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Sample records for behavior puberty fertility

  1. Puberty and fertility in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, B.J.; Stikkelbroeck, M.M.L.; Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a disorder of adrenal steroid synthesis. The symptoms and signs of CAH depend on the degree of enzyme deficiency; severe salt-wasting (SW) form, less severe simple virilizing (SV) form and mild nonclassic (NC) form. In this paper, puberty and fertility in CAH

  2. HYPERANDROGENISM OF PUBERTY AGE AS A FACTOR REDUCING FERTILITY

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    E. M. Bogatyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Hyperandrogenism is a common cause of infertility in women. The onset of symptoms of hyperandrogenism takes place during puberty in the majority of women. Hyperandrogenism reduces reproductive potential,so early detection and development of its prognostic factors, allows us to solve serious problems of puberty and prevent infertility.Materials and methods. 113 adolescent girls with hyperandrogenism from 14 to 19 years were included. The control group consists of 25 healthy girls of a similar age. To confirm the prediction of decreased reproductive capacity were examined 35 women with hyperandrogenism from 19 to 36 years. In addition to routine methods of examination (anamnesis, physical examination, anthropometry, assessment of the hairline using Ferriman – Gallwey scale, ultrasound of the pelvic organs, the definition of the hormonal status (LH, FSH, prolactin, 17-OHP, estradiol, TSH, DHEAS-s, GHPG, testosterone, glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance test and dexamethasone suppression test when necessary.Results. We have proved the reduction of reproductive potential of adolescent girls with high free androgen index (FAI. When the FAI has increased from 36 to 100 conventional units it caused reduction of the reproductive capacity in 9.7 times in comparison with control group (χ2=56,24; p < 0.001; overall prediction accuracy of 92.8%.Conclusion. Free androgen index more than 36 conventional units is a high risk factor of reduced fertility.

  3. Incidence, puberty, and fertility in 45,X/47,XXX mosaicism: Report of a patient and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Han Hyuk; Kil, Hong Ryang; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2017-05-09

    Turner syndrome (TS), characterized by short stature and premature ovarian failure, is caused by chromosomal aberrations with total or partial loss of one of the two X chromosomes. Spontaneous puberty, menarche, and pregnancy occur in some patients depending on the abnormality of the X. Moreover, spontaneous pregnancy is uncommon (XXX karyotype is extremely rare. Previous reports have demonstrated that TS with 45,X/47,XXX is less severe than common TS due to higher occurrence of puberty (83%), menarche (57-67%), and fertility (14%) and lower occurrence of congenital anomalies (XXX mosaicism who presented with short stature. She showed mild TS phenotype including short stature but had spontaneous puberty. Based on our case and previous reports, we expect that girls with 45,X/47,XXX mosaicism may progress through puberty normally, without estrogen therapy. Therefore, it is necessary to consider specific guidelines for clinical decisions surrounding pubertal development and fertility in TS with 45,X/47,XXX karyotype. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Relationships among body composition, circulating concentrations of leptin and follistatin, and the onset of puberty and fertility in young female sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Thompson, A N; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Hedger, M P; Ferguson, M B; Martin, G B

    2014-12-30

    The onset of puberty depends on the attainment of critical body mass, so should also be affected by increases in the rate of accumulation of muscle and adipose tissue. Adipose tissue and reproduction are linked by leptin. For muscle, a link has not yet been identified, although one possibility is follistatin. We assessed the relationships among circulating concentrations of follistatin and leptin and the rates of growth and accumulation of muscle and fat during pubertal development in female sheep. We used 326 animals with known phenotypic values for live weight (LW), depths of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT), and known breeding values at post-weaning age for body mass (PWT) and depths of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). Leptin concentration was positively correlated with values for EMD, PEMD, FAT, PFAT, LW and PWT (PLeptin concentration was negatively related to age and positively related to live weight at first oestrus and the proportion of females that attained puberty (P≤0.05), and to fertility and reproductive rate (Pleptin concentration, and between muscle accumulation and reproductive performance. We conclude that leptin and follistatin are probably both involved in effects of accelerated accumulation of muscle and adipose tissues on the onset of puberty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Delayed puberty can be a source of great concern and anxiety, although it usually is caused by a self-limiting variant of the normal physiological timing named constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Delayed puberty can, however, also be the first presentation of a permanent condition ...... mineral density) and psychological (e.g., low self-esteem) and underline the importance of careful clinical assessment of the patients.......Delayed puberty can be a source of great concern and anxiety, although it usually is caused by a self-limiting variant of the normal physiological timing named constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Delayed puberty can, however, also be the first presentation of a permanent condition...

  6. Puberty and adolescent sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodgers, J L; Kohler, H P; Kyvik, K O

    2001-01-01

    Try) and number of children (NumCh). Behavior genetic models were fitted using structural equation modeling and DF analysis. A consistent medium-level additive genetic influence was found for NumCh, equal across genders; a stronger genetic influence was identified for FirstTry, greater for females than for males......Behavior genetic designs and analysis can be used to address issues of central importance to demography. We use this methodology to document genetic influence on human fertility. Our data come from Danish twin pairs born from 1953 to 1959, measured on age at first attempt to get pregnant (First...

  8. Psychosocial aspects of fertility behavior: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H P

    1981-06-01

    Selected aspects of decision making in fertility behavior are reviewed. Attention is directed to assessing motivational determinants, the value of children, the concept of "wantedness," delayed childbearing, and adolescent fertility. A woman's decision to use or not to use a birth control method is heavily influenced by partner interaction. The perception of the partner's attitudes and degree of control in the couple relationship are likely to affect the type of method used, the consistency of contraceptive practice, and the resolution of eventual pregnancies. The present generation in many countries is the 1st to be involved in the conscious process of deciding when and how many children to have and to discontinue contraception. The psychosocial model of fertility behaviour emphasizes the subjective assessment of the environment by the individual and the importance of the 2 partners in a couple influencing each other's perceptions and choice behavior. A key feature of successful couple planning behavior is their joint ability to anticipate future outcomes, plan ahead, and develop contingency alternatives. The history of attempts to explain and delineate motivational determinants of fertility behavior is long and filled with testimonials regarding the complexity of the task. It has been well documented in cross-national studies and commentaries that the pleasures which parents experience in raising their children are highly valued. The gradual transition in the perceived economic value of children probably reflects changing parental attitudes accompanying the secular decline in fertility rates. Reducing the number of unwanted pregnancies has been and continues to be one of the major objectives of international planned parenthood and responsible parenthood movements. No published evidence exists, however, that the unexpected, unplanned, or even unwanted pregnancy is always "bad" or that a planned pregnancy more often produces a psychologically healthy child. To date

  9. [Precocious puberty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław; Herman, Zbigniew Stanisław

    2006-04-01

    Precocious puberty is usually defined as the appearance of secondary sexual development before the age of 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys. Precocious puberty is a heterogenous condition generally divided into central and peripheral forms driven respectively by hypothalamic-pituitary axis or by excessive production of sex steroids. Taking into account the risk associated with the underlying disorder as well as the impact of precocious puberty on stature growth and development of reproductive and mental functions, this condition has important consequences for affected children and their families. In this paper, the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, laboratory and radiological features, and treatment of the disorders leading to precocious puberty are reviewed. Particular attention is devoted to the results of the recently published studies.

  10. Puberty in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well child - puberty in girls; Development - puberty in girls; Menstruation - puberty in girls; Breast development - puberty in girls ... 2 to 4 inches (5 to 10 centimeters) in a year. When you are done going through ...

  11. From desires to behavior: Moderating factors in a fertility transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Hayford

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Extensive research in both developed and developing countries has shown that preferences and intentions for future childbearing predict behavior. However, very little of this research has examined high-fertility contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the factors that increase or decrease correspondence between fertility desires and behavior in these settings are not well understood. OBJECTIVE This article documents the degree to which the desire to stop childbearing predicts fertility behavior over the short term among married women in rural southern Mozambique, a context where fertility transition is still in the early stages. Analyses test the moderating powers of individual, household, and community characteristics. METHODS Analyses use data from a longitudinal survey of married women of reproductive age (N=1678 carried out in 2006 and 2009 in rural areas of southern Mozambique. Logistic regression models are estimated to predict childbearing between 2006 and 2009 based on desires to stop childbearing and characteristics measured in 2006. RESULTS As expected, the desire to stop childbearing is strongly predictive of fertility behavior. Household wealth, local adult AIDS mortality, and being married to an unsuccessful labor migrant are associated with higher correspondence between reported desire to stop childbearing and fertility behavior. CONCLUSIONS Both factors related to the ability to carry out desires to stop childbearing and factors related to the strength and consistency of these desires moderate the association between desires and behaviors. Future research should expand measurement of fertility preferences to incorporate their strength and consistency as well as direction.

  12. From desires to behavior: Moderating factors in a fertility transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayford, Sarah R; Agadjanian, Victor

    2012-05-31

    Extensive research in both developed and developing countries has shown that preferences and intentions for future childbearing predict behavior. However, very little of this research has examined high-fertility contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the factors that increase or decrease correspondence between fertility desires and behavior in these settings are not well understood. This article documents the degree to which the desire to stop childbearing predicts fertility behavior over the short term among married women in rural southern Mozambique, a context where fertility transition is still in the early stages. Analyses test the moderating powers of individual, household, and community characteristics. Analyses use data from a longitudinal survey of married women of reproductive age (N=1678) carried out in 2006 and 2009 in rural areas of southern Mozambique. Logistic regression models are estimated to predict childbearing between 2006 and 2009 based on desires to stop childbearing and characteristics measured in 2006. As expected, the desire to stop childbearing is strongly predictive of fertility behavior. Household wealth, local adult AIDS mortality, and being married to an unsuccessful labor migrant are associated with higher correspondence between reported desire to stop childbearing and fertility behavior. Both factors related to the ability to carry out desires to stop childbearing and factors related to the strength and consistency of these desires moderate the association between desires and behaviors. Future research should expand measurement of fertility preferences to incorporate their strength and consistency as well as direction.

  13. A new approach to household fertility behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiver, D A; Cymrot, D J

    1984-01-01

    A 1st step is taken in this discussion towards the explicit theoretical recognition that fertility decisions are made by pairs of individuals who conceivably have different preferences or are in different circumstances. The focus is on disagreements between spouses over desired family size. The discussion begins by identifying the costs and benefits of child services to each spouse, which involves consideration of the type of interdependency of the utility functions as well as the nature of the externality problem in the production of child service. Specific examples are included of situations in which disagreement is likely to occur. Using the National Fertility Survey of 1965, it is possible to test whether disagreements are more likely to occur in these identified cases. 2 types of fertility conflict are predicted: the wife desires fewer children than the husband and the reverse. The National Fertility Survey (NFS) data set contains 5617 interview records. A sample of 1559 women who were married once, husband present, nonmenopausal, aged 25-39 with valid answers to all questions were selected. Husband's schooling in excess of wife's increased the probability that conflict of the husband demanding fewer children type will arise and the probability was increased at higher levels of income. The demand for quality rose with income and placed additional pressure on a husband with more education to assist (via lost leisure time) in the creation of quality. The effects were highly nonlinear. Higher levels of status of the wife's (potential) job had the predicted effect of making wife demands fewer children conflict more likely, but only through intermediate levels of status. Another variable which had a significant influence on the probability of conflict was the husband's age, with higher husband's age leading to husband demanding fewer children than wife conflict.

  14. Fertility and marriage behavior in Israel: Diversity, change, and stability

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    Barbara Okun

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Based on aggregate statistics, the population of Israel, as compared to all or most other developed societies, has very high levels of fertility and marriage (e.g. TFR of 2.96 in 2009 and only 9.7Š never married among women aged 40-44 in 2009. However, studying aggregate demographic measures is problematic, because Israel is an extremely heterogeneous society, with family formation patterns differing greatly across numerically important social groups. Until now, little has been documented about the basic fertility and marriage behavior of different population groups. OBJECTIVE We describe the fertility and marriage behavior of populations in Israel, broken down by nationality, religion, religiosity and nativity-status. Although our main focus is on a detailed presentation of fertility patterns, we also look at marriage behavior, as it is closely related to fertility in Israel. METHODS We analyze recently available annual data from the Israel Social Surveys for 2002-2009, which, for the first time in several decades,, provides detailed information on family and household demographic behavior and direct information on level of religiosity. We focus primarily on comparisons across cohorts born from the late 1940s to the late 1960s and between periods in the early and late 2000s. RESULTS We provide a detailed portrait of striking diversity in fertility and marriage behavior across population groups, along with important patterns of change and stability across cohorts and over time. We document findings and differential patterns, some unexpected, regarding comparisons across groups and across cohorts. CONCLUSIONS The descriptive findings form the basis for a clearer understanding of fertility and marriage patterns in different population subgroups in Israel. In addition, the reported results suggest many questions for future research, which are outlined in the paper.

  15. Biological and behavioral determinants of fertility in Tierra del Fuego.

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    Pascual, J; García-Moro, C E; Hernández, M

    2005-05-01

    The reproductive history of 182 women in postreproductive life or near menopause from the Chilean part of Tierra del Fuego was traced back by means of familial interviews. These postmenopausal women represent the population since almost the beginning of the settlement, and their reproductive years were spent on the island. Path analysis was applied to analyze fertility determinants of these women and to propose a complex model of interconnections among factors. The reproductive history of these women is characterized by a long fertile span, a short childbearing period, and low fertility. Age at menarche is relatively late, and the age of the women at first birth is mainly determined by their late age at marriage. The use of contraception is related to both spacing and stopping behaviors. The late age of women at marriage, the rhythm of conception, and practices of contraception are proposed as the main determinants of fertility in Tierra del Fuego. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The Role of Emotional Reactivity, Self-Regulation, and Puberty in Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wolff, Jennifer M.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the roles of emotional reactivity, self-regulation, and pubertal timing in prosocial behaviors during adolescence. Participants were 850 sixth graders (50 percent female, mean age = 11.03, standard deviation = 0.17) who were followed up at the age of 15. In hierarchical regression models, measures of emotional…

  17. Divergent Stress-Induced Neuroendocrine and Behavioral Responses Prior to Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Patina; Padow, Victoria A.; Franco, Daly; Hall, Baila S.; Park, Brian; Klein, Zoe A.; Romeo, Russell D.

    2012-01-01

    Following an acute stressor, pre-adolescent rats exhibit a protracted hormonal response compared to adults, while after repeated exposure to the same stressor (i.e., homotypic stress) prepubertal males fail to habituate like adults. Though the neurobehavioral implications of these changes are unknown, studying pubertal shifts in stress reactivity may help elucidate the mechanisms that underlie the increase in stress-related psychological and physiological disorders often observed during adolescence. Here, we investigated hormonal, behavioral, and neural responses of prepubertal (30d) and adult (77d) male rats before, during, or after acute stress (restraint), homotypic stress (repeated restraint) or heterotypic stress (repeated cold exposure followed by restraint). We found that prepubertal males exhibit prolonged corticosterone responses following acute and heterotypic stress, and higher adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone responses after homotypic stress, compared to adults. Despite these significant age-dependent changes in hormonal responsiveness, we found struggling behavior during restraint was similar at both ages, such that both prepubertal and adult animals exposed to homotypic stress struggled less than animals exposed to either acute or heterotypic stress. Across these different stress paradigms, we found greater neural activation, as indexed by FOS immunostaining, in the prepubertal compared to adult paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, a nucleus integral for initiating the hormonal stress response. Interestingly, however, we did not find any influence of pubertal development on stress-induced activation of the posterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus, a brain region involved in experience-dependent changes in stress reactivity. Collectively, our data indicate prepubertal and adult males display divergent hormonal, behavioral, and neural responses following a variety of stressful experiences, as well as a distinct dissociation

  18. Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodgers, J L; Kohler, H P; Kyvik, K O;

    2001-01-01

    Try) and number of children (NumCh). Behavior genetic models were fitted using structural equation modeling and DF analysis. A consistent medium-level additive genetic influence was found for NumCh, equal across genders; a stronger genetic influence was identified for FirstTry, greater for females than for males...

  19. Fear learning and memory across adolescent development Hormones and Behavior Special Issue: Puberty and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattwell, Siobhan S.; Lee, Francis S.; Casey, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the past several decades, studies have uncovered a wealth of information about the neural circuitry underlying fear learning and extinction that has helped to inform treatments for fear-related disorders such as post-traumatic stress and anxiety. Yet, up to 40 percent of people do not respond to such treatments. Adolescence, in particular, is a developmental stage during which anxiety disorders peak, yet little is known about the development of fear-related neural circuitry during this period. Moreover, pharmacological and behavioral therapies that have been developed are based on mature circuitry and function. Here, we review neural circuitry implicated in fear learning and data from adolescent mouse and human fear learning studies. In addition, we propose a developmental model of fear neural circuitry that may optimize current treatments and inform when, during development, specific treatments for anxiety may be most effective. PMID:23998679

  20. Fear learning and memory across adolescent development: Hormones and Behavior Special Issue: Puberty and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattwell, Siobhan S; Lee, Francis S; Casey, B J

    2013-07-01

    Throughout the past several decades, studies have uncovered a wealth of information about the neural circuitry underlying fear learning and extinction that has helped to inform treatments for fear-related disorders such as post-traumatic stress and anxiety. Yet, up to 40% of people do not respond to such treatments. Adolescence, in particular, is a developmental stage during which anxiety disorders peak, yet little is known about the development of fear-related neural circuitry during this period. Moreover, pharmacological and behavioral therapies that have been developed are based on mature circuitry and function. Here, we review neural circuitry implicated in fear learning and data from adolescent mouse and human fear learning studies. In addition, we propose a developmental model of fear neural circuitry that may optimize current treatments and inform when, during development, specific treatments for anxiety may be most effective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Is Puberty Education Evident in Australia's First National Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Harris, Christine A.; Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2017-01-01

    The processes of puberty, including reproductive fertility and social-role transitions, now begin earlier, last longer, and are experienced in very different contexts. Because of this, all children and adolescents need good-quality puberty education in school curricula, and this need is supported by positive cost-benefit analysis and international…

  2. Interactions of Socioeconomic Determinants, Offspring Sex Preference and Fertility Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Sharp

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using path anaysis and the 5% PUMS data of the 1990 and 2000 censuses, this study examines 1 the correlation between Chinese-American sex preference for children and their fertility behavior, and 2 the interaction between the sex preference and its socioeconomic determinants. Of normative and non-normative factors investegated in this study, offspring sex preference is the greatest stimulus to Chinese fertility. Of socioeconomic variables, women’s educational attainment plays a primary role in depressing the impact of son preference in addition to their increasing stay in the host society. However, these two factors do not work on their husbands in the same way, demonstrating men’s inflexible attitudes toward gender roles in the family and in society. Son preference exerts positive impact on American-Chinese fertility and prevent from further decline. Yet, the influence has been diminishing since 1990 as observed in this study.

  3. Risky, early, controversial. Puberty in medical discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Donatella; Vinel, Virginie

    2015-10-01

    This article comes within the compass of a research program (entitled CorAge. Bodily Experiences and AgePassages among 9-13 year-olds (ANR-09-ENFT-017) conducted between 2009 and 2013 about the emergence of a "new" age in life--"preadolescence"--as instanced in France (Alsace, Lorraine) and Italy (Venetia). The impressive amount of references to "early puberty" and "precocious puberty", in a context of feeling of a premature end of childhood, led us to make an in-depth study of this issue: first, through an analysis of international and French and Italian medical journals; second, through interviews with health professionals. Following the thesis of Foucault, we assume that the discourses on puberty timing participate of classifications of the child body drenched with moral representations of childhood, especially on gender and age issue. Our results: the question of whether a secular trend in puberty timing even exists continues to be debated between American and European scientists. Second, the terms "puberty", "precocious puberty", "early puberty" have been used to indicate a variety of puberty markers, increasing confusion. A controversy has focused on early breast development in girls, because this attribute is questioning the order of ages and gender. Moreover, psychosocial factors presented as accelerating early puberty, do not demonstrate the relation between earliness and risk behavior. The literature, as it is moved by the female precocity, creates a medical category to objectify the complex and flexible process of puberty and invent female child precocity. These differences between American and European scholars and the interviews with French and Italian health professional show a gap between the international literature and practitioners, clinicians and nurses who regularly work with children: they neither find pubertal advancement, nor increase of "true precocious puberty", although they share concerns about premature feminization of girls (France) or

  4. Fertility intentions and outcomes: Implementing the Theory of Planned Behavior with graphical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarini, Letizia; Vignoli, Daniele; Gottard, Anna

    2015-03-01

    This paper studies fertility intentions and their outcomes, analyzing the complete path leading to fertility behavior according to the social psychological model of Theory Planned Behavior (TPB). We move beyond existing research using graphical models to have a precise understanding, and a formal description, of the developmental fertility decision-making process. Our findings yield new results for the Italian case which are empirically robust and theoretically coherent, adding important insights to the effectiveness of the TPB for fertility research. In line with TPB, all intentions' primary antecedents are found to be determinants of the level of fertility intentions, but do not affect fertility outcomes, being pre-filtered by fertility intentions. Nevertheless, in contrast with TPB, background factors are not fully mediated by intentions' primary antecedents, influencing directly fertility intentions and even fertility behaviors.

  5. All about Puberty (For Kids)

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    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper All About Puberty KidsHealth > For Kids > All About Puberty Print A A A What's in ... thing everyone has in common is that we all go through puberty. Usually, puberty starts between ages ...

  6. Incentives and reinforcement: a behavioral approach to fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, W M; Squier, L H

    1977-01-01

    As behavior modification has been successfully used to treat a variety of problems, it is possible that the experimental analysis of reproductive behavior will lead to scientific understanding and thus to effective and acceptable means of control. In order to be useful the applied behavior analysis must search for environmental variables that can be manipulated directly, rather than for cognitive constructs, personality dispositions, beliefs, attitudes, values, or other variables which are themselves inferences from behavior. Attention should be focused on variables such as the frequency and timing of coitus and the access to, purchase of, and use of birth control devices and services. The implications of reinforcement theory for the problem of excessive fertility fall into 2 main classes -- those that relate to the construction of social policy and those that have to do with individual adherences to social policy. Initially, a programmatic description of research consistent with behavior modification should concentrate on increasing the probability of contraceptive behavior among individuals for whom pregnancy is already undesirable. The more difficult problem of instituting formal incentive schemes to change the reinforcement value of pregnancy for those who want large families should probably be postponed until demonstrated success is available on the problem of eliminating unwanted pregnancies. An ideal experiment would be 1 in which demographically equivalent experimental and control communities (rural and urban) were examined in the context of a multiple-baseline paradigm.

  7. The influence of puberty onset, body mass index, and pressure to be thin on disordered eating behaviors in children and adolescents.

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    Tremblay, Line; Lariviere, Michel

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to verify the hypothesis that pubertal development, obesity, body satisfaction, as well as family and peer influences predict unhealthy eating habits in children and adolescents. A randomized stratified sample of young Quebecers aged 9, 13, and 16 years on March 31, 1999 [608 children aged of 9 years (325 girls and 283 boys) and 662 adolescents aged of 13 and 16 years (349 girls and 313 boys)] were used. Children's weight, height, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were recorded. Questionnaires were administered to children and a parent (usually the mother). Among 9-year-old children, this study found that weight loss or weight control behaviors were predicted mainly by the onset of puberty, lower maternal abusive control, and the level of peer pressure. Among adolescents, mother's BMI, income, peer pressure, and negative comments about the child's weight most strongly predicted behaviors to control weight, strategies to lose weight and the frequency of such behaviors. The findings suggest that both parents and children need to understand the impact of comments on a child's behavior.

  8. The Relationship of Socio-Demographic Factors, Fertility Behavior and Child’s Perceived Value with Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmoude, Elham; Behnam, Haniye; Barati-Far, Saeede; Kabirian, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Fertility intention is one of the strongest predictors of couple’s fertility behavior that is affected by many variables. This study aimed to identify the relationship of socio-demographic factors, fertility behavior, and child’s perceived value with fertility intention of women in a region in the east Iran Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 241 married women aged between 15 and 49 years of Torbat Heydariyeh City in 2015, were studied. The data collection scales included a demographic information form, fertility information questionnaire and Trommsdorff’s child value questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 by Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, t-independent test and logistic regression. The significance level of Pcosts of children (P=0.001). In addition, in subjects with children of both sexes, intention for childbearing was significantly lower when compared to subjects with only one sex in children (P=0.001). However, when the logistic regression test was performed, being housewife, number of children, having children of both sexes, benefit and costs of children showed statistical significance (Pcurrent children, having children of both sexes, and perceived childbearing costs are important in determining the odds that a woman will intend to have a child. These findings can contribute to the realization of new population programs towards higher fertility rate in the country. PMID:28409166

  9. Delayed Puberty (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Puberty en español El retraso puberal Jeff hates gym class. It's not that he minds playing soccer ... more muscular. These changes are caused by the sex hormones (testosterone in guys and estrogen in girls) ...

  10. Chromosomal abnormalities, meiotic behavior and fertility in domestic animals.

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    Villagómez, D A F; Pinton, A

    2008-01-01

    Since the advent of the surface microspreading technique for synaptonemal complex analysis, increasing interest in describing the synapsis patterns of chromosome abnormalities associated with fertility of domestic animals has been noticed during the past three decades. In spite of the number of scientific reports describing the occurrence of structural chromosome abnormalities, their meiotic behavior and gametic products, little is known in domestic animal species about the functional effects of such chromosome aberrations in the germ cell line of carriers. However, some interesting facts gained from recent and previous studies on the meiotic behavior of chromosome abnormalities of domestic animals permit us to discuss, in the frame of recent knowledge emerging from mouse and human investigations, the possible mechanism implicated in the well known association between meiotic disruption and chromosome pairing failure. New cytogenetic techniques, based on molecular and immunofluorescent analyses, are allowing a better description of meiotic processes, including gamete production. The present communication reviews the knowledge of the meiotic consequences of chromosome abnormalities in domestic animals.

  11. The roles of age at puberty and energy restriction in sow reproductive longevity: a genomic perspective

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    Approximately 50% of sows are culled annually with more than one third due to poor fertility. Our research demonstrated that age at puberty is an early pre-breeding indicator of reproductive longevity. Age at puberty can be measured early in life, has a moderate heritability and is negatively correl...

  12. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  13. Effect of nutrition education during puberty on nutritional knowledge and behavior of secondary School female students in Birjand in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Vafaee-Najar; Mahdieh Sepahi Baghan; Hossein Ebrahimipour; Mohammad Reza Miri; Habibollah Esmaily; Elahe Lael-Monfared; Nasim Mirzae

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Growth spurt during adolescence, particularly the occurrence of menstruation in girls, increases their nutritional needs. The present study aimed at determining the effect of nutrition education on nutritional knowledge and Behavior of secondary school female students in the city of Birjand. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 second grade secondary students in Birjand in 2012 were selected through two-stage cluster sampling method and were rand...

  14. Age, fertility and reproductive behavior in cuban crocodiles, Crocodylus rhombifer, at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Lauren; Watkins, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The Smithsonian's National Zoological Park (NZP) has a long history with Cuban crocodiles, Crocodylus rhombifer, beginning in 1900's when the first animals arrived at the NZP. Today, the Zoo has two breeding groups of C. rhombifer and has observed and analyzed reproductive behavior and fertility rates over the last three years. Fertility rates were determined initially by observing the formation of an opaque band that forms on the shell of a fertile egg, called banding. The fertility rates by banding were later compared to the observation made after opening the eggs to verify fertility. In addition to tracking fertility, nesting and agonistic behavior were also observed. Several notable observations were documented over the same period. These included a male predating a nesting female's eggs, increased aggression between two females housed together, the continued development of a partially banded egg, and the discovery of 19 additional egg shells post oviposition by both females in the enclosure. Here we discuss the nest phenology, fertility and behavior of the five exhibited C. rhombifer at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park over a 3-year period. Zoo Biol. 34:278-284, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  15. Agricultural pesticides and precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Samim; Goksen, Damla; Darcan, Sukran

    2014-01-01

    The onset and course of puberty is under the control of the neuroendocrine system. Factors affecting the regulation of timing and order of this system's functions may alter the onset and course of puberty. Several environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) with significant influences on the normal course of puberty have been identified. Despite the numerous animal and human studies on EDs that may extensively affect human health, there are still several issues that need to be clarified. This chapter discusses the effects of pesticides, which constitute a significant portion of disruptors and have been increasingly used in agriculture, on precocious puberty.

  16. Parental influence on fertility behavior of first generation Turkish immigrants in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosaka, Akiko; Chasiotis, Athanasios

    2010-02-01

    This study examines parental influence on the fertility behavior of Turkish women who have migrated to Germany. Using first-hand data collected from 82 migrants, it shows how the frequency of births that women have correlates with those of their mothers. Results suggest that while migrant women overall have fewer children than their mothers, there is a differing degree of parental influence on those women's fertility according to when they migrated. For women who moved to Germany before they became reproductively active, parental influence is perceptible; they are likely to have higher fertility than other members of their cohort if their mothers also had relatively high fertility. However, such a pattern does not appear to be the case for women who moved to Germany after they became reproductively active in Turkey. These results are interpreted with regard to the familial characteristics associated with both of these subgroups of Turkish women.

  17. Fertility behavior and labor force participation: a model of lexicographic choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnacion, J J

    1982-01-01

    Evidence exists that a smaller family size is usually associated with female employment and that fertility rises with family income and the wife's education at relatively low levels of income and education. Only at higher levels is there the generally expected relationship that fertility declines with more education or income. Due to the fact that a woman's labor force participation and her fertility are aspects of behavior of the same person (or couple), they should be explained by a model of choice. Such a model is presented, and empirical evidence is cited. In particular, the model allows for a fertility decline even before a decline in mortality during the demographic transition. The model of choice involves threshold values of education and income, such that the marginal effects of these variables on fertility and labor supply are qualitatively different below and above the threshold. The model is in conformity with cross-section regressions using Philippine data and appears to explain why various studies give positive, zero, or negative regression coefficients relating fertility to education and income when standard linear regression specifications are used. Such results would depend on the proportions of families falling below and above the thresholds in the sample of observations. The model also implies that the fertility effects of a child mortality decline on those proportions, meaning that one could have lower mortality without affecting fertility levels. From a policy perspective, the broad implications of the model are distrubing. Development that raises very low income and education levels would increase fertility and so would a more egalitarian distribution of the same low aggregate income. It is necessary to shift the underlying functions so that the thresholds become as low as possible, but general economic development may be too slow for this purpose.

  18. Life-course fertility patterns associated with childhood externalizing and internalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Childhood behavioral problems have been associated with earlier childbearing, but their life-course reproductive consequences are unknown. The present study examined whether and how behavioral problems assessed in childhood predict fertility patterns over the life course in women and men. Participants were 9,472 individuals from the British National Child Development Study (4,739 men and 4,733 women). Childhood externalizing and internalizing behaviors were rated by teachers at ages 7 and 11. Information on fertility history was derived from interviews at ages 33, 42, and 46, including date of pregnancy, whether the pregnancy was planned or non-planned, and pregnancy outcome (live birth, miscarriages/stillbirth, induced abortion). Transition to parenthood and fertility rate were assessed using survival analysis and age-stratified regression models. In both sexes, higher externalizing behavior was associated with higher rate of pregnancies, especially non-planned pregnancies in adolescence and early adulthood, but this association attenuated or even reversed later in adulthood. Internalizing behavior was associated with lower pregnancy rates, especially planned pregnancies and later in adulthood, and particularly in men. In women, higher internalizing behavior was also associated with earlier transition to parenthood. Externalizing behavior in women predicted higher risk of miscarriages and induced abortions, while internalizing behavior predicted lower risk for these outcomes. These findings suggest that childhood behavioral problems have long-term associations with fertility behavior over the life course, including earlier transition to parenthood, lower probability of normative family formation later in adulthood, and higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  19. Changes in marriage and fertility behavior. Behavior versus attitudes of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K A; Stief, T M

    1991-03-01

    Hoping to determine whether recent changes in marriage and fertility behavior are simply temporary or more permanent, the attitudes and values of young adults were compared to the recent trends. The data come from the 1987 wave of the National Survey of Children, which has tracked a nationally representative sample of young people since 1976. The following behaviors and their corresponding attitudes are discussed: sexual activity, pregnancy, nonmarital childbearing, abortion, marriage and cohabitation, and divorce. Also considered are how blacks and whites differ in their behavior and attitudes. Since the 1970s, the incidence of premarital intercourse has increased substantially among adolescents and has resulted in a rise in the pregnancy rate. Adolescents strongly disapprove of sexual activity among younger teens, but accept it for older adolescents. Nonmarital childbearing increased by about 50% from 1970 to 1987. Adolescents, however, generally hold negative attitudes toward adolescent pregnancy, and the majority of sexually experienced teens report wanting to avoid pregnancy. In 1985, over 40% of teens who became pregnant obtained an abortion. Adolescents are divided on the acceptability of abortion -- except in instances of rape, in which case most accept abortion. Young adults strongly favor delayed marriage and oppose divorce, feeling that couples should not get married unless they intend to stay together for life. About 1/2 of young adults approve of cohabitation and only 1/5 are opposed to nonmarital childbearing. Based on the policy implications of the findings, it is concluded that the attitudes and values of young adults do not reflect the demise of the family, as has been predicted.

  20. Status specific tailoring of sperm behavior in an external fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torvald Blikra Egeland

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Why dominant males experiencing intense sperm competition sometimes show low investments in sperm production is not always obvious. One well-documented example is that of the external fertilizing teleost, the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus, where individuals becoming dominant reduce sperm production and sperm swimming speed in water compared to subordinates. Here we report how ovarian fluid differentially influences sperm velocity of dominant and subordinate male Arctic charr. That is, sperm from dominant males increase their velocity in water diluted ovarian fluid compared to that observed in water, while sperm from subordinates, on the other hand, decrease velocity in ovarian fluid compared to that observed in water. Thus, subordinates, who invest more resources in their sperm and usually show the highest sperm velocity in water, have lower gains from their investment than dominant males when sperm are swimming in ovarian fluid. In sum, our result suggests that ovarian fluid increase sperm velocity more in dominant males than in subordinate males. Although this finding could partly be caused by cryptic female choice exerted by the ovarian fluid for sperm from dominant males, an alternative and more parsimonious explanation is that sperm from dominant males may simply be better designed for swimming in ovarian fluid compared to sperm from subordinate males. Thus, sperm production in the two reproductive roles seems to be adaptively tailored to different external environments.

  1. Puberty and type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various data on type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM have showed that the incidence of T1DM peaks at puberty. However, diabetes control and complications could be adversely affected by the physiological changes of puberty. In early years of insulin therapy, severe growth retardation with pubertal delay, like in Mauriac syndrome, have been reported. Insulin and leptin are metabolic factors, circulating in the periphery, which participate in the hypothalamic control of metabolism and reproduction. Insulin may be an important regulator of leptin in humans. Increased levels of advanced glycation end products suppress activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH pulse generator, resulting in pubertal delay. Glycemic control deteriorates during puberty as the lean body mass doubles mainly over a period of 25 years, which increases insulin requirement. There is also an increase in insulin resistance over the period of puberty. In normal individuals, fasting and postprandial insulin concentrations reach a peak in both sexes in mid to late puberty. Puberty, at all stages, has the worst insulin resistance. It has been observed that an excessive GH secretion in T1DM during puberty has significant effects on ketogenesis. Adolescent T1DM tends to decompensate very rapidly and develop ketoacidosis when the late night insulin dose is omitted. Adolescence is a critical developmental phase that presents unique challenges and opportunities to individuals with diabetes, their families and their healthcare providers.

  2. Influence of Timing of Puberty on Adolescent Boys'Depression,Anxiety and Behavioral Problems%青春期发动时相对男生抑郁、焦虑及问题行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟丹; 凌辉; 孙中平

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence of timing of puberty on adolescent boys'depression,anxiety and be-havioral problems.Methods:431 Randomly collected objectives in Hunan province from 11 to 17 years old boys,com-pleted Pubertal Development Scale,Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children,State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Chinese Secondary School Students Depression Scale.Results:①There was significant differences during puberty time,small part of boys belong to precocious puberty13.92% and late-maturing 22.74%,most boys belong to mod-erate puberty63.33%;②The scores of depression were not significant different in adolescence start time(F=1.61,P>0.05);③ Anxiety scores(F=8.02,P0.05)无显著性差异;③焦虑总得分(F=8.02,P<0.001)及其状态(F=5.95,P<0.01)和特质(F=9.27,P<0.001)两维度上存在显著性差异,提前组的焦虑得分显著高于适时组和延迟组,适时组和延迟组的得分差异不显著;④学习适应不良(F=5.31,P<0.01)、攻击行为(F=3.58,P<0.05)、违纪行为(F=9.29,P<0.001)等在青春期开始时间上差异显著,提前组的学习适应不良和攻击行为显著高于适时组和延迟组,适时组和延迟组的得分差异不显著.提前组的违纪行为显著高于适时组和延迟组,适时组显著高于延迟组.结论:青春期发动时相能够影响男生的焦虑、学习适应不良、攻击行为和违纪行为,而对抑郁、退缩、神经质和考试焦虑的影响不明显.

  3. Sex Role Development and Teenage Fertility-Related Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovich, George; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents some data bearing on the relationship between the psychological development or maturity of adolescent women and their sexual behavior and contraceptive use. Data were collected through the American Public Health Association in 1975 from 369 females and 325 males. (Author/RK)

  4. Cultural influence, economic security, and the fertility behavior of the Chinese in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongli Tang

    2001-12-01

    analysis and random coefficient models are the major statistical tools employed to achieve the above objectives. The Chinese-Canadians are compared to the British-Canadians, who are used as the reference group. The findings suggest that Chinese reproductive norms with pronatalist endowments exert strong influence on the fertility behavior of the Chinese in Canada. This influence effectively counteracts the negative effects of economic insecurity and encourages Chinese immigrants to quickly recover their fertility deficit after the initial immigration stage. The effects of the origin culture on fertility diminish with increasing exposure to the host society. However, even among the nativeborn or Canadian-born Chinese, the influence of Chinese reproductive norms is still present though not as strong as among the foreign-born Chinese.

  5. 深圳市宝安区性早熟儿童行为的问题分析及综合干预%Behavioral analysis and comprehensive intervention about children with precocious puberty in Bao'an District, Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓英华; 冯承芸; 牛丽; 王瑛

    2013-01-01

    [目的]调查分析性早熟儿童行为问题的综合干预措施,为建立基层干预体系提供科学依据. [方法]通过对深圳市宝安区7个街道明确诊断的120例4~10岁性早熟儿童进行Achenbach儿童行为量表评分分析,与正常儿童进行比较. [结果]性早熟儿童在郁抑、违纪、社交退缩、分裂样强迫性、攻击性、早恋等行为问题发生率均明显高于正常儿童(P<0.05). [结论]针对性早熟儿童的行为问题,应加强儿童及家长的相关健康教育,对其采取综合干预措施,促进儿童健康发育成长.%[Objective] To explore establishing the comprehensive intervention and grassroots intervention system of puberty children's behavior problems.[Methods] A total of 120 cases of 4~ 10 years old precocious puberty children were selected,from 7 street diagnosis of Baoan district,Shenzhen,they were investigated by the questionnaires of Achenbach Children's Behavior,the scores were compared with the normal children.[Result] The incidence of behavior problems such as depression,discipline and social withdrawal,split sample compulsive,aggressiveness,early love of precocious puberty children were significantly higher than those of normal children (P<0.05).[Conclusion] The related health education and comprehensive intervention measures should be strengthened to the precocious children and parents,establishment of a basic intervention system should be speeded up to promote the healthy growth of children.

  6. Methods of fertility control in cats: Owner, breeder and veterinarian behavior and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jane K; Mosteller, Jill R; Loberg, Jenny M; Andersson, Maria; Benka, Valerie A W

    2015-09-01

    Fertility control is important for population management of owned and unowned cats, provides health benefits at the individual level and can reduce unwanted sexually dimorphic behaviors such as roaming, aggression, spraying and calling. This article reviews the available evidence regarding European and American veterinarian, owner and pedigree cat breeder attitudes toward both surgical sterilization and non-surgical fertility control. It additionally presents new data on veterinarians' and pedigree cat breeders' use of, and attitudes toward, alternative modalities of fertility control. Within the United States and Europe, the proportion of cats reported to be sterilized varies widely. Published estimates range from 27-93% for owned cats and 2-5% for cats trapped as part of a trap-neuter-return (TNR) program. In some regions and populations of cats, non-surgical fertility control is also used. Social context, cultural norms, individual preferences, economic considerations, legislation and professional organizations may all influence fertility control decisions for cats. Particularly in Europe, a limited number of non-surgical temporary contraceptives are available for cats; these include products with regulatory approval for cats as well as some used 'off label'. Non-surgical methods remove the risk of complications related to surgery and offer potential to treat more animals in less time and at lower cost; they may also appeal to pedigree cat breeders seeking temporary contraception. However, concerns over efficacy, delivery methods, target species safety, duration and side effects exist with current non-surgical options. Research is under way to develop new methods to control fertility in cats without surgery. US and European veterinarians place high value on three perceived benefits of surgical sterilization: permanence, behavioral benefits and health benefits. Non-surgical options will likely need to share these benefits to be widely accepted by the veterinary

  7. Epigenetic Control of Female Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Loche, Alberto; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Ronnekleiv, Oline K.; Bosch, Martha; Kaidar, Gabi; Knoll, J. Gabriel; Wright, Hollis; Pfeifer, Gerd. P.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2013-01-01

    The timing of puberty is controlled by many genes. The elements coordinating this process have not, however, been identified. Here we show that an epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional repression times the initiation of female puberty in rats. We identify silencers of the Polycomb group (PcG) as major contributors to this mechanism, and show that PcG proteins repress Kiss1, a puberty-activating gene. Hypothalamic expression of two key PcG genes, Eed and Cbx7, decreases and methylation of their promoters increases preceding puberty. Inhibiting DNA methylation blocks both events and results in pubertal failure. The pubertal increase in Kiss1 is accompanied by EED loss from the Kiss1 promoter and enrichment of histone H3 modifications associated with gene activation. Preventing the eviction of EED from the Kiss1 promoter disrupts pulsatile GnRH release, delays puberty, and compromises fecundity. Our results identify epigenetic silencing as a novel mechanism underlying the neuroendocrine control of female puberty. PMID:23354331

  8. The sociodemographic, behavioral, reproductive, and health factors associated with fertility in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo; Triaca, Lívia Madeira; da Costa, Flávia Katrein; Hellwig, Franciele

    2017-01-01

    High fertility rates among disadvantaged subgroups are a public health problem because fertility levels significantly affect socioeconomic conditions and a population’s welfare. This paper aims to analyze the sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive factors associated with fertility rates among Brazilian women aged between 15–49 years. A Poisson regression was used to analyze data from the 2006 PNDS (Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher), which evaluates socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, reproductive, behavioral, and chronic disease variables. The results show that the following characteristics are positively associated with an increase in the number of children born: being aged 20–24, residing in the North, being nonwhite, not being in paid employment, having lower education levels, having lower socioeconomic status, being in a stable union, having the first sexual intercourse before the age of 16 and having the first child before the age of 20. Thus, it is important to implement efficient family planning policies targeting these subgroups in order to improve life conditions, reduce inequalities and avoid the adverse outcomes of high fertility. PMID:28187167

  9. The sociodemographic, behavioral, reproductive, and health factors associated with fertility in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo; Triaca, Lívia Madeira; da Costa, Flávia Katrein; Hellwig, Franciele

    2017-01-01

    High fertility rates among disadvantaged subgroups are a public health problem because fertility levels significantly affect socioeconomic conditions and a population's welfare. This paper aims to analyze the sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive factors associated with fertility rates among Brazilian women aged between 15-49 years. A Poisson regression was used to analyze data from the 2006 PNDS (Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher), which evaluates socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, reproductive, behavioral, and chronic disease variables. The results show that the following characteristics are positively associated with an increase in the number of children born: being aged 20-24, residing in the North, being nonwhite, not being in paid employment, having lower education levels, having lower socioeconomic status, being in a stable union, having the first sexual intercourse before the age of 16 and having the first child before the age of 20. Thus, it is important to implement efficient family planning policies targeting these subgroups in order to improve life conditions, reduce inequalities and avoid the adverse outcomes of high fertility.

  10. Gender specific associations between early puberty and behavioral and emotional characteristics in children%青春发动时相提前与心理行为问题关联性的性别差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽; 郭欣; 张静; 刘亨辉; 许韶君; 许媛媛; 陶芳标

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the gender specific association between early puberty and behavioral and emotional characteristics in children.Methods The questionnaire survey was conducted among the girls in grade 2-3,boys in grade 3-4 and both girls and boys in grade 7-8 selected through cluster sampling in 2 middle schools and 2 primary schools in Beijing and Shenyang respectively in November 2014.The questionnaire contents included general information,physical activity and video time,pubertal development scale (PDS) and strength and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ).Descriptive statistics were used to describe the prevalence of early puberty and the detection rate of abnormal behavioral problems.The effects of early puberty on behavioral and emotional problems were estimated with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.The odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated.Results A total of 3 253 complete questionnaires were collected,the prevalence of early puberty was 15.9% (518).The detection rate (number) of abnormal emotional symptoms,conduct problems,hyperactivity/inattention,peer relationship problems,pro-social behaviors and total difficulties were 8.3% (269),9.1% (297),6.5% (211),16.4% (534),9.2% (299) and 13.8%(448) respectively.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that early puberty was the risk factor for conduct problems (OR=2.260,95%CI:1.322-3.863) and hyperactivity/inattention (OR=1.980,95% CI:1.111-3.527) in the girls,and early puberty was risk factor for total difficulties in boys (95%CI:1.018-2.063).Conclusions Early puberty might increase the risk of conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention in girls and increase the risk of total difficulties in boys.It is important to conduct gender specific psychological intervention among adolescents for improving their physical and mental health.%目的 探讨青少年青春发动时相提前与心理行为问题

  11. [Age of puberty and western young women sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresch, C; Ohl, J

    2015-02-01

    The onset of menarche and age of first sexual experience have both lowered over the past century. Does the age of puberty influence the sexuality of the girl/young occidental woman? If so, to what degree? Besides, is the acquisition of reproductive function, regardless of age, a sign of sufficient maturity to engage in sexual activity? Studies show that early puberty, early sex, unprotected sexual intercourse in adolescence and number of sexual partners in early adulthood are closely related. These early sexual experiences could be stimulated by early drug use as well as by depressive disorders. The age of puberty has a real influence on sexuality but this link will be modulated by a number of social behavioral factors and it is not sustainable. The age of puberty is not a good indicator of maturity for teenage sexuality; early maturation and early sexual activity are usually associated with risky behaviors. However, other studies on the subject are required, including a consideration of the issues associated with delayed puberty, a subject virtually absent from the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of Peripheral Precocious Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelwer, Melissa; Eugster, Erica A.

    2017-01-01

    There are many etiologies of peripheral precocious puberty (PPP) with diverse manifestations resulting from exposure to androgens, estrogens, or both. The clinical presentation depends on the underlying process and may be acute or gradual. The primary goals of therapy are to halt pubertal development and restore sex steroids to prepubertal values. Attenuation of linear growth velocity and rate of skeletal maturation in order to maximize height potential are additional considerations for many patients. McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) and familial male-limited precocious puberty (FMPP) represent rare causes of PPP that arise from activating mutations in GNAS1 and the LH receptor gene, respectively. Several different therapeutic approaches have been investigated for both conditions with variable success. Experience to date suggests that the ideal therapy for precocious puberty secondary to MAS in girls remains elusive. In contrast, while the number of treated patients remains small, several successful therapeutic options for FMPP are available. PMID:26680582

  13. Chromosome numbers, meiotic behavior and pollen fertility in a collection of Paspalum nicorae Parodi accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Aparecida de Oliveira dos Reis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome number, meiotic behavior and pollen viability were evaluated in a collection of 53 Paspalumnicorae Parodi accessions, which are part of a breeding project of the species. All accessions are tetraploid, with 2n=4x=40.Despite the invariable chromosome numbers, there was variation among accessions in the frequencies of different chromosomeconfigurations at diakinesis and metaphase I, such as univalents, trivalents and quadrivalents. Other abnormalities asbridges and laggards were also observed at anaphase and telophase I. Meiotic indexes ranged from 82.00 to 99.50% andpollen viability from 88.99 to 95.06%. As the species is pseudogamous apomictic, fertile pollen is necessary for endospermformation. Results show that all plants are meiotically stable and have enough fertile pollen to be used as male parents incontrolled crosses.

  14. The importance of puberty for adolescent development: conceptualization and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M; Corley, Robin

    2015-01-01

    How and why are teenagers different from children and adults? A key question concerns the ways in which pubertal development shapes psychological changes in adolescence directly through changes to the brain and indirectly through the social environment. Empirical work linking pubertal development to adolescent psychological function draws from several different perspectives, often with varying approaches and a focus on different outcomes and mechanisms. The main themes concern effects of atypical pubertal timing on behavior problems during adolescence, effects of pubertal status (and associated hormones) on normative changes in behaviors that can facilitate or hinder development (especially risk-taking, social reorientation, and stress responsivity), and the role of puberty in triggering psychopathology in vulnerable individuals. There is also interest in understanding the ways in which changes in the brain reflect pubertal processes and underlie psychological development in adolescence. In this chapter, we consider the ways that puberty might affect adolescent psychological development, and why this is of importance to developmentalists. We describe the processes of pubertal development; summarize what is known about pubertal influences on adolescent development; consider the assumptions that underlie most work and the methodological issues that affect the interpretation of results; and propose research directions to help understand paths from puberty to behavior. Throughout, we emphasize the importance of pubertal change in all aspects of psychological development, and the ways in which puberty represents an opportunity to study the interplay of biological and social influences.

  15. In utero and lactational exposure to bisphenol A, in contrast to ethinyl estradiol, does not alter sexually dimorphic behavior, puberty, fertility, and anatomy of female LE rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many chemicals released into the environment display estrogenic activity including the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and the plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA). EE2 is present in some aquatic systems at concentrations sufficient to alter reproductive function of fishe...

  16. How contemporary human reproductive behaviors influence the role of fertility-related genes: the example of the p53 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Corbo

    Full Text Available Studies on human fertility genes have identified numerous risk/protective alleles involved in the occurrence of reproductive system diseases causing infertility or subfertility. Investigations we carried out in populations at natural fertility seem to suggest that the clinical relevance that some fertility genes are now acquiring depends on their interaction with contemporary reproductive behaviors (birth control, delayed childbearing, and spacing birth order, among others. In recent years, a new physiological role in human fertility regulation has emerged for the tumor- suppressor p53 gene (P53, and the P53 Arg72Pro polymorphism has been associated with recurrent implantation failure in humans. To lend support to our previous observations, we examined the impact of Arg72Pro polymorphism on fertility in two samples of Italian women not selected for impaired fertility but collected from populations with different (premodern and modern reproductive behaviors. Among the women at near-natural fertility (n = 98, the P53 genotypes were not associated with different reproductive efficiency, whereas among those with modern reproductive behaviors (n = 68, the P53 genotypes were associated with different mean numbers of children [Pro/Pro = 0.75fertility genes may have become "detrimental" following exposure to modern reproductive patterns and might therefore be associated with reduced reproductive success. Set within an evolutionary framework, this change could lead to the selection of a set of gene variants fitter to current reproductive behaviors as the

  17. Sperm-attractant peptide influences the spermatozoa swimming behavior in internal fertilization in Octopus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisa, Emilia; Salzano, Anna Maria; Moccia, Francesco; Scaloni, Andrea; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2013-06-15

    Marine invertebrates exhibit both chemokinesis and chemotaxis phenomena, induced in most cases by the release of water-borne peptides or pheromones. In mollusks, several peptides released during egg-laying improve both male attraction and mating. Unlike other cephalopods, Octopus vulgaris adopts an indirect internal fertilization strategy. We here report on the identification and characterization of a chemoattractant peptide isolated from mature eggs of octopus females. Using two-chamber and time-lapse microscopy assays, we demonstrate that this bioactive peptide is able to increase sperm motility and induce chemotaxis by changing the octopus spermatozoa swimming behavior in a dose-dependent manner. We also provide evidence that chemotaxis in the octopus requires the presence of extracellular calcium and membrane protein phophorylation at tyrosine. This study is the first report on a sperm-activating factor in a non-free-spawning marine animal.

  18. The physiology and timing of male puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Mieritz, Mikkel Grunnet; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2012-01-01

    To describe available markers of male puberty, discuss associations between adiposity and pubertal timing and to review recent evidence of a possible secular trend in male pubertal timing.......To describe available markers of male puberty, discuss associations between adiposity and pubertal timing and to review recent evidence of a possible secular trend in male pubertal timing....

