumed a low-sodium diet for 4 wk. Participants were provided all foods, snacks, and calorie-containing drinks. In phase 2, 40 participants from phase 1 were randomly assigned to either a behavioral intervention to reduce sodium intake (n = 20) or a self-directed control group (n = 20) for 20 wk. The primary study outcome was the change in mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion during phase 2. Linear regression analyses were used to determine intervention effects on urinary sodium excretion. Participant characteristics were as follows: women: 65%; African American: 88%; hypertension: 63%; diabetes: 18%; mean age: 61 y; and mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30. At the end of phase 2, mean 24-h sodium excretion was lower in the behavioral intervention than in the self-directed group (mean difference: -956.8 mg/d; 95% CI: -1538.7, -374.9 mg/d) after sodium intake at screening was controlled for (P = 0.002). These findings persisted in sensitivity analyses that excluded potentially incomplete urine collections [Mage's equation mean difference: -1090 mg/d (P = 0.001); Joosens' equation mean difference: -796 mg/d (P = 0.04)]. A multifactorial behavioral intervention emphasizing spices and herbs significantly reduced sodium intake. Because of the ubiquity of sodium in the US food supply, multilevel strategies addressing individual behaviors and the food supply are needed

  10. Subcaste differences in neural activation suggest a prosocial role for oxytocin in eusocial naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Georgia A; Faykoo-Martinez, Mariela; Peragine, Deane E; Mooney, Skyler J; Holmes, Melissa M

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) influences prosocial behavior(s), aggression, and stress responsiveness, and these diverse effects are regulated in a species- and context-specific manner. The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a unique species with which to study context-dependent effects of OT, exhibiting a strict social hierarchy with behavioral specialization within the subordinate caste: soldiers are aggressive and defend colonies against unfamiliar conspecifics while workers are prosocial and contribute to in-colony behaviors such as pup care. To determine if OT is involved in subcaste-specific behaviors, we compared behavioral responses between workers and soldiers of both sexes during a modified resident/intruder paradigm, and quantified activation of OT neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) using the immediate-early-gene marker c-fos co-localized with OT neurons. Resident workers and soldiers were age-matched with unfamiliar worker stimulus animals as intruders, and encounters were videorecorded and scored for aggressive behaviors. Colony-matched controls were left in their home colony for the duration of the encounters. Brains were extracted and cell counts were conducted for OT immunoreactive (ir), c-fos-ir, and percentage of OT-c-fos double-labeled cells. Results indicate that resident workers were less aggressive but showed greater OT neural activity than soldiers. Furthermore, a linear model including social treatment, cortisol, and subcaste revealed that subcaste was the only significant predictor of OT-c-fos double-labeled cells in the PVN. These data suggest that in naked mole-rats OT promotes prosocial behaviors rather than aggression and that even within subordinates status exerts robust effects on brain and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Deliberate Self Harm Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Gul Helvaci Celik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The deliberate self-harm behaviour which defined as attempting to own body resulting in tisue damage without conscious desire of peolple to die, is a major public health problem worldwide. The causes of deliberate self- harm, risk factors, the relationship between mental disorders and treatment strategies are not fully known. Deliberate self- harm can be observed together with psychiatric disorders such as borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, eating disorders and mood disorders. Also, deliberate self-harm must be distinguished from suicidal behavior. Psychologi-cal trauma has been suggested as a risk factor for deliberate self- harm behavior. Trauma and traumatic events have long been associated with deliberate self- harm behavior. The aim of this review article is to investigate the etiology and epidemiology of deliberate self-harm behaviour and relationship between psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 209-226

  12. The Pollyanna Principle in Business Writing: Initial Results, Suggestions for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Herbert W.

    A study was conducted to determine whether there was a linguistic correlation between a financially good year and a bad year as expressed in the annual reports of company presidents to their shareholders. Specifically the study tested the "Pollyanna Principle," which states (1) that regardless of whether the year was financially good or bad, the…

  13. Gathering Ideas Online: Results of the Navy Personnel Command (NPC) Telework Virtual Suggestion Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT...participate in telecommuting (another term for telework), and in 2001, the Under Secretary of Defense memorandum provided a policy for telework within...Manpower, Personnel, Training and Education Telecommuting (Telework) Program (CHNAVPERSNOTE 5330). Washington, DC: Author. Commander, Navy

  14. Geometrical foundations and results on a problem suggested in a paper by Anderson et al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Gascon, F.; Moreno Insertis, F.; Rodriguez Camino, E.

    1978-01-01

    A global treatment is given to the problem proposed by Anderson et al. of finding second order differential equations not admitting pointlike transformations of symmetry but admitting families of local symmetries of non-pointlike character

  15. Mechanisms of eyewitness suggestibility: tests of the explanatory role hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J; Chrobak, Quin M; Zaragoza, Maria S; Weihing, Caitlin A

    2017-10-01

    In a recent paper, Chrobak and Zaragoza (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 827-844, 2013) proposed the explanatory role hypothesis, which posits that the likelihood of developing false memories for post-event suggestions is a function of the explanatory function the suggestion serves. In support of this hypothesis, they provided evidence that participant-witnesses were especially likely to develop false memories for their forced fabrications when their fabrications helped to explain outcomes they had witnessed. In three experiments, we test the generality of the explanatory role hypothesis as a mechanism of eyewitness suggestibility by assessing whether this hypothesis can predict suggestibility errors in (a) situations where the post-event suggestions are provided by the experimenter (as opposed to fabricated by the participant), and (b) across a variety of memory measures and measures of recollective experience. In support of the explanatory role hypothesis, participants were more likely to subsequently freely report (E1) and recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (E2, source test) when the post-event suggestion helped to provide a causal explanation for a witnessed outcome than when it did not serve this explanatory role. Participants were also less likely to recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (on measures of subjective experience) when their explanatory strength had been reduced by the presence of an alternative explanation that could explain the same outcome (E3, source test + warning). Collectively, the results provide strong evidence that the search for explanatory coherence influences people's tendency to misremember witnessing events that were only suggested to them.

  16. Children's Memory for Their Mother's Murder: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Kelly; Narr, Rachel; Goodman, Gail S; Ruiz, Sandra; Mendoza, Macaria

    2013-01-31

    From its inception, child eyewitness memory research has been guided by dramatic legal cases that turn on the testimony of children. Decades of scientific research reveal that, under many conditions, children can provide veracious accounts of traumatic experiences. Scientific studies also document factors that lead children to make false statements. In this paper we describe a legal case in which children testified about their mother's murder. We discuss factors that may have influenced the accuracy of the children's eyewitness memory. Children's suggestibility and resistance to suggestion are illustrated. Expert testimony, based on scientific research, can aid the trier of fact when children provide crucial evidence in criminal investigations and courtroom trials about tragic events.

  17. Tolerance and sensitization to inhaled 1,1,1-trichloroethane in mice: results from open-field behavior and a functional observational battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Scott E; Balster, Robert L

    2006-05-01

    1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCE), a representative abused solvent, has well described acute behavioral effects in animals. Much less is known about repeated high-concentration exposures as would be encountered in inhalant abusers. Tolerance has been demonstrated in some, but not all, studies with TCE while sensitization has also been seen with other abused solvents. The present study was designed to further characterize changes in the effects of repeated exposure to TCE on a variety of mouse behaviors. Mice were tested using locomotor activity as well as a functional observational battery (FOB) both before and after a regimen of daily exposures to various concentrations of TCE. The initial locomotor effects of acute 30-min exposures to TCE were biphasic with concentration-dependent increases in activity at lower concentrations and decreases observed at higher concentrations. The profile of acute effects as measured by the FOB included changes in posture, decreased arousal, disturbances in gait, delayed righting reflexes, and decreased sensorimotor reactivity. Animals were then divided into five groups and exposed 30 min/day to either air or one of four concentrations of TCE (2,000, 6,000, 10,000, or 13,300 ppm) for 15 consecutive days. The TCE concentration used primarily affected the magnitude of change, not whether tolerance or sensitization occurred. Tolerance developed on the measures of forelimb grip strength, inverted screen, and number of rears. Conversely, sensitization developed to measures of locomotor activity. Depending on the behavioral measure, both tolerance and sensitization can occur in mice with repeated exposure to TCE. Both of these phenomena are characteristic of drugs of abuse.

