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Sample records for behavior problems predict

  1. Parental corporal punishment predicts behavior problems in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Matthew K; Mebert, Carolyn J

    2007-09-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (Research Triangle Institute, 2002), this study examined the impact of corporal punishment (CP) on children's behavior problems. Longitudinal analyses were specified that controlled for covarying contextual and parenting variables and that partialed child effects. The results indicate that parental CP uniquely contributes to negative behavioral adjustment in children at both 36 months and at 1st grade, with the effects at the earlier age more pronounced in children with difficult temperaments. Parents and mental health professionals who work to modify children's negative behavior should be aware of the unique impact that CP likely plays in triggering and maintaining children's behavior problems. Broad-based family policies that reduce the use of this parenting behavior would potentially increase children's mental health and decrease the incidence of children's behavior problems. PMID:17874924

  2. Disorganized Attachment and Inhibitory Capacity: Predicting Externalizing Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Gunilla; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin Cecilia; Thorell, Lisa B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether attachment insecurity, focusing on disorganized attachment, and the executive function (EF) component of inhibition, assessed at age 5, were longitudinally related to general externalizing problem behaviors as well as to specific symptoms of ADHD and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and…

  3. Sensation seeking predicting growth in adolescent problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byck, Gayle R; Swann, Gregory; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-06-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13 to 18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  4. Which behavioral, emotional and school problems in middle-childhood predict early sexual behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, A.; Waylen, A; Sayal, K.; Heron, J; Henderson, M.; Wight, D.; MacLeod, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16–18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-chi...

  5. Predicting Behavior Problems and Social Competence in Children of Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes longitudinal investigation evaluating additive model of impact of adolescent mothers' parenting practices on children. Suggests infant-mother attachment predicted behavior problems among preschool children of adolescent mothers and adolescent mothers' depression explained significant additional variance in those problems. States mothers'…

  6. PREDICTING THE CHANGE OF CHILD’S BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS: SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC AND MATERNAL PARENTING STRESS FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Viduoliene

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: evaluate 1 whether child’s externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2 the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3 which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child’s externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach: participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990 and Child Behavior Checklist 1.5−5 years (Achenbach, Rescorla, 2000 questionnaires. Findings: Child’s externalizing problems decreased within 12 months period. There were no effects of child’s age, gender and age*gender interaction on externalizing problems change within 12 months period. Higher initial level and more negative change within 12 months period of maternal parenting stress related to child characteristics, more stressful events in family life predicted the increase of child’s externalizing problems. Research limitations/implications: maternal parenting stress and child’s externalizing problems are related and may influence each other simultaneously. Child’s externalizing problems decrease within one year period in overall 2−5 years old children group. The change of child’s aggressive behavior and hyperactivity, distractibility should be evaluated individually, separately from each other. Practical implications: maternal parenting stress and child’s behavior problems are closely related to each other, it may be meaningful organize intervention for mothers in order to prevent child’s externalizing problems increase. Keywords: maternal parenting stress, externalizing problems, childhood, toddlerhood, longitudinal research. Research type: research paper.

  7. Predicting behavior problems in deaf and hearing children: The influences of language, attention, and parent–child communication

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, David H; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Fink, Nancy E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Tobey, Emily A.; Niparko, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The development of language and communication may play an important role in the emergence of behavioral problems in young children, but they are rarely included in predictive models of behavioral development. In this study, cross-sectional relationships between language, attention, and behavior problems were examined using parent report, videotaped observations, and performance measures in a sample of 116 severely and profoundly deaf and 69 normally hearing children ages 1.5 to 5 years. Secon...

  8. Predicting caregiver-reported behavior problems in cocaine-exposed children at 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Behnke, Marylou; Hou, Wei; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Wobie, Kathleen; Eyler, Fonda Davis

    2006-04-01

    Predictors of caregiver-reported behavior problems for 3-year-olds with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and matched controls were examined using structural equation modeling. We tested whether PCE had a direct effect on child behavior problems in a model that included other prenatal drug exposure, child sex, caregiver depression, and the quality of the child's home environment. The sample (N = 256) was drawn from a longitudinal, prospective study of children of (predominantly crack) cocaine-using women and controls matched on race, socioeconomic status, parity, and pregnancy risk. Child Behavior Problems was modeled as a latent variable composed of the 48-item Conners' Parent Report Scale Conduct Problem and Impulsive-Hyperactive scales and the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory Intensity scale. Caregiver depression was the only significant predictor of Child Behavior Problems. Mean levels of caregiver self-reported depression and reported child behavior problems did not differ between groups. Mean depression scores were well above the recommended clinical cutoff while mean child behavior problems scores were within normal limits. The model explained 21% of the variance in caregiver-reported child behavior problems in our sample of rural African American, low SES youngsters. Non-maternal caregivers of cocaine-exposed children had significantly lower mean depression scores and mean child behavior problems ratings for 2 of 3 scales used in the study compared to biological mothers of children with PCE and controls. For all groups, much larger proportions of children were rated as having clinically significant behavior problems than would be expected based on the prevalence of behavior problems in the general population. PMID:16682870

  9. The interaction between self-regulation and motivation prospectively predicting problem behavior in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jessica D; Colder, Craig R; Trucco, Elisa M; Speidel, Carolyn; Hawk, Larry W; Lengua, Liliana J; Das Eiden, Rina; Wieczorek, William

    2013-01-01

    A large literature suggests associations between self-regulation and motivation and adolescent problem behavior; however, this research has mostly pitted these constructs against one another or tested them in isolation. Following recent neural-systems based theories (e.g., Ernst & Fudge, 2009 ), the present study investigated the interactions between self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation prospectively predicting delinquency and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. The community sample included 387 adolescents aged 11 to 13 years old (55% female; 17% minority). Laboratory tasks were used to assess self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation, and adolescent self-reports were used to measure depressive symptoms and delinquency. Analyses suggested that low levels of approach motivation were associated with high levels of depressive symptoms, but only at high levels of self-regulation (p = .01). High levels of approach were associated with high levels of rule breaking, but only at low levels of self-regulation (p < .05). These findings support contemporary neural-based systems theories that posit integration of motivational and self-regulatory individual differences via moderational models to understand adolescent problem behavior. PMID:23477426

  10. Maternal Expressed Emotion Predicts Children's Antisocial Behavior Problems: Using Monozygotic-Twin Differences to Identify Environmental Effects on Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morgan, Julia; Rutter,Michael; Taylor,Alan; Arseneault, Louise; Tully, Lucy; Jacobs, Catherine; Kim-Cohen, Julia

    2004-01-01

    If maternal expressed emotion is an environmental risk factor for children's antisocial behavior problems, it should account for behavioral differences between siblings growing up in the same family even after genetic influences on children's behavior problems are taken into account. This hypothesis was tested in the Environmental Risk…

  11. Peer victimization, deviant peer affiliation and impulsivity: Predicting adolescent problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianjun; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Jiang, Yanping; Chen, Yuanyuan; Zhen, Shuangju

    2016-08-01

    Abundant evidence has demonstrated an association between peer victimization and adolescent problem behaviors. However, there is a large gap in knowledge about the potential mediators that associate peer victimization with problem behaviors and the potential moderators that exacerbate or buffer this association. The current study examined whether deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between peer victimization and problem behaviors and whether the direct and indirect associations were moderated by impulsivity. A sample of 1401 adolescents (50.1% boys, 11-14 years old) completed anonymous questionnaires regarding peer victimization, impulsivity, deviant peer affiliation, and problem behaviors. Gender, age and socioeconomic status (SES) were controlled for in the analyses. Structural equation models showed that peer victimization was significantly associated with more problem behaviors, and this association was mediated by deviant peer affiliation. Impulsivity moderated both the direct association (peer victimization→problem behaviors) and the second stage of the indirect path (deviant peer affiliation→problem behaviors). Specifically, these associations were especially stronger for adolescents with higher impulsivity. Identifying the processes by which peer victimization is associated with adolescent problem behaviors has important implications for an integrative framework of theory and prevention. PMID:27348798

  12. Developmental Risk and Young Children's Regulatory Strategies: Predicting Behavior Problems at Age Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Emily D.; Pedersen y Arbona, Anita; Crnic, Keith A.; Ryu, Ehri; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Children with early developmental delays are at heightened risk for behavior problems and comorbid psychopathology. This study examined the trajectories of regulatory capabilities and their potentially mediating role in the development of behavior problems for children with and without early developmental delays. A sample of 231 children comprised…

  13. Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems: Moderation by Life Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2014-01-01

    Using both traditional composites and novel profiles of anger, we examined associations between infant anger and preschool behavior problems in a large, longitudinal data set (N = 966). We also tested the role of life stress as a moderator of the link between early anger and the development of behavior problems. Although traditional measures of…

  14. Prediction of externalizing behavior problems from early to middle childhood: the role of parental socialization and emotion expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, S A; Workman, E; Cole, P M; Weissbrod, C; Kendziora, K T; Zahn-Waxler, C

    2000-01-01

    Parental emotions and behaviors that contribute to continuity and change in preschool children's externalizing problems were examined. Mothers and fathers were observed interacting with their children, and child-rearing styles were reported. Teachers, mothers, and children reported children's antisocial, oppositional behavior. Externalizing problems showed strong continuity 2 and 4 years later. Proactive parenting (i.e., supportive presence, clear instruction, and limit setting) predicted fewer behavior problems over time, after controlling for initial problems; the converse was true for parental anger. In contrast, the hypothesized ameliorative contribution of parents' positive emotion was not found. Parental contributions were most influential for children whose initial problems were in the clinical range. In particular, parental anger predicted continuation of problems over time. Paternal, as well as maternal, influences were identified. Examination of parental emotions and inclusion of fathers is important to research and intervention with young antisocial children. PMID:10774594

  15. Predicting Caregiver-Reported Behavior Problems in Cocaine-Exposed Children at 3 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Tamara Duckworth; BEHNKE, MARYLOU; Hou, Wei; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; WOBIE, KATHLEEN; Eyler, Fonda Davis

    2006-01-01

    Predictors of caregiver-reported behavior problems for 3-year-olds with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and matched controls were examined using structural equation modeling. We tested whether PCE had a direct effect on child behavior problems in a model that included other prenatal drug exposure, child sex, caregiver depression, and the quality of the child’s home environment. The sample (N = 256) was drawn from a longitudinal, prospective study of children of (predominantly crack) cocaine-u...

  16. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes Across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behavior and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n = 96) or without (n = 126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behavior problems. Maternal negative affective behavior, child externalizing emotional expression, and child internalizing emotional expression were observed during a number of lab tasks at child ages 4 and 5, and child e...

  17. Predicting the change of child’s behavior problems : sociodemographic and maternal parenting stress factors

    OpenAIRE

    Viduolienė, Evelina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - evaluate 1) whether child's externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2) the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3) which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child's externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach' participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months) with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990) ...

  18. PREDICTING THE CHANGE OF CHILD’S BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS: SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC AND MATERNAL PARENTING STRESS FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Evelina Viduoliene

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: evaluate 1) whether child’s externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2) the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3) which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child’s externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach: participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months) with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990) a...

  19. The interactive effect of maltreatment in the family and unstable institutional caregiving in predicting behavior problems in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Joana; Belsky, Jay; Marques, Sofia; Silva, Joana R; Oliveira, Paula; Mesquita, Ana; Martins, Carla; Soares, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    The current study extends research on the effects of institutionalization, most notably by examining whether-and how-both pre-institutional maltreatment in the family and the stability and consistency of institutional care interact to shape emotional and behavioral development. Fifty Portuguese children, placed in residential institutions when 8 days to 26 months of age, were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist when aged 18-31 months. Caregiver-rated internalizing and externalizing behavior problems proved to be unrelated to both early family and institutional experiences, as main effects, but the interaction of these factors significantly predicted externalizing problems: a history of maltreatment in the family coupled with unstable institutional caregiving arrangements predicted especially elevated levels of externalizing problems. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of more distal and proximate developmental experiences. PMID:25459985

  20. Prediction of Childhood Behavior Problems over a Four-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, David J.; And Others

    Path analysis was used to discover predictors of personality, school conduct, and distractibility-hyperactivity problems in this 4-year longitudinal study of 173 rural children. While previous studies had shown that children's behavior disorders are related to sex of child, family disruption, IQ, Bender-Gestalt Test scores, and socioeconomic…

  1. The dopamine receptor D4 gene and familial loading interact with perceived parenting in predicting externalizing behavior problems in early adolescence: the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, R.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Although externalizing behavior problems show in general a high stability over time, the course of externalizing behavior problems may vary from individual to individual. Our main goal was to investigate the predictive role of parenting on externalizing behavior problems. In addition, we investigate

  2. The dopamine receptor D4 gene and familial loading interact with perceived parenting in predicting externalizing behavior problems in early adolescence : The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, Rianne; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    Although externalizing behavior problems show in general a high stability over time, the course of externalizing behavior problems may vary from individual to individual. Our main goal was to investigate the predictive role of parenting on externalizing behavior problems. In addition, we investigate

  3. Socio-emotional skills, behavior problems, and Spanish competence predict the acquisition of English among English language learners in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsler, Adam; Kim, Yoon Kyong; Richard, Erin R

    2014-09-01

    This article analyzes the role that individual differences in children's cognitive, Spanish competence, and socio-emotional and behavioral skills play in predicting the concurrent and longitudinal acquisition of English among a large sample of ethnically diverse, low-income, Hispanic preschool children. Participants assessed at age 4 for language, cognitive, socio-emotional, and behavioral skills were followed through kindergarten. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that Spanish-speaking preschoolers with greater initiative, self-control, and attachment and fewer behavior problems at age 4 were more successful in obtaining English proficiency by the end of kindergarten compared to those initially weaker in these skills, even after controlling for cognitive/language skills and demographic variables. Also, greater facility in Spanish at age 4 predicted the attainment of English proficiency. Social and behavioral skills and proficiency in Spanish are valuable resources for low-income English language learners during their transition to school.

  4. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes Across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behavior and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n = 96) or without (n = 126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behavior problems. Maternal negative affective behavior, child externalizing emotional expression, and child internalizing emotional expression were observed during a number of lab tasks at child ages 4 and 5, and child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems were assessed via maternal questionnaire at age 6. Path analyses using structural equation modeling were utilized to test the relations among the variables at ages 4, 5, and 6. A parent-driven model of emotion socialization emerged, wherein stronger relations were found among maternal negative affect and child externalizing emotions and behaviors than among maternal negative affect and child internalizing emotions and behaviors. Early child risk did not appear to alter the overall emotion socialization process, although higher levels of maternal and child negativity were observed for the children with a developmental risk. Results underscore the complexity of emotion socialization processes throughout the preschool period.

  5. Crying without a cause and being easily upset in two-year-olds: heritability and predictive power of behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Middeldorp, Christel M; M van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2011-10-01

    In order to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on 'crying without a cause' and 'being easily upset' in 2-year-old children, a large twin study was carried out. Prospective data were available for ~18,000 2-year-old twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register. A bivariate genetic analysis was performed using structural equation modeling in the Mx software package. The influence of maternal personality characteristics and demographic and lifestyle factors was tested to identify specific risk factors that may underlie the shared environment of twins. Furthermore, it was tested whether crying without a cause and being easily upset were predictive of later internalizing, externalizing and attention problems. Crying without a cause yielded a heritability estimate of 60% in boys and girls. For easily upset, the heritability was estimated at 43% in boys and 31% in girls. The variance explained by shared environment varied between 35% and 63%. The correlation between crying without a cause and easily upset (r = .36) was explained both by genetic and shared environmental factors. Birth cohort, gestational age, socioeconomic status, parental age, parental smoking behavior and alcohol use during pregnancy did not explain the shared environmental component. Neuroticism of the mother explained a small proportion of the additive genetic, but not of the shared environmental effects for easily upset. Crying without a cause and being easily upset at age 2 were predictive of internalizing, externalizing and attention problems at age 7, with effect sizes of .28-.42. A large influence of shared environmental factors on crying without a cause and easily upset was detected. Although these effects could be specific to these items, we could not explain them by personality characteristics of the mother or by demographic and lifestyle factors, and we recognize that these effects may reflect other maternal characteristics. A substantial influence of genetic factors

  6. Adolescent Peer Relationships and Behavior Problems Predict Young Adults' Communication on Social Networking Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Evans, Meredyth A.; Hare, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13-14 years and again at ages 20-22 years. At ages 20-22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship…

  7. Adolescent Peer Relationships and Behavior Problems Predict Young Adults' Communication on Social Networking Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Evans, Meredyth A.; Hare, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13–14 years and again at ages 20–22 years. At ages 20–22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship quality on their web pages were coded by observers. Results suggested that youths who had been better adjusted at ages 13–14 years were more likely ...

  8. Stable prediction of mood and anxiety disorders based on behavioral and emotional problems in childhood: a 14-year follow-up during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Roza (Sabine); M.B. Hofstra (Marijke); J. van der Ende (Jan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to predict the onset of mood and anxiety disorders from parent-reported emotional and behavioral problems in childhood across a 14-year period from childhood into young adulthood. METHOD: In 1983, parent reports of behavioral and em

  9. Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure, Home Environment, and Primary Caregiver Risk Factors Predict Child Behavioral Problems at 5 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Twomey, Jean; LaGasse, Linda; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Roberts, Mary; Dansereau, Lynne; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective association between prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and child behavioral problems at 5 years while also examining the home environment at 30 months and several primary caregiver (PC) risk factors. Participants were 97 MA-exposed and 117 comparison children and their PCs enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle Study. Hypotheses were that child behaviors would be adversely impacted by (a) prenatal MA exposure, (b) home environ...

  10. Early Callous-Unemotional Behavior, Theory-of-Mind, and a Fearful/Inhibited Temperament Predict Externalizing Problems in Middle and Late Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Hyun; Waller, Rebecca; Hyde, Luke W; Olson, Sheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Childhood externalizing problems are more likely to be severe and persistent when combined with high levels of callous-unemotional (CU) behavior. A handful of recent studies have shown that CU behavior can also be reliably measured in the early preschool years, which may help to identify young children who are less likely to desist from early externalizing behaviors. The current study extends previous literature by examining the role of CU behavior in very early childhood in the prediction of externalizing problems in both middle and late childhood, and tests whether other relevant child characteristics, including Theory-of-Mind (ToM) and fearful/inhibited temperament moderate these pathways. Multi-method data, including parent reports of child CU behavior and fearful/inhibited temperament, observations of ToM, and teacher-reported externalizing problems were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal study of children assessed at ages 3, 6, and 10 (N = 241; 48 % female). Results demonstrated that high levels of CU behavior predicted externalizing problems at ages 6 and 10 over and above the effect of earlier externalizing problems at age 3, but that these main effects were qualified by two interactions. High CU behavior was related to higher levels of externalizing problems specifically for children with low ToM and a low fearful/inhibited temperament. The results show that a multitude of child characteristics likely interact across development to increase or buffer risk for child externalizing problems. These findings can inform the development of targeted early prevention and intervention for children with high CU behavior. PMID:26582182

  11. Socio-Emotional Skills, Behavior Problems, and Spanish Competence Predict the Acquisition of English among English Language Learners in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsler, Adam; Kim, Yoon Kyong; Richard, Erin R.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the role that individual differences in children's cognitive, Spanish competence, and socio-emotional and behavioral skills play in predicting the concurrent and longitudinal acquisition of English among a large sample of ethnically diverse, low-income, Hispanic preschool children. Participants assessed at age 4 for…

  12. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior....... Employee characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work condition are included in the extended model. A survey was handed out to 654 employees in Chinese factories. This research contributes by demonstrating how employee- characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work...... condition influence their sustainable work behavior. A new definition of sustainable work behavior is proposed....

  13. Effortful Control, Behavior Problems and Peer Relations: What Predicts Academic Adjustment in Kindergarteners from Low-income Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Amanda Sheffield; John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy L; Morris, Michael D S; Robinson, Lara R; Myers, Sonya S; Aucoin, Katherine J; Keyes, Angela W; Terranova, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of effortful control, behavior problems, and peer relations in the academic adjustment of 74 kindergarten children from primarily low-income families using a short-term longitudinal design. Teachers completed standardized measures of children's effortful control, internalizing and externalizing problems, school readiness, and academic skills. Children participated in a sociometric interview to assess peer relations. Research Findings: Correlational analyses indicate that children's effortful control, behavior problems in school, and peer relations are associated with academic adjustment variables at the end of the school year, including school readiness, reading skills, and math skills. Results of regression analyses indicate that household income and children's effortful control primarily account for variation in children's academic adjustment. The associations between children's effortful control and academic adjustment did not vary across sex of the child or ethnicity. Mediational analyses indicate an indirect effect of effortful control on school readiness, through children's internalizing problems. Practice or Policy: Effortful control emerged as a strong predictor of academic adjustment among kindergarten children from low-income families. Strategies for enhancing effortful control and school readiness among low-income children are discussed. PMID:24163572

  14. Dementia - behavior and sleep problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000029.htm Dementia - behavior and sleep problems To use the sharing ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. People with dementia often have certain problems when it gets dark ...

  15. The interplay among socioeconomic status, household chaos, and parenting in the prediction of child conduct problems and callous-unemotional behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Willoughby, Michael T; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Wagner, Nicholas; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    Child conduct problems (CP) reflect a heterogeneous collection of oppositional, aggressive, norm-violating, and sometimes violent behaviors, whereas child callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors reflect interpersonal styles of interactions reflecting a lack of guilt and empathy as well as uncaring and shallow emotional responses to others. Taken together, high levels of child CP and CU behaviors are thought to identify a relatively homogenous group of children at elevated risk for persistent and more severe problem behaviors across childhood and into adulthood. Although a large body of research has examined the developmental etiology of CP behaviors, only recently has a developmental psychopathology approach been applied to early CU behaviors. The current study examines multiple levels of contextual influences during the first years of life, including family socioeconomic status, household chaos, and parenting behaviors, on CP and CU behaviors assessed during the first-grade year. Whereas previous studies found associations between parenting behaviors and child problem behaviors moderated by household chaos, the current study found no evidence of moderation. However, path analyses suggest that the associations between child CP and CU behaviors and the contextual variables of socioeconomic status (family income and parental education) and household chaos (disorganization and instability) were mediated by maternal sensitive and harsh-intrusive parenting behavior. Analyses are presented, interpreted, and discussed with respect to both bioecological and family stress models of development. PMID:27427804

  16. Indoor Tanning and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Banerjee, Smita; Greene, Kathryn; Campo, Shelly

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined factors predicting college students' use of tanning beds. Participants and Methods: Undergraduate students (N = 745) at a large Northeastern university participated in the study by answering a survey measuring tanning behavior and other psychosocial variables, including sensation seeking, self-esteem, tanning image…

  17. PROBLEM MATING BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Vasileviсh Malimonov; Liudmila Gennad’evna Korol; Irina Georgievna Sinkovskaya; Dmitriy Vladimiroviсh Rakhinskiy

    2015-01-01

    In article problems of preparation of student’s youth for creation of a family are consi-dered.Work purpose: studying of features of marriage behavior of student’s youth. Interest in a problem is actual and caused by an instability situation in society, lack of uniform system of values that can lead to disintegration of a family as social institute. Bases of fundamental value of a family and marriage for development and maintenance of stability in society and the state are analysed.Method of ...

  18. PROBLEM MATING BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Vasileviсh Malimonov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In article problems of preparation of student’s youth for creation of a family are consi-dered.Work purpose: studying of features of marriage behavior of student’s youth. Interest in a problem is actual and caused by an instability situation in society, lack of uniform system of values that can lead to disintegration of a family as social institute. Bases of fundamental value of a family and marriage for development and maintenance of stability in society and the state are analysed.Method of obtaining information: questioning (N=2260. It is shown that on marriage behavior of young people, first of all, such factors as have impact: the relations in a parental family, welfare features of society and their near environment (classmates, friends, values and which norms, lay the foundation of family and marriage installations. Comprehensively social parameters of city life of youth reveal: anonymity, short duration and superficiality of contacts in interpersonal communication; sharp expansion of degree of freedom of the person at simultaneous weakening of social control; disintegration of traditional ideology and system of values; reduction of the importance of a role of a family, etc.Results of research: priority of studying of marriage behavior of youth is proved; domination of independent strategy of premarital elections of youth is confirmed, various components of readiness for the family and marriage relations and the factors influencing motivation of a marriage choice are defined.

  19. Do Type of Childcare and Age of Entry Predict Behavior Problems during Early Childhood? Results from a Large Norwegian Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekhal, Ratib

    2012-01-01

    Associations between type and age of entry into Norwegian universally-accessible childcare and children's behavior problems at age 3 years were examined in this study. Data from 73,068 children in the large population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) were used, and included information about childcare arrangements,…

  20. Poor peer relations predict parent- and self-reported behavioral and emotional problems of adolescents with gender dysphoria: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    This study is the third in a series to examine behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria in a comparative analysis between two clinics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the present study, we report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) data on adolescents assessed in the Toronto clinic (n = 177) and the Amsterdam clinic (n = 139). On the CBCL and the YSR, we found that the percentage of adolescents with clinical range behavioral and emotional problems was higher when compared to the non-referred standardization samples but similar to the referred adolescents. On both the CBCL and the YSR, the Toronto adolescents had a significantly higher Total Problem score than the Amsterdam adolescents. Like our earlier studies of CBCL data of children and Teacher's Report Form data of children and adolescents, a measure of poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of CBCL and YSR behavioral and emotional problems in gender dysphoric adolescents. PMID:26373289

  1. When a parent has a stroke - Clinical course and prediction of mood, behavior problems, and health status of their young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-Meily, A; Post, M; van de Port, [No Value; Maas, C; Lindeman, E

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose - The purpose of this research was to describe the clinical course of children's functioning (depression, behavioral problems, and health status) during the first year after parental stroke and to determine which patient-, spouse-, or child-related factors at the start of inpa

  2. Parent Predictors of Changes in Child Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Arnold, David H.; Baker, Courtney N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers’ (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children’s behavior problems were col...

  3. Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Corina J

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop's Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments.

  4. [Hygiene as a behavior problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergler, R; Borneff, M

    1987-03-01

    The subject of the study is a systematizing analysis of present research concerned with the barriers which prevent scientific findings about hygiene from being carried out and which hamper the obvious adoption of hygienically and psycho-hygienically relevant prophylactic measures. A general interpretive model with explanatory value for health- and hygiene-related behavior is being developed. Future studies will particularly have to clarify what significance and what interpretative relevance do the diverse influencing factors have for a particular person in a particular position and situation and how in the course of one's biography even something like lifestyles of hygienic behavior develop and change. For the necessity of improvement as regards the hygienic status in various realms of life the knowledge about existing barriers is a basic essential. The following quantities and constructs pass into the theoretic interpretive model which should also provide the basis for further evolvement of theories as well as the starting point for specific research hypotheses but not least for the development of specific research and evaluation designs: Standard of information, informational behavior and quality of information. The individual risk assessment: A function of the subjective importance and probability that benefit and cost factors of prophylactic behavior will occur. Additional influencing factors essential to the development of a desirable health- and hygiene-related behavior are: Objective shortcomings with regard to prophylaxis: deficits of the hygienic research including the deficits concerning the development of feasible and universally applicable disinfection methods. Hazards connected to prophylaxis: Objective risks with regard to prophylaxis (disinfection methods which may cause allergies, which involve problems with the compatibility of materials and so forth) and psychological risks (impaired relations between physician and patient due to the wearing of a

  5. Gender Differences in the Relation between Mothering Behaviors and Child-Behavior Problems among Hispanic Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Mills, Britain

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of an examination of gender differences in behavior problems and a prediction of their changes from 2.5 to 3.5 years from mothering qualities among 209 low-income Hispanic children. Externalizing behaviors declined over this time somewhat more for girls than for boys. Fewer externalizing behavior problems at age 3.5 were…

  6. Parent Predictors of Changes in Child Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichovolsky, Marianne H; Arnold, David H; Baker, Courtney N

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers' (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children's behavior problems were collected twice during the school year. Parents' own social support predicted improvement for boys and parent depression was associated with worsening symptoms for girls. Single parenthood and parent involvement predicted changes in behavior problems for the sample as a whole. Several significant ethnic differences emerged, highlighting the importance of considering cultural context in studies of parenting and child externalizing behavior. PMID:24347757

  7. The Origins of Mental Toughness – Prosocial Behavior and Low Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Age 5 Predict Higher Mental Toughness Scores at Age 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Hatzinger, Martin; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J.; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kay; von Wyl, Agnes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of mental toughness (MT) has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of MT. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both (1) MT scores and (2) sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3) to explore possible gender differences. Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers), a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females) took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, MT, and sleep disturbances. Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher MT and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that MT traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years. PMID:27605919

  8. The Origins of Mental Toughness – Prosocial Behavior and Low Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Age 5 Predict Higher Mental Toughness Scores at Age 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Hatzinger, Martin; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J.; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kay; von Wyl, Agnes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of mental toughness (MT) has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of MT. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both (1) MT scores and (2) sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3) to explore possible gender differences. Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers), a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females) took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, MT, and sleep disturbances. Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher MT and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that MT traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years.

  9. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, J

    1996-07-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initiated by inadequate husbandry techniques, eventually become medical problems because of their severity. PMID:8809393

  10. Problems of studying antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offord, D R; Reitsma-Street, M

    1983-01-01

    The importance of antisocial behaviour is underlined by the magnitude of the problem (largest category of emotional disturbance in youth) and by the poor psychosocial prognosis for the chronically affected child. The medical/psychological approach has pointed to the role of marital discord and parental psychopathology as significant features in the individual's environment predicting antisocial development. Conversely, sociology and criminology, which have begun with social theories, appear to have had less statistical success in accounting for aetiology. Definition of conduct disorder in terms of type, duration, frequency, and severity of anti-social behaviour is indispensible for the characterization of subgroups of affected children, and hence variables which protect against or accentuate risk factors. Prognosis depends among other things on age of onset (worse younger) and setting (home or community), implying that treatment programmes cannot be evaluated adequately without the differential characterisation of subgroups, their natural histories, and responsiveness to intervention. Although such data come from the study of individuals, case-by-case treatment runs the risk in certain groups of escalating anti-social behaviour. Thus community/youth oriented interventions, focusing on the remedial treatment of learning handicaps, improvement of non-school skills, may provide more promising points of attack. Incomplete knowledge of aetiology should not prevent action, provided the methodological issues raised serve as the basis for vigorous evaluation. PMID:6371799

  11. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, J.

    1996-01-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initi...

  12. Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Núñez, Alfredo A; Cortés, Cristián E

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems develops methods for the design of predictive control strategies for nonlinear-dynamic hybrid discrete-/continuous-variable systems. The methodology is designed for real-time applications, particularly the study of dynamic transport systems. Operational and service policies are considered, as well as cost reduction. The control structure is based on a sound definition of the key variables and their evolution. A flexible objective function able to capture the predictive behaviour of the system variables is described. Coupled with efficient algorithms, mainly drawn from the area of computational intelligence, this is shown to optimize performance indices for real-time applications. The framework of the proposed predictive control methodology is generic and, being able to solve nonlinear mixed-integer optimization problems dynamically, is readily extendable to other industrial processes. The main topics of this book are: ●hybrid predictive control (HPC) ...

  13. Intergenerational transmission of child problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. van Meurs (Inge)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn the present thesis, the intergenerational transmission of child problem behavior will be investigated. In this introduction, we will explain why it is important to study transmission of problem behavior from parents to their offspring. In addition, we will describe the study design th

  14. Elementary Teachers' Tolerance of Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 46 teachers rated observable mild-to-moderate school-related problem behaviors in order to identify aspects of teacher tolerance specific to the elementary classroom. Findings indicated that behaviors least tolerated are other-directed or disruptive; self- or teacher-directed behaviors elicited less negative ratings. (RH)

  15. Parenting practices and child disruptive behavior problems in early elementary school. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; McMahon, R J; Lengua, L J

    2000-03-01

    Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child's disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex. PMID:10693029

  16. Teachers' Judgments of Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1987-01-01

    After viewing videotaped vignettes of classroom situations, 155 teachers rated severity, tolerance, manageability, and contagion factors related to a target child. Ratings indicated significant multivariate differences between regular/special education teachers and disruptive/nondisruptive behaviors, with regular educators being less tolerant and…

  17. Parent Behavior and Adolescents' Self-System Processes: Predictors of Behavior to Siblings and Friends Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repinski, Daniel J.; Shonk, Susan M.

    This study examined the degree to which adolescent self-system processes (self-efficacy, emotional reactivity) and reports of mothers' and fathers' behavior (warmth/support, hostility) predict adolescents' behavior toward siblings and their friends' problem behavior. Subjects were 76 seventh-grade adolescents who provided self-reports of parent…

  18. Problem Behaviors in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    Early personality and environmental characteristics that predict later problematic aggression and depression in children were investigated longitudinally. A developmental psychopathology approach was taken. (This approach assumes that patterns of adaptation and maladaptation in development can best be understood when explored simultaneously and…

  19. Does Helping Keep Teens Protected? Longitudinal Bidirectional Relations Between Prosocial Behavior and Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Carlo, Gustavo; Nielson, Matthew G

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined bidirectional, longitudinal links between prosocial and problem behavior. Participants (N = 500) were recruited from a Northwestern city in the United States and assessed for 3 consecutive years from 2009 to 2011 (M(age) of youth at Time 1 = 13.32, SD = 1.05; 52% girls; 67% European American, 33% single-parent families). Results suggested that effects of earlier prosocial behavior toward family and strangers were predictive of fewer problem behaviors 2 years later, while results for prosocial behavior toward friends were more mixed. Results also suggested depression predicted lower prosocial behavior toward family members and anxiety predicted higher prosocial behavior toward friends. Findings show a complex pattern of relations that demonstrate the need to consider targets of helping. PMID:26511897

  20. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to 15 years in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity-score-matched sample of children from intact families, according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents' separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 years for teacher reports, or 15 years for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of predivorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their postdivorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families.

  1. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to 15 years in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity-score-matched sample of children from intact families, according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents' separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 years for teacher reports, or 15 years for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of predivorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their postdivorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families. PMID:25419913

  2. Behavioral/Emotional Problems of Preschoolers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, L.A.; Achenbach, T.M.; Ivanova, M.Y.;

    2012-01-01

    This study tested societal effects on caregiver/teacher ratings of behavioral/emotional problems for 10,521 preschoolers from 15 societies. Many societies had problem scale scores within a relatively narrow range, despite differences in language, culture, and other characteristics. The small age...... and gender effects were quite similar across societies. The rank orders of mean item ratings were similar across diverse societies. For 7,380 children from 13 societies, ratings were also obtained from a parent. In all 13 societies, mean Total Problems scores derived from parent ratings were significantly...

  3. Robot response behaviors to accommodate hearing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroon, Jered; Kim, Jaebok; Koster, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    One requirement that arises for a social (semi-autonomous telepresence) robot aimed at conversations with the elderly, is to accommodate hearing problems. In this paper we compare two approaches to this requirement; (1) moving closer, mimicking the leaning behavior commonly observed in elderly with

  4. Trajectories of Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser-Cram, Penny; Woodman, Ashley C

    2016-05-01

    Children with disabilities tend to have higher levels of behavior problems than other children. Such problems have implications for psychopathology in the young adult years, with possible effects on life course opportunities such as employment and independent living. This investigation examines the developmental course of both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems by employing person-centered analyses to construct patterns of change in behavior problems in 169 children (54 % male) with early diagnosed disabilities, from age 3 to age 18. Early childhood predictors of these patterns indicated that more adverse patterns of both types of behavior problems were predicted by higher maternal depressive symptoms. Greater impacts on the family of having a child with a disability predicted more adverse patterns of internalizing behavior problems. More adaptive patterns of externalizing behavior problems were predicted by positive maternal sensitivity to a child's distress. These findings suggest the need for early intervention focused on the family system. PMID:26219262

  5. The Impact of Pubertal Timing and Parental Control on Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arim, Rubab G.; Shapka, Jennifer D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among pubertal timing, parental control, and problem behaviors. There were 267 participants, whose ages ranged from 9 to 16 years. Both maternal and paternal psychological control predicted problem behaviors over and above the effects of behavioral control. For boys, early maturation and high levels of paternal…

  6. Brain size predicts problem-solving ability in mammalian carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Dantzer, Ben; Stricker, Gregory; Swanson, Eli M; Holekamp, Kay E

    2016-03-01

    Despite considerable interest in the forces shaping the relationship between brain size and cognitive abilities, it remains controversial whether larger-brained animals are, indeed, better problem-solvers. Recently, several comparative studies have revealed correlations between brain size and traits thought to require advanced cognitive abilities, such as innovation, behavioral flexibility, invasion success, and self-control. However, the general assumption that animals with larger brains have superior cognitive abilities has been heavily criticized, primarily because of the lack of experimental support for it. Here, we designed an experiment to inquire whether specific neuroanatomical or socioecological measures predict success at solving a novel technical problem among species in the mammalian order Carnivora. We presented puzzle boxes, baited with food and scaled to accommodate body size, to members of 39 carnivore species from nine families housed in multiple North American zoos. We found that species with larger brains relative to their body mass were more successful at opening the boxes. In a subset of species, we also used virtual brain endocasts to measure volumes of four gross brain regions and show that some of these regions improve model prediction of success at opening the boxes when included with total brain size and body mass. Socioecological variables, including measures of social complexity and manual dexterity, failed to predict success at opening the boxes. Our results, thus, fail to support the social brain hypothesis but provide important empirical support for the relationship between relative brain size and the ability to solve this novel technical problem.