  19. NEUROBEHAVIORAL RELATIONSHIPS AND PUBERTY - ANOTHER TRANSFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ

    1993-01-01

    In a follow-up study of the Groningen Perinatal Project (GPP) on minor neurological dysfunction (MND) at 12 and 14 years the onset of puberty appeared to play a role. The children were selected on the presence (n = 185) and absence (n = 185) of MND at 9 years. Puberty was defined by the presence of

  20. Cultural influence, economic security, and the fertility behavior of the Chinese in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang, Zongli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis study explores interactions of cultural influence and economic insecurity and their effects on the fertility behavior of the Chinese in Canada. The importance of group context on the actions of individuals is measured through data from the PUST of the 1971 and1991 Canadian Censuses. Contextual analysis and random coefficient models are the major statistical tools employed to achieve the above objectives. The Chinese-Canadians are compared to the British-Canadians, who are used as the reference group. The findings suggest that Chinese reproductive norms with pronatalist endowments exert strong influence on the fertility behavior of the Chinese in Canada.This influence effectively counteracts the negative effects of economic insecurity and encourages Chinese immigrants to quickly recover their fertility deficit after the initial immigration stage. The effects of the origin culture on fertility diminish with increasing exposure to the host society.However, even among the native-born or Canadian-born Chinese, the influence of Chinese reproductive norms is still present though not as strong as among the foreign-born Chinese.FrenchCette étude explore les interactions de l'influence culturelle et de l'insécuritééconomique et leurs effets sur le comportement procréateur des Chinois auCanada. L'importance d'un contexte de groupe sur les actions des individus estmesurée au moyen de données provenant de la BEGD (bande-échantillon àgrande diffusion des recensements canadiens de 1971 et 1991. L'analysecontextuelle et les coefficients de modèles au hasard constituent les principauxoutils statistiques employés pour atteindre les objectifs susmentionnés. Les Sino-Canadiens sont comparés aux habitants de la Colombie-Britannique qui serventde groupe témoin. Les conclusions indiquent que les normes de reproduction àaction nataliste exercent une forte influence sur le comportement procréateur desChinois au Canada. Cette influence

  1. Selection for superior growth advances the onset of puberty and increases reproductive performance in ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-06-01

    The reproductive efficiency of the entire sheep flock could be improved if ewe lambs go through puberty early and produce their first lamb at 1 year of age. The onset of puberty is linked to the attainment of critical body mass, and therefore we tested whether it would be influenced by genetic selection for growth rate or for rate of accumulation of muscle or fat. We studied 136 Merino ewe lambs with phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values at post-weaning age (200 days) for live weight (PWT), eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT). First oestrus was detected with testosterone-treated wethers and then entire rams as the ewes progressed from 6 to 10 months of age. Blood concentrations of leptin and IGF-I were measured to test whether they were related to production traits and reproductive performance (puberty, fertility and reproductive rate). In total, 97% of the lambs reached first oestrus at average weight 39.4 ± 0.4 kg (mean ± s.e.m.) and age 219 days (range 163 to 301). Age at first oestrus decreased with increases in values for PWT (P growth can accelerate the onset of puberty and increase fertility and reproductive rate of Merino ewe lambs. The metabolic hormones, IGF-I and leptin, might act as a physiological link between the growing tissues and the reproductive axis.

  2. Television Watching May Hasten Puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaia; Vince; 王锦云

    2005-01-01

    儿童长时间看电视会使青春期(puberty)提前!一项新的研究认为,如果儿童长时间看电视,就会减少体内的褪黑激素,而这种被称为"睡眠激素"的激素与儿童的青春期到来的具体时间有关,那些不看电视、不玩电脑和游戏机的年轻人体内的褪黑激素比平均值高出30%。

  3. The long-term effects of superovulation on fertility and sexual behavior of male offspring in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zeng-Tao; Lu, Xi-Lan; Zhang, Gang; Yu, Jing; Li, Hua; Jia, Gui-Hua; Li, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of superovulation on fertility and sexual behavior of male offspring in mice. The mice were superovaluted, and the fertility of male offspring (F1 generation and F2 generation) were evaluated in terms of the percentage of plugs and pregnancies, serum testosterone concentrations, and sperm motility. Furthermore, the sexual behavior of male offspring and sex ratio (F1 generation and F2 generation) were measured. There were no significant differences in the percentage of plug and pregnancies, serum testosterone concentrations, sperm motilities and sex ratio between the offspring in naturally conceived group and superovulation groups (both F1 generation and F2 generation). The sperm hyperactivity at 90 min after incubation of F1 generation in naturally conceived group were higher than that of F1 generation in superovulation group, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. The offspring produced by superovaluted oocytes (both F1 generation and F2 generation) did not exhibit significant alterations in sexual behavior. No significant alterations were found in fertility and sexual behavior of male offspring in mice produced by superovaluted oocytes compared with those of naturally conceived offspring.

  4. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.; Foster, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in puberty timing have implications for the treatment of individual children, for the risk of later adult disease, and for chemical testing and risk assessment for the population. Children with early puberty are at a risk for accelerated skeletal maturation and short adult height, early...... for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty...

  5. Normal female puberty in a developmental perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Juul, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Puberty is unique in the sense that its onset shows an extraordinary individual variability of about 5 years, the basis of which being still elusive despite research efforts to understand the reason why. Continuing changes in environmental influences and interaction with genetic determinants...... with less obvious changes in menarcheal age. Conceptually, puberty and subsequent reproduction appear now to be influenced by conditions not only at the time when they occur, but also during fetal and perinatal life. In addition, these influences can be apparently opposing since early maturation follows...... fetal malnourishment and postnatal overfeeding. In this review, the semiology and pathophysiology of puberty are discussed in a lifelong developmental perspective....

  6. Turner syndrome masquerading as normal early puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong Hee

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 50% of patients with Turner syndrome (TS) have complete loss of one X chromosome, whereas the rest of the patients with TS display mosaicism or structural abnormalities of the X chromosome. Most well-known common features are short stature and gonadal failure. Approximately one third of girls with TS may enter spontaneous puberty, but only half those completed with menarche. However, some atypical features of TS have been described. Many studies have been conducted to verify and delineate proposed loci for genes pertaining to the TS phenotype, and correlations between karyotype and phenotype. A few rare cases of precocious puberty with TS have been described. Here we describe a case of TS with the Xp22.1 deletion presenting with short final stature, early normal onset of spontaneous puberty, and Graves' disease, without short stature during puberty. PMID:25654070

  7. Hypomelanosis of Ito associated with precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, Beth M; Edgar, Mark A; Horenstein, Marcelo G

    2006-01-01

    Hypomelanosis of Ito has been associated with precocious puberty in two cases. This study reports a third case involving a female with hypomelanosis of Ito including severe mental retardation and seizure disorder with autonomic symptoms (gastroesophageal reflux and asthma). At age 5 she developed vaginal discharge, thelarche, and adrenarche. Soon after, she died of pneumonia stemming from her neurologic deficits. A postmortem examination revealed normal gonads and endocrine organs. The breasts and vulva were prematurely developed. Central nervous system findings included megalencephaly, neuronal eosinophilic inclusions, leptomeningeal neuroglial heterotopias, and cortical dysplasia. Both previously reported cases of hypomelanosis of Ito associated with precocious puberty had abnormal gonads and responded to cyproterone acetate therapy, indicating a peripheral mechanism of precocious puberty (gonadotrophin-independent). The current case, which was autopsied, lacks significant gonadal pathology, and has extensive neurologic involvement that suggests that a central mechanism of precocious puberty (gonadotrophin-dependent) can also be associated with hypomelanosis of Ito.

  8. Patterns of reproductive behavior in transitional Italy: The rediscovery of the Italian fertility survey of 1961

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Breschi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have investigated the role of the intermediate variables of fertility at the micro-level in Italy, and, in particular, little is known about the influence of socioeconomic factors. This is the reason that the mechanisms through which women arrived at the control of their own fertility are still largely unexplored. Objective: We wish to analyze the role of education and socioeconomic determinants on the process of fertility transition in four Italian populations, by focusing on the birth cohorts born between the end of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century. Methods: Data comes from the census returns of 1961, which include a Fertility Survey aimed at gathering information on the reproductive history of ever-married women. A negative binomial regression was then carried out to check the influence of some socioeconomic determinants on the completed family size of such women. Results: Among socioeconomic factors, women's education proves to be more important than family economic status in shaping fertility levels, with highly educated women showing a smaller completed family size than illiterate ones. In particular, fertility differentials by educational attainment appear to be wider at the beginning of the transition. Conclusions: The use of micro-level data has allowed us to shed some light on the importance of women's education, especially in the first stages of fertility transition, resulting in one of the possible explanations for ist different onsets in the various regions of Italy.

  9. Determinants of puberty health among female adolescents residing in boarding welfare centers in Tehran: An application of health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (phealth behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health.

  10. Female sexual behavior and sexual swelling size as potential cues for males to discern the female fertile phase in free-ranging Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauch, Katrin; Pfefferle, Dana; Hodges, Keith; Möhle, Ulrike; Fischer, Julia; Heistermann, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Although female catarrhine primates show cyclic changes in sexual behavior and sexual swellings, the value of these sexual signals in providing information to males about timing of the fertile phase is largely unclear. Recently, we have shown that in Barbary macaques, males receive information from females which enables them to discern the fertile phase and to focus their reproductive effort accordingly. Here, we investigate the nature of the cues being used by examining female sexual behavior and the size of sexual swelling as potential indicators of the fertile phase. We collected behavioral data and quantified swelling size using digital images of 11 females of the Gibraltar Barbary macaque population and related the data to the time of ovulation and the fertile phase as determined from fecal hormone analysis. We found that rates of female sexual behaviors were not correlated with female estrogen levels and did not significantly differ between the fertile and non-fertile phases of the cycle. In contrast, swelling size was significantly correlated with female estrogen levels and increased predictably towards ovulation with size being maximal during the fertile phase. Moreover, frequencies of male ejaculatory copulations showed a strong positive correlation with swelling size and highest rates were found during maximum swelling. Our data provide strong evidence that female Barbary macaques honestly signal the probability of fertility through sexual swelling and that males apparently use this information to time their mating activities. Honest advertising of the fertile phase might be part of a female strategy to manipulate male mating behavior for their own advantage, such as ensure fertilization with high quality sperm or influence paternity outcome.

  11. Farmers' Character and Behavior of Fertilizer Application - Evidence from a Survey of Xinxiang County, Henan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Hong-yun; ZHAO Lian-ge

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural chemical use has caused a public concern over environmental issue while decisions about applying chemicals are made by individual farmers. The critical decision-making role of farmers relative to agricultural chemical use creates a need for accurate information on their perceptions of various chemical-related hazards and the factors that may influence such judgments. Based on data collected from 177 land operators at Xinxiang County in Henan Province of China, an empirical analysis is conducted to examine the relationship between farmers' character and the behavior of fertilizer application. Study findings reveal that: the characteristics of household head and household, and the nature of farming management positively affect the amount of fertilizers applied; information on fertilizers and the knowledge about environmental impact of fertilizer application have negative impacts by contrast. To formulate effective pollution control policies at the farm level, it is imperative for policy-makers to convey information to producers by demonstration projects, technical assistance, and education programs. Under a changed political environment, some combination of education and economic incentives could be lower cost and more effective tools for achieving desired environmental conservative goals.

  12. Meiotic behavior of economically important plant species: the relationship between fertility and male sterility

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Suely Pagliarini

    2000-01-01

    Meiosis is an event of high evolutionary stability which culminates in a reduction of chromosome number. The normal and harmonious course of meiosis ensures gamete viability. The cytologic events of gametogenesis are controlled by a large number of genes that act from premeiotic to postmeiotic mitosis. Mutations in these genes cause anomalies that may impair fertility, and many abnormalities affecting plant fertility or causing total male sterility have been detected during the evaluation of ...

  13. Meiotic behavior of economically important plant species: the relationship between fertility and male sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Suely Pagliarini

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is an event of high evolutionary stability which culminates in a reduction of chromosome number. The normal and harmonious course of meiosis ensures gamete viability. The cytologic events of gametogenesis are controlled by a large number of genes that act from premeiotic to postmeiotic mitosis. Mutations in these genes cause anomalies that may impair fertility, and many abnormalities affecting plant fertility or causing total male sterility have been detected during the evaluation of meiotic behavior in some species. Some of these abnormalities have been frequently described in the literature, while others have not been previously reported. The most frequent abnormalities found in the species analyzed were irregular chromosome segregation, cytomixis, chromosome stickiness, mixoploidy, chromosome fragmentation, syncyte formation, abnormal spindles, and failure of cytokinesis. Uncommon abnormalities, such as chromosome elimination during microsporogenesis, were found in one species. Original meiotic mutations affecting different steps of meiosis were also observed in these species, especially in maize, Paspalum and soybean. Some mutants present characteristics that may be exploited successfully in breeding programs because they cause total male sterility.A meiose é um evento de alta estabilidade evolucionária que culmina na redução do número de cromossomos. O curso normal e harmonioso da meiose garante a viabilidade gamética. Os eventos citológicos da gametogênese são controlados por um grande número de genes que atuam desde as mitoses pré-meióticas até as pós-meióticas. Mutações nestes genes causam anomalias que podem afetar a fertilidade. Durante a avaliação do comportamento meiótico em algumas espécies de plantas, muitas anormalidades que afetaram a fertilidade ou causaram total macho-esterilidade foram detectadas. Algumas das anormalidades encontradas já eram descritas na literatura, enquanto outras eram

  14. The effect of family sex composition on fertility desires and family planning behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Lisa M; Nanda, Priya; Speizer, Ilene S; Jain, Meenakshi

    2013-09-11

    A cultural preference for sons has been well documented in India, resulting in skewed sex ratios, especially exhibited in northwest India. Previous research has shown that family sex composition is associated with family planning (FP) use and couples' desire for more children. This study examines family sex composition and fertility and FP behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India; little work has examined these issues in urban settings where family sizes are smaller and FP use is common. Data for this analysis comes from a 2010 representative survey of married, non-pregnant fecund women aged 15-49 from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India. Multivariate analyses are used to examine the association between family sex composition and fertility desires and FP use. The multivariate results indicate that family sex composition is associated with fertility desires and FP use. Women without living children and without at least one child of each sex are significantly less likely to want no more children and women with both sons and daughters but more sons are significantly more likely to want no more children as compared to women that have both sons and daughters but more daughters. Women with no living children and women with daughters but no sons are less likely to be modern FP users than nonusers whereas women with both sons and daughters but more sons are more likely to be modern FP users than nonusers as compared to women with both sons and daughters but more daughters. These findings confirm that family sex composition affects fertility behavior and also reveals that preference for sons persists in urban Uttar Pradesh. These results underscore the importance of programs and policies that work to enhance the value of girl children.

  15. Women's Education and Family Behavior: Trends in Marriage, Divorce and Fertility. NBER Working Paper No. 15725

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isen, Adam; Stevenson, Betsey

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how marital and fertility patterns have changed along racial and educational lines for men and women. Historically, women with more education have been the least likely to marry and have children, but this marriage gap has eroded as the returns to marriage have changed. Marriage and remarriage rates have risen for women with a…

  16. Extended Axiomatic Conjoint Measurement: A Solution to a Methodological Problem in Studying Fertility-Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Carol A.; McClelland, Gary H.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology is developed based on axiomatic conjoint measurement to accompany a fertility decision-making model. The usefulness of the model is then demonstrated via an application to a study of contraceptive choice (N=100 male and female family-planning clinic clients). Finally, the validity of the model is evaluated. (TJH)

  17. Effects of puberty apomorphine injection on the latent inhibition and elevated plus-maze behaviors of rats%青春期阿扑吗啡注射对大鼠潜伏抑制和高架十字迷宫行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美; 王玮文; 金暕; 邵枫

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察青春期(出生后38~51 d)阿扑吗啡注射对大鼠精神相关行为的影响.方法 以Wistar大鼠为实验对象,利用大鼠穿梭程序自动控制仪和高架十字迷宫,观察青春期(出生后38~51 d)阿扑吗啡注射对青春期和成年早期大鼠潜伏抑制和高架十字迷宫行为的影响.结果 (1)对于青春期大鼠,与生理盐水注射组动物相比[前呈现组和非前呈现组分别为(38.1±18.7)次和(23.0±6.9)次],声音刺激的前呈现未能显著地降低阿扑吗啡注射组动物的条件化联合反应[前呈现组和非前呈现组分别为(23.0±16.4)次和(26.7±13.5)次],即表现出潜伏抑制缺失;对于成年早期大鼠,与生理盐水注射组动物相比[前呈现组和非前呈现组分别为(37.2±17.5)次和(15±6.2)次],青春期阿扑吗啡注射的大鼠同样表现出潜伏抑制缺失[前呈现组和非前呈现组分别为(21.5±15.2)次和(17.2±8)次];(2)与相应的生理盐水组动物相比,青春期阿扑吗啡注射的青春期和成年早期动物的高架十字迷宫行为均差异无显著性.结论 青春期持续两周(出生后38~51 d)的慢性阿扑吗啡注射,能诱发青春期和成年早期大鼠的潜伏抑制缺失,但不影响高架十字迷宫行为.%Objective To investigate the effect of puberty (PN38~51) apomorphine injection on the psychotic behaviors of rats. Methods Using computer-controlled automatic shuttle box and elevated plus-maze, the effects of puberty apomorphine injection on the latent inhibition and elevated plus-maze behaviors in puberty and early adult wistar rats were observed. Results (1) For puberty rats, compared to saline injection rats(conditioned reaction in preexposure and non-preexposure group was 38.1±18.7 and 23.0±6.9, respectively), conditioned reaction of apomorphine injection rats could not be reduced significantly by the pre-exposed sound stimulus (23.0±16.4 and 26.7±13.5, respectively), that is latent inhibition deficient

  18. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Park

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

  19. The Relationship between Puberty and Risk Taking in the Real World and in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Rodriguez, A; MacPherson, L; Kurdziel, G; Rosenberg, L A; Lejuez, C W

    2014-10-01

    Adolescence is marked by the emergence and escalation of risk taking. Puberty has been long-implicated as constituting vulnerability for risk behavior during this developmental period. Sole reliance on self-reports of risk taking however poses limitations to understanding this complex relationship. There exist potential advantages of complementing self-reports by using the BART-Y laboratory task, a well-validated measure of adolescent risk taking. Toward this end, we examined the association between self-reported puberty and both self-reported and BART-Y risk taking in 231 adolescents. Results showed that pubertal status predicted risk taking using both methodologies above and beyond relevant demographic characteristics. Advantages of a multimodal assessment toward understanding the effects of puberty in adolescent risk taking are discussed and future research directions offered.

  20. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, Mari S; Collman, Gwen W; Foster, Paul M D

    2008-01-01

    sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated...... with an increased risk for testicular cancer according to several, but not all, epidemiologic studies. Girls and, possibly, boys who exhibit premature adrenarche are at a higher risk for developing features of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in adulthood...

  1. Leptin’s effect on puberty in mice is relayed by the ventral premammillary nucleus and does not require signaling in Kiss1 neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Jose; Cravo, Roberta M.; Frazão, Renata; Gautron, Laurent; Scott, Michael M.; Lachey, Jennifer; Castro, Inar A.; Margatho, Lisandra O.; Lee, Syann; Lee, Charlotte; Richardson, James A.; Friedman, Jeffrey; Chua, Streamson; Coppari, Roberto; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Elmquist, Joel K.; Elias, Carol F.

    2010-01-01

    Studies in humans and rodents indicate that a minimum amount of stored energy is required for normal pubertal development. The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is a key metabolic signal to the neuroendocrine reproductive axis. Humans and mice lacking leptin or the leptin receptor (LepR) (ob/ob and db/db mice, respectively) are infertile and fail to enter puberty. Leptin administration to leptin-deficient subjects and ob/ob mice induces puberty and restores fertility, but the exact site or sites of leptin action are unclear. Here, we found that genetic deletion of LepR selectively from hypothalamic Kiss1 neurons in mice had no effect on puberty or fertility, indicating that direct leptin signaling in Kiss1 neurons is not required for these processes. However, bilateral lesions of the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) of ob/ob mice blunted the ability of exogenous leptin to induce sexual maturation. Moreover, unilateral reexpression of endogenous LepR in PMV neurons was sufficient to induce puberty and improve fertility in female LepR-null mice. This LepR reexpression also normalized the increased hypothalamic GnRH content characteristic of leptin-signaling deficiency. These data suggest that the PMV is a key site for leptin’s permissive action at the onset of puberty and support the hypothesis that the multiple actions of leptin to control metabolism and reproduction are anatomically dissociated. PMID:21183787

  2. Analysis of self-fertilization and meiotic behavior of eleven Brazilian triticale cultivars at two sowing dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven Brazilian hexaploid triticale cultivars (2n = 6x = 42, from three breeding programs, were evaluated for theirability of self-fertilization in 2006 and for meiotic behavior, meiotic index and pollen viability at two sowing dates in 2007. Highpotential of self-fertilization was observed, with values up to 89.52 %. Many irregularities were found in the meiotic analysis, suchas the presence of univalents, laggard chromosomes and micronuclei in tetrads, which compromised both meiotic behavior andmeiotic index. At the first sowing date, more suitable for normal plant development, overall mean values of 52.68 % for normal cellsand 64.95 % for meiotic index were observed. At the second sowing date, less appropriate for the crop, overall means of 52.23 %for normal cells and 58.24 % for meiotic index were obtained. Despite all the irregularities, considerable pollen viability wasobserved, reaching overall means of 92.08 % and 91.07 % for the first and second sowing dates, respectively.

  3. Trends in contraceptive patterns and behaviors during a period of fertility transition in China: 1988-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoying; Tan, Lingfang; Ren, Qiang; Cui, Zhijun; Wu, Junqing; Lin, Ting; He, Jie; Chen, Hua

    2012-09-01

    This paper explores how contraceptive patterns and behaviors changed during the course of China's population transition and a period of low fertility from 1988 to 2006. Based on data from Chinese nationwide surveys of family planning and reproductive health undertaken in 1988, 1997, 2001 and 2006, this study uses a multinomial logit model to analyze changes in, regional differences in and determinants of contraceptive behaviors during this period. The overall prevalence of contraceptive use among married women aged 15-49 years changed little during these 20 years, holding steady at about 90%. However, there were notable changes in the method mix: the predominant methods used were the long-term methods of the intrauterine device (IUD) and female sterilization, and contraceptive use gradually shifted from sterilization to IUDs and condoms. There existed a close relationship between contraceptive methods used and sociodemographic characteristics. Hans, rural, old and less educated women are more likely to use sterilization, while minorities, urban, young and educated women are more likely to use IUDs. There are marked changes in the method mix among different demographic groups during the course of China's population transition and a period of low fertility. The findings indicate that future works aimed at promoting reproductive health should be diverse among different populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Puberty in male atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, F.F.L.

    2009-01-01

    Puberty is the process by which a juvenile acquires for the first time the capacity to reproduce sexually, a critical basis for the conservation of a species. In general, the biological processes constituting the first gonadal maturation and the mechanisms involved in this process are similar among

  5. Testicular growth and development in puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E; Toppari, Jorma

    2017-06-01

    To describe pubertal testicular growth in humans, changes in testicular cell populations that result in testicular growth, and the role of testosterone and gonadotrophins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in testicular growth. When human data were not available, studies in nonhuman primates and/or rodents were used as surrogates. Testicular growth in puberty follows a sigmoidal growth curve, with a large variation in timing of testicular growth and adult testicular volume. Testicular growth early in puberty is due to increase in Sertoli cell number and length of seminiferous tubules, whereas the largest and fastest growth results from the increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules first due to spermatogonial proliferation and then due to the expansion of meiotic and haploid germ cells. FSH stimulates Sertoli cell and spermatogonial proliferation, whereas LH/testosterone is mandatory to complete spermatogenesis. However, FSH and LH/testosterone work in synergy and are both needed for normal spermatogenesis. Testicular growth during puberty is rapid, and mostly due to germ cell expansion and growth in seminiferous tubule diameter triggered by androgens. Pre-treatment with FSH before the induction of puberty may improve the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, but remains to be proven.

  6. Precocious puberty: A blessing in disguise!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik Goswami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Germ cell tumors may lead to incomplete isosexual male precocity and are commonly located in the pineal gland. Germinomas of the basal ganglia are almost always unilateral and precocious puberty is a rare manifestation in them. We report a 9.5-year-old boy who presented with incomplete isosexual precocity due to bilateral basal ganglia germinoma.

  7. NEUROBEHAVIORAL RELATIONSHIPS AFTER THE ONSET OF PUBERTY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    1994-01-01

    The behavioural and cognitive development were studied of 68 children with and 259 without minor neurological function (MND) at 14 years, when the majority of children showed three or more physical signs of puberty. MND was differentiated into fine manipulative disability, co-ordination problems, ch

  8. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, Angela; Reverter, Antonio; DeAtley, Kasey L; Ashley, Ryan L; Colgrave, Michelle L; Fortes, Marina R S; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Lehnert, Sigrid; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Rincón, Gonzalo; Silver, Gail A; Snelling, Warren M; Medrano, Juan F; Thomas, Milton G

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium) as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver). These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus) derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL), first service conception (FSC), and heifer pregnancy (HPG)). In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes). Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with ACL, FSC, and (or) HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.). Results from these multi-tissue omics

  9. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cánovas

    Full Text Available Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver. These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL, first service conception (FSC, and heifer pregnancy (HPG. In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS, RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes. Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP associated with ACL, FSC, and (or HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.. Results from these multi

  10. Circulating MKRN3 levels decline during puberty in healthy boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Almstrup, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Initiation and progression of puberty requires concerted action of hypothalamic activating and inhibiting factors. Recently, cases of familial central precocious puberty have been linked to loss-of-function mutations of makorin RING-finger protein 3 (MKRN3) indicating a pivotal inhibitory.......8) years at baseline followed for 6.0 (0.5 - 7.6) years (2006 - 2014) with blood sampling every 6 months. INTERVENTION: None Main Outcome Measures: Serum levels of MKRN3: 623 samples, median (range) 12 (2 - 14) per boy. RESULTS: MKRN3 levels declined prior to onset of puberty; the geometric mean (95% CI) 5...... years prior to onset of puberty vs. last visit before onset of puberty was 216 (169 - 272) pg/ml vs. 128 (118 - 139) pg/ml (p puberty progressed. MKRN3 levels were not associated with age at onset of puberty. CONCLUSION: Declining MKRN3 prior...

  11. Fertilization in Torenia fournieri: actin organization and nuclear behavior in the central cell and primary endosperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Studies of the living embryo sacs of Torenia fournieri reveal that the actin cytoskeleton undergoes dramatic changes that correlate with nuclear migration within the central cell and the primary endosperm. Before pollination, actin filaments appear as short bundles randomly distributed in the cortex of the central cell. Two days after anthesis, they become organized into a distinct actin network. At this stage the secondary nucleus, which is located in the central region of the central cell, possesses an associated array of short actin filaments. Soon after pollination, the actin filaments become fragmented in the micropylar end and the secondary nucleus is located next to the egg apparatus. After fertilization, the primary endosperm nucleus moves away from the egg cell and actin filaments reorganize into a prominent network in the cytoplasm of the primary endosperm. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with latrunculin A and cytochalasin B indicates that actin is involved in the migration of the nucleus in the central cell. Our data also suggest that the dynamics of actin cytoskeleton may be responsible for the reorganization of the central cell and primary endosperm cytoplasm during fertilization.

  12. Effect of Cl— on Behavior of Fertilizer Nitrogen, Number of Microorganisms and Enzyme Activities in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIWEI-YONG; CHENGMEI-ZI; 等

    1994-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to study the effect of Cl- on transformation of fertilizer N,number of microorganisms and enzyme activities in soils.It is indicated that Cl- did not show significant influence on total number of bacteria,actinomyces and fungi,but significantly reduced the number of nitrosolbacteria, which led to decrease of NO3- content in the soil.Application of Cl- to soil could significantly enhance the adtivities of phosphatase and urease in the coastal saline soil and orthic aquisols,In hilly red soil,however,the application of Cl-1 at the rate of 500-1000mg Cl- kg-1 soil significantly decreased the activity of the two enzymes mentioned above.

  13. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  14. Ghrelin and obestatin concentrations during puberty: relationships with adiposity, nutrition and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N A; Gibbons, C H; Martins, C

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are two peptides associated with appetite control and the regulation of energy balance in adults. It is intuitive that they have an important role in growth and development during puberty. Therefore, it is acknowledged that these peptides, in addition to others, form part of the substrate underlying energy homeostasis which in turn will contribute to body weight regulation and could explain changes in energy balance during puberty. Both peptides originate from the stomach; hence, it is intuitive that they are involved in generating signals from tissue stores which influence food intake. This could be manifested via alterations in the drive to eat (i.e. hunger), eating behaviors and appetite regulation. Furthermore, there is some evidence that these peptides might also be associated with physical activity behaviors and metabolism. Anecdotally, children and adolescents experience behavioral and metabolic changes during growth and development which will be associated with physiological changes. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Mobility, Fertility, and Residential Crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Earl W.

    1977-01-01

    Regression analyses predicting fertility and mobility in a sample of a metropolitan county in New York State indicate that residential mobility serves to release the negative pressure that residential crowding might exert on fertility behavior. (Author)

  16. Puberty and the Manifestations of Loss of Control Eating in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Anna; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Kelly, Nichole R.; Hannallah, Louise M.; Pickworth, C. Katherine; Grygorenko, Mariya V.; Brady, Sheila M.; Condarco, Tania A.; Kozlosky, Merel; Demidowich, Andrew P.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated the manifestations of pediatric loss of control (LOC) eating at different stages of pubertal development. Methods Participants were a non-clinical sample of 468 youth (8–17y). Physical examination determined pubertal stage. LOC eating and disordered eating attitudes were assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination. In a randomized crossover design, a subset (n=244) ate ad libitum from two test meals designed to capture normal and LOC eating. Results There were no differences in the prevalence rates or frequency of reported LOC eating episodes across pubertal stages (ps≥.50). There were, however, puberty by LOC eating interactions in disordered eating attitudes and palatable food consumption (ps≤.05), even after adjusting for age and body composition. LOC eating was associated with elevated global disordered eating attitudes, weight concern, and shape concern in post-pubertal youth (ps≤.001), but not pre-pubertal youth (ps≥.49). In late-puberty, youth with LOC eating consumed less energy from protein (p<.001) and more from carbohydrate (p=.003) and snack-type foods (p=.02) than those without LOC eating, whereas endorsement of LOC eating in pre- or early-to-mid-puberty was not associated with differences in eating behavior (ps≥.20). Conclusions Findings suggest that puberty may be a critical risk period, when LOC eating behaviors in boys and girls may become accompanied by greater weight and shape concerns and more obesogenic food consumption patterns. Interventions for LOC eating during pre-puberty should be evaluated to determine if they are particularly beneficial for the prevention of exacerbated eating disorder psychopathology and adverse weight outcomes. PMID:24888295

  17. Neocortical RELN promoter methylation increases significantly after puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintas, Carla; Persico, Antonio M

    2010-01-27

    Reelin plays a pivotal role in neurodevelopment. Excessive RELN promoter methylation and/or decreased RELN gene expression have been described in schizophrenia and autism. We assessed RELN promoter methylation in post-mortem temporocortical tissue (Brodmann Area 41/42) of three prepuberal and six postpuberal normal individuals. The former display very little or no methylation, whereas most postpuberal individuals are heavily methylated, especially at CpG positions located between -131 and -98 bp (prepuberal vs. postpuberal, P<0.05). Sex hormones thus seemingly boost DNA methylation at the RELN promoter. This physiological change could significantly contribute to the onset of schizophrenia and the worsening of autistic behaviors, both typically occurring at puberty.

  18. [Study of male mating behavior in some Drosophila melanogaster strains in experiments with fertilized females].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subocheva, E A; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I

    2004-07-01

    Male courtship ritual is among the main behavioral characteristics of Drosophila. This is a complex, genetically determined process consisting of four general stages: orientation, vibration, licking, and attempts at copulation (or successful copulation). Several genes are known that control some stages of this behavior. Most of them have pleiotropic effects and are involved in other biological processes. Earlier, we have shown that a mutation in locus flamenco (20A1-3), which controls transposition and infectivity of retrotransposon gypsy (MDG4), is involved in the genetic control of behavior. In strains mutant for this locus, the male mating activity is decreased and the structure of courtship ritual is changed. To understand the mechanisms of these changes, it is important to study all behavioral stages in genetically identical strains. For this purpose, the normal allele of gene flamenco from the X chromosome of the wild-type strain (stock) Canton S was introduced into strain SS carrying flamMS. This offers new opportunities in studying the role of gene flamenco in the control of mating behavior in Drosophila.

  19. The impact of puberty on adolescent brain development

    OpenAIRE

    Goddings, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that the human brain undergoes significant change in both structure and function during adolescence, but little is known about the role of puberty in this developmental process. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the relationship between puberty and brain development during adolescence. The first two chapters of this thesis summarise the current understanding of the behavioural and brain changes associated with both adolescence and puberty, and review the metho...

  20. Dramatic decline in fertility marks changes in reproductive behavior in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A summary is given of data from the 1993-94 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Fertility declined from 6.3 births per woman during the 1970s to 4.3 during 1989-91 and finally 3.4 births during 1991-93, which was a 21% decline in a 2-year period. A validation study in the Matlab area confirmed the decline. The decline is attributed to increases in age at first marriage, increases in age at first birth, and, mostly, increases in contraceptive usage. Family planning use increased from 8% in 1975 to 45% during 1993-94. Almost 40% of all contraceptive use was the pill. 8% used sterilization, 5% used periodic abstinence, and 5% used injection. 3% of married relied on condoms for contraception, and 3% practiced withdrawal. Under 2% relied on the IUD or male sterilization. A slight shift has occurred away from permanent methods to spacing methods, which are less effective. This shift is a concern, given that 48% of women reported a desire to stop childbearing. Almost 50% of women reported having heard or seen family planning messages in the month preceding the survey. Under-5 child mortality declined from 180 deaths per 1000 births during 1979-83 to 133 during 1989-93. 60% of children 12-23 months old were fully immunized, which reflects a considerable increase since 1989. Maternal health has not made the same improvements as child health. Almost 75% did not receive any prenatal care, and 96% of births were home deliveries. Under 10% of deliveries were with trained medical personnel.

  1. Access to Emergency Contraception and its Impact on Fertility and Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Half of all pregnancies in the USA are unintended, suggesting a high incidence of either improper or nonuse of contraceptives. Emergency birth control (EBC) provides individuals with additional insurance against unplanned pregnancy in the presence of contraception failure. This study is the first to estimate the impact of switching EBC from prescription to nonprescription status in the USA on abortions and risky sexual behavior as measured by STD rates. Utilizing state-level variation in access to EBC, we find that providing individuals with over-the-counter access to EBC leads to increase STD rates and has no effect on abortion rates. Moreover, individual-level analysis using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicates that risky sexual behavior such as engaging in unprotected sex and number of sexual encounters increases as a result of over-the-counter access to EBC, which is consistent with the state-level STD findings.

  2. The Role of Mother in Informing Girls About Puberty: A Meta-Analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Context Family, especially the mother, has the most important role in the education, transformation of information, and health behaviors of girls in order for them to have a healthy transition from the critical stage of puberty, but there are different views in this regard. Objectives Considering the various findings about the source of information about puberty, a meta-analysis study was conducted to investigate the extent of the mother’s role in informing girls about puberty. Data Sources This meta-analysis study was based on English articles published from 2000 to February 2015 in the Scopus, PubMed, and Science direct databases and on Persian articles in the SID, Magiran, and Iran Medex databases with determined key words and their MeSH equivalent. Study Selection Quantitative cross-sectional articles were extracted by two independent researchers and finally 46 articles were selected based on inclusion criteria. STROBE list were used for evaluation of studies. Data Extraction The percent of mothers as the current and preferred source of gaining information about the process of puberty, menarche, and menstruation from the perspective of adolescent girls was extracted from the articles. The results of studies were analyzed using meta-analysis (random effects model and the studies’ heterogeneity was analyzed using the I2 calculation index. Variance between studies was analyzed using tau squared (Tau2 and review manager 5 software. Results The results showed that, from the perspective of teenage girls in Iran and other countries, in 56% of cases, the mother was the current source of information about the process of puberty, menarche, and menstruation. The preferred source of information about the process of puberty, menarche, and menstruation was the mother in all studies at 60% (Iran 57%, and other countries 66%. Conclusions According to the findings of this study, it is essential that health professionals and officials of the ministry of

  3. THALASSAEMIA AND ABERRATIONS OF GROWTH AND PUBERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kyriakou

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine dysfunction in Thalassaemia major (TM is a common and disturbing complication, which requires prompt recognition and treatment. The contribution of the underlying molecular defect in TM to the development of endocrinopathies is significant because the patients with the more severe genetic defects have a greater rate of iron loading through higher red cell consumption. TM patients frequently present delay of growth and puberty with reduction of final height. The pathogenesis of growth failure is multifactorial and is mainly due to chronic anemia and hypoxia, chronic liver disease, zinc and folic acid deficiency, iron overload, intensive use of chelating agents, emotional factors, and endocrinopathies (hypogonadism, delayed puberty, hypothyroidism and GH-IGF-1 axis dysregulation. Although appropriate iron chelation therapy can improve growth and development, TM children and adolescents treated intensively with desferrioxamine remain short as well, showing body disproportion between the upper and lower body segment. Body disproportion is independent of prepubertal or pubertal period of greater height gain. Treatment with recombinant GH (rhGH is recommended when GH deficiency is established, and even so, the therapeutic response is often non satisfactory. Growth acceleration is mostly promoted with sex steroids in children with associated pubertal delay. Sexual complications in TM, which include Delayed Puberty, Arrested Puberty and Hypogonadism, present the commonest endocrine complication. Iron deposition on gonadotroph cells of the pituitary leads to disruption of gonadotrophin production which is proven by the poor response of FSH and LH to GnRH stimulation. In the majority of patients gonadal function is normal as most women with Amenorrhea are capable of achieving pregnancy with hormonal treatment and similarly men with azoospermia become fathers. Secondary Hypogonadism appears later in life,    and is manifested in women as

  4. Suprasellar epidermoid presenting with precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Peter Symss

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoids are inclusion tumors of the central nervous system and are rare, benign slow-growing tumors. They are estimated to constitute 0.5-1.8% of the brain tumors and have an affinity for the subarachnoid cisterns at the base of the brain, the suprasellar cistern being one of the most favoured sites. We report a case of suprasellar epidermoid in a 2-year-old male child with an unusual CT and MRI appearance, who presented to us in February 1995 with features of precocious puberty. In October 2004, at the age of 11 years, he presented with symptoms and signs of raised ICP.

  5. The mystery of puberty initiation: genetics and epigenetics of idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leka-Emiri, Sofia; Chrousos, George P; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina

    2017-08-01

    Puberty is a major developmental stage. Damaging mutations, considered as "mistakes of nature", have contributed to the unraveling of the networks implicated in the normal initiation of puberty. Genes involved in the abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis development, in the normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH), in the X-linked or autosomal forms of Kallmann syndrome and in precocious puberty have been identified (GNRH1, GNRHR, KISS1, GPR54, FGFR1, FGF8, PROK2, PROKR2, TAC3, TACR3, KAL1, PROK2, PROKR2, CHD7, LEP, LEPR, PC1, DAX1, SF-1, HESX-1, LHX3, PROP-1). Most of them were found to play critical roles in HPG axis development and regulation, the embryonic GnRH neuronal migration and secretion, the regulation and action of the hypothalamic GnRH. However, the specific neural and molecular mechanisms triggering GnRH secretion remain one of the scientific enigmas. Although GnRH neurons are probably capable of autonomously generating oscillations, many gonadal steroid-dependent and -independent mechanisms have also been proposed. It is now well proven that the secretion of GnRH is regulated by kisspeptin as well as by permissive or opposing signals mediated by neurokinin B and dynorphin. These three supra-GnRH regulators compose the kisspeptin-neurokinin B-dynorphin neuronal (KNDy) system, a key player in pubertal onset and progression. Moreover, an ongoing increasing number of inhibitory, stimulatory and permissive networks acting upstream on GnRH neurons, such as GABA, NPY, LIN28B, MKRN3 and others integrate diverse hormonal and peripheral signals and have been proposed as the "gate-keepers" of puberty, while epigenetic modifications play also an important role in puberty initiation.

  6. Increase in urinary growth hormone excretion in puberty.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, D A; Addison, G. M.; Herbert, E D

    1990-01-01

    During the pubertal years the overnight urinary excretion rate of growth hormone (hGHu) increases to three to four times the prepubertal rate, reaching a peak in girls at 13 years and in boys at 15 years. After puberty the mean rate of overnight hGHu is twice that before puberty.

  7. Increase in urinary growth hormone excretion in puberty.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, D A; Addison, G M; Herbert, E D

    1990-01-01

    During the pubertal years the overnight urinary excretion rate of growth hormone (hGHu) increases to three to four times the prepubertal rate, reaching a peak in girls at 13 years and in boys at 15 years. After puberty the mean rate of overnight hGHu is twice that before puberty.

  8. Delayed puberty and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Differential diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoep, Marinus Cornelis

    1978-01-01

    This thesis describes a method enabling a prospecrive differential diagnosis to be made berween delayed puberty (DP) and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). The influence of androgen administration on the gonadal feedback sysrem of patients with delayed puberty was also studied. ... Zie: Summary

  9. Central precocious puberty and gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Oostdijk (Wilma)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn order to understand the processes occurring during precocious puberty, one needs to specify what is currently known about normal pubertal development. Puberty can be defined as a maturational process of the hypothalamic-pituitarygonadal axis, which results in the development of the go

  10. The Impact of Puberty and Sexual Activity upon the Health and Education of Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, J.

    1987-01-01

    Sex equity issues which are emphasized in this article include: (a) how boys and girls negotiate reproductive transitions; (b) how male and female sexual maturity is treated differently by parents, educators, and society; and (c) how the consequences of puberty and sexual behavior may differ for boys and girls. (IAH)

  11. Evaluation of 451 Danish Boys With Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; Hagen, Casper P; Mieritz, Mikkel Grunnet;

    2015-01-01

    Context: Few data exist on the diagnostic criteria, and on the effects of puberty induction, in boyswith constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP). Objective: To develop puberty nomograms based on Danish boys with normal pubertal development.To evaluate the different diagnostic criteria...... and the effect of oral testosterone undecanoate(TU) in boys with CDGP. Design: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of Danish boys with normal pubertal development(COPENHAGEN puberty study). A retrospective observational study of 451 boys evaluated fordelayed puberty between 1990 and 2013. Setting: Tertiary...... referral center for pediatric endocrinology. Participants: One hundred and sixty-four (36%) boys evaluated for CDGP were excluded due tomissing data, reclassification, or associated comorbidities, yielding 287 (64%) eligible for analysis. Main Outcome Measures: The number of patients with CDGP classified...

  12. Trends in puberty timing in humans and environmental modifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Secular trends in timing of puberty appear to continue although under-nutrition has not been any longer a limiting factor for pubertal development. Now obesity and other environmental reasons have been suspected to cause this trend, and endocrine disrupting chemicals have become into focus...... as possible contributors. Epidemiological studies on endocrine disrupters are still scarce and show only weak associations between exposures and timing of puberty. Since genetic background explains 50-80% of variability in the timing of puberty, it is not surprising that the observed environmental effects...... are rather modest when individual exposures are assessed. Despite that, some exposures have been reported to be associated to early (e.g., polybrominated biphenyls) or delayed (e.g., lead) puberty. Here we shortly review the available data on recent trends in timing of puberty and the possible role...

  13. Trends in puberty timing in humans and environmental modifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Secular trends in timing of puberty appear to continue although under-nutrition has not been any longer a limiting factor for pubertal development. Now obesity and other environmental reasons have been suspected to cause this trend, and endocrine disrupting chemicals have become into focus...... as possible contributors. Epidemiological studies on endocrine disrupters are still scarce and show only weak associations between exposures and timing of puberty. Since genetic background explains 50-80% of variability in the timing of puberty, it is not surprising that the observed environmental effects...... are rather modest when individual exposures are assessed. Despite that, some exposures have been reported to be associated to early (e.g., polybrominated biphenyls) or delayed (e.g., lead) puberty. Here we shortly review the available data on recent trends in timing of puberty and the possible role...

  14. The roles of testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4 in male fertility-priapism and sexual behavior defects in TR4 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Bo-Ying

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful reproductive efforts require the establishment of a situation favorable for reproduction that requires integration of both behavior and internal physiological events. TR4 nuclear receptor is known to be involved in male fertility via controlling spermatogenesis, yet its roles in regulating other biological events related to reproduction have not been completely revealed. Methods Male TR4 knockout (TR4-/- and wild type mice were used for the sexual behavior and penile dysfunction studies. Mice were sacrificed for histological examination and corresponding genes profiles were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Reporter gene assays were performed. Results We describe an unexpected finding of priapism in TR4-/- mice. As a transcriptional factor, we demonstrated that TR4 transcriptionally modulates a key enzyme regulating penis erection and neuronal nitric oxide synthese NOS (nNOS. Thereby, elimination of TR4 results in nNOS reduction in both mRNA and protein levels, consequently may lead to erectile dysfunction. In addition, male TR4-/- mice display defects in sexual and social behavior, with increased fear or anxiety, as well as reduced mounting, intromission, and ejaculation. Reduction of ER alpha, ER beta, and oxytocin in the hypothalamus may contribute to defects in sexual behavior and stress response. Conclusions Together, these results provide in vivo evidence of important TR4 roles in penile physiology, as well as in male sexual behavior. In conjunction with previous finding, TR4 represents a key factor that controls male fertility via regulating behavior and internal physiological events.

  15. Premature birth and age at onset of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Lai Ling; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, C Mary

    2012-05-01

    Premature birth is associated with poor metabolic health in both sexes, potentially via earlier pubertal timing. We examined the associations of gestational age and premature birth (Premature girls reached puberty about 4 months later than girls with ≥ 41 weeks' gestation (time ratio = 1.04 [95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.06]), adjusted for mother' age of menarche, mother's place of birth, and smoking during pregnancy. Gestational age was not associated with onset of puberty in boys (test for interaction by sex, P Premature birth was not related to earlier onset of puberty; instead, premature girls had later onset of puberty. Thus, the association between premature birth and subsequent cardiovascular risk is probably not mediated through the timing of pubertal onset. It is unclear whether onset, duration, or tempo of puberty is more relevant to the detrimental consequences of early puberty. Further studies investigating intrauterine, infant, and childhood influences on the duration and tempo of puberty may help unravel the early origins of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Obesity and growth during childhood and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Growth during childhood and adolescence occurs at different rates and is influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional status plays an important role in regulating growth, and excess body weight early in life can influence growth patterns. Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, there is evidence suggesting that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth patterns and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during prepubertal years obese children have higher height velocity and accelerated bone age compared to lean subjects. However, this prepubertal advantage in growth tends to gradually decrease during puberty, when obese children show a reduced growth spurt compared with lean subjects. Growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese children is reduced, therefore suggesting that increased growth is GH independent. Factors which have been implicated in the accelerated growth in obese children include increased leptin and insulin levels, adrenal androgens, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein-1 and GH-binding proteins. Excess body weight during childhood can also influence pubertal development, through an effect on timing of pubertal onset and levels of pubertal hormonal levels. There is clear evidence indicating that obesity leads to early appearance of pubertal signs in girls. In addition, obese girls are also at increased risk of hyperandrogenism. In boys, excess adiposity has been associated with advanced puberty in some studies, whereas others have reported a delay in pubertal onset. The existing evidence on the association between childhood and adolescence obesity underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity; that is preventing abnormal growth and pubertal patterns.

  17. Relationships between day one piglet serum immunoglobulin immunocrit and subsequent growth, puberty attainment, litter size, and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, J L; Miles, J R; Rempel, L A; Nonneman, D J; Lents, C A

    2015-06-01

    Colostrum affects gut and uterine gland development in the neonatal piglet, suggesting that subsequent growth and reproductive performance may be affected. Measuring immunoglobulin in piglet serum using the immunoglobulin immunocrit on Day 1 of age provides a simple, inexpensive indication of the amount of colostrum acquired by the piglet in the first day of life. Relationships between serum immunoglobulin immunocrit measures and subsequent growth rates, age at puberty, incidence of puberty failure, litter size, and lactation performance were examined in pigs born and subsequently farrowing between 2009 and 2013. Immunoglobulin immunocrit measures were collected on 16,762 piglets on Day 1 of age. Of these piglets, BW measurements were available from 15,324 (7,684 males and 7,640 females) piglets at a range of ages from weaning to 200 d of age, allowing an assessment of growth rates. Age at puberty was recorded from a subset of 2,857 of the females after observing them for estrous behavior from approximately 170 to 250 d of age. To examine relationships between d 1 immunocrit and puberty failure, gilts with immunocrit measures that failed to reach puberty (n = 119) were matched with littermate gilts with immunocrit measures that achieved puberty (n = 167). Similarly, number born alive was collected on a subset (n = 799) of females from first to fourth parities for which d 1 immunocrits were measured on them as neonates. Finally, d 1 immunocrit effect on adult lactational competence was assessed by measuring litter average (offspring of 440 females) and litter average piglet preweaning growth rate (offspring of 774 females) in females where d 1 immunocrits were available from them as neonates. Results indicated that low d 1 immunocrits were subsequently associated with reduced growth (P piglets would result in beneficial changes in production efficiency, particularly for gilts destined for the breeding herd. It also suggests that the immunoglobulin immunocrit can be

  18. Fertility Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Fertility Awareness KidsHealth > For Teens > Fertility Awareness Print A A A What's in this article? ... español Monitoreo de fertilidad What Is It? Fertility awareness is a way to prevent pregnancy by not ...

  19. Everything You Wanted to Know about Puberty (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or whether you like hip-hop or country music, you will experience the changes that happen during ... puberty, you might feel confused or have strong emotions that you've never experienced before. You may ...

  20. Environmental factors and puberty timing: expert panel research needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louis, G.M. Buck; Jr, L.E. Gray; Marcus, M.

    2008-01-01

    , and (3) basic research to identify the primary signal(s) for the onset of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-dependent/central puberty and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-independent/peripheral puberty. Prospective studies of couples who are planning pregnancies or pregnant women are needed to capture......, body size, and puberty. The panel concluded that available experimental animal and human data support a possible role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to alterations in pubertal onset and progression in boys and girls. Critical data gaps prioritized for future research...... initiatives include (1) etiologic research that focus on environmentally relevant levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to normal puberty as well as its variants, (2) exposure assessment of relevant endocrine-disrupting chemicals during critical windows of human development...

  1. Nitrate behaviors and its transportation time scale in unsaturated zone under farmlands with different fertilization log in Kumamoto region, southern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Azusa; Hosono, Takahiro; Shimada, Jun

    2017-04-01

    An application of fertilizers and manure often caused an increase of nitrate concentration in groundwater in the agricultural area. The study area, Kumamoto, is the field facing this type of problem. Previous studies using nitrogen-oxygen isotope ratios in nitrate showed that accumulation of chemical fertilizers is the major factor for observed nitrate contamination. However, once it loaded nitrogen compounds may change its form and isotopic composition during transportation within unsaturation zone prior to reach the aquifer. However, such kind of knowledge is still rarely accumulated. To clarify the behavior and transportation manner of nitrogen in the unsaturated zone, we analyzed the nitrogen-oxygen isotope ratios of the extracted soil water of the unsaturated zone soils from the farmland having different fertilization logs. In addition, we attempted to verify the origin of nitrate in soil water by comparing with previous isotopic results. The plateaus-like topography of the study area is consists of the pyroclastic flow deposits. Land use is mainly farmland and this area is a major source of nitrogen load and transport route into the aquifer. Nitrate concentration in groundwater at terraces recharge area has been reported about 40 mg/L. Drilling survey carried out in the unsaturated zone soil on 4 farmlands with the different land use logs in such terraces. Drilling points S1 and S2 were treated by both slurry and chemical fertilizers, on the other hand, point C1 and C2 were applied chemical fertilizers only. The drilling depth was up to 14-15 m, and soil samples were kept on evacuated condition after sectioning into 10 cm interval. The soil water was extracted using a centrifuge machine. The extracted soil water was measured for the nitrogen-oxygen isotope ratios in nitrate and major ions concentrations. All cores showed high nitrate concentrations in the surface layer (260, 440, 172 and 244 mg/L for S1, S2, C1, and C2 respectively). The concentrations became

  2. Final adult height of girls with central precocious puberty or early and fast puberty could be improved by treatment of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋莉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and impact factors of treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs(GnRHa) in central precocious puberty(CPP)or early and fast puberty(EFP)girls in a retrospective unicenter study

  3. Age at puberty and the emerging obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Olsen, Lina W

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that puberty starts at younger ages than previously. It has been hypothesized that the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is contributing to this trend. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between prepubertal body mass index (BMI....... Irrespective of level of BMI at age seven, there was a downward trend in the age at attaining puberty in both boys and girls, which suggests that the obesity epidemic is not solely responsible for the trend....