  18. Behavior Modification in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Mryon; Whitman, Joan

    1971-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical rationale for behavior modification, principally through its comparison with traditional psychotherapies, and suggests some behavior modification techniques for the classroom management of maladaptive behavior. (Author)

  19. [Changes in knowledge, attitudes, and smoking behavior among young people in Germany. Results of repeated, representative surveys by the BZgA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, B; Töppich, J

    2010-02-01

    Following an increase in tobacco consumption among 12 to 17 year olds between 1993 and 1997, a policy mix comprising various structural and behavioral prevention measures was implemented in Germany. One element of this policy mix is the "rauchfrei" ("smoke-free") youth campaign of the BZgA (Federal Centre for Health Education), a combination of media that reaches a large number of youth, personal communication, and setting-based interventions. The aim is to prevent young people from starting to smoke and to promote the cessation of smoking at an early stage. Based on a multistage intervention model, wide coverage of the measures should be achieved among young people, as well as changes in knowledge, attitudes, social norms, and behavioral intentions. Based on the intervention model, repeated, representative cross-sectional surveys were conducted to examine the development of these indicators and of tobacco consumption. Five studies were conducted during the period from 2003 to 2008, each comprising between 1,220 and 2,780 computer-assisted telephone interviews with randomly selected young people between the ages of 12 and 17. The percentage of young people reached by information offered on the subject of not smoking rose between 2003 and 2008. Participation in school-based prevention measures also rose. There was an increase in knowledge regarding the harmful substances contained in cigarette smoke, and in the percentage of young people who rated active and passive smoking as being harmful to health. In addition, the attitude towards smoking of young people who have never smoked became more critical, as did that perceived in the social environment. The proportion of young people who smoke declined substantially, from 27.5% (2001) to 15.4% (2008), and there was been a major rise in the number who have never smoked, from 40.5% (2001) to 60.6% (2008). The change in knowledge-based risk assessments, attitudes, and social norms should be further promoted by mass media

  20. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) versus acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for dementia family caregivers with significant depressive symptoms: Results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Mausbach, Brent T; López, Javier; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia

    2015-08-01

    The differential efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for dementia family caregivers' is analyzed through a randomized controlled trial. Participants were 135 caregivers with high depressive symptomatology who were randomly allocated to the intervention conditions or a control group (CG). Pre-, postintervention, and follow-up measurements assessed depressive symptomatology, anxiety, leisure, dysfunctional thoughts, and experiential avoidance. Depression: Significant effects of interventions compared with CG were found for CBT (p dementia caregivers. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Dietary and physical activity behaviors related to obesity-specific quality of life and work productivity: baseline results from a worksite trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Beresford, Shirley A.A; Henderson, Jo Ann; McTiernan, Anne; Xiao, Liren; Wang, C.Y.; Patrick, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (QoL) and reduced productivity; less is known about the effect of dietary factors. This study investigated how dietary behaviors, physical activity, and Body Mass Index (BMI) relate to weight-specific QoL and work productivity. The study was conducted in 31 small blue-collar and service industry worksites in Seattle. Participants were 747 employees (33.5% non-White). Measures included self-reported servings of fruits and veget...

  2. [The behavioral determinants for health centers in health districts of urban Africa: results of a survey of households in Kinshasa, Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzambi, J K; Tellier, V; Bertrand, F; Albert, A; Reginster, J Y; Van Balen, E H

    2000-08-01

    This study analyses the choice determinants of the population for health centres through a survey of the behaviour of families in a representative sample of 1,000 households in the health districts of Kinshasa, Congo in 1997. For the most recent episode of illness, the respondents turned to seven types of care: the health centre (37%), private dispensaries (26.5%), self-medication through a pharmacy (23.9%), traditional practitioner (21%), traditional self-medication (16.9%), private outpatients' clinic (16.7%) and a reference hospital (10.4%). Past logistics have shown that patients resort to a health centre rather than another type of care structure (P = 0.05) when looking for quality care, reasonable prices and the availability of varied services. On the other hand, concern about the geographical proximity in relation to the family's residence calls for using the private dispensary. When looking for a doctor or the existence of a 'convention', families are more inclined to choose a private officially recognized outpatients' clinic. Those who had been looking for a solution to a special type of illness opted primarily for a traditional practitioner. In conclusion, the results of this study show that if people choose the care offered by health centres, it is because they judge it to be of good quality. The integrated care offered by the same technician, with a required training, is a major asset in the acceptability of the first line of primary health care in Kinshasa. This study suggests that it would no doubt be beneficial to integrate non-official private care structures into the primary health care system, as far as it is possible for them to achieve a level of quality comparable to that of the health centres. In order that the traditional practitioner might play an important complementary role in the realization of primary health care, even in urban areas, the possibility of promoting sites of communication should be studied. Moreover, considering the weak

  3. Pregnant Women's Intentions and Subsequent Behaviors Regarding Maternal and Neonatal Service Utilization: Results from a Cohort Study in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea A Creanga

    Full Text Available Higher use of maternal and neonatal health (MNH services may reduce maternal and neonatal mortality in Kenya. This study aims to: 1 prospectively explore women's intentions to use MNH services (antenatal care, delivery in a facility, postnatal care, neonatal care at 35 and high-school education were significant predictors of intention-behavior discordance regarding delivery in a facility; several delivery-related factors were significantly associated with intention-behavior discordance regarding use of postnatal and neonatal care. Delivery facilities were chosen based on proximity to women's residence, affordability, and service quality; among women who delivered outside a health facility, 16.3% could not afford going to a facility. Good/very good birth experiences were reported by 93.6% of women who delivered in a facility and 32.6% of women who did not. We found higher MNH service utilization than previously documented in Nyanza province. Further increasing the number of facility deliveries and use of postnatal care may improve MNH in Kenya.

  4. Pregnant Women's Intentions and Subsequent Behaviors Regarding Maternal and Neonatal Service Utilization: Results from a Cohort Study in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanga, Andreea A; Odhiambo, George Awino; Odera, Benjamin; Odhiambo, Frank O; Desai, Meghna; Goodwin, Mary; Laserson, Kayla; Goldberg, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Higher use of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services may reduce maternal and neonatal mortality in Kenya. This study aims to: 1) prospectively explore women's intentions to use MNH services (antenatal care, delivery in a facility, postnatal care, neonatal care) at MNH services (≥93.9% and ≥87.5%, respectively, for all services assessed). Actual service use was high for antenatal (98.1%) and neonatal (88.5%) care, but lower for delivery in a facility (76.9%) and postnatal care (51.8%). Woman's age >35 and high-school education were significant predictors of intention-behavior discordance regarding delivery in a facility; several delivery-related factors were significantly associated with intention-behavior discordance regarding use of postnatal and neonatal care. Delivery facilities were chosen based on proximity to women's residence, affordability, and service quality; among women who delivered outside a health facility, 16.3% could not afford going to a facility. Good/very good birth experiences were reported by 93.6% of women who delivered in a facility and 32.6% of women who did not. We found higher MNH service utilization than previously documented in Nyanza province. Further increasing the number of facility deliveries and use of postnatal care may improve MNH in Kenya.

  5. Barriers, facilitators, and benefits of implementation of dialectical behavior therapy in routine care: results from a national program evaluation survey in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Sara J; Rodriguez, Allison L; Smith, Brandy N; Matthieu, Monica M; Trent, Lindsay R; Kemp, Janet; Thompson, Caitlin

    2017-12-01

    National implementation of evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) provides important lessons on the barriers and facilitators to implementation in a large healthcare system. Little is known about barriers and facilitators to the implementation of a complex EBP for emotional and behavioral dysregulation-dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT). The purpose of this study was to understand VHA clinicians' experiences with barriers, facilitators, and benefits from implementing DBT into routine care. This national program evaluation survey measured site characteristics of VHA sites (N = 59) that had implemented DBT. DBT was most often implemented in general mental health outpatient clinics. While 42% of sites offered all four modes of DBT, skills group was the most frequently implemented mode. Fifty-nine percent of sites offered phone coaching in any form, yet only 11% of those offered it all the time. Providers were often provided little to no time to support implementation of DBT. Barriers that were difficult to overcome were related to phone coaching outside of business hours. Facilitators to implementation included staff interest and expertise. Perceived benefits included increased hope and functioning for clients, greater self-efficacy and compassion for providers, and ability to treat unique symptoms for clinics. There was considerable variability in the capacity to address implementation barriers among sites implementing DBT in VHA routine care. Mental health policy makers should note the barriers and facilitators reported here, with specific attention to phone coaching barriers.

