WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavior interfacial microstructure

  1. Evaluation of interfacial microstructures in dissimilar joints of aluminum alloys to steel using nanoindentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Tomo; Hirose, Akio; Saito, Yuichi; Ueda, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of interfacial microstructures with additional elements in dissimilar 6000 system aluminum/steel joints were basically evaluated using tensile test, EPMA, TEM and nanoindentation. For Si (and Cu)-added alloy (S1 and SC), EPMA analysis showed that Si (and Cu) was enrichment in the reaction layers, which were formed during diffusion bonding. SAED pattern clarified that the reaction compounds at the interface changed from AlFe intermetalic compounds to AlFeSi intermetalic compounds by Si addition. Nanoindentation technique was successfully applied to the interfacial microstructures to understand directly the nanoscopic mechanical properties in the interfacial microstructures. The hardness and Young's modulus of Al 3 Fe intermetalic compounds was lower than those of Al 2 Fe 5 intermetalic compounds. Moreover, the hardness and Young's modulus of AlFeSi(Cu) compounds were lower than those of Al 3 Fe, indicating that the crystal system changed from orthorhombic structure to cubic structure. Joint strength of SC/steel joints was higher than that of the aluminum alloy with no additional element (Base)/ steel joint, indicating that interfacial microstructure was modified by the addition of Si and Cu to the 6000 system aluminum alloy. These results suggest that the nanoscopic mechanical properties at the interface microstructures affect greatly the macroscopic deformation behavior of the aluminum /steel dissimilar joints.

  2. Research on the interfacial behaviors of plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qiming; Yan Xiaoqing [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ding Shurong, E-mail: dsr1971@163.co [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huo Yongzhong [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2010-04-01

    The three-dimensional constitutive relations are constructed, respectively, for the fuel particles, the metal matrix and the cladding of dispersion nuclear fuel elements, allowing for the effects of large deformation and thermal-elastoplasticity. According to the constitutive relations, the method of modeling their irradiation behaviors in ABAQUS is developed and validated. Numerical simulations of the interfacial performances between the fuel meat and the cladding are implemented with the developed finite element models for different micro-structures of the fuel meat. The research results indicate that: (1) the interfacial tensile stresses and shear stresses for some cases will increase with burnup, but the relative stresses will decrease with burnup for some micro-structures; (2) at the lower burnups, the interfacial stresses increase with the particle sizes and the particle volume fractions; however, it is not the case at the higher burnups; (3) the particle distribution characteristics distinctly affect the interfacial stresses, and the face-centered cubic case has the best interfacial performance of the three considered cases.

  3. On the microstructure and interfacial properties of sputtered nickel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    On the microstructure and interfacial properties of sputtered nickel ... (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) revealed columnar morphology with voided boundaries for ..... compound phase formation by performing the deposition.

  4. Effect of coating thickness on interfacial shear behavior of zirconia-coated sapphire fibers in a polycrystalline alumina matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmann, J.R.; Chou, Y.S.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of zirconia (ZrO 2 ) interfacial coatings on the interfacial shear behavior in sapphire reinforced alumina was examined in this study. Zirconia coatings of thicknesses ranging from 0.15 to 1.45 μm were applied to single crystal sapphire (Saphikon) fibers using a particulate loaded sol dipping technique. After calcining at 1,100 C in air, the coated fibers were incorporated into a polycrystalline alumina matrix via hot pressing. Interfacial shear strength and sliding behavior of the coated fibers was examined using thin-slice indentation fiber pushout and pushback techniques. In all cases, debonding and sliding occurred at the interface between the fibers and the coating. The coatings exhibited a dense microstructure and led to a higher interfacial shear strength (> 240 MPa) and interfacial sliding stress (> 75 MPa) relative to previous studies on the effect of a porous interphase on interfacial properties. The interfacial shear strength decreased with increasing fiber coating thickness (from 389 ± 59 to 241 ± 43 MPa for 0.15 to 1.45 microm thick coatings, respectively). Sliding behavior exhibited load modulation with increasing displacement during fiber sliding which is characteristic of fiber roughness-induced stick-slip. The high interfacial shear strengths and sliding stresses measured in this study, as well as the potentially strength degrading surface reconstruction observed on the coated fibers after hot pressing and heat treatment, indicate that dense zirconia coatings are not suitable candidates for optimizing composite toughness and strength in the sapphire fiber reinforced alumina system