  4. The Patient with Turner Syndrome: Puberty and Medical Management Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Luisa; Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2013-01-01

    Turner Syndrome (TS) affects approximately 1 in 2500 liveborn females and is characterized by loss or structural anomalies of an X chromosome. Clinical features vary among patients; multiple organ systems can be affected. Endocrinologists are involved in the management of short stature, delayed puberty, and infertility. Endocrine therapies can include growth hormone, estrogen, and progestagen to promote linear growth and pubertal development. The duration of estrogen and progestagen treatment (HRT) is generally more than 40 years. There is not one standard HRT protocol that is suitable for all women. Thus, general guidelines are provided for HRT to induce pubertal development. Additional considerations regarding choice of HRT include thrombotic risk and disorders associated with thrombophila. Involvement of cardiologists is important because approximately 50% of patients with TS have congenital structural cardiac anomalies linked to an increased risk for aortic dissection and rupture. Although oocyte donation offers the chance to carry a pregnancy, accumulating information has highlighted the potential dangers associated with pregnancy. Advances in the care of infants, girls, and women with TS have been achieved. Management of infants, girls, and women with TS involves coordinated care from a multi-disciplinary team including endocrinologists, cardiologists, geneticists, otolaryngologists, behavioral health experts, nurse educators, and social workers. PMID:22884020

  5. Maternal uniparental isodisomy of human chromosome 14 associated with a paternal t(13q14q) and precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, D J; Roux, A F; Waye, J; Freeman, V C; Cox, D W; Whelan, D T

    1996-01-01

    Cytogenetic and molecular investigation of a boy with precocious puberty and motor developmental delay revealed a 45,XY,t(14q14q) or i(14q) karyotype with no paternal chromosome 14 contribution. VNTR analysis of loci on four other chromosomes excluded non-paternity with greater than 99% confidence. Results of VNTR and CA repeat analyses of ten loci along the entire length of chromosome 14 were consistent with homozygosity at all loci, suggesting that the chromosomal rearrangement was a maternal isochromosome for 14q. As the proband's father had a balanced Robertsonian translocation, t(13q14q), we suggest that the origin of the maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) was fertilization by a nullisomy 14 sperm with formation of the isochromosome in the early embryo. Also, the proband has several clinical features in common with six previously reported liveborn cases of maternal UPD 14: hypotonia and motor developmental delay, mild dysmorphic facial features, low birth weight and growth abnormalities, and, more specifically, precocious puberty among the four cases old enough to assess. The emergence of a syndrome associated with maternal UPD 14 suggests the possibility of genomic imprinting of regions of chromosome 14, especially a gene involved in the onset of puberty.

  6. Stress before Puberty Exerts a Sex- and Age-Related Impact on Auditory and Contextual Fear Conditioning in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Toledo-Rodriguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal, and psychological changes. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. In this study, we evaluated the impact of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform experienced before puberty (days 28–30 on fear memories and hormonal response of male and female rats during adolescence and early adulthood. Stress before puberty impacted in a sex- and age-specific way on the responses to auditory and contextual fear conditioning in adolescence and adulthood: (a increased conditioned fear to the tone in males during adolescence but not during adulthood; (b impaired extinction to the tone in adult males; and (c reduced freezing responses to the context in adolescent females. Stress before puberty did not influence the corticosterone levels 30 minutes after an additional stressor given in adulthood. These results indicate that stress experienced prior to puberty can exert a sex-related differential impact on fear-related behaviors displayed by individuals during late adolescence and early adulthood.

  7. [Demographic analysis of family-related life cycles of Austrian women: a multidimensional model of marriage, fertility, and divorce behavior in the years 1976-1986].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufhauser, E; Lutz, W

    1989-01-01

    Summary results are presented from a research project designed to investigate the family life cycle of Austrian women by using a multidimensional model of marriage, fertility, and divorce. Data are from the 1976 and 1986 microcensuses. Topics discussed include the impact of illegitimate birth on women's future marital status, the relationship between number of children and the probability of divorce and of remarriage, the average number of years spent in different phases of the family life cycle, and the implications of current behavior patterns for future family structure in Austria.

  8. The influence of stress at puberty on mood and learning: role of the α4βδ GABAA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S S

    2013-09-26

    It is well-known that the onset of puberty is associated with changes in mood as well as cognition. Stress can have an impact on these outcomes, which in many cases, can be more influential in females, suggesting that gender differences exist. The adolescent period is a vulnerable time for the onset of certain psychopathologies, including anxiety disorders, depression and eating disorders, which are also more prevalent in females. One factor which may contribute to stress-triggered anxiety at puberty is the GABAA receptor (GABAR), which is known to play a pivotal role in anxiety. Expression of α4βδ GABARs increases on the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells at the onset of puberty in the hippocampus, part of the limbic circuitry which governs emotion. This receptor is a sensitive target for the stress steroid 3α-OH-5[α]β-pregnan-20-one or [allo]pregnanolone, which paradoxically reduces inhibition and increases anxiety during the pubertal period (post-natal day ∼35-44) of female mice in contrast to its usual effect to enhance inhibition and reduce anxiety. Spatial learning and synaptic plasticity are also adversely impacted at puberty, likely a result of increased expression of α4βδ GABARs on the dendritic spines of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells, which are essential for consolidation of memory. This review will focus on the role of these receptors in mediating behavioral changes at puberty. Stress-mediated changes in mood and cognition in early adolescence may have relevance for the expression of psychopathologies in adulthood.

  9. LIN28B polymorphisms are associated with central precocious puberty and early puberty in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers within &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt; have been reported to be related to the timing of pubertal growth. However, no study has investigated the frequency of genetic markers in girls with precocious puberty (PP or early puberty (EP. This study aimed to determine the frequency of putative genetic markers in girls with PP or EP. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; Genomic DNAs were obtained from 77 and 109 girls that fulfilled the criteria for PP and EP, respectively. The controls in this study were 144 healthy volunteers between 20 and 30 years of age. The haplotypes were reconstructed using 11 SNPs of &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt;, and haplotype association analysis was performed. The haplotype frequencies were compared. Differences in the clinical and laboratory parameters were analyzed according to the haplotype dosage. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; Eleven SNPs in &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt; were all located in a block that was in linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype could be reconstructed using 2 representative SNPs, rs4946651 and rs369065. The AC haplotype was less frequently observed in the PP group than in the controls (0.069 vs. 0.144, &lt;I&gt;P&lt;/I&gt;=0.010. The trend that girls with non-AC haplotypes tended to have earlier puberty onset (&lt;I&gt;P&lt;/I&gt;=0.037 was illustrated even in the EP+PP patient group by Kaplan-Meier analysis. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The results of the present study showed that non-AC haplotypes of &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt;had a significant association with PP in girls.

  10. Role of environmental factors in the timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, S.Y.; Selevan, S.G.; Pescovitz, O.H.

    2008-01-01

    Puberty-timing measures have historically been used as indicators of adequate nutrition and growth. More recently, these measures have been examined in relation to exposure to estrogenic or antiandrogenic agents, as well as other environmental factors. The scientific community has debated whether...... puberty timing is occurring earlier today than in the mid-1900s in the United States and, if so, whether environmental factors play a role; however, no one has asked a multidisciplinary panel to resolve this question. Thus, a multidisciplinary expert panel jointly sponsored by the US Environmental...... Role of Environmental Factors on the Timing and Progression of Puberty" workshop. The majority of the panelists concluded that the girls' data are sufficient to suggest a secular trend toward earlier breast development onset and menarche from 1940 to 1994 but that the boys' data are insufficient...

  11. Natural fertility in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, E G

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that modernization trends in the Philippines led to an increase in fecundity and natural fertility between 1953-1972 was tested, using data from the 1973 National Demographic Survey. More specifically, it was hypothesized that increases in education, income levels, urbanization, female labor force participation, and other factors exerted a positive influence on the population's health and nutritional status and increased the risk of pregnancy by diminishing the strength of sexual taboos and by decreasing the incidence of breastfeeding. These changes, in turn, had a positive impact on natural fertility. Natural fertility was defined as marital fertility in the absence of specific efforts to control fertility. The use of natural fertility instead of fecundity allowed for the influence of behavioral patterns, such as breastfeeding and sexual taboos, on fertility. Period analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for each 5 year period between 1953-72 and cohort analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for the birth cohorts, aged 55-59, 50-54, 45-49, 40-44, and 35-39 in 1973 were undertaken. The effect of fertility control was determined by using an index derived from an equation provided by Coale and Trussell. Findings of both the period and cohort analysis supported the hypothesis. Period analysis revealed that natural fertility increased between 1953-57 and 1969-72 by 10% and that the greatest increase occurred during the 1950s when Philippine society experienced major modernization changes. The increases in natural fertility were accompanied by corresponding increases in fertility regulation in each time period. These trends tended to cancel each other out and resulted in a relatively stable total marital fertility rate throughout the time period. Cohort analysis revealed that only the total marital fertility rate of the youngest cohort was influenced by fertility regulation. The level of natural fertility for all cohorts as a group

  12. Serum levels of growth hormone binding protein in children with normal and precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Fisker, Sidse; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2000-01-01

    To study the regulation of GHBP serum levels by gonadal steroids in normal and precocious puberty.......To study the regulation of GHBP serum levels by gonadal steroids in normal and precocious puberty....

  13. Serum inhibin B levels during male childhood and puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2001-01-01

    Inhibin B is a testicular peptide hormone that regulates FSH secretion in a negative feedback loop. In males serum levels of inhibin B are detectable throughout life with prominent changes in the first year of life and during puberty. Serum inhibin B is normally detectable throughout childhood...... normal or near-normal levels are seen in cryptorchidism and disorders with preserved Sertoli cell function in spite of absence of germ cells or impaired androgen biosynthesis or action. During puberty a developmental change in the regulation of serum inhibin B occurs. In contrast to childhood inhibin B...

  14. A missense mutation in MKRN3 in a Danish girl with central precocious puberty and her brother with early puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Känsäkoski, Johanna; Raivio, Taneli; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) results from the premature reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis leading to development of secondary sexual characteristics prior to 8 y in girls or 9 y in boys. Since the initial discovery of mutations in the maternally...... hypothalamic complementary DNA (cDNA) was investigated by PCR. RESULTS: One paternally inherited rare variant, c.1034G>A (p.Arg345His), was identified in one girl with ICPP and in her brother with early puberty. The variant is predicted to be deleterious by three different in silico prediction programs....... Expression of MKRN3 was confirmed in adult human hypothalamus. CONCLUSION: Our results are in line with previous studies in which paternally inherited MKRN3 mutations have been found both in males and in females with ICPP or early puberty. Our report further expands the set of MKRN3 mutations identified...

  15. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor

    2009-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor...... of glucose metabolism and metabolic risk during puberty....

  16. White matter development in adolescence: the influence of puberty and implications for affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D; Peper, Jiska S; Crone, Eveline A; Dahl, Ronald E

    2012-01-01

    There have been rapid advances in understanding a broad range of changes in brain structure and function during adolescence, and a growing interest in identifying which of these neurodevelopmental changes are directly linked with pubertal maturation—at least in part because of their potential to provide insights into the numerous emotional and behavioral health problems that emerge during this developmental period. This review focuses on what is known about the influence of puberty on white matter development in adolescence.We focus on white matter because of its role in providing the structural architectural organization of the brain and as a structural correlate of communication within complex neural systems. We begin with a review of studies that report sex differences or sex by age interactions in white matter development as these findings can provide, although indirectly,information relevant to puberty-related changes. Studies are also critically reviewed based on methodological procedures used to assess pubertal maturation and relations with white matter changes. Findings are discussed in light of their implications for the development of neural systems underlying the regulation of emotion and behavior and how alterations in the development of these systems may mediate risk for affective disorders in vulnerable adolescents.

  17. Early puberty in internationally adopted girls: hormonal and clinical markers of puberty in 276 girls examined biannually over two years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen H; Teilmann, Grete; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Retrospective studies have indicated that internationally adopted girls are at high risk of developing precocious puberty. Hypothetically, this could be due to selection bias. The aim of this study was to determine age at reaching pubertal milestones in healthy internationally......-sectionally. RESULTS: Mean age at B2+ was 9.5 years (95% prediction interval 7.1-12.0 years) and mean age at menarche was 12.1 (10.2-14.0) years in adopted girls, which was significantly lower compared to the reference group (p puberty...

  18. The value of comparative approaches to our understanding of puberty as illustrated by investigations in birds and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gregory F; Wade, Juli

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Studies of birds and reptiles have provided many basic insights into the neuroendocrine control of reproductive processes. This research has elucidated mechanisms regulating both early development, including sexual differentiation, and adult neuroendocrine function and behavior. However, phenomena associated with the transition into sexual maturation (puberty) have not been a focus of investigators working on species in these taxonomic classes. Research is complicated in birds and reptiles by a variety of factors, including what can be extended times to maturation, the need to reach particular body size regardless of age, and environmental conditions that can support or inhibit endocrine responses. However, careful selection of model systems, particularly those with available genetic tools, will lead to important comparative studies that can elucidate both generalizability and diversity of mechanisms regulating the onset of reproductive maturity.

  19. Cognitive, emotional and psychosocial functioning of girls treated with pharmacological puberty blockage for idiopathic central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Wojniusz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Central precocious puberty (CPP develops due to premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis, resulting in early pubertal changes and rapid bone maturation. CPP is associated with lower adult height and increased risk for development of psychological problems. Standard treatment of CPP is based on postponement of pubertal development by blockade of the HPG axis with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa leading to abolition of gonadal sex hormones synthesis. Whereas the hormonal and auxological effects of GnRHa are well researched, there is a lack of knowledge whether GnRHa treatment influences psychological functioning of treated children, despite the fact that prevention of psychological problems is used as one of the main reasons for treatment initiation. In the present study we seek to address this issue by exploring differences in cognitive function, behavior, emotional reactivity, and psychosocial problems between GnRHa treated CPP girls and age-matched controls.Fifteen girls with idiopathic CPP; median age 10.4 years, treated with slow-release GnRHa (triptorelin acetate – Decapeptyl SR ® 11.25 and 15 age-matched controls, were assessed with a comprehensive test battery consisting of paper and pencil tests, computerized tasks, behavioral paradigms, heart rate variability, and questionnaires filled in by the children’s parents. Both groups showed very similar scores with regard to cognitive performance, behavioral and psychosocial problems. Compared to controls, treated girls displayed significantly higher emotional reactivity (p = 0.016; Cohen’s d = 1.04 on one of the two emotional reactivity task conditions. Unexpectedly, the CPP group showed significantly lower resting heart rates than the controls (p = 0.004; Cohen’s d = 1.03; lower heart rate was associated with longer treatment duration (r = - 0.582, p = 0.037. The results suggest that GnRHa treated CPP girls do not differ in their cognitive or

  20. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  1. PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY DUE TO OVARIAN CYST – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa M Guimarães

    2017-01-01

    Discussion/Conclusion: Most autonomous ovarian cysts regress spontaneously with regression of pubertal signs, as in the present case. Therapy with a GnRH agonist may become necessary in the case of transformation from precocious pseudopuberty to central precocious puberty after recurrences of the ovarian cysts or when there is significant loss of height potential.

  2. Arrested puberty associated with a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A C; Feinman, M A; Husami, N

    1985-06-01

    Androgen-producing ovarian tumors are rarely recognized as a cause of delayed or arrested puberty, despite their frequent association with secondary amenorrhea in the older patient. A case is discussed of a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor in an 18-year-old girl resulting in arrest of breast development and primary amenorrhea.

  3. Hyperandrogenism during puberty in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Shahla

    2013-07-01

    The hormonal events of puberty, from adrenarche to menarche and beyond, include the secretion of androgens as well as estrogen and P. This normal pubertal process is briefly reviewed and a physiologic role for pubertal androgens proposed. It is further suggested that the hyperandrogenic state we call polycystic ovary syndrome is a maladaptation of the advantageous role of normal pubertal androgens.

  4. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2016-11-17

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes.

  5. Puberty as a vulnerable period to the effects of immune challenges: Focus on sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Leanne; Ismail, Nafissa

    2017-03-01

    Puberty is a critical period of development during which sexual maturity is attained. It is also a critical period for brain reorganization and it is vulnerable to exposure to certain environmental factors. Exposure to stress during this period can cause enduring neural and behavioral alterations. More specifically, exposure to an immune challenge during this period can alter reproductive as well as a number of non-reproductive behaviors and can permanently alter the brain's response to gonadal hormones. The present review examines the enduring effect of exposure to LPS and poly(I:C) during the pubertal period. Age and sex differences in acute response to LPS are discussed as possible mechanisms of vulnerability to adverse effects. Moreover, this review suggests new research directions to improve our understanding of the vulnerability of the pubertal period to immunological stressors.

  6. Factors influencing aggression toward females by male rats exposed to anabolic androgenic steroids during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca L; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2007-01-01

    Previous results showed that male rats pubertally exposed to anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) displayed aggression towards females in response to physical provocation. This experiment examined two factors that may modulate AAS-induced behavior towards females: olfactory cues and frustration. Gonadally intact males began one of three AAS treatments at puberty (D40): testosterone propionate (T), stanozolol (S), T+S, or vehicle control. To test for the relevance of olfactory cues in the elicitation of behavior toward females, a hidden neighbor paradigm was used. The proximal stimulus was an ovariectomized (OVX) female, estrogen plus progesterone (E+P) female, or an E+P female with tape-obstructed vagina (OBS). Distal olfactory cues from a hidden neighbor were delivered from a separate cage connected to the testing arena. The vaginally obstructed, sexually receptive female (OBS) was used to determine the effects of frustration on behavior by AAS males. Both sexual and aggressive behaviors were measured. The presence of distal olfactory cues had no effect on either sexual or aggressive behavior. In the presence of E+P and OBS females, all males displayed sex behaviors, not aggression. However, AAS males displayed significantly more aggression towards proximal OVX females than controls. AAS males mounted OBS females significantly more than controls, indicating a persistence of once rewarded behavior. These results suggest (1) proximal cues of the conspecific female are more salient than distal olfactory cues in determining behavior and (2) AAS males display frustration-induced persistence in response to vaginally obstructed receptive females.

  7. Breeding capacity, behavior and fertility of bulls with Brahman genetic influence during synchronized breeding of beef females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G L

    1988-07-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the feasibility of using bulls of Brahman-derived breeds for synchronized breeding of females treated with Syncro-Mate-B (SMB). Suckled, postpartum cows (n = 261) and virgin heifers (n = 227) were given the standard SMB treatment. Calves were removed from cows for 48 h beginning at implant removal, and individual bulls were placed in pens with 15 to 20 females (x = 1:15.7 ) for 48 h beginning at implant removal. Bulls (n = 31) were 18 to 36 mo of age and had scored satisfactorily on a breeding soundness evaluation (BSE). The mean +/- SEM percentage of females in estrus, percentage of estrous females serviced and percentage of total females serviced were 77.2 +/- 2.4, 72.9 +/- 2.9 and 55.7 +/- 3%, respectively. Total average services per bull was 23.6 +/- 1.6; however, average number of individuals serviced was only 8.6 +/- 0.42. Mean +/- SEM percentage of females conceiving of those serviced, percentage conceiving of those in estrus and percentage conceiving of total females available were 57.3 +/- 3.7, 40.6 +/- 2.6 and 32.6 +/- 2.5%, respectively. Mean BSE scores of eight Simbrah bulls tested immediately before and 5 d after synchronized breeding did not differ (P > 0.05). These data suggest that the conception rate of Brahman-influenced bulls servicing SMB-synchronized cows is within the normal range. However, the total number of individual females serviced and the total pregnancy rate under the protocol employed was low. This occurred because all estrous females were not inseminated, and some bulls exhibited unpredicted low fertility.

  8. Virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma advancing to central precocious puberty after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Yang, Eu Jeen; Cho, Dong Hyu; Hwang, Pyung Han; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2015-05-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) in pediatric and adolescent patients is rare, and it is associated with various clinical symptoms. We introduce the case of an 8-year-old boy with ACC who presented with peripheral precocious puberty at his first visit. He displayed penis enlargement with pubic hair and facial acne. His serum adrenal androgen levels were elevated, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a right suprarenal mass. After complete surgical resection, the histological diagnosis was ACC. Two months after surgical removal of the mass, he subsequently developed central precocious puberty. He was treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to delay further pubertal progression. In patients with functioning ACC and surgical removal, clinical follow-up and hormonal marker examination for the secondary effects of excessive hormone secretion may be a useful option at least every 2 or 3 months after surgery.

  9. Early metabolic programming of puberty onset: impact of changes in postnatal feeding and rearing conditions on the timing of puberty and development of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    the timing of puberty; however, the potential underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we report how changes in the pattern of postnatal feeding affect the onset of puberty and evaluate key hormonal and neuropeptide [Kiss1/kisspeptin (Kp)] alterations linked to these early nutritional manipulations...... of puberty, together with higher levels of leptin and hypothalamic Kiss1 mRNA. Conversely, postnatal underfeeding caused a persistent reduction in body weight, lower ovarian and uterus weights, and delayed vaginal opening, changes that were paralleled by a decrease in leptin and Kiss1 mRNA levels. Kisspeptin...... at puberty were similar in all groups, except for enhanced responsiveness to low doses of Kp-10 in postnatally underfed rats. In conclusion, our data document that the timing of puberty is sensitive to both overfeeding and subnutrition during early (postnatal) periods and suggest that alterations...

  10. Virilizing Adrenocortical Carcinoma Advancing to Central Precocious Puberty after Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Sun; Yang, Eu Jeen; Cho, Dong Hyu; Hwang, Pyung Han; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) in pediatric and adolescent patients is rare, and it is associated with various clinical symptoms. We introduce the case of an 8-year-old boy with ACC who presented with peripheral precocious puberty at his first visit. He displayed penis enlargement with pubic hair and facial acne. His serum adrenal androgen levels were elevated, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a right suprarenal mass. After complete surgical resection, the histological diagnosis was...

  11. Interval timer control of puberty in photoinhibited Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kauffman, Alexander S; Paul, Matthew J; Butler, Matthew P; Beery, Annaliese K; Costantini, Ruth M; Zucker, Irving

    2006-10-01

    Puberty, which is markedly delayed in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) born into short day lengths, is controlled by an interval timer regulated by the duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion. Properties of the interval timer were assessed by perturbing normal patterns of melatonin secretion in males gestated and maintained thereafter in 1 of 2 short day lengths, 10 h light/day (10 L) or 12L. Melatonin secretion of short-day hamsters was suppressed by constant light treatment or modified by daily injection of propranolol to mimic nocturnal melatonin durations typical of long-day hamsters. Constant light treatment during weeks 3 to 5 induced early incomplete gonadal growth in 12L but not 10 L hamsters but did not affect late onset of gonadal development indicative of puberty in either photoperiod. Propranolol treatment during postnatal weeks 3 to 5 induced transient growth of the testes and ultimately delayed the timing of puberty by 3 weeks. Similar treatments between weeks 5 and 7 or on alternate weeks for 24 weeks did not affect the interval timer. The first 2 weeks after weaning may constitute a critical period during which the interval timer is highly responsive to photoperiod. Alternatively, the hamsters' photoperiodic history rather than age or developmental stage may be the critical variable. The interpolation of long-day melatonin signals at the time of weaning does not appear to reset the interval timer to its zero position but may reduce timer responsiveness to long-day melatonin signals several weeks later.

  12. The progression of small-follicle reserves in the ovaries of wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana) from puberty to reproductive senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, F J; Nöthling, J O; Allen, W R

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the follicle reserve in the ovary of the African elephant declines progressively after puberty and whether its depletion constrains the fertility of older females. Elephant ovaries were fixed in 4% neutral buffered formalin and small-follicle counts made using stereological protocols. Excepting a slight rise in small-follicle numbers between 16 and 25 years of age, there was a trend for follicle numbers to fall from puberty to 70 years. Reproductive status did not impact significantly on small-follicle numbers (P=0.31). The number of early primary follicles, initially higher in number than true primary follicles, fell from post-puberty to nil at 45 years of age. Six of the seven oldest animals in the study showed signs of recent ovarian activity in the form of antral follicles, corpora lutea or large corpora nigra. The four oldest elephants (mean age 69 years) had a median small-follicle count of 11,113. In summary, it appears that the elephant ovary is capable of supplying oocytes for ovulation right up to the time of death at the age of maximum life expectancy, although the follicle reserve becomes depleted in some older elephants.

  13. Clinical Analysis of Ovarian Tumor in Puberty%青春期卵巢肿瘤临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚

    2015-01-01

    目的 探析青春期卵巢肿瘤的临床特点. 方法 随机选择2013年3月—2014年3月期间该院收治的青春期卵巢肿瘤患者50例为研究对象,对其临床治疗资料进行回顾性分析. 结果 50例青春期卵巢肿瘤患者中,45例为良性肿瘤,占90%,其中行卵巢囊肿剥除术患者40例,行患侧附件切除术者5例;5例为恶性肿瘤,占10%,均行生育功能保留手术. 结论 青春期卵巢肿瘤大部分均为良性,主要为生殖细胞肿瘤,应该进一步强化青春期女性的自我保健意识,定期到医院进行妇科B超检查,从而更好地预防肿瘤.%Objective To study the clinical characteristics of ovarian tumor in puberty. Methods 50 patients with ovarian tumor in puberty in our hospital from March 2013 to March 2014 were selected as the research object, and the clinical data were retrospec-tively analyzed. Results In the 50 patients, 45 were found with benign tumors, accounting for 90%, and 40 of them underwent oophorocystectomy and 5 received unilateral adnexectomy; 5 were found with malignant tumors, accounting for 10%, and under-went fertility-sparing surgery. Conclusion Ovarian tumor in puberty mostly is benign germ cell tumor. Females in Puberty should further strengthen the consciousness of self health care and receive gynecological B ultrasound examination regularly so as to better prevent tumor.

  14. Circulating MKRN3 levels decline prior to pubertal onset and through puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper P; Sørensen, Kaspar; Mieritz, Mikkel G

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Puberty is initiated by a complex interaction of suppressing and stimulating factors. Genetic studies of familial central precocious puberty have suggested makorin ring finger protein 3 (MKRN3) as a major inhibitor of GnRH secretion during childhood. Furthermore, genetic variation near...... of hypothalamic GnRH secretion during childhood. Undetectable or low MKRN3 levels were observed in a subgroup of patients with early onset of puberty....

  15. Timing of puberty and synchronization of seasonal rhythms by simulated natural photoperiods in female Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Matthew P; Trumbull, Justin J; Turner, Kevin W; Zucker, Irving

    2007-07-01

    The timing of puberty is a critical life history trait of short-lived species; spring-born individuals mature rapidly and breed in the season of birth, whereas young born in mid- to late summer delay puberty until the next spring. The cues that govern the transition from rapid to delayed maturation in natural populations remain unknown. To identify ecologically relevant photoperiod cues that control timing of puberty, we monitored nine cohorts of female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) born every 2 wk from 4 wk before to 12 wk after the summer solstice in a simulated natural photoperiod (SNP). Hamsters born by the summer solstice underwent rapid somatic growth and achieved puberty that summer; among females born 2-4 wk after the solstice, some delayed puberty by many weeks, whereas others manifested early puberty. Hamsters born 6 or more weeks after the solstice generally delayed puberty until the following spring. The transition from accelerated to delayed pubertal development in the SNP occurred at day lengths that induce early puberty when presented as static photoperiods. Despite differences in timing of birth and timing of puberty, fall and subsequent spring seasonal events occurred at similar calendar dates in all cohorts. We found no evidence that prenatal photoperiod history influenced postnatal development of female hamsters. Considered together with a parallel study on males, the present findings point to sex differences in responsiveness to natural photoperiod variations. In both sexes, incrementally changing photoperiods exert a strong organizing effect on seasonal rhythms.

  16. Is puberty a risk factor for back pain in the young? a systematic critical literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lardon, A.; Leboeuf-Yde, C.; Le Scanff, C.

    2014-01-01

    the increasing stages of puberty and the subsequent prevalence of back pain? 4) Is there a temporal link between puberty and back pain? DESIGN: A systematic critical literature review. METHODS: Systematic searches were made in March 2014 in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO including longitudinal or cross......BACKGROUND: Back pain is a common condition that starts early in life and seems to increase markedly during puberty. A systematic review was performed in order to investigate the link between puberty and back pain, using some Bradford Hill criteria for causality. OBJECTIVES: We sought to obtain...

  17. Precocious puberty in two girls with Chiari I malformation: a contribution to a larger use of brain MRI in the diagnosis of central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucarelli, I; Accardo, F; Tarani, L; Demiraj, V; Segni, M; Pasquino, A M

    2010-06-01

    Up to now Chiari malformation has been reported only in four subjects with precocious puberty, with a prevalence among boys. This article describes the case of two female children affected by progressive precocious puberty detected through brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain imaging, even without neurological signs, can identify patients at risk of developing subsequently severe neurological symptoms. Our observation supports the usefulness of brain MRI both in males and females, even when no symptoms are present, to identify and detect high risk cases. However, there is no consensus in Literature in performing MRI in all the patients of both sexes with central precocious puberty, due to its high costs.

  18. Etiology of precocious puberty, 10 years study in Endocrine Reserch Centre (Firouzgar, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Safari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precocious puberty, as early physical development and low final height might lead to psychosocial problems.Objective: To evaluate etiology and clinical feature of precocious puberty in a cohort of Iranian children.Materials and Methods: In this case-series study, 44 girls and 8 boys with precocious puberty referred to Endocrine Reserch Centre (Firouzgar, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism (Hemmat Campus, were examined in a 10 years period of time. Results: Mean age of girls and boys was 7.43±1.4 years and 5.8±2.1 years respectively. Most of the patients fell within the age category of 7-7.9 years old (40.9% for girls and 50% for boys. Patients, concerning etiology of precocious puberty were classified in three categories: 42.6% of patients had central precocious puberty (CPP, including idiopathic CPP (87.5% and neurogenic CPP (12.5%. 23.3% of patients had peripheral precocious puberty (PPP, including congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH (42.8%, ovarian cysts (28.4%, McCune-Albright syndrome (14.2% and adrenal carcinoma (14.2%. 34.1% of girls and 25% of boys had normal variant puberty including premature thelarche (57%, premature adrenarche (38% as well as premature menarche (4.7%l. Conclusion: The most common etiology of precocious puberty in girls was idiopathic central precocious puberty and premature thelarche, while in boys they were neurogenic central precocious puberty and CAH. Therefore precocious puberty in girls is usually benign. In boys, CNS anomalies should first be considered in the differential diagnosis of CPP. Therefore brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is mandatory in all cases.

  19. [Mutations in the personality nucleus at puberty and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, U

    1989-01-01

    The author considers that analysing the personality by means of concrete research, the axis "self-perceptual Ego and the prospective, ideal Ego" make up an operational axis included in personality nucleus. The selected interference of the alter image about the Ego permanently readjusts this axis. In this purpose an adjective checklist and the projective test TST in two alternative have been used. The author concludes that during puberty and adolescence several changes take place as far as the number of adjective used, descriptors prevailing characteristics, and affective finality are concerned.

  20. Use of a stair-step compensatory gain nutritional regimen to program the onset of puberty in beef heifers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cardoso, R C; Alves, B R C; Prezotto, L D; Thorson, J F; Tedeschi, L O; Keisler, D H; Park, C S; Amstalden, M; Williams, G L

    2014-01-01

    It was hypothesized that metabolic programming of processes underlying puberty can be shifted temporally through the use of a stair-step compensatory growth model such that puberty is optimally timed...

  1. The changes in running economy during puberty in overweight and normal weight boys

    OpenAIRE

    Maciejczyk Marcin; Gradek Joanna; Szymura Jadwiga; Cempla Jerzy; Więcek Magdalena; Tota Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Study aim: running economy (RE) is important indicator of endurance performance. During puberty dynamic changes in body composition and function are observed, as such RE is also expected to change. The aim of the study was to compare the running economy (RE) in overweight and normoweight boys during a running exercise performed with constant velocity, and the assessment of changes in RE during puberty.

  2. What Educational Contexts Should Teachers Consider for Their Puberty Education Programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Harris, Christine A.; Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses some contemporary educational contexts that teachers should consider for their puberty education programmes and/or curricula, for primary and secondary school students. The educational contexts addressed here include significant international puberty education framework documents, socio-biological factors including earlier…

  3. What Educational Contexts Should Teachers Consider for Their Puberty Education Programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Harris, Christine A.; Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses some contemporary educational contexts that teachers should consider for their puberty education programmes and/or curricula, for primary and secondary school students. The educational contexts addressed here include significant international puberty education framework documents, socio-biological factors including earlier…

  4. Serum IGF1 and insulin levels in girls with normal and precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2012-01-01

    IGF1 plays an important role in growth and metabolism during puberty. IGF1 levels are increased in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). However, the relationship with insulin before and during gonadal suppression is unknown. In addition, the influence of the exon 3-deleted GH receptor gene...

  5. A Signaling Role for Leptin in Puberty Onset in Female Rats?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The brain might initiate puberty in response to adequate leptin signaling from the periphery. We studied the link between whole body fat, plasma leptin levels, and puberty onset, in both controls and food-restricted female Wistar rats from age 22 to 42 days. Body fat correlated positively with the p

  6. A Signaling Role for Leptin in Puberty Onset in Female Rats?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The brain might initiate puberty in response to adequate leptin signaling from the periphery. We studied the link between whole body fat, plasma leptin levels, and puberty onset, in both controls and food-restricted female Wistar rats from age 22 to 42 days. Body fat correlated positively with the

  7. Age at puberty in beef heifers: Criollo cattle versus british crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age at puberty is an important factor in estimating the potential productivity of the bovine female. A study was conducted at the ARS-USDA Jornada Experimental Range in 2006 and 2007 to compare onset of puberty, BW, and serum insulin in Criollo and Angus-Hereford crossbred heifers. In 2006, 7 Crioll...

  8. Precocious puberty in a girl with floating-harbor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Galluzzi, Fiorella; Bindi, Giuseppe; Lapi, Elisabetta; Cecchi, Cecilia; Salti, Roberto; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2007-12-01

    Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by short stature, delayed bone age, mild to moderate mental retardation, speech problems, and peculiar craniofacial features. In these patients pubertal development has been reported to be normal. In this paper, we describe a girl with FHS who developed precocious puberty. FHS diagnosis was made at 2 years 5 months on the basis of peculiar clinical features. At 7 years 7 months, the girl began pubertal development; her height was 112.5 cm (-2.42 SDS) and pubertal staging was B2 PH2 AH1. LHRH test underlined LH and FSH peak values of 11.7 mIU/ml and 6.2 mIU/ml, respectively. Plasma levels of 17beta-estradiol were normal (8.5 pg/ml). Ophthalmological and neurological examinations, including nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, were normal. Treatment with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue was begun. At 10 years 1 month, because of reduced height velocity, her growth hormone secretion was evaluated with diagnosis of neurosecretory dysfunction; hGH therapy was begun. The patient showed a good response to hGH treatment, reaching a normal adult height (156.1 cm; -1.20 SDS). This report suggests that, in patients with FHS, precocious puberty should be taken into consideration; in these patients, a careful endocrinological followup for the possible presence of growth and pubertal disorders is needed.

  9. Hormonal changes during puberty and their relationship to fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, James N.; Rogol, Alan D.

    1999-01-01

    In adults, abdominal visceral adiposity is related to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and stroke. The antecedents of these conditions likely begin with the alterations in body fat distribution during childhood and adolescence. The sexually dimorphic alterations in fat distribution are influenced by sex differences in hormone concentrations, anatomical differences in the number and density of specific hormone receptors, capillary blood flow, and the activity of enzymes promoting lipid synthesis or degradation. Hormones influencing the amount and regional distribution of adipose tissue during puberty include cortisol, insulin, growth hormone, and the sex steroids. Cortisol and insulin promote fat deposition while the sex steroids and GH stimulate lipolysis. An overly sensitive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may exist in obesity and disrupt the balance between the lipogenic effects of cortisol and insulin and the lipolytic effects of sex steroids and growth hormone. Leptin is released from the adipocytes and may act as a metabolic signal to the hypothalamic areas controlling satiety, energy expenditure, and the regulation of cortisol, insulin, sex steroid and growth hormone release. The complex issues of the hormonal control of alterations in body fat distribution during puberty are developed and a working model is proposed. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:209-224, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. [Precocious puberty due to HCG secreting pinealoma (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D

    The present report concerns a six years nine months old boy in whom a HCG secreting pineal tumor (pinealocytoma type I) was responsible for precocious puberty. Features : polydipsia, deepened voice, pubic hair, penile enlargement without corresponding testicular growth. Serum basal concentrations of LH (150 mU/ml), testosterone (85.80 nanomole/l), HCG (115 ng/ml) and its beta subunit (15 ng/ml) were markedly elevated, FSH was low (3.9 mU/ml) ] dissociated hypopituitarism was also present. A surgical removal of the tumor was performed (RIA of the neoplastic tissue revealed high HCG and beta HCG activity) and after the operation the child had radiation therapy. Recovery for the foregoing procedure was rapid, but after some months, in spite chemotherapy his condition deteriorated progressively. The apparent limitation of pinealoma and precocious puberty to the male sex is discussed and supposed to be partly the result of the ectopic gonadotropin secretion. These tumors are compared to other HCG secreting carcinomas located elsewhere in the body and causing sexual precocity in boys only.

  11. [Fertility in patients with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliesch, S; Zitzmann, M; Behre, H M

    2011-01-01

    In the past 10 years, our knowledge about fertility chances of patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS, 47,XXY) has changed considerably, especially when regarding the possibility of IVF ICSI treatment (in vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection) with single testicular spermatozoa. Thus, it is important to take this knowledge into consideration when counselling Klinefelter patients.Germ cell degeneration in the testicles of Klinefelter patients due to their additional X chromosome is an important phenomenon in this disease which is not yet fully understood. When entering puberty, the testicular volume of KS patients increases for a short time with rising testosterone and inhibin B levels at the same time. These decrease, however, and FSH increases during puberty. This seems to indicate a critical point in time when spermatogenetic function of the testicles could still be existent. Thus, in early puberty there could possibly be a time slot when spermatozoa could be detected in the ejaculate or-if not-at least in the testicular tissue. These could be extracted by testicular sperm extraction, cryopreserved and used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection therapy later on. In the literature, a total of 133 births of children from Klinefelter fathers have been reported. This early specific procedure could lead to a better acceptance of their diagnosis and also offer the option of not being incurably infertile.

  12. Chronic leptin infusion advances, and immunoneutralization of leptin postpones puberty onset in normally fed and feed restricted female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Does leptin play a vital role in initiating puberty in female rats and can it overrule a nutrionally imposed (i.e. a 30% feed restriction, FR) delay in puberty onset? Prepubertal female rats were chronically infused for 14 days with leptin (icv or sc) or leptin-antiserum (icv) while puberty onset wa

  13. Chronic leptin infusion advances, and immunoneutralization of leptin postpones puberty onset in normally fed and feed restricted female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Does leptin play a vital role in initiating puberty in female rats and can it overrule a nutrionally imposed (i.e. a 30% feed restriction, FR) delay in puberty onset? Prepubertal female rats were chronically infused for 14 days with leptin (icv or sc) or leptin-antiserum (icv) while puberty onset

  14. Back pain reporting in young girls appears to be puberty-related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froberg Karsten

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a large increase in back pain reporting in the early teens. In no previous study has the prevalence of low back pain been investigated in relation to the onset of puberty. The objective of this study was to establish whether the onset of puberty is associated with back pain reporting in young girls. Methods A subsample of 254 girls aged 8–10 years and 165 girls aged 14–16 years from a cross-sectional survey of 481 children aged 8–10 years and 325 adolescents aged 14–16 years of both sexes. Main outcome measures were back pain defined as low back pain, mid back pain, and/or neck pain in the past month. Other variables of interest were Puberty (five different stages, age, body mass index, and smoking. Independent information on onset of puberty was obtained through a physical examination and on back pain through an individual structured interview. The association was studied between onset of puberty and the outcome variable (the one month period prevalence of back pain, controlling for overweight, and smoking. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to describe bivariate associations, logistic regression with robust standard errors was used for multivariate analyses. Results There is a highly significant trend for increased back pain reporting with increasing level of puberty until maturity is reached. The biggest leap appears between the second level (beginning of puberty and the third level (mid puberty and the findings remain after controlling for the covariates. These results emanate from the low back, whereas pain in the mid back and neck do not seem to be linked with pubertal stage. Conclusion In girls, the reporting of low back pain increases in frequency during puberty until maturity, regardless of age. Why some girls are susceptible to back pain in the early stage of puberty is unknown.

  15. Study Of Morphological Changes Of Uterine Horn Of Surri Mouse Depended To Morphine Before Puberty And DuringPuberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadkhast M

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available : Morphine is the most important alkaloid of opium family which is found as much as ten percent in opium, and is in two types the sulfate morphine and the hydrochloride morphine."nMaterials and Methods: In this study morphological changes of uterus of surri mice due to oral consumption of sulfate morphine were studied. It was shown that, female surri mice following gradually increasing of morphine to water (0.1 and 0.01 mg/ml were depended to morphine. Female surri mice were classified in two age groups before puberty and depended to morphine during puberty. Each age group took morphine for 21 days. After finishing the period, the mice anesthetizing were weighted, then were anesthetizing and uterus was studied the length, width and apparent features."nResults&ConcIusion: In this study it was distinguished that length and width of uterine horn, between experimental and control groups, were significant (P< 0.01. Morphological changes such as anemia, the thinness and fragitidily walls of uterus and filiformity of uterine horns were observed."n"n"n"n"n"n 

  16. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K S; Balzer, Ben W R; Kelly, Patrick J; Paxton, Karen; Hawke, Catherine I; Handelsman, David J; Steinbeck, Katharine S

    2015-01-01

    The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development. A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female) was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and LH by immunoassay. A high proportion (92%) of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage. We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth.

  17. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmeet K S Singh

    Full Text Available The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T, estradiol (E2 and luteinizing hormone (LH in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development.A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and LH by immunoassay.A high proportion (92% of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage.We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth.

  18. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K. S.; Balzer, Ben W. R.; Kelly, Patrick J.; Paxton, Karen; Hawke, Catherine I.; Handelsman, David J.; Steinbeck, Katharine S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development. Methods A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female) was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and LH by immunoassay. Results A high proportion (92%) of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage. Conclusion We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth. PMID:26599397

  19. Postweaning Exposure to Dietary Zearalenone, a Mycotoxin, Promotes Premature Onset of Puberty and Disrupts Early Pregnancy Events in Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoqin

    2013-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin commonly found in contaminated livestock feed and human food with levels in the range of ppb and low ppm. It was hypothesized that ZEA, an endocrine disruptor, could affect puberty and early pregnancy. To test this hypothesis, newly weaned (3 weeks old) C57BL/6J female mice were exposed to 0, 0.002, 4, 10, and 40 ppm ZEA and 0.05 ppm diethylstilbestrol (positive control) in phytoestrogen-free AIN-93G diet. Females exposed to 10 and 40 ppm ZEA diets showed earlier onset of vaginal opening. Those treated with 40 ppm ZEA diet also had earlier first copulation plug and irregular estrous cyclicity. At 8 weeks old, all females were mated with untreated stud males on AIN-93G diet during mating. Treatment resumed upon identification of a vaginal plug on gestation day 0.5 (D0.5). Embryo implantation was assessed on D4.5. Exposure to 40 ppm ZEA diet resulted in reduced percentage of plugged mice with implantation sites, distended uterine appearance, and retained expression of progesterone receptor in D4.5 uterine epithelium. To determine the exposure timing and mechanisms of disrupted embryo implantation, four groups of females were fed with 0 or 40 ppm ZEA diets during premating (weaning to mating) and postmating (D0.5–D4.5), respectively. Premating exposure to 40 ppm ZEA diet reduced fertilization rate, whereas postmating exposure to 40 ppm ZEA diet delayed embryo transport and preimplantation embryo development, which subsequently affected embryo implantation. These data demonstrate that postweaning exposure to dietary ZEA can promote premature onset of puberty and disrupt early pregnancy events. PMID:23291560

  20. True precocious puberty following treatment of a Leydig cell tumour: two case reports and literature review

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    Alberto eVerrotti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Leydig cell testicular tumours are a rare cause of precocious pseudopuberty in boys. Surgery is the main therapy and shows good overall prognosis. The physical signs of precocious puberty are expected to disappear shortly after surgical removal of the mass. We report two children, 7.5 and 7.7 year-old boys, who underwent testis-sparing surgery for a Leydig cell testicular tumour causing precocious pseudopuberty. During follow-up, after an immediate clinical and laboratory regression, both boys presented signs of precocious puberty and ultimately developed central precocious puberty. They were successfully treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues. Only 6 other cases have been described regarding the development of central precocious puberty after successful treatment of a Leydig cell tumour causing precocious pseudo puberty. Gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty should be considered in children treated for a Leydig cell tumour presenting persistent or recurrent physical signs of puberty activation. In such cases, therapy with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues appears to be the most effective medical treatment.

  1. 动物性成熟启动的调控机理%Regulation Mechanism of Puberty Onset in Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩威; 李慧芳; 朱云芬; 宋迟; 陶志云

    2012-01-01

    Precocious puberty was pathologic for humans, but was an important trait for animals. Onset of puberty was a complex biological process, and was under the control of HPG axis. Permissive signals and development clock provided the information on somatic growth, energy balance and environment changes, time the awakening of GnRH neurons that were quiescent during the prepubertal stage. The decrease in inhibition input and increase in excitation input led to high frequency GnRH pulse release, promoted the gametogenesis and gonadal steroid secretion. In turn, steroid hormones affected the GnRH release by negative feedback, and also promoted sexual behavior. In addition to GnRH neurons, the glial cells were also involved in puberty onset, mainly included growth factor families, the neural cell adhesion molecule and contactin. The epigenetic modulation of GnRH gene may play an important role in puberty onset.%人类的性早熟表现为病理状态,而在动物上,性早熟则是一个在生产上具有重要价值的经济性状.动物性成熟启动是一个复杂的生物学过程,受下丘脑—垂体—性腺轴调控.“允许信号”和“发育时钟”传达了机体生长发育、能量平衡和环境变化信息,决定了性成熟启动前期处于休眠状态的GnRH神经元激活;GnRH神经元抑制性输入减少和兴奋性输入增加引发了高频GnRH脉冲分泌,促进配子形成和性类固醇激素分泌;类固醇激素又通过负反馈通路影响GnRH分泌并促进性行为.神经胶质细胞也参与了性成熟的启动,主要涉及生长因子家族、神经细胞粘合分子和神经接触蛋白.GnRH基因的表观遗传修饰变化可能在动物性成熟启动过程中发挥了重要作用.

  2. An approach to constitutional delay of growth and puberty

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    Ashraf T Soliman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional delay of growth and puberty is a transient state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with prolongation of childhood phase of growth, delayed skeletal maturation, delayed and attenuated pubertal growth spurt, and relatively low insulin-like growth factor-1 secretion. In a considerable number of cases, the final adult height (Ht does not reach the mid-parental or the predicted adult Ht for the individual, with some degree of disproportionately short trunk. In the pre-pubertal male, testosterone (T replacement therapy can be used to induce pubertal development, accelerate growth and relieve the psychosocial complaints of the adolescents. However, some issues in the management are still unresolved. These include type, optimal timing, dose and duration of sex steroid treatment and the possible use of adjunctive or alternate therapy including: oxandrolone, aromatase inhibitors and human growth hormone.

  3. Precocious puberty due to human chorionic gonadotropin secreting germinoma

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    Daiane J Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to report a rare case of precocious puberty (PP due to a human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG-producing germinoma located in the suprasellar region. A 10-year-old male patient presented with sexual precocity, headache, drowsiness, loss of appetite, and papilledema. Significant acceleration of bone age in relation to chronological age, high serum total testosterone levels, and hypopituitarism (unresponsiveness to stimulation test were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain showed a large suprasellar tumor and triventricular dilatation. High hCG levels were found in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Hormone replacement therapy and transcranial surgery associated with radiotherapy were performed, with complete regression of sexual characteristics and normal laboratory tests post-operatively. Clinical and laboratory findings, in addition to MRI scans, led to the diagnosis of an hCG-producing tumor and PP, which represents a rare report in the literature.

  4. [Rapidly progressive puberty in a patient with mosaic Turner syndrome: a case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y; Wei, H; Yu, X; Huang, W; Luo, X P

    2017-02-02

    Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of diagnosis and treatment in patients with Turner syndrome and rapidly progressive puberty. Method: A rare case of rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome with a mosaic karyotype of 45, X/46, X, del(X)(p21)(80%/20%)was diagnosed at Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in January. 2015. Clinical characteristics and the related literature were reviewed. Original papers on precocious puberty or rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome, published until Apr. 2016 were retrieved at PubMed and CNKI databases by the use of the key words "Turner syndrome" , "precocious puberty" and "rapidly progressive puberty" . Result: The patient was born at term with birth weight of 2 450 g and was diagnosed with SGA at 3 years of age for the first evaluating of growth and development. Then recombined human growth hormone (rhGH )was given at 4 years of age due to short stature (heightcases have been reported in the literature. Six of them showing mosaic TS, three karyotypes with structural abnormality of short arm of X chromosome, one with the karyotype 45, X. Conclusion: It is the first time that rapidly progressive puberty in a 45, X/46, X, del(X)(p21) mosaic Turner syndrome is reported. Although short stature and ovarian dysgenesis are common in TS, precocious puberty may occur in TS, which is liable to cause delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. Careful examination is recommended for patients with unusual growth pattern, even though girls have normal height in accord with standard growth curve or spontaneous puberty. Evaluation for TS and subsequent investigation should be prompted.

  5. Effects of central infusion and immunoneutralization of growth hormone on the timing of puberty and plasma leptin levels in the female rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) levels increase during puberty though its role in puberty onset is still unclear. An interaction is suggested between GH and leptin, as triggering factor of puberty. To evaluate the role of GH on the timing of puberty and its relation with leptin, we centrally administered recomb

  6. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization...

  7. Declining age of puberty of school girls in southern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somchit Jaruratanasirikul; Atchariya Chanpong; Nuttaporn Tassanakijpanich; Hutcha Sriplung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Declines in the onset age of secondary sexual development have been reported in a number of recent studies in western and Asian countries. A study of Hat-Yai school girls in 1994 in Thailand showed that the ages at thelarche and menarche were 9.9 and 12.4 years, respectively. This study was to determine whether there was a decline in the average age of puberty in Hat-Yai school girls from 1994 to 2012. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2140 healthy Hat-Yai school girls, aged 6-18 years, from June 2011 to March 2012. Breast and pubic hair development was assessed by the Tanner staging method. Probit analysis was used to calculate the median ages of different stages of breast and pubic hair development, and the age of menarche. Results: The median ages of girls having thelarche and menarche were 9.6 (95% CI, 9.4-9.8) and 12.2 (95% CI, 11.9-12.4) years, which declined from 9.9 (95% CI, 9.7-10.1) and 12.4 years (95% CI, 12.2-12.6) in the 1994 study respectively, however, without statistical significance. The youngest ages of girls who had breast stage 2 and menarche were 7.2 and 9.2 years, respectively. The fi nal height at age 14 years in this cohort (157.3 cm) was 2.3 cm greater than that of girls in 1994 (155.0 cm). Conclusions: From 1994 to 2012, the age at onset of thelarche and menarche of girls in Hat-Yai municipality declined by 0.2 and 0.3 years, respectively. The earlier age at onset of puberty had no effect on fi nal adult height.

  8. The timing of normal puberty and the age limits of sexual precocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    During the past decade, possible advancement in timing of puberty has been reported in the United States. In addition, early pubertal development and an increased incidence of sexual precocity have been noticed in children, primarily girls, migrating for foreign adoption in several Western European...... countries. These observations are raising the issues of current differences and secular trends in timing of puberty in relation to ethnic, geographical, and socioeconomic background. None of these factors provide an unequivocal explanation for the earlier onset of puberty seen in the United States...

  9. Testicular Growth During Puberty in Boys With and Without a History of Congenital Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadov, Sergey; Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The pattern of testicular growth during puberty may provide important information about early testicular damage and reproductive potential in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pubertal testicular growth in boys with congenital cryptorchidism and controls. DESIGN: Longitudinal case...... mL by orchidometer and 25 mm by ruler as cut-offs in definition of the onset of puberty. An orchidometer size of 3 mL and ruler length of 25 mm corresponded to 1.6 and 1.7 mL by ultrasound (with Lambert's formula), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Testicular growth in puberty was impaired in congenitally...

  10. Neural systems supporting cognitive-affective interactions in adolescence: The role of puberty and implications for affective disorders

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    Cecile D. Ladouceur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that adolescence may represent a period of vulnerability that, in the context of adverse events, could contribute to developmental trajectories toward behavioral and emotional health problems, including affective disorders. Adolescence is also a sensitive period for the development of neural systems supporting cognitive-affective processes, which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders such as anxiety and mood disorders. In particular, the onset of puberty brings about a cascade of physical, hormonal, psychological, and social changes that contribute in complex ways to the development of these systems. This article provides a brief overview of neuroimaging research pertaining to the development of cognitive-affective processes in adolescence. It also includes a brief review of evidence from animal and human neuroimaging studies suggesting that sex steroids influence the connectivity between prefrontal cortical and subcortical limbic regions in ways that contribute to increased reactivity to emotionally salient stimuli. We integrate these findings in the context of a developmental affective neuroscience framework suggesting that the impact of rising levels of sex steroids during puberty on fronto-limbic connectivity may be even greater in the context of protracted development of prefrontal cortical regions in adolescence. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for future research aimed at identifying neurodevelopmental markers of risk for future onset of affective disorders.

  11. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles in girls with central precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Mouritsen, Annette; Mogensen, Signe Sloth

    2010-01-01

    Early menarche is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It is unknown whether metabolic risk factors are adversely affected in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) already at time of diagnosis....

  12. Influence of growth hormone on growth and onset of puberty of Rahmani ewe lamb

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    K.H. El-Shahat

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Somatotropin administration enhanced puberty in Rahmani ewe lambs. This is due to increased provision of trophic signals (represented by increased Serum IGF-1 secretions and/or blood-borne metabolites (glucose, cholesterol and lipid.