  6. Impact of in-home behavioral management versus telephone support to reduce depressive symptoms and perceived stress in Chinese caregivers: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Gray, Heather L; Tang, Paulette C Y; Pu, Chun Yu; Leung, Laurie Y L; Wang, Peng-Chih; Tse, Collins; Hsu, Shannon; Kwo, Elizabeth; Tong, Hui-Qi; Long, James; Thompson, Larry W

    2007-05-01

    Recent work has shown that Chinese Americans caring for a family member with dementia experience considerable psychological distress. However, few studies evaluate treatments for them. This study evaluated the efficacy of in-home intervention, based on cognitive behavior therapy principles, to relieve stress and depression in female Chinese American caregivers (CGs). Fifty-five CGs who met inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to a telephone support condition (TSC) or to an in-home behavioral management program (IHBMP) for 4 months. In the TSC, biweekly calls were made and relevant material was mailed. In the IHBMP, specific psychological skills were taught to deal with caregiving stress. CGs were assessed before and after treatment. Outcome measures evaluated overall perceived stress, caregiving-specific stress, and depressive symptoms. CGs in IHBMP were less bothered by caregiving-specific stressors and had lower depression levels than CGs in TSC. There was no difference in overall stress. CGs with low baseline level of self-efficacy for obtaining respite benefited from IHBMP, but showed little improvement in the TSC. CGs with higher self-efficacy benefited from both treatments. This intervention is promising and warrants replication in future studies. Additional research is needed to evaluate longer-term effects and to identify individual differences associated with improvement.

  7. The Effects of Prior Knowledge on Children's Memory and Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elischberger, Holger B.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 5- and 6-year-olds were read a story and asked to recall its details. Two independent factors-prestory knowledge and poststory suggestions-were crossed to examine the effects on children's story recall. The results indicated that prestory social knowledge about the story protagonist as well as academic knowledge relating to the…

  8. A birth-death process suggested by a chain sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenin, R.B.; Parthasarathy, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    We consider a birth-death process whose birth and death rates are suggested by a chain sequence. We use an elegant transformation to find the transition probabilities in a simple closed form. We also find an explicit expression for time-dependent mean. We find parallel results in discrete time.

  9. Behavioral inhibition and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Meredith E; Schofield, Casey A; Pietrefesa, Ashley S

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition is frequently cited as a vulnerability factor for development of anxiety. However, few studies have examined the unique relationship between behavioral inhibition and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Therefore, the current study addressed the relationship between behavioral inhibition and OCD in a number of ways. In a large unselected student sample, frequency of current OC symptoms was significantly correlated with retrospective self-reports of total levels of childhood behavioral inhibition. In addition, frequency of current OC symptoms was also significantly correlated with both social and nonsocial components of behavioral inhibition. Further, there was evidence for a unique relationship between behavioral inhibition and OC symptoms beyond the relationship of behavioral inhibition and social anxiety. In addition, results showed that reports of childhood levels of behavioral inhibition significantly predicted levels of OCD symptoms in adulthood. Finally, preliminary evidence suggested that behavioral inhibition may be more strongly associated with some types of OC symptoms than others, and that overprotective parenting may moderate the impact of behavioral inhibition on OC symptoms. The current findings suggest the utility of additional research examining the role of behavioral inhibition in the etiology of OCD.

  10. Assertive behavior: advantages and perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheinov V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this information-analytical paper analyzes and summarizes the results of all available international research and assertiveness assertive behavior relating to the identification of their strengths and the perception of these phenomena in society. Are some suggestions for overcoming the problems detected.

  11. Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

    2005-01-01

    This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

  12. The effect of the nonhuman external regulator’s answer-until-correct (AUC) versus knowledge-of-result (KR) task feedback on children’s behavioral regulation during learning tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agina, Adel Masaud; Agina, Adel M.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Steehouder, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to shed a new light on the nonhuman’s external regulation effect on children’s behavioral regulation through investigating the effect of the computer’s task feedback answer-until-correct (AUC) versus knowledge-of-result (KR) with 40 preschool children (boys/girls)

  13. Evidence of increased STI/HIV-related risk behavior among male perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Guatemala: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembling, John; Andrinopoulos, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with a demonstrated link to increased sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV-related risk and vulnerability. While IPV is an important issue in Central America, the link to STI/HIV risk has not been explored in this region. In this study, the relationship between emotional and physical/sexual IPV and the STI/HIV-related risk behaviors of sex worker patronage and infidelity is assessed among male IPV perpetrators using data from a national survey conducted in 2009 in Guatemala (n = 4773 married/partnered men). Bivariate associations between background characteristics and emotional and physical IPV perpetration were explored. Logistic regression models were run to test associations between IPV for each sexual risk behavior. Perpetration of emotional and physical/sexual IPV was more common among married/partnered men who were older than 24, had more education, lived in urban areas, or were in common law versus married unions. Reports of past-year emotional IPV perpetration increased as wealth quintile increased. After adjusting for demographics and other characteristics, physical/sexual IPV perpetration was associated with past-year infidelity (AOR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6). Lifetime emotional IPV (AOR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and physical/sexual IPV 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.0) were positively associated with a history of sex worker patronage. Endorsement of traditional gender role norms showed a marginally positive association with past-year infidelity in the adjusted model (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.8). The study findings from Guatemala reinforce the growing evidence globally that male IPV perpetrators are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including sex worker patronage and main partner infidelity. The concurrency of violence and increased STI/HIV risk may compound the health risks for female victims of IPV who also face injury and psychological trauma. Integration of prevention and screening of

  14. Child Sexual Behaviors in School Context: Age and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragoli, Sarah; Camisasca, Elena; Di Blasio, Paola

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to explore the child sexual behaviors that Italian teachers have observed in the school context. A representative sample of 227 children, from 5 to 10 years old, was rated by their teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Frequencies of sexual behaviors among children aged 5 to 6, 7 to 8, and 9 to 10 are presented. Younger children showed a broader range of sexual behaviors that decrease with the growing age, such as males in comparison to females. Moreover, findings showed that child sexual behavior is not only related to age and gender but also to family characteristics. These results suggested that child sexual behaviors reported by teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory may provide useful information about the development of children's sexuality. The knowledge of age appropriate sexual behaviors can help teachers discern normal sexual behaviors from problematic sexual behaviors.

  15. Exposure to suggestion and creation of false auditory memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, B; Nelson, E

    2000-02-01

    The experiment investigated the possibility of creating false auditory memory through exposure to suggestion. Research by Loftus and others has indicated that, through suggestion, false memories can be created. Participants viewed a short film and were given a 9-item questionnaire. Eight questions were used as filler while one question asked respondents to recall a phrase one character had said. Although the character actually said nothing, 23 of 30 respondents recalled having heard him speak and specifically recalled his words. This statistically significant result shows that auditory memories can also be created.

  16. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requirements...... to the ability of the landfill gas management to reduce the emission should be set up, and how criteria are developed for when the monitoring activities can be terminated. Monitoring procedures are suggested centred on a robust method for measuring the total methane emission from the site, and quantitative...

  17. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Mediation in Improving Family Functioning and Reducing Adolescent Problem Behavior: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Huang, Wenjing

    2017-03-01

    Parent-child mediation programs are intended to resolve or manage disputes and improve family functioning, but rigorous evaluations of their effectiveness are lacking. Families referred to a community-based mediation program (N = 111) were randomized to an intervention or wait-list control group, and completed three surveys over a 12-week period. With the exception of parent-reported child delinquency (which decreased more in the intervention group), this evaluation provides little support for the short-term effectiveness of parent-child mediation for improving family functioning and reducing child problem behaviors in general. Given that this is the first randomized controlled trial of a parent-child mediation program, additional evaluations involving larger samples and longer follow-ups are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about the effectiveness of this intervention.