  7. Predictability and hierarchy in Drosophila behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Gordon J; Shaevitz, Joshua W

    2016-01-01

    Even the simplest of animals exhibit behavioral sequences with complex temporal dynamics. Prominent amongst the proposed organizing principles for these dynamics has been the idea of a hierarchy, wherein the movements an animal makes can be understood as a set of nested sub-clusters. Although this type of organization holds potential advantages in terms of motion control and neural circuitry, measurements demonstrating this for an animal's entire behavioral repertoire have been limited in scope and temporal complexity. Here, we use a recently developed unsupervised technique to discover and track the occurrence of all stereotyped behaviors performed by fruit flies moving in a shallow arena. Calculating the optimally predictive representation of the fly's future behaviors, we show that fly behavior exhibits multiple time scales and is organized into a hierarchical structure that is indicative of its underlying behavioral programs and its changing internal states.

  8. Predicting Academic Achievement from Classroom Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Flynt, Cynthia J.

    2008-01-01

    PREDICTING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT FROM CLASSROOM BEHAVIORS by Cynthia J. Flynt Nancy Bodenhorn & Kusum Singh, Co-Chairs Counselor Education (ABSTRACT) This study examined the influence of behaviors exhibited in the classroom on reading and math achievement in the first, third and eighth grades; and the influence of teacher perceptions on reading and math achievement of African-Americans versus White students and male versus female students. Lastly, the study examined te...

  9. Sleep problems predict cortisol reactivity to stress in urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Tyson, Anna; Turan, Bulent; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the role of sleep problems and sleep duration on stress-related HPA axis reactivity among urban, low income adolescents. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36 years; 50% male; 95% African American) and their parents provided information on adolescents' sleep problems and sleep quantity. Adolescents completed a standardized social stress test in the laboratory (the Trier Social Stress Test; TSST). Saliva samples collected before and after the TSST yielded measures of cortisol pre-test, 15 min post-test, and 55 min post-test, as well as overall cortisol secretion and its increase (AUCG and AUCI). More sleep problems and longer sleep duration predicted higher cortisol reactivity to the TSST, particularly among females. Self-reports of sleep were more consistently related to stress-related cortisol reactivity than parent reports. Sleep problems and longer sleep duration may place adolescents at risk for HPA axis hyper-reactivity to stress, contributing to academic, behavioral and health problems. PMID:26679739

  10. Parental Alcoholism and Offspring Behavior Problems: Findings in Australian Children of Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Waldron, Mary; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heath, Andrew C

    2009-01-01

    We examine the impact of rearing by an alcoholic parent on risk for child behavior problems using data on 2492 offspring drawn from two ongoing studies of children of female and male same- and opposite-sex twin pairs. Results of regression models predicting child behavior problems from parental and co-twin lifetime history of alcohol use disorder (AUD) provide support for genetic but not environmental transmission of externalizing and a measure of total problem behaviors. Results for internal...

  11. Does Problem Behavior Elicit Poor Parenting?: A Prospective Study of Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, David; Tristan, Jennifer; Wade, Emily; Stice, Eric

    2006-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that perceived parenting would show reciprocal relations with adolescents' problem behavior using longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results provided support for the assertion that female problem behavior has an adverse effect on parenting; elevated externalizing symptoms and substance abuse symptoms predicted future decreases in perceived parental support and control. There was less support for the assertion that parenting deficits foster adolescent problem behaviors; initially low parental control predicted future increases in substance abuse, but not externalizing symptoms, and low parental support did not predict future increases in externalizing or substance abuse symptoms. Results suggest that problem behavior is a more consistent predictor of parenting than parenting is of problem behavior, at least for girls during middle adolescence. PMID:16528407

  12. The Relative Value of Reading Ability and IQ as Predictors of Teacher-Reported Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Warren R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of data obtained from 779 New Zealand children showed that family adversity and preschool-age intelligence quotient predicted problem behavior during the first year at school, but reading scores accounted for a larger proportion of the variance in later behavior problem scores than did school-age intelligence quotients. (Author/JDD)

  13. Child and Family Predictors of Therapy Outcome for Children with Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Littlefield, Lyn

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of 106 children primarily referred for externalizing behavior problems and their families, and assessed the prediction of treatment outcome following a standardized short-term, cognitive behavioral group program. "Exploring Together" comprised a children's group (anger management, problem-solving and…

  14. Predicting Assignment Submissions in a Multiclass Classification Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Drăgulescu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Predicting student failure is an important task that can empower educators to counteract the factors that affect student performance. In this paper, a part of the bigger problem of predicting student failure is addressed: predicting the students that do not complete their assignment tasks. For solving this problem, real data collected by our university’s educational platform was used. Because the problem consisted of predicting one of three possible classes (multi-class classification, the appropriate algorithms and methods were selected. Several experiments were carried out to find the best approach for this prediction problem and the used data set. An approach of time segmentation is proposed in order to facilitate the prediction from early on. Methods that address the problems of high dimensionality and imbalanced data were also evaluated. The outcome of each approach is shown and compared in order to select the best performing classification algorithm for the problem at hand.

  15. An Extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) Used to Predict Smoking Behavior Among a Sample of Iranian Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Karimy; Zareban; Araban; Montazeri

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking among the youth is an important public health concern. Although several studies have investigated the correlates of smoking behavior, no theory-based study has particularly assessed this problem among medical students. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict smoking behavior among a sample of Iranian medical students. ...

  16. The implications of different developmental patterns of disruptive behavior problems for school adjustment. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L

    1998-01-01

    Based upon developmental models of disruptive behavior problems, this study examined the hypothesis that the nature of a child's externalizing problems at home may be important in predicting the probability of and nature of school adjustment problems at school entry. Parent ratings were collected for a sample of 631 behaviorally disruptive children using the Child Behavior Checklist. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed differentiated ratings of oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home. Teacher and peer nominations assessed school adjustment at the end of first grade. As expected from a developmental perspective, aggressive behaviors indicated more severe dysfunction and were more likely to generalize to the school setting than were oppositional behaviors. Hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home led to more classroom disruption than did aggressive or oppositional behaviors. Co-occurring patterns of oppositional/aggressive and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors were more common than were single-problem patterns, and were associated with broad dysfunction in the social and classroom contexts. The results were interpreted within a developmental framework, in which oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors may reflect distinct (as well as shared) developmental processes that have implications for the home-to-school generalization of behavior problems and subsequent school adjustment.

  17. Assessment of adolescents' victimization, aggression, and problem behaviors: Evaluation of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Le, Anh-Thuy H

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale (PBFS), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescents' frequency of victimization, aggression, and other problem behaviors. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 5,532 adolescents from 37 schools at 4 sites. About half (49%) of participants were male; 48% self-identified as Black non-Hispanic; 21% as Hispanic, 18% as White non-Hispanic. Adolescents completed the PBFS and measures of beliefs and values related to aggression, and delinquent peer associations at the start of the 6th grade and over 2 years later. Ratings of participants' behavior were also obtained from teachers on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 7-factor model that differentiated among 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 2 forms of victimization (overt and relational), drug use, and other delinquent behavior. Support was found for strong measurement invariance across gender, sites, and time. The PBFS factors generally showed the expected pattern of correlations with teacher ratings of adolescents' behavior and self-report measures of relevant constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26372261

  18. A Collaborative Mechanism for Crowdsourcing Prediction Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Abernethy, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Machine Learning competitions such as the Netflix Prize have proven reasonably successful as a method of "crowdsourcing" prediction tasks. But these competitions have a number of weaknesses, particularly in the incentive structure they create for the participants. We propose a new approach, called a Crowdsourced Learning Mechanism, in which participants collaboratively "learn" a hypothesis for a given prediction task. The approach draws heavily from the concept of a prediction market, where traders bet on the likelihood of a future event. In our framework, the mechanism continues to publish the current hypothesis, and participants can modify this hypothesis by wagering on an update. The critical incentive property is that a participant will profit an amount that scales according to how much her update improves performance on a released test set.

  19. Affective decision-making predictive of Chinese adolescent drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine; Grenard, L Jerry; Stacy, W Alan; Palmer, Paula; Wei, Yonglan; Jia, Yong; Fu, Xiaolu; Johnson, C Anderson

    2009-07-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to address whether affective decision making would serve as a unique neuropsychological marker to predict drinking behaviors among adolescents. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu city, China. In their 10th grade (ages 15-16), these adolescents were tested for their affective decision-making ability using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and working memory capacity using the Self-Ordered Pointing Test. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess academic performance and drinking behaviors. At 1-year follow-up, questionnaires were completed to assess drinking behaviors, and the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale was used to examine four dimensions of impulsivity: urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. Results indicated that those adolescents who progressed to binge drinking or exhibited consistent binge drinking not only performed poorly on the IGT but also scored significantly higher in urgency compared to those who never or occasionally drank. Moreover, better IGT scores predicted fewer drinking problems and fewer drinks 1 year later after controlling for demographic variables, the previous drinking behaviors, working memory, and impulsivity. These findings suggest that deficits in affective decision making may be important independent determinants of compulsive drinking and potentially addictive behavior in adolescents. PMID:19573273

  20. Evidence-Based Practices for Addressing Classroom Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Suk Lee; Lynch, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers of young children can plan proactively so that they avoid some of the serious problem behaviors in the classroom. The strategies presented in this article are part of a problem solving approach to challenging behavior based on the principles of positive behavioral support. Although these methods presented here have research-based…

  1. Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior Evoked by Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Scott D.; Newchok, Debra K.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of differential negative reinforcement of other behavior (DNRO) on problem behavior evoked by music in a 7-year-old child with pervasive developmental disorder. Following an auditory stimulus assessment, DNRO was used to reduce problem behavior to near-zero levels. Results are discussed in terms of…

  2. IOSIE: A Method for Analyzing Student Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpaci, Richard T.

    2007-01-01

    The author argues for a rational method to analyze behavior problems and proposes a method of identifying the problem, the objectives to be achieved, the solution, the implementation, and the evaluation (IOSIE) as a practical approach to assist teachers in resolving most classroom behavior management problems. The approach draws heavily on…

  3. Anxiety, attention problems, hyperactivity, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Anne; Raspa, Melissa; Bann, Carla; Bishop, Ellen; Hessl, David; Sacco, Pat; Bailey, Donald B

    2014-01-01

    Behavior problems are a common challenge for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and constitute the primary clinical outcome domain in trials testing new FXS medications. However, little is known about the relationship between caregiver-reported behavior problems and co-occurring conditions such as anxiety and attention problems. In this study, 350 caregivers, each with at least one son or daughter with full-mutation FXS, rated one of their children with FXS using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Version (ABC-C); the Anxiety subscale of the Anxiety, Depression, and Mood Scale; and the Attention/Hyperactivity Items from the Symptom Inventories. In addition to examining family consequences of these behaviors, this study also sought to replicate psychometric findings for the ABC-C in FXS, to provide greater confidence for its use in clinical trials with this population. Psychometric properties and baseline ratings of problem behavior were consistent with other recent studies, further establishing the profile of problem behavior in FXS. Cross-sectional analyses suggest that selected dimensions of problem behavior, anxiety, and hyperactivity are age related; thus, age should serve as an important control in any studies of problem behavior in FXS. Measures of anxiety, attention, and hyperactivity were highly associated with behavior problems, suggesting that these factors at least coincide with problem behavior. However, these problems generally did not add substantially to variance in caregiver burden predicted by elevated behavior problems. The results provide further evidence of the incidence of problem behaviors and co-occurring conditions in FXS and the impact of these behaviors on the family.

  4. Statistics and predictions of population, energy and environment problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the situation that world's population, especially in developing countries, is rapidly growing, humankind is facing to global problems that they cannot steadily live unless they find individual places to live, obtain foods, and peacefully get energy necessary for living for centuries. For this purpose, humankind has to think what behavior they should take in the finite environment, talk, agree and execute. Though energy has been long respected as a symbol for improving living, demanded and used, they have come to limit the use making the global environment more serious. If there is sufficient energy not loading cost to the environment. If nuclear energy regarded as such one sustain the resource for long and has market competitiveness. What situation of realization of compensating new energy is now in the case the use of nuclear energy is restricted by the society fearing radioactivity. If there are promising ones for the future. One concerning with the study of energy cannot go without knowing these. The statistical materials compiled here are thought to be useful for that purpose, and are collected mainly from ones viewing future prediction based on past practices. Studies on the prediction is so important to have future measures that these data bases are expected to be improved for better accuracy. (author)

  5. Relationship between Parenting Style and Children’s Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    shahla alizadeh; Mansor B Abu Talib; Rohani Abdullah; Mariani Mansor

    2011-01-01

    In the family, parenting style directly impacts children’s behavior and symptoms of behavior. There is ample evidence to support the correlation between parenting style and children’s behavioral problems. However, parenting style and children’s behavioral problems have received little attention and research interest in Iran. Therefore, the current research is deemed necessary and timely. Thus, the major purpose of this current study is to investigate the relationship between parenting style a...

  6. A Positive Approach to Classroom Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Alan

    1985-01-01

    A structured reinforcement system, in which learning disabled students earn tokens for on-task activities, is an effective way of managing classroom behavior. An 11-step process of initiating such a program is described. (CL)

  7. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  8. Factors of Problem Behavior in Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittjer, Carl J.; Hirshoren, Alfred

    1981-01-01

    The Behavior Problem Checklist was completed by teachers of 104 students in a residential school for the visually impaired. Overall, the visually impaired children tended to have problem-behavior patterns similar to other populations and these patterns were largely independent of the visual handicap. (Author)

  9. Problem Behaviors Associated with 15q- Angelman Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David J.; Marston, Geoff

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-three caregivers of persons with Angelman syndrome completed the Aberrant Behavior checklist and Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behavior. Responses indicate that 15q- Angelman syndrome is associated with problems such as lack of speech, over activity, restlessness, and eating and sleeping problems. Inappropriate laughter was only reported…

  10. Parenting Practices and Behavior Problems among Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakowski, Amy; Brubaker, Robert G.

    2000-01-01

    Parents of 39 deaf and 37 hearing children (ages 3-8) completed the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire and the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory. Inconsistent discipline was positively correlated with behavior problems for both groups. There was no evidence that greater prevalence of problems among deaf children resulted from inadequate parenting.…

  11. Preventing Problem Behaviors in Young Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivette, Kristine; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Morrier, Michael J.; Lambert, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Young children with disabilities acquire behavior problems as a result of many factors. When planning interventions, it is important to remember that all children may display stages of inappropriate behaviors at various times during their early development. In most cases, the problems are short-lived and typically improve with guidance and age.…

  12. Descriptive Analysis of Teachers' Responses to Problem Behavior Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Laura; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2009-01-01

    The procedures described by Sloman et al. (2005) were extended to an analysis of teachers' responses to problem behavior after they had been taught to withhold potential sources of positive and negative reinforcement following instances of problem behavior. Results were consistent with those reported previously, suggesting that escape from child…

  13. The Mutual Influence of Parenting and Boys' Externalizing Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J.; Colder, Craig R.; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen C.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined the mutual influence of parenting and boys' externalizing behavior from 4th to 8th grade, how these relationships change as children develop, and the stability of parenting and child behavior in a sample of 122 boys. Child behavior predicted poor parental monitoring at 6th and 7th grade and inconsistent discipline at all…

  14. Sexual Behaviors in Autism: Problems of Definition and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, George M.; Ruble, Lisa A.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the problems of definition of sexual behaviors in individuals with autism and describes a case that highlights the difficulties of management. After failure of behavioral and educational programs, a testosterone-suppressing medication was used resulting in suppression of public masturbation behaviors and retention of the participant's…

  15. Computer Use and Behavior Problems in Twice-Exceptional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Elsworth, Miquela; Miley, Neal; Seckinger, Sean

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated how engagement with computer games and TV exposure may affect behaviors of gifted students. We also compared behavioral and cognitive profiles of twice-exceptional students and children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gifted students were divided into those with behavioral problems and those…

  16. BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH MILD AND MODERATE INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIKJ-IVANOVIKJ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Large number of children with intellectual disabilities encounters behavioral problems or show disharmonic behavior within the family, at school and in the community. Researches show that 30-50% of persons with intellectual disabilities have some behavioral problems. The behavior of children with intellectual disabilities depends on many factors: age of the child, level of intellectual disability, cognitive potentials, level of psycho-physical development, differentiation of emotions, communicative skills, social status and conditions of the environment (in the family and the wider community where the child lives. The influence of some of these factors has been analyzed by this research. There are many ins truments (questionnaires, scales that evaluate behavior of persons with intellectual disabilities, and reveal problems that these persons have in their psychosocial development and social life. This research used the AAMD Adaptive behavior Scale (part II and Scale for evaluating behavior of the child in school by authors Bojanin, Savanovikj.

  17. Intergenerational Transmission of Child Problem Behaviors: A Longitudinal, Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meurs, Inge; Reef, Joni; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The scores of 4- to 16-year-olds on a child behavior checklist made in 1983 is compared with those of their 6- to 18-year-old offsprings that were done in 2007. It is found that most forms of problem behavior in children were predicted by their parent's behavior as children and that continuity is stronger in mothers than fathers and in sons than…

  18. Predicting moral behavior in physical education classes: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Emmanouilidou, Maria

    2005-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the potential of the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict moral behavior in primary school physical education classes. Primary school children (N=611) completed a questionnaire including the Theory of Planned Behavior variables. Also, 21 teachers filled in an adapted version of Horrocks' Prosocial Play Behavior Inventory which assesses five moral behavior facets. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that attitudes toward moral behavior and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of intention towards moral behavior (54%). Intention and perceived behavioral control predicted teacher-reported moral behavior (41%). The present results indicated that the theory provides a valuable framework for study of primary school children's moral behavior. PMID:16158692

  19. FAMILY RISK FACTORS AS INDICATORS OF BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS WITH YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko KOVACHEVIKJ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This project researches whether risk factors within family have any predictive power in describing youth behavioural problems. Family risk factors such as family functioning problems and conflicts within family have the strongest predictive power. Preventive actions and treatment must be directed toward the youth living in risky families.

  20. Psycho-cognitive behavioral problems in sleep disordered children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parvaneh Karimzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in childhood and adolescence. Sleep problems in early infants tend to be persistent and prominent in preschool and school-aged children. Chronic sleep disorders, especially in young children may lead to neurobehavioral problems and psycho-cognitive impairment. Sleep difficulties may be the result of underlying medical conditions, (breathing disorders) or psychological problems. Research studies have shown the association between sleep disorders and day time cognitive impairment, behavioral problems, poor school performance and inattention in children. Appropriate diagnosis and early management of sleep disorders in children lead to improvement of neurocognitive function and behavioral problems in these children.

  1. Polygenic Scores Predict Alcohol Problems in an Independent Sample and Show Moderation by the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore, Jessica E.; Fazil Aliev; Edwards, Alexis C.; Evans, David M; John Macleod; Matthew Hickman; Glyn Lewis; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Anu Loukola; Tellervo Korhonen; Antti Latvala; Richard J. Rose; Jaakko Kaprio; Dick, Danielle M

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol problems represent a classic example of a complex behavioral outcome that is likely influenced by many genes of small effect. A polygenic approach, which examines aggregate measured genetic effects, can have predictive power in cases where individual genes or genetic variants do not. In the current study, we first tested whether polygenic risk for alcohol problems—derived from genome-wide association estimates of an alcohol problems factor score from the age 18 assessment of the Avon ...

  2. Dynamic Assessment of Algebraic Learning in Predicting Third Graders’ Development of Mathematical Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hollenbeck, Kurstin N.; Craddock, Caitlin F.; Hamlett, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic assessment (DA) involves helping students learn a task and indexing responsiveness to that instruction as a measure of learning potential. The purpose of this study was to explore the utility of a DA of algebraic learning in predicting 3rd graders’ development of mathematics problem solving. In the fall, 122 3rd-grade students were assessed on language, nonverbal reasoning, attentive behavior, calculations, word-problem skill, and DA. On the basis of random assignment, students receiv...

  3. Music taste groups and problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Juul; Bogt, Tom ter; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-

  4. Music Taste Groups and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Juul; ter Bogt, Tom; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Cluster analysis on their music…

  5. Modeling problem behaviors in a nationally representative sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kate L; Dolphin, Louise; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dooley, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Research on multiple problem behaviors has focused on the concept of Problem Behavior Syndrome (PBS). Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) is a complex and comprehensive social-psychological framework designed to explain the development of a range of problem behaviors. This study examines the structure of PBS and the applicability of PBT in adolescents. Participants were 6062 adolescents; aged 12-19 (51.3% female) who took part in the My World Survey-Second Level (MWS-SL). Regarding PBS, Confirmatory Factor Analysis established that problem behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use loaded significantly onto a single, latent construct for males and females. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the PBT framework was found to be a good fit for males and females. Socio-demographic, perceived environment system and personality accounted for over 40% of the variance in problem behaviors for males and females. Our findings have important implications for understanding how differences in engaging in problem behaviors vary by gender. PMID:27161989

  6. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene–environment interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Robbers, Sylvana; Van Oort, Floor; Huizink, Anja; Verhulst, Frank; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Boomsma, Dorret; Bartels, Meike

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than children with married parents, and that externalizing problems in girls precede and predict later parental divorce. The aim of the current study was to investigate as to whether genetic and environmen...

  7. Behavioral Scripts and Instructional Procedures for Students with Learning and Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Matthew J.; Patriarca, Linda A.

    2007-01-01

    Student academic failure and serious behavior problems are closely intertwined. Two related bodies of research pertain to the crossover of academic problems and behavioral issues: behavioral scripts and best instructional practices. The authors drew on that research to (a) help explicate relationships between aggressive or disruptive student…

  8. Behavioral Intervention for Problem Behavior in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Lauren J.; Carr, Edward G.; Durand, V. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Parents and professionals typically report problem behavior as a significant concern for children with fragile X syndrome. In the present study, the authors explored whether behaviorally based interventions would result in a reduction in problem behavior and an improvement in quality of life for 3 children with fragile X syndrome and their…

  9. Using Clickers to Increase On-Task Behaviors of Middle School Students with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Joy F.; Johnson, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of using a remote device, a Clicker, on the on-task behavior of middle school students with behavior problems. Five students with behavior problems participated in the study. A single-subject research design with ABAB (phase A: baseline 1, phase B: intervention 1, phase A: baseline 2, phase B: intervention 2) phases…

  10. Social Problem Solving Ability Predicts Mental Health Among Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Ranjbar; Ali Asghar Bayani; Ali Bayani

    2013-01-01

    Background : The main objective of this study was predicting student′s mental health using social problem solving- ability . Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t tes...

  11. Therapist adherence and organizational effects on change in youth behavior problems one year after multisystemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenwald, Sonja K; Carter, Rickey E; Chapman, Jason E; Sheidow, Ashli J

    2008-09-01

    The current study investigated the relations among therapist adherence to an evidence-based treatment for youth with serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy), organizational climate and structure, and improvement in youth behavior problems one-year post treatment. Participants were 1979 youth and families treated by 429 therapists across 45 provider organizations in North America. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) results showed therapist adherence predicted improvement in youth behavior. Two structure variables and one climate variable predicted changes in youth behavior, and the climate variable also predicted therapist adherence. No statistical support for formal mediation of organizational effects through adherence was found, though examination of changes in parameter estimates suggest a possible interplay of organizational climate with adherence and youth behavior change.

  12. Families and Positive Behavior Support: Addressing Problem Behavior in Family Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M., Ed.; Dunlap, Glen, Ed.; Albin, Richard W., Ed.

    The 19 chapters of this volume address theory, research, and practice concerning positive behavior support with families of children and youth with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. The chapters are: (1) "Positive Behavior Support with Families" (Joseph Lucyshyn and others); (2) "Finding Positive Behavior Support One Piece at a…

  13. Iron Supplements Reduce Behavior Problems in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Social Media Toolkit Donate Now Corporate Relationships Advertise with AAP Help/Feedback Recent a a a print email share Facebook Twitter Iron Supplements Reduce Behavior Problems in Low ...

  14. The Link between Body Issues and Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, James R.; Hoover, John H.

    2000-01-01

    This article highlights the myriad behavioral and adjustment problems that flow from negative self-perceptions about body image in children and adolescents. These negative beliefs are often exacerbated by peer harassment. (Author/MKA)

  15. Alcohol Use Problem Severity and Problem Behavior Engagement among School-Based Youths in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas-Neese, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2010-01-01

    This study created an alcohol use problem severity taxonomy and examined its association to engagement in other problem behaviors. Minnesota youths were categorized based on their frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence criteria. Greater alcohol use problem severity was generally associated with higher prevalence of…

  16. Single Parenting and Child Behavior Problems in Kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Preston, Kathleen S.; Franke, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Two waves of data from a sample of 89 poor and near-poor single black mothers and their preschool children were used to study the influences of parenting stress, physical discipline practices, and nonresident fathers’ relations with their children on behavior problems in kindergarten. The results indicate that higher levels of parent stress, more frequent spanking, and less frequent father–child contact at time 1 were associated with increased teacher-reported behavior problems at time 2. In ...

  17. Extending the theory of planned behavior: The role of behavioral options and additional factors in predicting speed behavior

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTEA, Mioara; PARAN, Françoise; DELHOMME, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has been successfully predicting behavior with a small number of factors. Nonetheless, to increase its predictive power we introduced several behavioral options and additional factors in the same prediction model about drivers’ self-reported speed behavior on a road with a speed limit of 90 km/h. We investigated the TPB factors as well as descriptive norms, perceived similarity with/description of the prototypical driver, and past behavior with re...

  18. Social and behavioral problems among five gambling severity groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Yoon, Gihyun; Campos, Michael D; Fong, Timothy W

    2015-12-15

    Gambling has been associated with various social and behavioral problems, but previous analyses have been limited by sample bias regarding gambling symptom severity range and the role of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). This study utilized a nationally representative data set and examined various characteristics of behavioral problems and ASPD among five gambling severity groups. Participants were 42,038 individuals who took part in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and provided information on social and behavioral problems, ASPD, and gambling. Using DSM-IV criteria, we derived five gambling groups from the total sample: non-gambling, low-risk, at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling. Associations between all problematic behaviors and nearly every gambling severity level were significant prior to adjustment for sociodemographic variables and ASPD. Following the adjustment, all significant associations persisted, with the exception of sexual coercion. In the adjusted model, the financially oriented behaviors had the strongest associations with gambling. All gambling severity levels were associated with an increased risk for a number of problematic behaviors and social problems in comparison to non-gamblers.Further examination of gambling problems in financial and criminal justice settings is recommended. PMID:26391652

  19. Prenatal Substance Exposure: What Predicts Behavioral Resilience by Early Adolescence?

    OpenAIRE

    Liebschutz, Jane; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Heymann, Orlaith D.; Lange, Allison V.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure (IUSE) in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (age 12.4–15.9) at-risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or l...

  20. Functional Assessment of Problem Behaviors in Adults with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paclawskyj, Theodosia R.; Kurtz, Patricia F.; O'Connor, Julia T.

    2004-01-01

    Functional assessment has significantly improved the success of behavioral treatment of problem behaviors in adults with mental retardation. Functional assessment methods (i.e., techniques that yield a hypothesis of functional relationships) include direct observation, interviews, and checklists. Functional analysis consists of empirical methods…

  1. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

  2. Teaching Students with Behavior Problems to Take a Break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormont, Melissa A.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Reinke, Wendy M.

    2016-01-01

    This column presents a strategy for teachers to use with students with challenging behaviors motivated by a desire to escape a setting. Although many detailed strategies are available for students with behavior problems, few provide a structured approach for working with the students motivated by escape or avoidance. To effectively intervene with…

  3. Maternal Predictors of Behavioral Problems Among Mexican Migrant Farmworker Children

    OpenAIRE

    de Leon Siantz, Mary Lou; Coronado, Nora; Dovydaitis, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of maternal parenting factors on the emotional and behavioral health of Mexican Migrant Head Start children. Although the majority of children sampled in this study did not exhibit problematic behaviors, the findings concluded that children who demonstrated emotional and behavioral problems experienced a more rejecting maternal parenting style, greater parenting stress, and mothers reporting feelings of depression. Gender differences were found between the b...

  4. Music Education Preservice Teachers' Confidence in Resolving Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Debra G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there would be a change in preservice teachers' (a) confidence concerning the resolution of behavior problems, (b) tactics for resolving them, (c) anticipation of problems, (d) fears about management issues, and (e) confidence in methodology and pedagogy over the time period of a one-semester…

  5. A transport model for prediction of wildfire behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, R.R.

    1997-07-01

    Wildfires are a threat to human life and property, yet they are an unavoidable part of nature. In the past people have tried to predict wildfire behavior through the use of point functional models but have been unsuccessful at adequately predicting the gross behavior of the broad spectrum of fires that occur in nature. The majority of previous models do not have self-determining propagation rates. The author uses a transport approach to represent this complicated problem and produce a model that utilizes a self-determining propagation rate. The transport approach allows one to represent a large number of environments including transition regions such as those with nonhomogeneous vegetation and terrain. Some of the most difficult features to treat are the imperfectly known boundary conditions and the fine scale structure that is unresolvable, such as the specific location of the fuel or the precise incoming winds. The author accounts for the microscopic details of a fire with macroscopic resolution by dividing quantities into mean and fluctuating parts similar to what is done in traditional turbulence modelling. The author develops a complicated model that includes the transport of multiple gas species, such as oxygen and volatile hydrocarbons, and tracks the depletion of various fuels and other stationary solids and liquids. From this model the author also forms a simplified local burning model with which he performs a number of simulations for the purpose of demonstrating the properties of a self-determining transport-based wildfire model.

  6. PREDICTORS OF EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS IN 1-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN: A LONGITUDINAL PERSPECTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvinskiene, Giedre; Zemaitiene, Nida; Jusiene, Roma; Markuniene, Egle

    2016-07-01

    Emotional and behavioral problems at an early age can reasonably be considered a high-risk factor for later mental health disorders. The aim of the article is to reveal predictive factors of 1½-year-old children's emotional and behavioral problems. The study was a part of a prospective birth-cohort study. The study sample consisted of 172 full-term infants (born during Gestational Weeks 37-42) and their mothers. Emotional and behavioral problems at the age of 1½ years were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 (T. Achenbach & L. Rescorla, 2000), which was completed by mothers. Emotional and behavioral problems at age of 1½ years were more prevalent in infants born via cesarean section, as compared to infants born vaginally without administration of medication. Newborns' suboptimal functioning after birth, complicated emotional acceptance of pregnancy, a couple's nonsatisfactory relationship during pregnancy, maternal distress during pregnancy and in the first months after childbirth, and inflexible and parent-oriented attitudes toward infant-rearing also predicted children's emotional and behavioral problems independent of sociodemographic factors. Results suggest that biomedical and psychosocial factors which manifest themselves in the prenatal and perinatal periods can have associations with later infant and child mental health. PMID:27336695

  7. Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems: Schoolwide positive behavior support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Kincaid, Donald

    2005-01-01

    School discipline is a growing concern in the United States. Educators frequently are faced with discipline problems ranging from infrequent but extreme problems (e.g., shootings) to less severe problems that occur at high frequency (e.g., bullying, insubordination, tardiness, and fighting). Unfortunately, teachers report feeling ill prepared to deal effectively with discipline problems in schools. Further, research suggests that many commonly used strategies, such as suspension, expulsion, and other reactive strategies, are not effective for ameliorating discipline problems and may, in fact, make the situation worse. The principles and technology of behavior analysis have been demonstrated to be extremely effective for decreasing problem behavior and increasing social skills exhibited by school children. Recently, these principles and techniques have been applied at the level of the entire school, in a movement termed schoolwide positive behavior support. In this paper we review the tenets of schoolwide positive behavior support, demonstrating the relation between this technology and applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478439

  8. Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-12-15

    The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions.

  9. Gender differences in behavioral problems and shool outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. Grøne; Obel, Carsten; Smith, Nina

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes gender differences in behavioral problems and school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for approximately 6000 Danish children 10–12 years of age who were born in 1990–1992. The sample has been merged...... with extensive register data on parental background and student outcomes. Our findings show a large negative association between indicators of externalizing behavioral and school outcomes. Only a minor percentage of the gender difference in average reading and math test scores, however, can be attributed...... to gender differences in the prevalence of low-scoring individuals with behavioral problems....

  10. The use of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Engagement in Functional Behaviors in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Mausbach, Brent T.; Moore, Raeanne C.; Davine, Taylor; Cardenas, Veronica; Bowie, Christopher R.; Ho, Jennifer; Jeste, Dilip V.; Patterson, Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    In Schizophrenia, low motivation may play a role in the initiation and frequency of functional behaviors. Several reviews support the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict engagement in various behaviors, but little research has utilized the TPB to explain functional behavior in schizophrenia. This study tested the TPB for predicting prospective engagement in functional behaviors in a sample of 64 individuals with schizophrenia. Participants completed questionnaires asse...

  11. Role of masker predictability in the cocktail party problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary L; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2008-12-01

    In studies of the cocktail party problem, the number and locations of maskers are typically fixed throughout a block of trials, which leaves out uncertainty that exists in real-world environments. The current experiments examined whether there is (1) improved speech intelligibility and (2) increased spatial release from masking (SRM), as predictability of the number/locations of speech maskers is increased. In the first experiment, subjects identified a target word presented at a fixed level in the presence of 0, 1, or 2 maskers as predictability of the masker configuration ranged from 10% to 80%. The second experiment examined speech reception thresholds and SRM as (a) predictability of the masker configuration is increased from 20% to 80% and/or (b) the complexity of the listening environment is decreased. In the third experiment, predictability of the masker configuration was increased from 20% up to 100% while minimizing the onset delay between maskers and the target. All experiments showed no effect of predictability of the masker configuration on speech intelligibility or SRM. These results suggest that knowing the number and location(s) of maskers may not necessarily contribute significantly to solving the cocktail party problem, at least not when the location of the target is known. PMID:19206808

  12. Behavior problems in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Verónica; Grañana, Nora E; Richaudeau, Alba; Torres, Silvio; Giannotti, Adrián; Suburo, Angela M

    2014-02-01

    We studied behavior in a group of children with specific language impairment in its 2 subtypes (expressive and mixed receptive/expressive). After exclusion of other psychiatric conditions, we evaluated 114 children of ages 2 to 7 years using language developmental tests and behavioral screening scales. Behavior problems appeared in 54% of the children. Withdrawn was the most frequently found syndrome in preschool children, whereas anxious/depressed and social problems were the most frequent in older children. The high frequency of behavioral syndromes in children with specific language impairment is remarkable and requires the awareness of primary attendants and specialists. Anxiety, depression, social isolation, and aggressive and rule-breaking behavior can obscure identification of the language impairment. Taking into account this relationship would improve the chances of a timely and appropriate intervention. PMID:24272522

  13. Childhood Behavior Problems Linked to Sexual Risk Taking in Young Adulthood: A Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramrakha, Sandhya; Bell, Melanie L.; Paul, Charlotte; Dickson, Nigel; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study whether behavioral and emotional problems during childhood predicted early sexual debut, risky sex at age 21 years, and sexually transmitted infections up to age 21 years. Some possible mediational pathways were also explored. Method: Participants were enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (n =…

  14. Predicting Factors of Worker Behavior for Proper Working Posture Based on Planed Behavior Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mohammadi Zeydi

    2008-12-01

    Introduction & Objective: Injuries resulting from ignoring proper working posture especially in employees who sitting at workplace for more than of working hours are costly, and create significant pain and discomfort. Decreasing of these injuries is most effectively accomplished through the application of ergonomic design principles. Sometimes, however, barriers (technical and economic preclude ergonomic improvement and, consequently, some organizations rely on the use of proper sitting techniques and maintaining proper working posture as a major control strategy during workday. The problem, however, is that these process performing is inconsistent and managers have a difficult time motivating use of these techniques. The main aim of this study was to understand the factors driving proper working posture among employees. Materials & Methods: This study used the theory of planned behavior to predict upright working posture maintenance among 222 of assembling, machinery and printing line’s employees at a Qazvin Alborz industrial town manufacturing organization. Structural equation modeling, explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis were employed to analyze relationships among constructs. Results: Results revealed that attitude (p< 0.05, β= 0.53 and intention (p< 0.05, β= 0.46 were the strongest predictors of proper working posture maintenance behavior. Perceived behavior control, to a lesser degree, were also important influences on intention (p< 0.05, β= 0.34 and behavior (p< 0.05, β= 0.28. Subjective norms did not surface as effective direct predictors of upright working posture maintenance, but did affect behavior and intent via mediating factors (attitudes subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Finally, the TPB was supported as an effective model explaining upright working posture maintenance, and had potential application for many other safety-related behaviors. Conclusion: results of this study emphasis on considering factors such as

  15. A neural network to predict reactor core behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global fuel management problem in BWRs (Boiling Water Reactors) can be understood as a very complex optimization problem, where the variables represent design decisions and the quality assessment of each solution is done through a complex and computational expensive simulation. This last aspect is the major impediment to perform an extensive exploration of the design space, mainly due to the time lost evaluating non promising solutions. In this work, we show how we can train a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) to predict the reactor behavior for a given configuration. The trained MLP is able to evaluate the configurations immediately, thus allowing performing an exhaustive evaluation of the possible configurations derived from a stock of fuel lattices, fuel reload patterns and control rods patterns. For our particular problem, the number of configurations is approximately 7.7 x 1010; the evaluation with the core simulator would need above 200 years, while only 100 hours were required with our approach to discern between bad and good configurations. The later were then evaluated by the simulator and we confirm the MLP usefulness. The good core configurations reached the energy requirements, satisfied the safety parameter constrains and they could reduce uranium enrichment costs. (authors)

  16. Role of masker predictability in the cocktail party problem1

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gary L.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2008-01-01

    In studies of the cocktail party problem, the number and locations of maskers are typically fixed throughout a block of trials, which leaves out uncertainty that exists in real-world environments. The current experiments examined whether there is (1) improved speech intelligibility and (2) increased spatial release from masking (SRM), as predictability of the number∕locations of speech maskers is increased. In the first experiment, subjects identified a target word presented at a fixed level ...