  13. Fatness rather than leptin sensitivity determines the timing of puberty in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlen, Tabata M; Silveira, Marina A; Zampieri, Thais T; Frazão, Renata; Donato, Jose

    2016-03-05

    Leptin is a permissive factor for the onset of puberty. However, changes in adiposity frequently influence leptin sensitivity. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate how changes in body weight, fatness, leptin levels and leptin sensitivity interact to control the timing of puberty in female mice. Pre-pubertal obesity, induced by raising C57BL/6 mice in small litters, led to an early puberty onset. Inactivation of Socs3 gene in the brain or exclusively in leptin receptor-expressing cells reduced the body weight and leptin levels at pubertal onset, and increased leptin sensitivity. Notably, these female mice exhibited significant delays in vaginal opening, first estrus and onset of estrus cyclicity. In conclusion, our findings suggest that increased leptin sensitivity did not play an important role in favoring pubertal onset in female mice. Rather, changes in pubertal body weight, fatness and/or leptin levels were more important in influencing the timing of puberty.

  14. Impact of fetal and neonatal malnutrition on the onset of puberty and associated noncommunicable disease risks

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    Nicholas E Connor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas E ConnorChild Health Research Foundation Dhaka Shishu Hospital, Dhaka, BangladeshBackground: Fetal and neonatal malnutrition impacts the timing of the onset of puberty. The timing of puberty onset has been shown to be a rough indicator of noncommunicable disease (NCD risk. Recent advances in understanding the various inter-related neurochemical and genetic controls underpinning puberty onset have shed new light on these interesting and important phenomena. These studies have suggested that developmental trajectory is set very early by epigenetic mechanisms that serve to adjust phenotype to environment.Objective: The aims of this article are to review the most recent research into the proximate mechanisms that initiate puberty; to explore how the activation of those mechanisms could be affected by nutritional cues received during fetal and neonatal life; and, finally, to briefly explore the ramifications for public health.Methods: An extensive literature review was performed using PubMed (1950 to September 2010 and Google Scholar (1980 to September 2010 using the search terms “puberty onset”, “perinatal”, and “neonatal malnutrition”. English language, original research, and review articles were examined; pertinent citations from these articles were also assessed.Results: Literature detailing biochemical pathways and evolutionary explanations of human puberty itself led quickly to a noteworthy connection between neonatal malnutrition, puberty onset, and NCD risk. A strong connection was found between maternal malnutrition during critical windows (followed by catch-up growth in childhood and an accelerated onset of puberty. Children subject to early nutritional insult not only are likely to undergo puberty earlier but also show an increase in their risk of developing NCDs in later life. Several authors have suggested that this relationship may show potential as an early proxy indicator of susceptibility to these types of

  15. The changes in running economy during puberty in overweight and normal weight boys

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    Maciejczyk Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: running economy (RE is important indicator of endurance performance. During puberty dynamic changes in body composition and function are observed, as such RE is also expected to change. The aim of the study was to compare the running economy (RE in overweight and normoweight boys during a running exercise performed with constant velocity, and the assessment of changes in RE during puberty.

  16. Diagnosis and constitutional and laboratory features of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty

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    Doosoo Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; Precocious puberty is defined as breast development before the age of 8 years in girls. The present study aimed to reveal the diagnosis of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty and to compare the constitutional and endocrinological features among diagnosis groups. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; The present study used a retrospective chart review of 988 Korean girls who had visited a pediatric endocrinology clinic from 2006 to 2010 for the evaluation of precocious puberty. Study groups comprised fast puberty, true precocious puberty (PP, pseudo PP, premature thelarche, and control. We determined the height standard deviation score (HSDS, weight standard deviation score (WSDS, and body mass index standard deviation score (BMISDS of each group using the published 2007 Korean growth charts. Hormone tests were performed at our outpatient clinic. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The PP groups comprised fast puberty (67%, premature thelarche (17%, true PP (15%, and pseudo PP (1%. Advanced bone age and levels of estradiol, basal luteinizing hormone (LH, and peak LH after gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation testing were significantly high in the fast puberty and true PP groups compared with the control group. HSDS, WSDS, and BMISDS were significantly higher in the true PP group than in the control group (P&lt;0.05. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The frequent causes of PP were found to be fast puberty, true PP, and premature thelarche. Furthermore, BMISDS were significantly elevated in the true PP group. Therefore, we emphasize the need for regular follow-up of girls who are heavier or taller than others in the same age group.

  17. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles in girls with central precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Mouritsen, Annette; Mogensen, Signe Sloth

    2010-01-01

    Early menarche is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It is unknown whether metabolic risk factors are adversely affected in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) already at time of diagnosis.......Early menarche is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It is unknown whether metabolic risk factors are adversely affected in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) already at time of diagnosis....

  18. Gonadothropin-releasing hormone agonist as a treatment of choice for central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose R.L. Batubara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Precocious puberty is defi ned as pubertal development which occurs too early. The age limit in this term is based on the onset of puberty in normal population. Some points have to be taken into account, such as ethnicity, gender, nutritional conditions, and secular trends. In girls, precocious puberty is defi ned by breast development occured before 8 years old. In boys, precocious puberty is defi ned as gonadarche or pubarche before 9 years of age. The clinical course of precocious puberty varies widely, ranging from alternating, slowly progressive, and rapidly progressive    form. The rapidly progressive forms of idiopathic central precocious puberty need to be treated because it may result in early epiphyseal closure and short fi nal height, and also pyschosocial problems in the affected children and the family. The aims of treatment are to arrest physical maturation, prevent early menarche, and also improve adult height combined with normal body proportions. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue is the treatment of choice for central precocious puberty. Gonadotropin releasing horomone analogue has suppressive effect on the pituitarygonadal axis, therefore it suppresses LH secretion. This leads to the return of estradiol and testosterone to prepubertal levels. Treatment using gonadotropin releasing horomone analogue is shown to reduce breast size, pubic hair, ovarian and uterine size in girls, and decrease testicular size in boys. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue is effective in halting progression of secondary sexual characteristics development, presenting menstrual cycle, slowing bone-age advancement, and also improving fi nal height. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:287-92Keywords: gonadache, GRH analogue, pubarche , precocious puberty

  19. Association of Body Mass Index to Onset of Puberty in Male

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    Jeevithaambigai Subramaniam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Puberty is the period where the developmental process takes place, marks the transition from childhood to adulthood with physical and physiological changes. This study was conducted to discover association between body mass index (BMI and onset of puberty in male. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from May to November 2013 using simple random sampling which was part of bigger research study by Nutrition and Metabolism Working Group on Jatinangor Cohort, especially Puberty Survey in Jatinangor, by Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. Respondents were 286 males, 9–15 years old from Elementary School (Sekolah Dasar/SD and Junior High School (Sekolah Menengah Pertama/SMP. Inclusion criteria were students who are healthy at the time and do did not have obvious disease, attained puberty within 1 year or did not yet attained it, and voluntarily followed the study procedure. The questionnaire was provided after getting informed consent from the respondents. The data analysis was done conducted using Pearson Correlation. Results: The magnitude of association of BMI to the onset of puberty in male among school students in Jatinangor was 0.243 which showed there was positive correlation coefficient between BMI to onset of puberty in male. Test results with the t-test showed t-value of 2.683 with p-value of 0.008. Conclusions: There is association of BMI to the onset of puberty in male among school students in Jatinangor. Positive correlation indicates that the higher the BMI, the faster the onset of puberty in male.

  20. The endocrinologist's office-puberty suppression: saving children from a natural disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Sahar

    2013-06-01

    In the past few years, the introduction and rapid acceptance of puberty suppression has transformed the clinical treatment of children diagnosed with Gender Identity Disorder. This essay analyzes the narratives used by some advocates of this treatment, particularly the elements of saving children from the looming disaster of puberty and from future abject lives of violence and suicide as transgender adults. It briefly addresses the potential implications of this account for the well being of the children brought under clinical purview.

  1. The influence of perinatal and current dioxin and PCB exposure on puberty: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Leijs M.M.; van der Linden L.M.; Koppe J.G.; de Voogt P; Olie K; van Aalderen W.M.C.; ten Tusscher G.W.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades much has been written about the consequences of perinatal dioxin and PCB exposure in humans. In this paper we strive to elucidate the data on puberty in relation to these endocrine disruptive compounds in human populations. Effects in PCB/dioxin-exposed human populations on puberty are seen, not only in highly exposed cohorts, but also in average populations with background exposures. Study showed effects like increased weight, a delay in pubic hair growth and male g...

  2. The experience of puberty in Iranian adolescent girls: a qualitative content analysis

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    Golchin Nayereh Azam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is an important stage in human life span. Physiologic changes associated with puberty manifest themselves in often complex and bizarre ways to which girls show different reactions. This study aims to explore to puberty experiences in adolescent girls who live in the city of Sari in Iran. Methods The present study is a qualitative study of content analysis. Sampling took place in the city of Sari, Iran and was objective focused in accordance with qualitative studies. Participants were 38 girls of 12–20 years old who had at least experienced 3 menstrual cycles. Data was collected by means of focus group and in-depth interviews. Results As follows, Seven main themes were extracted from the interviews are follows: Menarche as the most unpleasant event in puberty, getting nervous about and ashamed of bodily changes, psychological changes, discordance with parents, sexual orientation and the need for education on this issue, scholastic dysfunction and religious considerations. Conclusion The results showed that for the majority of the participants puberty was an unpleasant experience. Most of them were in need of education on how to go about the issues surrounding puberty. The society, families and of course the adolescents themselves are responsible to work together in order to create an atmosphere in which correct information on puberty and the associated issues are readily accessible.

  3. The experience of puberty in Iranian adolescent girls: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golchin, Nayereh Azam Hagikhani; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Fakhri, Moloud; Hamzehgardeshi, Leila

    2012-08-27

    Adolescence is an important stage in human life span. Physiologic changes associated with puberty manifest themselves in often complex and bizarre ways to which girls show different reactions. This study aims to explore to puberty experiences in adolescent girls who live in the city of Sari in Iran. The present study is a qualitative study of content analysis. Sampling took place in the city of Sari, Iran and was objective focused in accordance with qualitative studies. Participants were 38 girls of 12-20 years old who had at least experienced 3 menstrual cycles. Data was collected by means of focus group and in-depth interviews. As follows, Seven main themes were extracted from the interviews are follows: Menarche as the most unpleasant event in puberty, getting nervous about and ashamed of bodily changes, psychological changes, discordance with parents, sexual orientation and the need for education on this issue, scholastic dysfunction and religious considerations. The results showed that for the majority of the participants puberty was an unpleasant experience. Most of them were in need of education on how to go about the issues surrounding puberty. The society, families and of course the adolescents themselves are responsible to work together in order to create an atmosphere in which correct information on puberty and the associated issues are readily accessible.

  4. Consultation for Disordered Puberty: What Do Adolescent Medicine Patients Teach Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-André; Ambresin, Anne-Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    The period of adolescence is not only marked by important growth and pubertal events, but is also characterized by important psychosocial changes driven by a search for autonomy and the construction of one's identity. It can thus be easily understood that puberty disorders interfere heavily with these process, requiring from the endocrinologist not only medical knowledge, but also a great deal of emotional and psychological skills. They must progressively move from an educational approach that heavily involves the parents to one of shared information and decision making that places the young patient at the center of the therapeutic process. This can be achieved in several ways: respecting the affective and cognitive development of the adolescent; securing his privacy and (if requested by him) confidentiality; exploring his self-image and self-esteem and adapting the therapeutic process to the patient's expectations; reviewing the teenager's lifestyle, including the issue of sexuality and sexual behavior, and involving him in any therapeutic choice that has to be made, even if it does not match with the parents' expectations. The skills required for this respectful and holistic follow-up often exceed the abilities of any physician; it is thus suggested that a team approach involving a clinical nurse and/or a psychologist and/or social worker(s) be set up whenever possible.

  5. Cancer and fertility : strategies to preserve fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Devroey, P.

    2011-01-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented pub

  6. Cancer and fertility : strategies to preserve fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Devroey, P.

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented

  7. Age and Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... method of assisted reproduction that involves combining an egg with sperm in a laboratory dish. If the egg fertilizes ... produced by the testes that fertilize a woman’s egg. The sperm head carries genetic material (chromosomes), the midpiece produces ...

  8. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  9. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir 2013 ART Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report [PDF - 1MB] Bookmarks and thumbnails are ...

  10. In vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007279.htm In vitro fertilization (IVF) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the joining of a woman's egg ...

  11. Insulin resistance during puberty and future fat accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Sharon H; Jeffers, Barrett W; Eckel, Robert H

    2002-08-01

    Insulin resistance is a known sequela of obesity; however, the relationship of insulin resistance to future weight gain remains unclear. In several studies, insulin resistance has been associated with weight stabilization. For the most part, this relationship has been found in adults who are overweight. To evaluate the relationship of insulin resistance to future fat accumulation in pubertal children, a 3-yr prospective study was carried out. Insulin sensitivity (Si) was determined by Bergman's minimal model in 111 healthy children, aged 9.7-14.5 yr. All children were Tanner stage II or III pubertal development at baseline. Body composition was assessed by body mass index, skinfold thickness, hydrodensitometry, and bioelectric impedance analysis at baseline and annually thereafter for an additional 3 yr. A repeated-measures analysis showed that the change in percentage body fat estimated from skinfold thickness [%BF(SF)] over time changed with increasing Si (P < 0.0001). Si was divided into tertiles for each gender, with the lowest tertile representing the most insulin-resistant children. For girls, those in the lowest tertile maintained their %BF(SF) over 3 yr, whereas those girls in the middle and upper tertile had an increase in their %BF(SF). For boys, those in the lowest tertile showed a decrease in their %BF(SF), whereas those boys in the middle and upper tertile maintained their %BF(SF). These results suggest that during puberty, children who are more insulin resistant have decreased sc fat gain.

  12. Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum, the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.

  13. Primogeniture and fertility: fertility models with unequal bequest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D O

    1984-01-01

    Models of the family which incorporate bequest inequality into the fertility decision were developed. Following a discussion on this topic by H.J. Habakkuk, discussion focuses on preindustrial and early industrial England and Western Europe. An attempt was made to develop fertility models which do not assume that all children are treated equally but instead recognize the special role that the eldest child often plays in the family. The fertility consequences of primogeniture are explored in 2 different fertility models. In the initial behavioral model due to Habakkuk, fertility is a function of marriage age and marriage age is a function of time required for one's capital to reach some social minimum required for household formation. In such a model it is possible to show that an increasingly unequal bequest between children will reduce aggregate fertility in the following generation. The introduction of explicit fertility choice considerably complicates the model. The effect of greater relative bequests to the eldest child, if motivated by parental preference, depends on the role children other than the eldest play in the family. If parents would normally choose to have more children the larger the total bequest they intend to bestow on all their children, the effect of primogeniture will be to reduce fertility. The wealth parents allocate to the eldest with primogeniture has an impact on the other children equivalent to a general decline in family bequests. Similar conclusions hold if the shift of wealth to the eldest is the result of a legal constraint that a specified share of the estate be allocated to the eldest. Yet, if the constraint is posed as a required proportionality between the wealth of the eldest and the average wealth of other children, the effect of primogeniture laws (or conversely equality laws) is ambiguous. The same negative wealth effect exists for the younger children as wealth is diverted to the eldest. A positive fertility effect also

  14. Treatment of early puberty in adopted and non-adopted children: when, why and how : Auxological, psychological and ethical aspects of growth promoting treatment around puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Mul (Dick)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractNormal puberty is the result of the maturation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Primary and secondary sexual characteristics develop by the increase in the serum levels of gonadal steroids: oestradiol in girls and testosterone in boys. The main players in the process of n

  15. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos.

  16. BMI increase through puberty and adolescence is associated with risk of adult stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Claes; Bygdell, Maria; Sondén, Arvid; Jern, Christina; Rosengren, Annika; Kindblom, Jenny M

    2017-07-25

    To evaluate the contribution of prepubertal childhood body mass index (BMI) and BMI change through puberty and adolescence, 2 distinct developmental BMI parameters, for risk of adult stroke in men. In this population-based study in Gothenburg, Sweden, men born in 1945-1961 with information on both childhood BMI at age 8 and BMI change through puberty and adolescence (BMI at age 20-BMI at age 8) were followed until December 2013 (n = 37,669). Information on stroke events was retrieved from high-quality national registers (918 first stroke events, 672 ischemic stroke events [IS], 207 intracerebral hemorrhage events [ICH]). BMI increase through puberty and adolescence (hazard ratio [HR] 1.21 per SD increase; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.28), but not childhood BMI, was independently associated with risk of adult stroke. Subanalyses revealed that BMI increase through puberty and adolescence was associated with both IS (HR per SD increase 1.19; 95% CI 1.11-1.28) and ICH (HR per SD increase 1.29; 95% CI 1.15-1.46). High BMI increase during puberty was strongly associated with increased risk of adult hypertension (odds ratio per SD increase 1.35; 95% CI 1.32-1.39). BMI increase through puberty and adolescence is associated with risk of adult IS and ICH in men. We propose that greater BMI increases during puberty contribute to increased risk of adult stroke at least partly via increased blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Early metabolic programming of puberty onset: impact of changes in postnatal feeding and rearing conditions on the timing of puberty and development of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Romero, Magdalena; Garcia-Galiano, David; Aguilar, Enrique; Pinilla, Leonor; Diéguez, Carlos; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2011-09-01

    Kiss1 neurons have recently emerged as a putative conduit for the metabolic gating of reproduction, with leptin being a regulator of hypothalamic Kiss1 expression. Early perturbations of the nutritional status are known to predispose to different metabolic disorders later in life and to alter the timing of puberty; however, the potential underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we report how changes in the pattern of postnatal feeding affect the onset of puberty and evaluate key hormonal and neuropeptide [Kiss1/kisspeptin (Kp)] alterations linked to these early nutritional manipulations. Female rats were raised in litters of different sizes: small (four pups per dam: overfeeding), normal (12 pups per dam), and large litters (20 pups per litter: underfeeding). Postnatal overfeeding resulted in persistently increased body weight and earlier age of vaginal opening, as an external sign of puberty, together with higher levels of leptin and hypothalamic Kiss1 mRNA. Conversely, postnatal underfeeding caused a persistent reduction in body weight, lower ovarian and uterus weights, and delayed vaginal opening, changes that were paralleled by a decrease in leptin and Kiss1 mRNA levels. Kisspeptin-52 immunoreactivity (Kp-IR) in the hypothalamus displayed similar patterns, with lower numbers of Kp-IR neurons in the arcuate nucleus of postnatally underfed animals, and a trend for increased Kp-positive fibers in the periventricular area of early overfed rats. Yet, gonadotropin responses to Kp at puberty were similar in all groups, except for enhanced responsiveness to low doses of Kp-10 in postnatally underfed rats. In conclusion, our data document that the timing of puberty is sensitive to both overfeeding and subnutrition during early (postnatal) periods and suggest that alterations in hypothalamic expression of Kiss1/kisspeptin may underlie at least part of such programming phenomenon.

  18. Practices, perceptions, and implications of fertilizer use in East-Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoying; Fang, Shubo

    2015-11-01

    Face-to-face interviews (n = 553) were conducted in five counties in East-Central China to study farmers' fertilizer application behaviors, decision-making processes, attitudes towards adopting better fertilizer application technologies, and environmental consciousness. The survey results revealed widespread fertilizer misapplication and highly variable application behaviors in the study regions. The lack of scientific knowledge on fertilizers and the absence of guidance from agricultural extension services have forced the farmers to rely on personal judgment and advice from fertilizer dealers and friends to make decisions in fertilizer application. Overall, farmers have been idiosyncratic in fertilizer application with limited adoption of better fertilizer application technologies. There are great potentials for reducing pollutant load from agricultural runoff through promoting scientific fertilizer application in the regions. However, farmers' diverse preferences over agricultural extension programs necessitate an integrated approach emphasizing farmer involvement throughout the development of such programs for promoting better fertilizer application practices.

  19. [Fertility behavior in Quebec, family allowances, and taxes: results and simulations with a discrete choice model for the years 1975-1987].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, P; Brouillette, L; Felteau, C

    1994-12-01

    "We suppose that women (couples), who are less than 40 years old, are faced with three types of sequential decisions: the fertility decision, the decision relative to the number of children to have and the decision concerning labour force participation.... We use a nested polychotomous discrete choice model to estimate the responsiveness of the behaviour of 'married' women in Quebec to variations in the expected flow of revenue resulting from changes in the parameters of the personal income tax and in the level of public monetary transfers conditional on the number of children. The model is estimated with micro-data from 9 repeated cross-sections for the years 1975 to 1987 with a full information maximum likelihood method.... This empirical setting is used to simulate the effects of changes made to the fiscal and transfer policies in favor of families with dependent children on fertility, [women's] labor force participation and the importance of spending costs for the two levels of government." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  20. Serum leptin concentration during puberty in healthy nonobese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandão C.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained during the past five years have indicated that there are important age- and gender-based differences in the regulation and action of leptin in humans. To study the physiological changes of leptin during puberty in both sexes, and its relationship with body composition and sexual maturation, we measured leptin concentrations in 175 healthy adolescents (80 girls, 95 boys, 10-18 years of age, representing all pubertal stages. We excluded individuals with a body mass index (BMI below the 5thor above the 95th percentile relative to age. Serum concentrations of leptin were determined by a monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorimetric assay, developed in our laboratory. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pubertal stage was assigned by physical examination, according to Tanner criteria for breast development in females and genital development in males. Leptin concentration in girls (N = 80 presented a positive linear correlation with age (r = 0.35, P = 0.0012, BMI (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.76, P < 0.0001. In boys (N = 95 there was a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001, but a significant negative linear correlation with Tanner stage (r = -0.45, P < 0.0001 and age (r = -0.40, P < 0.0001. The regression equation revealed that %fat mass and BMI are the best parameters to be used to estimate leptin levels in both sexes. Thus, the normal reference ranges for circulating leptin during adolescence should be constructed according to BMI or %fat mass to assure a correct evaluation.

  1. A single sample GnRHa stimulation test in the diagnosis of precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdani Parvin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH has been the standard test for diagnosing central precocious puberty. Because GnRH is no longer available, GnRH analogues (GnRHa are now used. Random LH concentration, measured by the third-generation immunochemiluminometric assay, is a useful screening tool for central precocious puberty. However, GnRHa stimulation test should be considered, when a basal LH measurement is inconclusive. However optimal sampling times for luteinizing hormone (LH have yet to be established. Purpose To determine the appropriate sampling time for LH post leuprolide challenge. Methods A retrospective analysis of multi-sample GnRHa stimulation tests performed in 155 children (aged 1–9 years referred for precocious puberty to Texas Children’s Hospital. After 20 mcg/kg of SQ leuprolide acetate, samples were obtained at 0, 1, 3, and 6 hours. Results Of 71 children with clinical evidence of central precocious puberty, fifty nine children had a peak LH >5 mIU/mL. 52 (88% of these responders had positive responses at 1 hour (95% CI is 80–96%, whereas all 59 children (100% had a peak LH response >5 mIU/mL at 3 hours (95% CI is 94-100%, P = 0.005. Conclusions A single serum LH sample collected 3 hours post GnRHa challenge is the optimal sample to establish the diagnosis of central precocious puberty.

  2. Childhood nutrition and later fertility: pathways through education and pre-pregnant nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Mariaelisa; Yount, Kathryn M; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

    2010-02-01

    Better childhood nutrition is associated with earlier physical maturation during adolescence and increased schooling attainment. However, as earlier onset of puberty and increased schooling can have opposing effects on fertility, the net effect of improvements in childhood nutrition on a woman's fertility are uncertain. Using path analysis, we estimate the strength of the pathways between childhood growth and subsequent fertility outcomes in Guatemalan women studied prospectively since birth. Height for age z score at 24 months was positively related to body mass index (BMI kg/m2) and height (cm) in adolescence and to schooling attainment. BMI was negatively associated (-0.23 +/- 0.09 years per kg/m2; p nutrition, as reflected by height at 2 years, was positively associated with delayed age at first birth and fewer children born. If schooling is available for girls, increased growth during childhood will most likely result in a net decrease infertility.

  3. Stress during puberty boosts metabolic activation associated with fear-extinction learning in hippocampus, basal amygdala and cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; Pitiot, Alain; Paus, Tomáš; Sandi, Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Adolescence is characterized by major developmental changes that may render the individual vulnerable to stress and the development of psychopathologies in a sex-specific manner. Earlier we reported lower anxiety-like behavior and higher risk-taking and novelty seeking in rats previously exposed to peri-pubertal stress. Here we studied whether peri-pubertal stress affected the acquisition and extinction of fear memories and/or the associated functional engagement of various brain regions, as assessed with 2-deoxyglucose. We showed that while peri-pubertal stress reduced freezing during the acquisition of fear memories (training) in both sexes, it had a sex-specific effect on extinction of these memories. Moreover hippocampus, basal amygdala and cingulate and motor cortices showed higher metabolic rates during extinction in rats exposed to peri-pubertal stress. Interestingly, activation of the infralimbic cortex was negatively correlated with freezing during extinction only in control males, while only males stressed during puberty showed a significant correlation between behavior during extinction and metabolic activation of hippocampus, amygdala and paraventricular nucleus. No correlations between brain activation and behavior during extinction were observed in females (control or stress). These results indicate that exposure to peri-pubertal stress affects behavior and brain metabolism when the individual is exposed to an additional stressful challenge. Some of these effects are sex-specific.

  4. Social context of premarital fertility in rural South-Africa | Zwang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... major social changes, in particular loss of authority of parents and increasing ... Much stigma was associated with premarital fertility, from friends, institutions ... In extreme cases, premarital fertility might lead to exclusion and deviant behavior.

  5. Increased risk of precocious puberty in internationally adopted children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, G.; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Skakkebæk, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    for a Korean child was at the same level as observed among adopted children from India and South America. In the study population, 99% of Korean children were adopted before 2 years of age, which may contribute to explaining our finding. In Korea, children appointed for adoption are often living in foster care......BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that internationally adopted children have an increased risk of developing precocious puberty, but no epidemiologic risk estimates have previously been calculated. We aimed to assess the risk of developing precocious puberty in intercountry adoptees, children...... immigrating with their family, and descendants of immigrants living in Denmark. METHODS: Patients who were registered with the diagnosis of precocious puberty during the period 1993-2001 were identified through the national patient registry. The background population of children born from 1983 to 2001 were...

  6. Hypothesis: exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may interfere with timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, A; Aksglaede, L; Sørensen, K

    2010-01-01

    of normal puberty are poorly understood. This hampers investigation of the possible role of environmental influences. There are many types of EDCs. One chemical may have more than one mode of action and the effects may depend on dose and duration of the exposure, as well as the developmental stage...... declined by 1 year; thus, the time span from initiation of breast development to menarche has increased. This may indicate an oestrogen-like effect without concomitant central activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The effects may differ between boys and girls, as there are sex differences in age......A recent decline in onset of puberty - especially among girls - has been observed, first in the US in the mid-1990s and now also in Europe. The development of breast tissue in girls occurs at a much younger age and the incidence of precocious puberty (PP) is increasing. Genetic factors...

  7. Treatment of precocious puberty in a female with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusz, Erin Rose; Rotenstein, Deborah

    2008-05-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, hyperphagia, childhood obesity at an early age, short stature, varying degrees of mental deficiency, and hypogonadism. In PWS, puberty is usually delayed and fails to complete, with most females never having regular menstrual cycles. We report a female patient with uniparental disomy, who experienced precocious puberty with menarche at age 8 years. The patient was treated with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analog, which suppressed pubertal development. From our search of the literature this is the first application of LHRH analog to a female PWS patient for precocious puberty. Use of LHRH analog along with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) permitted stature closer to target height. The clinical course of this patient with PWS underscores the need for individualized treatment.

  8. Increase in first morning voided urinary luteinizing hormone levels precedes the physical onset of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demir, Ahmet; Voutilainen, R; Juul, A

    1996-01-01

    Determinations of serum gonadotropin concentrations by ultra-sensitive methods have improved the diagnosis of pubertal disorders. The onset of puberty can be estimated by measuring serum gonadotropin pulsation, but as this requires serial nocturnal blood sampling, it is not a routine investigation...... before clinical signs of puberty can be detected. The correlation between FMV urine and S-LH values was good (r = 0.64; P ... for S-LH. A significant increase in FMV U-LH concentration occurs before the first clinical signs of puberty in a sex-independent fashion. Our data indicate that FMV U-LH measurement is a clinically relevant, noninvasive method for the evaluation of pubertal development, and it may be helpful...

  9. Maturation of kisspeptinergic neurons coincides with puberty onset in male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Agnete H; Ansel, Laura; Simonneaux, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    receptor is the primary component in the initiation of puberty and where in the hypothalamus regulation of the kisspeptin/Kiss1R system occurs is unresolved. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we analyzed the level of Kiss1 mRNA and kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in the anteroventral...... periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus of male rats along pubertal development. Neurons expressing Kiss1 mRNA were first detected at PND15, but increased significantly around puberty, and declined again in the adult rat. While virtually no immunoreactive cell bodies were detectable in the AVPV...... that the regulation of kisspeptin synthesis and release are key events in puberty onset in the male rat....

  10. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization......Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...

  11. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  12. Kallmann综合征1例%Ultrasonography in differential diagnosis of precocious puberty in girls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓大同; 朱晖; 孙莉; 章秋; 杨明功

    2011-01-01

    @@ Kallmann综合征是先天性遗传性疾病,又称为"男性特发性低促性腺激素性腺功能减退症(idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism,IHH)",发病率男性为1/l万,女性为1/5万,笔者于2010年7月27日发现1例,报道如下. 1 临床资料 患者男性,20岁.因"睾丸、阴茎小,男性第二性征不发育"入住我院.患者自幼出现嗅觉障碍,无法辨识出水与酒精的气味,无法辨识香、臭味,但可辨别水与食醋气味差别.父母非近亲结婚,两个妹妹生长发育正常.%Aim To investigate the differential diagnostic value of ulrasound with precocious puberty. Methods The uterine,ovarian follicles were measured by ultrasound. Then these indexes were compared with the normal control groups in the same age. Results The uterine indexes of girls with true-precocious puberty and pseudo-precocious puberty were significantly larger than the normal girls (P < 0.05). The volume of ovary and the largest follicle diameter, a section of the largest number of follictes in true-precocious puberty are larger than the normal girls (P < 0.05). The volume of ovary and the largest follicle diameter, a section of the largest number of follicles in pseudo-precocious puberty are similar to the normal girls(P <0.05). Conclusion Ultrasonography has great value on differential diagnosis of precocious puberty in girls.

  13. Primary School Puberty/Sexuality Education: Student-Teachers' Past Learning, Present Professional Education, and Intention to Teach These Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Coleman, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Primary school teachers are often tasked with puberty/sexuality education for students who are undergoing sexual maturation at ever-earlier ages. This study explores the changing trajectories of the pre-service learning and teaching of primary school puberty/sexuality education at an urban university, including student-teachers' childhood…

  14. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in central precocious puberty before and during treatment with GnRH agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Andersson, A M; Müller, J

    2000-01-01

    Serum levels of the gonadal hormones inhibin A and inhibin B are undetectable or low in prepubertal girls, and rise during puberty. In girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is prematurely activated, if the girl is thereafter treated with GnRH agonists...

  15. Final height in central precocious puberty after long term treatment with a slow release GnRH agonist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, W; Rikken, B; Schreuder, S; Otten, B; Odink, R; Rouwe, C; Jansen, M; Gerver, WJ; Waelkens, J; Drop, S

    1996-01-01

    Objective-To study the resumption of puberty and the final height achieved in children with central precocious puberty (CPP) treated with the GnRH agonist triptorelin. Patients-31 girls and five boys with CPP who were treated with triptorelin 3.75 mg intramuscularly every four weeks. Girls were trea

  16. Spermaturia and serum hormone concentrations at the age of puberty in boys prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Nanette M; Sørensen, Nicolina; Weihe, Pal

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty.......To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty....

  17. Girls’ Diets Affect Puberty,Later Disease Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢钦虢

    2000-01-01

    本刊上期刊登了吴春拂选注的一篇文章,题目是:Dieting May HarmGirl’s IQs。该文标题中的Dieting的意思是“节食”,节食,会降低女孩的智商;而本文标题中的Diets却是“饮食”的意思。本文的主题句就亮出一个或多或少与前文相左的意见: Young girls who consume diets rich in animal protein and fat may be eatingtheir way to an early puberty(青春期)and possibly increasing their risk for chronicdisease later in life. 女孩如果多吃富含动物蛋白质和动物脂肪的食物将过早进入青春期,并可能日后患上慢性疾病的风险。 根据专家的意见,女孩的“健康饮食”应该是:to reduce intakes of saturated(饱和的)fat and red meat and excess calories and to increase fruit/vegetable intakesin children. 如此饮食,其收效是:result in lower breast cancer rates,along with otherhealth benefits. 也许读者不会料到,如此饮食同样存在着“负面作用”:but the risk ofosteoporosis,and perhaps of other diseases,might increase. 两文并读,或者就单读此文,读者朋友就会深感左右为难,无所适从。 其实,深入一步想,这些意见并不矛盾,世界上许多事情都应该一分为二地去看,去思考。

  18. Fertilization in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Luigia; Vasilev, Filip; Chun, Jong T

    2012-08-31

    For more than 150 years, echinoderm eggs have served as overly favored experimental model systems in which to study fertilization. Sea urchin and starfish belong to the same phylum and thus share many similarities in their fertilization patterns. However, several subtle but fundamental differences do exist in the fertilization of sea urchin and starfish, reflecting their phylogenetic bifurcation approximately 500 million years ago. In this article we review some of the seminal and recent findings that feature similarities and differences in sea urchin and starfish at fertilization.

  19. "When You're a Baby You Don't Have Puberty": Understanding of Puberty and Human Reproduction in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Lisa B; Lauricella, Alexis R; Hightower, Brianna; Sroka, Iris; Woodruff, Teresa K; Wartella, Ellen

    2017-08-01

    Basic knowledge of human reproduction can help youth prepare for puberty and make later classes focused on advanced reproductive health topics manageable. With the intention of potentially informing the creation of learning materials, we conducted a needs assessment among children ages 7 to 12 in our suburban Chicago community to ascertain their current understanding of, and beliefs and misconceptions about, human reproduction, and to determine their needs for additional reproductive health education. We held qualitative focus group interviews with local children. Participants primarily reported learning about these topics from their parents prior to receiving school-based education in fifth grade. Their level of understanding was relatively low. They had little knowledge of internal sexual organs, expressed a range of beliefs about conception ranging from inaccurate to accurate but incomplete, and voiced concerns about transitioning into adolescence. This suggests a need for additional resources that provide comprehensible descriptions of reproductive health processes and mitigate puberty-related concerns.

  20. Religiosity, nationalism and fertility in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, J; Meir, A

    1996-03-01

    It is suggested that Israel's high fertility can be explained by a collective national conscience rather than the traditional interpretation of Jewish religiosity. It is suggested that religiosity is a proxy for a national consciousness and daily living standards. It is argued that normative orientations or cultural explanations of the value of children are intervening variables according to the framework established by Davis and Blake. The collective conscience reflects Israel's special position in the Middle East and within the world economy. The nationalist feelings reflect a range in political views. The author disputes the ethnic and religious explanations for high fertility. Fertility increased since the 1960s even among low fertility European-American born women. During the early 1980s fertility was 2.75, which was high compared to European levels at the same standard of living. Reference is made to the literature on the association between high fertility and survival strategies in insecure or discriminatory settings. This study's analysis is based on a macro- rather than individual-level approach to understanding behavior. The theoretical framework is based on the theories of Durkheim and Gane. The analysis uses data from the 1983 census on Jewish fertility in urban statistical areas and Jewish voting patterns in national elections in 1984. Correspondence analysis is used to identify voting patterns by area. The four political postures are identified as religious and conciliatory (71 areas), religious and nationalist (142 areas), nonreligious and nationalist, and nonreligious and conciliatory. Women in nationalist areas had 35% more children than women in conciliatory areas. Although both religiosity and nationalism were positively correlated with high fertility, nationalist commitment was a better predictor. The model including religiosity, nationalism, and income showed no independent effect of religiosity on fertility.

  1. TRIENNIAL REPRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM: Developmental programming of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L P; Vonnahme, K A

    2016-07-01

    The 2015 Triennial Reproduction Symposium focused on developmental programming of fertility. The topics covered during the morning session included the role of the placenta in programming of fetal growth and development, effects of feeding system and level of feeding during pregnancy on the annual production cycle and lifetime productivity of heifer offspring, effects of litter size and level of socialization postnatally on reproductive performance of pigs, effects of postnatal dietary intake on maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and onset of puberty in heifers, effects of housing systems on growth performance and reproductive efficiency of gilts, and effects of energy balance on sexual differentiation in rodent models. The morning session concluded with presentation of the American Society of Animal Science L. E. Casida Award for Excellence in Graduate Education to Dr. Michael Smith from the University of Missouri, Columbia, who shared his philosophy of graduate education. The afternoon session included talks on the role of epigenetic modifications in developmental programming and transgenerational inheritance of reproductive dysfunction, effects of endocrine disrupting compounds on fetal development and long-term physiology of the individual, and potential consequences of real-life exposure to environmental contaminants on reproductive health. The symposium concluded with a summary talk and the posing of 2 questions to the audience. From an evolutionary standpoint, programming and epigenetic events must be adaptive; when do they become maladaptive? If there are so many environmental factors that induce developmental programming, are we doomed, and if not, what is or are the solution or solutions?

  2. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  3. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  4. Correlations in fertility across generations: can low fertility persist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Martin; Cownden, Daniel; Enquist, Magnus

    2014-03-22

    Correlations in family size across generations could have a major influence on human population size in the future. Empirical studies have shown that the associations between the fertility of parents and the fertility of children are substantial and growing over time. Despite their potential long-term consequences, intergenerational fertility correlations have largely been ignored by researchers. We present a model of the fertility transition as a cultural process acting on new lifestyles associated with fertility. Differences in parental and social influences on the acquisition of these lifestyles result in intergenerational correlations in fertility. We show different scenarios for future population size based on models that disregard intergenerational correlations in fertility, models with fertility correlations and a single lifestyle, and models with fertility correlations and multiple lifestyles. We show that intergenerational fertility correlations will result in an increase in fertility over time. However, present low-fertility levels may persist if the rapid introduction of new cultural lifestyles continues into the future.

  5. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation in a large cohort of young girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A K; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Macklon, K T

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between the need for medical puberty induction and the diagnosis or treatment received in girls who have undergone cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation? SUMMARY ANSWER: There was a clear association between the intensity of treatment...... risk of POI should be offered ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC). This includes girls who are planned to receive either high doses of alkylating agents, conditioning regimen before stem cell transplantation (SCT), total body irradiation (TBI) or high radiation doses to the craniospinal, abdominal...

  6. Family systems and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moenkediek, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies the role of regional family organization principles, so called family systems, for explaining fertility behaviours in different parts of Europe. Studying family systems and its impact on fertility is important, because many aspects of societal life, such as the organization of we

  7. Fertility and Female Employment: Problems of Causal Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, James C.

    1980-01-01

    Considers multicollinearity in nonrecursive models, misspecification of models, discrepancies between attitudes and behavior, and differences between static and dynamic models as explanations for contradictory information on the causal relationship between fertility and female employment. Finds that initially fertility affects employment but that,…

  8. Fertility decline in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kanako; Stupp, Paul; Melian, Mercedes

    2009-09-01

    Recent reproductive health surveys show that the fertility rate in Paraguay decreased precipitously from 4.3 lifetime births per woman in 1995-98 to 2.9 births in 2001-04. In this study, we establish data consistency between the 1998 and 2004 surveys by comparing a series of cohort-specific period rates and use the Bongaarts framework of proximate determinants of fertility to demonstrate that an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) between 1998 and 2004 fully accounts for the fertility decline. Decomposition of rates shows that changes in group-specific CPRs explain a greater proportion of the change in the overall CPR than do changes in population composition by educational attainment, urban residence, region, and language spoken at home. Finally, we show that younger cohorts of women in 2004 reported ideal completed fertility desires of less than 2.9 births, suggesting that the fertility rate is likely to continue to decrease.

  9. [Socioeconomic variables and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguello, O

    1980-08-01

    While making comparative analyses of data collected by the World Fertility Survey regarding Latin America, a group of investigators of CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) realized that the selection of economic variables for the study of fertility had serious limitations. Such limitations did not allow the elaboration of a theory which took into account the complicated process of fertility, in all its socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological manifestations. Thus, this paper intends to lay the theoretical basis for the selection of all relevant variables, distinguishing, for example, the average fertility of women according to area of residence, place of early socialization, migrant status, social status, occupation of husband, level of instruction, occupation, and all changes in occupational activities of women in fertile age.

  10. Reproducibility and relevance of future behavioral sciences should benefit from a cross fertilization of past recommendations and today's technology: "Back to the future".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Berry M; Peters, Suzanne M; de Heer, Raymond C; Pothuizen, Helen H J; van der Harst, Johanneke E

    2014-08-30

    Thanks to the discovery of novel technologies and sophisticated analysis tools we can now 'see' molecules, genes and even patterns of gene expression, which have resulted in major advances in many areas of biology. Recently, similar technologies have been developed for behavioral studies. However, the wide implementation of such technological progress in behavioral research remains behind, as if there are inhibiting factors for accepting and adopting available innovations. The methods of the majority of studies measuring and interpreting behavior of laboratory animals seem to have frozen in time somewhere in the last century. As an example of the so-called classical tests, we will present the history and shortcomings of one of the most frequently used tests, the open field. Similar objections and critical remarks, however, can be made with regard to the elevated plus maze, light-dark box, various other mazes, object recognition tests, etc. Possible solutions and recommendations on how progress in behavioral neuroscience can be achieved and accelerated will be discussed in the second part of this review.

  11. Reproducibility and relevance of future behavioral sciences should benefit from a cross fertilization of past recommendations and today's technology: "Back to the future"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, Berry; Peters, Suzanne; de Heer, Raymond; Pothuizen, Helen; van der Harst, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to the discovery of novel technologies and sophisticated analysis tools we can now ‘see’ molecules, genes and even patterns of gene expression, which have resulted in major advances in many areas of biology. Recently, similar technologies have been developed for behavioral studies. However, t

  12. Sexual function and fertility issues in cases of exstrophy epispadias complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Ansari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with EEC, the issues such as sexuality, sexual function and fertility gain more importance once theses patients advance from puberty to adulthood. The aim of this review is to critically examine the available evidence on these issues. A systemic literature search was performed in Medline over the last 25 years using the key words: Exstrophy, sexual function and pregnancy. Search results were limited to studies of patients with exstrophy published in English literature. A total of 1500 publications were found and subsequently screened by title and when appropriate by abstracts. Of these, 40 publications pertinent to the subject were included for the analysis. The publications were supplemented by an additional 15 publications obtained from their bibliographies. The studies were rated according to the guidelines published by the US department of health and human services. Heterosexuality is usually expressed in both the sexes and most of them have adequate sexual function. Urinary diversion in some series seems to result in better ejaculatory hence fertility outcome in male patients. Recent series have shown equally good results with primary reconstruction. Most of the female patients have normal fertility while male patients have significantly low fertility. Most of the male and female patients with EEC have adequate sexual function. Most of the female patients have normal fertility while most of the male patients have significantly low fertility.

  13. Puberty and Sexuality Education Using a Learning and Teaching Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Harris, Christine A.; Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2017-01-01

    All children need timely puberty and sexuality education. The task falls to schools because they have the learning and teaching processes, competency programmes, opportunities, and resources for age-appropriate cognitive, knowledge, and skills development in children and adolescents. Quality sexuality education guidance documents have been…

  14. Neuroendocrine pathways mediating nutritional acceleration of puberty: insights from ruminant models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eAmstalden

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The pubertal process is characterized by an activation of physiological events within the hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal-gonadal axis which culminate in reproductive competence. Excessive weight gain and adiposity during the juvenile period is associated with accelerated onset of puberty in females. The mechanisms and pathways by which excess energy balance advances puberty are unclear, but appear to involve an early escape from estradiol negative feedback and early initiation of high frequency episodic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH secretion. Hypothalamic neurons, particularly neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin neurons are likely important components of the pathway sensing and transmitting metabolic information to the control of GnRH secretion. Kisspeptin neurons may also have a role as effector neurons integrating metabolic and gonadal steroid feedback effects on GnRH secretion at the time of puberty. Recent studies indicate that leptin-responsive neurons within the ventral premammillary nucleus play a critical role in pubertal progression and challenge the relevance of kisspeptin neurons in this process. Nevertheless, the nutritional control of puberty is likely to involve an integration of major sensor and effector pathways that interact with modulatory circuitries for a fine control of GnRH neuron function. In this review, observations made in ruminant species are emphasized for a comparative perspective.

  15. Examination of US puberty-timing data from 1940 to 1994 for secular trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, Susan Y; Herman-Giddens, Marcia E; Lee, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Whether children, especially girls, are entering and progressing through puberty earlier today than in the mid-1900s has been debated. Secular trend analysis, based on available data, is limited by data comparability among studies in different populations, in different periods of time, and using...

  16. Significant decline in anticancer immune capacity during puberty in the Tasmanian devil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Heasman, Kim; Peck, Sarah; Peel, Emma; Gooley, Rebecca M.; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Hogg, Carolyn J.; Belov, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) are at risk of extinction in the wild due to Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), a rare contagious cancer. The prevalence of DFTD differs by age class: higher disease prevalence is seen in adults (2–3 years) versus younger devils (<2 years). Here we propose that immunological changes during puberty may play a role in susceptibility to DFTD. We show that the second year of life is a key developmental period for Tasmanian devils, during which they undergo puberty and pronounced changes in the immune system. Puberty coincides with a significant decrease in lymphocyte abundance resulting in a much higher neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio in adults than subadults. Quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression of transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 and cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) revealed a drastic increase in GATA-3 and IL-4 expression during puberty. These changes led to a significantly lower IFN-γ:IL-4 ratio in 2-year-olds than <1 year olds (on average 1.3-fold difference in males and 4.0-fold in females), which reflects a major shift of the immune system towards Th2 responses. These results all indicate that adult devils are expected to have a lower anticancer immune capacity than subadults, which may explain the observed pattern of disease prevalence of DFTD in the wild. PMID:28300197

  17. Examination of US puberty-timing data from 1940 to 1994 for secular trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, Susan Y; Herman-Giddens, Marcia E; Lee, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Whether children, especially girls, are entering and progressing through puberty earlier today than in the mid-1900s has been debated. Secular trend analysis, based on available data, is limited by data comparability among studies in different populations, in different periods of time, and using ...

  18. Other-Sex Relationship Stress and Sex Differences in the Contribution of Puberty to Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that the pubertal transition, particularly when experienced earlier than age-matched peers, is associated with heightened depression in girls but less depression in boys. This study examined whether stress within other-sex relationships serves as one process through which puberty differentially contributes to depression for girls…

  19. HPG-axis hormones during puberty : A study on the association with hypothalamic and pituitary volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peper, Jiska S.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Schnack, Hugo G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kahn, Rene S.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff

    2010-01-01

    Objective: During puberty, the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is activated, leading to increases in luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol) levels. We aimed to study the association between hypothalamic and pituitary volum

  20. Endocrine profiles during attainment of puberty may predict reproductive longevity in heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that attainment of puberty through initiation and continuation of cyclic activity may be a predictor of reproductive longevity in heifers. Blood plasma was collected from 379 spring born heifers over four years from weaning to prior to breeding (October-June) in 2012-2015. Four pube...

  1. Hypothesis: exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may interfere with timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, A; Aksglaede, L; Sørensen, K

    2010-01-01

    A recent decline in onset of puberty - especially among girls - has been observed, first in the US in the mid-1990s and now also in Europe. The development of breast tissue in girls occurs at a much younger age and the incidence of precocious puberty (PP) is increasing. Genetic factors and increa......A recent decline in onset of puberty - especially among girls - has been observed, first in the US in the mid-1990s and now also in Europe. The development of breast tissue in girls occurs at a much younger age and the incidence of precocious puberty (PP) is increasing. Genetic factors...... of the exposed individual. There may also be a wide range of genetic susceptibility to EDCs. Human exposure scenarios are complex and our knowledge about effects of mixtures of EDCs is limited. Importantly, the consequences of an exposure may not be apparent at the actual time of exposure, but may manifest later...... declined by 1 year; thus, the time span from initiation of breast development to menarche has increased. This may indicate an oestrogen-like effect without concomitant central activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The effects may differ between boys and girls, as there are sex differences in age...

  2. Minor neurological dysfunction from birth to 12 years. II : Puberty is related to decreased dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunsing, R J; Hadders-Algra, M; Huisjes, H J; Touwen, B C

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether puberty is related to decreased minor neurological dysfunction (MND), 174 children from the Groningen Perinatal Project who had had MND at nine years were re-examined at 12 years. No signs of MND could be demonstrated in 39 of the children, 33 of whom showed at least three signs

  3. MINOR NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION AFTER THE ONSET OF PUBERTY - ASSOCIATION WITH PERINATAL EVENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the hypotheses that puberty is related to a decrease of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and that persisting MND is associated with perinatal factors, two groups (174 normal, 172 MND) of the Groningen Perinatal Project were followed from 12 to 14 years. At 14 years almost all t

  4. Hormonal regulation of puberty onset in female rats: is leptin a missing link?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous factors in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG) are involved in the timing of puberty onset.Leptin signals the nutritional status and the presence of an adequate amount of loaded adipose tissue, as a long-term resour

  5. MINOR NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION FROM BIRTH TO 12 YEARS .2. PUBERTY IS RELATED TO DECREASED DYSFUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether puberty is related to decreased minor neurological dysfunction (MND), 174 children from the Groningen Perinatal Project who had had MND at nine years were re-examined at 12 years. No signs of MND could be demonstrated in 39 of the children, 33 of whom showed at least three signs

  6. Hormonal regulation of puberty onset in female rats: is leptin a missing link?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous factors in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG) are involved in the timing of puberty onset.Leptin signals the nutritional status and the presence of an adequate amount of loaded adipose tissue, as a long-term resour

  7. Increase in first morning voided urinary luteinizing hormone levels precedes the physical onset of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demir, Ahmet; Voutilainen, R; Juul, A

    1996-01-01

    for S-LH. A significant increase in FMV U-LH concentration occurs before the first clinical signs of puberty in a sex-independent fashion. Our data indicate that FMV U-LH measurement is a clinically relevant, noninvasive method for the evaluation of pubertal development, and it may be helpful...