  5. Influences of electric current on the wettability and interfacial microstructure in Sn/Fe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Gu, Yan; Yang, Nan-Nan; Zheng, Rui-Peng; Ren, Li-Hua

    2015-02-01

    The wettability of oxidized and clean Fe substrates by liquid Sn was investigated using a dispensed sessile drop method with and without the application of a direct current (DC) and their interfacial microstructures were compared. The initial contact angles were 107 ± 3° at 623 K when the Fe substrate was covered by an oxide film, and they did not show an appreciable decrease during isothermal dwells in the absence of DC application but progressively decreased to 42 ± 3° when a 7.5 ampere current was applied. However, in the case of the oxide film being removed by a high-vacuum pre-annealing treatment at 1073 K, the current and its polarity had a negligible effect on the wetting behavior. Nevertheless, they had a noticeable influence on the interfacial microstructure. In the absence of DC, the interface was covered by a product layer consisting of a single FeSn2 phase for the samples tested at 623 K and the FeSn2/FeSn2 grain boundaries were incompletely wetted by the Sn melt; whereas, under DC, the reaction layer was much thicker and the Sn melt wet well the FeSn2/FeSn2 grain boundaries. Moreover, a FeSn phase also formed as a result of enhanced mass transfer. The amount of the FeSn phase was larger and the grain boundary wetting of FeSn2 by liquid Sn was better for the current flowing from the molten Sn drop to the Fe substrate due to an electromigration effect.

  6. Exchange bias mediated by interfacial nanoparticles (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, A. E., E-mail: aberk@ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California, California 92093 (United States); Sinha, S. K. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Fullerton, E. E. [Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California, California 92093 (United States); Smith, D. J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    The objective of this study on the iconic exchange-bias bilayer Permalloy/CoO has been to identify those elements of the interfacial microstructure and accompanying magnetic properties that are responsible for the exchange-bias and hysteretic properties of this bilayer. Both epitaxial and polycrystalline samples were examined. X-ray and neutron reflectometry established that there existed an interfacial region, of width ∼1 nm, whose magnetic properties differed from those of Py or CoO. A model was developed for the interfacial microstructure that predicts all the relevant properties of this system; namely; the temperature and Permalloy thickness dependence of the exchange-bias, H{sub EX}, and coercivity, H{sub C}; the much smaller measured values of H{sub EX} from what was nominally expected; the different behavior of H{sub EX} and H{sub C} in epitaxial and polycrystalline bilayers. A surprising result is that the exchange-bias does not involve direct exchange-coupling between Permalloy and CoO, but rather is mediated by CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the interfacial region.

  7. Coupled Interfacial Tension and Phase Behavior Model Based on Micellar Curvatures

    KAUST Repository

    Torrealba, V. A.

    2017-11-08

    This article introduces a consistent and robust model that predicts interfacial tensions for all microemulsion Winsor types and overall compositions. The model incorporates film bending arguments and Huh\\'s equation and is coupled to phase behavior so that simultaneous tuning of both interfacial tension (IFT) and phase behavior is possible. The oil-water interfacial tension and characteristic length are shown to be related to each other through the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation (HLD). The phase behavior is tied to the micelle curvatures, without the need for using the net average curvature (NAC). The interfacial tension model is related to solubilization ratios in order to introduce a coupled interfacial tension-phase behavior model for all phase environments. The approach predicts two- and three-phase interfacial tensions and phase behavior (i.e., tie lines and tie triangles) for changes in composition and HLD input parameters, such as temperature, pressure, surfactant structure, and oil equivalent alkane carbon number. Comparisons to experimental data show excellent fits and predictive capability.