  18. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Mediation in Improving Family Functioning and Reducing Adolescent Problem Behavior: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Huang, Wenjing

    2016-01-01

    Parent-child mediation programs are intended to resolve or manage disputes and improve family functioning, but rigorous evaluations of their effectiveness are lacking. Families referred to a community-based mediation program (N=111) were randomized to an intervention or wait-list control group, and completed three surveys over a 12-week period. With the exception of parent-reported child delinquency (which decreased more in the intervention group), this evaluation provides little support for the short-term effectiveness of parent-child mediation for improving family functioning and reducing child problem behaviors in general. Given that this is the first randomized controlled trial of a parent-child mediation program, additional evaluations involving larger samples and longer follow-ups are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about the effectiveness of this intervention. PMID:26762375

  19. Sociodemographic factors associated with self-reported exercise and physical activity behaviors and attitudes of South Australians: results of a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susie; Halbert, Julie; Mackintosh, Shylie; Quinn, Stephen; Crotty, Maria

    2012-03-01

    To determine self-reported physical activity barriers, behaviors, and beliefs about exercise of a representative sample and to identify associated sociodemographic factors. Face-to-face interviews conducted between September and December 2008, using a random stratified sampling technique. Barriers injury and illness were associated with being older, single, and not engaged in full-time work; lack of time was associated with being married, younger, female, and working full-time; and lack of motivation and cost were associated with being younger than 65 years. Advancing age was significantly associated (p exercise in, while all age groups (74%) felt that walking was the most important type of exercise for older adults. A better understanding of these factors may improve uptake of and adherence to exercise programs across the ages.

  20. The Epidemiology of Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes in Adulthood: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B; Chou, S Patricia; Saha, Tulshi D; Smith, Sharon M; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Pickering, Roger P; Ruan, W June; Huang, Boji; Grant, Bridget F

    2017-01-01

    To present current, nationally representative US findings on prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, and treatment of DSM-5 antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and adulthood antisocial behavioral syndrome without conduct disorder before 15 years of age (AABS). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with respondents (N = 36,309) in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. DSM-5 alcohol, nicotine, and specific drug use disorders and selected mood, anxiety, trauma-related, eating, and personality disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5. Prevalences of ASPD and AABS were 4.3% and 20.3%, respectively, and were highest among male, white, Native American, younger, and unmarried respondents, those with high school or less education, lower incomes, and Western residence. Both antisocial syndromes were significantly associated with 12-month and lifetime substance use, dysthymia/persistent depressive, bipolar I, posttraumatic stress, and borderline and schizotypal personality disorders (odds ratios [ORs] = 1.2-7.0). ASPD was additionally associated with 12-month agoraphobia and lifetime generalized anxiety disorder (ORs = 1.3-1.6); AABS, with 12-month and lifetime major depressive and 12-month generalized anxiety disorders (ORs = 1.2-1.3). Both were associated with significant disability (P antisocial survey respondents were untreated. One in 4 US adults exhibits syndromal antisocial behavior, with similar sociodemographic and psychiatric correlates and disability regardless of whether onset occurred before 15 years of age, illustrating the clinical and public health significance of both ASPD and AABS. In addition to laying groundwork for estimates of social and economic costs, and further etiologic and nosologic research, these findings highlight the urgency of effectively preventing and treating antisocial syndromes, including investigation of

  1. Psychological aspects of eating behavior as predictors of 10-y weight changes after surgical and conventional treatment of severe obesity: results from the Swedish Obese Subjects intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konttinen, Hanna; Peltonen, Markku; Sjöström, Lars; Carlsson, Lena; Karlsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of the factors that influence long-term weight outcomes after bariatric surgery. We examined whether pretreatment and posttreatment levels of cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger and 1-y changes in these eating behaviors predict short- and long-term weight changes after surgical and conventional treatments of severe obesity. Participants were from an ongoing, matched (nonrandomized) prospective intervention trial of the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study. The current analyses included 2010 obese subjects who underwent bariatric surgery and 1916 contemporaneously matched obese controls who received conventional treatment. Physical measurements (e.g., weight and height) and questionnaires (e.g., Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) were completed before the intervention and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 y after the start of the treatment. Structural equation modeling was used as the main analytic strategy. The surgery group lost more weight and reported greater decreases in disinhibition and hunger at 1- and 10-y follow-ups (all P women) and experienced larger 1-y decreases in these behaviors (β = 0.31-0.48, P women) lost more weight 2, 6, and 10 y after surgery. In control patients, larger 1-y increases in cognitive restraint predicted a greater 2-y weight loss in both sexes. A higher tendency to eat in response to various internal and external cues shortly after surgery predicted less-successful short- and long-term weight outcomes, making postoperative susceptibility for uncontrolled eating an important indicator of targeted interventions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Potential spillover educational effects of cancer-related direct-to-consumer advertising on cancer patients' increased information seeking behaviors: results from a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L

    2014-06-01

    Spillover effects of exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of cancer treatments on patients' general inquiry about their treatments and managing their illness are not well understood. This study examines the effects of cancer patients' exposure to cancer-related DTCA on subsequent health information seeking behaviors from clinician and non-clinician sources (lay media and interpersonal contacts). Using a longitudinal survey design over 3 years, data was collected from cancer survivors diagnosed with colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer who were randomly sampled from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. Study outcome measures include patients' information engagement with their clinicians and information seeking from non-medical sources about cancer treatment and quality of life issues, measured in the second survey. The predictor variable is the frequency of exposure to cancer-related DTCA since diagnosis, measured at the round 1 survey. The analyses utilized lagged-weighted multivariate regressions and adjusted for round 1 levels of patient-clinician engagement, information seeking from nonmedical sources, and confounders. Exposure to cancer-related DTCA is associated with increased levels of subsequent patient-clinician information engagement (B = .023, 95% CI = .005-.040, p = .012), controlling for confounders. In comparison, exposure to DTCA is marginally significant in predicting health information seeking from non-clinician sources (B = .009, 95% CI = -.001-.018, p = .067). Cancer-related DTCA has potentially beneficial spillover effects on health information seeking behaviors among cancer patients. Exposure to DTCA predicts (a little) more patient engagement with their physicians.

  3. Potential Spillover Educational Effects Of Cancer-Related Direct-To-Consumer Advertising On Cancer Patients’ Increased Information Seeking Behaviors: Results From A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy SL

    2014-01-01

    Spillover effects of exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of cancer treatments on patients’ general inquiry about their treatments and managing their illness are not well understood. This study examines the effects of cancer patients’ exposure to cancer-related DTCA on subsequent health information seeking behaviors from clinician and non-clinician sources (lay media and interpersonal contacts). Using a longitudinal survey design over three years, data was collected from cancer survivors diagnosed with colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer who were randomly sampled from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. Study outcome measures include patients’ information engagement with their clinicians and information seeking from non-medical sources about cancer treatment and quality of life issues, measured in the second survey. The predictor variable is the frequency of exposure to cancer-related DTCA since diagnosis, measured at the round 1 survey. The analyses utilized lagged weighted multivariate regressions and adjusted for round 1 levels of patient-clinician engagement, information seeking from non-medical sources, and confounders. Exposure to cancer-related DTCA is associated with increased levels of subsequent patient-clinician information engagement (B=.023, 95%CI=.005 to .040, p=.012), controlling for confounders. In comparison, exposure to DTCA is marginally significant in predicting health information seeking from non-clinician sources (B=.009, 95%CI=−.001 to .018, p=.067). Cancer-related DTCA has potentially beneficial spillover effects on health information seeking behaviors among cancer patients. Exposure to DTCA predicts (a little) more patient engagement with their physicians. PMID:24254248

  4. Effect of physical activity and sedentary behavior on serum prostate-specific antigen concentrations: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Kohli, Manish

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between accelerometer-derived sedentary and physical activity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a nationally representative sample of men in the United States. Data from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles were used in the present study, with data from 1672 adult male participants used in the analyses. The manuscript was prepared between July 7, 2012, and September 26, 2012. Sedentary and physical activity was objectively measured using an accelerometer. Covariates included various demographic, dietary, biological, and immunologic variables including age, height, weight, body mass index, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, and poverty-income ratio; dietary fiber, fat, protein, and carbohydrate intake and total energy intake; vitamin C and vitamin E; alcohol intake; medication use; concentrations of cotinine, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; blood pressure (elevated or not elevated); diabetes; C-reactive protein; and white blood cell count and number of basophils and eosinophils. Only after controlling for all covariates, for every 1-hour increase in sedentary behavior, participants were 16% more likely to have an elevated PSA concentration (odds ratio, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.06-1.27]; P=.001). For every 1-hour increase in light physical activity, participants were 18% less likely to have an elevated PSA concentration (odds ratio, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.68-1.00]; P=.05). Individuals who engage in more sedentary behavior and lower levels of light physical activity have higher PSA concentrations. Future studies are needed to better identify the potential underlying mechanisms delineating the association between sedentary and physical activity and PSA concentration. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Utility of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior for predicting physician behavior: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, S G

    1996-09-01

    The utility of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for prospectively predicting physicians' delivery of preventive services was compared. Primary care physicians (N = 765) completed 2 mail surveys at periods 6 months apart. The addition of perceived behavioral control to the TRA model significantly increased the variance accounted for in behavioral intention and subsequent behavior (p behavioral control had direct effects on behavior and interacted with social norms and behavioral intentions. Applications of models such as the TRA or TPB have focused primarily on predicting the behavioral intentions and behaviors of patients. Results suggest that these models have relevance for studying the behavior of health care providers as well.