  8. The clinical course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis in childhood and puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Maretta; Ayuso, Viera Kalinina; Schalij-Delfos, Nicoline E.; Los, Leonoor I.; Rothova, Aniki; de Boer, Joke H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The long-term course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis is not known yet. This study investigates the course and activity of JIA-associated uveitis in childhood and puberty. Design Retrospective study of the clinical data of 62 JIA patients with uveitis. The main outcome m

  9. The clinical course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis in childhood and puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Maretta; Ayuso, Viera Kalinina; Schalij-Delfos, Nicoline E.; Los, Leonoor I.; Rothova, Aniki; de Boer, Joke H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The long-term course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis is not known yet. This study investigates the course and activity of JIA-associated uveitis in childhood and puberty. Design Retrospective study of the clinical data of 62 JIA patients with uveitis. The main outcome m

  10. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and uterine length of developing gilts fed two lysine and three metabolizable energy concentrations from 100 to 260 d of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Díaz, J A; Vallet, J L; Lents, C A; Nonneman, D J; Miles, J R; Wright, E C; Rempel, L A; Cushman, R A; Freking, B A; Rohrer, G A; Phillips, C; DeDecker, A; Foxcroft, G; Stalder, K

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ad libitum feeding diets differing in standard ileal digestible (SID) lysine and ME concentrations that bracket those fed to developing gilts in U.S. commercial settings. Average SID lysine and ME concentrations in diets currently fed to developing gilts were obtained from a poll of the U.S. commercial swine industry. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1,221), housed in groups, were randomly allotted to 6 corn-soybean diets in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement formulated to provided 2 SID lysine and 3 ME concentrations. Gilts received grower diets formulated to provide 1.02% (control = survey average) or 0.86% (control minus 15%) SID lysine and 2.94, 3.25, or 3.57 (survey average ME ± 10%) Mcal of ME/kg from 100 d of age until approximately 90 kg BW. Then, gilts were fed finisher diet containing 0.85% (control = survey average) or 0.73% (control minus 15%) SID lysine and 2.94, 3.26, or 3.59 (control ± 10%) Mcal of ME/kg until 260 d of age. Gilts were weighed, and backfat thickness and loin muscle area were recorded at the beginning of the trial and then every 28 d. Starting at 160 d of age, gilts were exposed daily to vasectomized boars and observed for behavioral estrus. At approximately 260 d of age, gilts were slaughtered and their reproductive tract was collected. Each reproductive tract was examined to determine whether the gilt was cyclic, the stage of estrus cycle, ovulation rate, and uterine length. Data were evaluated for normality and analyzed using mixed model methods. Average age at puberty was 193 d of age with a range from 160 to 265 d. When all gilts on trial at 160 d of age were included in the analysis, 91.0% reached puberty as determine by observation of standing estrus. Differences between dietary treatments on age at puberty or measurements of the reproductive tract were not detected. Growth rates to 160 d were not limiting for attainment of puberty in response to daily boar

  11. Sex-specific regulation of weight and puberty by the Lin28/let-7 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Christina; Shinoda, Gen; Zhu, Hao; Cousminer, Diana L; Crossman, Christine; Bellissimo, Christian; Goldenberg, Anna; Daley, George Q; Palmert, Mark R

    2016-03-01

    Growth and pubertal timing differ in boys and girls. Variants in/near LIN28B associate with age at menarche (AAM) in genome-wide association studies and some AAM-related variants associate with growth in a sex-specific manner. Sex-specific growth patterns in response to Lin28b perturbation have been detected in mice, and overexpression of Lin28a has been shown to alter pubertal timing in female mice. To investigate further how Lin28a and Lin28b affect growth and puberty in both males and females, we evaluated Lin28b loss-of-function (LOF) mice and Lin28a gain-of-function (GOF) mice. Because both Lin28a and Lin28b can act via the conserved microRNA let-7, we also examined let-7 GOF mice. As reported previously, Lin28b LOF led to lighter body weights only in male mice while Lin28a GOF yielded heavier mice of both sexes. Let-7 GOF mice weighed less than controls, and males were more affected than females. Timing of puberty was assessed by vaginal opening (VO) and preputial separation (PS). Male Lin28b LOF and male let-7 GOF, but not female, mice displayed alteration of pubertal timing, with later PS than controls. In contrast, both male and female Lin28a GOF mice displayed late onset of puberty. Together, these data point toward a complex system of regulation by Lin28a, Lin28b, and let-7, in which Lin28b and let-7 can impact both puberty and growth in a sex-specific manner, raising the possibility that this pathway may contribute to differential regulation of male and female growth and puberty in humans. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  12. Increased functional connectivity with puberty in the mentalising network involved in social emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapwijk, Eduard T; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Bird, Geoffrey; Viner, Russell M; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". There is increasing evidence that puberty plays an important role in the structural and functional brain development seen in adolescence, but little is known of the pubertal influence on changes in functional connectivity. We explored how pubertal indicators (salivary concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and DHEA; pubertal stage; menarcheal status) relate to functional connectivity between components of a mentalising network identified to be engaged in social emotion processing by our prior work, using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. Female adolescents aged 11 to 13years were scanned whilst silently reading scenarios designed to evoke either social emotions (guilt and embarrassment) or basic emotions (disgust and fear), of which only social compared to basic emotions require the representation of another person's mental states. Pubertal stage and menarcheal status were used to assign participants to pre/early or mid/late puberty groups. We found increased functional connectivity between the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during social relative to basic emotion processing. Moreover, increasing oestradiol concentrations were associated with increased functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the right TPJ during social relative to basic emotion processing, independent of age. Our analysis of the PPI data by phenotypic pubertal status showed that more advanced puberty stage was associated with enhanced functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the left anterior temporal cortex (ATC) during social relative to basic emotion processing, also independent of age. Our results suggest increased functional maturation of the social brain network with the advancement of puberty in girls.

  13. [Current situation on fertility preservation in cancer patients in Spain: Level of knowledge, information, and professional involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Colino, Carmen; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Vazquez, María Ángeles; Echevarria, Aizpea; Gutierrez, Ignacio; Andión, Maitane; Berlanga, Pablo

    2017-07-01

    The estimated risks of infertility in childhood cancer due to radiation, chemotherapy and surgery are well known. The involvement of professionals and advances in the different methods of preservation are increasing. However, many patients do not receive information or perform any method of preservation. Questionnaires to paediatric onco-haematology institutions throughout Spain. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions assessing their usual practices and knowledge about fertility preservation. Fifty members of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, representing 24 of 43 centres, responded. These represented 82% of centres that treated higher numbers of patients. The effect of treatment on fertility was known by 78% of those who responded, with 76% admitting not knowing any guideline on fertility in children or adolescents. As for the ideal time and place to inform the patient and/or family, only 14% thought it should be done in the same cancer diagnosis interview. In clinical practice, 12% of those surveyed never referred patients to Human Reproduction Units, another 12% only did so if the patients showed interest, and 38% only refer patients in puberty. Just over one-third (34%) of those referrals were going to receive highly gonadotoxic treatment. There are clear differences between pre-puberty and puberty patients. The frequency with which some method of fertility preservation is performed in patients is low. All respondents believe that the existence of national guidelines on the matter would be of interest. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive sex differences are not magnified as a function of age, sex hormones, or puberty development during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, Agneta; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Lovén, Johanna; Thilers, Petra P; Rehnman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Are cognitive sex differences magnified by individual differences in age, sex hormones, or puberty development? Cross-sectional samples of 12- to 14-year-old boys (n = 85) and girls (n = 102) completed tasks assessing episodic memory, face recognition, verbal fluency, and mental rotations. Blood estradiol, free testosterone, and self-rated puberty scores were obtained. Sex differences were found on all cognitive measures. However, the magnitude was not larger for older children, hormones and cognitive performance were not associated, and early maturers did not perform better than late maturers. Thus, cognitive sex differences were not associated with age, levels of sex hormones, or puberty development.

  15. Economic recession and fertility in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Tomáš; Skirbekk, Vegard; Philipov, Dimiter

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of economic recessions on fertility in the developed world. We study how economic downturns, as measured by various indicators, especially by declining GDP levels, falling consumer confidence, and rising unemployment, were found to affect fertility. We also discuss particular mechanisms through which the recession may have influenced fertility behavior, including the effects of economic uncertainty, falling income, changes in the housing market, and rising enrollment in higher education, and also factors that influence fertility indirectly such as declining marriage rates. Most studies find that fertility tends to be pro-cyclical and often rises and declines with the ups and downs of the business cycle. Usually, these aggregate effects are relatively small (typically, a few percentage points) and of short durations; in addition they often influence especially the timing of childbearing and in most cases do not leave an imprint on cohort fertility levels. Therefore, major long-term fertility shifts often continue seemingly uninterrupted during the recession—including the fertility declines before and during the Great Depression of the 1930s and before and during the oil shock crises of the 1970s. Changes in the opportunity costs of childbearing and fertility behavior during economic downturn vary by sex, age, social status, and number of children; childless young adults are usually most affected. Furthermore, various policies and institutions may modify or even reverse the relationship between recessions and fertility. The first evidence pertaining to the recent recession falls in line with these findings. In most countries, the recession has brought a decline in the number of births and fertility rates, often marking a sharp halt to the previous decade of rising fertility rates.

  16. The Effect of Contraceptive Knowledge on Fertility: The Roles of Mass Media and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-Wen

    2011-06-01

    This study examines the effect of contraceptive knowledge on fertility during the period when Taiwan's family planning programs were in effect. This study contributes to previous studies by directly measuring individual's contraceptive knowledge and fertility, as well as applying an instrumental variable approach to gauge the effect of contraceptive knowledge on fertility. The results indicate that mass media and social networks play important roles in disseminating contraceptive knowledge. This study finds that women transform their knowledge into behavior-that is, contraceptive knowledge reduces fertility, no matter which fertility metric is measured (life-time fertility or probability of giving birth).

  17. Behaviorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, J

    2011-01-01

    .... Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the observational methods common to all sciences...

  18. Optimizing Natural Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heavy alcohol consumption (> 2 drinks per day), heavy caffeine consumption, and the use of recreational drugs such as marijuana have all been associated with reduced fertility. Therefore, women (and ... alcohol and caffeine use, and avoid smoking and all recreational drugs ...

  19. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  20. Chapter VII. Predicting Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Section 2. Visual and Microscopic Approaches for Differentiating Unfertilized Germinal Discs and Early dead Embryos from Pre-Incubated Blastoderms Section 3. Predicting the Duration of fertility by Counting Sperm in the Outer Perivitelline Layer of Laid Eggs...

  1. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    cryopreservation and embryo/oocyte cryopreservation are standard strategies for fertility preservations in male and female patients, respectively; other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the gonads and gonadal tissue cryopreservation) are considered experimental techniques. However, since then, new......In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... of reproductive age their risk of infertility from the disease and/or treatment and their interest in having children after cancer, and help with informed fertility preservation decisions. As recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, sperm...

  2. Commercial Phosporus Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...

  3. Energy expenditure and intake during puberty in healthy nonobese adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; Amatoury, Mazen; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-10-01

    Puberty is a time of rapid growth and changing energy requirements and is a risk period for obesity. There is little high-quality evidence on the pubertal alterations of energy expenditure and intake, and this has limited our understanding of energy balance during this important life stage. The purpose of this study was to summarize existing evidence on pubertal energy expenditure and intake in healthy nonobese adolescents. Studies were identified through CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases up to August 2015. Articles presenting objectively measured data for basal or resting metabolic rate (BMR/RMR), total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), and/or energy intake (EI) for ≥2 categories of puberty were included. Relevant data adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM) also were extracted. Data were dichotomized into prepubertal and pubertal groups and compared through the use of standardized mean differences (SMDs). Heterogeneous study methodologies precluded meta-analysis. The search netted 6770 articles, with 12 included for review. From these, 6 of 9 studies supported significantly higher absolute BMR/RMR during puberty (SMD: 1.10-5.93), and all of the studies favored significantly higher absolute TDEE during puberty (SMD: 0.46-9.55). These corresponded to a 12% difference and an 18% difference in absolute BMR/RMR and TDEE, respectively. Results adjusted for FFM were equivocal, with 3 studies favoring higher (1 significantly) and 3 favoring significantly lower adjusted BMR/RMR during puberty. Only 1 study reported EI, showing 41% and 25% greater absolute intakes in pubertal males and females, respectively. These differences were not significant after adjustment for FFM. Reasonably consistent evidence exists to support higher absolute BMR/RMR and TDEE in pubertal than in prepubertal adolescents. Differences are largely accounted for by FFM, among other potential factors such as growth- and puberty-related hormones. This review argues

  4. Precocious puberty in Turner Syndrome: report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Improda Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Turner Syndrome (TS is caused by monosomy or structural abnormalities of the X chromosome, with a prevalence of about 1/2000 females live birth. Most important clinical features of TS are short stature and gonadal failure. Approximately one third of girls with TS may undergo spontaneous puberty. Here we report on the case of a girl with a rare 45X0/47XXX mosaic TS exhibiting a precocious puberty. Case report The patient was diagnosed with TS at the age of 4 years, upon a diagnostic work-up for dysmorphic features. Chromosome analysis revealed a mosaic karyotype (45X0/47XXX. She presented with normal height and normal growth velocity so that Growth Hormone (GH therapy was not started. She was referred to our Department at the age of 7 years and 10 months, because of vaginal bleeding. A physical examination revealed a Tanner stage III for breast and Tanner stage III for pubic hair development. Height and weight were within the normal range for age. Psychological evaluation showed moderate global developmental delay, together with emotional and social immaturity and reading difficulties. The growth rate was accelerated. Her bone age was 10 years. Pelvic ultrasound demonstrated increased size for age of both the uterus and the ovaries, with bilateral ovarian follicles. GnRH stimulation test revealed pubertal response of gonadotropins (peak LH 22.5 mIU/ml. MRI of the brain was normal. These clinical, radiologic and laboratory findings were consistent with a diagnosis of idiopathic central precocious puberty; therefore, GnRH analog therapy was started, in order to slow pubertal progression and to preserve adult stature. Furthermore, GH treatment was added to further improve adult height. Conclusion Our case highlights the possibility of precocious puberty as an atypical clinical feature of TS. Thus, precocious puberty may occur in TS girls when a dosage compensation by the cell line with more than two X chromosomes allows normal

  5. Studies on ultrastructure of spermatoazoon and cytological change of nuclear behavior on fertilization in Meretrix lamarkii%斧文蛤精子超微结构与受精过程的细胞学变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董迎辉; 林志华; 姚韩韩

    2011-01-01

    The ultrastructure of spermatozoon and the cytological change of fertilization process in Meretrix lamarkii were systematically studied by electron microscope and fluorescence microscope.The results indicated that the mature spermatozoon (45.2 - 47.7 μm in total length) of M.lamarkii, belonging to the primitive type, consists of head, middle piece and tail.The head, like a long cocoon in shape (2.5 μm in length) ,is composed of acrosome and nucleus.The acrosome is conical in shape and has a subacrosomal space inside.Nucleuses are cylindrical with fine-grained dense chromatin, having from nuclear pocket and posterior nuclear pocket.The centriolar complex, including proximal and distal centrioles, and surrounding 5 spherical mitochondrias, make up the short middle piece.The tail, a whip-like flagellum,consists of axoneme that is a typical “9 +2” microtubular structure and wrapped by an wavy plasma membrane.The cytological change of nuclear behavior during fertilization and early cleavage was observed under the fluorescence microscope.Like most of marine mollusks, the unfertilized mature eggs of M.lamarkii were globular and remained at the metaphase of the first maturation division.At water temperature of 27 - 28 ℃, artificial insemination was conducted.6 min after fertilization, sperm has penetrated into cytoplasm of egg and activated the maturation division.The fertilized eggs released the first polar body about 12 -15 min and the second polar body about 20 - 25 min after fertilization.About 30 min, sperm nucleus and the haploid female nucleus developed into the male and female pronuclei.35 min, the male and female pronuclei matched into an association nucleus after their chromosomes formed respectively in the center of egg.40 - 45 min, the chromosomes were separated equally into two daughter cells which are different obviously in size.55 -60 min, the second cleavage finished and formed four daughter cells, one big and three small.The process of the second

  6. The role of puberty in the making and breaking of young ballet dancers: Perspectives of dance teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Siobhan B; Haase, Anne M; Malina, Robert M; Cumming, Sean P

    2016-02-01

    Physical changes associated with puberty may conflict with functional and aesthetic ideals for a career in ballet. The dance teacher is in a position to guide young dancers through the pubertal transition, although dancers rather than teachers are often the focus of research. This study explores the social stimulus value of the female body in ballet as perceived by the dance teacher and how value may change during puberty. Ten UK dance teachers were interviewed; interpretative phenomenological analysis was used. Four main themes perceived by dance teachers emerged as central to the social stimulus value of the body among adolescent dancers: the ideal body; teacher approaches to managing puberty in the dance environment; puberty as a 'make or break' stage in ballet; and teacher awareness of pubertal onset and the implications of timing. Dance teachers can play an important role in moderating external and individual expectations during the pubertal transition.

  7. Diagnostic work-up of 449 consecutive girls who were referred to be evaluated for precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette

    2011-01-01

    A decrease in age at pubertal onset has been observed internationally. The aim of this study was to describe a large cohort of Caucasian girls referred with signs of early puberty according to etiology and compare biochemical characteristics.......A decrease in age at pubertal onset has been observed internationally. The aim of this study was to describe a large cohort of Caucasian girls referred with signs of early puberty according to etiology and compare biochemical characteristics....

  8. Nutrition, metabolic profiles and puberty in Brahman (Bos indicus) beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, F; Blache, D; Martin, G B; D'Occhio, M J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain an improved understanding of the relationships between body weight (BW), body condition (BCS), and metabolic homeostasis, and the attainment of puberty in Brahman heifers in a subtropical environment. Brahman heifers (200±3kg BW; 2.00±0.0 BCS) were assigned to a moderate nutrition (MN, n=11) or improved nutrition (IN, n=11) treatment from 11 to 23 months-of-age. The heifers were monitored at regular intervals for circulating concentrations of GH, IGF-1, insulin, glucose and leptin, and ovarian follicular activity was recorded until the first ovulation. From approximately 16 months of age, heifers on IN had a greater (PBrahman heifers on IN had a metabolic homeostasis that was supportive of reproductive maturation and puberty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in breast sensitivity at puberty, during the menstrual cycle, and at parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J E; Short, R V

    1977-05-07

    Sensitivity to pain and touch was measured in the nipple, areola, and cutaneous breast tissue of prepubertal boys and girls, postpubertal men and nuliparous women before and after delivery. Before puberty there were no differences between the sexes, but after puberty the tactile sensitivity of all areas of the women's breast was significantly greater than the men's. Tactil sensitivity of all areas also varied during the menstrual cycle, with maximal sensitivity at midcycle and at menstruation; the mid-cycle peak was absent when the women were taking oral contraceptives. But the most dramatic changes occured within 24 hours of parturition, when there was a great increase in breast sensitivity. This may be the key event for activating the suckling-induced discharge of oxytocin and prolactin and inhibiting ovulation during lactation.

  10. Relationship among Repeated Sprint Ability, Chronological Age and Puberty in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Pintus, Antonio; Frandino, Mattia; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to analyzed the relationship of Repeated Sprinting Ability (RSA) with chronological age and puberty in 100 young soccer players (Age: 13 ± 3 yr - 160 ± 33 month-; High: 159 ± 16 cm, Weight: 49.7 ± 14.1 kg; BMI 19.2 ± 2.5 kg/m) grouped on "Pulcini" (9 - 10 yrs), "Esordienti" (11 - 12 yrs), "Giovanissimi" (13 - 14 yrs), "Allievi" (15 - 16 yrs) and "Juniores" (> 17 yrs) categories. Anthropometric (Weight, Height, BMI), RSA (7x30 m sprint with 25s active rest: Total Time -TT, the lowest sprinting time (LST) and the fatigue index percentage -%IF), and Development (Self-Administered Rating Scale for pubertal development - PDS; Puberty) parameters were measured. ANOVA among categories was applied to asses differences (pinjury and overtraining during the different phases of growth and maturation.

  11. Increased risk of precocious puberty in internationally adopted children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, G.; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Skakkebæk, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    shown long-term effects of certain prenatal and postnatal growth patterns, including advancement in pubertal maturation after poor intrauterine growth and catch-up growth during childhood. Different growth patterns and dietary habits between adoptees and children immigrating with their families might...... immigrating with their family, and descendants of immigrants living in Denmark. METHODS: Patients who were registered with the diagnosis of precocious puberty during the period 1993-2001 were identified through the national patient registry. The background population of children born from 1983 to 2001 were...... identified through the unique Danish Civil Registration System and subsequently categorized as being Danish (N = 1,062,333), adopted (N = 10,997), immigrating with their family (N = 72,181), or being descendants of immigrants (N = 128,152). The incidence rate ratio of precocious puberty was estimated by log...

  12. Early puberty is associated with mental health problems in middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri; Rantanen, Päivi; Rimpelä, Matti

    2003-09-01

    This study set out to assess the relationship between pubertal timing and emotional and behavioural problems in middle adolescence. The study involved a school based survey of health, health behaviour and behaviour in school as well as questions about emotional and behavioural problems (the School Health Promotion Study). Secondary schools in four regions and 13 towns in Finland participated in the study in 1998. The respondents were 36,549 adolescents aged 14-16. The study included questions on depression, bulimia nervosa, psychosomatic symptoms, anxiety, drinking, substance use, smoking, bullying and truancy. Among girls, both internalising and externalising symptoms were more common the earlier puberty occurred. Among boys, externalising symptoms only were associated with early puberty. It is concluded that early pubertal timing is associated with increased mental health problems. Professionals working with adolescents should consider the mental health needs of early maturing adolescents.

  13. Pathogenetic Regulation of Female Precocious Puberty and the Mechanism of Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    cai; de-pei

    2001-01-01

    In recent ten-odd years the pathogenetic regulation of female idiopathic precocious puberty was studied in our hospital, in terms of the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and the status of skeletal development as indicators. The therapy with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in predominance was formulated, according to our understanding of the regulation and Syndrome Differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been clinically verified that the therapy could successfully modulate the course of pubertal development and optimize skeletal development in children with precocious puberty. The mechanism of effectiveness of the drugs has been further studied focusing on the neuroendocrine regulation and gene expression with modern medical techniques.……

  14. Pathogenetic Regulation of Female Precocious Puberty and the Mechanism of Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡德培; 季志英; 陈伯英; 张炜

    2001-01-01

    @@In recent ten-odd years the pathogenetic regulation of female idiopathic precocious puberty was studied in our hospital, in terms of the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and the status of skeletal development as indicators. The therapy with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in predominance was formulated, according to our understanding of the regulation and Syndrome Differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been clinically verified that the therapy could successfully modulate the course of pubertal development and optimize skeletal development in children with precocious puberty. The mechanism of effectiveness of the drugs has been further studied focusing on the neuroendocrine regulation and gene expression with modern medical techniques.

  15. Progress in the treatment of precocious puberty%性早熟治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑郁; 母义明

    2011-01-01

    近年来,性早熟的发病率越来越高,然而其治疗中尚存在许多问题.本文根据国内外最新的文献报道,就如何界定性早熟的年龄、不同病因性早熟的治疗方案、治疗目标、治疗指征、停药指征及药物相关不良反应等进行综述.%Since recent years, the incidence of precocious puberty has been rising. However, questions regarding its treatment and other conditions remain. This article reviews recent published papers with long-term outcome data and guidelines, and systemical introduction to identification of precocious puberty, different treatment options, therapeutic goals, and indications for different types of diseases, as well as adverse effects of drugs.

  16. The Effect of Puberty Education on Knowledge, Attitude and Function of Girl's Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrban Mehrabi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study was examined effect of puberty education on knowledge, attitude and function in girl's student in Jiroft. Materials & Methods: this was a quasi experimental study and the target population was girl's student at grade 1 high school in jiroft city and 40 girls were selected and were educated in a 12 sessions. The content of the educational course including physical signs of puberty, physiologic change in menstrual period, nutrition, sleep and psychological changes. The subjects completed in pretest and posttest a researcher made questionnaire that measure knowledge, attitude and function. The data was analyzed using descriptive indexes, t- and F-tests. The significant level was considered in less than 0.05. Results: The results showed that the average difference between pre-test and post-test knowledge, attitude and function in both experimental and control groups was significant (p

  17. Timing of puberty and its relationship with body growth and season in male raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Minami W; Shimozuru, Michito; Abe, Go; Nakai, Mariko; Sashika, Mariko; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Fukui, Daisuke; Nakamura, Ryohei; Tsubota, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    The raccoon (Procyon lotor), indigenous to North America, has naturalized in Japan as an invasive alien species, having been introduced into the country in the 1970s. In Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan, feral raccoons have been increasing in number and spreading throughout the island. The age at the onset of puberty for raccoons is important for estimating individual lifetime reproductive success and population growth. The present study investigated the timing of and potential factors affecting the onset of puberty in male raccoons in Hokkaido. External characteristics and histology of testes were studied in 151 male feral raccoons and in 1 captive juvenile. For the majority of feral yearling raccoons, prepubertal development began in May, and spermatozoa production began in October prior to their second mating season. However, some larger juveniles attained puberty during the juvenile period. The captive juvenile, which was fed throughout the winter, attained puberty only 11 months after birth. These results suggest that if male raccoons can achieve enough body growth before the first mating season, puberty can be attained early. In both juveniles and yearlings, spermatozoa production was only observed after autumn. This timing coincided with the recrudescence of seasonally active spermatogenesis in adult males. Therefore, attaining puberty in male raccoons appears to require both adequate body nutrient development and several environmental factors that control seasonal testicular changes.

  18. 阴道斜隔综合征早期诊断与治疗%The clinical analysis of the early diagnosis and therapy of oblique vaginal septum syndrome in puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志华

    2012-01-01

    目的 提高临床医生对青春期阴道斜膈综合征早期诊治的认识.方法 回顾性分析我院在2005年7月~2010年12月诊治的4例患者的临床资料,并复习文献.结果 4例患者全部行阴道斜隔切除术及处女膜修复术.结论 早期诊治青春期阴道斜隔综合征对预防生殖系统疾病的发生和保护生育能力有重要的临床意义.%Objective To improve the realization of the clinician with the early diagnosis and therapy of oblique vaginal septum syndrome in puberty. Methods The clinical data of 4 cases diagnosed as oblique vaginal septum syndrome from July 2005 to December 2010 in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively, and literatures were reviewed. Results All cases were taken the resection of oblique vaginal septum and repair of hymen. Conclusion The early diagnosis and therapy of oblique vaginal septum syndrome in puberty may possess an important clinical significance in prevention of genital system diseases and protection of fertility.

  19. An augmented dopamine system function is present prior to puberty in the methylazoxymethanol acetate rodent model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Perez, Stephanie M; Lodge, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a disease typically associated with an adolescent onset. Although there have been a considerable number of imaging studies investigating the transition to psychosis in prodromal patients, there are relatively few preclinical studies examining potential mechanisms that may contribute to adolescent onset. We have previously demonstrated, in the methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rodent model of schizophrenia, that an enhanced activity within the ventral hippocampus may underlie the dopamine system hyperfunction, suggested to contribute to positive symptoms in patients. Here we demonstrate that the aberrant regulation of dopamine system function, in MAM-treated rats, is present prior to puberty. Furthermore, we now report that while the afferent regulation of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons (from the hippocampus and pedunculopontine tegmental area) appears intact in preadolescent rats, the behavioral response to alterations in dopamine system function appears to be attenuated in preadolescent rats. Thus, we posit that the pathological alterations underlying psychosis may be present prior to symptom onset and that the "normal" development of the postsynaptic side of the dopamine system may underlie the transition to psychosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Therapeutic and Ethical Dilemma of Puberty and Menstruation Problems in an Intellectually Disabled (Autistic) Female: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarian, Azadeh; Mehrpisheh, Shahrokh

    2015-10-01

    Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and skills. Autism is a group of developmental brain disorders, collectively called autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Teenagers with learning and physical disabilities are more likely to have menstrual problems compared to the general populations. The parents of a 12-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability referred to the coroner due to her numerous problems of puberty (menstruation) including: poor hygiene and polluting herself and the environment, not allowing to put or change the pads and changes in mood and physical health prior period, requested for the surgery (hysterectomy). In legal medicine organization after reviewing the medical records, physical exams and medical consultations with a gynecologist and psychiatric, surgery was not accepted. Hysterectomy (surgery) due to the age of the child, either physically or morally is not recommended. The use of hormone replacement therapy has side effects such as osteoporosis. In these cases, it seems noninvasive methods (behavioral therapy and learning care skills) under the welfare experts is also more effective and morally.

  1. Body image and depression in girls with idiopathic precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Precocious puberty (PP) is associated with psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to evaluate the perception of body image and depression in girls with PP receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue therapy. Methods From March to August 2013, 82 girls with PP receiving GnRH analogue therapy were enrolled. Height, weight, body mass index, and stages of pubertal development were assessed. Participants completed a series of questionnaires on their body image perception and pubertal self-assessment. The depression score was calculated using the Korean Kovacs' Children's Depression Inventory. Results The patients perceived their body to be more obese than the controls did. The mean depression score did not differ between the patients and controls. The mean depression scores according to Tanner stages (1: prepubertal, 2: early pubertal, and 3–5: mid to late pubertal stage) by self-assessment were 5.2±3.6, 6.8±4.9, and 11.4±10.1 (Pperception of overall body build and figure (%) and the mean depression scores in patients were: dissatisfied (25.6%, 9.7±7.8) and satisfied (74.4%, 5.5±3.4) (Pperception of pubertal status and satisfaction about height or weight are unrelated to objective physical findings. Patients with PP are prone to distorted perception about their body image and breast development. Such incorrect body image seems to contribute to depression score. PMID:27777908

  2. Cohort fertility in Western Europe: comparing fertility trends in recent birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopflinger, F

    1984-01-01

    fertility was a decline in 3rd and higher order births. Most countries showed a decline in higher order births, and in some countries the decline was marked. The proportion of 1-child families increased in many countries and was especially high in Germany. The fertility decline may be leveling off in some of the countries. Fertility will probably stablize at a low level in most of the countries. The decline in fertility is due not only to increased contraceptive use but to the growing trend toward secular individualism in European society. The similarities in the fertility declines in all the countries indicates that identical cross national causes are influencing fertility behavior. The 16 countries included iln the study were Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England and Wales, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.

  3. Ghrelin Levels in Children with Constitutional Delay of Growth and Puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Şen, Tolta Altuğ; Gökşen Şimşek, Damla; Darcan, Şükran; Çoker, Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to show the role of ghrelin in growth delay in children with constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Methods: Thirty male children with CDGP constituted the study group and fifteen healthy children with normal growth of similar ages−the control group. In both groups, fasting and postprandial plasma ghrelin levels, serum insulin−like growth factor−1 (IGF−1) and IGF−binding protein−3 (IGFBP−3) levels were determined. Results: There were no differenc...

  4. Cognitive efficiency on a match to sample task decreases at the onset of puberty in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Robert F; Andersen, Julie; Byrd, Desiree; Mutter, Kandis L; Reilly, Judy

    2002-10-01

    Electrocortical evidence indicates that a wave of synaptic proliferation occurs in the frontal lobes around the age of puberty onset. To study its potential influence on cognition, we examined 246 children (10-17 years) and 49 young adults (18-22 years) using a match-to-sample type of task to measure reaction times to assess emotionally related information. Based upon the instruction set, subjects made a yes/no decision about the emotion expressed in a face, a word, or a face/word combination presented tachistoscopically for 100 ms. The faces were images of a single individual with a happy, angry, sad or neutral expression. The words were 'happy,' 'angry,' 'sad,' or 'neutral,' In the combined stimulus condition, subjects were asked to decide if the face and word matched for the same emotion. Results showed that compared to the previous year, reaction times were significantly slower for making a correct decision at 11 and 12 years of age in girls and boys, the approximate ages of puberty onset. The peripubertal rise in reaction time declined slowly over the following 2-3 years and stabilized by 15 years of age. Analyses of the performance of 15-17 year olds revealed significantly longer reaction times in females to process both faces and words compared to males. However, this sex difference in late puberty appeared to be transient since it was not present in 18-22 year olds. Given the match-to-sample nature of the task employed, the puberty related increases in reaction time may reflect a relative inefficiency in frontal circuitry prior to the pruning of excess synaptic contacts.

  5. Delay of the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats by Prepubertal Exposure to T-2 Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence has revealed the deleterious influence of environmental and food contaminants on puberty onset and development in both animals and children, provoking an increasing health concern. T-2 toxin, a naturally-produced Type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is frequently found in cereal grains and products intended for human and animal consumption, has been shown to impair the reproduction and development in animals. Nevertheless, whether this trichothecene mycotoxin can disturb the onset of puberty in females remains unclear. To clarify this point, infantile female rats were given a daily intragastric administration of vehicle or 187.5 μg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin for five consecutive days from postnatal day 15 to 19, and the effects on puberty onset were evaluated in the present study. The results revealed that the days of vaginal opening, first dioestrus, and first estrus in regular estrous cycle were delayed following prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin. The relative weights of reproductive organs uterus, ovaries, and vagina, and the incidence of corpora lutea were all diminished in T-2 toxin-treated rats. Serum levels of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol were also reduced by T-2 toxin treatment. The mRNA expressions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and pituitary GnRH receptor displayed significant reductions following exposure to T-2 toxin, which were consistent with the changes of serum gonadotropins, delayed reproductive organ development, and delayed vaginal opening. In conclusion, the present study reveals that prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin delays the onset of puberty in immature female rats, probably by the mechanism of disturbance of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis function. Considering the vulnerability of developmental children to food contaminants and the relative high level of dietary intake of T-2 toxin in children, we think the findings of

  6. Increased functional connectivity with puberty in the mentalising network involved in social emotion processing

    OpenAIRE

    Klapwijk, Eduard T.; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Bird, Geoffrey; Viner, Russell M; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that puberty plays an important role in the structural and functional brain development seen in adolescence, but little is known of the pubertal influence on changes in functional connectivity. We explored how pubertal indicators (salivary concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and DHEA; pubertal stage; menarcheal status) relate to functional connectivity between components of a mentalising network identified to be engaged in social emotion processing by our p...

  7. Mental illness and cognition in relation to age at puberty: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1989-09-01

    Onset of puberty is usually considered to coincide with the last major step in brain development: the elimination of some 40% of neuronal synapses. Mean pubertal age has declined by some 4 years during the last 100 years. There is a relation between age at puberty and body build, and between body build and mental illness. The difference in body build between schizophrenia (S) and manic-depressive psychosis (MDP) is similar to that between late and early maturers. It is suggested that S affects late-maturing individuals and MDP very early maturers. The observed marked rise in MDP and decline in the most malignant forms of S (non-paranoid) are in agreement with MDP and S as neurodevelopmental disorders occurring at the extremes of maturation. Maturational irregularities are most likely to occur at the extremes, and it is suggested that abbreviation of the regressive process may have led to persistent redundancy of neuronal synapses in MDP and that prolongation of the process past the optimal has yielded an inadequate synaptic density in S. The lack of cerebral abnormality in the majority of MDP and the presence of only subtle structural deficits in S, are in agreement with this. The two disorders are probably as old as mankind, and early puberty is the necessary factor for the development of MDP and late puberty is the necessary factor for that of S. There is an inverse relation between spatial ability and rate of maturation, whereas verbal ability is unaffected by maturational rate. From a previous predominance in both sexes, spatial ability (Performance IQ scores) has been reduced to below verbal ability (Verbal IQ scores) in the female sex and in early maturing males.

  8. 46,XX/69,XXX diploid-triploid mixoploidy with hypothyroidism and precocious puberty.

    OpenAIRE

    Järvelä, I E; Salo, M.K.; Santavuori, P.; Salonen, R K

    1993-01-01

    We report a 20 month old female patient with diploid-triploid mixoploidy (46,XX/69,XXX) syndrome with hypothyroidism and precocious puberty. The triploid cell line was only expressed in the fibroblast culture and comprised the majority (95%) of the cells. Chromosome analysis of the fetal blood sample and peripheral blood sample were normal. The patient shows typical features of full triploidy (growth and severe mental retardation, cranial and facial dysmorphism, complete syndactyly of fingers...

  9. Effect of exogenous prolactin on ultrastructure of pinealocyte in female pigs during puberty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylska, B.; Dusza, L.; Lewczuk, B.; Ciesielska-Myszka, L. [Akademia Rolniczo-Technicza, Olsztyn (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Influence of the administration of prolactin to female swine during puberty on the ultrastructure of pinealocytes has been examined by means of morphometric analysis. Prolactin administration for 15 consecutive days resulted in a decrease in the cytoplasmic dense bodies type MBB-2, lysosomes and multivesicular bodies. Some differences in structure of pinealocytes were also observed. Prolactin appeared to stimulate the process of transformation of cytoplasmic dense bodies. (author). 28 refs, 5 figs.

  10. Delay of the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats by Prepubertal Exposure to T-2 Toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Wang, Yi-Mei; Zhang, Li-Shi; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Zeng-Ming; Zhao, Jun; Peng, Shuang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence has revealed the deleterious influence of environmental and food contaminants on puberty onset and development in both animals and children, provoking an increasing health concern. T-2 toxin, a naturally-produced Type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is frequently found in cereal grains and products intended for human and animal consumption, has been shown to impair the reproduction and development in animals. Nevertheless, whether this trichothecene mycotoxin can disturb the onset of puberty in females remains unclear. To clarify this point, infantile female rats were given a daily intragastric administration of vehicle or 187.5 μg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin for five consecutive days from postnatal day 15 to 19, and the effects on puberty onset were evaluated in the present study. The results revealed that the days of vaginal opening, first dioestrus, and first estrus in regular estrous cycle were delayed following prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin. The relative weights of reproductive organs uterus, ovaries, and vagina, and the incidence of corpora lutea were all diminished in T-2 toxin-treated rats. Serum levels of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol were also reduced by T-2 toxin treatment. The mRNA expressions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and pituitary GnRH receptor displayed significant reductions following exposure to T-2 toxin, which were consistent with the changes of serum gonadotropins, delayed reproductive organ development, and delayed vaginal opening. In conclusion, the present study reveals that prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin delays the onset of puberty in immature female rats, probably by the mechanism of disturbance of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function. Considering the vulnerability of developmental children to food contaminants and the relative high level of dietary intake of T-2 toxin in children, we think the findings of the present study

  11. An FSH and TSH pituitary adenoma, presenting with precocious puberty and central hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Guadalupe; Balcazar-Hernandez, Lourdes-Josefina; Melgar, Virgilio; Magriña-Mercado, Roser-Montserrat; Gonzalez, Baldomero; Baquera, Javier; Mercado, Moisés

    2017-01-01

    A 19-year-old woman with a history of isosexual precocious puberty and bilateral oophorectomy at age 10 years because of giant ovarian cysts, presents with headaches and mild symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism. Hormonal evaluation revealed elevated FSH and LH levels in the postmenopausal range and free hyperthyroxinemia with an inappropriately normal TSH. Pituitary MRI showed a 2-cm macroadenoma with suprasellar extension. She underwent successful surgical resection of the pituitary tumor, which proved to be composed of two distinct populations of cells, each of them strongly immunoreactive for FSH and TSH, respectively. This mixed adenoma resulted in two different hormonal hypersecretion syndromes: the first one during childhood and consisting of central precocious puberty and ovarian hyperstimulation due to the excessive secretion of biologically active FSH and which was not investigated in detail and 10 years later, central hyperthyroidism due to inappropriate secretion of biologically active TSH. Although infrequent, two cases of isosexual central precocious puberty in girls due to biologically active FSH secreted by a pituitary adenoma have been previously reported in the literature. However, this is the first reported case of a mixed adenoma capable of secreting both, biologically active FSH and TSH. Although functioning gonadotrophinomas are infrequent, they should be included in the differential diagnosis of isosexual central precocious puberty.Some functioning gonadotrophinomas are mixed adenomas, secreting other biologically active hormones besides FSH, such as TSH.Early recognition and appropriate treatment of these tumors by transsphenoidal surgery is crucial in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic interventions that may irreversibly compromise gonadal function.

  12. An FSH and TSH pituitary adenoma, presenting with precocious puberty and central hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Vargas; Lourdes-Josefina Balcazar-Hernandez; Virgilio Melgar; Roser-Montserrat Magriña-Mercado; Baldomero Gonzalez; Javier Baquera; Moisés Mercado

    2017-01-01

    A 19-year-old woman with a history of isosexual precocious puberty and bilateral oophorectomy at age 10 years because of giant ovarian cysts, presents with headaches and mild symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism. Hormonal evaluation revealed elevated FSH and LH levels in the postmenopausal range and free hyperthyroxinemia with an inappropriately normal TSH. Pituitary MRI showed a 2-cm macroadenoma with suprasellar extension. She underwent successful surgical resection of the pituitary tumor,...

  13. Fertility and culture in Eastern Europe: a case study of Riga, Latvia, 1867-1881.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, C; Plakans, A

    1997-01-01

    This case study examined the influence of cultural and economic conditions on fertility decline in Eastern Europe. Cultural influence on fertility is conceived as the agent with which individuals change behavior which is specific to different ethnic groups and contexts. This study focused on measures of nuptiality and fertility among language and religious groups in Riga, Latvia, in 1867 and 1881. Data were obtained from censuses for Coale's measures of general fertility, marital fertility, the index of illegitimate fertility, and the proportion married. Each variable is a measure of Hutterite fertility as socially unrestrained fertility. Marriage includes the singulate mean age of marriage and the median age at marriage. An average of the urban multipliers for Bavaria, Prussia, Finland, and Sweden, was used to adjust infant mortality. Fertility estimates were higher than the European Fertility Projects. Nuptiality followed the Western European marriage pattern. Nuptiality reflected Hajnal's Western European pattern of late marriage and substantial singlehood. Fertility varied by language group. Fertility was highest among Yiddish speakers and lowest among Latvians. 12.5% of marriages were interfaith marriages. Protestants were the most likely to enter interfaith unions. However, opportunity in the marriage market may have affected mixed marriages. Catholics had the lowest marital fertility. Jews were the most different on a variety of factors. Jews had higher marital fertility and proportion married, and lower female workers, illegitimacy, and proportion single. The authors conclude that the mixed results are insufficient to untangle the effects of culture due to lack of individual level data.

  14. Challenges and controversies in diagnosis and management of gonadotropin dependent precocious puberty: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing precocious puberty (PP has been a challenge due to lack of standardized definition, gonadotrophins assay, gonadotrophin stimulation, timings for blood sampling, and parameters for assessing outcomes. This review evaluated available literature to simplify the algorithm for managing gonadotrophin dependent/central PP (CPP, with an Indian perspective. CPP is one of the commonest forms of PP and mimics the normal course of puberty, at an age 3.5 cm and uterine volume of >1.8 ml are two most specific indicators for true CPP. Therapy is indicated in children with CPP with accelerated bone age, height advancement, or psychosocial stress. Treatment goal is to halt puberty progression to a socially acceptable age, allowing the child to attain optimal height potential. GnRHa is the treatment of choice, with best height outcomes when initiated <6 years age. Treatment is recommended till 11 years age. LH suppression to <3 U/L may be a reasonable target in patients on GnRHa therapy. Medroxyprogesterone acetate holds an important place in managing PP in India, cause of high costs associated with GnRHa therapy. There is an urgent need for clinical trials from India, for establishing Indian cut-off for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of children with PP.

  15. Cerebral white matter in early puberty is associated with luteinizing hormone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Jiska S; Brouwer, Rachel M; Schnack, Hugo G; van Baal, G Caroline M; van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, Stéphanie M; Delemarre-Van de Waal, Henriëtte A; Janke, Andrew L; Collins, D Louis; Evans, Alan C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2008-08-01

    Puberty is a period in which cerebral white matter grows considerably, whereas gray matter decreases. The first endocrinological marker of puberty in both boys and girls is an increased secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH). Here we investigated the phenotypic association between LH, global and focal gray and white matter in 104 healthy nine-year-old monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Volumetric MRI and voxel-based morphometry were applied to measure global gray and white matter and to estimate relative concentrations of regional cerebral gray and white matter, respectively. A possible common genetic origin of this association (genetic correlation) was examined. Results showed that higher LH levels are associated with a larger global white matter proportion and with higher regional white matter density. Areas of increased white matter density included the cingulum, middle temporal gyrus and splenium of the corpus callosum. No association between LH and global gray matter proportion or regional gray matter density was found. Our data indicate that a common genetic factor underlies the association between LH level and regional white matter density. We suggest that the increase of white matter growth during puberty reported earlier might be directly or indirectly mediated by LH production. In addition, genes involved in LH production may be promising candidate genes in neuropsychiatric illnesses with an onset in early adolescence.

  16. Induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl--practices and attitudes of pediatric endocrinologists in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiess, W; Conway, G; Ritzen, M

    2002-01-01

    The management of children and adolescents with hypogonadism and in particular the induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl is subject to controversy. Therefore, under the auspices and through organization of the Drugs and Therapeutics Committee of the European Society of Paediatric Endocrino......The management of children and adolescents with hypogonadism and in particular the induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl is subject to controversy. Therefore, under the auspices and through organization of the Drugs and Therapeutics Committee of the European Society of Paediatric...... of the results of the questionnaires and discussions of that session to further the discussion on and knowledge of current concepts of induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl in Europe. It became clear from the data accumulated here that the start of treatment, the aims of therapy and the modalities of how...... to treat the hypogonadal girl vary amongst pediatric endocrinologists in Europe. For example, a chronological age > or =11 years was considered appropriate for the start of estrogen therapy by 40.4% (out of 188 answers), while 47.8 and 7.5% felt that a chronological age > or =13 and > or =15 years...

  17. Effect of intensive or extensive systems on buffalo heifers performances: onset of puberty and ovarian size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borghese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect of intensive feeding (IF group or pasture system (PS group on the onset of puberty and on the ovarian size in buffaloes. The trial was carried out on 26 prepubertal 8-months old buffalo heifers weighing a mean of 134 kg (n =13 per group. The heifers were weighed monthly and, starting from the 13th month of age, blood samples were collected every 10 days to determine the concentration of plasma progesterone by RIA. Heifers were considered to have achieved puberty and cyclic ovarian activity when plasma progesterone levels exceeded 1 ng/ml for two samples with a lower intermediate value. After two cycles, the heifers were naturally mated. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed every twenty days to follow changes in size of ovaries and in follicles number. Significantly higher (P<0.001 gains were obtained by IF system (870 g/d than PS one (620 g/d but the mean age at puberty was the same in both groups ( 599d vs 610d, respectively. Within 21 months 8 (IF group and 10 heifers (PS group showed cyclic ovarian activity. Ovarian size increased with age in both groups; however, the length of the right ovary and the number of follicles tended to be higher in IF vs PS group.

  18. 论被成人误读的青春期%Puberty Misunderstood by Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林蓉

    2011-01-01

    由于成人的视角,教育和社会等因素的影响,成人在不同程度上误读了青春期,这对青春期个体的发展有消极的影响,甚至会阻碍个体的发展.要改变这种状况,成人必须通过对青春期的普遍性和必然性的认识,消除对青春期的误读,正确对待青春期,确保青春期个体获得良好的发展。%As the adults' perspective, education and social factors, they misunderstand puberty on varying degrees. It has negative effects for the individual's adolescent development and even hinder the development of individual. To change this situation, the adults must be on the adolescent's understanding of the universality and necessity, to eliminate the misunderstanding of puberty, the correct treatment of adolescence, to ensure that individuals get a good development of puberty.

  19. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  20. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  1. Female fertility affects men's linguistic choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Coyle

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women.

  2. Frustrated fertility: a population paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfalls Ja, J

    1979-05-01

    This Bulletin examines the causes of subfecundity -- the diminished ability to reproduce -- and its effect today and in the past on the fertility, or actual reproductive performance, of individuals and, hence, populations. By definition, all real populations are subfecund since all experience some degree of involuntary biological factors affecting coitus, conception, or the ability to carry a conceptus to live birth which reduces their fecundity below the estimated biological population maximum of 15 children per woman. Affecting both men and women, these factors fall into 5 categories: genetic factors such as blood group incompatibilities and inherited sickle cell anemia or diabetes; psychopathology, including psychic stress and behavioral disorders (e.g., drug and alcohol abuse); infectious diseases such as gonorrhea, malaria, tuberculosis, and postabortion infection; malnutrrition, including the chronic undernutrition of the 3rd World and the overnutrition of developed societies; and hazards posed by increasing amounts of radiation and toxic chemicals in the environment. Reducing subfecundity requires improved living conditions, avoidance of or protection from known hazards, and adoption of medical advances which now can help 40 to 60% of subfecund couples. But even in the U.S. fertility would certainly rise among the 15% of couples now estimated to be involuntarily childless and the 10% who have fewer children than they want, and among disadvantaged groups, and teenagers.

  3. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing of an association between asthma and aspects of female reproduction. However, current knowledge is limited and furthermore relies on questionnaire studies or small populations. In a prospective observational cohort study to investigate whether time to pregnancy, the number...... of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...

  4. Sotho fertility symbolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the traditional beliefs and mythical folklore of the Sotho-Tswana ethnic tribes of South Africa. Their ritual practices are predominantly concerned with the weather, the vicissitudes of the seasonal cycle, and, especially the rain-making powers of certain individuals. It is well known that rain, in all civilizations, is a symbol of fertility. Thus, adolescent girls and young women, as mediators of the association between water and fertility, can be relied upon to bring the clouds and torrential downpours. The characteristic Sesotho explanation that babies come from the river is clearly an allusion to the water of the womb, and the river is generally recognized as a methaphor of the womb. Also, the onset of menarche involves rituals having to do with the drawing and pouring of water, another clear allusion to the beginning of fertility.

  5. Fertility incentives and disincentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Financioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    Some 40 countries use some form of incentives and disincentives in support of population policies, about half with the aim of reducing fertility and half with the aim of increasing it. These schemes range from limitations on tax and family allowances or maternity benefits after a given family size has been reached to payments to acceptors of fertility control methods. Some schemes aim to eliminate or reduce the cost and inconvenience people may face in achieving their fertility preferences, whereas others contain an element of deterrence. It is difficult to isolate and measure the impact of incentives on fertility from the effects of other factors such as family planning service availability or modernization. Studies in pronatalist countries suggest that incentive schemes produce short-term fertility increases without a change in average family size. Monetary incentives must be constantly increased to keep pace with inflation, placing a heavy burden on government budgets. Administrative capacity to operate the scheme is critical in terms of both manpower and efficient systems for record keeping, monitoring, and close supervision to prevent abuse. There is also considerable debate on the moral and ethical implications of incentives and disincentives as policy tools. Incentives offered for the acceptance of a particular fertility control method potentially contravene the principle of voluntary and informed consent. In addition, the relative value of the reward is greater for those in the lower income groups. The discriminatory nature of certain types of incentives and disincentives is illustrated by measures introduced in Singapore that give highest priority in school enrollment to the children of highly educated mothers with 2-3 children. This ruling is expected to further intensify the controversy surrounding incentive and disincentive schemes.

  6. Fertility and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G S

    1992-08-01

    Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern economies with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when

  7. Targeted resequencing of the pericentromere of chromosome 2 linked to constitutional delay of growth and puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L Cousminer

    Full Text Available Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP is the most common cause of pubertal delay. CDGP is defined as the proportion of the normal population who experience pubertal onset at least 2 SD later than the population mean, representing 2.3% of all adolescents. While adolescents with CDGP spontaneously enter puberty, they are at risk for short stature, decreased bone mineral density, and psychosocial problems. Genetic factors contribute heavily to the timing of puberty, but the vast majority of CDGP cases remain biologically unexplained, and there is no definitive test to distinguish CDGP from pathological absence of puberty during adolescence. Recently, we published a study identifying significant linkage between a locus at the pericentromeric region of chromosome 2 (chr 2 and CDGP in Finnish families. To investigate this region for causal variation, we sequenced chr 2 between the genomic coordinates of 79-124 Mb (genome build GRCh37 in the proband and affected parent of the 13 families contributing most to this linkage signal. One gene, DNAH6, harbored 6 protein-altering low-frequency variants (< 6% in the Finnish population in 10 of the CDGP probands. We sequenced an additional 135 unrelated Finnish CDGP subjects and utilized the unique Sequencing Initiative Suomi (SISu population reference exome set to show that while 5 of these variants were present in the CDGP set, they were also present in the Finnish population at similar frequencies. Additional variants in the targeted region could not be prioritized for follow-up, possibly due to gaps in sequencing coverage or lack of functional knowledge of non-genic genomic regions. Thus, despite having a well-characterized sample collection from a genetically homogeneous population with a large population-based reference sequence dataset, we were unable to pinpoint variation in the linked region predisposing delayed puberty. This study highlights the difficulties of detecting genetic variants

  8. Soil microbes and plant fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miransari, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    With respect to the adverse effects of chemical fertilization on the environment and their related expenses, especially when overused, alternative methods of fertilization have been suggested and tested. For example, the combined use of chemical fertilization with organic fertilization and/or biological fertilization is among such methods. It has been indicated that the use of organic fertilization with chemical fertilization is a suitable method of providing crop plants with adequate amount of nutrients, while environmentally and economically appropriate. In this article, the importance of soil microbes to the ecosystem is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and endophytic bacteria in providing necessary nutrients for plant growth and yield production. Such microbes are beneficial to plant growth through colonizing plant roots and inducing mechanisms by which plant growth increases. Although there has been extensive research work regarding the use of microbes as a method of fertilizing plants, it is yet a question how the efficiency of such microbial fertilization to the plant can be determined and increased. In other words, how the right combination of chemical and biological fertilization can be determined. In this article, the most recent advances regarding the effects of microbial fertilization on plant growth and yield production in their combined use with chemical fertilization are reviewed. There are also some details related to the molecular mechanisms affecting the microbial performance and how the use of biological techniques may affect the efficiency of biological fertilization.

  9. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue or testicular cell suspensions: a pivotal step in fertility preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofre, J.; Baert, Y.; Faes, K.; Goossens, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Germ cell depletion caused by chemical or physical toxicity, disease or genetic predisposition can occur at any age. Although semen cryopreservation is the first reflex for preserving male fertility, this cannot help out prepubertal boys. Yet, these boys do have spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that able to produce sperm at the start of puberty, which allows them to safeguard their fertility through testicular tissue (TT) cryopreservation. SSC transplantation (SSCT), TT grafting and recent advances in in vitro spermatogenesis have opened new possibilities to restore fertility in humans. However, these techniques are still at a research stage and their efficiency depends on the amount of SSCs available for fertility restoration. Therefore, maintaining the number of SSCs is a critical step in human fertility preservation. Standardizing a successful cryopreservation method for TT and testicular cell suspensions (TCSs) is most important before any clinical application of fertility restoration could be successful. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE This review gives an overview of existing cryopreservation protocols used in different animal models and humans. Cell recovery, cell viability, tissue integrity and functional assays are taken into account. Additionally, biosafety and current perspectives in male fertility preservation are discussed. SEARCH METHODS An extensive PubMED and MEDline database search was conducted. Relevant studies linked to the topic were identified by the search terms: cryopreservation, male fertility preservation, (immature)testicular tissue, testicular cell suspension, spermatogonial stem cell, gonadotoxicity, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. OUTCOMES The feasibility of fertility restoration techniques using frozen-thawed TT and TCS has been proven in animal models. Efficient protocols for cryopreserving human TT exist and are currently applied in the clinic. For TCSs, the highest post-thaw viability reported after vitrification is 55.6 ± 23

  10. Expression and significance of netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5C in precocious puberty female rat hypothalamus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Chao Shang; Jie Zhang; Yan-Qiu Shang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study expressions of netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5C in female precocious puberty rat hypothalamus, and explore its effect on precocious puberty process.Methods:Forty female one-week-old SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: experimental group A (precocious puberty early youth), experimental group B (precocious puberty medium youth), group A (normal pre-puberty), group B (normal early youth) with 10 rats in each group. Precocious puberty experimental rats were induced with Danazol and rats in control group were injected with saline. Uterus and ovaries were removed, specimens were weighed, uterus index and ovarian index were calculated, and amount of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were detected from the blood by ELISA. Real-time PCR was used to detect netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5C, as well as hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA expression in hypothalamus tissues; and then, a co-immunoprecipitation study of interactions between netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5C was carried out.Results: Relative target gene expression levels of control group A, control group B, experimental group A, and experimental group B (withβ-actin as an internal control for normalization) were as follows: Netrin-1: 3.5±0.9, 5.4±0.7, 4.9±1.0, 5.3±0.3; UNC5C: 0.8±0.04, 1.7±0.2, 1.82±0.23, 1.58±0.4; GnRH: 1.2±0.3, 2.7±0.3, 2.4±0.7, 3.2±0.4.Conclusions:LH and FSH concentrations, netrin-1 and its receptor expression are increased in precocious puberty animal models.