  17. Panel: Implementing Behavior Modification in the Classroom: Problems and Strategies. Problems of the Implementor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, G. Mann

    Problems and strategies in implementing classroom token economy systems as a means of behavior modification are reviewed. Discussed is the importance of such factors in the original token plan as the reinforcement schedule, and time-out procedures. Among implementation issues considered are observing and counting behaviors. (CL)

  18. Pediatrician identification of child behavior problems: the roles of parenting factors and cross-practice differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert M; Wildman, Beth G; Langkamp, Diane; Duby, John C

    2012-06-01

    While most primary care pediatricians acknowledge the importance of identifying child behavior problems, fewer than 2% of children with a diagnosable psychological disorder are referred for mental health care in any given year. The present study examined the potential role of parental characteristics (parental affect, parenting style, and parenting self-efficacy) in pediatrician identification of child behavior problems, and determined whether these relationships differed across practices. Parents of 831 children between 2 and 16 years completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, their child's behavior, their affect, their parenting style, and their parenting self-efficacy. Pediatricians completed a brief questionnaire following visits in four community-based primary care practices in the Midwest. Logistic regressions controlling for child behavior and demographic predictors of pediatrician identification found that an authoritarian parenting style, in which parents yell or strongly negatively react to problem behavior, was negatively associated with likelihood of identification in the overall sample. However, the variables that were predictive of pediatrician identification differed depending on the specific practice. Parental characteristics can aid in understanding which children are likely to be identified by their pediatrician as having behavioral problems. The finding that practices differed on which variables were associated with pediatrician identification suggests the need to potentially individualize interventions to certain physicians and practices to improve identification of child behavior problems in primary care.

  19. Pediatrician identification of child behavior problems: the roles of parenting factors and cross-practice differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert M; Wildman, Beth G; Langkamp, Diane; Duby, John C

    2012-06-01

    While most primary care pediatricians acknowledge the importance of identifying child behavior problems, fewer than 2% of children with a diagnosable psychological disorder are referred for mental health care in any given year. The present study examined the potential role of parental characteristics (parental affect, parenting style, and parenting self-efficacy) in pediatrician identification of child behavior problems, and determined whether these relationships differed across practices. Parents of 831 children between 2 and 16 years completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, their child's behavior, their affect, their parenting style, and their parenting self-efficacy. Pediatricians completed a brief questionnaire following visits in four community-based primary care practices in the Midwest. Logistic regressions controlling for child behavior and demographic predictors of pediatrician identification found that an authoritarian parenting style, in which parents yell or strongly negatively react to problem behavior, was negatively associated with likelihood of identification in the overall sample. However, the variables that were predictive of pediatrician identification differed depending on the specific practice. Parental characteristics can aid in understanding which children are likely to be identified by their pediatrician as having behavioral problems. The finding that practices differed on which variables were associated with pediatrician identification suggests the need to potentially individualize interventions to certain physicians and practices to improve identification of child behavior problems in primary care. PMID:21964826

  20. Unpacking Links between Fathers' Antisocial Behaviors and Children's Behavior Problems: Direct, Indirect, and Interactive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer; Lewin-Bizan, Selva

    2011-01-01

    Building upon previous evidence for the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviors, this research assessed and compared three models seeking to explain links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. A representative sample of children from low-income families (N = 261) was followed from age 3 through age…

  1. Convergent Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and Behavior Problems Inventory with People with Complex Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jennie; Powlitch, Stephanie; Furniss, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to replicate and extend Rojahn et al. [Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., Matson, J. L., & Mayville, E. (2003). "The aberrant behavior checklist and the behavior problems inventory: Convergent and divergent validity." "Research in Developmental Disabilities", 24, 391-404] by examining the convergent validity of the behavior problems…

  2. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist and the Behavior Problems Inventory: Convergent and Divergent Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Aman, Michael G.; Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A study compared the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI) for assessing the maladaptive behavior of 226 adults, mostly with severe or profound mental retardation. Individuals with elevated BPI scores generally had higher ABC scores, however, the extent of covariation differed across subscales. (Contains…

  3. Differential Effects of a Tier Two Behavior Intervention Based on Function of Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Campbell, Amy L.; Carter, Deborah Russell; Dickey, Celeste Rossetto

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a tier two daily behavior card intervention and differential effects based on function of problem behavior. The participants were 36 elementary school students nominated for additional intervention beyond universal School-Wide Positive Behavior Support. Measures included…

  4. Individualized Supports for Students with Problem Behaviors. Designing Positive Behavior Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambara, Linda M.; Kern, Lee

    2004-01-01

    Practical and comprehensive, this book focuses on the nuts and bolts of designing positive behavior support plans for students with such disabilities as mental retardation, autism, learning disabilities, and emotional/behavioral disorders. Strategies are provided for addressing individual behavioral problems at all levels of severity. Filled with…

  5. Predicting risky behavior in social communities

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Predicting risk profiles of individuals in networks (e.g.~susceptibility to a particular disease, or likelihood of smoking) is challenging for a variety of reasons. For one, `local' features (such as an individual's demographic information) may lack sufficient information to make informative predictions; this is especially problematic when predicting `risk,' as the relevant features may be precisely those that an individual is disinclined to reveal in a survey. Secondly, even if such features are available, they still may miss crucial information, as `risk' may be a function not just of an individual's features but also those of their friends and social communities. Here, we predict individual's risk profiles as a function of both their local features and those of their friends. Instead of modeling influence from the social network directly (which proved difficult as friendship links may be sparse and partially observed), we instead model influence by discovering social communities in the network that may be ...

  6. When Attitudes Don't Predict Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacherjee, Anol; Sanford, Clive Carlton

    2006-01-01

    This study introduces the concept of "attitude strength" to explain why some IT users' attitudes are not strongly related to their usage behaviors. We review the attitude strength literature, employ the elaboration likelihood model to theorize personal relevance and related expertise as two salient...... dimensions of attitude strength in the IT usage context, and postulate a research model to capture the moderating effects of these constructs on the attitude-behavior relationship. The hypothesized effects are empirically tested using a longitudinal survey of document management system usage among staff...

  7. Utilizing Social Stories to Increase Prosocial Behavior and Reduce Problem Behavior in Young Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Lisa A.; Rebecca B. McCathren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effects of a Social Story intervention on the behavior rates of 4 young children with autism using a multiple-baseline across participants design. The results of this paper indicate that the Social Story was modestly effective in increasing prosocial behavior rates in 3 of the 4 participants, though none of the participants reached the prosocial behavior rates of age and gender-matched peers. The problem behaviors of the participants modestly decr...

  8. Assessment and treatment of problem behavior maintained by mand compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluri, Zina; Andrade, Ivette; Trevino, Noemi; Mahmoud, Enad

    2016-06-01

    We modified functional analysis procedures to include a condition in which we reinforced problem behavior by complying with a child's mands. After identifying compliance with mands as a reinforcer, we evaluated the efficacy of a token system with a response-cost contingency and incorporated discriminative stimuli to signal when mands would be reinforced. The token system with response cost effectively reduced problem behavior. Similar procedures may be beneficial when continuous adult compliance is not possible, when adults want to control when they will comply with the child's mands, or to build a child's tolerance for adult-directed situations. PMID:26831251

  9. Design of Biomedical Robots for Phenotype Prediction Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deAndrés-Galiana, Enrique J; Fernández-Martínez, Juan Luis; Sonis, Stephen T

    2016-08-01

    Genomics has been used with varying degrees of success in the context of drug discovery and in defining mechanisms of action for diseases like cancer and neurodegenerative and rare diseases in the quest for orphan drugs. To improve its utility, accuracy, and cost-effectiveness optimization of analytical methods, especially those that translate to clinically relevant outcomes, is critical. Here we define a novel tool for genomic analysis termed a biomedical robot in order to improve phenotype prediction, identifying disease pathogenesis and significantly defining therapeutic targets. Biomedical robot analytics differ from historical methods in that they are based on melding feature selection methods and ensemble learning techniques. The biomedical robot mathematically exploits the structure of the uncertainty space of any classification problem conceived as an ill-posed optimization problem. Given a classifier, there exist different equivalent small-scale genetic signatures that provide similar predictive accuracies. We perform the sensitivity analysis to noise of the biomedical robot concept using synthetic microarrays perturbed by different kinds of noises in expression and class assignment. Finally, we show the application of this concept to the analysis of different diseases, inferring the pathways and the correlation networks. The final aim of a biomedical robot is to improve knowledge discovery and provide decision systems to optimize diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. This analysis shows that the biomedical robots are robust against different kinds of noises and particularly to a wrong class assignment of the samples. Assessing the uncertainty that is inherent to any phenotype prediction problem is the right way to address this kind of problem. PMID:27347715

  10. Design of Biomedical Robots for Phenotype Prediction Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deAndrés-Galiana, Enrique J; Fernández-Martínez, Juan Luis; Sonis, Stephen T

    2016-08-01

    Genomics has been used with varying degrees of success in the context of drug discovery and in defining mechanisms of action for diseases like cancer and neurodegenerative and rare diseases in the quest for orphan drugs. To improve its utility, accuracy, and cost-effectiveness optimization of analytical methods, especially those that translate to clinically relevant outcomes, is critical. Here we define a novel tool for genomic analysis termed a biomedical robot in order to improve phenotype prediction, identifying disease pathogenesis and significantly defining therapeutic targets. Biomedical robot analytics differ from historical methods in that they are based on melding feature selection methods and ensemble learning techniques. The biomedical robot mathematically exploits the structure of the uncertainty space of any classification problem conceived as an ill-posed optimization problem. Given a classifier, there exist different equivalent small-scale genetic signatures that provide similar predictive accuracies. We perform the sensitivity analysis to noise of the biomedical robot concept using synthetic microarrays perturbed by different kinds of noises in expression and class assignment. Finally, we show the application of this concept to the analysis of different diseases, inferring the pathways and the correlation networks. The final aim of a biomedical robot is to improve knowledge discovery and provide decision systems to optimize diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. This analysis shows that the biomedical robots are robust against different kinds of noises and particularly to a wrong class assignment of the samples. Assessing the uncertainty that is inherent to any phenotype prediction problem is the right way to address this kind of problem.

  11. Behavioral and emotional problems of schoolchildren according to gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Martins Saur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate mental health problems, including behavioral and emotional problems, in a cohort of schoolchildren according to gender and to assess the associations of family characteristics and behavioral performance for boys and girls. Data from 677 children born in Ribeirão Preto (SP, Brazil, when they were 10/11 years old was available. The mental health assessment was performed using the Brazilian version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence rates for boys and girls were, respectively: 41.7% and 34.5% for total difficulties score, 50.4% and 57.6% for emotional symptoms, 31.2% and 18.8% for hyperactivity, 38.8% and 27.6% for conduct problems, 27.1% and 26.7% for peer problems and, 4.7% and 2.7% for prosocial behavior. The family characteristics associated with behavioral problems were low socioeconomic status for boys and low maternal education and families with more than four members for girls.

  12. Language, motor skills and behavior problems in preschool years

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Child language development is a complex process. This process cannot be understood without considering its relationship to other developmental domains. Language development in preschool years is associated with development of motor skills and behavior problems, and these associations are the focus of the current thesis. Despite a large number of studies examining the co-occurrence of such developmental delays and problems, few studies have examined the developmental relationship between these...

  13. BEHAVE : Fire Behavior Prediction and Fuel Modeling System -- FUEL Subsystem

    OpenAIRE

    Burgan, Robert E; Rothermel, Richard C

    1984-01-01

    This manual documents the fuel modeling procedures of BEHAVE - a state-of-the-art wildland fire behavior prediction system. Described are procedures for collecting fuel data, using the data with the program, and testing and adjusting the fuel model.

  14. Polygenic Scores Predict Alcohol Problems in an Independent Sample and Show Moderation by the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Salvatore

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol problems represent a classic example of a complex behavioral outcome that is likely influenced by many genes of small effect. A polygenic approach, which examines aggregate measured genetic effects, can have predictive power in cases where individual genes or genetic variants do not. In the current study, we first tested whether polygenic risk for alcohol problems—derived from genome-wide association estimates of an alcohol problems factor score from the age 18 assessment of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 4304 individuals of European descent; 57% female—predicted alcohol problems earlier in development (age 14 in an independent sample (FinnTwin12; n = 1162; 53% female. We then tested whether environmental factors (parental knowledge and peer deviance moderated polygenic risk to predict alcohol problems in the FinnTwin12 sample. We found evidence for both polygenic association and for additive polygene-environment interaction. Higher polygenic scores predicted a greater number of alcohol problems (range of Pearson partial correlations 0.07–0.08, all p-values ≤ 0.01. Moreover, genetic influences were significantly more pronounced under conditions of low parental knowledge or high peer deviance (unstandardized regression coefficients (b, p-values (p, and percent of variance (R2 accounted for by interaction terms: b = 1.54, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.33%; b = 0.94, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.30%, respectively. Supplementary set-based analyses indicated that the individual top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs contributing to the polygenic scores were not individually enriched for gene-environment interaction. Although the magnitude of the observed effects are small, this study illustrates the usefulness of polygenic approaches for understanding the pathways by which measured genetic predispositions come together with environmental factors to predict complex behavioral outcomes.

  15. Neighborhood characteristics, parenting styles, and children's behavioral problems in Chinese American immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra; Tao, Annie; Chen, Stephen H

    2014-04-01

    Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated children's behavioral problems. Path analysis was conducted to test two hypotheses: (a) parenting styles mediate the relations between neighborhood characteristics and children's behavioral problems, and (b) children's behavioral problems mediate the relations between neighborhood and parenting styles. We found that neighborhood Asian concentration was positively associated with authoritarian parenting, which in turn was associated with Chinese American children's higher externalizing and internalizing problems (by parents' reports). In addition, neighborhood economic disadvantage was positively related to children's externalizing problems (by parents' reports), which in turn predicted lower authoritative parenting. The current results suggest the need to consider multiple pathways in the relations among neighborhood, family, and child adjustment, and they have implications for the prevention and intervention of behavioral problems in Chinese American children.

  16. Neighborhood characteristics, parenting styles, and children's behavioral problems in Chinese American immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra; Tao, Annie; Chen, Stephen H

    2014-04-01

    Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated children's behavioral problems. Path analysis was conducted to test two hypotheses: (a) parenting styles mediate the relations between neighborhood characteristics and children's behavioral problems, and (b) children's behavioral problems mediate the relations between neighborhood and parenting styles. We found that neighborhood Asian concentration was positively associated with authoritarian parenting, which in turn was associated with Chinese American children's higher externalizing and internalizing problems (by parents' reports). In addition, neighborhood economic disadvantage was positively related to children's externalizing problems (by parents' reports), which in turn predicted lower authoritative parenting. The current results suggest the need to consider multiple pathways in the relations among neighborhood, family, and child adjustment, and they have implications for the prevention and intervention of behavioral problems in Chinese American children. PMID:24041263

  17. Classroom Context and Teachers' Perceptions of Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy-four elementary school teachers rated five behavior problems portrayed in videotaped vignettes in terms of severity, manageability, tolerance, and contagion. Only contagion yielded significant differences (stronger within the disruptive context), suggesting that teachers held the target child responsible for the classroom disorder.…

  18. Mothers' Economic Hardship and Behavior Problems in Their Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Ginger Lockhart; Roosa, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about the heightened prevalence of behavior problems among adolescents from low-income families have prompted researchers to understand processes through which economic variables influence functioning within multiple domains. Guided by a stress process framework and social contextual theory, this study examines processes linking perceived…

  19. Perceived Neighborhood Characteristics and Problem Behavior among Disadvantaged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moren-Cross, Jennifer L.; Wright, Darlene R.; LaGory, Mark; Lanzi, Robin Gaines

    2006-01-01

    Using survey data from former Head Start children in the third grade from 15 sites across the nation (n = 576), this study examines the relationship between maternal subjective neighborhood attributions and their children's behavioral problems. Maternal perceptions of neighborhood characteristics were measured across five domains, including…

  20. Assessing Problem Behaviors by Videotape: A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.; And Others

    A methodology that will allow teachers to assess a child's behavior problems within both Disruptive (D) and Nondisruptive (ND) contexts was developed, and a questionnaire that would attend to the issues of Manageability and Contagion, as well as Tolerance and Severity, was prepared. Initial questionnaire research using the Devereux Elementary…

  1. The problem resident behavior guide: strategies for remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kelly; Quattromani, Erin; Aldeen, Amer

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, the ACGME supplemented the core competencies with outcomes-based milestones for resident performance within the six competency domains. These milestones address the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and experiences that a resident is expected to progress through during the course of training. Even prior to the initiation of the milestones, there was a paucity of EM literature addressing the remediation of problem resident behaviors and there remain few readily accessible tools to aid in the implementation of a remediation plan. The goal of the "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is to provide specific strategies for resident remediation based on deficiencies identified within the framework of the EM milestones. The "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is a written instructional manual that provides concrete examples of remediation strategies to address specific milestone deficiencies. The more than 200 strategies stem from the experiences of the authors who have professional experience at three different academic hospitals and emergency medicine residency programs, supplemented by recommendations from educational leaders as well as utilization of valuable education adjuncts, such as focused simulation exercises, lecture preparation, and themed ED shifts. Most recommendations require active participation by the resident with guidance by faculty to achieve the remediation expectations. The ACGME outcomes-based milestones aid in the identification of deficiencies with regards to resident performance without providing recommendations on remediation. The Problem Resident Behavior Guide can therefore have a significant impact by filling in this gap.

  2. Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Behavior Problems and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Parents and children completed measures that assessed children's behavior problems and depression. Children had experienced abuse, witnessed spouse abuse, experienced and witnessed abuse, or experienced no domestic violence. Reports of effects of domestic violence on children varied, depending on the type of violence and the person reporting it.…

  3. A Genetic Study of Problem Behaviors in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.C.G. van den Oord (Edwin)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral/emotional problems are common among children of preschool and school age. Verhulst, and Koot (1992, p. 130) reviewed prevalence studies published since 1965. They reported a median prevalence rate for general psychiatric dysfunction in children and adolescents of l3%. This num

  4. Future Orientation, School Contexts, and Problem Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0% females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…

  5. Do Children's Behavior Problems Limit Poor Women's Labor Market Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Ribar, David; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Economically disadvantaged mothers face numerous barriers to stable, quality employment opportunities. One barrier that has received limited attention in previous research is having a child with significant psychological or behavioral problems. Using a representative sample of low-income mothers and early adolescent children from the Three-City…

  6. Topographical and Functional Properties of Precursors to Severe Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmie, Tara A.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    A literature search identified 17 articles reporting data on 34 subjects who engaged in precursors to severe problem behavior, which we examined to identify topographical and functional characteristics. Unintelligible vocalization was the most common precursor to aggression (27%) and property destruction (29%), whereas self- or nondirected…

  7. The problem resident behavior guide: strategies for remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kelly; Quattromani, Erin; Aldeen, Amer

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, the ACGME supplemented the core competencies with outcomes-based milestones for resident performance within the six competency domains. These milestones address the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and experiences that a resident is expected to progress through during the course of training. Even prior to the initiation of the milestones, there was a paucity of EM literature addressing the remediation of problem resident behaviors and there remain few readily accessible tools to aid in the implementation of a remediation plan. The goal of the "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is to provide specific strategies for resident remediation based on deficiencies identified within the framework of the EM milestones. The "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is a written instructional manual that provides concrete examples of remediation strategies to address specific milestone deficiencies. The more than 200 strategies stem from the experiences of the authors who have professional experience at three different academic hospitals and emergency medicine residency programs, supplemented by recommendations from educational leaders as well as utilization of valuable education adjuncts, such as focused simulation exercises, lecture preparation, and themed ED shifts. Most recommendations require active participation by the resident with guidance by faculty to achieve the remediation expectations. The ACGME outcomes-based milestones aid in the identification of deficiencies with regards to resident performance without providing recommendations on remediation. The Problem Resident Behavior Guide can therefore have a significant impact by filling in this gap. PMID:26667256

  8. Predicting Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors: Parents, Peers, and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…

  9. Prenatal Mood Disturbance Predicts Sleep Problems in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Thomas G.; Caprariello, Peter; Blackmore, Emma Robertson; Gregory, Alice M.; Glover, Vivette; Fleming, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Experimental animal data link prenatal stress with sleep disturbance in offspring, but the link in humans is unclear. Aims To investigate the link between prenatal maternal anxiety and depression and infant sleep disturbance from 6 to 30 months of age. Study Design Longitudinal prospective study of a large birth cohort from pregnancy to 30 months. Questionnaire measures of anxiety and depression were completed by mothers at 18 and 32 weeks gestation and at 8 weeks and 8 months postpartum Subjects The ALSPAC cohort, a prospective community study of women in the UK who have been followed since pregnancy. Outcome measures Measures of total sleep time, number of awakenings, and broadly defined sleep problems were available on children at ages 6, 18, and 30 months. Results Reliable measures of total sleep time, nighttime awakenings, and sleep problems were identified at 6, 18, and 30 months. Higher levels of prenatal maternal anxiety and depression predicted more sleep problems at 18 and 30 months, after controlling for postnatal mood and obstetric and psychosocial covariates; the association was not restricted to clinical extremes. No link with total sleep time was observed. Conclusions Mood disturbance in pregnancy has persisting effects on sleep problems in the child, a finding that is consistent with experimental animal research. The findings add to a growing literature showing that maternal prenatal stress, anxiety, and depression may have lasting effects on child development. PMID:17008033

  10. [Behavior problems and identification of mental states in preschoolers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juen, Florian; Schick, Andreas; Cierpka, Manfred; Benecke, Cord

    2009-01-01

    Aim of the study is to present a method to map the ability of children to identify emotions and intentions in emotionally relevant situations (intentional and emotional reflectiveness). Moreover we analyze interrelation between this ability and behavior problems. Therefore we administered Story Stem Interviews with 70 children and added demand questions focusing emotions and intentions of diverse characters within the child constructed stories. All the given answers we displayed on a six-ary scale. To review the clinical relevance we correlated this measure with questionnaire-based behavior screenings by educators in kindergarten. We found correlations between behavior problems and especially answers to emotion questions (emotional reflectiveness). We regard this as evidence that the ability to identify emotions and intentions in others has an important protective function even in childhood. PMID:19746830

  11. Couples' agreement on presenting problems predicts engagement and outcomes in problem-focused couple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesen, Judith N; Doss, Brian D

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the impact of couples' agreement regarding relationship problems at therapy intake on subsequent treatment engagement and success. One hundred and 47 couples seeking marital therapy at one of two Veteran Administration Medical Centers completed questionnaires assessing relationship satisfaction and were asked to indicate their three biggest relationship concerns. Agreement on relationship concern was defined as one person's list containing the partner's top relationship problem. Pretreatment agreement on relationship problems was unrelated to treatment course or outcomes when the therapy was longer and more integrative in nature. However, when couples received a brief, problem-focused treatment, agreement predicted greater engagement in therapy process and more positive treatment outcomes. Specifically, couples who were in agreement were more likely to attend the minimum number of required sessions and were more likely to be assessed as having received a full course of therapy by their treatment provider. Additionally, partners who agreed with each other were more likely to experience clinically significant changes during treatment. Taken together, results suggest that therapists and researchers should consider assessing agreement on relationship problems at the beginning of treatment and potentially suggest that couples who perceive their relationship differently should receive more integrative treatment. Future research is needed to examine the most effective sequencing for addressing differing, presenting problems as well as the mechanisms through which disagreement on presenting problems impacts treatment course and outcomes.

  12. Personality psychology and problem behaviors: HIV risk and the five-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobst, K K; Wiggins, J S; Costa, P T; Herbst, J H; McCrae, R R; Masters, H L

    2000-12-01

    Studies of personality and problem behaviors may begin with analyses of the problem and develop hypotheses about personality traits that might be relevant; or they may begin with models of personality and explore links to behavior. Because it is well validated and relatively comprehensive, the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality lends itself to systematic exploratory studies that may sometimes lead to unanticipated findings. In this article, we review a program of research in a high-risk, disadvantaged population that illustrates the utility of the FFM in understanding health risk behavior. Previous analyses showed that behavior associated with the risk of HIV infection can be predicted from the personality dispositions of Neuroticism and (low) Conscientiousness. PMID:11130739

  13. Artificial Neural Networks: A New Approach to Predicting Application Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Julie M. Byers; DesJardins, Stephen L.

    2002-01-01

    Applied the technique of artificial neural networks to predict which students were likely to apply to one research university. Compared the results to the traditional analysis tool, logistic regression modeling. Found that the addition of artificial intelligence models was a useful new tool for predicting student application behavior. (EV)

  14. Residential Short-Term Camping for Children With Behavior Problems: A Behavior Modification Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Harve E.

    1973-01-01

    A short-term camping program promoted significant gains in behavior and in academic adjustment for children with social and school problems. Followup work was found essential to sustain the progress. (ST)

  15. Psychological maltreatment, emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents: The mediating role of resilience and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Gökmen

    2016-02-01

    In this study, structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating role of resilience and self-esteem in the relationships between psychological maltreatment-emotional problems and psychological maltreatment-behavioral problems in adolescents. Participants were 937 adolescents from different high schools in Turkey. The sample included 502 female (53.6%) and 435 male (46.4%) students, 14-19 years old (mean age=16.51, SD=1.15). Results indicated that psychological maltreatment was negatively correlated with resilience and self-esteem, and positively correlated with behavioral problems and emotional problems. Resilience and self-esteem also predicted behavioral problems and emotional problems. Finally, psychological maltreatment predicted emotional and behavioral problems mediated by resilience and self-esteem. Resilience and self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between psychological maltreatment-behavioral and psychological maltreatment-emotional problems in adolescents. Thus, resilience and self-esteem appear to play a protective role in emotional problems and behavioral problems in psychologically maltreated individuals. Implications are discussed and suggestions for psychological counselors and other mental health professionals are presented.

  16. Higher social class predicts increased unethical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piff, Paul K.; Stancato, Daniel M.; Côté, Stéphane; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-01-01

    Seven studies using experimental and naturalistic methods reveal that upper-class individuals behave more unethically than lower-class individuals. In studies 1 and 2, upper-class individuals were more likely to break the law while driving, relative to lower-class individuals. In follow-up laboratory studies, upper-class individuals were more likely to exhibit unethical decision-making tendencies (study 3), take valued goods from others (study 4), lie in a negotiation (study 5), cheat to increase their chances of winning a prize (study 6), and endorse unethical behavior at work (study 7) than were lower-class individuals. Mediator and moderator data demonstrated that upper-class individuals’ unethical tendencies are accounted for, in part, by their more favorable attitudes toward greed. PMID:22371585

  17. The Effect of Parenting Behaviors on Subsequent Child Behavior Problems in Autistic Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The current research explored the relationship between parenting behaviors in parents of children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and subsequent child behavior problems. The sample consisted of 72 children (aged 5-16 years) and their parents, who were assessed over a period of 9-10 months. There was a relationship between parenting…

  18. A Brief Measure of Children's Behavior Problems: The Behavior Rating Index for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffman, Arlene R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development of the Behavior Rating Index for Children (BRIC), a 13-item summated category partition scale that provides a prothetic measure of children's behavior problems. Evaluation of the BRIC with 600 referred and nonreferred children suggested adequate reliability and validity. (JAC)

  19. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7–12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no ...

  20. Predicting adolescent's cyberbullying behavior: A longitudinal risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, Christopher P

    2015-06-01

    The current study used the risk factor approach to test the unique and combined influence of several possible risk factors for cyberbullying attitudes and behavior using a four-wave longitudinal design with an adolescent US sample. Participants (N = 96; average age = 15.50 years) completed measures of cyberbullying attitudes, perceptions of anonymity, cyberbullying behavior, and demographics four times throughout the academic school year. Several logistic regression equations were used to test the contribution of these possible risk factors. Results showed that (a) cyberbullying attitudes and previous cyberbullying behavior were important unique risk factors for later cyberbullying behavior, (b) anonymity and previous cyberbullying behavior were valid risk factors for later cyberbullying attitudes, and (c) the likelihood of engaging in later cyberbullying behavior increased with the addition of risk factors. Overall, results show the unique and combined influence of such risk factors for predicting later cyberbullying behavior. Results are discussed in terms of theory.

  1. Predicting underage drinking and driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, J W; Voas, R B

    1996-12-01

    A social-psychological model of underage drinking and driving (DUI) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD) was tested with data from a random digit dial telephone survey of 706 16-20-year-old drivers from seven western states in the United States. Consistent with the model, a structural equations analysis indicated that DUI and RWDD were primarily predicted by (a) expectancies regarding the physical risks of DUI, (b) normative beliefs about the extent to which friends would disapprove of DUI, (c) control beliefs about the ease or difficulty of avoiding DUI and RWDD and (d) drinking. Expectancies concerning enforcement had a significant effect on RWDD, but not on DUI. Among the background and environmental variables included in the analysis, only night-time driving and age had significant direct effects on DUI and RWDD. Drinking and involvement in risky driving had indirect effects on DUI and RWDD that were mediated through expectancies and normative beliefs. Males, European Americans, Latinos, respondents who drove more frequently and respondents who were less educated held beliefs that were more favorable toward DUI and RWDD, drank more and engaged more frequently in risky driving. As a result, such individuals may be at greater risk for DUI and RWDD. PMID:8997765

  2. Maternal Depression, Child Frontal Asymmetry, and Child Affective Behavior as Factors in Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Kovacs, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background: Despite findings that parent depression increases children's risk for internalizing and externalizing problems, little is known about other factors that combine with parent depression to contribute to behavior problems. Methods: As part of a longitudinal, interdisciplinary study on childhood-onset depression (COD), we examined the…

  3. The Roles of Negative Career Thinking and Career Problem-Solving Self-Efficacy in Career Exploratory Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock-Yowell, Emily; Katz, Sheba P.; Reardon, Robert C.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    The respective roles of social cognitive career theory and cognitive information processing in career exploratory behavior were analyzed. A verified path model shows cognitive information processing theory's negative career thoughts inversely predict social cognitive career theory's career problem-solving self-efficacy, which predicts career…

  4. Problem Behavior and Urban, Low-Income Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Schure, Marc B.; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Silverthorn, Naida; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Youth problem behaviors remain a public health issue. Youth in low-income, urban areas are particularly at risk for engaging in aggressive, violent, and disruptive behaviors. Purpose To evaluate the effects of a school-based social–emotional learning and health promotion program on problem behaviors and related attitudes among low-income, urban youth. Design A matched-pair, cluster RCT. Setting/participants Participants were drawn from 14 Chicago Public Schools over a 6-year period of program delivery with outcomes assessed for a cohort of youth followed from Grades 3 to 8. Data were collected from Fall 2004 to Spring 2010, and analyzed in Spring 2012. Intervention The Positive Action program includes a scoped and sequenced K–12 classroom curriculum with six components: self-concept, social and emotional positive actions for managing oneself responsibly, and positive actions directed toward physical and mental health, honesty, getting along with others, and continually improving oneself. The program also includes teacher, counselor, family, and community training as well as activities directed toward schoolwide climate development. Main outcome measures Youth reported on their normative beliefs in support of aggression and on their bullying, disruptive and violent behaviors; parents rated youths’ bullying behaviors and conduct problems; schoolwide data on disciplinary referrals and suspensions were obtained from school records. Results Multilevel growth-curve modeling analyses conducted on completion of the trial indicated that Positive Action mitigated increases over time in (1) youth reports of normative beliefs supporting aggressive behaviors and of engaging in disruptive behavior and bullying (girls only); and (2) parent reports of youth bullying behaviors (boys only). At study end-point, students in Positive Action schools also reported a lower rate of violence-related behavior than students in control schools. Schoolwide findings indicated

  5. The Meaning of Emotional Overinvolvement in Early Development: Prospective Relations with Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafi, Tamar Y.; Yates, Tuppett M.; Sher-Censor, Efrat

    2015-01-01

    Emotional Overinvolvement (EOI) in parents’ Five Minute Speech Samples (FMSS; Magaña-Amato, 1993) is thought to measure overconcern and enmeshment with one’s child. Although related to maladaptive outcomes in studies of adult children, FMSS-EOI evidences varied relations with behavior problems in studies with young children. These mixed findings may indicate that certain FMSS-EOI criteria reflect inappropriate and excessive involvement with adult children, but do not indicate maladaptive processes when parenting younger children. Thus, this study evaluated relations of each FMSS-EOI criterion with changes in child behavior problems from preschool to first grade in a community sample of 223 child-mother dyads (47.98% female; Mage_W1 = 49.08 months; 56.50% Hispanic/Latina). Maternal FMSS-EOI ratings were obtained at wave 1, and independent examiners rated child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems at wave 1 and two years later. Path analyses indicated that both the Self-Sacrifice/Overprotection (SSOP) and Statements of Attitude (SOAs) FMSS-EOI criteria predicted increased externalizing problems. In contrast, Excessive Detail and Exaggerated Praise were not related to child externalizing behavior problems, and Emotional Display was not evident in this sample. None of the FMSS-EOI criteria evidenced significant relations with internalizing behavior problems. Multigroup comparisons indicated that the effect of SOAs on externalizing behavior problems was significant for boys but not for girls, and there were no significant group differences by race/ethnicity. These findings point to the salience of SSOP and SOAs for understanding the developmental significance of EOI in early development. PMID:26147935

  6. Management strategies for problem behaviors in the patient with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehninger, F W; Ravindran, V L; Stewart, J T

    1998-04-01

    Psychiatric and behavioral problems are present in most patients with dementia and are usually the clinician's main focus of management. Differential diagnosis of these problems can be challenging, but the effort is essential for planning appropriate therapy. Pharmacologic interventions are available for treatment of depression, agitation, aggression, psychotic symptoms, wandering, and sleep disorders. Given the less than favorable risk-benefit ratio of most psychotropic drugs in the population of older patients with dementia, the importance of nonpharmacologic strategies and limiting treatment goals should not be overlooked.

  7. Management strategies for problem behaviors in the patient with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehninger, F W; Ravindran, V L; Stewart, J T

    1998-04-01

    Psychiatric and behavioral problems are present in most patients with dementia and are usually the clinician's main focus of management. Differential diagnosis of these problems can be challenging, but the effort is essential for planning appropriate therapy. Pharmacologic interventions are available for treatment of depression, agitation, aggression, psychotic symptoms, wandering, and sleep disorders. Given the less than favorable risk-benefit ratio of most psychotropic drugs in the population of older patients with dementia, the importance of nonpharmacologic strategies and limiting treatment goals should not be overlooked. PMID:9559028

  8. Observed parenting behavior with teens: measurement invariance and predictive validity across race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Martie L; Mackenzie, Elizabeth P; Haggerty, Kevin P; Hill, Karl G; Roberson, Kendra C

    2011-07-01

    Previous reports supporting measurement equality between European American and African American families have often focused on self-reported risk factors or observed parent behavior with young children. This study examines equality of measurement of observer ratings of parenting behavior with adolescents during structured tasks; mean levels of observed parenting; and predictive validity of teen self-reports of antisocial behaviors and beliefs using a sample of 163 African American and 168 European American families. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses supported measurement invariance across ethnic groups for four measures of observed parenting behavior: prosocial rewards, psychological costs, antisocial rewards, and problem solving. Some mean-level differences were found: African American parents exhibited lower levels of prosocial rewards, higher levels of psychological costs, and lower problem solving when compared to European Americans. No significant mean difference was found in rewards for antisocial behavior. Multigroup structural equation models suggested comparable relationships across race (predictive validity) between parenting constructs and youth antisocial constructs (i.e., drug initiation, positive drug attitudes, antisocial attitudes, problem behaviors) in all but one of the tested relationships. This study adds to existing evidence that family-based interventions targeting parenting behaviors can be generalized to African American families. PMID:21787057

  9. Observed Parenting Behavior with Teens: Measurement Invariance and Predictive Validity Across Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Martie L.; MacKenzie, Elizabeth P.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hill, Karl G.; Roberson, Kendra C.

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports supporting measurement equality between European American and African American families have often focused on self-reported risk factors or observed parent behavior with young children. This study examines equality of measurement of observer ratings of parenting behavior with adolescents during structured tasks; mean levels of observed parenting; and predictive validity of teen self-reports of antisocial behaviors and beliefs using a sample of 163 African American and 168 European American families. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses supported measurement invariance across ethnic groups for 4 measures of observed parenting behavior: prosocial rewards, psychological costs, antisocial rewards, and problem solving. Some mean-level differences were found: African American parents exhibited lower levels of prosocial rewards, higher levels of psychological costs, and lower problem solving when compared to European Americans. No significant mean difference was found in rewards for antisocial behavior. Multigroup structural equation models suggested comparable relationships across race (predictive validity) between parenting constructs and youth antisocial constructs (i.e., drug initiation, positive drug attitudes, antisocial attitudes, problem behaviors) in all but one of the tested relationships. This study adds to existing evidence that family-based interventions targeting parenting behaviors can be generalized to African American families. PMID:21787057

  10. Mothers’ Night Work and Children’s Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle; Su, Jessica Houston

    2013-01-01

    Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9–5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. The present paper uses longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3–5) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children’s behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers’ night shift...

  11. No Genetic Influence for Childhood Behavior Problems From DNA Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective Twin studies of behavior problems in childhood point to substantial genetic influence. It is now possible to estimate genetic influence using DNA alone in samples of unrelated individuals, not relying on family-based designs such as twins. A linear mixed model, which incorporates DNA microarray data, has confirmed twin results by showing substantial genetic influence for diverse traits in adults. Here we present direct comparisons between twin and DNA heritability estimates for chil...

  12. Cascading peer dynamics underlying the progression from problem behavior to violence in early to late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Myers, Michael W

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the peer dynamics linking early adolescent problem behavior, school marginalization, and low academic performance to multiple indices of late adolescent violence (arrests, parent report, and youth report) in an ethnically diverse sample of 998 males and females. A cascade model was proposed in which early adolescent risk factors assessed at age 11 to 12 predict gang involvement at age 13 to 14, which in turn, predicts deviancy training with friends at age 16 to 17, which then predicts violence by age 18 to 19. Each construct in the model was assessed with multiple measures and methods. Structural equation modeling revealed that the cascade model fit the data well, with problem behavior, school marginalization, and low academic performance significantly predicting gang involvement 2 years later. Gang involvement, in turn, predicted deviancy training with a friend, which predicted violence. The best fitting model included an indirect and direct path between early adolescent gang involvement and later violence. These findings suggest the need to carefully consider peer clustering into gangs in efforts to prevent individual and aggregate levels of violence, especially in youths who may be disengaged, marginalized, or academically unsuccessful in the public school context.