  6. Adolescents as health agents and consumers: results of a pilot study of the health and health-related behaviors of adolescents living in a high-poverty urban neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Robert; Bluebond-Langner, Myra; Read, Nichole; Pittsley, Jerri; Hart, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Although there is a considerable literature on how adolescents make decisions which lead to risky behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex, drug use) and adversely affect the health and well-being of youth, little is known about the routine behaviors youth engage in which influence their health (e.g., having permanent teeth extracted, discontinuing antibiotics prematurely, delaying or going without treatment of subacute illnesses and minor injuries) and concomitantly the factors which influence these behaviors. In an effort to begin to fill this gap, we have undertaken a study of routine health behaviors and the factors which bear on them in adolescents from a high-poverty urban neighborhood. In this article, we present the results of the pilot phase of the study in which we documented the behavior of 10 adolescents from Camden, New Jersey, the fifth poorest city in the United States, and explored with them their perceptions of the decisions they made and the factors that gave rise to them. We found that participants had an insufficient understanding of their health problems and consequences of their health actions, problems in understanding and being understood by health care professionals, and reluctance to involve parents in routine health care decisions. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to improving the health of vulnerable youth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, L; Smith, T; Havsager, A M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic yield and to describe the spectrum of diagnosis encountered by evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 198 patients referred to a department of neurology...... with symptoms suggestive of polyneuropathy. The evaluation included nerve conduction studies with near-nerve technique, quantitative examination of temperature sensation, blood tests, chest x-rays, and skin biopsies as well as diagnostic tests for differential diagnoses. RESULTS: Polyneuropathy was found in 147......%), drugs (5%), connective tissue disease (3%), and a number of less frequent conditions. A previously undiagnosed condition was found in 30% of the patients with polyneuropathy. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of polyneuropathy reveals a high fraction of patients with previously...

  8. Career Path Suggestion using String Matching and Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Akshay; P. Panda, Supriya

    2015-05-01

    High school and college graduates seemingly are often battling for the courses they should major in order to achieve their target career. In this paper, we worked on suggesting a career path to a graduate to reach his/her dream career given the current educational status. Firstly, we collected the career data of professionals and academicians from various career fields and compiled the data set by using the necessary information from the data. Further, this was used as the basis to suggest the most appropriate career path for the person given his/her current educational status. Decision trees and string matching algorithms were employed to suggest the appropriate career path for a person. Finally, an analysis of the result has been done directing to further improvements in the model.

  9. What makes your brain suggestible? Hypnotizability is associated with differential brain activity during attention outside hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojan, Yann; Piguet, Camille; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-08-15

    Theoretical models of hypnosis have emphasized the importance of attentional processes in accounting for hypnotic phenomena but their exact nature and brain substrates remain unresolved. Individuals vary in their susceptibility to hypnosis, a variability often attributed to differences in attentional functioning such as greater ability to filter irrelevant information and inhibit prepotent responses. However, behavioral studies of attentional performance outside the hypnotic state have provided conflicting results. We used fMRI to investigate the recruitment of attentional networks during a modified flanker task in High and Low hypnotizable participants. The task was performed in a normal (no hypnotized) state. While behavioral performance did not reliably differ between groups, components of the fronto-parietal executive network implicated in monitoring (anterior cingulate cortex; ACC), adjustment (lateral prefrontal cortex; latPFC), and implementation of attentional control (intraparietal sulcus; IPS) were differently activated depending on the hypnotizability of the subjects: the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was more recruited, whereas IPS and ACC were less recruited by High susceptible individuals compared to Low. Our results demonstrate that susceptibility to hypnosis is associated with particular executive control capabilities allowing efficient attentional focusing, and point to specific neural substrates in right prefrontal cortex. We demonstrated that outside hypnosis, low hypnotizable subjects recruited more parietal cortex and anterior cingulate regions during selective attention conditions suggesting a better detection and implementation of conflict. However, outside hypnosis the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was more recruited by highly hypnotizable subjects during selective attention conditions suggesting a better control of conflict. Furthermore, in highly hypnotizable subjects this region was more connected to the default mode network

  10. [Adolescents' knowledge and behavior on sexuality, infectious transmitted diseases, and human papillomavirus vaccination: results of a survey in a French high school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, C; Duron, S; Robin, F; Verret, C; Imbert, P

    2013-08-01

    Teenager sexuality is a public health issue. In teenagers attending a high school, we assessed their knowledge and behavior on sexuality, infectious transmitted diseases, human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination, and cervical cancer. Then in girls, we estimated the anti-HPV vaccination coverage and focused on factors associated with poor knowledge of these topics. This was a knowledge, attitudes, and practices cross-sectional study conducted at the beginning of the 2010-2011 school year in the Saint-Cyr military high school, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Among 669 adolescents (M/F sex-ratio, 2.3; mean age, 17 years [IC 95%, 15-20]), 40% had already had sex and 92% had used contraception. Boys and girls had a poor level of knowledge on infectious transmitted diseases. Regarding knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer, a better level was significantly associated with female gender (P=10(-4)). In multivariate analysis, male gender, age under 18 years, lack of dialogue with parents on these subjects, low socioeconomic status of parents, and absence of health education were significantly associated with poor knowledge on these topics. These data should help healthcare providers better target access and content of sexual health education training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. World Cup's impact on mental health and lifestyle behaviors in the general population: comparing results of 2 serial population-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph Tai Fai; Tsui, Hi Yi; Mo, Phoenix Kit Han; Mak, Winnie Wing Sze; Griffiths, Sian

    2015-03-01

    This study compares the prevalence of health-related behaviors and mental health well-being in the Hong Kong general male population before and after the 2006 World Cup finals. Two anonymous, serial, comparable cross-sectional surveys. A total of 500 and 530 adult Chinese men, respectively, were interviewed in 2 telephone surveys before and after the finals. Those interviewed after the World Cup were more likely to eat snacks more than 3 d/wk, to be binge drinkers, or to spend more than 2 h/d communicating with family members. They were less likely to have higher General Health Questionnaire or lower Short Form-36 Health Survey Vitality scores (odds ratio [OR] = 0.684 and 0.765), to perceive family-related or work-related stress (OR = 0.327 and 0.345), or to self-report being sick or have visited a doctor (OR = 0.645 and 0.722). All variables between watchers versus nonwatchers of World Cup games were significant or marginally significant. Public health education should be incorporated into global sport events. © 2013 APJPH.

  12. Transit pipelines suggest a tendency to produce conflict and disagreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.

    2009-01-01

    Any reading to the history of transit pipeline suggests a tendency to produce conflict and disagreement, often resulting to the cessation of throughput, sometimes for a short period and sometimes for longer. That bad political relation between neighbours have certain a role, but very important is the economic nature of the transit terms, tariff and off take terms. What might be done to improve this record in the future and make transit pipeline less vulnerable and troublesome? [it

  13. ‘‘The Internet is a Mask’’: High School Students’ Suggestions for Preventing Cyberbullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra N. Parris

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Interactions through technology have an important impact on today’s youth. While some of these interactions are positive, there are concerns regarding students engaging in negative interactions like cyberbullying behaviors and the negative impact these behaviors have on others. The purpose of the current study was to explore participant suggestions for both students and adults for preventing cyberbullying incidents. Methods: Forty high school students participated in individual, semi-structured interviews. Participant experiences and perceptions were coded using constant comparative methods to illustrate ways in which students and adults may prevent cyberbullying from occurring within their school and community. Results: Students reported that peers would benefit from increasing online security, as well as becoming more aware of their cyber-surroundings. Regarding adult-provided prevention services, participants often discussed that there is little adults can do to reduce cyberbullying. Reasons included the difficulties in restricting online behaviors or providing effective consequences. However, some students did discuss the use of in-school curricula while suggesting that adults blame people rather than technology as potential ways to prevent cyberbullying. Conclusion: Findings from the current study indicate some potential ways to improve adult efforts to prevent cyberbullying. These strategies include parent/teacher training in technology and cyberbullying, interventions focused more on student behavior than technology restriction, and helping students increase their online safety and awareness.