  11. Genetics, genomics and fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to enhance the sustainability of dairy businesses, new management tools are needed to increase the fertility of dairy cattle. Genomic selection has been successfully used by AI studs to screen potential sires and significantly decrease the generation interval of bulls. Buoyed by the success...

  12. Fertility and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  13. Fertility and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  14. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cry

  15. Agriculture: Nutrient Management and Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilizers and soil amendments can be derived from raw materials, composts and other organic matter, and wastes, such as sewage sludge and certain industrial wastes. Overuse of fertilizers can result in contamination of surface water and groundwater.

  16. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Blog Facing Disability Jeff Shannon Donate Experts \\ Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult ... Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Sex and ...

  17. The influence of perceived parenting styles on socio-emotional development from pre-puberty into puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Min Yee; Eilander, Janna; Saw, Seang Mei; Xie, Yuhuan; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P

    2017-06-19

    The relative impact of parenting on socio-emotional development of children has rarely been examined in a longitudinal context. This study examined the association between perceived parenting styles and socio-emotional functioning from childhood to adolescence. We hypothesized that optimal parenting associated with improvement in socio-emotional functioning from childhood into early adulthood, especially for those with more behavioral problems in childhood. Children between ages 7 and 9 years were recruited for the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM). Nine years later, 700 out of 1052 subjects were followed up (67%). During childhood, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), while young adults completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR) and Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Perceived optimal parental care resulted in less internalizing and externalizing problems in early adulthood in comparison to non-optimal parental care styles. Perceived optimal paternal parenting, but not maternal parenting, in interaction with childhood externalizing problems predicted externalizing symptoms in early adulthood. No significant interactions were found between perceived parenting styles and internalizing problems. In conclusion, perceived parental care associates with the quality of socio-emotional development, while optimal parenting by the father is especially important for children with more externalizing problems in childhood.

  18. International fertility change: new data and insights from the developmental idealism framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Arland; Binstock, Georgina; Yount, Kathryn M; Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Ghimire, Dirgha; Xie, Yu

    2012-05-01

    Many scholars have offered structural and ideational explanations for the fertility changes occurring around the world. This paper focuses on the influence of developmental idealism-a schema or set of beliefs endorsing development, fertility change, and causal connections between development and fertility. Developmental idealism is argued to be an important force affecting both population policy and the fertility behavior of ordinary people. We present new survey data from ordinary people in six countries-Argentina, China, Egypt, Iran, Nepal, and the United States-about the extent to which developmental idealism is known and believed. We ask individuals if they believe that fertility and development are correlated, that development is a causal force in changing fertility levels, and that fertility declines enhance the standard of living and intergenerational relations. We also ask people about their expectations concerning future trends in fertility in their countries and whether they approve or disapprove of the trends they expect. The data show widespread linkage in the minds of ordinary people between fertility and development. Large fractions of people in these six settings believe that fertility and development are correlated, that development reduces fertility, and that declines in fertility foster development. Many also expect and endorse future declines in fertility.

  19. Precocious puberty: clinical and endocrine profile and factors indicating neurogenic precocity in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Anurag; Sharma, Jyoti; Kabra, Madhulika; Kumar Gupta, Arun; Menon, P S N

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and endocrine profile of patients with precocious puberty followed up in a tertiary care hospital. Records of 140 patients (114 girls, 26 boys) with precocious puberty were reviewed. Clinical features including age of onset, stage of pubertal development, presenting symptoms, features suggestive of CNS involvement and family history were analyzed. Endocrine investigations included basal and GnRH-stimulated levels of LH and FSH as well as 17OHP, DHEA, hCG and thyroid profile. Abdominal and pelvic ultrasonography and CNS imaging were correlated with clinical features. Girls outnumbered boys in this series (4.4:1). Neurogenic central isosexual precocious puberty (CIPP) was more common in boys (10 out of 18, 55.6%) than girls (16 out of 77, 20.8%). The most common cause of neurogenic CIPP was hypothalamic hamartoma present in five girls and four boys. Other causes of neurogenic CIPP included neurotuberculosis, pituitary adenoma, hydrocephalus, post radiotherapy, CNS tumors and malformations. Peripheral precocious puberty (PPP) was secondary to adrenal causes in boys and ovarian cysts in girls. Benign variants of precocious puberty, such as premature thelarche and premature adrenarche, were present in 23 and six girls, respectively. Hypothyroidism was present in four girls and McCune-Albright syndrome in one girl. Girls with neurogenic CIPP had a lower age of onset as compared to idiopathic CIPP (3.6 +/- 2.7 years vs 5.4 +/- 2.5 years, p = 0.014). The lowest age of onset was seen in girls with hypothalamic hamartoma (1.6 +/- 0.9 years). Forty-seven girls with CIPP (seven neurogenic and 40 idiopathic) presented after the age of 6 years. Features of CNS involvement, in the form of seizures, mental retardation, raised intracranial tension or focal neurological deficits, were present in seven girls (43.8%) and four boys (40%), and gelastic seizures were present in three children. Girls with CIPP had greater bone age

  20. Genome-scan analysis for genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci underlying birth weight and onset of puberty in doe kids (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailizadeh, A K

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) causing variation in birth weight and age of puberty of doe kids in a population of Rayini cashmere goats. Four hundred and thirty kids from five half-sib families were genotyped for 116 microsatellite markers located on the caprine autosomes. The traits recorded were birth weight of the male and female kids, body weight at puberty, average daily gain from birth to age of puberty and age at puberty of the doe kids. QTL analysis was conducted using the least squares interval mapping approach. Linkage analysis indicated significant QTL for birth weight on Capra hircus chromosomes (CHI) 4, 5, 6, 18 and 21. Five QTL located on CHI 5, 14 and 29 were associated with age at puberty. Across-family analysis revealed evidence for overlapping QTL affecting birth weight (78 cM), body weight at puberty (72 cM), average daily gain from birth to age of puberty (72 cM) and age at puberty (76 cM) on CHI 5 and overlapping QTL controlling body weight at puberty and age at puberty on CHI 14 at 18-19 cM. The proportion of the phenotypic variance explained by the detected QTL ranged between 7.9% and 14.4%. Confirming some of the previously reported results for birth weight and growth QTL in goats, this study identified more QTL for these traits and is the first report of QTL for onset of puberty in doe kids.

  1. The role of estrogen in bone growth and formation: changes at puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Divya Singh1, Sabyasachi Sanyal2, Naibedya Chattopadhyay11Division of Endocrinology, 2Division of Drug Target Discovery and Development, Central Drug Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: A high peak bone mass (PBM at skeletal maturity is a good predictor for lower rate of fracture risks in later life. Growth during puberty contributes significantly to PBM achievement in women and men. The growth hormone (GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 axis has a critical role in pubertal bone growth. There is an increase in GH and IGF-1 levels during puberty; thus, it is assumed that sex steroids contribute to higher GH/IGF-1 action during growth. Recent studies indicate that estrogen increases GH secretion in boys and girls, and the major effect of testosterone on GH secretion is via aromatization to estrogen. Estrogen is pivotal for epiphyseal fusion in young men and women. From studies of individuals with a mutated aromatase gene and a case study of male patient with defective estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α, it is clear that estrogen is indispensable for normal pubertal growth and growth plate fusion. ER-α and estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β have been localized in growth plate and bone. ER knockout studies have shown that ER-α-/- female mice have reduced linear appendicular growth, while ER-β-/- mice have increased appendicular growth. No such effect is seen in ER-β-/- males; however, repressed growth is seen in ER-α-/- males, resulting in shorter long bones. Thus, ER-β represses longitudinal bone growth in female mice, while it has no function in the regulation of longitudinal bone growth in male mice. These findings indicate that estrogen plays a critical role in skeletal physiology of males as well as females.Keywords: peak bone mass, puberty, estrogen, growth plate

  2. The effects of nutrition, puberty and dancing on bone density in adolescent ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckhardt, Peter; Wynn, Emma; Krieg, Marc-Antoine; Bagutti, Carlo; Faouzi, Mohamed

    2011-06-01

    Ballet dancers have on average a low bone mineral content (BMC), with elevated fracture-risk, low body mass index (BMI) for age (body mass index, kg/m2), low energy intake, and delayed puberty. This study aims at a better understanding of the interactions of these factors, especially with regard to nutrition. During a competition for pre-professional dancers we examined 127 female participants (60 Asians, 67 Caucasians). They averaged 16.7 years of age, started dancing at 5.8 years, and danced 22 hours/week. Assessments were made for BMI, BMC (DXA), and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, pubertal stage (Tanner score), and nutritional status (EAT-40 questionnaire and a qualitative three-day dietary record). BMI for age was found to be normal in only 42.5% of the dancers, while 15.7% had a more or less severe degree of thinness (12.6% Grade2 and 3.1% Grade 3 thinness). Menarche was late (13.9 years, range 11 to 16.8 years). Food intake, evaluated by number of consumed food portions, was below the recommendations for a normally active population in all food groups except animal proteins, where the intake was more than twice the recommended amount. In this population, with low BMI and intense exercise, BMC was low and associated with nutritional factors; dairy products had a positive and non-dairy proteins a negative influence. A positive correlation between BMAD and years since menarche confirmed the importance of exposure to estrogens and the negative impact of delayed puberty. Because of this and the probable negative influence of a high intake of non-dairy proteins, such as meat, fish, and eggs, and the positive association with a high dairy intake, ballet schools should promote balanced diets and normal weight and should recognize and help dancers avoid eating disorders and delayed puberty caused by extensive dancing and inadequate nutrition.

  3. Association of ghrelin and leptin with reproductive hormones in constitutional delay of growth and puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El hawary Amany K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP is a variation of the onset and timing of pubertal development without a defined endocrine abnormality. Recently published studies indicate that leptin and ghrelin play a role in puberty initiation and progress. They have been implicated in regulation of GnRH secretion, with ghrelin having inhibitory and leptin, facilitatory effects. We hypothesized that elevated ghrelin and reduced leptin concentrations could be implicated in altering the tempo of puberty in adolescents with CDGP. So in the current study we evaluate variations in leptin and ghrelin levels in adolescent boys with CDGP, the relationships between both hormones and reproductive hormones including LH, FSH and testosterone were also evaluated. Methods The study enrolled 23 adolescent boys with CDGP and 20 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Weight, height, BMI, testicular volume, bone age, bone age delay, serum FSH, LH, testosterone, leptin and ghrelin were assessed. Results Adolescent boys with CDGP had significantly lower leptin and higher ghrelin than normal controls. Leptin was positively correlated with BMI, bone age, testicular volume, FSH, LH and testosterone and negatively correlated with delayed bone age and ghrelin. Ghrelin was negatively correlated with BMI, bone age, testicular volume, FSH, LH and testosterone. With multiple regression analysis BMI, FSH, LH, testosterone and ghrelin remained independently correlated with leptin while BMI, LH and testosterone remained independently correlated with ghrelin. Conclusion Elevated serum ghrelin and decreased leptin concentrations and their associations with reproductive hormones may explain the sexual immaturity in adolescent boys with CDGP.

  4. Influence of growth hormone on growth and onset of puberty ofRahmani ewe lamb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K H El-Shahat; N F Khaled; F I El-Far

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of somatotropin administration on growth and puberty attainment of Rahmani ewes -lamb.Methods:TwelveRahmani ewes–lamb of6-7 months of age and average body weight(24.75±0.16) kg were randomly allotted into two equal groups.The first group served as control and the second group was somatotropin-treated.The ewe-lambs were weighed at the start and at the end of the experiment.In addition, the body condition score, withers height and heart girth were determined at the end of the study.Blood samples were collected weekly till the end of experiment(Twelve weeks).Sera samples were assayed for progesterone, insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and urea.Results:It indicated that the somatotropin-treated group attained puberty2.5 weeks(18 days) earlier than control one.Somatotropin-treatedRahmani ewe lambs had higher body weight, and body condition score than those of the control one.A similar tendency was observed in average daily gain, withers height and heart girth.Somatotropin administration had a beneficial effect on blood born metabolites as indicated by increased serum glucose, total lipids, cholesterol,IGF-1 and decreased urea ofRahmani ewes- lamb as compared to control one.Conclusion:Somatotropin administration enhanced puberty inRahmani ewe lambs.This is due to increased provision of trophic signals(represented by increasedSerumIGF-1 secretions) and/or blood-borne metabolites(glucose, cholesterol and lipid).

  5. Social mobility and fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpiero Dalla Zuanna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and inter-generational social mobility have in the past played an important role in attempts to explain fertility behaviour, and continue to do so today. The opinions expressed by social scientists in the first part of the 20th century are renewed and confirmed. More specifically: (1 intra-generational social mobility has been reinforced by the personal well-being aspirations and job careers of women; (2 status anxiety parents feel for their children pushes fertility down in large areas of the developed world (mainly in southern European and eastern Asian countries. Therefore, the provocative idea of Ariès that in the rich world, the child-king has now been replaced by the couple-queen does not perfectly hold.

  6. 成年礼与考试%Puberty Rite and Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维喆

    2011-01-01

    The nature, purpose, content and form of puberty rite decides that it is the rudiment of the test, and it has a positive effect on the personal and social development and has inspiration to people's exam concept and educational philosophy.%成年礼的性质、目的、内容、形式等决定了它是考试的雏形,它对当时个人与社会的发展有积极作用,对当今人们的考试观、教育观不乏启迪意义.

  7. Helping a boy with chronic medical problems get on friendly terms with his body and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    "My mom wants me to shave off my facial hair, but I like it. I think it makes me look mature," said sixteen-year-old Alex as he proudly stroked the crop of hairs sprouting from his chin. I was speechless. Why? Because for years I had heard about all the medical things that were wrong with Alex's body. Then, when puberty arrived, his distress about his changing body was intense. So how did psychoanalysis help him get on friendly terms with body changes, even enjoying signs of growing up? We shall see.

  8. Precocious puberty in a patient with Oculo-Auriculo-Verebral spectrum (OAVS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors report on the first case of OAVS (Oculo-Auriculo- Vertebral-Spectrum, with hemifacial microsomy, hydrocephalus, pubertas precox, thelarche at 4 years of age, vaginal bleeding at 5 years, and left ovary of adult type on echography (right ovary initially not visualized. FISH and CGH-ARRAYS methods were negative. By GnRH therapy the delay of onset puberty was obtained. The authors ascribe facial and ovary asymmetry to a derangement of blastogenesis, during which axial right-left structures begin the develop with consequent migration or interation with surrounding tissues of neural crest cells and alteration of diencephalic pituitary systems.

  9. Fertility, Migration, and Altruism

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Consider migration to a higher income region as a human capital investment in which parents bear migration costs and children share returns. Migrants from a population with heterogeneous intergenerational discount rates will be self-selected on intergenerational altruism. Thus, immigrants may be self-selected on fertility. Soviet Jews who migrate to Israel despite high migration costs have significantly more children than members of the same birth cohort who migrate later when costs are low. ...

  10. Slow-Release Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research), ZeoponiX, Inc., introduced ZeoPro. This product is used as a fertilizer/soil amendment for golf courses, ball fields, greenhouse and horticultural uses. A combination of superior growth medium and soil conditioner allow for nutrient supplementation and high efficiency delivery of nutrients throughout the plant. ZeoPro provides a balanced nutrient system for major, minor, and trace nutrients.

  11. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  12. IN VITRO FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadawale N. M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available First written document dealing with infertility may be found in the Kahoun papyrus (oldest Egyptian medical text, dated to 2200-1950 BC. The early attribution of infertility to women persisted for centuries and was often considered divine punishment.Infertility means 1 year of well-timed, unprotected intercourse without a pregnancy. The study shows about 10-15% of population is infertile. And 15-20% of couple have unexplained infertility (work-up is negative. Normally women are born with their lifetime egg supply, the Fertility initially declines at age 27.Significant decline at age 37-38. The chances of pregnancies are rare after age 44 besides this defect in female ovary, fallopian tube, uterus, and fibroid tumour causes infertility in female.Abnormality in sperm production and abnormality in sperm function causes infertility in male.To overcome the infertility egg are harvested from womens ovary and fertilized in laboratory with the sperm the embryos are then transfer into uterus known as In Vitro Fertilization.

  13. Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Avi; Shaviv

    2005-01-01

    With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production.The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species.They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well.

  14. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  15. 能量代谢因子促生长激素释放肽与青春期启动%Energy metabolism factor ghrelin and puberty onset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳艳

    2012-01-01

    促生长激素释放肽与机体摄食和能量代谢的调节有关,同时能够调节机体与性激素分泌相关的促性腺激素类物质释放,是连接能量代谢与下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴的桥梁因子.生殖系统功能的启动与成熟与机体的营养状态密切相关,儿童青春期的启动需要一定的体脂储备,肥胖儿童青春期易提前启动,促生长激素释放肽可能是传递机体营养状态的信号因子之一,可能在青春期的启动中发挥一定的作用.%Ghrelin is involved in the process of feeding behavior and regulation of related energy metabolism,it also modulates the secretion of gonadotropins or transmitters concerning sex hormone releasing.It is considered as the factor connecting the HPG axis and energy metabolism.Body's nutrition has a bearing upon the process of reproductive system's onset and maturation.Adequate body weight is necessary for normal puberty onset.Obese children tend to have an earlier menarche.Ghrelin may pass on the information about nutrition to the hypothamalus in puberty onset.

  16. Plasma androgenic activity in women with acne vulgaris and in healthy girls before, during and after puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlind, V; Carlström, K; Michaëlsson, G; Vahlqvist, A; Victor, A; Mellbin, T

    1982-03-01

    The possible relationship between plasma androgenic activity and acne vulgaris was investigated. Plasma testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were determined in healthy girls during different stages of puberty, in healthy adult women and in women with acne vulgaris. Testosterone increase during puberty, whereas SHBG decreased during the early stages before it increased and stabilized plasma concentrations of testosterone and SHBG. Women with severe acne vulgaris had testosterone levels in the same range but the SHBG levels were significantly lower than those of healthy women and women with mild acne. These results show a high androgenic activity in the intermediate stages of puberty, when acne vulgaris is a common complaint and an increased androgenic activity in adult women with severe acne vulgaris.

  17. Is There a Progressive Withdrawal of Physiological Protections against High-Intensity Exercise-Induced Fatigue during Puberty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ratel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Puberty is characterized by a large number of physiological modifications that translate into increased neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity exercise in adolescents compared to prepubertal children. This greater neuromuscular fatigue in adolescents could be attributed to peripheral (i.e., muscular and central (i.e., nervous factors that change through puberty. Among the peripheral changes are muscle mass, fiber type composition, energy metabolism and musculo-tendinous stiffness. Among the central modifications are the voluntary activation level, the antagonist co-activation and a differential interplay between central and peripheral fatigue. The objective of this review article will be to underline the importance of these factors on the development of neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity exercise throughout puberty and to highlight that the adolescents could be physiologically less protected against fatiguing high-intensity exercise than their prepubertal counterparts.

  18. Prostate specific antigen in boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression by GnRH agonist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    In healthy boys, the pituitary-gonadal axis exhibits diurnal variation in early puberty. Serum testosterone levels are higher during the night and low or immeasurable during the day. These fluctuating levels of circulating androgens in early pubertal boys are difficult to monitor. Prostate specific...... antigen (PSA) is a marker of the androgen-dependent prostatic epithelial cell activity and it is used in the diagnosis and surveillance of adult patients with prostatic cancer. We have measured PSA concentrations in serum from boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression with Gn......RH agonists to evaluate the effect of normal and precocious puberty on PSA levels and to study the correlation between testosterone and PSA in boys....

  19. Determinantes próximos de la fecundidad: comportamiento reproductivo de las indígenas Chamibida de Antioquia, Colombia Proximal determinants of fertility: reproductive behavior among Chamibida indigenous women in Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mercedes Arias-Valencia

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es caracterizar el calendario reproductivo en las Chamibida en el Departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. Este es un estudio sociodemográfico realizado en el año 2000 con la técnica de historia reproductiva. Se visitaron todas las 234 viviendas de la Reserva Indígena de Cristianía para obtener 253 historias reproductivas correspondientes a 83,1% de las mujeres de 15 a 49 años. El comportamiento reproductivo se caracteriza por una entrada a la unión a los 17,8 años en promedio; intervalos intergenésicos cortos en 69,0%, con una tasa de fecundidad ajustada de 5,12 hijos. Este patrón reproductivo es diferente frente a las demás etnias y subgrupos de Antioquia. Como explicación se destaca que de las mujeres chamibida conocen y aceptan la planificación familiar occidental y, tienen mayor acceso a la escolaridad formal. Las políticas actuales están lejos de ser apropiadas, en tanto pasan por alto la especificidad de estos grupos étnicos.The aim of this study was to determine the reproductive timing used by Chamibida indigenous women in Antioquia, Colombia. This socio-demographic study used the reproductive history technique and was conducted in the year 2000. Two hundred and thirty-four homes on the Cristianía indigenous reservation were visited to obtain 253 reproductive histories (83.1% of the women ages 15 to 49. Reproductive behavior was characterized by sexual debut at age 17.8 years (mean, with short intergenesic intervals in 69.0% and an adjusted fertility rate of 5.12 children. This reproductive pattern differs from all other indigenous groups and subgroups in Antioquia. As an explanation, Chamibida women are familiar with and accept Western birth control methods, besides having more access to formal schooling. Current Colombian health system policies are far from appropriate, since they fail to take the indigenous groups' specificities into account.

  20. Development of the knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNees P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Jukkala1, Karen Meneses1, Andres Azuero1, June Cho1, Patrick McNees1,21School of Nursing, 2School of Health Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAObjective: Infertility is a severe and often underestimated consequence of successful treatment for breast cancer. Ensuring young breast cancer survivors receive patient-centered health information on the impact of treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options in a timely manner is a critical component of high quality nursing care. The objective of this manuscript is to report the process used to develop and examine the reliability and validity of an instrument to measure a breast cancer survivor’s self-assessed knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation.Design: A scale development and descriptive study.Setting: Online and global.Participants: Ninety-two young breast cancer survivors (ages 25–45 years.Methods: Participants completed the Knowledge of Fertility and Fertility Preservation (KF Scale as part of their participation in a larger study, the Fertility Cancer Project (FCP.Results: An exploratory factor analysis revealed five domains: normal reproductive function; general information about fertility; cancer treatment factors affecting fertility; infertility information; and alternative parenting options. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the validity of the construct with a demonstrated good fit between the factor structure of the new scale and the observed data. Many participants self-assessed their overall knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation as “a little” and the majority rated their knowledge of infertility information as “a little”.Conclusion: The KF Scale can be used to provide useful information to support health care professionals in the development of patient-centered education that is responsive to the unique needs of each young breast cancer survivor. The initial testing of the KF Scale indicates

  1. Primary School Puberty/Sexuality Education: Student-Teachers' Past Learning, Present Professional Education, and Intention to Teach These Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Coleman, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Primary school teachers are often tasked with puberty/sexuality education for students who are undergoing sexual maturation at ever-earlier ages. This study explores the changing trajectories of the pre-service learning and teaching of primary school puberty/sexuality education at an urban university, including student-teachers' childhood…

  2. UNESCO's Guidance on Puberty and Sexual Health Education for Students Aged 9-12 Years Compared to an Upper Primary School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children and young adolescents are reaching puberty earlier. Providing information about such changes before puberty can help them develop in a more competent and informed manner. Context and Objective: UNESCO's "International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education" forms a comprehensive, evidence-based, authoritative…

  3. A seasonal variation of calcitropic hormones, bone turnover and bone mineral density in early and mid-puberty girls - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viljakainen, H.T.; Palssa, A.; Karkkainen, M.

    2006-01-01

    -six girls, mean age 11 center dot 4 (sd 0 center dot 4) years, in Tanner stage 2 (early puberty) and 3 (mid-puberty) were studied during September to March. The BMD was measured from the lumbar vertebrae and the left femur by dual-energy X-ray absoptiometry. Their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25-OHD), serum...

  4. Genome-wide screening in human growth plates during puberty in one patient suggests a role for RUNX2 in epiphyseal maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Joyce; Dutilh, Bas E.; Decker, Eva; Pirzer, Heide; Sticht, Carsten; Gretz, Norbert; Rappold, Gudrun; Cameron, Ewan R.; Neil, James C.; Stein, Gary S.; Wijnen, van Andre J.; Wit, Jan Maarten; Post, Janine N.; Karperien, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In late puberty, estrogen decelerates bone growth by stimulating growth plate maturation. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism of estrogen action using two pubertal growth plate specimens of one girl at Tanner stage B2 and Tanner stage B3. Histological analysis showed that progression of puberty

  5. Genome-wide screening in human growth plates during puberty in one patient suggests a role for RUNX2 in epiphyseal maturation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, J.; Dutilh, B.E.; Decker, E.; Pirzer, H.; Sticht, C.; Gretz, N.; Rappold, G.; Cameron, E.R.; Neil, J.C.; Stein, G.S.; Wijnen, A.J. van; Wit, J.M.; Post, J.N.; Karperien, M.

    2011-01-01

    In late puberty, estrogen decelerates bone growth by stimulating growth plate maturation. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism of estrogen action using two pubertal growth plate specimens of one girl at Tanner stage B2 and Tanner stage B3. Histological analysis showed that progression of puberty

  6. Prostate specific antigen in boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression by GnRH agonist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    In healthy boys, the pituitary-gonadal axis exhibits diurnal variation in early puberty. Serum testosterone levels are higher during the night and low or immeasurable during the day. These fluctuating levels of circulating androgens in early pubertal boys are difficult to monitor. Prostate specific...... antigen (PSA) is a marker of the androgen-dependent prostatic epithelial cell activity and it is used in the diagnosis and surveillance of adult patients with prostatic cancer. We have measured PSA concentrations in serum from boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression with Gn...

  7. Central precocious puberty and granulosa cell ovarian tumor in an 8-year old female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Calcaterra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian tumors associated with hormonal changes of the peripheral iso-sexual precocious puberty are of common presentation. We describe here a rare case of juvenile granulosa cell tumor in a female with central precocious puberty (CPP. An 8-year old girl with CPP presented with vaginal bleeding four months after the diagnosis and before starting treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH-analogs. Suppression of basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH level, elevation of serum estradiol, progesterone and Cancer Antigen-125 were documented. Abdominal ultrasound examination (US and magnetic resonance imaging showed a pelvic mass affecting the left ovary. A left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and the mass was totally resected. Juvenile granulosa cell ovarian tumor was diagnosed. One month post surgery, estradiol and progesterone decreased to values of the first evaluation and FSH increased; Cancer Antigen-125 resulted normal while ultrasound pelvic examination showed absence of pelvic masses. In our patient, the tumor had grown very quickly since hormonal data demonstrated a CPP without any evidence of ovarian mass on US only four months before diagnosis. The overstimulation of the FSH or aberrant activation of FSH receptors may have contributed to the development of the mass.

  8. Maternal Preeclampsia and Androgens in the Offspring around Puberty: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janszky, Imre; Åsvold, Bjørn O.; Økland, Inger; Forman, Michele R.; Vatten, Lars J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Children born after preeclampsia may have a dominant androgen profile in puberty compared with other children. Circulating androgen concentrations at 11–12 years of age were compared between offspring born after preeclampsia, and children whose mothers did not have preeclampsia. Methods A total of 611 mother-offspring pairs were followed up 11 (daughters) or 12 (sons) years after birth: 218 pairs in the preeclampsia group, and 383 pairs without preeclampsia. Circulating total testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) were measured in the children. In boys, testicular volume was also measured. Results Among girls born after preeclampsia, DHEAS concentrations were higher than in unexposed girls (ppreeclampsia with severe features had the lowest DHEAS levels. In contrast, testosterone concentrations were highest in girls born after preeclampsia with severe features, both compared to other girls in the preeclampsia group, and compared to unexposed girls (ppreeclampsia group compared with unexposed boys (ppreeclampsia with severe features had the lowest concentrations of DHEAS. Compared with unexposed boys, testicular volume (p = 0.015) and IGF-I (p = 0.004) were higher for boys in the preeclampsia group, except for boys in the clinically severe preeclampsia group. Conclusions In utero exposure to preeclampsia is associated with androgen hormonal patterns in early puberty that depend on clinical severity of preeclampsia and sex of the offspring. The hormonal differences may reflect different timing of pubertal development, and may have consequences for future health of the offspring. PMID:27992610

  9. Hormonal changes during GnRH analogue therapy in children with central precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Juul, A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) have been used for treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) for more than 15 years. They are generally considered safe although data on potential long-term side effects are scarce. However, GnRHa therapy has profound effects on both the hypoth......Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) have been used for treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) for more than 15 years. They are generally considered safe although data on potential long-term side effects are scarce. However, GnRHa therapy has profound effects on both...... the hypothalamopituitary-gonadal axis as well as on growth hormone (GH) secretion. Gonadal activity is increased in children with CPP; during GnRHa therapy secretion of gonadal hormones is suppressed as reflected by measurements of LH, FSH, and estradiol/testosterone. More recently, studies of levels of inhibin A and B...... as well as markers of androgen action such as SHBG and prostate specific antigen have demonstrated marked suppression of gonadal function possibly to infra-physiological levels. The possible long-term consequences of these observations have yet to be determined. Detailed analyses of the GH-IGF-I axis have...

  10. Tonic control of kisspeptin release in prepubertal monkeys: implications to the mechanism of puberty onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Joseph R; Keen, Kim L; Guerriero, Kathryn A; Terasawa, Ei

    2012-07-01

    Previously we have shown that a reduction in γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) inhibition is critical for the mechanism initiating puberty onset because chronic infusion of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline, significantly increased GnRH release and accelerated the timing of menarche and first ovulation in female rhesus monkeys. Because previous studies in our laboratory indicate that in prepubertal female monkeys, kisspeptin release in the medial basal hypothalamus is low, whereas kisspeptin-10 can stimulate GnRH release, we hypothesized that a low level of kisspeptin release prior to puberty onset is due to tonic GABA inhibition. To test this hypothesis we examined the effects of bicuculline infusion on kisspeptin release using a microdialysis method. We found that bicuculline at 1 μM dramatically stimulates kisspeptin release in the medial basal hypothalamus of prepubertal monkeys but had little effect on kisspeptin release in midpubertal monkeys. We further examined whether bicuculline-induced GnRH release is blocked by the presence of the kisspeptin antagonist, peptide 234. We found that inhibition of kisspeptin signaling blocked the bicuculline-induced stimulation of GnRH release, suggesting that kisspeptin neurons may relay inhibitory GABA signals to GnRH neurons. This implies that a reduction in tonic GABA inhibition of GnRH release is, at least in part, mediated through kisspeptin neurons.

  11. Adrenal and gonadal steroids and pituitary response to LHRH in girls. II. Precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintor, C; Genazzani, A R; Ibba, P; Pecciarini-Snickars, L; Corda, R

    1978-04-01

    Three baby girls between 22 and 30 months of age, presenting with isosexual idiopathic precocious puberty apparently not due to any organic cause, were studied. Basal levels of plasma steroids of adrenal and gonadal origin, circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol, and pituitary response to 25 microgram of LHRH were evaluated. All cases were characterized by high levels of plasma gonadotropins and by a marked response to exogenous LHRH. Normal cortisol circadia rhythm was found in all cases, one of which characterized by slightly raised plasma values. The other adrenal steroids were all higher than those expected for the chronological age, corresponding to those of 5-6 years old girls. On the other hand, steroids of both adrenal and ovarian (A, T) or mainly ovarian origin (E2) and DHT were all found to be higher than those normally reported in girls at stage 2 of sexual development. These data indicate a hypersecretion of gonadotropins in idiopathic isosexual precocious puberty, with a marked gonadal steroidogenetic response. The secretion of adrenal androgens does not appear to have an important role in the etiology of this condition.

  12. [Effects of puberty on glucose-lipid balance during exercise in the obese child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunquin, Gautier; Theunynck, Denis; Sesboüé, Bruno; Arhan, Pierre; Bouglé, Dominique

    2006-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate effect of puberty on substrate oxidation rates using a graded exercise test to exhaustion. Two groups of obese adolescent males (34 prepubertal: body mass index (BMI) = 25,94 +/- 2,63; Z-score = 4,43 +/- 1,83; and 26 postpubertal: BMI = 31,14 +/- 4,88; Z-score = 5,264 +/- 1,76) performed an exercise test on a cycle ergometer. The test consisted in a series of graded exercises on a cycle ergometer. Stage duration was 3 min 30 s. Fat and carbohydrate rates were calculated during the last 30 s of each stage using stoichiometric equations, and this permitted us to calculate substrate oxidation according to exercise intensity. Lipid oxidation rates are significantly higher in the postpubertal group. When the fat oxidation rates are reported relative to fat free mass, fat oxidation rates are higher in the prepubertal group. Puberty decreases significantly the capacity of fat free mass to oxidize fat for a same level of exercise.

  13. Feminizing adrenocortical adenoma presenting as heterosexual precocious puberty: report of one case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hui-Pin; Chao, Mei-Chyn; Lin, Chao-Yu; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Chen, Shiu-Lin; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Chen, Bai-Hsiun

    2005-01-01

    We report on a case of a 2 2/12-year-old boy with heterosexual precocious puberty secondary to a feminizing adrenocortical adenoma. The boy, with no previous history of disease or treatment, presented with bilateral gynecomastia and pubic hair development (Tanner III breasts and Tanner II pubic hair). Plasma estradiol and testosterone were 410.9 pg/ml and 126.2 ng/dl respectively. Basal plasma LH and FSH levels were within the normal range. Bolus i.v. injection of GnRH showed unresponsiveness of LH and FSH. Abdominal echography and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-defined mass at the left suprarenal region (measuring 4.0 x 2.7 x 3.6 cm in size). After removal of the adrenal tumor, the estradiol and testosterone levels fell to normal in 2 weeks. The gynecomastia and pubic hair regressed with time. The pathology of the tumor showed compact pattern with polygonal cells containing moderate eosinophilic cytoplasm without mitotic figure. These findings were consistent with an adrenocortical adenoma secreting estradiol and testosterone as the cause of the patient's heterosexual precocious puberty.

  14. Fertility Intention, Son Preference, and Second Childbirth: Survey Findings from Shaanxi Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Ying; Sanchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2016-02-01

    China is characterized by a low fertility intention, a strong preference for sons, as well as a stringent birth control policy. In this study, we used data from a Fertility Intention and Behavior Survey of 2101 questionnaires conducted in 2013 in Shaanxi Province of northwestern China, and event history analysis methods to examine the effect of fertility intention and preference for sons on the probability of having a second child. The results not only validate the correlation of fertility intention with having a second child empirically, even in the low fertility intention and stringent birth control context of China, but also show that women with a preference for sons were less likely to have a second child. Women with son preference turn to sex-selective abortion to ensure that their first child is a son, thus reducing the likelihood of a second child and decreasing the fertility rate. Our findings also shed light on China's potential fertility policy adjustment.

  15. Some cultural factors affecting costs of fertility regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, M

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a framework of the costs or constraints in the use of fertility regulation, reviews the existing knowledge on the subject in a cross-cultural context, and indicates the need for further studies. It is suggested that the apparent contradiction noted in fertility surveys between a couple's desire to have no more children or to postpone the next birth and actual behavior can be explained by the costs involved in the use of fertility regulation methods. The costs of fertility regulation can be broadly classified into 4 categories: 1) physical/health (disruption of menstrual cycle, side effects and health hazards of contraceptive methods, perceived health hazards based on ethno-physical concepts, and sacrifice of sexual pleasure); 2) psychic (violation of sexual modesty and human dignity, conflict with religious beliefs; 3) social opinion (challenges to spouse and sex role expectations, challenges to social influence group); and 4) economic (money, time). The economic costs of fertility regulation to individuals vary greatly according to the presence or absence of public sector family planning programs. A substantial part of these costs could be eliminated by national and international programs. So far, no study has focused on the costs of fertility regulation and factors affecting them. A methodology that combines elements of both a questionnaire survey and anthropological investigation and collects data on both the individual and community levels may be most amenable to assessing the impact of costs on the use or nonuse of fertility regulation.

  16. Is Buddhism the low fertility religion of Asia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Skirbekk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The influence of religion on demographic behaviors has been extensively studied mainly for Abrahamic religions. Although Buddhism is the world's fourth largest religion and is dominant in several Asian nations experiencing very low fertility, the impact of Buddhism on childbearing has received comparatively little research attention. Objective: This paper draws upon a variety of data sources in different countries in Asia in order to test our hypothesis that Buddhism is related to low fertility. Methods: Religious differentials in terms of period fertility in three nations (India, Cambodia and Nepal and cohort fertility in three case studies (Mongolia, Thailand and Japan are analyzed. The analyses are divided into two parts: descriptive and multivariate analyses. Results: Our results suggest that Buddhist affiliation tends to be negatively or not associated with childbearing outcomes, controlling for education, region of residence, age and marital status. Although the results vary between the highly diverse contextual and institutional settings investigated, we find evidence that Buddhist affiliation or devotion is not related to elevated fertility across these very different cultural settings. Conclusions: Across the highly diverse cultural and developmental contexts under which the different strains of Buddhism dominate, the effect of Buddhism is consistently negatively or insignificantly related to fertility. These findings stand in contrast to studies of Abrahamic religions that tend to identify a positive link between religiosity and fertility.

  17. Fertility and the changing female educational attainment in Croatia

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    Čipin Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the aggregate relationship between cohort fertility and female educational attainment in Croatia. Numerous demographic studies have examined the link between fertility and the level of education. However, newer research indicates that the field of education might also play a role when trying to explain fertility behavior. We contribute to existing literature on macro-level factors related to reproductive outcomes by considering both the level and field of education as possible sources of cohort fertility differentials. The main goal of the present study is to assess the effect of structural changes in educational attainment on cohort fertility decline by means of demographic decomposition techniques. Our analysis is based on detailed 2011 Census data, which provide information on the number of livebirths by mother’s year of birth, birth order, marital status and educational attainment (i.e. the level and field of education. The results of our decomposition analyses reveal the dominance of the structural effect in explaining the overall completed fertility decline in Croatia. We assumed that the changing distribution of women by field of education at least partially accounts for the observed patterns in completed fertility but found no strong evidence in support of the outlined hypothesis.

  18. A Prospective Study of Extreme Weight Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined changes in extreme weight change attitudes and behaviors (exercise dependence, food supplements, drive for thinness, bulimia) among adolescent boys and girls over a 16 month period. It also investigated the impact of body mass index, puberty, body image, depression and positive affect on these attitudes and behaviors 16 months…

  19. Temporal Trends in Fertility Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2015-01-01

    to determine total and age specific fertility rates. RESULTS: Total fertility rate (TFR) decreased from 4.1 to 1.8 children per woman and age specific fertility also decreased from 1901 to 2014. Women aged 30-34, 35-39 or 40-44 years in the first decade of the 20th century had higher fertility rates than......OBJECTIVE: Increasing age at first childbirth has been suggested to increase the risk for infertility. Our objective is to determine whether women above thirty years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. DESIGN: A descriptive nationwide Danish study...... for 10% of TFR in 1901 compared with 4% in 2014 despite usage of assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study shows that women above 30 years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. This implies that other factors besides age are strong...

  20. Delayed Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems such as Turner syndrome in girls or Klinefelter syndrome in boys • Some cancer treatments that affect sex ... Menopause/upload/polycystic- ovary-syndrome-bilingual-071509.pdf ——Klinefelter Syndrome: www.hormone.org/Resources/ upload/FS_MH_Klinefelter_ ...

  1. Fertility and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korula George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The changing social scenario together with economic growth and an increase in job opportunities has to a great extent reduced gender inequality and has resulted in more and more older women seeking help from infertility clinics. Fertility and aging have always been closely linked and the age of the female partner remains the single most important factor in predicting success with treatment. Although tests for the ovarian reserve are an important informative tool and are helpful in selecting treatment options, they are poor predictors of the outcome.

  2. WILL FERTILITY REBOUND IN JAPAN

    OpenAIRE

    Creina Day

    2012-01-01

    Fertility and per capita income are now positively associated across most high income OECD countries. Low fertility and a gender wage gap persist in Japan. This paper presents an original model where endogenous increases in childcare prices and gender equity in capital allocation play important roles in the effect of per capita income growth and rising female relative wages on fertility. Results suggest Japan has cause for optimism. Economic growth will raise female relative wages where capit...

  3. Fertile ground? : soil fertility management and the African smallholder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misiko, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: smallholder farmers, soil fertility, experimentation, "inconvenience", realist.The focus in this thesis is to form a view of how well soil fertility research performs within the ever shifting smallholder contexts. This study examined application of agro-ecological knowled

  4. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Radiotherapy - fertility; Radiation - fertility; Chemotherapy - fertility; Sexual dysfunction - cancer treatment References American Cancer Society. Fertility and women with cancer. Updated November 6, 2013. www.cancer. ...

  5. Prospective assessment of pituitary size and shape on MR imaging after suppressive hormonal therapy in central precocious puberty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beek, J.T. van; Sharafuddin, M.J.A.; Kao, S.C.S. [Department of Radiology-JPP 3889, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52246 (United States); Luisiri, A. [Cardinal Glennon Children' s Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Garibaldi, L.R. [Children' s Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, New Jersey (United States); St. Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, New Jersey (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Objective. The diagnostic significance of an enlarged pituitary gland regarding both shape and size parameters on MR imaging has previously been demonstrated in children with central precocious puberty. This study was designed to assess changes in these parameters following successful suppressive therapy of central precocious puberty with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Materials and methods. Twelve girls (mean age 7.3 years) with central precocious puberty were prospectively enrolled in our study protocol. Sagittal and coronal MR images of the pituitary region were obtained in all patients before treatment and after at least 6 months of GnRH analogue therapy (mean 18.0 months). Parameters measured included pituitary gland height, length, width, sagittal cross-sectional area, and volume. Results. All patients had excellent clinical response to treatment with arrest of secondary sexual development, normalization of serum estradiol levels, and complete obliteration of the LH response to diagnostic GnRH stimulation. No significant change occurred in any pituitary size or shape parameter following GnRH analogue therapy. Conclusion. Favorable clinical response to GnRH analogue therapy in central precocious puberty is not accompanied by significant a change in pituitary gland size and shape. (orig.)

  6. Influence of GnRH analogue on body mass index in girls with precocious puberty: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat Moaieri

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa therapy in central precocious puberty (CPP is safe for BMI and increasing of BMI is not significant, long- term follow-up study is required to elucidate whether GnRHa treatment affects adult obesity. Using growth hormone concomitantly, the effect on increasing height is significant.

  7. The Development of Self-Representations during the Transition to Early Adolescence: The Role of Gender, Puberty, and School Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhuser, Kathrin; Allemand, Mathias; Schwarz, Beate

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of global and domain-specific self-representations in the transition from late childhood to early adolescence and tested whether gender, puberty, and school transition help explain individual differences in change. The study was based on three measurement occasions over 2 years and included 248…

  8. The Role of Sex Hormone Replacement Therapy on Self-Perceived Competence in Adolescents with Delayed Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Jacqueline; Kulin, Howard E.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Finkelstein, Jordan W.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Kunselman, Susan J.; Liben, Lyye S.; D'Arcangelo, M. Rose; Demers, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined role of sex steroids in development of self-perceived competence among adolescents receiving hormone therapy for delayed puberty. Found that hormone treatments had a significant positive effect for both males and females in perceived job competence. Significant positive effects were also obtained for perceptions of romantic appeal and…

  9. A Critical Analysis of UNESCO's International Technical Guidance on School-Based Education for Puberty and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2012-01-01

    Preparing children and adolescents for sexual safety and reproductive responsibility lies at the heart and purpose of puberty/sexuality education. The document of International Technical Guidance released by UNESCO in December 2009 aims to provide an evidence-based and rights-based platform offering children and adolescents vital knowledge about…

  10. Integration of genomic approaches to uncover sources of variation in age at puberty and reproductive longevity in sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variants associated with traits such as age at puberty and litter size could provide insight into the underlying genetic sources of variation impacting sow reproductive longevity and productivity. Genome wide characterization and gene expression profiling were employed using gilts from the U...

  11. AVPR1A alleles are pleiotropic sources of variation in age at puberty and reproductive longevity in sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age at puberty is a moderately heritable trait and an early indicator of sow reproductive longevity. Gilts that express first estrus early in life are characterized by improved reproductive longevity and lifetime productivity. These traits are dependent on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-...

  12. Women's education and fertility behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The education of women results in changes in women's health status, family well being, and fertility decline. The aim of human rights and social justice is also served by increasing women's educational levels. A review of the trends in developing countries has shown that there is a strong correlation between advanced female education (10 or more years) and lower fertility. Data for 26 countries was presented in table form for total fertility rates by years of education. There were many differences in the patterns of fertility by educational level based on country level of development. The data appeared to show stronger correlations between fertility and education in more prosperous societies; culture and social structure also influenced fertility. Partial primary education has been shown in some countries to be related to increased fertility. A UN study found a curvilinear relationship between fertility and education in 14 out of 38 countries with World Fertility Surveys. There were only 3 countries with Demographic and Health Surveys which showed the curvilinear pattern. The UN study confirmed that maternal education was related to shorter durations of postpartum abstinence and short durations of lactation. Caution was urged in interpreting that an increase in a few years of schooling in a dominant rural, illiterate population would facilitate rapid fertility decline. A critical threshold effect for educational attainment was found in mainly the least developed countries. Female education has direct and indirect effects on fertility. Education may affect breast feeding patterns, contraceptive use, social norms about small families, later age at marriage, and later age at first birth. The suggestion was that education provided for reproductive choice and reduces the gap between actual and desired family size. At the country and individual level of analysis, contraceptive use was linked with education. Effective contraceptive use was still however impeded by

  13. Gitelman syndrome manifesting in early childhood and leading to delayed puberty: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Farhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gitelman syndrome is an inherited autosomal recessive renal salt-wasting disorder. It presents with variable clinical symptoms including muscle weakness and fatigue, and the diagnosis is based on metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. It is usually diagnosed incidentally in early adulthood. There are rare cases of Gitelman syndrome presenting in early childhood; however, to the best of our knowledge it has not previously been associated with delayed puberty. Case presentation A 17-year-old South Asian man with recurrent episodes of generalized muscle weakness, fatigue and cramps from the age of two years was admitted for further workup. Before the age of 12 years, the episodes had been mild, but they then got progressively worse. Other symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia, nocturia, paresthesia and occasional watery diarrhea. He also had a history of short stature, poor weight gain and delayed developmental landmarks. His family history was unremarkable except for the consanguineous marriage of his parents. An examination revealed a thin and lean man with blood pressure of 95/60mmHg. His height and weight were below the third percentile and his sexual development was at Tanner Stage II. Laboratory work revealed serum sodium of 124mmol/L, potassium 2.4mmol/L, calcium 6.5mmol/L and magnesium of 1.2mg/dL. His testosterone level was low (0.85ng/mL, normal for his age 2.67 to 10.12ng/mL with normal levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. The sex hormone findings were attributed to delayed puberty. A 24-hour urinary analysis revealed decreased excretion of calcium (25.9mg/24 hours. Based on the findings of hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis without hypertension, severe hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria, a diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome was made. Treatment was started with oral supplementation of potassium, magnesium and calcium along with spironolactone and liberal salt intake

  14. Eucalyptus development in degraded soil fertilized with sewage sludge and mineral fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, R. A. F.; Santos, E. B.; Alves, M. C.; Arruda, O. G.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the development of eucalyptus in a degraded Oxisol with mineral fertilizer and sewage sludge. The study was conducted in Selviria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. The culture of eucalyptus was planted in 2003 at 2.0 m x 1.5 m spacing, with application of 60 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (dry basis) and mineral fertilizer. After five years (2008) the area received biosolids and mineral fertilizer, and after five months, were evaluated for height and diameter at breast height of Eucalyptus. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments: T1 - control (without addition of inputs), T2 - Mineral fertilization (30 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 60 kg ha-1 K2O), T3 - Reapplication of 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis, T4 - Reapplication of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis. Before reapplication the biosolids plant height was higher in the eucalyptus with treatment 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (8.03 m) compared to control (5.75 m) and mineral fertilizer (5.91 m) and that treatment 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (6.34 m) did not differ from the previous three. For the diameter at breast height was the highest value for treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 (7.78 cm) compared to control (5.23 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm), and that of mineral fertilizer (5.96 cm) did not differ from all treatments. After reapplication of sludge plant height was higher in the eucalyptus treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (11.21 m) compared with control (7.51 m), mineral fertilizer (7.77 m) and 4 64 Mg ha-1 (8.07 m), which did not differ. The diameter at breast height had the same behavior before the application of biosolids in the highest value observed being 9.28 Mg ha-1 (8.46 cm) compared with control (5.75 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm) and that of mineral fertilizer (6.34 cm) did not differ from the others. Reapplication of the dose of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge in degraded Oxisol provided greater height and diameter at

  15. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik;

    1999-01-01

    To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss.......To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss....

  16. Family Systems and Fertility Intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mönkediek, Bastian; Bras, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Family systems, as normative frameworks in which family processes unfold, are believed to exert a major influence on fertility. While a number of studies have addressed family system effects on family size and the timing of births, the question of how family systems influence fertility intentions

  17. ASSESSMENT OF PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchlorate has been positively detected only in those materials known to be derived from Chilean caliche, which constitute less than 0.2% of U.S. fertilizer application. The data obtained in the preponderance of investigations suggest that fertilizers do not contribute to envir...

  18. LIN28B, LIN28A, KISS1, and KISS1R in idiopathic central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koivu Rosanna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pubertal timing is a strongly heritable trait, but no single puberty gene has been identified. Thus, the genetic background of idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP is poorly understood. Overall, the genetic modulation of pubertal onset most likely arises from the additive effect of multiple genes, but also monogenic causes of ICPP probably exist, as cases of familial ICPP have been reported. Mutations in KISS1 and KISSR, coding for kisspeptin and its receptor, involved in GnRH secretion and puberty onset, have been suggested causative for monogenic ICPP. Variation in LIN28B was associated with timing of puberty in genome-wide association (GWA studies. LIN28B is a human ortholog of the gene that controls, through microRNAs, developmental timing in C. elegans. In addition, Lin28a transgenic mice manifest the puberty phenotypes identified in the human GWAS. Thus, both LIN28B and LIN28A may have a role in pubertal development and are good candidate genes for monogenic ICPP. Methods Thirty girls with ICPP were included in the study. ICPP was defined by pubertal onset before 8 yrs of age, and a pubertal LH response to GnRH testing. The coding regions of LIN28B, LIN28A, KISS1, and KISS1R were sequenced. The missense change in LIN28B was also screened in 132 control subjects. Results No rare variants were detected in KISS1 or KISS1R in the 30 subjects with ICPP. In LIN28B, one missense change, His199Arg, was found in one subject with ICPP. However, this variant was also detected in one of the 132 controls. No variation in LIN28A was found. Conclusions We did not find any evidence that mutations in LIN28B or LIN28A would underlie ICPP. In addition, we confirmed that mutations in KISS1 and KISS1R are not a common cause for ICPP.

  19. LIN28B, LIN28A, KISS1, and KISS1R in idiopathic central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommiska, Johanna; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Koivu, Rosanna; Puhakka, Lea; Juul, Anders; Raivio, Taneli

    2011-09-22

    Pubertal timing is a strongly heritable trait, but no single puberty gene has been identified. Thus, the genetic background of idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) is poorly understood. Overall, the genetic modulation of pubertal onset most likely arises from the additive effect of multiple genes, but also monogenic causes of ICPP probably exist, as cases of familial ICPP have been reported. Mutations in KISS1 and KISSR, coding for kisspeptin and its receptor, involved in GnRH secretion and puberty onset, have been suggested causative for monogenic ICPP. Variation in LIN28B was associated with timing of puberty in genome-wide association (GWA) studies. LIN28B is a human ortholog of the gene that controls, through microRNAs, developmental timing in C. elegans. In addition, Lin28a transgenic mice manifest the puberty phenotypes identified in the human GWAS. Thus, both LIN28B and LIN28A may have a role in pubertal development and are good candidate genes for monogenic ICPP. Thirty girls with ICPP were included in the study. ICPP was defined by pubertal onset before 8 yrs of age, and a pubertal LH response to GnRH testing. The coding regions of LIN28B, LIN28A, KISS1, and KISS1R were sequenced. The missense change in LIN28B was also screened in 132 control subjects. No rare variants were detected in KISS1 or KISS1R in the 30 subjects with ICPP. In LIN28B, one missense change, His199Arg, was found in one subject with ICPP. However, this variant was also detected in one of the 132 controls. No variation in LIN28A was found. We did not find any evidence that mutations in LIN28B or LIN28A would underlie ICPP. In addition, we confirmed that mutations in KISS1 and KISS1R are not a common cause for ICPP.