  13. Children With Conduct Problems and Co-occurring ADHD: Behavioral Improvements Following Parent Management Training

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnebekk, Gunnar; Kjøbli, John; Ogden, Terje

    2015-01-01

    To scale up evidence-based treatment of conduct problems, parent management training, Oregon model (PMTO) has been disseminated throughout Norway. This study examined whether Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) predicted the outcomes of PMTO. Of 253 children and families, 97 were reported to have an ADHD diagnosis. Although different at intake, the groups with and without ADHD had close to an equal change in behavioral status following treatment. Maternal depression and family inc...

  14. Predicting interest in liposuction among women with eating problems: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jávo, Iiná Márjá; Pettersen, Gunn; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Sørlie, Tore

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine predictors of an interest in liposuction among women with eating problems. A questionnaire was sent to 3500 women aged 18-35 years, whereof 378 of 1861 responders screened positively on eating problems. Assessments included sociodemographic status, social network, physical exercise, attitudes towards cosmetic surgery, teasing history, body dysmorphic disorder-like symptoms, body image, self-esteem, personality, interpersonal attachment and emotional distress. Fifty-two percent reported an interest in liposuction, which was independently predicted by appearance orientation, appearance evaluation, being critical/quarrelsome, teasing history, wish for a better relationship with father, low education and being unmarried. Predictors differed somewhat from those previously found in the general population. Considering that our sample consisted of women with self-reported eating problems, the association between liposuction and eating behaviors should be further examined in a sample of patients with a formal eating disorder diagnosis. PMID:21908242

  15. Learning Behavior Models for Interpreting and Predicting Traffic Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Gindele, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we present Bayesian state estimation and machine learning methods for predicting traffic situations. The cognitive ability to assess situations and behaviors of traffic participants, and to anticipate possible developments is an essential requirement for several applications in the traffic domain, especially for self-driving cars. We present a method for learning behavior models from unlabeled traffic observations and develop improved learning methods for decision trees.

  16. Predicting the static bending behavior of pallets with panel decks

    OpenAIRE

    Mackes, Kurt H.

    1998-01-01

    With increased use of pallets constructed utilizing structural panel decks, there is a need for a standardized, reliability-based design system, PDS-PANEL, to assist in the design and manufacture of panel-deck pallets. The primary objective of this research was to develop finite element models which predict the static bending behavior of pallets with at least one panel deck. stringer and block pallets were modeled using plate elements to simulate deck behavior and were...

  17. Predicting malicious behavior tools and techniques for ensuring global security

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Gary M

    2012-01-01

    A groundbreaking exploration of how to identify and fight security threats at every level This revolutionary book combines real-world security scenarios with actual tools to predict and prevent incidents of terrorism, network hacking, individual criminal behavior, and more. Written by an expert with intelligence officer experience who invented the technology, it explores the keys to understanding the dark side of human nature, various types of security threats (current and potential), and how to construct a methodology to predict and combat malicious behavior. The companion CD demonstrates ava

  18. Childhood internalizing and externalizing problems predict the onset of clinical panic attacks over adolescence: the TRAILS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Mathyssek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Panic attacks are a source of individual suffering and are an independent risk factor for later psychopathology. However, much less is known about risk factors for the development of panic attacks, particularly during adolescence when the incidence of panic attacks increases dramatically. We examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in childhood predict the onset of panic attacks in adolescence. METHOD: This study is part of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS, a Dutch longitudinal population cohort study (N = 1,584. Internalizing and Externalizing Problems were collected using the Youth Self-Report (YSR and the parent-report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL at baseline (age 10-12. At age 18-20, DSM-IV defined panic attacks since baseline were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. We investigated whether early adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems predicted panic attacks between ages 10-20 years, using survival analysis in univariate and multivariate models. RESULTS: There were N = 314 (19.8% cases who experienced at least one DSM-IV defined panic attack during adolescence and N = 18 (1.2% who developed panic disorder during adolescence. In univariate analyses, CBCL Total Problems, Internalizing Problems and three of the eight syndrome scales predicted panic attack onset, while on the YSR all broad-band problem scales and each narrow-band syndrome scale predicted panic attack onset. In multivariate analyses, CBCL Social Problems (HR 1.19, p<.05, and YSR Thought Problems (HR 1.15, p<.05 and Social Problems (HR 1.26, p<.01 predicted panic attack onset. CONCLUSION: Risk indicators of panic attack include the wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems. Yet, when adjusted for co-occurring problem behaviors, Social Problems were the most consistent risk factor for panic attack onsets in adolescence.

  19. Predicting personality traits related to consumer behavior using SNS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Jongbum; Lee, Kangbok; Lee, Soowon; Kim, Yongbum; Choi, Jayoung

    2016-07-01

    Modeling a user profile is one of the important factors for devising a personalized recommendation. The traditional approach for modeling a user profile in computer science is to collect and generalize the user's buying behavior or preference history, generated from the user's interactions with recommender systems. According to consumer behavior research, however, internal factors such as personality traits influence a consumer's buying behavior. Existing studies have tried to adapt the Big 5 personality traits to personalized recommendations. However, although studies have shown that these traits can be useful to some extent for personalized recommendation, the causal relationship between the Big 5 personality traits and the buying behaviors of actual consumers has not been validated. In this paper, we propose a novel method for predicting the four personality traits-Extroversion, Public Self-consciousness, Desire for Uniqueness, and Self-esteem-that correlate with buying behaviors. The proposed method automatically constructs a user-personality-traits prediction model for each user by analyzing the user behavior on a social networking service. The experimental results from an analysis of the collected Facebook data show that the proposed method can predict user-personality traits with greater precision than methods that use the variables proposed in previous studies.

  20. Preferential encoding of behaviorally relevant predictions revealed by EEG

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Mark G.; Myers, Nicholas E.; Turnbull, Jonathan; Nobre, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical regularities in the environment guide perceptual processing; however, some predictions are bound to be more important than others. In this electroencephalogram (EEG) study, we test how task relevance influences the way predictions are learned from the statistics of visual input, and exploited for behavior. We developed a novel task in which participants are simply instructed to respond to a designated target stimulus embedded in a serial stream of non-target stimuli. Presentation ...

  1. Predicting Development of Mathematical Word Problem Solving Across the Intermediate Grades

    OpenAIRE

    Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn; Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed predictors of the development of word problem solving (WPS) across the intermediate grades. At beginning of 3rd grade, 4 cohorts of students (N = 261) were measured on computation, language, nonverbal reasoning skills, and attentive behavior and were assessed 4 times from beginning of 3rd through end of 5th grade on 2 measures of WPS at low and high levels of complexity. Language skills were related to initial performance at both levels of complexity and did not predict g...

  2. Mining Behavior Based Safety Data to Predict Safety Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe

    2010-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) operates a behavior based safety program called Safety Observations Achieve Results (SOAR). This peer-to-peer observation program encourages employees to perform in-field observations of each other's work practices and habits (i.e., behaviors). The underlying premise of conducting these observations is that more serious accidents are prevented from occurring because lower level “at risk” behaviors are identified and corrected before they can propagate into culturally accepted “unsafe” behaviors that result in injuries or fatalities. Although the approach increases employee involvement in safety, the premise of the program has not been subject to sufficient empirical evaluation. The INL now has a significant amount of SOAR data on these lower level “at risk” behaviors. This paper describes the use of data mining techniques to analyze these data to determine whether they can predict if and when a more serious accident will occur.

  3. Components of Young Children's Trait Understanding: Behavior-to-Trait Inferences and Trait-to-Behavior Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2007-01-01

    Trait attribution is central to people's naive theories of people and their actions. Previous developmental research indicates that young children are poor at predicting behaviors from past trait-relevant behaviors. We propose that the cognitive process of behavior-to-behavior predictions consists of two component processes: (1) behavior-to-trait…

  4. Predicting Positive Self-Efficacy in Group Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kay N.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 288 hospital employees engaged in problem-solving groups found that previous group problem-solving experience, educational level, work expertise, and problem-solving confidence were the best predictors of self-efficacy. (SK)

  5. Assessment of Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence as Predictors of Early Adult Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lengua, Liliana J; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2009-05-21

    Behavior and psychological problems assessed prospectively by teachers and parents and by youths' self-reports through late childhood and adolescence were examined as possible predictors of early adult depression. Data were from 765 participants in the Seattle Social Development Project, a multiethnic and gender-balanced urban sample. Analyses examined 7 waves of data from ages 10 to 21, and included measures from the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and assessments of past-year depressive episode based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Self-reported conduct problems as early as age 10 (Mason et al., 2001) and throughout adolescence consistently predicted depression at age 21. Parent reports of conduct and other externalizing problems in adolescence also significantly predicted adult depression. None of the available teacher reports through age 14 were significant predictors. Results suggest that externalizing problems can be useful indicators of risk for adult depression. Prevention efforts that target externalizing problems in youth may hold promise for reducing later depression. PMID:20383270

  6. Behavior-Based Budget Management Using Predictive Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2013-03-01

    Historically, the mechanisms to perform forecasting have primarily used two common factors as a basis for future predictions: time and money. While time and money are very important aspects of determining future budgetary spend patterns, organizations represent a complex system of unique individuals with a myriad of associated behaviors and all of these behaviors have bearing on how budget is utilized. When looking to forecasted budgets, it becomes a guessing game about how budget managers will behave under a given set of conditions. This becomes relatively messy when human nature is introduced, as different managers will react very differently under similar circumstances. While one manager becomes ultra conservative during periods of financial austerity, another might be un-phased and continue to spend as they have in the past. Both might revert into a state of budgetary protectionism masking what is truly happening at a budget holder level, in order to keep as much budget and influence as possible while at the same time sacrificing the greater good of the organization. To more accurately predict future outcomes, the models should consider both time and money and other behavioral patterns that have been observed across the organization. The field of predictive analytics is poised to provide the tools and methodologies needed for organizations to do just this: capture and leverage behaviors of the past to predict the future.

  7. Childhood ADHD Predicts Risky Sexual Behavior in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Kate; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Smith, Bradley

    2006-01-01

    This study compared young adults (ages 18 to 26) with and without childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on self-reported risky sexual behaviors. Participants were 175 men with childhood ADHD and 111 demographically similar men without ADHD in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Childhood ADHD predicted earlier…

  8. Mining social media: tracking content and predicting behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Tsagkias

    2012-01-01

    The advent of social media has established a symbiotic relationship between social media and online news. This relationship can be leveraged for tracking news content, and predicting behavior with tangible real-world applications, e.g., online reputation management, ad pricing, news ranking, and med

  9. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy after Ellis: Predictions for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrach, Stephen G.; Ellis, Albert; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Bernard, Michael E.; Dryden, Windy; Kassinove, Howard; Morris, G. Barry; Vernon, Ann; Wolfe, Janet

    1995-01-01

    Nine members of the institute for Rational-Emotive Therapy's (REBT) International Training Standards and Review Committee predicted the status of REBT 25 to 50 years after the death of Albert Ellis. Will REBT continue to exist in its own right or be incorporated into newer forms of cognitive behavior therapy? (EMK)

  10. Predicting active users' personality based on micro-blogging behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Li, Ang; Hao, Bibo; Guan, Zengda; Zhu, Tingshao

    2014-01-01

    Because of its richness and availability, micro-blogging has become an ideal platform for conducting psychological research. In this paper, we proposed to predict active users' personality traits through micro-blogging behaviors. 547 Chinese active users of micro-blogging participated in this study. Their personality traits were measured by the Big Five Inventory, and digital records of micro-blogging behaviors were collected via web crawlers. After extracting 839 micro-blogging behavioral features, we first trained classification models utilizing Support Vector Machine (SVM), differentiating participants with high and low scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory [corrected]. The classification accuracy ranged from 84% to 92%. We also built regression models utilizing PaceRegression methods, predicting participants' scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory. The Pearson correlation coefficients between predicted scores and actual scores ranged from 0.48 to 0.54. Results indicated that active users' personality traits could be predicted by micro-blogging behaviors.

  11. Predicting stay/leave behavior among volleyball referees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to predict stay/leave behavior among volleyball referees. The predictor variables reflect commitment aspects from the literature: attraction, perceived lack of alternatives, personal investments, and feelings of obligation to remain. Intent to quit was assumed to mediate the link be

  12. Personality assessment and behavioral prediction at first impression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vartanian, O; Stewart, K; Mandel, D. R.; Pavlovic, N.; McLellan, L.; Taylor, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated high levels of consensus and self-other agreement for extraversion and conscientiousness. However, the mechanisms whereby these assessments contribute to accuracy in behavioral predictions remain unclear. In this study, two judges rated targets on Big Five personality facto

  13. Leveraging Call Center Logs for Customer Behavior Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvathy, Anju G.; Vasudevan, Bintu G.; Kumar, Abhishek; Balakrishnan, Rajesh

    Most major businesses use business process outsourcing for performing a process or a part of a process including financial services like mortgage processing, loan origination, finance and accounting and transaction processing. Call centers are used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests through outbound and inbound calls to customers on behalf of a business. In this paper we deal specifically with the call centers notes from banks. Banks as financial institutions provide loans to non-financial businesses and individuals. Their call centers act as the nuclei of their client service operations and log the transactions between the customer and the bank. This crucial conversation or information can be exploited for predicting a customer’s behavior which will in turn help these businesses to decide on the next action to be taken. Thus the banks save considerable time and effort in tracking delinquent customers to ensure minimum subsequent defaulters. Majority of the time the call center notes are very concise and brief and often the notes are misspelled and use many domain specific acronyms. In this paper we introduce a novel domain specific spelling correction algorithm which corrects the misspelled words in the call center logs to meaningful ones. We also discuss a procedure that builds the behavioral history sequences for the customers by categorizing the logs into one of the predefined behavioral states. We then describe a pattern based predictive algorithm that uses temporal behavioral patterns mined from these sequences to predict the customer’s next behavioral state.

  14. The Theory of Planned Behavior: Predicting Teachers' Intentions and Behavior during Fitness Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanec, Amanda D. Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The twofold purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument that assessed teachers' intentions, attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control to administer fitness tests effectively, and to determine how well the instrument could predict teachers' intentions and actual behavior based on Ajzen's (1985, 1991) theory of…

  15. Contributions of circadian tendencies and behavioral problems to sleep onset problems of children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber Reut

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are two to three times more likely to experience sleep problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the relative contributions of circadian preferences and behavioral problems to sleep onset problems experienced by children with ADHD and to test for a moderation effect of ADHD diagnosis on the impact of circadian preferences and externalizing problems on sleep onset problems. Methods After initial screening, parents of children meeting inclusion criteria documented child bedtime over 4 nights, using a sleep log, and completed questionnaires regarding sleep, ADHD and demographics to assess bedtime routine prior to PSG. On the fifth night of the study, sleep was recorded via ambulatory assessment of sleep architecture in the child’s natural sleep environment employing portable polysomnography equipment. Seventy-five children (26 with ADHD and 49 controls aged 7–11 years (mean age 8.61 years, SD 1.27 years participated in the present study. Results In both groups of children, externalizing problems yielded significant independent contributions to the explained variance in parental reports of bedtime resistance, whereas an evening circadian tendency contributed both to parental reports of sleep onset delay and to PSG-measured sleep-onset latency. No significant interaction effect of behavioral/circadian tendency with ADHD status was evident. Conclusions Sleep onset problems in ADHD are related to different etiologies that might require different interventional strategies and can be distinguished using the parental reports on the CSHQ.

  16. Behavioral problems and emotional stress in children with bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Bacci, Adriana do Vale; Cardoso, Carmen Lúcia Cardoso; Díaz-Serrano, Kranya Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Bruxism has a multifactorial etiology, and psychosocial factors have been considered to increase the risk of occurrence of this parafunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior profile of a group of children diagnosed with bruxism. Eighty 7-11-year-old children of both genders (mean age 8.8 years) first recruited as eligible participants. Twenty-nine children (18 males and 11 females) whose parents/guardians reported to present frequent episodes of tooth grinding/clenching while awake or during sleep (at least 3 nights a week) in the previous 3 months were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of bruxism was established based on the parents/guardians' report about the children's behavior, habits and possible discomforts in the components of the stomatognathic system allied to the presence of signs and symptoms such as pain on the masticatory muscles, masseter muscle hypertrophy, wear facets, fractures of restorations, dental impressions on the cheek mucosa and tongue. As part of the psychological evaluation, the Rutter's Child Behavior Scale-A2 was applied to the parents/caregivers (one for each child) and the Child Stress Scale was applied to the children. Data were analyzed descriptively based on the frequency of each studied variable. Twenty-four (82.76%) children needed psychological or psychiatric intervention; 17 of them presented neurotic disorders and 7 children presented antisocial disorders. Six (20.70%) children presented significant physical and psychological manifestations of stress. The findings of the present study suggest that behavioral problems and potential emotional problems can be risk factors to bruxism in children.

  17. Parenting Style and Child Behavior Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Margaret H.

    1993-01-01

    Data from the National Survey of Children were used to study the relationships between children's perceptions of parental support and control and measures of self-esteem and behavior problems over time. Data were collected in 1976 , when the children were aged 7-11; 1981, when the children were in their early to mid teens (age 12 to 16); and 1987, when the children were in their late teens and early 20s (age 17 to 22). Parenting measures , based on children's reports, were developed for each ...

  18. Parent's Acceptance of Behavioral Interventions for Children with Behavior and Communication Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, Jennifer L.; Borrego, Joaquin

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine what parents find as acceptable treatment options for children with behavior problems in a communication disorders population. Parents' acceptability of seven treatment options, including positive reinforcement, time-out, response cost, spanking, overcorrection, differential attention, and medication were…

  19. Neurophysiological processing of emotion and parenting interact to predict inhibited behavior: an affective-motivational framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Ellen M; Huselid, Rebecca F; Decicco, Jennifer M; Dennis, Tracy A

    2013-01-01

    Although inhibited behavior problems are prevalent in childhood, relatively little is known about the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predict a child's ability to regulate inhibited behavior during fear- and anxiety-provoking tasks. Inhibited behavior may be linked to both disruptions in avoidance-related processing of aversive stimuli and in approach-related processing of appetitive stimuli, but previous findings are contradictory and rarely integrate consideration of the socialization context. The current exploratory study used a novel combination of neurophysiological and observation-based methods to examine whether a neurophysiological measure sensitive to approach- and avoidance-oriented emotional processing, the late positive potential (LPP), interacted with observed approach- (promotion) and avoidance- (prevention) oriented parenting practices to predict children's observed inhibited behavior. Participants were 5- to 7-year-old (N = 32) typically-developing children (M = 75.72 months, SD = 6.01). Electroencephalography was continuously recorded while children viewed aversive, appetitive, or neutral images, and the LPP was generated to each picture type separately. Promotion and prevention parenting were observed during an emotional challenge with the child. Child inhibited behavior was observed during a fear and a social evaluation task. As predicted, larger LPPs to aversive images predicted more inhibited behavior during both tasks, but only when parents demonstrated low promotion. In contrast, larger LPPs to appetitive images predicted less inhibited behavior during the social evaluative task, but only when parents demonstrated high promotion; children of high promotion parents showing smaller LPPs to appetitive images showed the greatest inhibition. Parent-child goodness-of-fit and the LPP as a neural biomarker for emotional processes related to inhibited behavior are discussed. PMID:23847499

  20. Neurophysiological Processing of Emotion and Parenting Interact to Predict Inhibited Behavior: An Affective-Motivational Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M Kessel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although inhibited behavior problems are prevalent in childhood, relatively little is known about the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predict a child’s ability to regulate inhibited behavior during fear- and anxiety-provoking tasks. Inhibited behavior may be linked to both disruptions in avoidance-related processing of aversive stimuli and in approach-related processing of appetitive stimuli, but previous findings are contradictory and rarely integrate consideration of the socialization context. The current exploratory study used a novel combination of neurophysiological and observation-based methods to examine whether a neurophysiological measure sensitive to approach- and avoidance-oriented emotional processing, the late positive potential (LPP, interacted with observed approach- (promotion and avoidance- (prevention oriented parenting practices to predict children’s observed inhibited behavior. Participants were 5- to 7-year-old (N = 32 typically-developing children (M = 75.72 months, SD = 6.01. Electroencephalography was continuously recorded while children viewed aversive, appetitive, or neutral images, and the LPP was generated to each picture type separately. Promotion and prevention parenting were observed during an emotional challenge with the child. Child inhibited behavior was observed during a fear and a social evaluation task. As predicted, larger LPPs to aversive images predicted more inhibited behavior during both tasks, but only when parents demonstrated low promotion. In contrast, larger LPPs to appetitive images predicted less inhibited behavior during the social evaluative task, but only when parents demonstrated high promotion; children of high promotion parents showing smaller LPPs to appetitive images showed the greatest inhibition. Parent-child goodness-of-fit and the LPP as a neural biomarker for emotional processes related to inhibited behavior are discussed.

  1. Predicting weed problems in maize cropping by species distribution modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bürger, Jana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing maize cultivation and changed cropping practices promote the selection of typical maize weeds that may also profit strongly from climate change. Predicting potential weed problems is of high interest for plant production. Within the project KLIFF, experiments were combined with species distribution modelling for this task in the region of Lower Saxony, Germany. For our study, we modelled ecological and damage niches of nine weed species that are significant and wide spread in maize cropping in a number of European countries. Species distribution models describe the ecological niche of a species, these are the environmental conditions under which a species can maintain a vital population. It is also possible to estimate a damage niche, i.e. the conditions under which a species causes damage in agricultural crops. For this, we combined occurrence data of European national data bases with high resolution climate, soil and land use data. Models were also projected to simulated climate conditions for the time horizon 2070 - 2100 in order to estimate climate change effects. Modelling results indicate favourable conditions for typical maize weed occurrence virtually all over the study region, but only a few species are important in maize cropping. This is in good accordance with the findings of an earlier maize weed monitoring. Reaction to changing climate conditions is species-specific, for some species neutral (E. crus-galli, other species may gain (Polygonum persicaria or loose (Viola arvensis large areas of suitable habitats. All species with damage potential under present conditions will remain important in maize cropping, some more species will gain regional importance (Calystegia sepium, Setara viridis.

  2. Adolescents' use of care for behavioral and emotional problems: types, trends, and determinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijmen A Reijneveld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants, for ages 10-19 years. METHODS: We obtained longitudinal data on 2,230 adolescents during ages 10-19 from four measurements regarding use of general care and specialized care (youth social care and mental healthcare in the preceding 6 months, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Youth Self-Report, and child and family characteristics. We analyzed data by multilevel logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall rates of use increased from 20.1% at age 10/11 to 32.2% at age 19: general care was used most. At age 10/11 use was higher among boys, at age 19 among girls. Use of general care increased for both genders, whereas use of specialized care increased among girls but decreased among boys. This differential change was associated with CBCL externalizing and internalizing problems, school problems, family socioeconomic status, and parental divorce. Preceding CBCL problems predicted more use: most for mental health care and least for general care. Moreover, general care was used more frequently by low and medium socioeconomic status families, with odds ratios (95%-confidence intervals: 1.52 (1.23;1.88 and 1.40 (1.17;1.67; youth social care in case of parental divorce, 2.07 (1.36;3.17; and of special education, 2.66 (1.78;3.95; and mental healthcare in case of special education, 2.66 (1.60;4.51. DISCUSSION: Adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems use general care most frequently. Overall use increases with age. Determinants of use vary per type.

  3. Benign rolandic epileptiform discharges are associated with mood and behavior problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarco, Dean P.; Boyer, Katrina; Lundy-Krigbaum, Shannon M.; Takeoka, Masanori; Jensen, Frances; Gregas, Matt; Waber, Deborah P.

    2016-01-01

    Children with benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE) experience elevated rates of cognitive, behavioral, and affective problems. Frequent epileptiform spike discharges may impair behavioral functioning. To elucidate this relationship, we evaluated associations between the EEG spike frequency index (SI) and parental ratings of psychosocial adjustment and executive functioning in school-aged children with EEGs typical of BRE. Twenty-one children (6–12 years) participated. Parents completed validated questionnaires at a median of 5 months (range: 1–8) after a routine outpatient EEG. The EEG SI was calculated for wakefulness and sleep. The strength of association between the SI and behavioral variables was evaluated by simple and multivariate correlation. Higher awake and sleep SIs were associated with more symptoms of depression (P<0.001), aggression and conduct problems (P<0.01). Higher sleep SI was associated with executive dysfunction and anxiety (P<0.05). Symptoms of hyperactivity and inattention had no correlation. Increased epileptiform activity in children with BRE may predict higher rates of mood and behavioral problems. PMID:21862414

  4. Relationships between child behavior problems and family functioning: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, N.M.C. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research examining the relationship between family functioning and child behavior problems. Focuses on parenting styles, intergenerational relationships, family structure, and family interaction patterns. Finds that child behavior problems are related to a lack of parental support, an imbala

  5. How the behavioral approach system predicts everyday life outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadikhah, Zahra; Jackson, Chris J

    2010-01-01

    This study tested crucial components of Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory that have generally been overlooked in the literature. We tested whether the perceived amount of reward moderates the behavioral approach system (BAS) and the importance of reward mediates BAS in the prediction of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Results from 514 participants employed in part-time and full-time jobs provided support for our model, such that the indirect effect of BAS through the importance of reward was strongest when reward was provided. This model advances our understanding of reinforcement sensitivity theory and offers a solid foundation for predicting outcomes in everyday life. PMID:20923087

  6. How the behavioral approach system predicts everyday life outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadikhah, Zahra; Jackson, Chris J

    2010-01-01

    This study tested crucial components of Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory that have generally been overlooked in the literature. We tested whether the perceived amount of reward moderates the behavioral approach system (BAS) and the importance of reward mediates BAS in the prediction of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Results from 514 participants employed in part-time and full-time jobs provided support for our model, such that the indirect effect of BAS through the importance of reward was strongest when reward was provided. This model advances our understanding of reinforcement sensitivity theory and offers a solid foundation for predicting outcomes in everyday life.

  7. Economic demand predicts addiction-like behavior and therapeutic efficacy of oxytocin in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Bentzley, Brandon S.; Jhou, Thomas C.; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a major public health problem with no current pharmacotherapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. To accelerate discovery of treatments, we developed an animal model based on economics. Economics allows mathematical alignment of animal and human behavior, permitting more confident predictions of efficacy in addicts. Although economic models are strongly associated with addiction severity in humans, they have not yet been shown to be a marker of addiction in r...

  8. Predicting intentions versus predicting behaviors: domestic violence prevention from a theory of reasoned action perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L; Southwell, Brian; Hornik, Robert

    2002-01-01

    A central assumption of many models of human behavior is that intention to perform a behavior is highly predictive of actual behavior. This article presents evidence that belies this notion. Based on a survey of 1,250 Philadelphia adults, a clear and consistent pattern emerged suggesting that beliefs related to domestic violence correlate with intentions to act with respect to domestic violence but rarely correlate with reported actions (e.g., talking to the abused woman). Numerous methodological and substantive explanations for this finding are offered with emphasis placed on the complexity of the context in which an action to prevent a domestic violence incident occurs. We conclude by arguing that despite the small, insignificant relationships between beliefs and behaviors found, worthwhile aggregate effects on behavior might still exist, thus reaffirming the role of communication campaign efforts.

  9. A Proposed Model for Selecting Measurement Procedures for the Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Linda A; Raetz, Paige B; Sellers, Tyra P; Carr, James E

    2016-03-01

    Practicing behavior analysts frequently assess and treat problem behavior as part of their ongoing job responsibilities. Effective measurement of problem behavior is critical to success in these activities because some measures of problem behavior provide more accurate and complete information about the behavior than others. However, not every measurement procedure is appropriate for every problem behavior and therapeutic circumstance. We summarize the most commonly used measurement procedures, describe the contexts for which they are most appropriate, and propose a clinical decision-making model for selecting measurement produces given certain features of the behavior and constraints of the therapeutic environment. PMID:27606232

  10. Maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and toddler behavior problems: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Ystrom, Eivind; Sivertsen, Børge; Tell, Grethe S; Torgersen, Leila

    2014-10-01

    Maternal risk drinking may be a risk factor for child behavior problems even if the mother has discontinued this behavior. Whether pre-pregnancy risk drinking is an independent predictor of child behavior problems, or whether a potential effect may be explained by maternal alcohol use during and after pregnancy or other adverse maternal characteristics, is not known. Employing data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), longitudinal associations between maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and behavior problems in toddlers aged 18 and 36 months were examined. Included in the study was mothers answering MoBa questionnaires when the child was 18 (N = 56,682) and 36 months (N = 46,756), and who had responded to questions regarding pre-pregnancy risk drinking at gestation week 17/18, using the screening instrument T-ACE. Toddler behavior problems were measured with items from Child Behavior Checklist. Associations were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression, controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use, as well as other relevant covariates. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking was associated with child behavior problems at 18 and 36 months, even after controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use. Maternal ADHD and anxiety and depression were the only covariates that had any substantial impact on the associations. When all covariates were included in the model, the associations were weak for internalizing behavior problems and non-significant for externalizing behavior problems. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking may predict early development of behavior problems in the offspring. This increased risk may be due to other adverse maternal characteristics associated with risk drinking, in particular co-occurring maternal psychopathology.

  11. An Extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB Used to Predict Smoking Behavior Among a Sample of Iranian Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Smoking among the youth is an important public health concern. Although several studies have investigated the correlates of smoking behavior, no theory-based study has particularly assessed this problem among medical students. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the extended theory of planned behavior (TPB to predict smoking behavior among a sample of Iranian medical students. Patients and Methods This is a cross-sectional study carried out in Ahvaz, Iran, 2014. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, which included items on demographics, smoking behavior, and components of the TPB model (attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, and intention, and an added construct on smoking refusal skill. Data were analyzed using descriptive correlation, and linear regression statistics by SPSS, version 16. Results One hundred and seventy medical students with a mean age of 21.25 (SD = 2.9 years were enrolled in the study. Of them, 24 (13.5% students were smokers. All components of the TPB model and smoking refusal skill were statistically significant as to intention to smoke (P < 0.001. The TPB constructs with and without smoking refusal skill accounted for 77% (adjusted R2 and 78% of the variance observed for intention to smoke, respectively. The results also revealed the highest weight for perceived behavior control (β= -0.40. Conclusions The findings of this study indicated that all TPB variables are useful tools for prediction of the smoking behaviors among students. Particularly, students’ perceived behavioral control and attitudes towards smoking were found to be important determinants of smoking intentions. Thus, the findings could be used for planning effective tobacco control programs targeting University students.

  12. Unethical Minds: Individual Characteristics that Predict Unethical Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Bucciol; Fabio Landini; Marco Piovesan

    2012-01-01

    What are the individual characteristics that predict unethical behavior? To answer this question we randomly interviewed 541 passengers who used the bus in Reggio Emilia (Italy). Exploiting the high level of fare evasion (43% without a valid ticket) we find that young, male and non-Caucasian individuals in our sample are more likely to travel without a ticket. Interestingly, traveling with others affects the probability of holding a valid ticket but its effect depends on who the passenger and...

  13. Predicting online purchase behavior : replications and tests of competing models

    OpenAIRE

    Heijden, van der, T.G.C.; Verhagen, T.; Creemers, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Online purchase behavior is definitely an interesting and relevant issue for marketeers today. In this paper, we report on a study into the antecedents of online purchase intention for B2C websites. In particular, this research juxtaposes two competing models that explain online purchase intention. The first model is trust-oriented and argues that online purchase intention is primarily predicted by trust in the company. The second model is website-oriented and argues that purchase intention i...

  14. Improving purchasing behavior predictions by data augmentation with situational variables

    OpenAIRE

    PHILIPPE BAECKE; DIRK VAN DEN POEL

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, an increasing number of information technology tools are implemented in order to support decision making about marketing strategies and improve customer relationship management (CRM). Consequently, an improvement in CRM can be obtained by enhancing the databases on which these information technology tools are based. This study shows that data augmentation with situational variables of the purchase occasion can significantly improve purchasing behavior predictions for a home vending ...

  15. Molecular Markers for Breast Cancer: Prediction on Tumor Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Karina Banin Hirata; Julie Massayo Maeda Oda; Roberta Losi Guembarovski; Carolina Batista Ariza; Carlos Eduardo Coral de Oliveira; Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers with greater than 1,300,000 cases and 450,000 deaths each year worldwide. The development of breast cancer involves a progression through intermediate stages until the invasive carcinoma and finally into metastatic disease. Given the variability in clinical progression, the identification of markers that could predict the tumor behavior is particularly important in breast cancer. The determination of tumor markers is a useful tool for clinical m...

  16. Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schaefli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that these universal and time-invariant organizing principles can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. The organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  17. Prediction of shipboard electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems using artificial intelligence (AI) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David J.

    1990-01-01

    The electromagnetic interference prediction problem is characteristically ill-defined and complicated. Severe EMI problems are prevalent throughout the U.S. Navy, causing both expected and unexpected impacts on the operational performance of electronic combat systems onboard ships. This paper focuses on applying artificial intelligence (AI) technology to the prediction of ship related electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems.

  18. Early Attachment Organization with Both Parents and Future Behavior Problems: From Infancy to Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag

    2013-01-01

    Links between children's attachment security with mothers and fathers, assessed in Strange Situation with each parent at 15 months ("N" = 101), and their future behavior problems were examined. Mothers and fathers rated children's behavior problems, and children reported their own behavior problems at age 8 ("N" = 86). Teachers rated behavior…

  19. Effects of Punishment and Response-Independent Attention on Severe Problem Behavior and Appropriate Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Shannon S.; Poe, Susannah G.; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2005-01-01

    Problem behavior can interfere with learning, the development of appropriate skills, and socialization in persons with developmental disabilities. In severe cases, problem behavior could result in life-threatening injury. For one 21-month-old participant diagnosed with autism engaging in severe problem behavior for whom reinforcement-based…

  20. Factors Associated with Parent-Child (Dis)Agreement on Child Behavior and Parenting Problems in Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Joey J.; Lau, Anna S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined familial and cultural factors predicting parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems. Immigrant Chinese parents (89.7% mothers; M age = 44.24 years) and their children (62 boys; 57.9%) between the ages of 9 and 17 years (M = 11.9 years, SD = 2.9) completed measures of parent punitive behavior and child…

  1. Predictive models of procedural human supervisory control behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussemart, Yves

    Human supervisory control systems are characterized by the computer-mediated nature of the interactions between one or more operators and a given task. Nuclear power plants, air traffic management and unmanned vehicles operations are examples of such systems. In this context, the role of the operators is typically highly proceduralized due to the time and mission-critical nature of the tasks. Therefore, the ability to continuously monitor operator behavior so as to detect and predict anomalous situations is a critical safeguard for proper system operation. In particular, such models can help support the decision J]l8king process of a supervisor of a team of operators by providing alerts when likely anomalous behaviors are detected By exploiting the operator behavioral patterns which are typically reinforced through standard operating procedures, this thesis proposes a methodology that uses statistical learning techniques in order to detect and predict anomalous operator conditions. More specifically, the proposed methodology relies on hidden Markov models (HMMs) and hidden semi-Markov models (HSMMs) to generate predictive models of unmanned vehicle systems operators. Through the exploration of the resulting HMMs in two distinct single operator scenarios, the methodology presented in this thesis is validated and shown to provide models capable of reliably predicting operator behavior. In addition, the use of HSMMs on the same data scenarios provides the temporal component of the predictions missing from the HMMs. The final step of this work is to examine how the proposed methodology scales to more complex scenarios involving teams of operators. Adopting a holistic team modeling approach, both HMMs and HSMMs are learned based on two team-based data sets. The results show that the HSMMs can provide valuable timing information in the single operator case, whereas HMMs tend to be more robust to increased team complexity. In addition, this thesis discusses the

  2. Emotion understanding, parent mental state language, and behavior problems in internationally adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarullo, Amanda R; Youssef, Adriana; Frenn, Kristin A; Wiik, Kristen; Garvin, Melissa C; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-05-01

    Internationally adopted postinstitutionalized (PI) children are at risk for lower levels of emotion understanding. This study examined how postadoption parenting influences emotion understanding and whether lower levels of emotion understanding are associated with behavior problems. Emotion understanding and parent mental state language were assessed in 3-year-old internationally adopted PI children (N = 25), and comparison groups of children internationally adopted from foster care (N = 25) and nonadopted (NA) children (N = 36). At 5.5-year follow-up, PI children had lower levels of emotion understanding than NA children, a group difference not explained by language. In the total sample, parent mental state language at age 3 years predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding after controlling for child language ability. The association of parent mental state language and 5.5-year emotion understanding was moderated by adoption status, such that parent mental state language predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding for the internationally adopted children, but not for the NA children. While postadoption experience does not erase negative effects of early deprivation on emotion understanding, results suggest that parents can promote emotion understanding development through mental state talk. At 5.5 years, PI children had more internalizing and externalizing problems than NA children, and these behavioral problems related to lower levels of emotion understanding. PMID:26612541

  3. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Problems: Effects of Parental and Grandparental Major Depressive Disorder on Child Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Roberts, Robert E.; John R. Seeley; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of lifetime histories of grandparental (G1) and parental (G2) major depressive disorder (MDD) on children's (G3) internalizing problems were investigated among 267 G3 children (ages 2–18 years) who received Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) ratings and had diagnostic data available on 267 biological G2 parents and 527 biological G1 grandparents. Results indicated that G1 MDD conferred risk for G2 MDD, but not for G3 CBCL scores. G2 MDD predicted higher G3 Internalizing and Anxious/Depre...