  14. Teaching Mathematics to Secondary Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Challenges and Practical Suggestions for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Candace A.; Krezmien, Michael; Maccini, Paula

    2014-01-01

    While the Common Core State Standards and state learning standards guide teachers in what mathematical content knowledge should be addressed as well as the processes and proficiencies necessary for developing mathematical competence, several student- and teacher-related factors may hinder student access to the general education curriculum for…

  15. Clustering of multiple energy balance related behaviors is associated with body fat composition indicators in adolescents: Results from the HELENA and ELANA studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Naiara Ferraz; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba María; Androutsos, Odysseas; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; de Oliveira, Alessandra Silva Dias; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; de Moraes, Anelise Bezerra de Vasconcelos; Van den Bussche, Karen; Censi, Laura; González-Gross, Marcela; Cañada, David; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; Marcos, Ascensión; Widhalm, Kurt; Mólnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis Alberto

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify clustering patterns of four energy balance-related behaviors (EBRB): television (TV) watching, moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V), and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), among European and Brazilian adolescents. EBRB associations with different body fat composition indicators were then evaluated. Participants included adolescents from eight European countries in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescents) study (n = 2,057, 53.8% female; age: 12.5-17.5 years) and from the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil in the ELANA study (the Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study) (n = 968, 53.2% female; age: 13.5-19 years). EBRB data allowed for sex- and study-specific clusters. Associations were estimated by ANOVA and odds ratios. Five clustering patterns were identified. Four similar clusters were identified for each sex and study. Among boys, different cluster identified was characterized by high F&V consumption in the HELENA study and high TV watching and high MVPA time in the ELANA study. Among girls, the different clusters identified was characterized by high F&V consumption in both studies and, additionally, high SSB consumption in the ELANA study. Regression analysis showed that clusters characterized by high SSB consumption in European boys; high TV watching, and high TV watching plus high MVPA in Brazilian boys; and high MVPA, and high SSB and F&V consumption in Brazilian girls, were positively associated with different body fat composition indicators. Common clusters were observed in adolescents from Europe and Brazil, however, no cluster was identified as being completely healthy or unhealthy. Each cluster seems to impact on body composition indicators, depending on the group. Public health actions should aim to promote adequate practices of EBRB. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Feeding Strategies Derived from Behavioral Economics and Psychology Can Increase Vegetable Intake in Children as Part of a Home-Based Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravener, Terri L; Schlechter, Haley; Loeb, Katharine L; Radnitz, Cynthia; Schwartz, Marlene; Zucker, Nancy; Finkelstein, Stacey; Wang, Y Claire; Rolls, Barbara J; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral economics and psychology have been applied to altering food choice, but most studies have not measured food intake under free-living conditions. To test the effects of a strategy that pairs positive stimuli (ie, stickers and cartoon packaging) with vegetables and presents them as the default snack. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with children who reported consumption of fewer than two servings of vegetables daily. Children (aged 3 to 5 years) in both control (n=12) and treatment (n=12) groups received a week's supply of plainly packaged (ie, generic) vegetables, presented by parents as a free choice with an alternative snack (granola bar), during baseline (Week 1) and follow-up (Week 4). During Weeks 2 and 3, the control group continued to receive generic packages of vegetables presented as a free choice, but the treatment group received vegetables packaged in containers with favorite cartoon characters and stickers inside, presented by parents as the default choice. Children in the treatment group were allowed to opt out of the vegetables and request the granola bar after an imposed 5-minute wait. General Linear Model repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare vegetable and granola bar intake between control and treatment groups across the 4-week study. Both within- and between-subjects models were tested. A time×treatment interaction on vegetable intake was significant. The treatment group increased vegetable intake from baseline to Week 2 relative to control (Ppsychology in the home to increase children's vegetable intake and decrease intake of a high-energy-density snack. Additional studies are needed to test the long-term sustainability of these practices. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Work-focused cognitive behavioral intervention for psychological complaints in patients on sick leave due to work-related stress: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, Vita Ligaya; Andersen, Lars Peter Sønderbo; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Willert, Morten Vejs; Carstensen, Ole; Glasscock, David John

    2017-08-22

    Work-related stress is a global problem with negative implications for individuals and society. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a stress management intervention for patients on sick leave due to work-related stress complaints using a three-armed randomized controlled design. Participants were patients referred from three municipalities to the regional Department of Occupational Medicine. Inclusion criteria were: 1) sick leave due to work-related stress complaints, 2) a diagnosis of adjustment disorder or reactions to severe stress (ICD 10 code: F43,2 - F 43,9 not PTSD) or mild depressive episode (F 32.0). Through a double randomization procedure patients (n = 163) were randomized to either an intervention group (n = 58), a 'control group A' receiving a clinical examination (n = 56), or 'control group B' (n = 49) receiving no offers at the department. The intervention comprised six sessions of individual cognitive behavioral therapy and the offer of a small workplace intervention. Questionnaire data were analyzed with multivariate repeated measurements analysis. Primary outcomes assessed were perceived stress and general mental health. Secondary outcomes were sleep quality and cognitive failures. Follow-up was at four and 10 months after baseline. Complaints were significantly reduced in all groups over time. No group effects were observed between the intervention group and control group A that was clinically assessed. Significant group effects were found for perceived stress and memory when comparing the intervention group to group B, but most likely not due to an intervention effect. Psychological complaints improved substantially over time in all groups, but there was no significant treatment effect on any outcomes when the intervention group was compared to control group A that received a clinical assessment. ISRCTN ISRCTN91404229. Registered 03 August 2012 (retrospectively registered).

  18. Reconsidering the link between impulsivity and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Soberay, Kelly A; Gutierrez, Peter M; Hernández, Theresa D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2014-11-01

    It is widely accepted that suicidal behavior often occurs with little planning. We propose, however, that suicidal behavior is rarely if ever impulsive-that it is too frightening and physically distressing to engage in without forethought-and that suicidal behavior in impulsive individuals is accounted for by painful and fearsome behaviors capable of enhancing their capacity for suicide. We conducted a meta-analysis of the association between trait impulsivity and suicidal behavior and a critical review of research considering the impulsiveness of specific suicide attempts. Meta-analytic results suggest the relationship between trait impulsivity and suicidal behavior is small. Furthermore, studies examining a mediating role of painful and provocative behaviors have uniformly supported our model. Results from our review suggest that researchers have been unable to adequately measure impulsivity of attempts and that measures sensitive to episodic planning must be developed to further our understanding of this phenomenon. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Suicidal Behavior and Help Seeking among Diverse College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, Chris; Becker, Martin Swanbrow; Shadick, Richard; Jaggars, Shanna S.; Nitkin-Kaner, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal and help-seeking behaviors of students of color remain a significant problem on college campuses. Self-reported suicidal experiences and help-seeking behavior of diverse students are examined on the basis of results from a national survey of college student mental health. The results suggest significant differences in the expression of…

  20. Prosocial behavior and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, María Paz; Kovářík, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in “neutral” baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i) the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context; and (ii) gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies. PMID:25926783

  1. Parental stress, pediatric quality of life, and behavior at baseline and one-year follow-up: Results from the FEBSTAT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnar, Ruth C; Shinnar, Shlomo; Hesdorffer, Dale C; O'Hara, Kathryn; Conklin, Terrie; Cornett, Karen Mohler; Miazga, Diana; Sun, Shumei

    2017-04-01

    Febrile status epilepticus is a serious and frightening event in the life of the child and parent. It is regarded as a medical emergency with potential long lasting consequences. The purpose of this study was to look at the immediate and long term effects of such an event on parental stress and parents' perception of their child's physical and psychosocial wellbeing. From 2003 to 2010, 199 subjects, age 1 month to 5 years, were recruited as part of a prospective, multicenter study (FEBSTAT) of consequences of febrile status epilepticus (FSE). At one month and one year after the episode of FSE, parents were asked to complete the Parenting Stress Index, short form (PSI/SF), the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). In addition to PedsQL and CBCL in the FEBSTAT subjects only, a comparison was made between Columbia Study of First Febrile Seizures subjects with a first simple febrile seizure (SFS) and the FEBSTAT group, including 15 subjects with FSE from the Columbia group, in the area of parental stress which was administered at the same time intervals in both studies. At baseline, the PSI/SF was statistically significantly higher for SFS versus FSE on the parent-child dysfunctional score and the total raw score, however at one year this difference resolved. In the FSE group, significantly higher parental stress over one year was reported in children with abnormal versus normal prior development (p= 0.02). Prior abnormal development was a risk factor at 1 year for lower total PEDSQL (p=0.01) versus prior normal development. Mean scores on the CBCL at baseline and 1 year were within the normal range for both empirically based scales and major risk factors. Parents of children experiencing a SFS experienced more stress at baseline than those with FSE. Families of children in the FEBSTAT cohort with identified development problems at baseline that continued, or progressed over the one year period, reported decreasing QOL