  20. Luteinizing Hormone Secretion during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulation Tests in Obese Girls with Central Precocious Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Sang; Yoon, Jong Seo; Hwang, Jin Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Girls with precocious puberty have high luteinizing hormone (LH) levels and advanced bone age. Obese children enter puberty at earlier ages than do non-obese children. We analyzed the effects of obesity on LH secretion during gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) tests in girls with precocious puberty. Methods: A total of 981 subjects with idiopathic precocious puberty who had undergone a GnRH stimulation testing between 2008 and 2014 were included in the study. Subjects were divided into three groups based on body mass index (BMI). Auxological data and gonadotropin levels after the GnRH stimulation test were compared. Results: In Tanner stage 2 girls, peak stimulated LH levels on GnRH test were 11.9±7.5, 10.4±6.4, and 9.1±6.1 IU/L among normal-weight, overweight, and obese subjects, respectively (p=0.035 for all comparisons). In Tanner stage 3 girls, peak stimulated LH levels were 14.9±10.9, 12.8±7.9, and 9.6±6.0 IU/L, respectively (p=0.022 for all comparisons). However, in Tanner stage 4 girls, peak stimulated LH levels were not significantly different among normal, overweight, and obese children. On multivariate analysis, BMI standard deviation score was significantly and negatively associated with peak LH (β=-1.178, p=0.001). Conclusion: In girls with central precocious puberty, increased BMI was associated with slightly lower peak stimulated LH levels at early pubertal stages (Tanner stages 2 and 3). This association was not valid in Tanner stage 4 girls. PMID:27215137

  1. The Supply of Birth Control Methods, Education, and Fertility: Evidence from Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Eleches, Cristian

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the supply of birth control methods on fertility behavior by examining Romania's 23-year period of pronatalist policies. Following the lifting of the restrictions in 1989 the immediate decrease in fertility was 30 percent. Women who spent most of their reproductive years under the restrictive regime…

  2. Structural and diffusion effects in the Dutch fertility transition, 1870-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bras, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ever since the Princeton European Fertility Project, structural and diffusion effects on fertility behavior have been juxtaposed. However, we still hardly know what the relative effects were of shifting socio-economic conditions and shifts in sociability in explaining the historical

  3. Structural and diffusion effects in the Dutch fertility transition, 1870-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bras, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ever since the Princeton European Fertility Project, structural and diffusion effects on fertility behavior have been juxtaposed. However, we still hardly know what the relative effects were of shifting socio-economic conditions and shifts in sociability in explaining the historical fert

  4. The Supply of Birth Control Methods, Education, and Fertility: Evidence from Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Eleches, Cristian

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the supply of birth control methods on fertility behavior by examining Romania's 23-year period of pronatalist policies. Following the lifting of the restrictions in 1989 the immediate decrease in fertility was 30 percent. Women who spent most of their reproductive years under the restrictive regime…

  5. [Social differentials of fertility in Latin America and Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuiran, R

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of fertility differentials has been utilized for 3 different purposed in sociodemographic research: as an exploratory procedure designed to identify the principal determinants of reproductive behavior; as a strategy to describe and interpret the process of fertility decline and identify the sectors leading the change; and as a means of projecting future fertility trends. The systematic study of differential fertility began in Mexico and Latin America in the late 1950s, following the models of European and North American research guided by theories of modernization and the demographic transition. Latin American studies attempted to verify the existence of differences in reproductive behavior according to certain socioeconomic characteristics, assuming that the sectors most fully incorporated in the processes of modernization and development would lead the fertility decline. Studies in Mexico have demonstrated that total fertility rates decrease systematically as the size of the place of residence increases and as the level of education increases, although the association with education is not strictly lineal. Various studies have confirmed that economically active women have lower fertility than inactive women, although cross-sectional analyses have had little success in establishing the direction of causality. Evidence exists that in Mexico as elsewhere the initial stage in the transition is accompanied by an increase in the absolute and/or relative magnitude of fertility differences among women in the extreme categories of residence, education, or employment. The magnitude of the differences declines as the transition progresses. Using the method proposed by Bongaarts or 1 of its variants, different studies have emphasized the importance of contraception and nuptiality as factors in total fertility rate differentials by socioeconomic characteristics. The theoretical and methodological limitations of differential analysis should not be overlooked. A common

  6. Children Procedures and Treatment (Fertility Issues)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... approach the subject of fertility preservation with their cancer-stricken child? How is the Oncofertility Consortium addressing the fertility preservation needs of children? How do cancer and cancer treatment affect a child's fertility? Why ...

  7. Children Procedures and Treatment (Fertility Issues)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... approach the subject of fertility preservation with their cancer-stricken child? How is the Oncofertility Consortium addressing the fertility preservation needs of children? How do cancer and cancer treatment affect a child's fertility? Why ...

  8. Internal fertilization in an oviparous frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D S; Stewart, M M; Pough, F H; Brussard, P F

    1981-04-24

    Eleutherodactylus coqui, an oviparous frog, undergoes internal fertilization. If this mode of fertilization occurs in other species of anurans, interpretations of anuran reproductive strategies based on the assumption of external fertilization must be reviewed.

  9. Psoriasis: Female Skin Changes in Various Hormonal Stages throughout Life—Puberty, Pregnancy, and Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Ceovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is one of the most prevalent immune mediated skin diseases worldwide. Despite the large prevalence in both men and women, the pathogenesis of this disease has not yet been fully clarified. Nowadays, it is believed that psoriasis is most likely a T helper Th1/Th17 induced inflammatory disease. Stressful life situations are known to cause flare-ups and psoriasis activity may be linked to stress from major life events. We know that stress greatly affects both the hormone and immune systems and that there are many different hormonal phases throughout a woman’s lifetime. The severity of psoriasis may fluctuate or be influenced by each phase and this relationship can be seen as disease frequency seems to peak during puberty, postpartum, and menopause when hormone levels fall, while symptoms improve during pregnancy, a state when hormone levels are increased.

  10. Maturation of kisspeptinergic neurons coincides with puberty onset in male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Agnete H; Ansel, Laura; Simonneaux, Valerie;

    2010-01-01

    at any age, numerous kisspeptin-positive neurons in the arcuate nucleus were detected in the adult rat. Increasing doses of kisspeptin-54 given peripherally to male rats at PND15, 30, 45, and 60 evoked roughly similar effects, as revealed by the induction of c-Fos in the pituitary and secretion of LH...... periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus of male rats along pubertal development. Neurons expressing Kiss1 mRNA were first detected at PND15, but increased significantly around puberty, and declined again in the adult rat. While virtually no immunoreactive cell bodies were detectable in the AVPV...... and testosterone. These results show that both Kiss1 mRNA and the peptide increase in arcuate nucleus along pubertal maturation. Since kisspeptin signaling is potentially functional, even for peripheral activation, and well before the kisspeptin neuronal system is fully matured, our data support...

  11. A rare case of puberty onset congenital erythropoietic porphyria with ophthalmological manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old male patient was presented with foreign body sensation in both the eyes for 2 years duration and blisters followed by scarring and pigmentation in the photo-exposed areas of the body over the previous 12 years. His urine was reddish colored for the previous year. On examination, there was scarring, hyper-pigmentation of photo-exposed parts of the body along with resorption of the distal phalanges of fingers in both hands except the smallest digit which had onycholysis. Ocular examination indicated scleral necrosis in the interpalpebral areas in both eyes and bilateral dry eye. Hematological examination indicated a picture suggestive of hemolytic anemia. Abdominal ultrasonography indicated an enlarged spleen. These clinical features are suggestive of puberty onset congenital erythropoietic porphyria with ophthalmological manifestations.

  12. Rathke′s cyst with ectopic neurohypophysis presenting as severe short stature with delayed puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic neurohypophysis (EN is found in nearly half of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Rathke′s cyst (RC is uncommon in children and when present, hypopituitarism is found in nearly half of them. We present a fourteen and half-year-old girl with severe short stature and delayed puberty who on evaluation was found to have GHD, secondary hypocortisolism, and hypogonadism. Imaging revealed hypoplastic anterior pituitary, stalk agenesis, EN at tuber cinereum and intrapituitary RC. This is perhaps the first report of simultaneous occurrence of EN and RC, which was seen in a girl with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. A primary defect in pituitary development may explain this simultaneous occurrence of EN and RC and hence this severe anterior pituitary function deficit.

  13. Leuprolide Acetate 1-Month Depot for Central Precocious Puberty: Hormonal Suppression and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neely EKirk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods. This prospective US multicenter trial of leuprolide acetate 1-month depot (7.5–15 mg for central precocious puberty utilized an open-label treatment period, long-term follow-up, and adult callback. Forty-nine females Results. Subjects were treated for years. Mean peak GnRH-stimulated LH and FSH were prepubertal after the first dose and remained suppressed throughout treatment. During treatment, mean estradiol decreased to the limit of detection and mean testosterone decreased but remained above prepubertal norms. During posttreatment follow-up ( years, all patients achieved a pubertal hormonal response within 1 year and menses were reported in all females ≥12 years old. No impairment of reproductive function was observed at adulthood (mean age: 24.8 years.

  14. Female rats are less susceptible during puberty to the lethal effects of percutaneous exposure to VX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnzi K.M. Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve agents with low volatility such as VX are primarily absorbed through the skin when released during combat or a terrorist attack. The barrier function of the stratum corneum may be compromised during certain stages of development, allowing VX to more easily penetrate through the skin. However, age-related differences in the lethal potency of VX have yet to be evaluated using the percutaneous (pc route of exposure. Thus, we estimated the 24 and 48 h median lethal dose for pc exposure to VX in male and female rats during puberty and early adulthood. Pubescent, female rats were less susceptible than both their male and adult counterparts to the lethal effects associated with pc exposure to VX possibly because of hormonal changes during that stage of development. This study emphasizes the need to control for both age and sex when evaluating the toxicological effects associated with nerve agent exposure in the rat model.

  15. [Thyroid gland and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, P

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the thyroid hormones are associated with a number of aspects of the human reproduction. Both states, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, have significant effect on the estrogen and androgen metabolism, the menstrual function and on fertility. The role of thyroid hormones (TH) during infertility has been little exploited. Interesting facts are that TH deficiency is more common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and in certain cases with unexplained infertility. There are very few studies on the effect and paracrine regulation of TH and its receptors in the female reproductive tract. This report provides an overview of the most common thyroid disorders and their impact on ovarian function and reproductive performance in women as well as in cases with infertility and the implementation of assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

  16. Double fertilization in Helianthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Telżyńska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After controlled pollination of Helianthus annuus L. florets, the whole course of fertilization is described and documented on 24 microphotos. The timing of events is evaluated. The average cell cycle in the proembryo is 2 hours and the nuclear cycle in endosperm - 60 minutes.Plasmoptysis is suggested as the mechanism of pollen tube opening in the synergid. The structure of the thread-like sperm nucleus is interpreted as an end to end union of chromosomes, and the morphological changes of the sperm nuclei are explained as folding and coiling, based on a spiralization mechanism of chromosomes. Cytochemical observations indicating ribosome formation in the course of the nuclear cycles in the endosperm are described. The mechanisms accelerating nuclear cycles in the endosperm are discussed.

  17. Frequency of different types of precocious puberty, determining the predisposing factor and need to treatment in children - Emam Hospital (1993-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayeri H

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was performed in order to detect the frequency of different types of precocious puberty, predisposing factors and to show which group of patients need to treatment. Materials and Methods: In this study, 74 patients who referred to pediatric endocrine clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital and private office from 1993-2000 were assessed. A complete history was taken and physical examination was done in all patients by pediatrics endocrinologist. Bone age was done in all patients and specific hormonal tests were measured in some of them. Results: Among 74 patients, 50 cases (67.6 percent were female and 24 cases (32.4 percent were male. The age of the patients was between 0.8-10 years old with mean 5.37 year. 75 percent of male patients had central (complete precocious puberty and 25 percent had peripheral (incomplete precocious puberty. 40 percent of female patients had central precocious puberty, 46 percent had premature telarche, 8 percent had premature pubarche, 2 percent had premature menarche and 4 percent had other kinds of precocious puberty (one case with hypothyroidism and one case with Mccune-Albright syndrome. 10 percent of female patients with central precocious puberty had predisposing factor and 90 percent of them were idiopathic. 38.8 percent of male patients with central precocious puberty had predisposing factor and 61.2 percent of them were idiopathic. 100 percent of male patients with peripheral precocious puberty had congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. 38 percent of female patients and 100 percent of male patients needed to treatment. Conclusion: According to this study and references, precocious puberty in female usually benign but in male patients it should be evaluated thoroughly because they usually have a serious disorder which needs treatment.

  18. Bone mineral density and body composition in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty before and after treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra B. Alessandri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic central precocious puberty and its postponement with a (gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH agonist are complex conditions, the final effects of which on bone mass are difficult to define. We evaluated bone mass, body composition, and bone remodeling in two groups of girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty, namely one group that was assessed at diagnosis and a second group that was assessed three years after GnRH agonist treatment. METHODS: The precocious puberty diagnosis and precocious puberty treatment groups consisted of 12 girls matched for age and weight to corresponding control groups of 12 (CD and 14 (CT girls, respectively. Bone mineral density and body composition were assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Lumbar spine bone mineral density was estimated after correction for bone age and the mathematical calculation of volumetric bone mineral density. CONEP: CAAE-0311.0.004.000-06. RESULTS: Lumbar spine bone mineral density was slightly increased in individuals diagnosed with precocious puberty compared with controls; however, after correction for bone age, this tendency disappeared (CD = -0.74 + 0.9 vs. precocious puberty diagnosis = -1.73 + 1.2. The bone mineral density values of girls in the precocious puberty treatment group did not differ from those observed in the CT group. CONCLUSION: There is an increase in bone mineral density in girls diagnosed with idiopathic central precocious puberty. Our data indicate that the increase in bone mineral density in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty is insufficient to compensate for the marked advancement in bone age observed at diagnosis. GnRH agonist treatment seems to have no detrimental effect on bone mineral density.

  19. Women's preferences for masculinity in male faces are highest during reproductive age range and lower around puberty and post-menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Saxton, Tamsin K; Roberts, S Craig; Jones, Benedict C; Debruine, Lisa M; Vukovic, Jovana; Perrett, David I; Feinberg, David R; Chenore, Todd

    2010-07-01

    Masculinity in male faces is thought to be a sign of mate quality and is associated with measures of long-term health. Previous studies have demonstrated that women's masculinity preferences change across the menstrual cycle with women preferring more masculine men during phases of the menstrual cycle where fertility is highest (i.e. the late follicular phase). Given the hormonal correlates of such preferences and that these hormones change across the life span, we tested for differences in female masculinity preferences at different ages. We compared the masculinity preferences of peri-pubescent girls and young adult women (Study 1), circum-menopausal women reporting to either be pre- or post-menopause (Study 2), and a large sample of women across a wide range of ages (Study 3). In all three studies, preferences for masculinity in male faces were highest in women who were at a reproductively active age. Preferences for masculinity were lower when females were peri-pubescent, post-menopausal, or at ages corresponding to these groups. These data support the notion that masculinity in male faces is an important trait for reproductively relevant mate choice decisions. These data also highlight a shift in female visual preferences for men that is associated with important stages of the lifespan. Visual preferences appear to track important hormonal changes associated with age; as women pass puberty their preferences shift towards facial traits associated with mate quality and as women undergo menopause their preferences for such facial traits decrease. Overall, these results demonstrate the important role of reproductive status and support the notion that preferences for male faces are tied to reproductively relevant hormones. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Migrant fertility differentials in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundquist, F; Brown, L A

    1989-01-01

    The effects of migration on fertility in Ecuador were analyzed by subdividing migrant categories into permanent-, return-, circular-, and non-migrants, and context factors into 6 socioeconomic and agrarian variables. The study is introduced with a conceptual framework that explains personal intermediate variables and their influence on fertility in terms of demographic transition theory, and then defines the influences of selection for fertility, disruption of marital unions, and socialization into fertility norms at the origin vs. assimilation of norms at the destination. Migrants are usually better educated, younger and upwardly mobile, all selecting for lower fertility. Migration disrupts formation of marital unions, and causes separation of spouses, lowering fertility. Data for this study were from the 1974 and 1982 Ecuadorian Population Censuses. The contextual variables analyzed were urban/rural; manufacturing/agricultural; mineral extraction/economic recession; long/recent agricultural settlement; domestic/export crop; and large/medium sized farm. The analysis of personal attributes showed that fertility increased over the range on non-migrants through circular-, return- to permanent-migrants, a finding explained by degrees of disruption of unions. Higher fertility was associated with less education, lower economic participation, higher prevalence of marriage, longer residence and older ages. Regression analysis also showed that personal attributes outweighed contextual factors: thus age, marriage rates, residence time, education and economic activity were significant. Contextual factors were important only for non-migrants, except for destination variables which affected return-migrants and origin variables which affected circular-migrants. Low fertility was associated with urbanization, industrialization, mineral extraction, large farms, recent farm settlement and export crops. The results indicate cear influences of modernity and place influences on

  1. Urinary bisphenol a levels in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Erdem; Aşçı, Ali; Erkekoğlu, Pınar; Akçurin, Sema; Gümüşel, Belma Koçer; Bircan, Iffet

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical, particularly used to harden plastics. BPA is thought to have negative health effects on both laboratory animals and humans. Consider ing the decline in age of onset of puberty noted in recent years, particularly among girls, the importance of BPA as an estrogenic endocrine disruptor has increased. In this study, we aimed to determine urinary BPA levels in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). Non-obese girls newly diagnosed with ICPP (n=28, age 4-8 years) constituted the study group. The control group consisted of 25 healthy age-matched girls with no history of ICPP or any other endocrine disorder. Urinary BPA levels were measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography. In the ICPP group, urinary BPA levels were significantly higher compared to the control group [median 8.34 (0.84-67.35) μg/g creatinine and 1.62 (0.3-25.79) μg/g creatinine, respectively (OR=8.68, 95% CI:2.03-32.72, p=0.001)]. There was no marked correlation between urinary BPA levels and body mass index in either group. In the ICPP group, no significant correlations were found between urinary BPA levels and serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the urinary BPA levels in Turkish girls with ICPP. Our results indicate that the estrogenic effects of BPA may be an etiologic factor in ICPP.

  2. Timing of puberty in Iranian girls according to their living area: A national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Esmaeil Motlagh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to compare the timing of puberty between various geographic locations and different ethnicities. Methods: This national survey was conducted in 20 provinces in Iran. Healthy Iranian girls were selected from public schools using cluster random sampling. A total number of 30 clusters including 7493 girls, aged 6.0-20 years, were selected. In order to compare different areas, the national classification of the provinces based on climate, ethnicity, geographic locations, and socioeconomic variables were used. Accordingly, there are 11 regions in Iran. Analysis of variance was used to compare the mean ages of menarche, pubarche, and thelarche in different regions. Results: Tehranian girls, with 11.99 ± 1.35 years (mean ± SD, had the lowest age of menarche which was statistically significantly. The second region with lowest age at menarche was Fars (12.40 ± 1.27 years. The mean age at breast bud stage (B2 was significantly lower in Ghazvin-Zanjan region (8.97 ± 1.45 years. In Fars region, the mean age at B2 stage of breast development (11.01 ± 1.88 years was higher than other regions except for Mazendran-Guilan and Tehran-related cities. The mean age at public hair development at Tanner stage 2 (PH2 in Kordestan-Lorestan-Ilam region (10.70 ± 1.23 years was significantly higher than other regions. Conclusions: We found significant differences in the age of pubertal stages of girls living in various regions with different ethnicity and geographic characteristics. Considering the impact of pubertal age on general health, more studies should be done about the lifestyle and environmental factors affecting the onset of puberty.

  3. Heritability of volumetric brain changes and height in children entering puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soelen, Inge L C; Brouwer, Rachel M; van Baal, G Caroline M; Schnack, Hugo G; Peper, Jiska S; Chen, Lei; Kahn, René S; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2013-03-01

    The human brain undergoes structural changes in children entering puberty, while simultaneously children increase in height. It is not known if brain changes are under genetic control, and whether they are related to genetic factors influencing the amount of overall increase in height. Twins underwent magnetic resonance imaging brain scans at age 9 (N = 190) and 12 (N = 125). High heritability estimates were found at both ages for height and brain volumes (49-96%), and high genetic correlation between ages were observed (r(g) > 0.89). With increasing age, whole brain (+1.1%), cerebellum (+4.2%), cerebral white matter (+5.1%), and lateral ventricle (+9.4%) volumes increased, and third ventricle (-4.0%) and cerebral gray matter (-1.6%) volumes decreased. Children increased on average 13.8 cm in height (9.9%). Genetic influences on individual difference in volumetric brain and height changes were estimated, both within and across traits. The same genetic factors influenced both cerebral (20% heritable) and cerebellar volumetric changes (45%). Thus, the extent to which changes in cerebral and cerebellar volumes are heritable in children entering puberty are due to the same genes that influence change in both structures. The increase in height was heritable (73%), and not associated with cerebral volumetric change, but positively associated with cerebellar volume change (r(p) = 0.24). This association was explained by a genetic correlation (r(g) = 0.48) between height and cerebellar change. Brain and body each expand at their own pace and through separate genetic pathways. There are distinct genetic processes acting on structural brain development, which cannot be explained by genetic increase in height.

  4. Gonadotropin and Estradiol Levels after Leuprolide Stimulation Tests in Brazilian Girls with Precocious Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Flavia R R; Lara, Lucia A S; Martins, Wellington P; Ferriani, Rui A; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina J S; de Sá, Marcos Felipe S; Reis, Rosana M

    2015-10-01

    To determine the best cutoff value on the leuprolide stimulation test for the diagnosis of central precocious puberty (CPP) in a Brazilian population. This observational study included 60 girls with CPP, as shown on the basis of serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) before and 3 hours after subcutaneous administration of 500 μg leuprolide acetate and by measuring serum estradiol concentrations 24 hours later. Six months later, each subject was clinically evaluated to determine whether she had experienced progressive or nonprogressive puberty. Analyzing the best cutoff for LH after subcutaneous administration of 500 μg leuprolide acetate. The best cutoff was a 3-hour LH level of greater than 4.0 mIU/mL, providing the highest sensitivity (73%) and specificity (83.1%), whereas a 3-hour LH level greater than 8.4 mIU/mL had a specificity of 100%. A 24-hour E2 concentration greater than 52.9 pg/mL had a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 74%. There was no association between pubertal development and disease progression. Signs such as thelarche and pubarche did not determine the evolution of the disease (P = .17). Clinical condition was associated with bone age/chronological age (P = .01), basal LH (P < .01), 3-hour LH (P = .02), baseline LH/FSH indices (P < .01) and after 3 hours (P < .01), and E2 at 24 hours (P = .02). The optimal parameter indicating hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis activation in our sample was a 3-hour LH level greater than 4.0 mIU/mL. A diagnosis of CPP, however, should be based on a set of criteria and not on an isolated measurement, because typical laboratory findings associated with CPP may not be present in all patients. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Etiology and therapeutic outcomes of children with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eungu; Cho, Ja Hyang; Choi, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to investigate the etiology, clinical features, and outcomes of patients with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty (GIPP). Methods The study included 16 patients (14 female and 2 male patients) who manifested secondary sexual characteristics, elevated sex hormones, or adrenal androgens with prepubertal luteinizing hormone levels after gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation diagnosed between May 1994 and December 2015. Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia were excluded. Clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment modalities, and outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. Results The median age at diagnosis was 2.6 years (range, 0.7–7.9 years) and median follow-up duration was 4.6 years (range, 1 month–9.8 years). Patients with McCune-Albright syndrome (n=5) and functional ovarian cysts (n=4) presented with vaginal bleeding and elevated estradiol levels (23.3±17.5 pg/mL); adrenocortical tumors (n=4) with premature pubarche and elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels (87.2–6,530 µg/dL); and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-producing tumor (n=1) with premature pubarche and elevated β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels (47.4 mIU/mL). Two patients were idiopathic. Six patients transited to gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty median 3.3 years (range, 0.3–5.1 years) after the onset of GIPP. Initial and follow-up height standard deviation scores (0.99±0.84 vs. 1.10±1.10, P=0.44) and bone age advancement (1.49±1.77 years vs. 2.02±1.95 years, P=0.06) were not significantly different. Conclusion The etiologies of GIPP are heterogeneous, and treatment and prognosis is quite different according to the etiology. Efficacy of treatment with aromatase inhibitors needs to be evaluated after long-term follow-up. PMID:27777905

  6. Associations between neuromuscular function and levels of physical activity differ for boys and girls during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kelsey, Megan M; Melanson, Edward L; McQueen, Matthew B; Enoka, Roger M

    2013-08-01

    To compare the associations between neuromuscular performance and anthropometric characteristics with habitual levels of physical activity in boys and girls during the initial stages of puberty. In a cross-sectional study of 72 healthy children (39 boys and 33 girls) ranging in age from 8 to 14 years, sex differences in anthropometric and motor performance characteristics were compared at 3 Tanner stages (T1-T3). Outcome variables included dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of body composition, assessments of neuromuscular function, and levels of physical activity (steps/day) measured by accelerometry. Physical activity was lower in girls than boys at T2 and T3, but there was no sex difference at T1. Physical activity increased with Tanner stage for boys but did not differ between Tanner stages in girls. Physical activity at each Tanner stage was strongly associated (R(2) > 0.85) with neuromuscular characteristics for both boys and girls, but percentage of body fat also was associated with physical activity for T3 girls. The attenuated gains in neuromuscular function experienced by girls in early stages of puberty were strongly associated with lower levels of physical activity, whereas the increase in physical activity exhibited by boys was mostly related to increases in the strength and endurance of leg muscles. Because sedentary activity is a known contributor to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth, this study helps to identify possible contributors to decreases in physical activity in young girls and provides potential targets for early intervention. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Possible role of the leptin system in controlling puberty in the male chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohga, Hirofumi; Hirata, Daisuke; Matsumori, Kojiro; Kitano, Hajime; Nagano, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2017-01-01

    Leptin directly regulates kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamus and gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary, making it a central player in the onset of mammalian puberty. Recently, we identified two leptin genes (lepa and lepb) and a single leptin receptor (lepr) in the marine perciform fish chub mackerel; however, the expression of these genes did not correlate with the expression of important reproductive genes or ovarian stage during female puberty. Here, we expand upon these initial observations by evaluating the expression of lepa, lepb, and lepr during pubertal transition and under differential feeding conditions in the male chub mackerel. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that lepa was primarily expressed in the liver of pubertal and gonadal recrudescence adults, as well as in the brain of adult fish; lepb was primarily expressed in the brain of all fish tested; and lepr was widely expressed in a variety of tissues. qRT-PCR analyses revealed significant increases in the hepatic expression of lepa in accordance with testicular stage, whereas pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (fshβ) expression increased in unison with hepatic lepa. In contrast, expression of both brain lepa and lepb dramatically decreased during pubertal transition, with brain kisspeptin 1 (kiss1) expression strongly correlating with leptin expression patterns. In pre-pubertal males, lepa, lepb, and lper gene expression in the brain, pituitary gland, and liver decreased in fish given a high feed diet, relative to the controlled feeding group. Taken together, these results indicate high sexual specificity of leptin expression, suggesting a possible role for leptin signaling in endocrine and neuroendocrine functions during spermatogenesis in the pubertal male chub mackerel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modelling and simulation of nutrient dispersion from coated fertilizer granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Radzuan; Daud, Hanita; Nor, Shafiq Mohd.

    2014-10-01

    The usage of Controlled-Release Fertilizer (CRF) is essential in plants and crops to fulfill the need and requirement for the modern agriculture which now feeds 6 billion people. Therefore modeling and simulation of nutrient release from coated fertilizer has become the best method to study the behavior of some parameters toward water saturation in and nutrient release from the coated-fertilizer granule. This paper is the improvement development of modeling and computer simulation by Basu [1] which include some of the factors affecting the water saturation time and nutrient release time from a coated-fertilizer. The effect of granule radius, the diffusivity of water and nutrient, the temperature of surrounding, the contact areas and the characteristic of the coating are studied and the simulation was developed using MATLAB software. The studies and understanding of this project is very important and useful especially to determine the important parameters in the manufacturing process of the coated-fertilizer granule and also will be useful for the farmers/users in the selection of the best fertilizers for their crops.

  9. Factors influencing final/near-final height in 12 boys with central precocious puberty treated with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists. Italian Study Group of Physiopathology of Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, V; De Sanctis, V; Corrias, A; Fortini, M; Galluzzi, F; Bertelloni, S; Guarneri, M P; Pozzan, G; Cisternino, M; Pasquino, A M

    2000-07-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) have been demonstrated as the therapy of choice for central precocious puberty (CPP). Few studies have provided male patients' adult height data. In our multicenter study we evaluated long-term effects of different GnRHa preparations and final/near-final height (FH) in 12 boys with CPP and analyzed the factors influencing FH. Patients' mean chronological age at the time of diagnosis was 7.6 +/- 0.9 yr. Three patients were treated only with triptorelin at a mean dose of 90 microg/kg i.m. every 28 days. Nine patients initially received buserelin (at a mean initial dose of 53.4 microg/kg/day i.n. divided into 3-6 equal doses) or buserelin (at a mean dose of 36.7 microg/kg/day s.c.) and were subsequently switched to triptorelin. The GnRHa therapy was continued for 4.1 +/- 0.6 yr (range 2.9-5.4). The mean predicted adult height increased from 169.9 +/- 4.2 cm at diagnosis to 180.7 +/- 6.0 cm at the end of treatment. Mean FH was 176.1 +/- 6.1 cm (170.1-190.7), corresponding to mean SDS(CA) 0.4 +/- 0.8 (-0.6/2.5), mean SDSBA 0.2 +/- 0.9 (-0.6/2.4) and mean corrected SDS for target height of 0.4 +/- 0.6 (-0.8/1.2). Multiple regression analysis revealed that FH was mainly influenced by target height and height at discontinuation of GnRHa therapy. The present data indicate that GnRHa therapy significantly improves growth prognosis in boys with CPP and fully restores genetic height potential.

  10. Household consumption, female employment and fertility decisions; A microeconometric analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalwij, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is mainly concerned with a simultaneous analysis of the economic determinants of female employment and fertility decisions on a household level in the Netherlands. In particular, this thesis is interested in the role of the employment decisions of women in the observed behavior that high

  11. Caste, socio-economic status and fertility -- a study of proximate determinants of fertility in village Riwasa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, G

    1985-10-01

    The intermediary variables of ritual stratification, i.e., caste, and secular stratification, i.e., socioeconomic status, were examined to explain fertility in a survey of 140 fertile women in Riwasa village, Bhiwani District, Haryana state, India, in 1981. The subjects interviewed were equally divided among 17 castes on the basis of untouchability. The intermediary variables evaluated were caste-consciousness, modernization, conformity to family ethical codes and husband-wife communication. The fertility indices were live births, living children, expected additional births and ideal family size. Results were expressed in percentages. Results of the survey confirmed previous findings that fertility was inversely related to caste and socioeconomic status. These associations were explained here, however, by the behavior of the intermediary variables. Fertility was inversely related to level of modernization and to husband-wife communication. Although caste-consciousness and conformity to family ethical codes were directly related to fertility, even among the higher castes. There were no differences in this study population between high and middle socioeconomic class, probably because the high socioeconomic group in this village resembled middle class in typical urban settings.

  12. Fertility in Islamic Republic of Iran: Levels, Trends and Differentials during Three Decades (1967-1996

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    Kazem Mohammad

    2002-12-01

    The detailed nature of these data collected for each birth enabled fertility rates to be calculated for exact periods before the survey, for exact calendar years. Higher fertility rates were found for the period 10-15 and 15-20 years preceding the survey. These high fertility levels are probably due to some socio-economic changes in favor of higher level of fertility immediately after the 1979 revolution. However the results of the present survey show during 1967-1996, the TFR1 had dropped from 6.38 to 2.88 (an expected TFR based on fertility behavior during 1992-96. This decline was probably due to delay in marriage and policy changes in favor of population control particularly since 1987. Despite this potential fertility decline in recent years, Iran is expected to face a baby boom as the offspring who were born during the 1976-86 reach to the reproductive age in the coming decades.

  13. Research Progress in the Effect and Mechanism of Fertilization Measures on Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongfeng; HUANG; Limin; WANG; Weihua; LI; Xiaoxuan; QIU

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly summarized the domestic and foreign research progress in the relationship between fertilization measures and soil fertility. It elaborated the relationship between fertilization measures and basic physical and chemical properties,soil enzyme activity,soil microorganism fertility index,and soil animal fertility index. It pointed out future researches about the relationship between fertilization measures and soil fertility include:( i) the relationship between fine and high efficient input of organic fertilizer and soil fertility,( ii) in-depth research of soil zoology fertility index,( iii) soil biology about long-term fertilization,and( iv) soil fertilization and agricultural diffused pollution. It is intended to provide scientific reference for improving farmland soil fertility and maintaining excellent ecological environment of farmland through proper fertilization measures.

  14. Socioeconomic status and fertility before, during, and after the demographic transition: An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dribe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a long interest in the historical fertility transition, there is still a lack of knowledge about disaggregated patterns that could help us understand the mechanisms behind the transition. In previous research the widely held view is that there was a change in the association between social status and fertility in conjunction with the fertility transition, implying that fertility went from being positively connected to social status (higher status was connected with higher fertility to being negatively associated with fertility. Objective: The aim of this collection is to study socioeconomic patterns in the fertility transition in a variety of contexts using similar approaches and measures of socioeconomic status. Methods: All contributions use different kinds of micro-level socioeconomic and demographic data and statistical models in the analysis. Data either come from census-like records or population registers. Conclusions: There is no consistent evidence for the hypothesis that socioeconomic status was positively related to fertility before the demographic transition. While such a correlation was clearly present in some contexts it was clearly not in other contexts. There is more unanimous support for the idea that the upper-and middle classes acted as forerunners in the transition, while especially farmers were late to change their fertility behavior. It is also evident that both parity-specific stopping and prolonged birth intervals (spacing were important in the fertility transition.

  15. Behavioral aggressiveness in boys with sexual precocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP questionnaire (children′s aggression scale-parent version. Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 - 24.2, 2.6 - 8.3,1-5.6,0 - 7.1, and 0 - 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.

  16. [Child survival, fertility, and family planning in Africa. Uncertain prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbacke, C

    1987-10-01

    This work summarizes a paper by Cynthia B. Lloyd and Serguey Ivanov entitled "The Effects of Improved Child Survival on Family Planning Practice and Fertility" that was presented at the October 1987 conference in Nairobi on the health benefits of family planning for women and children. The paper presented results of a systematic literature review that sought to answer 2 questions: 1) do improved prospects of child survival reduce fertility, and 2) if so, what role does family planning play in the process. The 4 parts of the study defined the theoretical framework of the analysis, examined socioeconomic factors that could influence family building strategies, reviewed empiric research on the subject, and discussed policy implications. Improved survival prospects for children have 4 different effects which promote fertility decline. The transition effect refers to the parents' growing awareness that they can influence future events. The physiologic effect results when lactation is uninterrupted by early death of the child. When fertility behavior becomes more calculated and less fatalistic, demand and supply effects enter into play. The relationship between fertility and mortality is 2-directional. Socioeconomic factors determine the number of surviving children desired by a couple. In the traditionally agricultural societies of sub-Saharan Africa, the economic value of children far exceeds their costs, which at any rate are shared by the extended family and the community at large. The age distribution of death largely determines the predictability of child survival. High mortality after the 1st year as in Sahel countries which have the highest child morality rates in the world is unfavorable to family planning. The distribution of causes of death is also important because parents are more likely to notice improved survival prospects and change their fertility expectations accordingly if they themselves helped improve conditions rather than merely benefitting from

  17. Male fertility in Greece: Trends and differentials by education level and employment status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tragaki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than downplayed, the role of men in the demographic analysis of reproduction has been entirely neglected. However, male fertility can be an important issue for exploring how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics. Objective: This paper intends to study fertility variations over time, relying solely on data referring to father's socio-demographic characteristics; in particular, their age, education level, and employment status. Methods: We use a combination of Labor Force Survey and Demographic Statistics data on population and Vital Statistics on births to estimate male fertility indicators and fertility differentials by education level and employment status, for the period 1992-2011 in Greece. In addition, over-time developments in male TFR are separated into structural (education-specific and employment-specific distributions and behavioral (fertility, per se changes. Results: We find that the male fertility level is declining, the fertility pattern is moving into higher ages, and the reproduction period for men is getting shorter. From 1992 up to 2008, changes in male fertility were mostly driven by behavioral rather than compositional factors. However, the decline of male fertility over the period of economic recession (2008-2011 is largely attributed to the continuous decrease in the proportions of employed men. Conclusions: The study suggests that male fertility merits further exploration. In particular, years of economic downturn and countries where household living standards are mostly associated with male employment, a father's employability is likely to emerge as an increasingly important factor of fertility outcomes.

  18. Bucking social norms: Examining anomalous fertility aspirations in the face of HIV in Lusaka, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ann M.; Keogh, Sarah; Kavanaugh, Megan; Bankole, Akinrinola; Mulambia, Chishimba; Mutombo, Namuunda

    2014-01-01

    In settings of high fertility and high HIV prevalence, individuals are making fertility decisions while simultaneously trying to avoid or manage HIV. We sought to increase our understanding of how individuals dually manage HIV risk while attempting to achieve their fertility goals as part of the project entitled HIV Status and Achieving Fertility Desires conducted in Zambia in 2011. Using multivariate regression to predict fertility patterns based on socio-demographic characteristics for respondents from facility-based and community-based surveys, we employed Anomalous Case Analysis (ACA) whereby in-depth interview respondents were selected from the groups of outliers amongst the survey respondents who reported lower or higher fertility preferences than predicted as well as those who adhered to predicted patterns, and lived in Lusaka (n=45). All of the facility-based respondents were HIV-positive. We utilize the Theory of Conjunctural Action (TCA) to categorize domains of influence on individuals’ preferences and behavior. Both community-based and facility-based right-tail respondents (outliers whose fertility intentions indicated that they wanted a/nother child when we predicted that they did not) expressed comparatively less control over their fertility and gave more weight to pressures from others to continue childbearing. Partner communication about fertility desires was greater among left-tail respondents (outliers whose fertility intentions indicated that they did not want a/nother child when we predicted that they did). HIV-positive right-tail respondents were more likely to see anti-retroviral therapies (ARTs) which prevent mother to child transmission of HIV as highly effective, mitigating inhibitions to further childbearing. Drug interactions between ARTs and contraceptives were identified as a limitation to HIV-positive individuals’ contraceptive options on both sides of the distribution. Factors that should be taken into account in the future to

  19. [Attempts at biotechnical induction of puberty in young female pigs. 2. Effects of various time intervals between one puberty induction with PMS and HCG to the following estrus synchronization on estrus and ovulation in animals about 190 days old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, J

    1977-01-01

    A biological engineering approach to induce puberty in 125 young female fattening pigs aged 190 days was undertaken on the basis of a mixture of 500 IU PMS (Prolosanserum, Dessau) with 250 IU HCG (Gonabion, Dresden). The injections were made subcutaneously. Pronounced oestrus symptoms were recorded from the external genital organs of 80% of the probands up to ten days after injection, associated with toleration in 52.8% of them. Toleration usually started on the fourth to sixth days after injection. Cycles began to develop in 57.1% up to the next oestrus period. Animals with -/x weight increase per die of 400 g exhibited lower responses. Results in terms of heat and ovulation were lower along with shorter intervals, when oestric synchronisation was undertaken 53, 32, and 17 days after the induction of puberty (20 days Suisynchron, Bernburg; 750 IU PMS).

  20. [Prolactin and male fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, G; Börner, A; Lauterbach, H; Thiel, W

    1983-03-01

    On 68 selected patients with disturbances of the potentia generandi et/sive coeundi (25 males with healthy metabolism and 43 males with diabetes) as well as 14 control persons PRL, LH, FSH, testosterone and oestradiol were determined radioimmunologically and the results were ascribed to sexological, clinical, spermatological and testo-histological findings. A statistically secure correlation was found between PRL values and disturbance of the libido as well as the presence of a gynaecomasty. PRL did not correlate with the spermatological variables volume of ejaculate, relative and absolute number of spermatozoa and motility. PRL did also not correlate with the testohistological findings. A relation between PRL and the peptide hormones LH and FSH as well as the steroid hormones testosterone and oestradiol could not be ascertained. Therefore the diagnostic values of a PRL determination is much limited; the pertinency of a hyperprolactinaemia may be increased by the proof of the symptoms reduction of libido and gynaecomasty with simultaneous disturbance of fertility. In our opinion the definition of hyperprolactinaemia needs revision, since at only determination of the basal value of more than 800 mU/l no more frequently pathologically andrological findings are to be observed than below 200 mU/l.

  1. [Assessment of the effects of age at start of puberty on mental health in pre-adolescence: results of a longitudinal study (1989-1991)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, M; Plancherel, B; Nuñez, R; Bettschart, W

    1993-01-01

    The transition from childhood to adolescence is widely believed to be a stressful period in which the child faces multiple changes: physical changes, school choices, development of new social roles, and changes in the relation with his or her parents and friends. We investigated the effects of the timing of puberty on mental health, studied in a population of 219 young adolescents who were followed during three years (mean age at the beginning of the study was 12.5 years). The changes in the perception of the individual's body associated with puberty depended on the child's gender. Significant events during puberty had a negative effect on mental health. Although puberty remains a critical period of temporary unstable and fragile transition, most of the young adolescents coped relatively well with the physiological, psychological and social changes they faced.

  2. The MAM-E17 schizophrenia rat model: Comprehensive behavioral analysis of pre-pubertal, pubertal and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kállai, Veronika; Tóth, Attila; Gálosi, Rita; Péczely, László; Ollmann, Tamás; Petykó, Zoltán; László, Kristóf; Kállai, János; Szabó, Imre; Karádi, Zoltán; Lénárd, László

    2017-08-14

    The MAM-E17 model is one of the most accepted schizophrenia rat models, which follows the neurodevelopmental theory of the disease. While symptoms of MAM-E17 rats were studied extensively, their examinations were usually restricted to adulthood and in a few cases to prepuberty. It is well known, however, that schizophrenia symptoms often start at puberty or early adulthood. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the behavioral characteristics of MAM-E17 rats in various tests throughout three different age-periods, namely in prepuberty, late puberty and adulthood. In open field test, MAM-E17 rats displayed increased locomotor activity, elevated sniffing frequency and, as tendency, enhanced rearing activity. The elevated activity turned up in late puberty and remained there in adulthood, too. There was also a deficient prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle response in late puberty and adulthood, but not before puberty. In rotarod task, MAM-treated rats performed better than control rats. The enhanced performance on rotarod was only present in late puberty and adulthood. In elevated plus maze test MAM-treated rats displayed diminished anxiety mostly in prepuberty. Histological analysis revealed reduced volume and cell disarray in the dorsal hippocampus. This is the first comprehensive study about symptoms of MAM-E17 rats manifested in behavioral tests carried out in prepuberty, late puberty and adulthood. Results display the age-dependent appearance of schizophrenia symptoms in the same rats. The present findings provide basic information to accomplish the schizophrenia related animal research, as well as can also confer further data to develop preventive treatment for human patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fertilization of SRC willow. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L; Ingerslev, Morten; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) willow is an emerging cropping system in focus for production of biomass for energy. To increase production, the willow is commonly fertilized, but studies have shown differing effects of fertilization on biomass production, ranging from almost no response...... impacts of different doses of mineral fertilizer, manure and sewage sludge in a commercially grown SRC willow stand. We examined macro nutrient and heavy metal leaching rates and calculated element balances to evaluate the environmental impact. Growth responses were reported in a former paper (Sevel et al....... “Fertilization of SRC Willow, I: Biomass Production Response” Bioenergy Research, 2013). Nitrogen leaching was generally low, between 1 and 7 kg N ha−1 year−1 when doses of up to 120 kg N ha−1 year−1 were applied. Higher doses of 240 and 360 kg N ha−1 as single applications caused leaching of 66 and 99 kg N ha−1...

  4. Fertility Desire and Reproductive Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding fertility desire and reproductive health care needs of HIV positive men and women in the era ... and related consequences. ... inform national policy decisions on PMTCT, HIV ... The study population was included proportional to.

  5. Food security: Fertilizing hidden hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Levermann, Anders

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric CO2 fertilization may go some way to compensating the negative impact of climatic changes on crop yields, but it comes at the expense of a deterioration of the current nutritional value of food.

  6. IVF-In Vitro Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, George H.

    1980-01-01

    Issues surrounding the controversial topic of in vitro fertilization and artificial manipulation of reproduction are discussed. The author examines the moral and ethical implications and presents results of a survey of various religious groups. (SA)

  7. Soil water erosion under different cultivation systems and different fertilization rates and forms over 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The action of rain and surface runoff together are the active agents of water erosion, and further influences are the soil type, terrain, soil cover, soil management, and conservation practices. Soil water erosion is low in the no-tillage management system, being influenced by the amount and form of lime and fertilizer application to the soil, among other factors. The aim was to evaluate the effect of the form of liming, the quantity and management of fertilizer application on the soil and water losses by erosion under natural rainfall. The study was carried out between 2003 and 2013 on a Humic Dystrupept soil, with the following treatments: T1 - cultivation with liming and corrective fertilizer incorporated into the soil in the first year, and with 100 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T2 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over five years, and with 75 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T3 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over three years, and with 50 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T4 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over two years, and with 25 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T5 - fallow soil, without liming or fertilization. In the rotation the crops black oat (Avena strigosa , soybean (Glycine max , common vetch (Vicia sativa , maize (Zea mays , fodder radish (Raphanus sativus , and black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris . The split application of lime and mineral fertilizer to the soil surface in a no-tillage system over three and five years, results in better control of soil losses than when split in two years. The increase in the amount of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage cultivation increases phytomass production and reduces soil loss by water erosion. Water losses in treatments under no-tillage cultivation were low in all crop cycles, with a similar behavior as soil losses.

  8. The Fertility Transition in Bavaria

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, John C.; Timothy W. Guinnane

    2001-01-01

    The decline of human fertility that occurred in Europe and North America in the nineteenth century, and elsewhere in the twentieth century, remains a topic of debate largely because there is no accepted explanation for the event. Disagreement persists in part because researchers have rarely used the detailed quantitative information necessary to form adequate tests of alternative theories. This paper uses district-level data from Bavaria to study the correlates of the decline of fertility in ...

  9. Children Procedures and Treatment (Fertility Issues)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approach the subject of fertility preservation with their cancer-stricken child? How is the Oncofertility Consortium addressing the fertility preservation needs of children? How do cancer and cancer treatment affect a child's fertility? Why should fertility preservation be a priority ...

  10. Research on Factors Influencing Fertilizer Application of Farmer Households in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Known as the " food of grain",chemical fertilizer plays a very important role in increasing the output of agricultural products. In the meantime,its negative externalities such as soil and water environment pollutions as well as the quality and safety hazards caused to agricultural products have been revealed gradually. Taking 126 farmer households in 5 counties( districts) of Anhui Province as samples,the fertilizer application behaviors of farmer households are analyzed. Research shows that farmers applying fertilizer are generally older in age with relatively lower degree of education,inveterate farming habits and small area of cultivation. Besides,the farmer households wish to receive training and guidance on techniques of fertilization,but very few of them have attended the trainings on agricultural technology. Moreover,the individual characteristics and family factors of farmer households have a significant impact on their fertilizer application behaviors. And the degrees of impact are also different for the fertilizer applying behaviors in different stages. Therefore,improving the educational level of farmer households,strengthening the training and promotion of agricultural techniques and accelerating land transfer among farmer households will play a fundamental role in regularizing the fertilizer application behaviors of farmer households and improving the quality and safety of agricultural products.

  11. Self-reported onset of puberty and subsequent semen quality and reproductive hormones in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Finne, Katrine Folmann; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2016-01-01

    Study Question Is there an association between pubertal onset and subsequent reproductive health in young men? Summary Answer Self-reported later onset of puberty was associated with reduced semen quality and altered serum levels of reproductive hormones among 1068 healthy, young Danish men. What......, at the same time as or later than their peers. Their semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count and percentages of motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa) and serum concentrations of sex hormones (LH, FSH, total testosterone, SHBG, inhibin B) and testicular size were determined...... with a 9% (3%; 15%) reduction in free testosterone and a 16% (2%; 31%) increase in FSH, after adjustment for confounders. Limitations, Reason for Caution Our study was cross-sectional and reverse causality cannot be ruled out. In addition, we cannot rule out the possibility that the men with late puberty...

  12. 性早熟病因的研究进展%Study Progress in Etiologies of Precocious Puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳艳; 俞建

    2011-01-01

    性早熟是发于儿童的一种生长发育异常性疾病.多科研究表明,其发病因素是多方面的,是以遗传为基础,遗传因素和环境因素相互作用的结果,现对性早熟的病因在遗传、环境、营养方面的进展作如下综述.%Precocious puberty is an abnormality in children's growth and development. Multiple studies indicate that its pathogenic factors are various. Based on the genetics, it attributes to the interactions between genetics and environments. Coupled with the increasing incidence of precocious puberty, more studies about its etiology have being discovered. Now the article is to summarize them simply.

  13. A case of pediatric virilizing adrenocortical tumor resulting in hypothalamic-pituitary activation and central precocious puberty following surgical removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Oue, Takaharu; Oowari, Mitsugu; Soh, Hideki; Tachibana, Makiko; Kimura, Sadami; Kiyohara, Yuki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Bessyo, Kazuhiko; Mushiake, Sotaro; Homma, Keiko; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Sasano, Hironobu; Ozono, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    We present a 6-year-old boy with a virilizing adrenocortical tumor who initially presented with peripheral precocious puberty. Development of facial acne, pubic hair and a growth spurt were noted at the age of five. A low-pitched voice as well as maturation of external genitalia was noted at the age of six. Both serum and urinary levels of adrenal androgens were elevated. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large right suprarenal mass and he underwent surgical resection without any complications. The histological diagnosis was adrenocortical carcinoma according to the criteria of Weiss. Following surgical removal of the androgen-producing tumor, the patient subsequently developed hypothalamic-pituitary activation and demonstrated central precocious puberty. He was treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in order to delay further pubertal progression. Clinical follow-up of potential secondary effects of excess hormone secretion after removal is important in some pediatric patients with virilizing adrenocortical tumor.

  14. Reflections on fertility dynamics in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratu, Eugenia Claudia; Minca, Dana Galieta

    2012-01-01

    Aims to highlight the changes occurred in the evolution of the fertility phenomenon in Romania, focusing on developments in the general fertility rate, total fertility rate, number of live births, and on the construction of specific indicators to reveal the source of demographic change. Several theories on the factors that may cause fertility decline it were outlined, underlining the presence of these factors during fertility dynamics in our country. After 1990, population decline may be explained by a close inter-relationship between economic theories (worsening economic conditions lead to decreased fertility) and the second demographic transition (postponement of births, fertility change model).

  15. Therapeutic and Ethical Dilemma of Puberty and Menstruation Problems in an Intellectually Disabled (Autistic Female: a Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Memarian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and skills. Autism is a group of developmental brain disorders, collectively called autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Teenagers with learning and physical disabilities are more likely to have menstrual problems compared to the general populations. The parents of a 12-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability referred to the coroner due to her numerous problems of puberty (menstruation including: poor hygiene and polluting herself and the environment, not allowing to put or change the pads and changes in mood and physical health prior period, requested for the surgery (hysterectomy. In legal medicine organization after reviewing the medical records, physical exams and medical consultations with a gynecologist and psychiatric, surgery was not accepted. Hysterectomy (surgery due to the age of the child, either physically or morally is not recommended. The use of hormone replacement therapy has side effects such as osteoporosis. In these cases, it seems noninvasive methods (behavioral therapy and learning care skills under the welfare experts is also more effective and morally.

  16. 引导农户施肥行为在农业面源污染治理中的影响--基于中英项目调查分析%The Effects from Guidance of FarmersˊBehavior for Fertilizer Using in the Regulation of Agricultural Non -point Source Pollution:Based on the Survey of China -UK Educational Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华春林; 陆迁; 姜雅莉

    2015-01-01

    Based on the implementation of the China -UK educational program,this paper empirically analyzes the effects from guidance of farmersˊbehavior for fertilizer using with the survey data of 331 farmers in Yangling Demonstration Zone and Wugong County of Shaanxi Province.The result indicates that the amount of farmersˊfertilizer using is significantly re-duced by correct guidance.During the process of constructing the governance micro -mechanism of agricultural non -point source pollution,it is necessary to seriously consider the guiding function of educational program.%基于中英项目实施情况,利用陕西省杨凌示范区及泾阳县331份农户实地调查数据,实证分析引导农户化肥施用行为在污染治理中的影响。分析结果表明对农户化肥施用行为的正确引导会减少化肥量的投入,最终影响我国农业面源污染的治理效果。因此,在构建我国农业面源污染微观治理机制时,要重视具有引导农户生产行为作用的治理手段。

  17. The effects of educating mothers and girls on the girls' attitudes toward puberty health: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsari, Atousa; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Valizadeh, Sousan; Abbasnezhadeh, Massomeh; Galshi, Mina; Fatahi, Samira

    2017-04-01

    The attitude of a girl toward her menstruation and puberty has a considerable impact on her role during motherhood, social adjustment, and future marital life. This study was conducted in 2014 with the aim of comparing the effects of educating mothers and girls on the attitudes of adolescent girls of Tabriz City, Iran, towards puberty health. This randomized control clinical trial was conducted on 364 adolescent girls who experienced menstruation. Twelve schools were selected randomly among 107 secondary schools for girls. One-third of the students of each school were selected randomly using a table of random numbers and socio-demographic and each participant was asked to answer the attitude questionnaires. The schools were randomly allocated to the groups of mother's education, girl's education, and no-intervention. The attitude questionnaire was filled out by the participants again 2 months after intervention. The general linear model, in which the baseline values were controlled, was employed to compare the scores of the three groups after the intervention. No significant differences were observed among the three groups in terms of the attitude score before intervention (p>0.05). Attitude score improvement after intervention in the girl's education group was significantly higher than the one of both mother's education (adjusted mean difference [AMD]: 1.8; [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4-1.3]) and no-intervention groups (AMD: 1.3; [95% CI: 0.0-2.6]) by controlling the attitude score before intervention. Based on the findings, it is more effective to educate girls directly about puberty health to improve adolescent girls' attitudes than educating mothers and asking them to transfer information to the girls. Nevertheless, studies with longer training period and follow-up are proposed to determine the effects of educating girls (through their mothers) on their attitudes about puberty health.