  4. Problem Internet Overuse Behaviors in College Students: Readiness-to-Change and Receptivity to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; Li, Wen; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores college students' readiness-to-change and receptivity to treatment for problem Internet overuse behaviors. Focus groups were conducted with 27 college students who self-identified as Internet over-users, and had experienced biopsychosocial problems related to Internet overuse. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing their Internet use and sociodemographic forms. Focus groups explored readiness to change problem Internet overuse behaviors and receptivity to treatment. Similar to college students with other addictive behaviors, students with problem Internet overuse fall along a continuum vis-à-vis readiness-to-change their behaviors. Over half of the participants were receptive to treatment for their problem Internet overuse behaviors.

  5. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj; Wagner, Donald I; Wilkerson, Janice

    Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary children. A 52-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 159 fifth graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.072). Hours of TV watching were predicted by number of times taught about healthy eating at school and self-control through goal setting (R2 = 0.055). Glasses of water consumed were predicted by expectations for drinking water (R2 = 0.091). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.137). Social cognitive theory offers a practically useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity.

  6. Behavioral forecasts do not improve the prediction of future behavior: a prospective study of self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, Irene Belle; Nock, Matthew K

    2008-10-01

    Clinicians are routinely encouraged to use multimodal assessments incorporating information from multiple sources when determining an individual's risk of dangerous or self-injurious behavior; however, some sources of information may not improve prediction models and so should not be relied on in such assessments. The authors examined whether individuals' prediction of their own future behavior improves prediction over using history of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITB) alone. Sixty-four adolescents with a history of SITB were interviewed regarding their past year history of SITB, asked about the likelihood that they would engage in future SITB, and followed over a 6-month period. Individuals' forecasts of their future behavior were related to subsequent SITB, but did not improve prediction beyond the use of SITB history. In contrast, history of SITB improved prediction of subsequent SITB beyond individuals' behavioral forecasts. Clinicians should rely more on past history of a behavior than individuals' forecasts of future behavior in predicting SITB.

  7. Vertebrate gene predictions and the problem of large genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jun; Li, ShengTing; Zhang, Yong;

    2003-01-01

    To find unknown protein-coding genes, annotation pipelines use a combination of ab initio gene prediction and similarity to experimentally confirmed genes or proteins. Here, we show that although the ab initio predictions have an intrinsically high false-positive rate, they also have a consistently...... low false-negative rate. The incorporation of similarity information is meant to reduce the false-positive rate, but in doing so it increases the false-negative rate. The crucial variable is gene size (including introns)--genes of the most extreme sizes, especially very large genes, are most likely to...

  8. Influence of Classroom and School Climate on Teacher Perceptions of Student Problem Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    O’Brennan, Lindsey M.; BRADSHAW, CATHERINE P.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing student problem behavior remains a leading concern for school staff, as disruptive and aggressive behavior interferes with student achievement and the school climate. However, the multi-systemic nature of schools makes it difficult for researchers and practitioners to identify factors influencing to students’ behavior. The current study examined student problem behavior through an ecological lens by taking into account individual (e.g., gender, ethnicity, prosocial behavior), classro...

  9. Dissociation Predicts Later Attention Problems in Sexually Abused Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplow, Julie B.; Hall, Erin; Koenen, Karestan C.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The goals of this research are to develop and test a prospective model of attention problems in sexually abused children that includes fixed variables (e.g., gender), trauma, and disclosure-related pathways. Methods: At Time 1, fixed variables, trauma variables, and stress reactions upon disclosure were assessed in 156 children aged…

  10. [Psychological processes predicting the English communication behavior of Japanese high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takehiko

    2013-12-01

    This study presents a new model of psychological processes to predict English communication behaviors of Japanese high school students. Various models have been proposed in Japan, based mainly on Canadian models, to predict second-language communication behaviors. This study shows problems with the previous models in Japan and introduces a new model from the perspective of "Expectancy-Value Theory". Questionnaire Survey 1 compared the previous model and the modified models which suggested that a new psychological variable, "Value in English Communication", was necessary to construct the new model. In Survey 2, the new model was further modified by incorporating into it various English learning values which the Japanese have. This study makes a significant contribution to studies and practices of teaching English as a foreign language in Japan.

  11. Children's emotional and behavioral problems and their mothers' labor supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Patrick; Gaskin, Darrell J; Alexandre, Pierre K; Burke, Laura S; Younis, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    It has been documented that about 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder in the United States. The high prevalence of children's emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) might have a negative effect on their mothers' labor market outcomes because children with EBP require additional time for treatment. However, these children may require additional financial resources, which might promote mothers' labor supply. Previous studies have only considered chronic conditions in analyzing the impact of children's health on parental work activities. Moreover, most of these studies have not accounted for endogeneity in children's health. This article estimates the effects of children's EBP on their mothers' labor supply by family structure while accounting for endogeneity in children's health. We used the 1997 and 2002 Child Development Supplements (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). We used probit and bivariate probit models to estimate mothers' probability of employment, and tobit and instrumental variable tobit models to estimate the effects of children's EBP on their mothers' work hours. Findings show negative effects of children's EBP on their married mothers' employment and on their single mothers' work hours. PMID:25466413

  12. Exploring the relation of harsh parental discipline with child emotional and behavioral problems by using multiple informants. The generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Ringoot, Ank P; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Jansen, Pauline W; Tiemeier, Henning W

    2014-01-01

    Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately. PMID:25120014

  13. Exploring the relation of harsh parental discipline with child emotional and behavioral problems by using multiple informants. The generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Ringoot, Ank P; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Jansen, Pauline W; Tiemeier, Henning W

    2014-01-01

    Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately.

  14. Exploring the relation of harsh parental discipline with child emotional and behavioral problems by using multiple informants. The generation R study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joreintje D Mackenbach

    Full Text Available Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately.

  15. TEMPERAMENT, FAMILY ENVIRONMENT, AND BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH NEW-ONSET SEIZURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Katherine T.; Byars, Anna W.; deGrauw, Ton J.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Perkins, Susan M.; Dunn, David W.; Bates, John E.; Austin, Joan K.

    2007-01-01

    Children with epilepsy, even those with new-onset seizures, exhibit relatively high rates of behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among early temperament, family adaptive resources, and behavior problems in children with new-onset seizures. Our major goal was to test whether family adaptive resources moderated the relationship between early temperament dimensions and current behavior problems in 287 children with new-onset seizures. Two of the three temperament dimensions (difficultness and resistance to control) were positively correlated with total, internalizing, and externalizing behavior problems (all p < 0.0001). The third temperament dimension, unadaptability, was positively correlated with total and internalizing problems (p < 0.01). Family adaptive resources moderated the relationships between temperament and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at school. Children with a difficult early temperament who live in a family environment with low family mastery are at the greatest risk for behavior problems. PMID:17267291

  16. Parental Satisfaction in the Adoption of Children with Learning Disorders: The Role of Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalavany, Blace A.; Glidden, Laraine M.; Ryan, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which children's behavior problems would mediate the relationship between children's learning disorders and adoption satisfaction using nationally representative data from 1,865 adoptive parents. We found that high levels of behavior problems, operationalized as internalizing and externalizing behaviors,…

  17. Risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents of parents with a chronic medical condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Sieh; J.M.A. Visser-Meily; F.J. Oort; A.M. Meijer

    2012-01-01

    A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and exter

  18. Trauma Focused CBT for Children with Co-Occurring Trauma and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Berliner, Lucy; Mannarino, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood trauma impacts multiple domains of functioning including behavior. Traumatized children commonly have behavioral problems that therapists must effectively evaluate and manage in the context of providing trauma-focused treatment. This manuscript describes practical strategies for managing behavior problems in the context of…

  19. The Effects of Consequence Manipulation during Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior Maintained by Negative Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoczak, Kathryn; Carr, James E.; Michael, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Two distinct analytic methods have been used to identify the function of problem behavior. The antecedent-behavior-consequence (ABC) method (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994) includes the delivery of consequences for problem behavior. The AB method (Carr & Durand, 1985) does not include consequence delivery, instead relying…

  20. Persistence during Extinction: Examining the Effects of Continuous and Intermittent Reinforcement on Problem Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Jacquelyn M.; Ahearn, William H; Parry-Cruwys, Diana; Bancroft, Stacie; Dube, William V.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavioral persistence during extinction following continuous or intermittent reinforcement in the context of an analogue functional analysis of problem behavior. Participants were four children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder who engaged in problem behavior; and for whom functional analyses indicated sensitivity to social reinforcers. Experimental sessions included four successive 5-min components: No social interaction, continuous or intermittent reinforcement...

  1. The role of descriptive norm within the theory of planned behavior in predicting Korean Americans' exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo

    2011-08-01

    There are few studies investigating psychosocial mechanisms in Korean Americans' exercise behavior. The present study tested the usefulness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting Korean American's exercise behavior and whether the descriptive norm (i.e., perceptions of what others do) improved the predictive validity of the theory of planned behavior. Using a retrospective design and self-report measures, web-survey responses from 198 Korean-American adults were analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses. The theory of planned behavior constructs accounted for 31% of exercise behavior and 43% of exercise intention. Intention and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of exercise behavior. Although the descriptive norm did not augment the theory of planned behavior, all original constructs--attitude, injunctive norm (a narrow definition of subjective norm), and perceived behavioral control--statistically significantly predicted leisure-time physical activity intention. Future studies should consider random sampling, prospective design, and objective measures of physical activity. PMID:22049662

  2. A Parallel Process Growth Mixture Model of Conduct Problems and Substance Use with Risky Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    WU, JOHNNY; Witkiewitz, Katie; McMahon, Robert J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Conduct problems, substance use, and risky sexual behavior have been shown to coexist among adolescents, which may lead to significant health problems. The current study was designed to examine relations among these problem behaviors in a community sample of children at high risk for conduct disorder. A latent growth model of childhood conduct problems showed a decreasing trend from grades K to 5. During adolescence, four concurrent conduct problem and substance use trajectory classes were id...

  3. A Predictive Model for Satisfying Conflicting Objectives in Scheduling Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Pauline M.

    1992-01-01

    The economic viability of a manufacturing organization depends on its ability to maximize customer services; maintain efficient, low-cost operations; and minimize total investment. These objectives conflict with one another and, thus, are difficult to achieve on an operational basis. Much of the work in the area of automated scheduling systems recognizes this problem but does not address it effectively. The work presented by this Ph.D. dissertation was motivated by the desire to generate good...

  4. Stochastic Models Predict User Behavior in Social Media

    CERN Document Server

    Hogg, Tad; Smith, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    User response to contributed content in online social media depends on many factors. These include how the site lays out new content, how frequently the user visits the site, how many friends the user follows, how active these friends are, as well as how interesting or useful the content is to the user. We present a stochastic modeling framework that relates a user's behavior to details of the site's user interface and user activity and describe a procedure for estimating model parameters from available data. We apply the model to study discussions of controversial topics on Twitter, specifically, to predict how followers of an advocate for a topic respond to the advocate's posts. We show that a model of user behavior that explicitly accounts for a user transitioning through a series of states before responding to an advocate's post better predicts response than models that fail to take these states into account. We demonstrate other benefits of stochastic models, such as their ability to identify users who a...

  5. Recollections of pressure to eat during childhood, but not picky eating, predict young adult eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jordan M; Galloway, Amy T; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M; Farrow, Claire V

    2016-02-01

    Picky eating is a childhood behavior that vexes many parents and is a symptom in the newer diagnosis of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in adults. Pressure to eat, a parental controlling feeding practice aimed at encouraging a child to eat more, is associated with picky eating and a number of other childhood eating concerns. Low intuitive eating, an insensitivity to internal hunger and satiety cues, is also associated with a number of problem eating behaviors in adulthood. Whether picky eating and pressure to eat are predictive of young adult eating behavior is relatively unstudied. Current adult intuitive eating and disordered eating behaviors were self-reported by 170 college students, along with childhood picky eating and pressure through retrospective self- and parent reports. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that childhood parental pressure to eat, but not picky eating, predicted intuitive eating and disordered eating symptoms in college students. These findings suggest that parental pressure in childhood is associated with problematic eating patterns in young adulthood. Additional research is needed to understand the extent to which parental pressure is a reaction to or perhaps compounds the development of problematic eating behavior.

  6. Pre-Adoption Adversity, Maternal Stress, and Behavior Problems at School-Age in International Adoptees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Belhumeur, Celine; Jeliu, Gloria; Begin, Jean; Seguin, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Internationally adopted children present more behavior problems than non-adopted children and are overrepresented in mental health services. These problems are related to children's pre-adoption environment, but adoptive families' functioning and characteristics may also affect the development of behavior problems in adopted children. The aim of…

  7. Beyond behavior modification: Benefits of social-emotional/self-regulation training for preschoolers with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Hart, Katie

    2016-10-01

    The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; Mage=5.16years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. During the summer between preschool and kindergarten, children were randomized to receive three newly developed intervention packages. The first and most cost effective intervention package was an 8-week School Readiness Parenting Program (SRPP). Families randomized into the second and third intervention packages received not only the weekly SRPP, but children also attended two different versions of an intensive kindergarten summer readiness class (M-F, 8a.m.-5p.m.) that was part of an 8-week summer treatment program for pre-kindergarteners (STP-PreK). One version included the standard behavioral modification system and academic curriculum (STP-PreK) while the other additionally contained social-emotional and self-regulation training (STP-PreK Enhanced). Baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up data were collected on children's school readiness outcomes including parent, teacher, and objective assessment measures. Analyses using linear mixed models indicated that children's behavioral functioning significantly improved across all groups in a similar magnitude. Children in the STP-PreK Enhanced group, however, experienced greater growth across time in academic achievement, emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and executive functioning compared to children in the other groups. These findings suggest that while parent training is sufficient to address children's behavioral difficulties, an intensive summer program that goes beyond behavioral modification and academic preparation by targeting socio-emotional and self-regulation skills can have incremental benefits across multiple aspects of school readiness. PMID

  8. Dimensionless Equation of State to Predict Microemulsion Phase Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumyadeep; Johns, Russell T

    2016-09-01

    Prediction of microemulsion phase behavior for changing state variables is critical to formulation design of surfactant-oil-brine (SOB) systems. SOB systems find applications in various chemical and petroleum processes, including enhanced oil recovery. A dimensional equation-of-state (EoS) was recently presented by Ghosh and Johns1 that relied on estimation of the surfactant tail length and surface area. We give an algorithm for flash calculations for estimation of three-phase Winsor regions that is more robust, simpler, and noniterative by making the equations dimensionless so that estimates of tail length and surface area are no longer needed. We predict phase behavior as a function temperature, pressure, volume, salinity, oil type, oil-water ratio, and surfactant/alcohol concentration. The dimensionless EoS is based on coupling the HLD-NAC (Hydrophilic Lipophilic Difference-Net Average Curvature) equations with new relationships between optimum salinity and solubility. An updated HLD expression that includes pressure is also used to complete the state description. A significant advantage of the dimensionless form of the EoS over the dimensional version is that salinity scans are tuned based only on one parameter, the interfacial volume ratio. Further, stability conditions are developed in a simplified way to predict whether an overall compositions lies within the single, two-, or three-phase regions. Important new microemulsion relationships are also found, the most important of which is that optimum solubilization ratio is equal to the harmonic mean of the oil and water solubilization ratios in the type III region. Thus, only one experimental measurement is needed in the three-phase zone to estimate the optimum solubilization ratio, a result which can aid experimental design and improve estimates of optimum from noisy data. Predictions with changing state variables are illustrated by comparison to experimental data using standard diagrams including a new type

  9. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory among upper elementary African-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Shakeyrah; Sharma, Manoj

    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem in the African-American community. Commonly suggested public health strategies to reduce childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily moderately intense physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day, increasing fruit and vegetable intake to five or more cups per day, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in African-American upper elementary children. A 56-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 222 students. Glasses of water consumed were predicted by self-control for drinking water and self-efficacy for drinking water (R2 = 0.123). Fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy for eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.083). For designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity in the African-American community, social cognitive theory provides a useful framework.

  10. Impact of social problem-solving training on aggressive boys: skill acquisition, behavior change, and generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevremont, D C; Foster, S L

    1993-02-01

    This study examined the impact of social problem-solving training on the behavior of five aggressive boys. Acquisition of problem-solving skills and changes in classroom behavior were evaluated using multiple-baseline designs within and across subjects. A generalization-programming procedure to promote the use of problem-solving skills in the natural environment was introduced across children in multiple-baseline fashion. Direct observation and behavior ratings were used to evaluate the treatment. Results indicated that each subject acquired the problem-solving skills at levels comparable to well-adjusted peers. Only one child showed behavioral improvement coincident with problem-solving skill acquisition. Three others showed moderate behavior change after the generalization-programming procedure was introduced. Only one child's gains on teacher ratings were maintained at the 6-month followup. The results suggest that cognitive-behavioral treatment of childrens' aggressive behavior may produce changes of limited magnitude and durability.

  11. The relationships between problem characteristics, achievement-related behaviors, and academic achievement in problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Sockalingam (Nachamma); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characte

  12. A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF PARENTING PRACTICES, COUPLE SATISFACTION, AND CHILD BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Linville, Deanna; Chronister, Krista; Dishion, Tom; Todahl, Jeff; Miller, John; Shaw, Daniel; Gardner, Francis; Wilson, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship between couple relationship satisfaction, parenting practices, parent depression, and child problem behaviors. The study participants (n = 148) were part of a larger experimental study that examined the effectiveness of a brief family-centered intervention, the Family Check-Up model. Regression analysis results indicated that our proposed model accounted for 38% of the variance in child problem behavior at Time 2, with child problem behavior a...

  13. Mothers’ Parenting and Child Sex Differences in Behavior Problems among African American Preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Scaramella, Laura V.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in rates of behavior problems, including internalizing and externalizing problems, begin to emerge during early childhood. These sex differences may occur because mothers parent their sons and daughters differently, or because the impact of parenting on behavior problems is different for boys and girls. This study examines whether associations between observations of mothers’ positive and negative parenting and children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors vary as a fun...

  14. Risk Factors in Adolescent Problem Behaviors Among Native and Nonnative Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Roger B.

    1998-01-01

    The high incidence of adolescent problem behaviors in the United States raises major concerns. These problem behaviors include: sexually transmitted diseases, unintended pregnancies, suicide, depression, substance abuse, crime against persons and property, and delinquency. Consequently, there continues to be a high level of concern and interest in different ethnic populations of adolescents and their level of risk. This study evaluated the following problem behaviors: substance abuse, suic...

  15. Abolishing and establishing operation analyses of social attention as positive reinforcement for problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Molly A; Houchins-Juárez, Nealetta; McDaniel, Jill L; Kennedy, Craig H

    2010-03-01

    Three participants whose problem behavior was maintained by contingent attention were exposed to 45-min presessions in which attention was withheld, provided on a fixed-time (FT) 15-s schedule, or provided on an FT 120-s schedule. Following each presession, participants were then tested in a 15-min session similar to the social attention condition of an analogue functional analysis. The results showed establishing operation conditions increased problem behavior during tests and that abolishing operation conditions decreased problem behavior during tests.

  16. The Effects of Consequence Manipulation During Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior Maintained by Negative Reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Potoczak, Kathryn; Carr, James E; Michael, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Two distinct analytic methods have been used to identify the function of problem behavior. The antecedent-behavior-consequence (ABC) method (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994) includes the delivery of consequences for problem behavior. The AB method (Carr & Durand, 1985) does not include consequence delivery, instead relying exclusively on antecedent conditions to evoke the behavior. The AB and ABC functional analysis methods were compared in this study with 4 children with ...

  17. Maternal parenting behavior and child behavior problems in families of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Boonen, Hannah; Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Parents of a child with ASD face specific challenges in parenting, but concrete parenting behavior has never been properly investigated in these families. This exploratory questionnaire study compared parenting behaviors among mothers of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 552) and without ASD (n = 437) and examined associations between child behavior problems and parenting behavior. Results showed that mothers of children with ASD reported significantly lower scores on Rules and Disciplin...

  18. Risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents of parents with a chronic medical condition

    OpenAIRE

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Oort, Frans Jeroen; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and externalizing problem behavior (aggressive and rule-breaking behavior) as measured by the Youth Self-Report (YSR). The YSR was filled in by 160 adolescents (mean age = 15.1 years) from 100 families (102...

  19. Problematic Internet use and other risky behaviors in college students: an application of problem-behavior theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, Joseph Anthony; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2013-03-01

    Given the widespread use of the Internet, researchers have begun to examine the personal and social consequences associated with excessive online involvement. The present study examined college students' problematic Internet use (PIU) behaviors within the framework of Jessor and Jessor's (1977) problem-behavior theory. Its specific aim was to investigate the links between PIU with both internalizing (depression, social anxiety) and externalizing (substance use and other risky behaviors) problems. Relevant variables from the perceived environmental system, the personality system, and the behavioral system were entered in a canonical correlation analysis. The analysis yielded two distinct functions: the first function, titled traditional problem-behavior syndrome, characterized students who are impulsive, hold socially deviant attitudes and show a propensity to use tobacco and illicit drugs. The second function, titled problematic Internet-behavior syndrome, characterized students who are socially anxious, depressed, report conflictive family relations, and show a propensity toward PIU. Thus, PIU did not share the characteristics typically associated with the traditional problem-behavior syndrome consistent with problem-behavior theory, but showed correlates more consistent with internalizing rather than externalizing problems. PMID:23276311

  20. 'Inclined abstainers': a problem for predicting health-related behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbell, S; Sheeran, P

    1998-06-01

    A longitudinal test of the association between motivation to undertake a precautionary health action and subsequent behaviour was conducted on women's uptake of the cervical screening test. A sample of never-screened women (N = 166) completed measures derived from protection-motivation theory (PMT; Rogers, 1983). One year later, screening uptake was reliably determined from medical records. While regression analyses demonstrated that PMT variables predicted both motivation to undergo cervical screening and screening uptake, there was, nonetheless, a good deal of inconsistency between protection motivation and screening behaviour. Fifty-seven per cent of those who indicated they were willing to undergo the test did not do so within a one-year period. Discriminant analysis was therefore used to test the ability of cognitions specified by PMT to distinguish four patterns of association between motivation and behaviour: inclined actors, inclined abstainers, disinclined actors and disinclined abstainers. While PMT variables could successfully classify the four groups, it was not possible to derive a reliable discriminant function which distinguished between inclined actors and inclined abstainers. The results suggest that PMT provides a useful account of choice motivation but does not address the psychological processes by which intention is translated into action. Recent calls for the development of a social psychology of volition are discussed in the light of these findings. PMID:9639861

  1. Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Preterm and Full-Term Children at School Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornman, Jorijn; de Winter, Andrea F; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preterm children, compared with term children, are at increased risk of emotional and behavioral problems (EB-problems). Prevalences of EB-problems seem to vary with degree of prematurity and age at assessment. We therefore assessed individual stability of EB-problems in p

  2. Behavioral Treatment and Assessment of Childhood Cross-Gender Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekers, George A.; Lovaas, O. Ivar

    This study demonstrated reinforcement control over pronounced feminine behaviors in a male child. The clinical history of S paralleled the retrospective reports of adult transsexuals, including (a) cross-gender clothing preferences, (b) actual or imaginal use of cosmetic articles, (c) feminine behavior mannerisms, (d) aversion to masculine…

  3. Cultural Materialism and Behavior Analysis: Common Problems and Radical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Marvin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a transcribed audio recording of the invited address the author gave to Sigrid Glenn on the relations between cultural materialism and radical behaviorism at the 12th annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on May 23rd, 1986. In his address, the author emphasizes that the necessity…

  4. Parenting Without Punishment: Making Problem Behavior Work for You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.

    1997-01-01

    Details the concepts of reinforcement and punishment and their roles in parenting. Claims that responding only to a child's negative behavior is problematic. Disputes contrary opinions of reinforcement techniques and outlines the importance of teaching and reinforcing desirable behavior. Provides examples as illustrations. (RJM)

  5. Dissociative Disorders in Children: Behavioral Profiles and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical research has established a connection between childhood trauma and the development of dissociative disorders in adults. Pathological dissociation produces a range of symptoms and behaviors such as amnesias, rapid shifts in mood and behavior, and auditory and visual hallucinations. Many of these symptoms are misdiagnosed as attention,…

  6. The Pupillary Orienting Response Predicts Adaptive Behavioral Adjustment after Errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Murphy

    Full Text Available Reaction time (RT is commonly observed to slow down after an error. This post-error slowing (PES has been thought to arise from the strategic adoption of a more cautious response mode following deployment of cognitive control. Recently, an alternative account has suggested that PES results from interference due to an error-evoked orienting response. We investigated whether error-related orienting may in fact be a pre-cursor to adaptive post-error behavioral adjustment when the orienting response resolves before subsequent trial onset. We measured pupil dilation, a prototypical measure of autonomic orienting, during performance of a choice RT task with long inter-stimulus intervals, and found that the trial-by-trial magnitude of the error-evoked pupil response positively predicted both PES magnitude and the likelihood that the following response would be correct. These combined findings suggest that the magnitude of the error-related orienting response predicts an adaptive change of response strategy following errors, and thereby promote a reconciliation of the orienting and adaptive control accounts of PES.

  7. Adolescent expectations of early death predict adult risk behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh C Nguyen

    Full Text Available Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II, 2001-02 (Wave III and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32. Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50-50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth.

  8. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) predictors of police officer problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Corey, David M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in a sample of law enforcement officers. MMPI-2-RF scores were collected from preemployment psychological evaluations of 136 male police officers, and supervisor ratings of performance and problem behavior were subsequently obtained during the initial probationary period. The sample produced meaningfully lower and less variant substantive scale scores than the general population and the MMPI-2-RF Police Candidate comparison group, which significantly affected effect sizes for the zero-order correlations. After applying a correction for range restriction, MMPI-2-RF substantive scales demonstrated moderate to strong associations with criteria, particularly in the Emotional Dysfunction and Interpersonal Functioning domains. Relative risk ratio analyses showed that cutoffs of 45T and 50T maintained reasonable selection ratios because of the exceptionally low scores in this sample and were associated with significantly increased risk for problematic behavior. These results provide support for the predictive validity of the MMPI-2-RF substantive scales in this setting. Implications of these findings and limitations of these results are discussed. PMID:24875465

  9. Behavior Modification in an Elementary School: Problems and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elardo, Richard

    1978-01-01

    Describes the implementation of a token economy as a method of controlling student behavior in an elementary school. Emphasizes student participation and discusses board issues such as teacher resistance to the program and the question of evaluation. (IRT)

  10. Using Additional Analyses to Clarify the Functions of Problem Behavior: An Analysis of Two Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Steven W.; Dozier, Claudia L.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Jowett, Erica S.; Newquist, Matthew H.

    2014-01-01

    Functional analyses (FA) have proven useful for identifying contingencies that influence problem behavior. Research has shown that some problem behavior may only occur in specific contexts or be influenced by multiple or idiosyncratic variables. When these contexts or sources of influence are not assessed in an FA, further assessment may be…

  11. Monoamine Oxidase a Promoter Gene Associated with Problem Behavior in Adults with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael E.; Srour, Ali; Hedges, Lora K.; Lightfoot, David A.; Phillips, John A., III; Blakely, Randy D.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2009-01-01

    A functional polymorphism in the promoter of the gene encoding monoamine oxidase A has been associated with problem behavior in various populations. We examined the association of MAOA alleles in adult males with intellectual/developmental disabilities with and without established histories of problem behavior. These data were compared with a…

  12. Treatment of Multiply Controlled Problem Behavior with Procedural Variations of Differential Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidert, Pamela L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Dozier, Claudia L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the assessment and treatment of 2 children with autism spectrum disorder whose problem behaviors (self-injury, aggression, and disruption) were multiply controlled. Results of functional analyses indicated that the children's problem behaviors were maintained by both positive reinforcement (attention) and negative reinforcement (escape…

  13. What We Know and Need to Know about Preventing Problem Behavior in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, George; Horner, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    When chronic problem behaviors occur in schools, the tendency is to react with stringent and restrictive consequences. Recently, emphasis has shifted toward proactive prevention strategies. In this article, we focus on what we know and need to know about school-wide applications of effective practices and systems for preventing problem behaviors.…

  14. A Mediational Model for the Impact of Exposure to Community Violence on Early Child Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, L. Oriana; Heeren, Timothy; Bronfman, Elisa

    2001-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine how maternal distress mediated the link between exposure to community violence (CV) and development of early child behavior problems. Findings indicated that direct CV-early child behavior problems path diminished when maternal distress was included in the model, after controlling for maternal SES…

  15. Psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the Behavior Problems Inventory-01 (BPI-01)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, E.L.M.; Kroes, D.B.H.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Didden, H.C.M.; Rojahn, J.

    2014-01-01

    There are only a limited number of Dutch validated measurement instruments for measuring behavioral problems in people with a moderate to profound intellectual disability. In this study, the psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the behavior Problems Inventory-01 (BPI-01; Rojahn et al., 2001

  16. Effects of Matching Instruction Difficulty to Reading Level for Students with Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Amanda K.; Horner, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a literacy intervention matching student skill level with academic performance demands were examined through a multiple baseline across participants design. The dual dependent variables were problem behavior and academic engagement. Four students in Grades 2 or 3 who exhibited low academic performance and problem behavior during…

  17. A Model of Developing Communication Skills among Adolescents with Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, Natalia N.; Podgórecki, Józef

    2015-01-01

    The urgency of the problem under investigation is determined by the need to help the adolescents with behavioral problems to develop communication skills in the specific bilingual conditions in such regions as the Republic of Tatarstan where education should consider not only the specific skills of verbal behavior but also take into account the…

  18. Behavior Problems of African American Boys and Girls Attending Head Start Programs in Violent Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Suzanne M.; Koblinsky, Sally A.; Beemer, Martha A.; Roberts, Debra D.; Letiecq, Bethany L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined behavior problems of African American children attending Head Start in violent neighborhoods. Found Child Behavior Checklist externalization scores significantly higher than standardization sample; higher percentages of boys than girls had severe internalizing problems; higher percentages of girls than boys had severe externalizing…

  19. Response Persistence: The Effects of Stimulus Control on Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior in a Concurrent Operant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Jennifer J.

    2009-01-01

    In the context of instructional demands, compliance and problem behavior can be considered concurrent operants. Of applied interest is increasing one response (i.e., compliance) while decreasing the other (i.e., problem behavior). Strategic arrangement of reinforcement can alter response allocation accordingly. Such schedules can also influence…

  20. Marital Satisfaction, Parental Stress, and Child Behavior Problems among Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…

  1. Parenting Stress and Child Behavior Problems: A Transactional Relationship across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, Cameron L.; Green, Shulamite A.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    Parenting stress and child behavior problems have been posited to have a transactional effect on each other across development. However, few studies have tested this model empirically. The authors investigated the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems from ages 3 to 9 years old among 237 children, 144 of whom were…

  2. Adolescents' use of care for behavioral and emotional problems: Types, trends, and determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Reijneveld (Sijmen); P.A. Wiegersma (Auke); J. Ormel (Johan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); W.A.M. Vollebergh (Wilma); D.E.M.C. Jansen (Daniëlle)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants,

  3. Adolescents' Use of Care for Behavioral and Emotional Problems : Types, Trends, and Determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Wiegersma, P. Auke; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants, for ages 10

  4. Parental Self-Esteem and Behavior Problems in Children: Similarities between Mothers and Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finken, Laura L.; Amato, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between parental self-esteem and behavior problems in children, using responses of 1,624 married couples from the National Survey of Families and Households. Results indicate that parent self-esteem is negatively associated with behavior problems in children, but none of the hypothesized moderating variables have a…

  5. The Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior Evoked by Auditory Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Sarah; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify specific stimuli associated with music that served as an establishing operation (EO) for the problem behavior of a 6-year-old child with a diagnosis of autism. Specific EOs for problem behavior evoked by auditory stimulation could be identified. A differential negative reinforcement procedure was implemented for…

  6. A Longitudinal Family-Level Model of Arab Muslim Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.; Templin, Thomas N.; Hough, Edythe Ellison; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Katz, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Arab-American Muslim adolescents in immigrant families face a number of challenges that put them at risk for behavior problems. This study of Arab-American Muslim Adolescents and their relatively recent immigrant mothers tested a longitudinal family-level model of adolescent behavior problems. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 530) completed measures…

  7. Video Game Access, Parental Rules, and Problem Behavior: A Study of Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Mazurek, Micah O.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental correlates of problem behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorder remain relatively understudied. The current study examined the contribution of in-room (i.e. bedroom) access to a video game console as one potential correlate of problem behavior among a sample of 169 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ranging from 8 to…

  8. Foster Family Characteristics and Behavioral and Emotional Problems of Foster Children: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, John G.; Buehler, Cheryl

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the foster family characteristics that are thought to contribute to the behavioral and emotional problems of foster children. The review is shaped by an understanding of the personal and familial factors associated with children's problem behaviors. Factors include parenting, family home environment, family functioning,…

  9. Preventing preschool externalizing behavior problems through video-feedback intervention in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Velderman, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Juffer, F.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van; Mangelsdorf, S.C.; Zevalkink, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study (1) intervention effects on children's preschool behavior problems were evaluated in a high risk sample with an overrepresentation of insecure adult attachment representations in 77 first-time mothers, and (2) predictors and correlates of child problem behavior were examined. Ea

  10. A Cross-Cultural Study of Student Problem Behaviors in Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Haigen; Lai, Shu-Ling; Ye, Renmin

    2011-01-01

    Using the latest international educational database, TIMSS, this study investigates and compares the occurrences of 11 student problem behaviors as reported by middle school principals in ten countries. For each country, the study reveals the relationships of these problem behaviors with teachers' attitudes and parental involvement, and discusses…

  11. Prospective analysis of factors associated with dental behavior management problems, in children aged 7-11 years

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya Pai; Praveenkumar Mandroli; Deepa Benni; Pallavi Pujar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence of child behavior management problems (BMP) and to analyze the influence and predictive power of nondental and dental background variables on BMP. Study Design: Prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: The study group included 165 children aged 7-11 years who received comprehensive dental treatment, after obtaining written informed consent. Parents/guardians were interviewed using standardized questionnaire to obtain background information. Each ch...

  12. Level of impaired control predicts outcome of moderation-oriented treatment for alcohol problems

    OpenAIRE

    Heather, Nick; Dawe, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Aims To examine the ability of the Impaired Control Scale (ICS) to predict outcome of moderation-oriented treatment for alcohol problems and to compare this predictive ability directly with that of a widely used measure of alcohol dependence, the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ). Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Out-patient treatment centres. Participants A combined sample 154 problem drinkers taking part in two clinical trials of Moderation-oriented Cue Exposure...

  13. Predicting Proenvironmental Behavior Cross-Nationally: Values, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Value-Belief-Norm Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreg, Shaul; Katz-Gerro, Tally

    2006-01-01

    This article builds on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and on Stern et al.'s value-belief-norm theory to propose and test a model that predicts proenvironmental behavior. In addition to relationships between beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors, we incorporate Inglehart's postmaterialist and Schwartz's harmony value dimensions as contextual…

  14. Interaction of adrenocortical activity and autonomic arousal on children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian; Soyfer, Liana; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    The psychobiology of stress involves two major components, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Research has revealed the association between behavior problems and the psychobiology of stress, yet findings are inconsistent and few studies have addressed the moderate correlations between behavior problems. This study examines the individual and interactive effects of HPA and ANS on child behavior problems while taking into account the comorbidity of externalizing and internalizing problems. Four saliva samples were collected from each participant in a community sample (N = 429; aged 11-12 years; 50.49 % male), which were assayed for cortisol (HPA) and alpha-amylase, sAA (ANS). Children's behavior problems were assessed using parent-report and self-report versions of the Child Behavior Checklist. Latent variables were constructed to represent trait-like individual differences in cortisol and sAA. Low levels of HPA axis activity were associated with higher levels of both externalizing and internalizing problems, but only among children with low ANS arousal. The association between externalizing and internalizing problems diminished to non-significant after taking into account the influence of HPA axis activity and ANS arousal, which suggests that the psychobiology of stress explains a fair proportion of comorbidity of behavior problems. The findings support that interaction between HPA axis and ANS functioning has potential to clarify prior mixed findings and advance our understanding of the child behavior problems.

  15. The association between Internet addiction and problematic alcohol use in adolescents: the problem behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Weng, Chih-Chi; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to a) evaluate the association between Internet addiction and problematic alcohol use; b) based on problem behavior theory, explore whether Internet addiction, as well as problematic alcohol use, correlated with the psychosocial proneness of problem behaviors among adolescents. A total of 2,114 high school students (1,204 male and 910 female) were recruited to complete the questionnaire assessing Internet addiction, problematic alcohol use, and associated psychosocial variables. The result revealed that Internet addiction was associated with problematic alcohol use. Besides, the psychosocial proneness of problem behaviors is associated with Internet addiction as well as problematic alcohol use in adolescents. These results suggest Internet addiction might be included in the organization of problem behavior theory, and it is suggested that prevention and intervention can best be carried out when grouped with other problem behaviors.

  16. Problem Internet Overuse Behaviors in College Students: Readiness-to-Change and Receptivity to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; Li, Wen; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores college students' readiness-to-change and receptivity to treatment for problem Internet overuse behaviors. Focus groups were conducted with 27 college students who self-identified as Internet over-users, and had experienced biopsychosocial problems related to Internet overuse. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing their Internet use and sociodemographic forms. Focus groups explored readiness to change problem Internet overuse behaviors and receptivity to treatment. Similar to college students with other addictive behaviors, students with problem Internet overuse fall along a continuum vis-à-vis readiness-to-change their behaviors. Over half of the participants were receptive to treatment for their problem Internet overuse behaviors. PMID:26963733

  17. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received emotional intelligence training program in 17 sessions (2 sessions per week, 60 minutes per session and the control group received no training beyond their regular school program. After two months, in order to examine the stability (durability of training effect, the follow-up test was conducted. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimating equations. Results: The results showed that the intervention program had created a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control group (p<0.001 and the rate of behavioral problems (aggression, rule breaking occurrence has dropped. This was true for the follow-up results too. Conclusions: It can be concluded that Emotional Intelligence Training decreases the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder and helps to prevent high occurrence of these problems.