  2. A study on corium melt pool behavior under external vessel cooling : investigation of the first phase research results in the OECD RASPLAV project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae Joon; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong; Yoo, Kun Joong

    1998-04-01

    The scope and contents of the OECD RASPLAV program are to investigate natural convection heat transfer in the corium, chemical and mechanical interaction between the corium and the reactor vessel, crust formation of the corium, and thermal behaviour of the corium by experiments and model development during external vessel cooling to prevent reactor vessel failure in severe accidents of nuclear power plant. This study includes evaluation and analysis of the RASPLAV V phase I results for three years between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1997. These results supply technical basis for our experimental program on severe accident research. Two large-scale experiments of RASPLAV-AW-between the corium and the reactor vessel. Several small-scale experiments were conducted to analyze thermal stratification in the corium. The salt experiments were conducted to estimate the crust and the mushy region formation, and natural convection heat transfer in the corium. In the analytical studies, pre and post analysis of the RASPLAV-AW-200 experiments and evaluation of the salt test results have been performed using CONV 2 and 3D computer codes, which were developed during RASPLAV program phase I. Low density corium was separated from the high density corium during the RASPLAV-AW-200 tests and the TULPAN test, which was a new finding in the RASPLAV project phase I. From the salts test, heat flux distribution in the side wall heating case is similar to the direct internal heat generation case, and the crust formation is a little effect on heat transfer rate. The results of CONV 2 and 3 D were very well with with the experimental results. The results of RASLAV project phase I, such as furnace design and the techniques on fuel melting, are very helpful to our severe accident experimental program. (author). 57 refs., 13 tabs., 52 figs.

  3. Suggested PAZ Size of Pressurized Light Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Jeong, Seung Young [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, preliminary calculation results to suggest PAZ size are presented. PSA methodology and RASCAL code were used to calculate PAZ size. Suggested radius of PAZ from the preliminary calculation results is between 0.8 and 4.8 km. These results were calculated with simple assumptions and only considered technical aspect, such as fission product release characteristics and radioactive material dispersion in environment. The actual boundaries of PAZ need to be defined by site specific information, such as local landmarks and population distribution. The results in this study can be used as base information to stakeholders and decision makers who are response in arrangement of emergency preparedness. The goals of the protective actions during nuclear accident are to prevent the occurrence of severe deterministic effects and keep the dose below the level at which protective actions and other response actions are justified to reduce the risk of stochastic effects. To meet these goals, off-site emergency zones for taking urgent protective action have to be identified in advance, i.e. during emergency preparedness phase. Especially Precautionary Action Zone (PAZ) is defined by the international requirement as the area within which arrangements should be made to implement precautionary urgent protective actions before or shortly after a major release with the aim of preventing or reducing the occurrence of severe deterministic effect. However, PAZ is not introduced in domestic emergency preparedness system.

  4. Symptoms of emotional, behavioral, and social difficulties in the Danish population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes – results of a national survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lene Juel; Birkebæk, Niels; Mose, Anne

    2014-01-01

    AND METHOD: A total of 786 children and adolescents (8-17 years) recruited through the Danish Registry of Childhood Diabetes completed subscales of the Beck's Youth Inventories (BYI-Y), while 910 caregivers completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The participants also completed...... questionnaires assessing adherence and quality of life. BYI-Y and SDQ responses were compared with results from normative samples. RESULTS: Children with diabetes generally reported a lower level of symptoms of depression and anxiety, while older adolescents in most cases were comparable to the normative samples...

  5. US/French Joint Research Program regarding the behavior of polymer base materials subjected to beta radiation. Volume 1. Phase-1 normalization results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyant, F.J.; Buckalew, W.H.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Gaussens, G.; Le Tutour, P.; Le Meur, M.

    1986-06-01

    As part of the ongoing multi-year joint NRC/CEA international cooperative test program to investigate the dose-damage equivalence of gamma and beta radiation on polymer base materials, dosimetry and ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) specimens were exchanged, irradiated, and evaluated for property changes at research facilities in the US (Sandia National Laboratories) and France (Compagnie ORIS Industrie). The purpose of this Phase-1 test series was to normalize and cross-correlate the results obtained by one research center to the other, in terms of exposure (1.0 MeV accelerated electrons and 60 Co gammas) and postirradiation testing (ultimate elongation and tensile strength, hardness, and density) techniques. The dosimetry and material specimen results indicate good agreement between the two countries regarding the exposure conditions and postirradiation evaluation techniques employed

  6. Seasonal and global behavior of water vapor in the Mars atmosphere: Complete global results of the Viking atmospheric water detector experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakosky, B.M.; Farmer, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The water vapor content of the Mars atmosphere was measured from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) for a period of more than 1 Martian year, from June 1976 through April 1979. Results are presented in the form of global maps of column abundance for 24 periods throughout each Mars year. The data reduction incorporates spatial and seasonal variations in surface pressure and supplements earlier published versions of less complete data

  7. A critical review of “Internet addiction” criteria with suggestions for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN ROOIJ, ANTONIUS J.; PRAUSE, NICOLE

    2014-01-01

    Aims: In the last 5 years a deluge of articles on the topic of Internet addiction (IA) has proposed many candidate symptoms as evidence of this proposed disease. We critically reviewed the current approach to the measurement and identification of this new excessive behavior syndrome. Methods: Three popular models of IA were discussed: Griffith’s components model; Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT); and the criteria by Tao et al. (2010). We selected these models because they are widely cited and propose specific criteria for IA disorder. Our approach is not meant to provide an exhaustive review, but to discuss and critique the most salient trends in the field. Results: The models of Internet addiction share some criteria, including feeling a loss of control over Internet use; ensuing psychological, social, or professional conflict or problems; and preoccupation when not using the Internet. Other criteria inconsistently mentioned include: mood management, tolerance, withdrawal, and craving/anticipation. The models studied here share the assumption that the Internet can produce a qualitative shift to a diseased state in humans. Conclusions: We critically discussed the above criteria and concluded that the evidence base is currently not strong enough to provide support for an Internet addiction disorder. Future research areas are suggested: (1) Focusing on common impaired dimensions, (2) exploring neuroimaging as a model building tool, and (3) identifying shifts in the rewarding aspects of Internet use. Given the lack of consensus on the subject of Internet addiction, a focus on problem behaviors appears warranted. PMID:25592305

  8. Some suggestions for the DSM-5 schizotypal personality disorder construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund

    2012-05-01

    This study relates to the schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) proposal of the upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) by investigating the construct validity of SPD as defined by DSM-IV in a large sample of patients from the Norwegian Network of Personality-Focused Treatment Programs (N = 2619), assessed by structured diagnostic interviews and the Longitudinal, Expert All Data standard. We investigated factor structure and psychometric properties of the SPD criteria, as well as co-occurrence patterns between SPD and other PDs. Thirty-six patients were diagnosed with SPD and 513 patients (21%) endorsed at least 2 schizotypal criteria. We found that 2 factors were specific for SPD, a cognitive-perceptual factor (ideas of reference, magical thinking, and unusual perceptual experiences) and an oddness factor (odd thinking and speech, constricted affect, and odd appearance or behavior). The criteria belonging to these factors had appropriate psychometric properties. The criteria of the cognitive-perceptual factor were more strongly associated with borderline personality disorder (PD) than with the other PDs. We did not find support for a consistent factor that reflected interpersonal problems. The criteria that used to be part of this factor (suspiciousness, lack of friends or confidants, and excessive social anxiety) performed poorly as specific SPD criteria. SPD was more strongly associated with antisocial PD and paranoid PD than with the other PDs. We suggest that ideas of reference should be included explicitly under the schizotypal facet of cognitive dysregulation in DSM-5, with less emphasis on the social phobic aspects of this feature. Furthermore, there should be more emphasis on the cognitive aspects of suspiciousness in SPD, and it should be considered to split up the affectivity criterion into constricted affect and inappropriate affect, with the latter type of affect being the expression of problems with

  9. Metabolic cost of level-ground walking with a robotic transtibial prosthesis combining push-off power and nonlinear damping behaviors: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanggang Feng; Jinying Zhu; Qining Wang

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in robotic technology are facilitating the development of robotic prostheses. Our previous studies proposed a lightweight robotic transtibial prosthesis with a damping control strategy. To improve the performance of power assistance, in this paper, we redesign the prosthesis and improve the control strategy by supplying extra push-off power. A male transtibial amputee subject volunteered to participate in the study. Preliminary experimental results show that the proposed prosthesis with push-off control improves energy expenditure by a percentage ranged from 9.72 % to 14.99 % for level-ground walking compared with the one using non-push-off control.