  18. Role of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Stimulation Test in Diagnosing Gonadotropin Deficiency in Both Males and Females with Delayed Puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Hong Sun; Yu Zheng; Xiao-Lin Zhang; Yi-Ming Mu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Delayed puberty can result either from constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDP) or idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH).Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test has been generally accepted as a current method for diagnosing delayed puberty.The objective of this research was to assess the cut-off values and the efficacy of GnRH stimulation test in the diagnosis of delayed puberty in both males and females.Methods:A study of 91 IHH,27 CDP patients,6 prepubertal children,and 20 pubertal adults was undertaken.Blood samples were obtained at 0,30,60,and 120 min after GnRH administration and the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured.For each parameter,the sensitivities and specificities were estimated,and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed.Results:The ROC curves indicated that a serum basal LH <0.6 IU/L or peak LH <9.74 IU/L resulted in moderate sensitivity (73.8% or 80.0%) and specificity (90.9% or 86.4%) in the diagnosis of HH in males.Serum basal LH <0.85 IU/L or basal FSH <2.43 IU/L resulted in moderate sensitivity (80.0% or 100.0%) and specificity (75.0% or 50.0%) in the diagnosis of HH in females.Conclusions:Our data suggest that isolated use of the gonadorelin stimulation test is almost sufficient to discriminate between HH and CDP in males,but unnecessary in females.The most useful predictor is serum basal or peak LH to differentiate these two disorders in males,but serum basal LH or FSH in females.

  19. [Relationship between endocrinology and craniofacial growth. I: Puberty and craniofacial growth. II: Growth of the craniofacial skeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonck, A; De Ridder, L; De Zegher, F; Carine, C; Carels, C

    1994-12-01

    In this literature, a review is given of the endocrinology and morphology of the craniofacial complex. This article reviews in a first part the endocrinology of puberty and general growth aspects. Afterwards the adolescence growth spurt of the face and the hormonal regulation will be focused. In a second part the morphogenetic aspects together with growth area's and growth theories of the craniofacial complex will be discussed. At last a detailed description of the maxillary and mandibular growth is given.

  20. Association of Obesity with Onset of Puberty and Sex Hormones in Chinese Girls: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhai

    Full Text Available To examine the influence of childhood obesity on the early onset of puberty and sex hormones in girls.Healthy girls with different percentages of body fat at baseline (40 obese, 40 normal, and 40 lean were recruited from three elementary schools in Shenyang, China. These girls (mean age 8.5 years were also matched by height, school grade, Tanner stage, and family economic status at baseline. Anthropometry, puberty characteristics, and sex hormone concentrations were measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The generalized estimating equation model and analysis of variance for repeated measures using a generalized linear model were used to determine the differences in puberty characteristics and sex hormones among three groups.Over 4 years, mean age of breast II onset was earlier among obese girls (8.8 years than normal girls (9.2 years and lean girls (9.3 years. The prevalence (% of early-maturation in the obese, normal, and lean groups was 25.9%, 11.1%, and 7.4%, respectively. Obesity was associated with an increased risk for breast stage II (year 2: RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-21.1 and year 3: RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.8-60.1. None of the girls experienced menarche in the first year; however, by the fourth year 50.0% of obese girls had menarche onset, which was higher than normal weight (27.5% and lean girls (8.1%. The mean estradiol level increased with age in the obese, normal, and lean groups. The mean estradiol concentration was higher in obese girls than in normal and lean girls throughout the 4-year period (P<0.05.Childhood obesity contributes to early onset of puberty and elevated levels of estradiol in girls.

  1. Age at Puberty and Some Biological Parameters of Awassi and its First Crosses with Charollais and Romanov Rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Qasem Al-Momani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to determine the age at puberty of both ram and ewe lambs of three genotypes: Awassi (A, Charollais x Awassi (CA, and Romanov x Awassi (RA F1crosses. Twenty, six-month old lambs (10 from each sex from each genotype were used. Ram and ewe lambs were kept in separate groups from the beginning until the end of the experiment. Birth weight and weaning weight were recorded for all animals. Body weights and body condition scores were recorded at monthly intervals between 6.5 and 12 months of age. Blood samples were collected weekly from ewe lambs and fortnightly from ram lambs to monitor progesterone and testosterone profiles, respectively. Semen character- istics and scrotal circumferences (SC were evaluated fortnightly. Weight at puberty in ewe and ram lambs were not sig- nificantly different among the three genotypes and ranged around 35 kg and 42 kg, respectively. In ewe lambs, age at puberty was significantly higher (P< 0.01 in A (280±11.5 d than in RA (232±11 d and CA (255±11.5 d. Age at puber- ty of ram lambs was also significantly different (P < 0.01 among the three genotypes being higher in A (243±5 d than in CA (223±5 d and RA (226±5 d ram lambs. Semen parameters improved with age in all genotypes. The RA ram lambs had greater semen concentration and lower abnormal spermatozoa than the other two genotypes (P< 0.05. Results of the present study indicate that crossing Awassi ewes with either Charollais or Romanov sires tends to improve reproduc- tive characteristics of the Fcrossbreds through advancing age at puberty in both ram and ewe lambs.

  2. The effect of puberty on fat oxidation rates during exercise in overweight and normal-weight girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L; Riddell, M C; Schneiderman, J E; McCrindle, B W; Hamilton, J K

    2014-01-01

    Excess weight is often associated with insulin resistance (IR) and may disrupt fat oxidation during exercise. This effect is further modified by puberty. While studies have shown that maximal fat oxidation rates (FOR) during exercise decrease with puberty in normal-weight (NW) and overweight (OW) boys, the effect of puberty in NW and OW girls is unclear. Thirty-three NW and OW girls ages 8-18 yr old completed a peak aerobic capacity test on a cycle ergometer. FOR were calculated during progressive submaximal exercise. Body composition and Tanner stage were determined. For each participant, a best-fit polynomial curve was constructed using fat oxidation vs. exercise intensity to estimate max FOR. In a subset of the girls, IR derived from an oral glucose tolerance test (n = 20), and leptin and adiponectin levels (n = 11) were assessed in relation to FOR. NW pre-early pubertal girls had higher max FOR [6.9 ± 1.4 mg·kg fat free mass (FFM)(-1)·min(-1)] than NW mid-late pubertal girls (2.2 ± 0.9 mg·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)) (P = 0.002), OW pre-early pubertal girls (3.8 ± 2.1 mg·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)), and OW mid-late pubertal girls (3.3 ± 0.9 mg·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)) (P obesity potentially masks the effect of puberty on FOR during exercise in girls.

  3. [Primary glucocorticoid resistance syndrome presenting as pseudo-precocious puberty and galactorrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shu-lin; He, Li-ping; Ran, Xing-wu; Tian, Hao-ming; Li, Xiu-jun; Liang, Jin-zhong

    2008-09-01

    Primary glucocorticoid resistance syndrome (PGRS) is a rare condition characterized by hypercortisolism without Cushing's syndrome. This report describes a 7-year-old boy of PGRS with pseudo-precocious puberty and galactorrhea as the main manifestation. His height was 135 cm and body weight was 31 kg. Pigmentation could be seen in the skin, mammary areola and penis. He had hirsutism, low hair line, coarse voice, Tanner stage 3 pubic hair, penis in adult form, accelerated linear growth, and advanced bone age (13 yr.), but normal (for age) testes. Furthermore, he had mammoplasia and galactorrhea. There were no features of glucocorticoid (GC) excess. Hepatic function was impaired (ALT 1426 IU/L, AST 611 IU/L) with no definite causes. Serum cortisol concentration was 1294 nmol/L, 777 nmol/L, 199.3 nmol/L at 8:00, 16:00 and 24:00 respectively. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was normal or a little higher (43.9-80 ng/L). Urinary-free cortisol (UFC) was normal (55.5-62.4 microg/24 h). Serum estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were normal. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, 60 microg/dL) and serum prolactin (PRL, 58.7-183.9 ng/mL) level were high, urinary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) level was also elevated (0.96-3.2 mg/mL). Gonadotrophin hormone-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test was negative. Serum cortisol responded normally to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. However, serum cortisol and plasma ACTH concentration was suppressed to more than 50% by 0.5 mg dexamethasone (DEX). The diagnosis of PGRS was made. TREATMENT AND FOLLOW-UP: The patient received a treatment of 0.75-1.0 mg/d DEX. Because of galactorrhea, bromocriptine was given by 1.25-3.75 mg/d. After 24 months follow-up, the pigmentation was relieved and galactorrhea disappeared. No advanced development of the external genitalia and breast was found. The acceleration of the bone age was also slowed down. But

  4. Bone Mineralization in Rhythmic Gymnasts Entering Puberty: Associations with Jumping Performance and Body Composition Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võsoberg, Kristel; Tillmann, Vallo; Tamm, Anna-Liisa; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    This study examined bone mineral density (BMD) accrual in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts entering puberty and their age-matched untrained control girls, and associations with baseline jumping performance and body composition over the 3-year period. Whole body (WB) and femoral neck (FN) BMD, WB fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM), countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jumps for 15 s (RJ15s) were assessed in 25 rhythmic gymnasts and 25 untrained controls at baseline and after 3-year period. The changes over this period were calculated (Δ scores). Pubertal maturation over the 3-year period was slower in rhythmic gymnasts compared to untrained controls, while no difference in bone age development was seen. WB BMD increased similarly in both groups, while the increase in FN BMD was higher in rhythmic gymnasts compared with untrained controls. In rhythmic gymnasts, baseline FFM was the most significant predictor of ΔWB BMD explaining 19.2% of the variability, while baseline RJ15s was the most significant predictor of ΔFN BMD explaining 18.5% of the variability. In untrained controls, baseline FM explained 51.8 and 18.9% of the variability in ΔWB BMD and ΔFN BMD, respectively. In conclusion, mechanical loading of high-intensity athletic activity had beneficial effect on BMD accrual in rhythmic gymnasts and may have counterbalanced such negative factors on bone development as slower pubertal maturation and lower body FM. Baseline FFM and repeated jumps test performance were related to BMD accrual in rhythmic gymnasts, while baseline FM was related to BMD accrual in untrained controls. Key points Sudy examined bone mineralization in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts entering puberty and their age-matched untrained control girls, and associations with baseline jumping performance and body composition. Jumping performance and fat free mass values predicted bone mineral accrual in rhythmic gymnasts. Fat mass predicted bone mineral accrual in untrained control girls

  5. Age and sex-specific relationships between phthalate exposures and obesity in Chinese children at puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhui Zhang

    Full Text Available To examine the age and sex-specific associations of urine levels of six mono-phthalates with body size and fat distribution in Chinese children at puberty.Four hundred and ninety-three school-aged children (247 boys, 246 girls were recruited. Obesity related anthropometric indices were measured and body fat proportion (BF% was calculated. Spot urine samples were collected and phthalate monoesters were detected by an API 2000 electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS. Associations between phthalate exposure and overweight/obesity measures and their trends were examined by multiple linear regression and Logistic regression analyses, respectively.Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP metabolites and monobutyl phthalate (MBP were found to be the most detectable chemicals. In 8-10 years (yrs group, concentrations of MEHP and MBP were significantly higher in girls than those in boys. However, concentrations of all phthalate monoesters, except for MEP and MEHP, in 11-13 yrs boys were significantly higher than those in girls. After adjusting for confounders including puberty onset, urinary concentrations of MBP and sum of low molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (∑LMP were positively associated with boys' obesity in a concentration-effect manner, while concentrations of MEHP, MEHHP and sum of DEHP metabolites (∑MEHP were negatively associated with girls' obesity. Associations between phthalate exposure levels and BMI z-score changes were age- and sex-specific in school-age children.There are age and sex-specific concentration-effect associations between phthalate exposure and fat distribution in Chinese children. Urinary phthalate levels in 11-13 yrs boys were about 30 percent higher than those in girls, and ∑MEHP levels in younger boys (10 yrs. Associations were positive for MBP and ∑LMP with both BMI z-score and fat distribution in boys >10 years of age, and negative for ∑MEHP with fat distribution in girls <10 years of age.

  6. Efficacy of Subcutaneous Administration of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist on Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yan; WEI Hong; ZHANG Jianling; HOU Ling; LUO Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess the feasibility of subcutaneous administration of Triptorelin with 6-week intervals for the suppression of pituitary-gonadal axis and changes of clinical signs in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP), 46 girls with ICPP were treated with GnRHa.Triptorelin (Decapeptyl, 3.75 mg) was administered subcutaneously (SC) at 6-weeks intervals or intramuscularly (IM) at 4-weeks intervals randomly for more than 12 months consecutively. During GnRHa therapy, clinical parameters and laboratory data, including height, weight, pubertal stage,bone age, uterine volume and ovarian size, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2), were monitored and analyzed. It was found that both treatment regimes led to regression of precocious puberty and reversal of secondary sexual characteristics.Breast developments regressed. Uterine volume was decreased after treatment, but there was no statistically significant difference. Mean ovarian volume did not change significantly during treatment.The height velocity was decreased significantly from 6.3±1.4 cm/year to 5.8±1.2 cm/year in group SC and 6.7±1.3 cm/year to 5.4±1.0 cm/year in group IM, respectively. The rate of bone maturation was reduced significantly during treatment. The ratio of deltaBA/deltaCA was 1.2±0.2 or 1.3±0.3 at the onset of therapy and decreased significantly after the treatment to 0.7±0.2 or 0.9±0.1, respectively.The predicted adult height was increased significantly and progressively during therapy. The levels of serum LH, FSH and E2 returned to the prepubertal condition. No significant side effects of therapy were noted. The most common side effect during SC treatment was that a non-irritating, 1 cm in diameter mass was palpated at the site of subcutaneous injection in the abdominal wall of patients,which disappeared after 6- 12 weeks. Two girls had minimal withdrawal vaginal bleeding episodes after the first injection. It was

  7. Fulvestrant treatment of precocious puberty in girls with McCune-Albright syndrome

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    Sims Emily K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS is usually characterized by the triad of precocious puberty (PP, fibrous dysplasia, and café au lait spots. Previous treatments investigated for PP have included aromatase inhibitors and the estrogen receptor modulator, tamoxifen. Although some agents have been partially effective, the optimal pharmacologic treatment of PP in girls with MAS has not been identified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of fulvestrant (FaslodexTM, a pure estrogen receptor antagonist, in girls with progressive precocious puberty (PP associated with McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS. Methods In this prospective international multicenter trial, thirty girls ≤ 10 years old with MAS and progressive PP received fulvestrant 4 mg/kg via monthly intramuscular injections for 12 months. Changes in vaginal bleeding, rates of bone age advancement, growth velocity, Tanner staging, predicted adult heights, and uterine and ovarian volumes were measured. Results Median vaginal bleeding days decreased from 12.0 days per year to 1.0 day per year, with a median change in frequency of -3.6 days, (95% confidence interval (CI -10.10, 0.00; p = 0.0146. Of patients with baseline bleeding, 74% experienced a ≥50% reduction in bleeding, and 35% experienced complete cessation during the study period (95% CI 51.6%, 89.8%; 16.4%, 57.3%, respectively. Average rates of bone age advancement (ΔBA/ΔCA decreased from 1.99 pre-treatment to 1.06 on treatment (mean change -0.93, 95% CI -1.43, -0.43; p = 0.0007. No significant changes in uterine volumes or other endpoints or serious adverse events occurred. Conclusions Fulvestrant was well tolerated and moderately effective in decreasing vaginal bleeding and rates of skeletal maturation in girls with MAS. Longer-term studies aimed at further defining potential benefits and risks of this novel therapeutic approach in girls with MAS are needed. Trial

  8. [[Trends in marriage and fertility in Japan: major findings from the Tenth Japanese National Fertility Survey

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    Atoh, M; Takahashi, S; Nakano, E; Watanabe, Y; Kojima, H; Kaneko, R

    1993-10-01

    The authors review trends in marriage and fertility in Japan, using data from the 1993 Japanese National Fertility Survey. Information is included on age at marriage, arranged and voluntary marriages, length of time from initial meeting to marriage, changes in age at marriage, fertility, socioeconomic differentials in fertility, and fertility preferences. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  9. Exposure to female fertility pheromones influences men's drinking.

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    Tan, Robin; Goldman, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Research has shown that humans consciously use alcohol to encourage sexual activity. In the current study, we investigated whether decision making about alcohol use and sex can be cued outside of awareness by recently revealed sexual signaling mechanisms. Specifically, we examined if males exposed without their knowledge to pheromones emitted by fertile females would increase their alcohol consumption, presumably via neurobehavioral information pathways that link alcohol to sex and mating. We found that men who smelled a T-shirt worn by a fertile female drank significantly more (nonalcoholic) beer, and exhibited significantly greater approach behavior toward female cues, than those who smelled a T-shirt worn by a nonfertile female. These findings reveal previously unknown influences on human alcohol consumption, augment the research base for pheromone cuing of sexual behavior in humans, and raise the possibility that other, as yet unknown, pathways of behavioral influence may be operating hidden from view.

  10. Experience with the once-yearly histrelin (GnRHa subcutaneous implant in the treatment of central precocious puberty

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    Katherine A Lewis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Katherine A Lewis, Erica A EugsterDepartment of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, USAAbstract: In 2007, a hydrogel histrelin implant was approved for the treatment of children with central precocious puberty (CPP. Children with CPP commonly have reduced height potential due to premature closure of the epiphyseal growth plates from exposure to sex steroids. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa treatment halts puberty and allows for improvement of adult height. A hydrogel implant delivery system utilizing the potent GnRHa, histrelin, was first developed for use in men with prostate cancer. A once yearly histrelin subcutaneous implant was subsequently developed for the treatment of children with CPP. Studies to date have demonstrated safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of this treatment option in patients treated up to 2 years. The most common adverse effects of the implant relate to implant site pain or bruising. Cost of this treatment seems comparable to somewhat higher than the commonly used GnRHa treatment option, depot leuprolide. While long term studies are needed to establish continued efficacy and safety beyond 2 years of treatment, the histrelin implant appears to be an attractive option for GnRHa treatment in patients with CPP.Keywords: central precocious puberty, histrelin, implant, gonadotropin-releasing-hormone analogs

  11. The historical decline of fertility in Eastern Europe.

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    Leasure, J W

    1992-01-01

    Quantitative data from the Princeton European Fertility Project were used to explain the determinants of change in attitudes which lead to use of birth control within marriage and fertility decline in terms of the growth of autonomy over one's political, personal, religious, economic, and reproductive life. The following countries, which are arranged by their chronological order of marital fertility decline, were used in the primarily quantitative analysis: Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Yugoslavia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania. Prior research had identified an association between a decline in the birth rate and the presence of revolutions nationalist independence movements, or democratic reform movements. The connection is that once control over one's political and economic destiny is made, there is an extension into one's reproductive behavior. Further refinement has occurred. Autonomy is grounded in reason, the natural rights of individuals, and independence of thought. Reflective of this autonomous spirit were affiliations with Congregational, Presbyterian, Quaker, Unitarian, and Universalist religions. The present analysis is historical and describes the events surrounding the decline in marital fertility. These events might have preceded, been concurrent with, or followed the decline, but the thesis remains that the growth in autonomy contributes to political changes and fertility decline. The primary measure of fertility is Ig developed by Coale, and sustained decline maps of Coale and Watkins. Crude birth rate and total fertility rate were also used. the provincial analysis was impeded by lack of long time series for some countries and boundary changes. The hypothesis is generally supported, except in the case of Yugoslavia which varies too much. Support for the thesis was stronger in some countries than in others. Sustained decline occurred by each country in different periods, e.g., in Hungary it began between 1850-60 while in Albania it began

  12. Comportamento de variedades paulistas de algodoeiro em diferentes níveis de adubação N,P e K, em Latossolo Roxo - (1.ª série Behavior of São Paulo cotton varieties under different levels of N, P and K fertilization on Lattossolic B "Terra Roxa" soils

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    Nelson Machado da Silva

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados resultados de três ensaios de variedades paulistas de algodoeiro adubadas com diferentes doses dos elementos N, P e K, conduzidos em Latossolo Roxo não infestado pelo fungo causador da murcha de Fusarium, em 1965/66. As variedades IAC 13 e IAC 12 apresentaram ciclo vegetativo mais longo que a IAC RM3. A variedade IAC 13 superou em produção a IAC 12, e a variedade IAC RM3, que apresentou sintomas mais intensos de deficiência de potássio, obteve a menor média de produção. A dose básica de adubação, correspondente a 20, 45 e 40 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, aumentou significativamente a produção. Em média, a dose dupla proporcionou pequeno aumento, quando comparada com a básica, nas variedades IAC 12 e IAC 13. Em um dado ensaio, essa dose mostrou--se inferior à básica, quando aplicada à variedade IAC RM3. A variedade IAC 12 apresentou a mais alta média de porcentagem de fibra. A IAC 13 foi a melhor quanto aos índices Micronaire e Pressley. A adubação utilizada não concorreu para melhorar nenhuma dessas características; contribuiu entretanto para aumentar o pêso dos capulhos e das sementes.The behavior of three São Paulo cotton varieties (IAC 12, IAC 13 and IAC RM3, which differ themselves in vegetative cycle and nutrient requirements, after receiving three levels of complete N, P and K fertilization, were compared under cultivation on latossolic B "Terra Roxa" soils. The inclusion of the variety IAC RM3, resistant to Fusarium wilt, was made considering a possible spreading of this disease, now common in sandy soils, to clay soils. A basic dose of NPK fertilizer, containing 20, 45 and 40 kg/ha of N, P2O5 and K..O respectively, induced a significant increase in cotton yield, in relation to control plots, where no fertilizer was added. Among the varieties, IAC 13, with longest life cycle, presented the highest yield, followed by IAC 12, with intermediate cycle length. IAC RM3 was the less productive. There was also

  13. Patriarchy and fertility in Albania

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    Mathias Lerch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Theories of fertility collapse in the post-socialist era imply a decline in the moral primacy of traditional social institutions. Yet gender inequality actually increased in many countries, and there is a scarcity of empirical evidence for the role played by traditional social institutions in reproductive decision-making. OBJECTIVE We investigate whether patriarchal institutions sustained the fertility levels in Albania. The geography of marriage and family enlargement is related to the importance of patriarchy in kinship organisation and in the public sphere. To account for this spatial relationship we test the evidence for different pathways in patriarchal influence on reproductive decision-making including social effects, socialisation in patriarchal ideals, and the promotion of male fertility. METHODS We reconstruct reproductive histories from the 2001 Census and use data on attitudes and fertility intentions from the Reproductive and Health Survey 2002. Multilevel logistic regressions on marriage and (the intention of higher order births are used. RESULTS A majority of women endorsed patriarchal ideals and fertility transition was less advanced in more patriarchal municipalities. Patriarchal kinship organisation promoted early marriages and high fertility, which is shown to be achieved by social learning among peers and intergenerational social influences respectively, as well as by women's socialisation and a stopping behaviour in childbearing dominated by son-preference. Although gender inequality in the public sphere has also sustained the level of fertility and decreased the risk of marriage, it was not accounted for by these pathways of patriarchal influence. CONCLUSIONS Despite Albania's gradual opening to the world in a period of economic and political crisis, traditional social institutions remain important for family behaviours.

  14. Sexuality and fertility in men with hypospadias; improved outcome.

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    Örtqvist, L; Fossum, M; Andersson, M; Nordenström, A; Frisén, L; Holmdahl, G; Nordenskjöld, A

    2016-12-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate sexual function and fertility in adult men born with hypospadias. Patients born with hypospadias, age-matched controls, and a group of circumcised men completed a questionnaire constructed to reflect their psychosexual situation and fertility. Core gender identity, sexual orientation, and gender role behavior was also assessed. 167 patients [63% distal, 24% mid shaft and 13% proximal, mean age 34 (19-54) years], 169 controls from the general population [mean age 33 (19-48) years] and 47 controls circumcised because of phimosis (mean age 26 [19-44]) participated and completed the questionnaire. There were no differences in having a partner, reported fertility, age at sexarche (mean age 17.8), number of sex partners or sexual interest between the patients and controls. More patients than controls reported anejaculation. Reported glanular sensitivity was lower in hypospadias patients and circumcised controls compared with non-circumcised controls. The odds of being satisfied with their sexual life increased with a higher penile perception score in patients (OR = 1.54, p = 0.01). There was no association with penile length. Sexual orientation, core gender identity and gender role behavior were sex-typical in both patients and controls. Patients with proximal hypospadias had a lower reported fertility, experienced anejaculation more often, and were less satisfied with their sexual life. Men born with hypospadias have a good long-term outcome concerning sexual function and fertility. Men born with proximal hypospadias have a more impaired outcome concerning both sexual function and fertility. As satisfaction with genital appearance is important for sexual life satisfaction, clinical, and psychological follow-up into adulthood is especially important in boys born with proximal hypospadias.

  15. Hit or Miss: Fertilization Outcomes of Natural Inseminations by Japanese Quail.

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    Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

    Full Text Available Variation in fertilization success underlies sexual selection, yet mating does not guarantee fertilization. The relationship between natural inseminations and fertilization success is essential for understanding sexual selection, yet that relationship and its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood in sperm-storing vertebrates such as birds. Here the relationship is analyzed in mating trials using Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, which show striking variation in the fertilizing success of inseminations. Failures of males' inseminations to fertilize eggs were mainly due to failures prior to sperm-egg contact. Fertilization probabilities on any given day were unrelated to whether the female had laid an egg the previous day, arguing against stimulation of sperm release from sperm storage tubules by the events of the daily egg-laying cycle. Instead, an unfertilized egg laid between two fertilized eggs predicted a longer sperm storage interval. Both sexes gained similar numbers of fertilized eggs by mating with a second partner the next day, but males, unlike females in a previous study, did not gain by having two females to mate with at the same time. Instead, they were both behaviorally and sperm limited, whereas females gain by mating twice in quick succession. Even double inseminations often failed to fertilize any eggs, and multiple matings would be needed for an entire clutch to be fertilized with high certainty. Paradoxically, this low and probabilistic fertilization success co-occurs with other notable characteristics of male quail suggestive of past sexual selection for increased success, including vigorous copulatory behavior, forced copulations, foamy secretion aiding in sperm competition, large testes and unusual sperm morphology.

  16. Hit or Miss: Fertilization Outcomes of Natural Inseminations by Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Variation in fertilization success underlies sexual selection, yet mating does not guarantee fertilization. The relationship between natural inseminations and fertilization success is essential for understanding sexual selection, yet that relationship and its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood in sperm-storing vertebrates such as birds. Here the relationship is analyzed in mating trials using Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), which show striking variation in the fertilizing success of inseminations. Failures of males’ inseminations to fertilize eggs were mainly due to failures prior to sperm-egg contact. Fertilization probabilities on any given day were unrelated to whether the female had laid an egg the previous day, arguing against stimulation of sperm release from sperm storage tubules by the events of the daily egg-laying cycle. Instead, an unfertilized egg laid between two fertilized eggs predicted a longer sperm storage interval. Both sexes gained similar numbers of fertilized eggs by mating with a second partner the next day, but males, unlike females in a previous study, did not gain by having two females to mate with at the same time. Instead, they were both behaviorally and sperm limited, whereas females gain by mating twice in quick succession. Even double inseminations often failed to fertilize any eggs, and multiple matings would be needed for an entire clutch to be fertilized with high certainty. Paradoxically, this low and probabilistic fertilization success co-occurs with other notable characteristics of male quail suggestive of past sexual selection for increased success, including vigorous copulatory behavior, forced copulations, foamy secretion aiding in sperm competition, large testes and unusual sperm morphology. PMID:26222780

  17. The economics of fertility.

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    Loraine, J A

    1982-01-01

    The statement that economics and fertility are closely interrelated is a truism. The classical economists--Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill and John Maynard Keynes appreciated this fact, and their reviews are recounted and their prescience is assessed. Adam Smith (1723-1790) was primarily concerned with the desire of humankind to better his/her material conditions. Although he did not put forward a specific population policy, the tenet of his writing is pronatalist. Economic advantages would accrue to parents by the production of many children. Yet, underneath Smith's optimism, there was an apocalyptic vision of the distant future, i.e., the "steady state" when resources would be depleted or near exhaustion, when capital accumulation would have ceased, and living standards would be dropping vertiginously. In his 1st "Essay on Population" Malthus maintained that "the power of population is infinitely greater than the power of the earth to produce subsistence of men." Malthus can be complimented on his prescience. There is little question that the planet of today is grossly overpopulated and that a great gulf exists between numbers of people and their aspirations and the resources which the earth can provide for them. Malthus was particularly concerned about the population food dilemma, and that is still much in evidence in 1982. 2 concomitants of overpopulation--excessive urbanization and joblessness--could not be foreseen by Malthus. Marx did not deny the basic tenet promulgated by Malthus but to him this was simply an artifact of capitalist society which required "enormous reserves of proletarians" in order to maintain its odius system. Officially Communist governments remain in a Marxist straitjacket regarding the population issue. Mills approach was strongly antinatalist; he saw little need for an increase in human numbers. Mills was concerned that because of unlimited population growth and wealth the earth would lose much of its

  18. Female genital mutilation of a karyotypic male presenting as a female with delayed puberty

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    Gisselsson D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female genital mutilation (FGM is commonly practiced mainly in a belt reaching from East to West Africa north of the equator. The practice is known across socio-economic classes and among different ethnic, religious, and cultural groups. Few studies have been appropriately designed to measure the health effects of FGM. However, the outcome of FGM on intersex individuals has never been discussed before. Case presentation The patient first presented as a female with delayed puberty. Hormonal analysis revealed a normal serum prolactin level of 215 Mu/L, a low FSH of 0.5 Mu/L, and a low LH of 1.1 Mu/L. Type IV FGM (Pharaonic circumcision had been performed during childhood. Chromosomal analysis showed a 46, XY karyotype and ultrasonography verified a soft tissue structure in the position of the prostate. Conclusion FGM pose a threat to the diagnosis and management of children with abnormal genital development in the Sudan and similar societies.

  19. Lin28a transgenic mice manifest size and puberty phenotypes identified in human genetic association studies.

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    Zhu, Hao; Shah, Samar; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Shinoda, Gen; Einhorn, William S; Viswanathan, Srinivas R; Takeuchi, Ayumu; Grasemann, Corinna; Rinn, John L; Lopez, Mary F; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Palmert, Mark R; Daley, George Q

    2010-07-01

    Recently, genome-wide association studies have implicated the human LIN28B locus in regulating height and the timing of menarche. LIN28B and its homolog LIN28A are functionally redundant RNA-binding proteins that block biogenesis of let-7 microRNAs. lin-28 and let-7 were discovered in Caenorhabditis elegans as heterochronic regulators of larval and vulval development but have recently been implicated in cancer, stem cell aging and pluripotency. The let-7 targets Myc, Kras, Igf2bp1 and Hmga2 are known regulators of mammalian body size and metabolism. To explore the function of the Lin28-Let-7 pathway in vivo, we engineered transgenic mice to express Lin28a and observed in them increased body size, crown-rump length and delayed onset of puberty. Investigation of metabolic and endocrine mechanisms of overgrowth in these transgenic mice revealed increased glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Here we report a mouse that models the human phenotypes associated with genetic variation in the Lin28-Let-7 pathway.

  20. Genetic variation in LIN28B is associated with the timing of puberty.

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    Ong, Ken K; Elks, Cathy E; Li, Shengxu; Zhao, Jing Hua; Luan, Jian'an; Andersen, Lars B; Bingham, Sheila A; Brage, Soren; Smith, George Davey; Ekelund, Ulf; Gillson, Christopher J; Glaser, Beate; Golding, Jean; Hardy, Rebecca; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuh, Diana; Luben, Robert; Marcus, Michele; McGeehin, Michael A; Ness, Andrew R; Northstone, Kate; Ring, Susan M; Rubin, Carol; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Strachan, David P; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Waterworth, Dawn M; Wong, Andrew; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Barroso, Inês; Mooser, Vincent; Loos, Ruth J; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-06-01

    The timing of puberty is highly variable. We carried out a genome-wide association study for age at menarche in 4,714 women and report an association in LIN28B on chromosome 6 (rs314276, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.33, P = 1.5 × 10(-8)). In independent replication studies in 16,373 women, each major allele was associated with 0.12 years earlier menarche (95% CI = 0.08-0.16; P = 2.8 × 10(-10); combined P = 3.6 × 10(-16)). This allele was also associated with earlier breast development in girls (P = 0.001; N = 4,271); earlier voice breaking (P = 0.006, N = 1,026) and more advanced pubic hair development in boys (P = 0.01; N = 4,588); a faster tempo of height growth in girls (P = 0.00008; N = 4,271) and boys (P = 0.03; N = 4,588); and shorter adult height in women (P = 3.6 × 10(-7); N = 17,274) and men (P = 0.006; N = 9,840) in keeping with earlier growth cessation. These studies identify variation in LIN28B, a potent and specific regulator of microRNA processing, as the first genetic determinant regulating the timing of human pubertal growth and development.

  1. Experience of office hysteroscopy for diagnostics of abnormal uterine bleeding causes in puberty girls

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    Bezhanishvili Е.М.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to prove the role of office hysteroscopy as an important additional method in diagnostics of puberty abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB. Material and methods. The study involved 68 patients with AUB. The average age was 13.4 years (10-17 years. The main complaint of patients concerned bleeding from genital tract during 10-45 days (on an average 28.4 days. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the type of AUB determined based on the level of serum estradiol, physical and sexual development, internal genitalia ultrasound data: 35 hypo estrogenic girls, 24 girls with normal estrogenic and 9 girls with hyper estrogenic type of AUB. All of the girls took the office hysteroscopy. Results. When performing hysteroscopy it was revealed that there were a clear relationship between the degree of estrogenic saturation and visual picture obtained in the course of the study. Conclusion. Hysteroscopy enables maximum visualization of uterine cavity, which allows to verify the diagnosis, to reduce the "over diagnosis" rate of organic pathology, perform a differentiated approach to treatment of diseases, based on determination of estradiol level in serum and data obtained in the study.

  2. Genetic associations between intelligence and cortical thickness emerge at the start of puberty.

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    Brouwer, Rachel M; van Soelen, Inge L C; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Schnack, Hugo G; Ehli, Erik A; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-08-01

    Cognitive abilities are related to (changes in) brain structure during adolescence and adulthood. Previous studies suggest that associations between cortical thickness and intelligence may be different at different ages. As both intelligence and cortical thickness are heritable traits, the question arises whether the association between cortical thickness development and intelligence is due to genes influencing both traits. We study this association in a longitudinal sample of young twins. Intelligence was assessed by standard IQ tests at age 9 in 224 twins, 190 of whom also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three years later at age 12, 177/125 twins returned for a follow-up measurement of intelligence/MRI scanning, respectively. We investigated whether cortical thickness was associated with intelligence and if so, whether this association was driven by genes. At age 9, there were no associations between cortical thickness and intelligence. At age 12, a negative relationship emerged. This association was mainly driven by verbal intelligence, and manifested itself most prominently in the left hemisphere. Cortical thickness and intelligence were explained by the same genes. As a post hoc analysis, we tested whether a specific allele (rs6265; Val66Met in the BDNF gene) contributed to this association. Met carriers showed lower intelligence and a thicker cortex, but only the association between the BDNF genotype and cortical thickness in the left superior parietal gyrus reached significance. In conclusion, it seems that brain areas contributing to (verbal) intellectual performance are specializing under the influence of genes around the onset of puberty.

  3. Ovarian dysgerminoma with normal serum tumour markers presenting in a child with precocious puberty

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    Naglaa M Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old female child was presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. Her assessment revealed a firm large lower abdominal mass with evidence of precocious puberty with bilaterally symmetrically enlarged breast (Tanner stage B4-P1-A1. Abdominal imaging showed a well-defined soft midline pelvi-abdominal single mass measuring 7.0 × 12.6 × 11.7 cms with no ascites. Serum tumour markers including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (B-hCG and luteinizing hormone/follicular stimulating hormone (LH/FSH were all normal. At operation, there was a huge abdominal tumour weighing 558 grams, localized to the right ovary sparing the left ovary, uterus, lymph nodes and other abdominal organs. Unilateral right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histopathologic examination revealed ovarian dysgerminoma with intact capsule; FIGO Ia. Immunohistochemical stainings were positive for placental alkaline phosphatase (PALP, CD 117(c-kit and calretinin focally but was negative for cancer antigen-125 (CA-125, B-hCG, S-100, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, and leukocyte common antigen (LCA. Being fitting in the low risk classification, the wait and see protocol was selected with strict follow-up with pediatric oncologist and pediatric surgeon. Along the duration of 2 years follow up, there was no more vaginal bleeding with dramatic reduction of the breast size and no recurrence.

  4. Toxicological assessment of drugs that affect the endocrine system in puberty-related disorders.

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    Maranghi, Francesca; Tassinari, Roberta; Mantovani, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Toxicologists must ensure that clinical risk-to-benefit analysis should be made both for genders and age groups, with any treatment. Puberty concerns physiological changes leading to organism's maturation. Pubertal growth disorders are increasing in last decades: besides causing physical and psychological distress, they may signal underlying endocrine-metabolic abnormalities with serious health consequences later on. Therapeutic approaches for some health conditions in childhood and adolescence are considered. The authors discuss how some diseases and treatments can impact pubertal growth. The authors look at particular immunological disorders such as asthma and how both the disease and treatment affects pubertal growth. They also discuss how the provision of available data can help to assess the dose-response of the drug, in these cases, and minimize the chance of side effects. The authors also discuss pediatric inflammatory bowel disease and how both the disease and treatment can mitigate the growth delay. Last, but not least, the authors discuss how the effects of the drugs used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders may accentuate endocrine issues in juvenile patients. Hyperprolactinemia induction by some antipsychotics is highlighted as an example. Appropriate risk-benefit analysis of drugs prescribed during childhood and adolescence and intended to be used in the long term is required. Furthermore, future treatment strategies and safer compounds development should be supported by the knowledge of mechanisms underlying adverse side effects in pubertal growth and development.

  5. Temporal relationships between adipocytokines and diabetes risk during puberty in Hispanic adolescents with obesity

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    Kayser, Brandon D.; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M.; Alderete, Tanya L.; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Goran, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Circulating cytokines are frequently cited as contributors to insulin resistance in children with obesity. This study examined whether circulating adipocytokines, independent of adiposity, predicted pubertal changes in insulin sensitivity (SI), insulin secretion (AIR), and β-cell function (BCF) in high-risk adolescents. Design and Methods 158 overweight/obese Hispanic adolescents were followed for a median of 4 years. Adipocytokines were measured using Luminex technology. SI, AIR, and the disposition index (DI) were derived from an intravenous glucose tolerance test and Minimal Modeling. Total fat mass (TFM) was measured by DEXA and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) by MRI. Results Surprisingly, mean IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α decreased between 5% and 6.5% per year from baseline (Padipocytokines decreased during adolescence and were weakly associated with VAT and lower insulin sensitivity during puberty. Circulating adipocytokines have relatively limited associations with pubertal changes in diabetes risk, however the consistent findings with MCP-1 warrant further investigation. PMID:26046253

  6. Adaptive reaction of boys’ sympathetic-adrenal system to physical activity in puberty.

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    Alekcei Anatolevich Zverev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of adaptive reactions of the sympathetic-adrenal system of 11-16-year-old boys to graduated exercise at different pubertal stages. To evaluate the functional state of the cardiovascular system, the heart rate, systolic and cardiac output were determined. The state of the sympathetic-adrenal system was analyzed by the excretion level of catecholamines and DOPA. Cardiac output in response to graduated exercise in boys at pubertal stages 1-2 is substantially ensured by the increased heart rate, and at the other stages of puberty - mainly due to increase in stroke volume, which is estimated as a favorable response to exercise. In mechanisms of urgent adaptation to graduated exercise, the boys of third and fourth pubertal stages show an intensive functioning of the cardiovascular system and a reducing reserve capacity of the sympathetic-adrenal system. The adolescents of fifth pubertal stage show economical response to functional tests, a reduced reactivity of the components of the sympathetic-adrenal system on the background of a significant increase in the excretion of precursors.

  7. Catch up in bone acquisition in young adult men with late normal puberty.

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    Darelid, Anna; Ohlsson, Claes; Nilsson, Martin; Kindblom, Jenny M; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in relation to peak height velocity (PHV), and to investigate whether late normal puberty was associated with remaining low BMD and BMC in early adulthood in men. In total, 501 men (mean ± SD, 18.9 ± 0.5 years of age at baseline) were included in this 5-year longitudinal study. Areal BMD (aBMD) and BMC, volumetric BMD (vBMD) and cortical bone size were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and pQCT. Detailed growth and weight charts were used to calculate age at PHV, an objective assessment of pubertal timing. Age at PHV was a strong positive predictor of the increase in aBMD and BMC of the total body (R(2) aBMD 11.7%; BMC 4.3%), radius (R(2) aBMD 23.5%; BMC 22.3%), and lumbar spine (R(2) aBMD 11.9%; BMC 10.5%) between 19 and 24 years (p bone size, whereas cortical and trabecular vBMD were 0.7% (p males was associated with a substantial catch up in aBMD and BMC in young adulthood, leaving no deficits of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, or total body at age 24 years.

  8. Morphological changes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the rat preoptic area across puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haogang Xue; Xiaodong Gai; Weiqi Sun; Chun Li; Quan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the preoptic area may undergo mor-phological changes during the pubertal period when their activities are upregulated. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of puberty onset, this study aimed to investigate the morphological changes of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area of GnRH-enhanced green lfuorescent protein transgenic rats. Under confocal laser microscopy, pubertal GnRH neurons exhibited an inverted Y distribution pattern. Prepubertal GnRH neurons were generally unipolar and bipolar, and were distinguished as smooth type cells with few small processes or irregular type cells with many spine-like processes in the proximal dendrites. The number of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area and spine-like processes were increased during the course of reproductive matu-ration. There was no signiifcant difference between male and female rats. Immunolfuorescence staining revealed synaptophysin punctae close to the distal end of GnRH neurons, indicating that some presynaptic terminals may form a synaptic linkage with these neurons.

  9. Treatment of central precocious puberty by GnRH analogs:long-term outcome in men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvano Bertelloni; Dick Mul

    2008-01-01

    In boys, central precocious puberty (CPP) is the appearance of secondary sex characteristics driven by pituitary gonadotropin secretion before the age of 9 years. In the last years, relevant improvements in the treatment of CPP have been achieved. Because CPP is rare in boys, the majority of papers on this issue focus on girls and do not address specific features of male patients regarding end results and safety. In the present paper, recent advances of CPP management with GnRH analogs in men are summarized. End results in untreated and treated patients are also reviewed by an analysis of the recently published literature on treatment of CPP in men. The available data indicate that therapy with GnRH analogs can improve final height into the range of target height without significant adverse short-term and long-term effects, but longer follow-up of larger series of patients is still required to draw definitive conclusions. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 525-534)

  10. Hypothalamic glial-to-neuronal signaling during puberty: influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vinod K; Hiney, Jill K; Dees, W Les

    2011-07-01

    Mammalian puberty requires complex interactions between glial and neuronal regulatory systems within the hypothalamus that results in the timely increase in the secretion of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH). Assessing the molecules required for the development of coordinated communication networks between glia and LHRH neuron terminals in the basal hypothalamus, as well as identifying substances capable of affecting cell-cell communication are important. One such pathway involves growth factors of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family that bind to specific erbB receptors. Activation of this receptor results in the release of prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)) from adjacent glial cells, which then acts on the nearby LHRH nerve terminals to elicit release of the peptide. Another pathway involves novel genes which synthesize adhesion/signaling proteins responsible for the structural integrity of bi-directional glial-neuronal communication. In this review, we will discuss the influence of these glial-neuronal communication pathways on the prepubertal LHRH secretory system, and furthermore, discuss the actions and interactions of alcohol on these two signaling processes.

  11. Central Precocious Puberty: Treatment with Triptorelin 11.25 mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chiocca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few data are available on quarterly 11.25 mg GnRH analog treatment in central precocious puberty (CPP. Aim. To assess the efficacy of triptorelin 11.25 mg in children with CPP. Patients. 17 patients (16 females with CPP (7.9±0.9 years were treated with triptorelin 11.25 mg/90 days. Methods. Gonadotropins, basal-, and GnRH-stimulated peak, gonadal steroids, and pubertal signs were assessed at preinclusion and at inclusion visit, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months of treatment. Results. At 3, 6, and 12 months, all patients had suppressed LH peak (<3 IU/L after GnRH stimulation, as well as prepubertal oestradiol levels. Mean LH peak values after GnRH test significantly decreased from 25.7±16.5 IU/L at baseline to 0.9±0.5 IU/L at M3 (<0.0001; they did not significantly changed at M6 and M12. Conclusions. Triptorelin 11.25 mg/90 days efficiently suppressed the pituitary-gonadal axis in children with CPP from first administration.

  12. The spread of health services and fertility transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner-Otto, Sarah R; Axinn, William G; Ghimire, Dirghaj J

    2007-11-01

    We use detailed measures of social change over time, increased availability of various health services, and couples' fertility behaviors to document the independent effects of health services on fertility limitation. Our investigation focuses on a setting in rural Nepal that experienced a transition from virtually no use of birth control in 1945 to the widespread use of birth control by 1995 to limit fertility. Changes in the availability of many different dimensions of health services provide the means to evaluate their independent influences on contraceptive use to limit childbearing. Findings show that family planning as well as maternal and child health services have independent effects on the rate of ending childbearing. For example, the provision of child immunization services increases the rate of contraceptive use to limit fertility independently of family planning services. Additionally, new Geographic Information System (GIS)-based measures also allow us to test many alternative models of the spatial distribution of services. These tests reveal that complex, geographically defined measures of all health service providers outperform more simple measures. These results provide new information about the consequences of maternal and child health services and the importance of these services in shaping fertility transitions.

  13. Fertility Decline in Rural China: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Stevan; Yuesheng, Wang; Hua, Han; Santos, Gonçalo D.; Yingying, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Many models have been proposed to explain both the rapidity of China’s fertility decline after the 1960s and the differential timing of the decline in different places. In particular, scholars argue over whether deliberate policies of fertility control, institutional changes, or general modernization factors contribute most to changes in fertility behavior. Here the authors adopt an ethnographically grounded behavioral–institutional approach to analyze qualitative and quantitative data from three different rural settings: Xiaoshan County in Zhejiang (East China), Ci County in Hebei (North China), and Yingde County in Guangdong (South China). The authors show that no one set of factors explains the differential timing and rapidity of the fertility decline in the three areas; rather they must explain differential timing by a combination of differences in social–cultural environments (e.g., spread of education, reproductive ideologies, and gender relations) and politico-economic conditions (e.g., economic development, birth planning campaigns, and collective systems of labor organization) during the early phases of the fertility decline. PMID:21319442

  14. Fertilization and early seed formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Christian; Rogowsky, Peter

    2008-10-01

    The double fertilization of flowering plants is a complex process, encompassing multiple steps. From its discovery more than a century ago, many useful descriptive approaches have been employed to better unveil specific steps/mechanisms. More recently, the development of an in vitro assay developed in our laboratory, has allowed a better understanding of this phenomenon. However, in vitro methods may show some limitations. The search for complementary strategies, especially with the search of mutants affected in the fertilization step allowed one to elucidate this critical and unique phenomenon in living organisms. Genes involved in pollen tube guidance or pollen discharge in synergids have been identified, as well as genes exhibiting differential expression in sperm, egg and central cells before and after fertilization. A calcium wave proved to correspond to the first cellular event seen after cytoplasmic fusion in the fertilized egg cell or zygote, which develops into a multi-cellular organism with an elaborate body plan. The development of the fertilized central cell into a nourishing tissue (endosperm) starts with the formation of the coenocyte, a multinuclear single cell unique in the plant kingdom, cellularization occurring later on. The balance of the paternal and maternal genomes, which is under the control of the FIS polycomb group complex, was found to be of the utmost importance for the successful development of the seed.

  15. Transition cow: interaction with fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formigoni, A; Trevisi, E

    2003-09-01

    In recent years a progressive worsening of fertility indices in dairy cow herds has been observed. Several factors (genetic, dietary and management) seem to be more related to poor fertility than milk yield level. The degree and the length of the energy deficit during the transition period are inversely related to reproductive indices (e.g. conception rate is fertility in several ways. Excess of rumen degradable proteins, apart from negative energy balance, negatively affects reproductive activity. Conversely, some nutrients (i.e. some polyunsaturated fatty acids or some amino acids) seem to show positive effects on fertility. Finally, the relationship between health status, often compromised during the transition period, and fertility efficiency is discussed. The release of cytokines seems to be related directly and indirectly (mainly by the change in usual hepatic metabolism to the malfunction of reproductive apparatus. Quick recovery of reproductive activity requires the adoption of strategies around calving to cover the higher environmental and nutritive requirements and to prevent disorders of any kind.

  16. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches.

  17. Male fertility in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H

    2011-04-05

    Infertility rates among males with cystic fibrosis (CF) approximate 97%. No information is currently available within Ireland determining an understanding of fertility issues and the best methods of information provision to this specialized group. This study aimed to determine understanding and preferred approaches to information provision on fertility issues to Irish CF males. A Descriptive Study utilizing prospective coded questionnaires was mailed to a male CF cohort (n=50). Sections included demographics, fertility knowledge & investigation. Response rate was 16\\/50 (32%). All were aware that CF affected their fertility. More than two-thirds (n=11) were able to provide explanations whilst only one-third (n=5) provided the correct explanation. Significant numbers stated thoughts of marriage and a future family. Half have discussed fertility with a healthcare professional (HCP). Mean age of discussion was 21.9 years. One third preferred an earlier discussion. The commonest first source for information was written material which was also the preferred source. Three-quarters requested further information preferring again, written material. Significant gaps in sex education of Irish CF males exist. Discussion should be initiated by HCPs and centre-directed written material devised to address deficiencies.

  18. Soil ionomic and enzymatic responses and correlations to fertilizations amended with and without organic fertilizer in long-term experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xumeng; Ling, Ning; Chen, Huan; Zhu, Chen; Duan, Yinghua; Peng, Chang; Yu, Guanghui; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-04-01

    To investigate potential interactions between the soil ionome and enzyme activities affected by fertilization with or without organic fertilizer, soil samples were collected from four long-term experiments over China. Irrespective of variable interactions, fertilization type was the major factor impacting soil ionomic behavior and accounted for 15.14% of the overall impact. Sampling site was the major factor affecting soil enzymatic profile and accounted for 34.25% of the overall impact. The availabilities of Pb, La, Ni, Co, Fe and Al were significantly higher in soil with only chemical fertilizer than the soil with organic amendment. Most of the soil enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase activity, were significantly activated by organic amendment. Network analysis between the soil ionome and the soil enzyme activities was more complex in the organic-amended soils than in the chemical fertilized soils, whereas the network analysis among the soil ions was less complex with organic amendment. Moreover, α-glucosidase was revealed to generally harbor more corrections with the soil ionic availabilities in network. We concluded that some of the soil enzymes activated by organic input can make the soil more vigorous and stable and that the α-glucosidase revealed by this analysis might help stabilize the soil ion availability.

  19. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  20. Testicular biopsy and cryopreservation for fertility preservation of prepubertal boys with Klinefelter syndrome: a pro/con debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Inge; Oates, Robert; De Schepper, Jean; Tournaye, Herman

    2016-02-01

    In about one-half of adult Klinefelter syndrome (KS) patients, spermatozoa can be retrieved by means of testicular biopsy (TESE). Given the expected increase in the number of diagnosed KS patients owing to the use of noninvasive prenatal testing, the probable questions of young KS patients and their parents regarding future fertility, and the fact that widespread apoptosis of spermatogonia occurs at onset of puberty, an attempt to increase the retrieval rates at TESE above those found in adult KS men by undertaking preservation techniques peripubertally has been initiated. To date, however, only a limited number of KS adolescents have been examined, demonstrating no increases in the chances of finding sperm. Furthermore, spermatogonial stem cell and testicular tissue freezing techniques, as well as in vitro maturation strategies, require further validation. Given these controversies, banking testicular tissue from prepubertal KS boys should be performed only in a research framework.