  18. Analytical and numerical models to predict the behavior of unbonded flexible risers under torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shao-fei; Xue, Hong-xiang; Tang, Wen-yong

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents analytical and numerical models to predict the behavior of unbonded flexible risers under torsion. The analytical model takes local bending and torsion of tensile armor wires into consideration, and equilibrium equations of forces and displacements of layers are deduced. The numerical model includes lay angle, cross-sectional profiles of carcass, pressure armor layer and contact between layers. Abaqus/Explicit quasi-static simulation and mass scaling are adopted to avoid convergence problem and excessive computation time caused by geometric and contact nonlinearities. Results show that local bending and torsion of helical strips may have great influence on torsional stiffness, but stress related to bending and torsion is negligible; the presentation of anti-friction tapes may have great influence both on torsional stiffness and stress; hysteresis of torsion-twist relationship under cyclic loading is obtained by numerical model, which cannot be predicted by analytical model because of the ignorance of friction between layers.

  19. Planning versus action: Different decision-making processes predict plans to change one's diet versus actual dietary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    Most health decision-making models posit that deciding to engage in a health behavior involves forming a behavioral intention which then leads to actual behavior. However, behavioral intentions and actual behavior may not be functionally equivalent. Two studies examined whether decision-making factors predicting dietary behaviors were the same as or distinct from those predicting intentions. Actual dietary behavior was proximally predicted by affective associations with the behavior. By contrast, behavioral intentions were predicted by cognitive beliefs about behaviors, with no contribution of affective associations. This dissociation has implications for understanding individual regulation of health behaviors and for behavior change interventions. PMID:25903243

  20. Planning versus action: Different decision-making processes predict plans to change one's diet versus actual dietary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    Most health decision-making models posit that deciding to engage in a health behavior involves forming a behavioral intention which then leads to actual behavior. However, behavioral intentions and actual behavior may not be functionally equivalent. Two studies examined whether decision-making factors predicting dietary behaviors were the same as or distinct from those predicting intentions. Actual dietary behavior was proximally predicted by affective associations with the behavior. By contrast, behavioral intentions were predicted by cognitive beliefs about behaviors, with no contribution of affective associations. This dissociation has implications for understanding individual regulation of health behaviors and for behavior change interventions.

  1. Ethnic differences in problem perception: Immigrant mothers in a parenting intervention to reduce disruptive child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A J; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care-a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less problematic. There is concern that this difference in problem perception might limit intervention effectiveness. We tested the extent to which ethnic differences in problem perception exist when ethnic minority families engage in mental health service and whether lower levels of problem perception diminish parenting intervention effects to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our sample included 136 mothers of 3- to 8-year-olds (35% female) from the 3 largest ethnic groups in the Netherlands (43% Dutch; 35% Moroccan; 22% Turkish). Mothers reported on their child's externalizing and internalizing behavior and their perception of this behavior as problematic. They were then randomly assigned to the Incredible Years parenting intervention or a wait list control condition. We contrasted maternal reports of problem perception to teacher reports of the same children. Moroccan and Turkish mothers, compared with Dutch mothers, perceived similar levels of child behavior problems as less problematic, and as causing less impairment and burden. Teacher problem perception did not vary across children from different ethnic groups. Importantly, maternal problem perception did not affect parenting intervention effectiveness to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our findings suggest that ethnic differences in problem perception exist once families engage in treatment, but that lower levels of problem perception do not diminish treatment effects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866477

  2. Environmental Correlates of Gambling Behavior among College Students: A Partial Application of Problem Behavior Theory to Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, Emerson M., Jr.; McCausland, Claudia; Whelan, James P.; Luellen, Jason; Meyers, Andrew W.; Studaway, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relation between gambling behavior among college students and the perceived environment, the component of problem behavior theory (Jessor & Jessor, 1977) that assesses the ways that youth perceive their parents and peers. Two hundred and thirty-three ethnically diverse undergraduates at a large urban public university…

  3. Impacts of Autistic Behaviors, Emotional and Behavioral Problems on Parenting Stress in Caregivers of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed…

  4. Effectiveness of a Response Cost Raffle Procedure on the Disruptive Classroom Behavior of Adolescents with Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Mary Anne; Morgan, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of a behavior management procedure--the response cost raffle--was studied with three male eighth graders and one female ninth grader in special education with mild to moderate behavior problems. Results indicate that the response cost raffle can be an effective and a practical classroom technique for increasing appropriate…

  5. Analyzing Log Files to Predict Students' Problem Solving Performance in a Computer-Based Physics Tutor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether information saved in the log files of a computer-based tutor can be used to predict the problem solving performance of students. The log files of a computer-based physics tutoring environment called Andes Physics Tutor was analyzed to build a logistic regression model that predicted success and failure of students'…

  6. The Teacher's Encyclopedia of Behavior Management: 100 Problems/500 Plans for Grades K-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprick, Randall S.; Howard, Lisa M.

    This reference is intended to provide teachers with a wide variety of intervention plans for responding to behavior, discipline, and motivation problems. While most interventions are based on behavioral research, others are derived from counseling, Adlerian psychology, social learning theory, and cognitive/behavior modification approaches. An…

  7. Behavior Problems: Differences among Intellectually Disabled Adults with Co-Morbid Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly R. M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    Behavior problems such as aggression, property destruction, stereotypy, self-injurious behavior, and other disruptive behavior are commonly observed among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and epilepsy residing at state-run facilities. However, it is unknown how these populations differ on behavior…

  8. Goal-Setting Interventions for Students with Behavior Problems: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison L.; McDaniel, Sara C.; Fernando, Josephine; Troughton, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Students with persistent behavior problems, including those with or at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders, often struggle to be self-regulated learners. To improve self-regulation skills, numerous strategies have been suggested, including goal setting. Whereas goal setting has focused mostly on academic and life skills, behavioral goal…

  9. Designing training programs for the development of emotional intelligence in adolescents with behavioral problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Degtyarev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, deviant behavior is considered as a combination of different manifestations of personality, leading eventually to its social desaptation. It is shown that an effective method of preventing deviant behavior is psychological training. Group training activity helps to solve the problems associated with the development of various behavioral skills, to provide psychological support, and can be used as a means of psychological work with teenagers with behavioral problems. We discuss the basic points required to effectively create and conduct training programs in general, as well as the challenges and opportunities of designing trainings in order to develop emotional intelligence as a method of prevention of deviant behavior

  10. Antecedents and Behavior-Problem Outcomes of Parental Monitoring and Psychological Control in Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Pettit, Gregory S.; Laird, Robert D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Criss, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    The early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control were examined in this prospective, longitudinal, multi-informant study. Parenting data were collected during home visit interviews with 440 mothers and their 13-year-old children. Behavior problems (anxiety/depression and delinquent behavior) were assessed via mother, teacher, and/or adolescent reports at ages 8 through 10 years and again at ages 13 through 14. Home-interview data collected...

  11. Locus of control, problem-solving skills appraisal as predictors of waste prevention behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Karbalaei, S.; Abdollahi, A.; Talib, M.A.; Yaacob, S.N.; Ismail, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Given that waste generation is a devastating problem, it is necessary that we advance our knowledge about the etiology of waste prevention behaviors. Accordingly, this study sought to increase the existing literature of waste prevention behaviors by examining the relationships among the locus of control, problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, personal control style and participant’s age with waste prevention behaviors. Two hundred and forty participants (126 Women, and 114 men)...

  12. Paternal and Maternal Influences on Problem Behaviors Among Homeless and Runaway Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Zane, Jazmin I.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary-Jane

    2009-01-01

    Using an Attachment Theory conceptual framework, associations were investigated among positive paternal and maternal relationships, and recent problem behaviors among 501 currently homeless and runaway adolescents (253 males, 248 females). Homeless and runaway youth commonly exhibit problem behaviors such as substance use, various forms of delinquency and risky sex behaviors, and report more emotional distress than typical adolescents. Furthermore, attachments to their families are often stra...

  13. Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaoming

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1 describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2 examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and one of their parents. Methods The data used in these analyses were from the baseline assessment of a school-based HIV risk reduction intervention being conducted and evaluated among sixth grade students and one of their parents across 9 elementary schools in The Bahamas. Personal values were measured by the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ. Seven reported problem behaviors were queried from the students, which included physical fight with a friend, drank alcohol, beer, or wine, smoked a cigarette, pushed or carried any drugs, carried a gun, knife, screwdriver or cutlass to use as a weapon, had sex and used marijuana or other illicit drugs over the past 6 months. Multilevel modeling for binary data was performed to estimate the associations between adolescent and parental values and adolescent problem behaviors. Results Among 785 students, 47% of the students reported at least one problem behavior. More boys (54% reported having one or more problem behaviors than girls (41%, p Conclusion In designing interventions for reducing adolescents' problem behaviors, it may be important to understand the values associated with specific problem behaviors. Further exploration regarding lack of association between adolescent and parental values and problem behaviors is needed.

  14. Pattern of Behavior Problems amongst the Urban Slum Dwellers Aged 6 to 18 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip S Jogdand

    2013-06-01

    Method and Material: Children in the age group of 6-18 years residing in the urban slum area, their parents interviewed with the help of predesigned, pretested proforma, the proforma was prepared after review of CBCL and ASEBA behavior checklist also consultation with clinical psychologist running own child guidance clinic at Miraj, Dist Sangli. Results: Our study reveals that prevalent behavior problem in children was educational difficulties; male preponderance was observed for educational difficulties antisocial problems and habit problems. Educational difficulties were observed amongst lower age group while antisocial problems were observed amongst higher age groups. Both were statistically significant. Conclusion: In present study the prevalence rate of behavior problem was observed was very high i.e. 49.67%. The educational difficulties and antisocial behavior problem were most commonly observed. It was found that psycho-somatic disorders and different type of eating disorders contributed the least. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 245-248

  15. Performance of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Models in Predicting Separated Flows: Study of the Hump Flow Model Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Daniele; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2012-01-01

    Separation can be seen in most aerodynamic flows, but accurate prediction of separated flows is still a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. The behavior of several Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models in predicting the separated ow over a wall-mounted hump is studied. The strengths and weaknesses of the most popular RANS models (Spalart-Allmaras, k-epsilon, k-omega, k-omega-SST) are evaluated using the open source software OpenFOAM. The hump ow modeled in this work has been documented in the 2004 CFD Validation Workshop on Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control. Only the baseline case is treated; the slot flow control cases are not considered in this paper. Particular attention is given to predicting the size of the recirculation bubble, the position of the reattachment point, and the velocity profiles downstream of the hump.

  16. Prediction-correction alternating direction method for a class of constrained rain-max problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Min; HE Bingsheng

    2007-01-01

    The problems concerned in this paper are a class of constrained min-max problems. By introducing the Lagrange multipliers to the linearconstraints, such problems can be solved by some projection type prediction-correction methods. However, to obtain components of the predictor one by one, we use an alternating direction method. And then the new iterate is generated by a minor correction. Global convergence of the proposed method is proved. Finally, numerical results for a constrained single-facility location problem are provided to verify that the new method is effective for some practical problems.

  17. EEG Estimates of Cognitive Workload and Engagement Predict Math Problem Solving Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Carole R.; Galan, Federico Cirett

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors focused on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) data about cognitive workload and sustained attention to predict math problem solving outcomes. EEG data were recorded as students solved a series of easy and difficult math problems. Sequences of attention and cognitive workload estimates derived from the EEG…

  18. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, Linda L; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L; Dansereau, Lynne M; Butner, Jonathan E; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Lester, Barry M

    2016-08-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (a) how these transactions originate, (b) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (c) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth to age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  19. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  20. Emotion regulation as a mediator of the relation between sexual abuse and behavior problems in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Rachel; Hébert, Martine; Cossette, Louise

    2015-08-01

    Maltreated children show poor emotion regulation competencies compared to non-maltreated children. Emotion regulation has been found to mediate the association between maltreatment and behavior problems in children. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships among child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion regulation (ER), and internalized and externalized behavior problems in preschoolers using conditional process analyses. ER competencies were assessed in 127 children aged 41-79 months (62 abused, 65 non-abused) by their parents (N=124) and early childhood educators (N=88) using the Emotion Regulation Checklist (Shields & Cicchetti, 1995, 1997). Behavior problems were evaluated by parents using the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000, 2001). ER was found to completely mediate the relation between CSA and internalized behavior problems and partially mediate the relation between CSA and externalized behavior problems. Parents' and educators' evaluations of ER were also found to differ as a function of child gender. The discussion focuses on the relationships among CSA, ER, behavior problems, and child gender. The clinical implications of these findings are also examined. Promoting the optimal development of ER could prevent the emergence and exacerbation of behavior problems in these at-risk children and, in turn, foster resilience. PMID:25712046

  1. Childhood and adolescent sexual behaviors predict adult sexual orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith W. Beard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anonymous retrospective data were provided by 3,443 adult participants via computer-assisted self-interview. This was the first study focused on determinants of adult sexual orientation to adjust for the effects of same-sex sibling incest. Five measures of adult sexual orientations (ASOs provided evidence consistent with the theory that ASOs result from early sex-specific romantic attachment, conditioning caused by early sexual experiences with partners, and other experiences, such as early masturbation using human images, acting synergistically with critical period learning, and sexual imprinting. Early same-sex crushes were the most powerful predictor of ASOs, and they also increased the likelihood of engaging in early same-sex partnered and masturbation behaviors. Incestuous experiences with same-sex siblings affected the ASOs of the incest participants. And, lesbian, gay, and bisexual participants tended to have an earlier onset of puberty than heterosexual controls within sexes. However, statistical analyses showed that the incest and puberty effects were mathematically explained by the participant’s early sexual experiences with partners and other experiences such as masturbation using human images. Early same-sex crushes were predicted by nuclear family variables implying that same-sex crushes were more likely when the opposite-sex parent modeled an unsatisfactory heterosexual romantic partner.

  2. Improving Mathematics Problem Solving Skills for Students with Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Peter J.; Wyrick, Amanda; Brown, E. Todd; Lingo, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that there is a reciprocal relationship between challenging behavior and poor academic performance and that this relationship will have a lifelong negative impact on individuals caught in this detrimental cycle. New interventions continue to be reported in the literature describing more effective ways to implement academic…

  3. The growth benefits of aggressive behavior vary with individual metabolism and resource predictability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Armstrong, John D.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in behavioral responses to environmental conditions and biological interactions are a key determinant of individual performance. This study investigated how the availability and predictability of food resources modulates the growth of animals that adopt different behavioral strategies. R

  4. Behavior Intervention for Students with Externalizing Behavior Problems: Primary-Level Standard Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Gregory J.; Nelson, J. Ron; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Ralston, Nicole C.

    2012-01-01

    This article examined the efficacy of a primary-level, standard-protocol behavior intervention for students with externalizing behavioral disorders. Elementary schools were randomly assigned to treatment (behavior intervention) or control (business as usual) conditions, and K-3 students were screened for externalizing behavior risk status. The…

  5. The Behavioral Effects Of Subproblems And Symmetries In The Tower-Of-Hanoi Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, George F.

    State-space representation of a problem, borrowed from mechanical problem-solving theory, is used to describe a problem's invariant structure formally. Paths within the state-space represent subjects' behaviors, as conventionally distinguished from their "protocals" or "strategies". Its goal is thus to develop the relationship between problem…

  6. Understanding College Students' Problems: Dysfunctional Thinking, Mental Health, and Maladaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracchia, Jon T.; Pendleton, Shandrea

    2015-01-01

    Many college students experience mental health problems and engage in risky behavior. These problems perpetuate negative outcomes such as poor academic performance and health problems, which may ultimately result in dropping out of college. Maladaptive cognitions, such as criminogenic thinking, have been established as an important contributor to…

  7. Role of affective attitudes and anticipated affective reactions in predicting health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, M; McEachan, R.; Taylor, N; O'Hara, J.; Lawton, R

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Two measures of affect-affective attitude (AA) and anticipated affective reaction (AAR)- have frequently been used individually, but rarely simultaneously, in correlational studies predicting health behaviors. This research assessed their individual and combined impact in predicting intention and action for a range of health behaviors, controlling for theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables. Method: Self-reported intentions and performance of health behaviors were the main outco...

  8. The Role of Maternal Depression on Treatment Outcome for Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    van Loon, Linda M. A.; Granic, Isabela; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that, on average, Parent Management Training combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy decreases children’s externalizing behavior, but some children do not improve through treatment. The current study aimed to examine the role of maternal depression in understanding this variability in treatment outcome. Children with externalizing behavioral problems and their parents were recruited from combined Parent Management Training and Cognitive-Behavioral programs in “real-world...

  9. Personality Development and Problem Behavior in Russian Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…

  10. The Turner Syndrome: Cognitive Deficits, Affective Discrimination, and Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Elizabeth; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study attemped to link cognitive and social problems seen in girls with Turner syndrome by assessing the girls' ability to process affective cues. Seventeen 9- to 17-year-old girls diagnosed with Turner syndrome were compared to a matched control group on a task which required interpretation of affective intention from facial expression.…

  11. Parenting Behavior and Adolescent Conduct Problems: Reciprocal and Mediational Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Chen, Rusan; Hand, Laura Shaffer; Haynie, Denise L.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined the relationship between parenting practices and adolescent conduct problems and the mediation of these relationships by two parent-adolescent relationship variables, conflict and psychological autonomy. Autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) analyses were used to assess relationships over time between parent practices and…

  12. Gender Differences in the Effects of Behavioral Problems on School Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Smith, Nina

    that most of the gender differences in Reading and Math cannot be related to gender differences in behavioral problems. The large overall gender gap in Reading seems mainly to be the result of gender differences between children without behavioral problems living in 'normal families', i.e. families which......Behavioral problems are important determinants of school outcomes and later success in the labor market. We analyze whether behavioral problems affect girls and boys differently with respect to school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations of the Strength and Difficulties...... Questionnaire (SDQ) of about 6,000 children born in 1990-92 in a large region in Denmark. The sample is merged with register information on parents and students observed until the age of 19. We find significant and large negative coefficients of the externalizing behavioral indicators. The effects tend...

  13. Using Positive Youth Development to Predict Contribution and Risk Behaviors in Early Adolescence: Findings from the First Two Waves of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicic, Helena; Bobek, Deborah L.; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.

    2007-01-01

    Theories of positive youth development (PYD) regard such development as bases of both community contributions and lessened likelihood of risk/problem behaviors. Using data from the 4-H Study of PYD, we tested these expectations by examining if PYD in Grade 5 predicted both youth contributions and risk behaviors and depression in Grade 6. Results…

  14. [Regulation of Positive and Negative Emotions as Mediator between Maternal Emotion Socialization and Child Problem Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way.

  15. [Regulation of Positive and Negative Emotions as Mediator between Maternal Emotion Socialization and Child Problem Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way. PMID:26032031

  16. Behavior and sleep problems in children with a family history of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, Amy Jo; Young, Gregory S; Hutman, Ted; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Sigman, Marian; Rogers, Sally J; Ozonoff, Sally

    2013-06-01

    The present study explores behavioral and sleep outcomes in preschool-age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study focuses on behavior problems that are common in children with ASD, such as emotional reactivity, anxiety, inattention, aggression, and sleep problems. Infant siblings were recruited from families with at least one older child with ASD (high-risk group, n = 104) or families with no history of ASD (low-risk group, n = 76). As part of a longitudinal prospective study, children completed the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Social Communication Questionnaire at 36 months of age. This study focuses on developmental concerns outside of ASD; therefore, only siblings who did not develop an ASD were included in analyses. Negative binomial regression analyses revealed that children in the high-risk group were more likely to have elevated behavior problems on the CBCL Anxious/Depressed and Aggression subscales. To explore sleep problems as a correlate of these behavior problems, a second series of models was specified. For both groups of children, sleep problems were associated with elevated behavior problems in each of the areas assessed (reactivity, anxiety, somatic complaints, withdrawal, attention, and aggression). These findings support close monitoring of children with a family history of ASD for both behavioral and sleep issues. PMID:23436793

  17. Influence of Classroom and School Climate on Teacher Perceptions of Student Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brennan, Lindsey M; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Furlong, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Reducing student problem behavior remains a leading concern for school staff, as disruptive and aggressive behavior interferes with student achievement and the school climate. However, the multi-systemic nature of schools makes it difficult for researchers and practitioners to identify factors influencing to students' behavior. The current study examined student problem behavior through an ecological lens by taking into account individual (e.g., gender, ethnicity, prosocial behavior), classroom (e.g., class size, average classroom behavior), and school-level factors (e.g., location, school climate). Using data from 37 elementary schools, 467 classrooms, and 8,750 students, a series of hierarchical linear models was tested. Multilevel analyses revealed that while individual student characteristics had the largest influence on problem behavior, average prosocial behavior and concentration problems of students within the classroom, as well as teacher perceptions of the school climate significantly related to how students behaved. These findings support the use of classroom-based intervention programs to reduce student problem behavior.

  18. Predicting Turnover Intentions and Turnover Behavior: A Multivariate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Saroj

    1982-01-01

    Assessed the relative influence of personal, attitudinal, and behavioral variables on behavioral intentions and voluntary turnover among nonsupervisory plant workers. Results show that personal variables have little direct effect on turnover; rather, their influence on turnover is channeled through their effects on behavioral intentions. (Author)

  19. The Behavior Problems Inventory-Short Form for individuals with intellectual disabilities: Part II: reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rojahn, J.; Rowe, E.W.; Sharber, A.C.; Hastings, R.P.; Matson, J.L.; Didden, H.C.M.; Kroes, D.B.H.; Dumont, E.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Behavior Problems Inventory-01 (BPI-01) is an informant-based behaviour rating instrument for intellectual disabilities (ID) with 49 items and three sub-scales: Self-injurious Behavior, Stereotyped Behavior and Aggressive/Destructive Behavior. The Behavior Problems Inventory-Short For

  20. Solitary Alcohol Use in Teens Is Associated With Drinking in Response to Negative Affect and Predicts Alcohol Problems in Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Kasey G Creswell; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B.; Martin, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent solitary drinking may represent an informative divergence from normative behavior, with important implications for understanding risk for alcohol-use disorders later in life. Within a self-medication framework, we hypothesized that solitary alcohol use would be associated with drinking in response to negative affect and that such a pattern of drinking would predict alcohol problems in young adulthood. We tested these predictions in a longitudinal study in which we examined whether ...

  1. A Generalized Cauchy Distribution Framework for Problems Requiring Robust Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Rafael E.; Aysal, Tuncer C.; Barner, Kenneth E.

    2010-12-01

    Statistical modeling is at the heart of many engineering problems. The importance of statistical modeling emanates not only from the desire to accurately characterize stochastic events, but also from the fact that distributions are the central models utilized to derive sample processing theories and methods. The generalized Cauchy distribution (GCD) family has a closed-form pdf expression across the whole family as well as algebraic tails, which makes it suitable for modeling many real-life impulsive processes. This paper develops a GCD theory-based approach that allows challenging problems to be formulated in a robust fashion. Notably, the proposed framework subsumes generalized Gaussian distribution (GGD) family-based developments, thereby guaranteeing performance improvements over traditional GCD-based problem formulation techniques. This robust framework can be adapted to a variety of applications in signal processing. As examples, we formulate four practical applications under this framework: (1) filtering for power line communications, (2) estimation in sensor networks with noisy channels, (3) reconstruction methods for compressed sensing, and (4) fuzzy clustering.

  2. A Generalized Cauchy Distribution Framework for Problems Requiring Robust Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo RafaelE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical modeling is at the heart of many engineering problems. The importance of statistical modeling emanates not only from the desire to accurately characterize stochastic events, but also from the fact that distributions are the central models utilized to derive sample processing theories and methods. The generalized Cauchy distribution (GCD family has a closed-form pdf expression across the whole family as well as algebraic tails, which makes it suitable for modeling many real-life impulsive processes. This paper develops a GCD theory-based approach that allows challenging problems to be formulated in a robust fashion. Notably, the proposed framework subsumes generalized Gaussian distribution (GGD family-based developments, thereby guaranteeing performance improvements over traditional GCD-based problem formulation techniques. This robust framework can be adapted to a variety of applications in signal processing. As examples, we formulate four practical applications under this framework: (1 filtering for power line communications, (2 estimation in sensor networks with noisy channels, (3 reconstruction methods for compressed sensing, and (4 fuzzy clustering.

  3. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaidat F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatin Mhaidat Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Abstract: This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. Keywords: adaptive problems, female teenage refugees, behavioral adjustment

  4. SOLUTION BEHAVIOR OF THE FALLING SPHERE PROBLEM IN VISCOELASTIC FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范毓润

    2003-01-01

    The hp-finite element method and pseudo arc-length method are combined to track solution behavior of the steady flow of a sphere falling in a tube filled with viscoelastic fluids. The computation is proved to be convergent and stable by a posteriori error analyses; the solutions smooth and with extremely steep stress gradient are obtained by using appropriate high-order interpolation distributions. The commonly used drag coefficient is proved not a reliable indicator for the approximation error. The solution curves of the upper convected Maxwell (UCM) and the Oldroyd-B fluids clearly indicate that there exist limiting points, parameterized by the Deborah number, where the magnitude of the solutions and the axial normal stress gradients behind the rear stagnation rise up rapidly, maybe go to infinity. The limiting points can be simply removed by employing the modified Chilcott and Rallison (MCR) fluid, which replaces the infinitely extendable, linear Gaussian chain with the finitely extendable nonlinear elastic spring (the FENE chain). Therefore the limiting behavior is caused by the physical model; it is not a numerical artifact.

  5. Investigation and prediction of enteral nutrition problems after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiro Yokohama; Masaru Aoshima; Yukiomi Nakade; Junya Shindo; Junichi Maruyama; Masashi Yoneda

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate and predict enteral nutrition problems after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG).METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data for 252 out of 285 patients who underwent PEG at our hospital from 1999 to 2008. Enteral nutrition problems after PEG were defined as: (1) patients who required ≥ 1 mo after surgery to switch to complete enteral nutrition, or who required additional parenteral alimentation continuously; or (2) patients who abandoned switching to enteral nutrition using the gastrostoma and employed other nutritional methods.We attempted to identify the predictors of problem cases by using a logistic regression analysis that examined the patients' backgrounds and the specific causes that led to their problems.RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 75 years, and in general, their body weight was low and their overall condition was markedly poor. Blood testing revealed that patients tended to be anemic and malnourished. A total of 44 patients (17.5%) were diagnosed as having enteral nutrition problems after PEG. Major causes of the problems included pneumonia, acute enterocolitis (often Clostridium difficile-related), paralytic ileus and biliary tract infection. A multivariate analysis identified the following independent predictors for problem cases: (1) enteral nutrition before gastrectomy (a risk reduction factor); (2) presence of esophageal hiatal hernia; (3) past history of paralytic ileus; and (4) presence of chronic renal dysfunction.CONCLUSION: Enteral nutrition problems after PEG occurred at a comparatively high rate. Patient background analysis elucidated four predictive factors for the problem cases.

  6. Problem social behavior in the workplace: an analysis of social behavior problems in a supported employment setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitman, D; Drabman, R S; Speaks, L V; Burkley, S; Rhode, P C

    1999-01-01

    The social skills problems that may influence the work-related success of supported employees has been only infrequently documented in the research literature. Though a multitude of research describes the performance-related challenges faced by supported employees, few papers address the interpersonal difficulties encountered by supported employees in the workplace. The present paper uses job trainer or "coaches" logs and two promising rating scales (the Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults [PIMRA and PIMRA-S]) to describe the social problems encountered by some supported employees. Job coach's logs indicated that approximately 58% of supported employees had experienced one or more incidents of interpersonal difficulty during their employment tenure and that 40% of the problems experienced by these individuals could be described as sexuality-related. Overall, about 25% of all supported employees had reported incidents of conflict with employees or customers that seemed sexuality-related. In addition, social and developmental factors that might contribute to the interpersonal problems found in the present research are discussed. PMID:10372413

  7. Clinically significant behavior problems among young children 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On March 11, 2011, a massive undersea earthquake and tsunami struck East Japan. Few studies have investigated the impact of exposure to a natural disaster on preschool children. We investigated the association of trauma experiences during the Great East Japan Earthquake on clinically significant behavior problems among preschool children 2 years after the earthquake. METHOD: Participants were children who were exposed to the 2011 disaster at preschool age (affected area, n = 178; unaffected area, n = 82. Data were collected from September 2012 to June 2013 (around 2 years after the earthquake, thus participants were aged 5 to 8 years when assessed. Severe trauma exposures related to the earthquake (e.g., loss of family members were assessed by interview, and trauma events in the physical environment related to the earthquake (e.g. housing damage, and other trauma exposure before the earthquake, were assessed by questionnaire. Behavior problems were assessed by caregivers using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, which encompasses internalizing, externalizing, and total problems. Children who exceeded clinical cut-off of the CBCL were defined as having clinically significant behavior problems. RESULTS: Rates of internalizing, externalizing, and total problems in the affected area were 27.7%, 21.2%, and 25.9%, respectively. The rate ratio suggests that children who lost distant relatives or friends were 2.36 times more likely to have internalizing behavior problems (47.6% vs. 20.2%, 95% CI: 1.10-5.07. Other trauma experiences before the earthquake also showed significant positive association with internalizing, externalizing, and total behavior problems, which were not observed in the unaffected area. CONCLUSIONS: One in four children still had behavior problems even 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Children who had other trauma experiences before the earthquake were more likely to have behavior problems. These

  8. The effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety on sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Jeremy S; Carper, Matthew M; Elkins, R Meredith; Comer, Jonathan S; Pincus, Donna B; Kendall, Philip C

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined (a) whether sleep related problems (SRPs) improved following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth with anxiety disorders, (b) whether variables that may link anxiety and SRPs (e.g., pre-sleep arousal, family accommodation, sleep hygiene) changed during treatment, and (c) whether such changes predicted SRPs at posttreatment. Youth were diagnosed with anxiety at pretreatment and received weekly CBT that targeted their principal anxiety diagnosis at one of two specialty clinics (N=69 completers, Mage=10.86). Results indicated that parent-reported SRPs improved from pre- to post-treatment and that treatment responders with regard to anxiety yielded greater SRP improvements than nonresponders. Parent report of bedtime resistance and sleep anxiety showed significant improvements. Youth reported lower rates of SRPs compared to their parents and did not demonstrate pre- to post-treatment changes in SRPs. Pre-sleep arousal and family accommodation decreased over treatment but did not predict lower SRPs at posttreatment. Higher accommodation was correlated with greater SRPs. Sleep hygiene evidenced no change and did not mediate links between accommodation and posttreatment SRPs. PMID:26735330

  9. Harsh, inconsistent parental discipline and romantic relationships: mediating processes of behavioral problems and ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjadi, Florensia F; Lorenz, Frederick O; Conger, Rand D; Wickrama, K A S

    2013-10-01

    According to the Development of Early Adult Romantic Relationships (DEARR) model (Bryant, C. M., & Conger, R. D. [2002]. Conger, R. D., Cui, M., Bryant, C. M., & Elder, G. H., Jr. [2000] interactional characteristics in the family of origin influence early adult romantic relationships by promoting or inhibiting the development of interpersonal competencies that contribute to relationship success in young adulthood. The present study uses the DEARR model as a general framework to help examine the long-term link between parental discipline practices in adolescence and young adult's interactions in the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Using prospective data from 288 target participants, their families, and their romantic partner, beginning when the targets were adolescents and continuing up to the fifth year of their marital or cohabiting relationships, we found empirical support for the DEARR model. Parental discipline practices in adolescence were associated with romantic relationship quality during the early years of marriage or cohabitation through processes in late adolescence and young adulthood. Specifically, harsh and inconsistent discipline practices were associated with greater attitudinal ambivalence toward parents in adolescence. Inconsistent discipline was also associated with higher risks of externalizing problems during late adolescence years. Externalizing problems and ambivalence toward parents predicted poorer relationship quality through aggressive behaviors and ambivalence toward a romantic partner during the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Implications for practitioners working with couples and families are discussed.

  10. Predicting Pilot Behavior in Medium Scale Scenarios Using Game Theory and Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Yildiray; Agogino, Adrian; Brat, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Effective automation is critical in achieving the capacity and safety goals of the Next Generation Air Traffic System. Unfortunately creating integration and validation tools for such automation is difficult as the interactions between automation and their human counterparts is complex and unpredictable. This validation becomes even more difficult as we integrate wide-reaching technologies that affect the behavior of different decision makers in the system such as pilots, controllers and airlines. While overt short-term behavior changes can be explicitly modeled with traditional agent modeling systems, subtle behavior changes caused by the integration of new technologies may snowball into larger problems and be very hard to detect. To overcome these obstacles, we show how integration of new technologies can be validated by learning behavior models based on goals. In this framework, human participants are not modeled explicitly. Instead, their goals are modeled and through reinforcement learning their actions are predicted. The main advantage to this approach is that modeling is done within the context of the entire system allowing for accurate modeling of all participants as they interact as a whole. In addition such an approach allows for efficient trade studies and feasibility testing on a wide range of automation scenarios. The goal of this paper is to test that such an approach is feasible. To do this we implement this approach using a simple discrete-state learning system on a scenario where 50 aircraft need to self-navigate using Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) information. In this scenario, we show how the approach can be used to predict the ability of pilots to adequately balance aircraft separation and fly efficient paths. We present results with several levels of complexity and airspace congestion.

  11. Exploring the intention-behavior relationship in the prediction of sexual risk behaviors: can it be strengthened?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchik, Jessica A; Gidycz, Christine A

    2012-01-01

    Many theoretical models examining health risk behaviors, such as sexual risk taking, assume intentions directly predict behavior, and intentions are sometimes measured as a proxy for behavior. Given that there is often a discrepancy between intentions and behaviors (e.g., Sheeran, 2002 ), this study addressed factors that predict intention-behavior congruence. Specifically, utilizing a prospective design, the goal of the study was to determine if characteristics of university students' last sexual encounter predicted whether those students who intended to use condoms, contraception, or dual methods did so in their last sexual encounter with both relationship and casual partners. The seven tested variables were condom planning and preparatory behaviors, mood, sexual arousal, substance use, perceived partner attractiveness, intention certainty, and intention stability. Data were collected from 520 American undergraduate students at a medium-sized university. The six discriminant function analyses examining the intention-behavior relationship were able to correctly classify between 74% and 92% of the participants concerning whether intenders engaged in safe sex behaviors. The variables that best discriminated between behavior engagement over the six analyses were intention stability, intention certainty, and engagement in condom preparatory behaviors. The implications of these results for sexual risk prevention and intervention research are discussed. PMID:21660837

  12. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. PMID:27031593

  13. The comparison of predictive scheduling algorithms for different sizes of job shop scheduling problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W. M.; Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Krenczyk, D.

    2016-08-01

    In the paper a survey of predictive and reactive scheduling methods is done in order to evaluate how the ability of prediction of reliability characteristics influences over robustness criteria. The most important reliability characteristics are: Mean Time to Failure, Mean Time of Repair. Survey analysis is done for a job shop scheduling problem. The paper answers the question: what method generates robust schedules in the case of a bottleneck failure occurrence before, at the beginning of planned maintenance actions or after planned maintenance actions? Efficiency of predictive schedules is evaluated using criteria: makespan, total tardiness, flow time, idle time. Efficiency of reactive schedules is evaluated using: solution robustness criterion and quality robustness criterion. This paper is the continuation of the research conducted in the paper [1], where the survey of predictive and reactive scheduling methods is done only for small size scheduling problems.

  14. Protein structure prediction as a hard optimization problem the genetic algorithm approach

    CERN Document Server

    Khimasia, M M; Khimasia, Mehul M.; Coveney, Peter V.

    1997-01-01

    Protein structure prediction can be shown to be an NP-hard problem; the number of conformations grows exponentially with the number of residues. The native conformations of proteins occupy a very small subset of these, hence an exploratory, robust search algorithm, such as a genetic algorithm (GA), is required. The dynamics of GAs tend to be complicated and problem-specific. However, their empirical success warrants their further study. In this paper, guidelines for the design of genetic algorithms for protein structure prediction are determined. To accomplish this, the performance of the simplest genetic algorithm is investigated for simple lattice-based protein structure prediction models (which is extendible to real-space), using energy minimization. The study has led us to two important conclusions for `protein-structure-prediction-genetic-algorithms'. Firstly, they require high resolution building blocks attainable by multi-point crossovers and secondly they require a local dynamics operator to `fine tun...

  15. Adolescents' emotional reactions to parental cancer : effect on emotional and behavioral problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donofrio, Stacey; Hoekstra, Harald J.; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, Gea A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined adolescents' emotional reactions to parental cancer and explored relationships between emotional reactions and adolescents' emotional/behavioral problems. METHODS: Two studies were performed: retrospective and prospective. A total of 221 adolescents (105 sons) of 138 patients

  16. The effects of variable-time versus contingent reinforcement delivery on problem behavior maintained by escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas Mevers, Joanna E; Fisher, Wayne W; Kelley, Michael E; Fredrick, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Results of previous research indicate that the delivery of positive reinforcement (e.g., food) for an appropriate, alternative target response (e.g., compliance) or delivery of food on a time-based schedule can decrease problem behavior reinforced by escape, even when problem behavior continues to produce negative reinforcement (e.g., Lalli et al., ; Lomas, Fisher, & Kelley, ). In this study, we compared the levels of both compliance and problem behavior when food and praise were delivered either contingent on compliance or on a time-based schedule. Results for 3 of the 4 participants showed that contingent delivery of preferred edible items and praise was more effective in both reducing problem behavior and increasing compliance compared to variable-time delivery of these same items. These findings are discussed in the context of motivating operations and competition between positive and negative reinforcement.