  10. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos S. Efraimidis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to offer high quality personalized POI (point of interest recommendations. To protect user privacy, we apply a privacy by design approach within all of the steps of creating Pythia. The outcome is a system that comprises important architectural and operational innovations. The system is designed to process sensitive personal data, such as location traces, browsing history and web searches (query logs, to automatically infer user preferences and build corresponding POI-based user profiles. These profiles are then used by a contextual suggestion engine to anticipate user choices and make POI recommendations for tourists. Privacy leaks are minimized by implementing an important part of the system functionality at the user side, either as a mobile app or as a client-side web application, and by taking additional precautions, like data generalization, wherever necessary. As a proof of concept, we present a prototype that implements the aforementioned mechanisms on the Android platform accompanied with certain web applications. Even though the current prototype focuses only on location data, the results from the evaluation of the contextual suggestion algorithms and the user experience feedback from volunteers who used the prototype are very positive.

  11. Adaptive Selling and Organizational Characteristics: Suggestions For Future Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vink (Jaap); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper the relationship between adaptive selling and organizational behavior is analysed. Specifically, it is discovered that adaptive behavior is a multifaceted concept which is not linearly related to the organizational characteristics in the way it was operationalized in a

  12. Tactile defensiveness and stereotyped behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, G T; Foster, L G; Berkson, G

    1997-02-01

    This study explores the constructs of stereotyped behaviors (e.g., repetitive motor patterns, object manipulations, behavioral rigidities) and tactile defensiveness as relevant to occupational therapy theory and practice and attempts to test their purported relationships in children with developmental disabilities. Twenty-eight children with developmental disabilities and autism were assessed on eight factors of stereotyped behavior via a questionnaire and by four measures of tactile defensiveness. The subjects' scores from the questionnaire were correlated with their scores on the tactile defensiveness measures to see what, if any, relationship among these behaviors exists. Significant relationships emerged from the data, indicating that subjects with higher levels of tactile defensiveness were also more likely to evidence rigid or inflexible behaviors, repetitive verbalizations, visual stereotypes, and abnormal focused affections that are often associated with autism. No significant association was found between motor and object stereotypes and tactile defensiveness. These relationships could not be explained solely by maturational factors. The results suggest that clinicians should include observations of stereotyped behaviors, particularly behavioral rigidities, in conjunction with assessments of sensory defensiveness because these are related phenomena that may pose unique challenges for children with developmental disabilities and autism. Further study is needed to determine the causal mechanisms responsible for these relationships.

  13. Recommendations and Suggestions of the IRRS Mission in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.

    2016-01-01

    According to the Act on Radiological and Nuclear Safety, Director General of the State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety (SORNS) is obliged to conduct self-assessment of the national legislative framework and of the competent authorities and to provide for international audit of important segments of the national legislative framework and competent authorities with the purpose of continuous improvement of radiological and nuclear safety. SORNS as a state administration body competent for activities pertaining to radiological and nuclear safety, submitted in April 2013 the request to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to conduct an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission. SORNS conducted a self-assessment in preparation for the mission and prepared a preliminary action plan. The results of SORNS self-assessment and supporting documentation were provided to the IRRS review team as advance reference material for the mission. IRRS mission took place in Zagreb from 7 to 17 Jun 2015. The IRRS team carried out the review in the following areas: responsibilities and functions of the government; the global nuclear safety regime; responsibilities and functions of the regulatory body; the management system of the regulatory body; the activities of the regulatory body including authorization, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement processes; development and content of regulations and guides; emergency preparedness and response; occupational radiation protection, patient protection, public and environmental exposure control, waste management and decommissioning. The IRRS team identified a number of recommendations and suggestions where improvements in the area of radiological and nuclear safety are necessary or desirable. Those recommendations and suggestions were translated and approved by the Government in the form of the Governmental conclusion. This conclusion presents the action plan for the SORNS and other governmental bodies and

  14. Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards

  15. Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards.

  16. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai; Chen, Zonghai; Liu, Chengfei; Huang, He; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate

  17. [Reading behavior and preferences regarding subscriptions to scientific journals : Results of a survey of members of the German Society for General and Visceral Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronellenfitsch, U; Klinger, C; Buhr, H J; Post, S

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of surgical literature is to publish the latest study results and to provide continuing medical education to readers. For optimal allocation of resources, institutional subscribers, professional societies and scientific publishers require structured data on reading and subscription preferences of potential readers of surgical literature. To obtain representative data on the preferences of German general and visceral surgeons regarding reading of and subscription to scientific journals. All members of the German Society for General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV) were invited to participate in a web-based survey. Questions were asked on the affiliation and position of the member, individual journal subscriptions, institutional access to scientific journals, preferences regarding electronic or print articles and special subscriptions for society members. Answers were descriptively analyzed. A total of 630 out of 4091 (15 %) members participated in the survey and 73 % of the respondents had at least 1 individual subscription to a scientific journal. The most frequently subscribed journal was Der Chirurg (47 % of respondents). The institutional access to journals was deemed insufficient by 48 % of respondents, predominantly in primary care hospitals and outpatient clinics. Almost half of the respondents gave sufficient importance to reading printed versions of articles for which they would pay extra fees. A group subscription for society members was perceived as advantageous as long as no relevant extra costs were incurred. This structured survey among members of the DGAV provides data on preferences regarding reading of and subscription to scientific journals. Individual subscriptions to journals are still common, possibly due to suboptimal institutional access particularly at smaller non-academic institutions. In an age of online publications it seems surprising that many respondents place a high value on printed versions. The results are relevant for

  18. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Diouf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI and body composition. Methodology: 156 pupils 8–11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z-score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results: PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24 in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA was achieved by 54.8% (n = 23 of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004. Conclusions: The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children.

  19. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal) Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Adama; Thiam, Mbeugué; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diongue, Ousmane; Mégné, Ndé; Diallo, Khady; Sembène, Pape Malick; Wade, Salimata

    2016-10-10

    Background : Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA) levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI) and body composition. Methodology : 156 pupils 8-11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z -score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA) in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results : PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24) in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day) in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) was achieved by 54.8% ( n = 23) of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day) children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004). Conclusions : The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children.

  20. Concomitant Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Computer-Assisted Training for the Rehabilitation of Attention in Traumatic Brain Injured Patients: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Katiuscia; Galetto, Valentina; Dimitri, Danilo; Geda, Elisabetta; Perotti, Francesca; Zettin, Marina; Geminiani, Giuliano C

    2016-01-01

    Divided attention (DA), the ability to distribute cognitive resources among two or more simultaneous tasks, may be severely compromised after traumatic brain injury (TBI), resulting in problems with numerous activities involved with daily living. So far, no research has investigated whether the use of non-invasive brain stimulation associated with neuropsychological rehabilitation might contribute to the recovery of such cognitive function. The main purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of 10 transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) sessions combined with computer-assisted training; it also intended to explore the neural modifications induced by the treatment. Thirty-two patients with severe TBI participated in the study: 16 were part of the experimental group, and 16 part of the control group. The treatment included 20' of tDCS, administered twice a day for 5 days. The electrodes were placed on the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. Their location varied across patients and it depended on each participant's specific area of damage. The control group received sham tDCS. After each tDCS session, the patient received computer-assisted cognitive training on DA for 40'. The results showed that the experimental group significantly improved in DA performance between pre- and post-treatment, showing faster reaction times (RTs), and fewer omissions. No improvement was detected between the baseline assessment (i.e., 1 month before treatment) and the pre-training assessment, or within the control group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, obtained on the experimental group during a DA task, showed post-treatment lower cerebral activations in the right superior temporal gyrus (BA 42), right and left middle frontal gyrus (BA 6), right postcentral