  17. Multidisciplinary behavioral treatment of defecation problems: a controlled study in children with anorectal malformations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyk, E.M. van; Wissink-Essink, M.; Brugman-Boezeman, A.T.M.; Oerlemans, H.M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Severijnen, R.S.V.M.; Festen, C.; Bleijenberg, G.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The most frequent consequences of being born with an anorectal malformation (ARM) are problems with fecal continence and constipation, which can have various negative implications. In this prospective, controlled study the effect of multidisciplinary behavioral treatment dealing

  18. Every child is different : differential parental treatment and adolescent problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamrouti-Makkink, Ilse Diana

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation is an important contribution to the research on differential parental treatment and adolescent problem behavior. First, it extends earlier studies by exploring possible moderating factors explaining the level of differential parental treatment and the link between differential pare

  19. Pervasive developmental disorder, behavior problems, and psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents with mental retardation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bildt, de A.; Mulder, E.J.; Scheers, T.; Minderaa, R.B.; Tobi, H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmacotherapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4 to

  20. Boundary behavior of Gleason's problem in hyperbolic harmonic Bergman spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN; Guangbin

    2005-01-01

    [1]Choe, B. R., Koo, H., Yi, H., Gleason's problem for harmonic functions on Half-spaces, Integr. Equ. Oper.Theory., 2000, 36(3): 269-287.[2]Ren, G. B., Shi, J. H., Gleason's problem in weighted Bergman space on egg domains, Science in China, Ser. A,1998, 41(3): 225-231.[3]Zhu, K. H., The Bergman spaces, the Bloch spaces and Gleason's problem, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 1988,309(1): 253-268.[4]Rudin, W., Function Theory in the Unit Ball of Cn, New York: Springer, 1980, 1-436.[5]Krantz, S., Function Theory in Several Complex Variables, New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1992, 1-437.[6]Geller, D., Some results in Hp-theory for the Heisenberg group, Duke Math. J., 1980, 47(2): 365-390.[7]Leutwiler, H., On a distance invariant under Mobius transformations in Rn, Ann. Acad. Sci. Fennice Series A I Mathematica, 1987, 12(1): 3-17.[8]Ahlfors, L. V., Mobius, Transformations in Several Dimensions, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1981,1-150.[9]Axler, S., Bourdon, P., Ramey, W., Harmonic Function Theory, New York: Springer, 1992, 1-231.[10]Coifman, R. R., Rochberg, R., Representation Theorems for Holomorphic and Harmonic Functions in Lp, Paris:Soc. Math. France, 1980, 11-66.[11]Miao, J., Reproducing kernels for harmonic Bergman spaces of the unit ball, Mh. Math., 1998, 125(1): 25-35.[12]Stroethoff, K., Harmonic Bergman spaces, in Holomorphic Spaces (eds. Axler, S., McCarthy, J. E., Sarason,D.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, 51-63.[13]Djrbashian, A. E., Shamoian, F. A., Topics in the Theory of Apα Spaces, Leipzig: Teubner, 1988, 1-199.[14]Erdely, A., Magnus, W., Oberhettinger, F. et al., Higher Transcendental Functions I, New York: McGraw-Hill,1953, 1-302.[15]Rainville, E. D., Special Functions, New York: Chelsea Publishing Co., 1971, 1-365.

  1. Childhood emotional problems and self-perceptions predict weight gain in a longitudinal regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collier David

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and weight gain are correlated with psychological ill health. We predicted that childhood emotional problems and self-perceptions predict weight gain into adulthood. Methods Data on around 6,500 individuals was taken from the 1970 Birth Cohort Study. This sample was a representative sample of individuals born in the UK in one week in 1970. Body mass index was measured by a trained nurse at the age of 10 years, and self-reported at age 30 years. Childhood emotional problems were indexed using the Rutter B scale and self-report. Self-esteem was measured using the LAWSEQ questionnaire, whilst the CARALOC scale was used to measure locus of control. Results Controlling for childhood body mass index, parental body mass index, and social class, childhood emotional problems as measured by the Rutter scale predicted weight gain in women only (least squares regression N = 3,359; coefficient 0.004; P = 0.032. Using the same methods, childhood self-esteem predicted weight gain in both men and women (N = 6,526; coefficient 0.023; P N = 6,522; coefficient 0.022; P Conclusion Emotional problems, low self-esteem and an external locus of control in childhood predict weight gain into adulthood. This has important clinical implications as it highlights a direction for early intervention strategies that may contribute to efforts to combat the current obesity epidemic.

  2. A Theory of Planned Behavior Research Model for Predicting the Sleep Intentions and Behaviors of Undergraduate College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Sharma, Manoj; Bernard, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to operationalize the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict the sleep intentions and behaviors of undergraduate college students attending a Midwestern University. Data collection spanned three phases. The first phase included a semi-structured qualitative interview (n = 11), readability by…

  3. Predicting Prognosis for the Conduct-Problem Boy: Can Family History Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L.; Milne, Barry J.; Caspi, Avshalom; Crump, Raewyn; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Many children with conduct disorder develop life-course persistent antisocial behavior; however, other children exhibit childhood-limited or adolescence-limited conduct disorder symptoms and escape poor adult outcomes. Prospective prediction of long-term prognosis in pediatric and adolescent clinical settings is difficult. Improved…

  4. CHILD VICTIMIZATION AND PARENTAL MONITORING AS MEDIATORS OF YOUTH PROBLEM BEHAVIORS

    OpenAIRE

    ROBERTSON, ANGELA A.; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Stein, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effects of family characteristics, parental monitoring, and victimization by adults on alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse, delinquency, and risky sexual behaviors among 761 incarcerated juveniles. The majority of youth reported that other family members had substance abuse problems and criminal histories. These youth were frequently the victims of violence. Relationships between victimization, parental monitoring, and problem behaviors were examined using structural eq...

  5. Korean Immigrant Discipline and Children’s Social Competence and Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eunjung; Guo, Yuqing; Koh, Chinkang; Cain, Kevin C.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between Korean immigrant discipline (e.g., positive, appropriate, harsh discipline) and children’s social competence and behavior problems. Self-report data were collected from 58 mothers and 20 fathers of children aged from three and eight. Only paternal harsh discipline was positively correlated with children’s behavior problems. Among specific discipline strategies, maternal physical affection, correcting misbehaviors, an...

  6. Behavior and Sleep Problems in Children with a Family History of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Gregory S. Young; Hutman, Ted; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Sigman, Marian; Rogers, Sally J; Ozonoff, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores behavioral and sleep outcomes in preschool age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study focuses on behavior problems that are common in children with ASD, such as emotional reactivity, anxiety, inattention, aggression, and sleep problems. Infant siblings were recruited from families with at least one older child with ASD (high-risk group, n = 104) or families with no history of ASD (low-risk group, n = 76). As part of a longitudinal pros...

  7. Positive reinforcement as treatment for problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Steven W; Dozier, Claudia L

    2013-01-01

    Functional analyses (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994) have been useful in determining function-based treatments for problem behavior. Recently, however, researchers have evaluated the use of arbitrary reinforcers (e.g., positive reinforcers) to decrease problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement, particularly in the absence of extinction. We provide a brief review of recent research on this topic and discuss implications regarding mechanisms, practice, and future research directions.

  8. Associations between the Risk of Internet Addiction and Problem Behaviors among Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Jisun; Lee, Jungkwon; Noh, Hye-Mi; Park, Yong Soon; Ahn, Eun Ju

    2013-01-01

    Background The number of internet users is increasing rapidly and internet addiction among adolescents has become a serious public health problem in Korea. In the light of behavioral addiction, this study was aimed to identify the associations between the risk of internet addiction and other problem behaviors which can lead to addiction, such as cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, drug abuse, and sexual intercourse among a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Methods Data ...

  9. Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems: Schoolwide positive behavior support

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Kincaid, Donald

    2005-01-01

    School discipline is a growing concern in the United States. Educators frequently are faced with discipline problems ranging from infrequent but extreme problems (e.g., shootings) to less severe problems that occur at high frequency (e.g., bullying, insubordination, tardiness, and fighting). Unfortunately, teachers report feeling ill prepared to deal effectively with discipline problems in schools. Further, research suggests that many commonly used strategies, such as suspension, expulsion, a...

  10. Locus of control, problem-solving skills appraisal as predictors of waste prevention behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karbalaei, S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Given that waste generation is a devastating problem, it is necessary that we advance our knowledge about the etiology of waste prevention behaviors. Accordingly, this study sought to increase the existing literature of waste prevention behaviors by examining the relationships among the locus of control, problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, personal control style and participant’s age with waste prevention behaviors. Two hundred and forty participants (126 Women, and 114 men from Putra University (Universiti Putra Malaysia completed the Locus of Control of Behavior Scale, Waste Prevention Behaviors, Problem-Solving skills Appraisal and Socio-demographic questions. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM estimated individuals with internal personal control, effective problem-solving confidence, internal locus of control and approaching styles were more likely to pursue waste prevention behaviors. In addition, men were better than women at problem-solving confidence, approaching style, while women were better than men at internal locus of control, and personal control style. Therefore, these findings reinforce the importance of personality traits in waste prevention behaviors.

  11. Children's Exposure to Violence: The Underlying Effect of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms on Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan; Steigerwald, Stacey; Holmes, Megan R; Perzynski, Adam T

    2016-02-01

    In this study we investigated whether witnessing violence and violence victimization were associated with children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in these relationships. Secondary data analysis was conducted using 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Path analyses were conducted to test direct and indirect effects of violence exposure on behavior problems, using 2,064 children (ages 8-15 years) reported to Child Protective Services for maltreatment. Being a victim of violence in the home was directly associated with more internalizing (β = .06, p = .007) and externalizing behavior problems (β = .07, p = .002), whereas witnessing violence was not directly related to either internalizing (β = .04, p = .056) or externalizing behavior problems (β = .03, p = .130). PTS symptoms mediated the effects of witnessing violence and violence victimization on internalizing behavior problems (β = .02, p = .002). Our findings suggest that PTS symptoms may be a mechanism underlying the association between violence exposure and internalizing behavior problems (R(2) = .23), underscoring the potential importance of assessing PTS symptoms and providing targeted trauma-focused interventions for children exposed to violence at home. PMID:26748761

  12. Physically Abused Women's Experiences of Sexual Victimization and their Children's Disruptive Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Laura C; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Skopp, Nancy A

    2012-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the substantial co-occurrence of women's experiences of physical and sexual violence, very little is known about their separate and combined effects on child functioning. The present study examines whether sexual victimization experienced by physically abused women is associated with their children's disruptive behavior problems, after controlling for mothers' physical victimization and parent to child aggression. It also tests the hypothesis that maternal distress mediates the association between women's sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. METHOD: The sample includes 449 mothers and their children (4-8 years) who were recruited while residing in domestic violence shelters. Mothers reported on their experiences of physical and sexual victimization over the past year and their current symptoms of psychological distress. Trained diagnosticians interviewed mothers about their children's disruptive behavior problems. RESULTS: Approximately 75% of the women reported experiences of sexual victimization. Physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization correlated positively with their children's disruptive behavior problems and their own psychological distress. The results of path analyses indicated that maternal psychological distress mediates the relation between women's experiences of sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. CONCLUSIONS: This research suggests that physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization are important for understanding their children's disruptive behavior problems. Additionally, this research provides further evidence that maternal psychological distress is important for understanding how intimate partner violence might influence children. PMID:23166861

  13. Advancing Prediction of Foster Placement Disruption Using Brief Behavioral Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlburt, Michael S.; Chamberlain, Patricia; DeGarmo, David; Zhang, Jinjin; Price, Joe M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral difficulties increase the risk that children will experience negative placement disruptions while in foster care. Chamberlain et al. (2006) found that the Parent Daily Report (PDR), a brief measure of parent-reported child behaviors, was a strong predictor of negative placement changes over 1 year among children receiving…

  14. Work Ethic and Academic Performance: Predicting Citizenship and Counterproductive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriac, John P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, work ethic was examined as a predictor of academic performance, compared with standardized test scores and high school grade point average (GPA). Academic performance was expanded to include student organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and student counterproductive behavior, comprised of cheating and disengagement, in addition…

  15. Predicting Preschool Effortful Control from Toddler Temperament and Parenting Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Elizabeth A.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed whether maternal behavior and emotional tone moderated the relationship between toddler temperament and preschooler's effortful control. Maternal behavior and emotional tone were observed during a parent-child competing demands task when children were 2 years of age. Child temperament was also assessed at 2 years…

  16. Personality, perceived environment, and behavior systems related to future smoking intentions among youths: an application of problem-behavior theory in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cai

    Full Text Available Smoking among youths is a worldwide problem, particularly in China. Many endogenous and environmental factors influence smokers' intentions to smoke; therefore, a comprehensive model is needed to understand the significance and relationship of predictors. This study aimed to develop a prediction model based on problem-behavior theory (PBT to interpret intentions to smoke among Chinese youths.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,675 adolescents from junior, senior, and vocational high schools in Shanghai, China. Data on smoking status, smoking knowledge, attitude toward smoking, parents' and peers' smoking, and media exposure to smoking were collected from students. A structural equation model was used to assess the developed prediction model.The experimental smoking rate and current smoking rate among the students were 11.0% and 3%, respectively. Our constructed model showed an acceptable fit to the data (comparative fit index = 0.987, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.034. Intention to smoke was predicted by perceived environment (β = 0.455, P 0.05 which consisted of acceptance of tobacco use (β = 0.668, P < 0.001 and academic performance (β = 0.171, P < 0.001.The PBT-based model we developed provides a good understanding of the predictors of intentions to smoke and it suggests future interventions among youths should focus on components in perceived environment and behavior systems, and take into account the moderating effects of personality system.

  17. Does Teaching Problem-Solving Skills Matter? An Evaluation of Problem-Solving Skills Training for the Treatment of Social and Behavioral Problems in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Bryan B.; Peacock, Gretchen Gimpel

    2010-01-01

    Problem-solving skills training (PSST) has been proposed as a potentially effective addition to behavioral parent training (PT). However, it is not clear whether PSST specifically increases the benefits provided by PT. In this study, PT + PSST was compared to PT + nondirective therapy in a sample of 26 families. All parents received PT. Following…

  18. Preschool Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Problems as Predictors of (Pre)adolescent Disruptive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10-12 and at age 13-15. ODD and ACD were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self-Report, preschool behavior was evaluated by the parental questionnaire 'How was your child as a pre...

  19. Children's Problems Predict Adults' "DSM-IV" Disorders across 24 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reef, Joni; van Meurs, Inge; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to determine continuities of a broad range of psychopathology from childhood into middle adulthood in a general population sample across a 24-year follow-up. Method: In 1983, parent ratings of children's problems were collected with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a general population sample of 2,076…

  20. Predicting Development of Mathematical Word Problem Solving across the Intermediate Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn; Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed predictors of the development of word problem solving (WPS) across the intermediate grades. At beginning of 3rd grade, 4 cohorts of students (N = 261) were measured on computation, language, nonverbal reasoning skills, and attentive behavior and were assessed 4 times from beginning of 3rd through end of 5th grade on 2 measures…

  1. Trajectories of Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents Predicted by Findings From Early Well-Child Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F.; Huisman, Mark; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe trajectories of emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents and to identify early indicators of these trajectories using data from routine well-child assessments at ages 0-4 years. Methods: Data from three assessment waves of adolescents (n = 1,816) of the TRAILS were used

  2. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…

  3. Mass Screening for Severe Problem Behavior among Infants and Toddlers in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosa; Leblanc, Judith; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Brady, Nancy; Butler, Merlin G.; Reese, R. Matthew; Richman, David M.; Peacock, Georgina; Foster, Jessica; Marquis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Severe behavior problems among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are a major barrier to integration in the community. Recent research suggests that these behaviors often begin very early in life and might be prevented by early identification and intervention (Rojahn, Schroeder, & Hoch, 2008). The current article…

  4. Peer Ratings of Aggression: Relation to Social Skills, Behavior Problems, and Friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Ruth; Vaughn, Sharon

    This study examined the aggressive behaviors of children through peer ratings to teacher ratings of problem behaviors and social skills and peer ratings of friendship. Peer data are valid measures and may be more accurate than teacher or self measures because peers are more likely to be present when aggression occurs. This study examines a peer…

  5. Evaluation of a Behavioral Treatment Package to Reduce Sleep Problems in Children with Angelman Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Keith D.; Kuhn, Brett R.; DeHaai, Kristi A.; Wallace, Dustin P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a behavioral treatment package to reduce chronic sleep problems in children with Angelman Syndrome. Participants were five children, 2-11 years-of-age. Parents maintained sleep diaries to record sleep and disruptive nighttime behaviors. Actigraphy was added to provide…

  6. Anger and Approach Motivation in Infancy: Relations to Early Childhood Inhibitory Control and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Henderson, Heather A.; Hane, Amie Ashley; Xu, Qinmei; Fox, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    The relations among infant anger reactivity, approach behavior, and frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, and their relations to inhibitory control and behavior problems in early childhood were examined within the context of a longitudinal study of temperament. Two hundred nine infants' anger expressions to arm restraint were observed at 4…

  7. COMT Val158Met Genotype as a Risk Factor for Problem Behaviors in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaugh, Matthew D.; Harder, Valerie S.; Althoff, Robert R.; Rettew, David C.; Ehli, Erik A.; Lengyel-Nelson, Timea; Davies, Gareth E.; Ayer, Lynsay; Sulman, Julie; Stanger, Catherine; Hudziak, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and both aggressive behavior and attention problems in youth. We hypothesized that youth carrying a Met allele would have greater average aggressive behavior scores, and that youth exhibiting Val-homozygosity would have greater average…

  8. The Genetic Etiology of Inhibitory Control and Behavior Problems at 24 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Asherson, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background: To investigate links between inhibitory control (IC) and behavior problems in early childhood, as well as genetic and environmental covariances between these two constructs. Methods: Parent and laboratory ratings of IC and parent ratings of externalizing and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder behaviors were administered at 24…

  9. Executive Functions in Preschool Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Kim; Mulder, Hanna; Dekovic, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in executive functions (EF) have been found in school-age children and adolescents with externalizing behavior disorders. Present meta-analysis was carried out to determine whether these EF impairments can also be found in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems. Twenty-two studies were included with a total of 4021…

  10. Relationships between Social Skills, Behavioral Problems, and School Readiness for Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Stacey Storch; Fischel, Janet

    2007-01-01

    This study followed 515 4-year-olds from Head Start entry to exit to investigate their social and behavioral skills and the impact of these skills on school readiness outcomes. Results indicated that, on average, social skills improved across the preschool year, while behavior problems remained relatively stable. Social skills and behavior…

  11. Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use, and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.; Rockquemore, Kerry A.

    1998-01-01

    Examined 10th-grade data from the 1988 National Educational Longitudinal Study to investigate the effects of school uniforms on student attendance, behavior problems, substance use, and academic achievement. Data from public, private, and Catholic schools indicated that uniforms had no direct effect on substance use, attendance, or behavior, and a…

  12. Examining the Function of Problem Behavior in Fragile X Syndrome: Preliminary Experimental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lang, Russell; Machalicek, Wendy; Chan, Jeffrey Michael; Rispoli, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited cause of intellectual and developmental disability. The influence of environmental variables on behaviors associated with the syndrome has received only scant attention. The current study explored the function served by problem behavior in fragile X syndrome by using experimental functional analysis…

  13. Self-Monitoring Interventions for Students with Behavior Problems: A Systematic Review of Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison; McDaniel, Sara; Kreigh, Christi

    2015-01-01

    Explicitly teaching skills associated with self-determination has been promoted to support students' independence and control over their own lives. This is especially important for students with behavior problems. One self-determination skill or behavior that has been studied widely is self-monitoring. Although multiple reviews of various…

  14. Examining the Validity of Office Discipline Referrals as an Indicator of Student Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Mitchell, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Office discipline referral (ODR) data are increasingly used to monitor student behavior problems and the impact of interventions, but there has been limited research examining their validity. The current study examined the concordance of ODRs with teacher ratings of student behavior using data on 8,645 children in 335 classrooms at 21 elementary…

  15. EMDR versus CBT for children with self-esteem and behavioral problems: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Wanders; M. Serra; A. de Jongh

    2008-01-01

    This study compared eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Twenty-six children (average age 10.4 years) with behavioral problems were randomly assigned to receive either 4 sessions of EMDR or CBT prior to usual treatment provided in outpatient a

  16. Harbinger: An Analyzing and Predicting System for Online Social Network Users' Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Rui; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhong, Lucheng; Li, Jianzhong; Gao, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Online Social Network (OSN) is one of the hottest innovations in the past years, and the active users are more than a billion. For OSN, users' behavior is one of the important factors to study. This demonstration proposal presents Harbinger, an analyzing and predicting system for OSN users' behavior. In Harbinger, we focus on tweets' timestamps (when users post or share messages), visualize users' post behavior as well as message retweet number and build adjustable models to predict users' be...

  17. Applying Social Psychological Models to Predicting HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors Among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, Susan D.; MAYS, VICKIE M.

    1993-01-01

    Existing models of attitude-behavior relationships, including the Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action, and the Self-Efficacy Theory, are increasingly being used by psychologists to predict human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors. The authors briefly highlight some of the difficulties that might arise in applying these models to predicting the risk behaviors of African Americans. These social psychological models tend to emphasize the importance of individualis...

  18. Antecedents and behavior-problem outcomes of parental monitoring and psychological control in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, G S; Laird, R D; Dodge, K A; Bates, J E; Criss, M M

    2001-01-01

    The early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control were examined in this prospective, longitudinal, multi-informant study. Parenting data were collected during home visit interviews with 440 mothers and their 13-year-old children. Behavior problems (anxiety/depression and delinquent behavior) were assessed via mother, teacher, and/or adolescent reports at ages 8 through 10 years and again at ages 13 through 14. Home-interview data collected at age 5 years were used to measure antecedent parenting (harsh/reactive, positive/proactive), family background (e.g., socioeconomic status), and mother-rated child behavior problems. Consistent with expectation, monitoring was anteceded by a proactive parenting style and by advantageous family-ecological characteristics, and psychological control was anteceded by harsh parenting and by mothers' earlier reports of child externalizing problems. Consistent with prior research, monitoring was associated with fewer delinquent behavior problems. Links between psychological control and adjustment were more complex: High levels of psychological control were associated with more delinquent problems for girls and for teens who were low in preadolescent delinquent problems, and with more anxiety/depression for girls and for teens who were high in preadolescent anxiety/depression.

  19. COMPLIANCE, OPPOSITION, AND BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN TODDLERS BORN PRETERM OR LOW BIRTHWEIGHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, Aj Miller; Hahn, Emily; Miller, Kyle; Dilworth-Bart, Janean; Kaplan, David; Maleck, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Although children born preterm or low birth weight (PT LBW) are more likely to exhibit behavior problems compared to children born at term, developmental and family processes associated with these problems are unclear. We examined trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms in relation to toddler compliance and behavior problems in families with PT LBW infants. A total of 177 infants (93 boys, 84 girls) and their mothers enrolled in the study during the infant's NICU stay. Data were collected at five time points across 2 years. Assessments of maternal depressive symptoms were conducted at all time points, and toddler compliance and opposition to maternal requests and behavior problems were assessed at 2 years. Toddlers born earlier with more health problems to mothers whose depressive symptoms increased over time exhibited the most opposition to maternal requests during a cleanup task at 24 months, consistent with multiple risk models. Mothers with elevated depression symptoms reported more behavior problems in their toddlers. The study has implications for family-based early intervention programs seeking to identify PT LBW infants at highest risk for problem behaviors. PMID:23152647

  20. Do Personality Traits Moderate Relations Between Psychologically Controlling Parenting and Problem Behavior in Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbe, Elien; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2016-06-01

    This research examined whether and how adolescents' personality traits moderate associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behaviors. On the basis of self-determination theory, we also examined the mediating role of psychological need frustration in the effects of psychologically controlling parenting. A cross-sectional study in two samples (N = 423 and 292; Mage = 12.43 and 15.74 years) was conducted. While in Sample 1 both mothers and adolescents provided reports of parenting and problem behavior, Sample 2 relied on adolescent-reported parenting and mother-reported problem behavior. Psychologically controlling parenting was related to internalizing and externalizing problems in both samples. Little systematic evidence was obtained for the moderating role of personality, with the exception of a moderating effect of Agreeableness. In both samples, psychological control was unrelated to externalizing problems among adolescents high on Agreeableness. Analyses of Sample 2 showed that associations between psychological control and problem behavior were mediated by psychological need frustration. Adolescent personality plays a modest role as a moderator of associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behavior. Frustration of adolescents' basic and universal psychological needs can account for the undermining effects of psychologically controlling parenting. Directions for future research are discussed.

  1. When power shapes interpersonal behavior: Low relationship power predicts men's aggressive responses to low situational power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D; McNulty, James K; Finkel, Eli J

    2016-08-01

    When does power in intimate relationships shape important interpersonal behaviors, such as psychological aggression? Five studies tested whether possessing low relationship power was associated with aggressive responses, but (a) only within power-relevant relationship interactions when situational power was low, and (b) only by men because masculinity (but not femininity) involves the possession and demonstration of power. In Studies 1 and 2, men lower in relationship power exhibited greater aggressive communication during couples' observed conflict discussions, but only when they experienced low situational power because they were unable to influence their partner. In Study 3, men lower in relationship power reported greater daily aggressive responses toward their partner, but only on days when they experienced low situational power because they were either (a) unable to influence their partner or (b) dependent on their partner for support. In Study 4, men who possessed lower relationship power exhibited greater aggressive responses during couples' support-relevant discussions, but only when they had low situational power because they needed high levels of support. Study 5 provided evidence for the theoretical mechanism underlying men's aggressive responses to low relationship power. Men who possessed lower relationship power felt less manly on days they faced low situational power because their partner was unwilling to change to resolve relationship problems, which in turn predicted greater aggressive behavior toward their partner. These results demonstrate that fully understanding when and why power is associated with interpersonal behavior requires differentiating between relationship and situational power. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27442766

  2. When power shapes interpersonal behavior: Low relationship power predicts men's aggressive responses to low situational power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D; McNulty, James K; Finkel, Eli J

    2016-08-01

    When does power in intimate relationships shape important interpersonal behaviors, such as psychological aggression? Five studies tested whether possessing low relationship power was associated with aggressive responses, but (a) only within power-relevant relationship interactions when situational power was low, and (b) only by men because masculinity (but not femininity) involves the possession and demonstration of power. In Studies 1 and 2, men lower in relationship power exhibited greater aggressive communication during couples' observed conflict discussions, but only when they experienced low situational power because they were unable to influence their partner. In Study 3, men lower in relationship power reported greater daily aggressive responses toward their partner, but only on days when they experienced low situational power because they were either (a) unable to influence their partner or (b) dependent on their partner for support. In Study 4, men who possessed lower relationship power exhibited greater aggressive responses during couples' support-relevant discussions, but only when they had low situational power because they needed high levels of support. Study 5 provided evidence for the theoretical mechanism underlying men's aggressive responses to low relationship power. Men who possessed lower relationship power felt less manly on days they faced low situational power because their partner was unwilling to change to resolve relationship problems, which in turn predicted greater aggressive behavior toward their partner. These results demonstrate that fully understanding when and why power is associated with interpersonal behavior requires differentiating between relationship and situational power. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Using Structural Equation Modeling and the Behavioral Sciences Theories in Predicting Helmet Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarudin Ambak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, according to road accidents data statistics motorcycle users contributes more than 50% of fatalities in traffic accidents, and the major cause due to head injuries. One strategy that can be used to reduce the severity of head injuries is by proper usage of helmet. Although the safety helmet is the best protective equipment to prevents head injury, majority motorcycle user did not use or did not fasten properly. In understanding this problem, the behavioral sciences theory and engineering aspect are needed to provide better explanation and comprehensive insights into solutions. The Theory Planned Behavior (TPB and Health Belief Model (HBM were used in predicting the behavioral intention toward proper helmet usage among motorcyclist. While, a new intervention approach were used in Technology Acceptance Model (TAM that based on the perception of a conceptual system called Safety Helmet Reminder System (SHR. Results show that the constructs variables are reliable and statistically significant with the exogenous and endogenous variables. The full structured models were proposed and tested, thus the significant predictors were identified. A multivariate analysis technique, known as Structural Equation Model (SEM was used in modeling exercise.  Finally, the good-of-fit models were used in interpreting the implication of intervention strategy toward motorcyclist injury prevention program.

  4. Is Parenting the Mediator of Change in Behavioral Parent Training for Externalizing Problems of Youth?

    OpenAIRE

    Forehand, Rex; Lafko, Nicole; Parent, Justin; Burt, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Change in parenting behavior is theorized to be the mediator accounting for change in child and adolescent externalizing problems in behavioral parent training (BPT). The purpose of this review is to examine this assumption in BPT prevention and intervention programs. Eight intervention and 17 prevention studies were identified as meeting all criteria or all but one criterion for testing mediation. Parenting behaviors were classified as positive, negative, discipline, monitoring/supervision, ...

  5. Association between a marker for prenatal testosterone exposure and externalizing behavior problems in children

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghong; Portnoy, Jill; Raine, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal androgen exposure has been associated with aggressive behavior in adults. It is less clear whether this association holds for childhood externalizing behavior. This study tests the hypothesis that increased prenatal androgen exposure is associated with aggressive behavior and attention problems in childhood. The ratio of the length of the second finger digit relative to the fourth digit, which is a marker for prenatal testosterone exposure, was assessed in 239 male and female fifth g...

  6. Using SWPBS Expectations as a Screening Tool to Predict Behavioral Risk in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Mack D.; Davis, John L.; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; Fogarty, Melissa Shea

    2014-01-01

    School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) focuses on promoting social competence through the establishment of behavior expectations that are explicitly taught and reinforced by all teachers across all settings. This study investigated the validity of using adherence to SWPBS behavior expectations as a screening tool for predicting behavior…

  7. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  8. On the Application of a Genetic Algorithm to the Predictability Problems Involving "On-Off" Switches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qin; DAI Yi; ZHANG Lu; SHA Jianxin; LU Xiaoqing

    2012-01-01

    The lower bound of maximum predictable time can be formulated into a constrained nonlinear optimization problem,and the traditional solutions to this problem are the filtering method and the conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) method.Usually,the CNOP method is implemented with the help of a gradient descent algorithm based on the adjoint method,which is named the ADJ-CNOP.However,with the increasing improvement of actual prediction models,more and more physical processes are taken into consideration in models in the form of parameterization,thus giving rise to the on-off switch problem,which tremendously affects the effectiveness of the conventional gradient descent algorithm based on the adjoint method.In this study,we attempted to apply a genetic algorithm (GA) to the CNOP method,named GA-CNOP,to solve the predictability problems involving on-off switches.As the precision of the filtering method depends uniquely on the division of the constraint region,its results were taken as benchmarks,and a series of comparisons between the ADJ-CNOP and the GA-CNOP were performed for the modified Lorenz equation.Results show that the GA-CNOP can always determine the accurate lower bound of maximum predictable time,even in non-smooth cases,while the ADJ-CNOP,owing to the effect of on-off switches,often yields the incorrect lower bound of maximum predictable time.Therefore,in non-smooth cases,using GAs to solve predictability problems is more effective than using the conventional optimization algorithm based on gradients,as long as genetic operators in GAs are properly configured.

  9. Modeling Humans as Reinforcement Learners: How to Predict Human Behavior in Multi-Stage Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ritchie; Wolpert, David H.; Backhaus, Scott; Bent, Russell; Bono, James; Tracey, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel framework for modeling interacting humans in a multi-stage game environment by combining concepts from game theory and reinforcement learning. The proposed model has the following desirable characteristics: (1) Bounded rational players, (2) strategic (i.e., players account for one anothers reward functions), and (3) is computationally feasible even on moderately large real-world systems. To do this we extend level-K reasoning to policy space to, for the first time, be able to handle multiple time steps. This allows us to decompose the problem into a series of smaller ones where we can apply standard reinforcement learning algorithms. We investigate these ideas in a cyber-battle scenario over a smart power grid and discuss the relationship between the behavior predicted by our model and what one might expect of real human defenders and attackers.

  10. Parent-reported problem behavior among children with sensory disabilities attending elementary regular schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, B; Grietens, H

    2004-01-01

    Parent-reported problem behaviors of 94 children with visual and auditory disabilities, attending elementary regular schools, were compared with problems reported in a general population sample of nondisabled children. Both samples were matched by means of a pairwise matching procedure, taking into

  11. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  12. Attachment Style, Home-Leaving Age and Behavioral Problems among Residential Care Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory, Mally; Sommerfeld, Eliane

    2007-01-01

    In a prospective study, the attachment style, home-leaving age, length of time in residential care, and behavioral problems among Israeli residential care children (N=68), were studied. Data analyses showed that children removed from their homes at a later age suffered from higher levels of anxiety, depression and social problems compared to…

  13. Where Is the Syndrome? Examining Co-Occurrence among Multiple Problem Behaviors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Busseri, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined co-occurrence among a wide range of adolescent problem behaviors: alcohol, smoking, marijuana, hard drugs, sexual activity, major and minor delinquency, direct and indirect aggression, and gambling. Using a large self-report survey of high school students, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the problem syndrome…

  14. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene-environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C.C. Robbers (Sylvana); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); A.C. Huizink (Anja); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt (Toos); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); M. Bartels (Meike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than chi

  15. Fear perception and social behavioral problems in children with epilepsy: An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Maraike; Aarnoudse, Ceciel; Brouwer, O.F.; Veenstra, Wencke S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Nassau and Drotar (1997) state that children with epilepsy often show emotional and behavioral problems. They also hypothesize that these problems may be caused by impaired social competences. Golouboff et al. (2008) show that in children with temporal lobe epilepsy, impaired recognitio

  16. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina B.; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the United States has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problem behaviors negatively influence adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in other countries. This study contributes to our…

  17. Social Problem-Solving and Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Relations with Externalizing Behavior and Therapeutic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Wijnroks, Lex; Vermeer, Adri; Matthys, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Relations among externalizing behavior, therapeutic context (community care vs. residential care), and social problem-solving by children with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intelligence were examined. Participants were 186 children (12 to 14 years of age) who responded to a video-based social problem-solving task. Of these, 130…

  18. Helping Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Solve Mathematics Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The author presents a strategy for helping students with emotional and behavioral disorders become more proficient at solving math word problems. Math word problems require students to go beyond simple computation in mathematics (e.g., adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing) and use higher level reasoning that includes recognizing relevant…

  19. Effects of Team-Initiated Problem Solving on Decision Making by Schoolwide Behavior Support Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Anne W.; Horner, Robert H.; Newton, J. Stephen; Algozzine, Robert F.; Algozzine, Kate M.; Frank, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the problem-solving practices of school teams engaged in implementing and improving schoolwide behavior support implementation. A multiple baseline design across 4 elementary school teams was used to assess the effects of the Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) training program (1 day of team training plus 2 coached…

  20. Mental Illness, Behavior Problems, and Social Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straccia, Claudio; Baggio, Stéphanie; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the behavioral characteristics of adults with Down syndrome (DS) without dementia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychopathology and social behavior among adults with DS compared to adults with nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). Thirty-four adults with DS were individually matched with 34…

  1. Behavioral and emotional problems reported by parents of children ages 6 to 16 in 31 societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, L.; Achenbach, T.; Ivanova, M.Y.;

    2007-01-01

    This study compared parents' ratings of behavioral and emotional problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) for general population samples of children ages 6 to 16 from 31 societies (N = 55,508). Effect sizes for society ranged from .03 to .14. Effect...... sizes for gender were ≤ .01, with girls generally scoring higher on Internalizing problems and boys generally scoring higher on Externalizing problems. Effect sizes for age were ≤ .01 and varied across types of problems. Total Problems scores for 19 of 31 societies were within 1 SD of the overall mean...... of 22.5. Bisociety correlations for mean item scores averaged .74. The findings indicate that parents' reports of children's problems were similar in many ways across highly diverse societies. Nonetheless, effect sizes for society were larger than those for gender and age, indicating the need to take...

  2. Gender Differences in the Effects of Behavioral Problems on School Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Janni; Smith, Nina

    This study analyzes gender differences in the relationships between behavioral problems and school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations using the SDQ questionnaire at the age of 10-12 years of about 6,000 Danish children born in 1990-92. The sample is merged with extensive...... register information on parental background and student outcomes. We find a large negative association between the externalizing behavioral indicators and school outcomes. However, very little of the gender difference in average Reading and Math test scores can be attributed to gender differences...... in the prevalence of low-scoring individuals with behavioral problems....

  3. Early Findings of Preventive Child Healthcare Professionals Predict Psychosocial Problems in Preadolescence : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, M.; de Winter, A.F.; de Meer, G.; Stewart, R.E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a prediction model for psychosocial problems in preadolescence using data on early developmental factors from routine Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). Study design The data come from the 1692 participants who take part in the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives

  4. The Complex Route to Success: Complex Problem-Solving Skills in the Prediction of University Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Matthias J.; Becker, Nicolas; Greiff, Samuel; Spinath, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Successful completion of a university degree is a complex matter. Based on considerations regarding the demands of acquiring a university degree, the aim of this paper was to investigate the utility of complex problem-solving (CPS) skills in the prediction of objective and subjective university success (SUS). The key finding of this study was that…

  5. Primary School Text Comprehension Predicts Mathematical Word Problem-Solving Skills in Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Piia Maria; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the extent to which primary school text comprehension predicts mathematical word problem-solving skills in secondary school among Finnish students. The participants were 224 fourth graders (9-10 years old at the baseline). The children's text-reading fluency, text comprehension and basic calculation…

  6. Sustained Attention at Age 5 Predicts Attention-Related Problems at Age 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether two aspects of sustained attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) measured at child age 5 predicted attention problems reported by mothers and teachers at age 9. Because lack of impulsivity reflects the executive control network, and ADHD is commonly characterized as a deficit in executive function, it was…

  7. Predicting First Graders' Development of Calculation versus Word-Problem Performance: The Role of Dynamic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of dynamic assessment (DA; degree of scaffolding required to learn unfamiliar mathematics content) for predicting 1st-grade calculations (CAs) and word problems (WPs) development, while controlling for the role of traditional assessments. Among 184 1st graders, predictors (DA, Quantity…

  8. Predicting Educational Success and Attrition in Problem-Based Learning: Do First Impressions Count?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnia, Lisette; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Derous, Eva; Koendjie, Nitaasha S.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether tutors (N?=?15) in a problem-based learning curriculum were able to predict students' success in their first year and their entire bachelor programme. Tutors were asked to rate each student in their tutorial group in terms of the chance that this student would successfully finish their first year and the entire…

  9. Predicting Young Children's Externalizing Problems: Interactions among Effortful Control, Parenting, and Child Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karreman, Annemiek; van Tuijl, Cathy; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Dekovi, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between observed temperamental effortful control and observed parenting in the prediction of externalizing problems. Child gender effects on these relations were examined. The relations were examined concurrently when the child was 3 years old and longitudinally at 4.5 years. The sample included 89 two-parent…

  10. Some results on the asymptotic behavior for hyperbolic problems in cylindrical domains becoming unbounded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesmia, Senoussi

    2008-05-01

    We study here the asymptotic behavior of the solution of a hyperbolic problem defined on a cylindrical domain when l-->[infinity]. We show that, under very general assumptions, the solution of this problem converges faster than any power of towards the solution of another hyperbolic problem, defined on [0,T]×[omega], in any bounded subdomain. We give both necessary and sufficient conditions for this convergence to occur.

  11. An Indirect Examination of the Function of Problem Behavior Associated with Fragile X Syndrome and Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are associated with a number of specific topographies of problem behavior. Very few studies have examined the function served by problem behavior in these groups. Using the Questions About Behavioral Function scale Matson and Vollmer (User's guide: questions about behavioral function…

  12. [Brief strategic family therapy: an empirically-validated intervention for reducing adolescent behavior problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Michael S; Horigian, Viviana E; Szapocznik, José

    2008-01-01

    Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) is an empirically-supported treatment for children and adolescents with behavior problems and substance use problems. For three decades, the efficacy and effectiveness of BSFT has been established through the results of rigorous clinical trials studies conducted at the University of Miami's Center for Family Studies. BSFT is based on family systems approaches, most notably the work of Salvador Minuchin and Jay Haley, but has been refined to meet the pressing needs of youth with behavior problems. BSFT theory and interventions cover four broad domains: joining with family members and the family system, assessing problematic family interactions, creating a motivational context for change, and restructuring family interactions.

  13. Advances in Rosetta structure prediction for difficult molecular-replacement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modeling advances using Rosetta structure prediction to aid in solving difficult molecular-replacement problems are discussed. Recent work has shown the effectiveness of structure-prediction methods in solving difficult molecular-replacement problems. The Rosetta protein structure modeling suite can aid in the solution of difficult molecular-replacement problems using templates from 15 to 25% sequence identity; Rosetta refinement guided by noisy density has consistently led to solved structures where other methods fail. In this paper, an overview of the use of Rosetta for these difficult molecular-replacement problems is provided and new modeling developments that further improve model quality are described. Several variations to the method are introduced that significantly reduce the time needed to generate a model and the sampling required to improve the starting template. The improvements are benchmarked on a set of nine difficult cases and it is shown that this improved method obtains consistently better models in less running time. Finally, strategies for best using Rosetta to solve difficult molecular-replacement problems are presented and future directions for the role of structure-prediction methods in crystallography are discussed

  14. Advances in Rosetta structure prediction for difficult molecular-replacement problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiMaio, Frank, E-mail: dimaio@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, UW Box 357350, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Modeling advances using Rosetta structure prediction to aid in solving difficult molecular-replacement problems are discussed. Recent work has shown the effectiveness of structure-prediction methods in solving difficult molecular-replacement problems. The Rosetta protein structure modeling suite can aid in the solution of difficult molecular-replacement problems using templates from 15 to 25% sequence identity; Rosetta refinement guided by noisy density has consistently led to solved structures where other methods fail. In this paper, an overview of the use of Rosetta for these difficult molecular-replacement problems is provided and new modeling developments that further improve model quality are described. Several variations to the method are introduced that significantly reduce the time needed to generate a model and the sampling required to improve the starting template. The improvements are benchmarked on a set of nine difficult cases and it is shown that this improved method obtains consistently better models in less running time. Finally, strategies for best using Rosetta to solve difficult molecular-replacement problems are presented and future directions for the role of structure-prediction methods in crystallography are discussed.

  15. Aggressive Behavior among Israeli Elementary School Students and Associated Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Tammie; Rahav, Giora; Moldawsky, Ayala

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to identify aggression patterns among students, compare teachers' and students' reports on aggressiveness, and examine whether emotional and behavioral problems and self-control intercorrelate with aggression and can explain it among students. The study investigated 363 students aged 8 to 11 years and their 12 homeroom teachers in…

  16. "Tuning into Kids": reducing young children's behavior problems using an emotion coaching parenting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havighurst, Sophie S; Wilson, Katherine R; Harley, Ann E; Kehoe, Christiane; Efron, Daryl; Prior, Margot R

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated a 6-session group parenting program, Tuning into Kids (TIK), as treatment for young children (aged 4.0-5.11 years) with behavior problems. TIK targets parent emotion socialization (parent emotion awareness, regulation and emotion coaching skills). Fifty-four parents, recruited via a child behavior clinic, were randomized into intervention (TIK) or waitlist (clinical treatment as usual). Parents reported emotion awareness/regulation, emotion coaching, empathy and child behavior (pre-intervention, post-intervention, 6-month follow-up); teachers reported child behavior and observers rated parent-child emotion coaching and child emotion knowledge (pre-intervention, follow-up). Data were analyzed using growth curve modeling and ANCOVA. Parents in both conditions reported less emotional dismissiveness and reduced child behavior problems; in the intervention group, parents also reported greater empathy and had improved observed emotion coaching skills; their children had greater emotion knowledge and reduced teacher-reported behavior problems. TIK appears to be a promising addition to treatment for child behavior problems.

  17. CRACK PROPAGATION BEHAVIOR AND LIFETIME PREDICTION IN ALUMINA AND ZIRCONIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The lifetime prediction of ceramics is discussed on the basis of the relationship between stress intensity factor KI and crack velocity v. The effects of water environment, the cyclic loading and microstructure of material on KI-v characteristics are studied by carrying out the crack growth tests by the double torsion (DT) method under the static and cyclic loading in both environments of air and water for alumina and zirconia. KI-v characteristics determined by the double torsion method are used to predict time-to-failure under the cyclic loading of alumina and zirconia ceramics. The predictions agree qualitatively with the experimental results.

  18. Prenatal Depressive Symptoms and Toddler Behavior Problems: The Role of Maternal Sensitivity and Child Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Renee C; Hans, Sydney L

    2016-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that maternal depression during pregnancy is associated with child behavioral outcomes even after accounting for later maternal depression. The purpose of this study was to examine various mechanisms, including maternal sensitivity, neonatal problems, and concurrent maternal depression, that might explain the association between prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and toddler behavior problems. Young, low income, African American mothers (n = 196) were interviewed during pregnancy and at 24-months postpartum, medical records were collected at the birth, and mother-child interactions were video-recorded at 24 months. Path analyses revealed that the association between prenatal depression and toddler behavior problems was mediated by maternal sensitivity and maternal depressive symptoms at 24 months. No evidence was found for a mediating effect of neonatal problems. Path models examining sex differences suggested that different mediating factors may be important for boys and girls, with boys being particularly susceptible to the effects of maternal sensitivity. PMID:26521260

  19. Lexical Stress and Linguistic Predictability Influence Proofreading Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lindsay N; Perfetti, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that the segmental (i.e., phonemic) layer of phonology is routinely activated during reading, but little is known about whether phonological activation extends beyond phonemes to subsegmental layers (which include articulatory information, such as voicing) and suprasegmental layers (which include prosodic information, such as lexical stress). In three proofreading experiments, we show that spelling errors are detected more reliably in syllables that are stressed than in syllables that are unstressed if comprehension is a goal of the reader, indicating that suprasegmental phonology is both active during silent reading and can influence orthographic processes. In Experiment 1, participants received instructions to read for both errors and comprehension, and we found that the effect of lexical stress interacted with linguistic predictability, such that detection of errors in more predictable words was aided by stress but detection of errors in less predictable words was not. This finding suggests that lexical stress patterns can be accessed prelexically if an upcoming word is sufficiently predictable from context. Participants with stronger vocabularies showed decreased effects of stress on task performance, which is consistent with previous findings that more skilled readers are less swayed by phonological information in decisions about orthographic form. In two subsequent experiments, participants were instructed to read only for errors (Experiment 2) or only for comprehension (Experiment 3); the effect of stress disappeared when participants read for errors and reappeared when participants read for comprehension, reconfirming our hypothesis that predictability is a driver of lexical stress effects. In all experiments, errors were detected more reliably in words that were difficult to predict from context than in words that were highly predictable. Taken together, this series of experiments contributes two important findings to the field

  20. Family material hardship and chinese adolescents' problem behaviors: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Sun

    Full Text Available In the current study, we examined a moderated mediation model using the risk and resilience framework. Specifically, the impact of family material hardship on adolescent problem behaviors was examined in a Chinese sample; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. In addition, based on resilience theory, we investigated adolescents' resilience as a potential protective factor in the development of their internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included 1,419 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.38 years, SD = 1.79 and their primary caregivers. After controlling for covariates (age, gender, location of family residence, and primary caregiver, we found that parental depression and negative parenting mediated the association between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. Furthermore, the adolescent resilience moderated the relationship between negative parenting and internalizing problems in a protective-stabilizing pattern; in addition, a protective-reactive pattern also emerged when adolescent resilience was examined as a moderator of the relationship between negative parenting and externalizing problems. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of risk and resilience in youth development. Moreover, the findings have important implications for the prevention of adolescent problem behaviors.

  1. Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Afghan Refugees and War-Zone Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Babapour-Kheiroddin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Wars' stress and violence can have tremendous effects on children's and adolescents' health and general well being; it may result in patterns of bio-psychosocial problems. The goal of this study was to compare emotional and behavioral problems in Afghan refugees and war-zone adolescents. "n Method: One hundred and eighty high school students (90 students in the refugee group and 90 in the war-zone group in Harat were included in this research. All participants completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR. War zone and refugee adolescents were compared based on their scores on different scales of behavioral and emotional problems. "n Results: War-zone adolescents scored significantly higher on Anxious/Depression, Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Attention Problems, and Internalizing Problems scales than refugee adolescents. In this study, no significant difference was found between the two groups on Social Problems, Thought Problems, Delinquent Behavior, Aggressive Behavior, and Externalizing scales. "nConclusion: Findings revealed that although asylum is not an ideal condition for children's and adolescents' psychological development and prosperity, it can have a protective role in comparison with war zone's circumstances. Further investigation is needed, however, to elucidate the lack of significant differences in externalizing scales among war zone and refugee adolescents

  2. Family material hardship and chinese adolescents' problem behaviors: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqiang; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined a moderated mediation model using the risk and resilience framework. Specifically, the impact of family material hardship on adolescent problem behaviors was examined in a Chinese sample; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. In addition, based on resilience theory, we investigated adolescents' resilience as a potential protective factor in the development of their internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included 1,419 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.38 years, SD = 1.79) and their primary caregivers. After controlling for covariates (age, gender, location of family residence, and primary caregiver), we found that parental depression and negative parenting mediated the association between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. Furthermore, the adolescent resilience moderated the relationship between negative parenting and internalizing problems in a protective-stabilizing pattern; in addition, a protective-reactive pattern also emerged when adolescent resilience was examined as a moderator of the relationship between negative parenting and externalizing problems. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of risk and resilience in youth development. Moreover, the findings have important implications for the prevention of adolescent problem behaviors. PMID:26010256

  3. Predicting developmental outcomes at school entry using a multiple-risk model: four American communities. The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, M T; Lengua, L J; Coie, J D; Pinderhughes, E E

    1999-03-01

    The contributions of different risk factors in predicting children's psychological and academic outcomes at the end of 1st grade were examined. Using a regression model, levels of ecobehavioral risk were assessed in the following order: specific demographics, broad demographics, family psychosocial status, mother's depressive symptoms, and neighborhood quality. Participants were 337 families from 4 American communities. Predictor variables were assessed in kindergarten, and teacher, parent, and child outcomes (behavioral and academic) were assessed at the end of 1st grade. Results indicated that (a) each level of analysis contributed to prediction of most outcomes, (b) 18%-29% of the variance was predicted in outcomes, (c) a common set of predictors predicted numerous outcomes, (d) ethnicity showed little unique prediction, and (e) the quality of the neighborhood showed small but unique prediction to externalizing problems. PMID:10082011

  4. Unsupervised self-care predicts conduct problems: The moderating roles of hostile aggression and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Olivia E; Schofield, Thomas J; Sitka, Angela; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W

    2016-04-01

    Despite widespread speculation about the detrimental effect of unsupervised self-care on adolescent outcomes, little is known about which children are particularly prone to problem behaviors when left at home without adult supervision. The present research used data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin children residing in the United States to examine the prospective effect of unsupervised self-care on conduct problems, and the moderating roles of hostile aggression and gender. Results showed that unsupervised self-care was related to increases over time in conduct problems such as lying, stealing, and bullying. However, unsupervised self-care only led to conduct problems for boys and for children with an aggressive temperament. The main and interactive effects held for both mother-reported and observational-rated hostile aggression and after controlling for potential confounds. PMID:26820648

  5. Understanding Viral Transmission Behavior via Protein Intrinsic Disorder Prediction: Coronaviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Kian-Meng Goh; A. Keith Dunker; Vladimir N Uversky

    2012-01-01

    Besides being a common threat to farm animals and poultry, coronavirus (CoV) was responsible for the human severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2002–4. However, many aspects of CoV behavior, including modes of its transmission, are yet to be fully understood. We show that the amount and the peculiarities of distribution of the protein intrinsic disorder in the viral shell can be used for the efficient analysis of the behavior and transmission modes of CoV. The proposed model a...

  6. Effectiveness of Link Prediction for Face-to-Face Behavioral Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tsugawa, Sho; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Research on link prediction for social networks has been actively pursued. In link prediction for a given social network obtained from time-windowed observation, new link formation in the network is predicted from the topology of the obtained network. In contrast, recent advances in sensing technology have made it possible to obtain face-to-face behavioral networks, which are social networks representing face-to-face interactions among people. However, the effectiveness of link prediction tec...

  7. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaidat, Fatin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades) enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure) and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. PMID:27175098

  8. Translation, adaptation, and preliminary validation of the Brazilian version of the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele da Silva Baraldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with atypical development often present behavior problems that impair their psychosocial adaptation. Objective: To describe the cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese of the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01, as well as preliminary indicators of instrument reliability and validity. Methods: The process involved translation, back-translation, and cultural adaptation of the instrument. Psychometric properties (reliability and validity were assessed comparing scores obtained with the BPI-01, the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children and Adults, the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18 (CBCL/6-18, and the Autism Screening Questionnaire (ASQ. The sample comprised 60 children (30 typically developing and 30 atypically developing. Results: The cultural adaptation process was considered adequate. Internal consistency of the BPI-01 was satisfactory, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.65 for the self-injurious behavior scale, 0.82 for stereotyped behaviors, and 0.91 for aggressive/destructive behaviors. Considering a mean frequency of 0.5, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve revealed 80% sensitivity and 3% specificity in the stereotyped behavior scale, 50 and 10% in aggressive/destructive behaviors, and 76 and 6% in self-injurious behaviors, respectively. Low-to-moderate correlations were observed between BPI-01, ASQ, and CBCL/6-18 scores. Conclusion: BPI-01 showed good psychometric properties, with satisfactory preliminary indicators of reliability, convergent validity, and sensitivity for the diagnosis of atypical development.

  9. Predicting (unhealthy behavior: A comparison of risk-taking propensity measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Szrek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We compare four different risk-taking propensity measures on their ability to describe and to predict actual risky behavior in the domain of health. The risk-taking propensity measures we compare are: (1 a general measure of risk-taking propensity derived from a one-item survey question (Dohmen et al., 2011, (2 a risk aversion index calculated from a set of incentivized monetary gambles (Holt and Laury, 2002, (3 a measure of risk taking derived from an incentive compatible behavioral task---the Balloon Analog Risk Task (Lejuez et al., 2002, and (4 a composite score of risk-taking likelihood in the health domain from the Domain-Specific Risk Taking (DOSPERT scale (Weber et al., 2002. Study participants are 351 clients of health centers around Witbank, South Africa. Our findings suggest that the one-item general measure is the best predictor of risky health behavior in our population, predicting two out of four behaviors at the 5% level and the remaining two behaviors at the 10% level. The DOSPERT score in the health domain performs well, predicting one out of four behaviors at the 1% significance level and two out of four behaviors at the 10% level, but only if the DOSPERT instrument contains a hypothetical risk-taking item that is similar to the actual risky behavior being predicted. Incentivized monetary gambles and the behavioral task were unrelated to actual health behaviors; they were unable to predict any of the risky health behaviors at the 10% level. We provide evidence that this is not because the participants had trouble understanding the monetary trade-off questions or performed poorly in the behavioral task. We conclude by urging researchers to further test the usefulness of the one-item general measure, both in explaining health related risk-taking behavior and in other contexts.

  10. Behavioral economic measures of alcohol reward value as problem severity indicators in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P

    2014-06-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from 3 distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol (RDEA). The sample included 207 heavy-drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises 2 factors: 1 factor that reflects participants' levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants' maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation toward alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women.

  11. Parenting Stress Related to Behavioral Problems and Disease Severity in Children with Problematic Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkleij, Marieke; van de Griendt, Erik-Jonas; Colland, Vivian; van Loey, Nancy; Beelen, Anita; Geenen, Rinie

    2015-09-01

    Our study examined parenting stress and its association with behavioral problems and disease severity in children with problematic severe asthma. Research participants were 93 children (mean age 13.4 ± 2.7 years) and their parents (86 mothers, 59 fathers). As compared to reference groups analyzed in previous research, scores on the Parenting Stress Index in mothers and fathers of the children with problematic severe asthma were low. Higher parenting stress was associated with higher levels of internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems in children (Child Behavior Checklist). Higher parenting stress in mothers was also associated with higher airway inflammation (FeNO). Thus, although parenting stress was suggested to be low in this group, higher parenting stress, especially in the mother, is associated with more airway inflammation and greater child behavioral problems. This indicates the importance of focusing care in this group on all possible sources of problems, i.e., disease exacerbations and behavioral problems in the child as well as parenting stress.

  12. Dropout prediction in cognitive behavior therapy for panic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, G.P.J.; Kampman, M.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to attempt to identify reliable factors associated with dropout risk in a sample of 161 panic disorder patients treated with manualized cognitive behavior therapy. Four possible predictors of dropout were selected from the literature: level of education, treatment motivatio

  13. Resting high frequency heart rate variability selectively predicts cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beffara, Brice; Bret, Amélie G; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Mermillod, Martial

    2016-10-01

    This study explores whether the vagal connection between the heart and the brain is involved in prosocial behaviors. The Polyvagal Theory postulates that vagal activity underlies prosocial tendencies. Even if several results suggest that vagal activity is associated with prosocial behaviors, none of them used behavioral measures of prosociality to establish this relationship. We recorded the resting state vagal activity (reflected by High Frequency Heart Rate Variability, HF-HRV) of 48 (42 suitale for analysis) healthy human adults and measured their level of cooperation during a hawk-dove game. We also manipulated the consequence of mutual defection in the hawk-dove game (severe vs. moderate). Results show that HF-HRV is positively and linearly related to cooperation level, but only when the consequence of mutual defection is severe (compared to moderate). This supports that i) prosocial behaviors are likely to be underpinned by vagal functioning ii) physiological disposition to cooperate interacts with environmental context. We discuss these results within the theoretical framework of the Polyvagal Theory. PMID:27343804

  14. Implicitly positive about alcohol? Implicit positive associations predict drinking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Research using unipolar Implicit Association Tests (IATs) demonstrated that positive but not negative implicit alcohol associations are related to drinking behavior. However, the relative nature of the IAT with respect to target concepts (i.e., alcohol vs. soft drinks) obscures the interpretation of

  15. Aggressive Attitudes Predict Aggressive Behavior in Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, David W.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study found that self-reported attitudes toward peer aggression among 403 middle school students were both internally consistent and stable over time (7 months). Aggressive attitudes were correlated with four outcome criteria for aggressive behavior: student self-report of peer aggression; peer and teacher nominations of bullying;…

  16. Impact of Behavioral Inhibition and Parenting Style on Internalizing and Externalizing Problems from Early Childhood through Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly E.; Henderson, Heather A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Pine, Daniel S.; Steinberg, Laurence; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is characterized by a pattern of extreme social reticence, risk for internalizing behavior problems, and possible protection against externalizing behavior problems. Parenting style may also contribute to these associations between BI and behavior problems (BP). A sample of 113 children was assessed for BI in the laboratory at 14 and 24 months of age, self-report of maternal parenting style at 7 years of age, and maternal report of child internalizing and externaliz...

  17. Rating Problem Behaviors in Outpatients with Mental Retardation: Use of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Lisa S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    1991-01-01

    Parent and teacher ratings on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist with an outpatient sample of 110 children, adolescents, and young adults with mental retardation found that the 5-factor structure of both parent and teacher data corresponded very well with the 5 factors originally obtained from staff ratings of mentally retarded inpatients. (Author/DB)

  18. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support--Norway: Impacts on Problem Behavior and Classroom Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørlie, Mari-Anne; Ogden, Terje

    2015-01-01

    Results from the first study of the three-level School-Wide Positive Behavior Support model in Europe (SWPBS, called N-PALS) are presented. Using a strengthened nonrandomized design, data was collected from more than 1,200 teachers and 7,640 students at four measure points over four school years in 28 Norwegian intervention schools and 20…

  19. Quantity of Group Child Care, Behavior Problems, and Prosocial Behaviors: A Study with Portuguese Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Nuno; Veríssimo, Manuela; Santos, António J.; Monteiro, Ligia; Figueiredo, Mafalda; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Data from a national sample of Portuguese preschool centers were used to examine the relationship between age of start and number of hours in child care and levels of externalizing and prosocial behaviors with peers. Participants were both parents and teachers of 543 children (mean age = 4.5 years, 50.6% girls). Children started…

  20. Preschool behavioral and social-cognitive problems as predictors of (pre)adolescent disruptive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10-

  1. Using the integrative model of behavioral prediction to identify promising message strategies to promote healthy sleep behavior among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This research used the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) to examine cognitive predictors of intentions to engage in healthy sleep behavior among a population of college students. In doing so, we identify promising message strategies to increase healthy sleep behavior during college. In Phase 1, members of a small sample of undergraduates (n = 31) were asked to describe their beliefs about expected outcomes, norms, and perceived behavioral control associated with sleep on an open-ended questionnaire. We analyzed these qualitative responses to create a closed-ended survey about sleep-related attitudes, perceived norms, control beliefs, behavioral intentions, and behavior. In Phase 2, a larger sample of undergraduate students (n = 365) completed the survey. Attitudes and perceived behavioral control were the strongest predictors of both intentions to engage in sleep behavior and self-reported sleep behavior. Control beliefs associated with time management and stress also had substantial room to change, suggesting their potential as message strategies to better promote healthy sleep behavior in college. We conclude with a broader discussion of the study's implications for message design and intervention. PMID:24446927

  2. Predicting Aggression among Male Adolescents: an Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    ZinatMotlagh, Fazel; Ataee, Mari; Jalilian, Farzad; MirzaeiAlavijeh, Mehdi; Aghaei, Abbas; Karimzadeh Shirazi, Kambiz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aggressive behaviorin adolescencecan be expressed asa predictorfor crime, substanceabuse, depression and academic failure. The purpose of this study was to determine the prediction of aggression among Iranian adolescent based on theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework.

  3. Prediction of Vibrational Behavior of Grid-Stiffened Cylindrical Shells

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, G. H.; M. Hemmatnezhad; Ansari, R.

    2014-01-01

    A unified analytical approach is applied to investigate the vibrational behavior of grid-stiffened cylindrical shells with different boundary conditions. A smeared method is employed to superimpose the stiffness contribution of the stiffeners with those of shell in order to obtain the equivalent stiffness parameters of the whole panel. Theoretical formulation is established based on Sanders’ thin shell theory. The modal forms are assumed to have the axial dependency in the form of Fourier ser...

  4. Prediction of assets behavior in financial series using machine learning algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Esteves da Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of financial assets using either classification or regression models, is a challenge that has been growing in the recent years, despite the large number of publications of forecasting models for this task. Basically, the non-linear tendency of the series and the unexpected behavior of assets (compared to forecasts generated in studies of fundamental analysis or technical analysis make this problem very hard to solve. In this work, we present for this task some modeling techniques using Support Vector Machines (SVM and a comparative performance analysis against other basic machine learning approaches, such as Logistic Regression and Naive Bayes. We use an evaluation set based on company stocks of the BVM&F, the official stock market in Brazil, the third largest in the world. We show good prediction results, and we conclude that it is not possible to find a single model that generates good results for every asset. We also present how to evaluate such parameters for each model. The generated model can also provide additional information to other approaches, such as regression models.

  5. Overprotective parenting and child anxiety: the role of co-occurring child behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gere, Martina K; Villabø, Marianne A; Torgersen, Svenn; Kendall, Philip C

    2012-08-01

    The relationship between overprotective parenting and child anxiety has been examined repeatedly because theories emphasize its role in the maintenance of child anxiety. No study has yet tested whether this relationship is unique to child anxiety, by controlling for commonly co-occurring behavior problems within the same children. The current study examined 190 children (age 7-13, 118 [corrected] boys) referred to mental health clinics and their parents. Results revealed that significant correlations between overprotective parenting and child anxiety symptoms disappear after controlling for co-occurring child behavior symptoms. It appears that overprotection is not uniquely related to child anxiety. Furthermore, overprotective parenting was significantly and uniquely related to child behavior symptoms. Researchers and practitioners need to consider co-occurring child behavior problems when working with the parents of anxious children. PMID:22659077

  6. Against matching theory: predictions of an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J; Calvin, Nicholas T

    2015-05-01

    A selectionist theory of adaptive behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of resource acquisition or threat escape or avoidance. The theory is implemented by a computer program that creates an artificial organism and animates it with a population of potential behaviors. The population undergoes selection, recombination, and mutation across generations, or ticks of time, which produces a continuous stream of behavior that can be studied as if it were the behavior of a live organism. Novel predictions of the evolutionary theory can be compared to predictions of matching theory in a critical experiment that arranges concurrent schedules with reinforcer magnitudes that vary across conditions in one component of the schedules but not the other. Matching theory and the evolutionary theory make conflicting predictions about the outcome of this critical experiment, such that the results must disconfirm at least one of the theories. PMID:25680328

  7. Against matching theory: predictions of an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J; Calvin, Nicholas T

    2015-05-01

    A selectionist theory of adaptive behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of resource acquisition or threat escape or avoidance. The theory is implemented by a computer program that creates an artificial organism and animates it with a population of potential behaviors. The population undergoes selection, recombination, and mutation across generations, or ticks of time, which produces a continuous stream of behavior that can be studied as if it were the behavior of a live organism. Novel predictions of the evolutionary theory can be compared to predictions of matching theory in a critical experiment that arranges concurrent schedules with reinforcer magnitudes that vary across conditions in one component of the schedules but not the other. Matching theory and the evolutionary theory make conflicting predictions about the outcome of this critical experiment, such that the results must disconfirm at least one of the theories.

  8. Maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems: a fixed effects regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Ystrom, Eivind; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Torgersen, Leila

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the longitudinal Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, the aims of the current study were to examine associations between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems, taking both observed and unobserved confounding factors into account by employing fixed effects regression models. Postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use (defined as drinking alcohol 4 or more times a week, or drinking 7 units or more per alcohol use episode) and toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were assessed when the toddlers were aged 18 and 36 months. Maternal psychopathology, civil status and negative life events last year were included as time-variant covariates. Maternal heavy alcohol use was associated with toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems (p < 0.001) in the population when examined with generalized estimating equation models. The associations disappeared when observed and unobserved sources of confounding were taken into account in the fixed effects models [(p = 0.909 for externalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.021), p = 0.928 for internalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.023)], with an even further reduction of the estimates with the inclusion of time-variant confounders. No causal effect was found between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems. Increased levels of behavior problems among toddlers of heavy drinking mothers should therefore be attributed to other adverse characteristics associated with these mothers, toddlers and families. This should be taken into account when interventions aimed at at-risk families identified by maternal heavy alcohol use are planned and conducted.

  9. The ecocultural context and child behavior problems: A qualitative analysis in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkey, Matthew D; Ghimire, Lajina; Adhikari, Ramesh Prasad; Wissow, Lawrence S; Jordans, Mark J D; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2016-06-01

    Commonly used paradigms for studying child psychopathology emphasize individual-level factors and often neglect the role of context in shaping risk and protective factors among children, families, and communities. To address this gap, we evaluated influences of ecocultural contextual factors on definitions, development of, and responses to child behavior problems and examined how contextual knowledge can inform culturally responsive interventions. We drew on Super and Harkness' "developmental niche" framework to evaluate the influences of physical and social settings, childcare customs and practices, and parental ethnotheories on the definitions, development of, and responses to child behavior problems in a community in rural Nepal. Data were collected between February and October 2014 through in-depth interviews with a purposive sampling strategy targeting parents (N = 10), teachers (N = 6), and community leaders (N = 8) familiar with child-rearing. Results were supplemented by focus group discussions with children (N = 9) and teachers (N = 8), pile-sort interviews with mothers (N = 8) of school-aged children, and direct observations in homes, schools, and community spaces. Behavior problems were largely defined in light of parents' socialization goals and role expectations for children. Certain physical settings and times were seen to carry greater risk for problematic behavior when children were unsupervised. Parents and other adults attempted to mitigate behavior problems by supervising them and their social interactions, providing for their physical needs, educating them, and through a shared verbal reminding strategy (samjhaune). The findings of our study illustrate the transactional nature of behavior problem development that involves context-specific goals, roles, and concerns that are likely to affect adults' interpretations and responses to children's behavior. Ultimately, employing a developmental niche framework will elucidate setting

  10. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Louws, Jorik; Wiers, Reinout W

    2012-09-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORPG players and 90 nonplayers using a Web-based questionnaire regarding their gaming behavior, problems as consequences of gaming, and game motivations and tested their statistical associations. Results indicated that (a) MMORPG players are significantly more likely to experience gaming-related problems relative to nonplayers, and that (b) the gaming motivations escapism and mechanics significantly predicted excessive gaming and appeared as stronger predictors than time investment in game. The findings support the necessity of using measures that distinguish between different types of online games. In addition, this study proves useful regarding the current discussion on establishing (online) gaming addiction as a diagnosis in future categorizations of psychopathology.

  11. Predicting active school travel: The role of planned behavior and habit strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtagh Shemane

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite strong support for predictive validity of the theory of planned behavior (TPB substantial variance in both intention and behavior is unaccounted for by the model’s predictors. The present study tested the extent to which habit strength augments the predictive validity of the TPB in relation to a currently under-researched behavior that has important health implications, namely children’s active school travel. Method Participants (N = 126 children aged 8–9 years; 59 % males were sampled from five elementary schools in the west of Scotland and completed questionnaire measures of all TPB constructs in relation to walking to school and both walking and car/bus use habit. Over the subsequent week, commuting steps on school journeys were measured objectively using an accelerometer. Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to test the predictive utility of the TPB and habit strength in relation to both intention and subsequent behavior. Results The TPB accounted for 41 % and 10 % of the variance in intention and objectively measured behavior, respectively. Together, walking habit and car/bus habit significantly increased the proportion of explained variance in both intention and behavior by 6 %. Perceived behavioral control and both walking and car/bus habit independently predicted intention. Intention and car/bus habit independently predicted behavior. Conclusions The TPB significantly predicts children’s active school travel. However, habit strength augments the predictive validity of the model. The results indicate that school travel is controlled by both intentional and habitual processes. In practice, interventions could usefully decrease the habitual use of motorized transport for travel to school and increase children’s intention to walk (via increases in perceived behavioral control and walking habit, and decreases in car/bus habit. Further research is needed to identify effective

  12. Imagine All the People: How the Brain Creates and Uses Personality Models to Predict Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hassabis, Demis; Spreng, R. Nathan; Rusu, Andrei A.; Robbins, Clifford A.; Mar, Raymond A.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    The behaviors of other people are often central to envisioning the future. The ability to accurately predict the thoughts and actions of others is essential for successful social interactions, with far-reaching consequences. Despite its importance, little is known about how the brain represents people in order to predict behavior. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, participants learned the unique personality of 4 protagonists and imagined how each would behave in different s...

  13. Predicting Dynamic Behavior of a Biological System Using ANNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mohd Haniff; Ibrahim, Ratnawati; Hashim, Ishak; Yeun, Liong Choong; Bakar, Azuraliza Abu; Hussein, Zeti Azura Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are applied to predict protein concentrations of a biological system. The input data are generated from a nonlinear mathematical model of the protein concentration. The protein concentrations from CDC6 data with actual kinetic parameter are taken as the target output. The data are then trained using multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network with a 6-6-6 configuration. The allocation of the data will be distributed into 3 categories that are 80% as training data, 10% as validation data, and 10% as test data. The learning rules used in this work to determine the best model are gradient descent, conjugate gradient, scaled conjugate gradient. It is found that the MLP with scaled conjugate gradient learning rule gives the best prediction rate.

  14. Predicting Correct Body Posture based on Theory of Planned Behavior in Iranian Operating Room Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAHAREH ABEDI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of correct posture for preventing musculoskeletal disorders, the purpose of this study was to evaluate Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting correct Body Posture in operating room nurses.In this cross-sectional study, participants (n=100 were nurses from five hospitals located in northern Iran. Participants completed demographic data and theory of planned behavior construct Questionnaires. In addition, the researcher checked the Body Posture of nurses by Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA.The Meanage of nurses was 33.54 yr, (SD=6/51.Multivariate regression showed that attitudes and perceived behavioral control werepredictive of behavioral intention of nurses’readiness to assume correct posture (P<0.001, R2=0.31, nurses who had more positive attitude and more perceived behavioral control were more likely to have intentions towards correct body posture. Furthermore, only behavioral intention is predictive of readiness correct posture among nurses. Nurses who had more behavioral intentionfor correct body posture were more likely to intend to do.The attitudes and perceived behavioral control were predictive of behavioral intentions for correct body posture.Therefore, the design of intervention strategies based on the promotion of attitudes and perceived behavioral control was recommended to nurses.

  15. Assessment of Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence as Predictors of Early Adult Depression

    OpenAIRE

    KOSTERMAN, RICK; HAWKINS, J. DAVID; Mason, W. Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Behavior and psychological problems assessed prospectively by teachers and parents and by youths’ self-reports through late childhood and adolescence were examined as possible predictors of early adult depression. Data were from 765 participants in the Seattle Social Development Project, a multiethnic and gender-balanced urban sample. Analyses examined 7 waves of data from ages 10 to 21, and included measures from the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and assessments of past-year depressive ...

  16. Parenting Practices and Child Disruptive Behavior Problems in Early Elementary School

    OpenAIRE

    Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Bierman, Karen L.; McMahon, Robert J.; Lengua, Liliana J.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child’s disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental p...

  17. USE OF VIDEOGAMES AND COMPUTER GAMES: INFLUENCES ON ATTENTION, MEMORY, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND PROBLEMS BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Harold Germán Rodríguez Celis; Marithza Sandoval Escobar

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the relationship between video and computergames use on attention, memory, academic performance and problemsbehavior in school children in Bogotá. Memory and attention were assessedusing a set of different scales of ENI Battery (Matute, Rosselli, Ardila, & Ostrosky-Solís, 2007). For Academic performance, school newsletters were used.Behavioral problems were assessed through the CBCL / 6 -18 questionnaire(Child Behavior Checklist) of (Achenbach & Edelbrock, ...

  18. Predicting First Graders’ Development of Calculation versus Word-Problem Performance: The Role of Dynamic Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of dynamic assessment (DA; degree of scaffolding required to learn unfamiliar mathematics content) for predicting 1st-grade calculations (CA) and word problems (WP) development, while controlling for the role of traditional assessments. Among 184 1st graders, predictors (DA, Quantity Discrimination, Test of Mathematics Ability, language, and reasoning) were assessed near the start of 1st grade. CA and WP were assessed near the end of 1st grade...

  19. Predicting volume responsiveness in spontaneously breathing patients: still a challenging problem

    OpenAIRE

    Magder, S

    2006-01-01

    The prediction of which patients respond to fluid infusion and which patients do not is an important issue in the intensive care setting. Assessment of this response by monitoring changes in some hemodynamic characteristics in relation to spontaneous breathing efforts would be very helpful for the management of the critically ill. This unfortunately remains a difficult clinical problem, as discussed in the previous issue of the journal. Technical factors and physiological factors limit the us...

  20. What predicts persistent early conduct problems? Evidence from the growing up in Scotland cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, P.; Bradshaw, P; Tipping, S.; Henderson, M.; De, G.; Minnis, H

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a strong case for early identification of factors predicting life-course-persistent conduct disorder. The authors aimed to identify factors associated with repeated parental reports of preschool conduct problems. METHOD: Nested case–control study of Scottish children who had behavioural data reported by parents at 3, 4 and 5 years. RESULTS: 79 children had abnormal conduct scores at all three time points (‘persistent conduct problems’) and 434 at one or two points...