  8. Influence of interfacial reactions on the fiber push-out behavior in sapphire fiber-reinforced-NiAl(Yb) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, S.N.; Asthana, R.; Tiwari, R.; Bowman, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of microstructure of the fiber-matrix interface on the fiber push-out behavior has been examined in sapphire fiber-reinforced NiAl and NiAl(Yb) matrix composites synthesized using powder metallurgy techniques combined with zone directional solidification (DS). The push-out stress-displacement curves were observed to consist of an initial 'pseudoelastic' region, wherein the stress increased linearly with displacement, followed by an 'inelastic' region, where the slope of the stress-displacement plot decreased until a maximum stress was reached, and the subsequent stress drop to a constant 'frictional' stress. Chemical reaction between the fiber and the matrix resulted in higher interfacial shear strength in powder cloth processed sapphire-NiAl(Yb) composites as compared to the sapphire-NiAl composites. Grain boundaries in contact with the fibers on the back face of the push-out samples were the preferred sites for crack nucleation in PM composites. The frictional stress was independent of the microstructure and processing variables for NiAl composites, but showed strong dependence on these variables for the NiAl(Yb) composites. The DS processing enhanced the fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength of feedstock PM-NiAl/sapphire composites. However, it reduced the interfacial shear strength of PM-NiAl(Yb)-sapphire composites

  9. Effect of volume ratio of liquid to solid on the interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of high chromium cast iron and medium carbon steel bimetal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Bowen; Cai Changchun; Lu Baiping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Volume ratio of liquid to solid affects significantly the interfacial microstructure. → Elemental diffusion activity is increased by increasing volume ratio. → Mechanical property is improved by increasing volume ratio. - Abstract: The high chromium cast iron and medium carbon steel bimetal was fabricated by liquid-solid casting technology. The effect of volume ratios of liquid to solid (6:1, 10:1 and 12:1) on the interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of bimetal was investigated. The interfacial microstructure was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The shear strength and microhardness in as-cast condition were studied at room temperature. The results show that the volume ratios of liquid to solid affect significantly the interfacial microstructure. When liquid-solid volume ratio was 6:1, the unbonded region was detected in interface region because the imported heat energy cannot support effectively the diffusion of element, whereas, when liquid-solid volume ratios reach 10:1 and 12:1, a sound interfacial microstructure was achieved by the diffusion of C, Cr, Mo, Cu and Mn, and metallurgical bonding without unbonded region, void and hole, etc. was detected. With the increase of liquid-solid volume ratio, the elemental diffusion activity improves, resulting in the increase of width of interface transition region. At the same distance from interface, with the increase of liquid-solid volume ratio, the microhardness is degraded in HCCI, but increased in MCS. The shear strength is also improved with the increase of liquid-solid volume ratio.

  10. Microstructural evolution and characterisation of interfacial phases in Al2O3/Ag–Cu–Ti/Al2O3 braze joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Majed; Knowles, Kevin M.; Mallinson, Phillip M.; Fernie, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Alumina ceramics with different levels of purity have been joined to themselves using an active braze alloy (ABA) Ag–35.3Cu–1.8Ti wt.% and brazing cycles that peak at temperatures between 815 °C and 875 °C for 2 to 300 min. The microstructures of the joints have been studied using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A limited number of joints prepared with the ABA Ag–26.7Cu–4.5Ti wt.% have also been studied. In terms of characterising the interfacial phases, efforts were made to understand the interfacial reactions, and to determine the influence of various brazing parameters, such as the peak temperature (T p ) and time at T p (τ), on the microstructure. In addition, the extent to which impurities in the alumina affect the interfacial microstructure has been determined. Ti 3 Cu 3 O has been identified as the main product of the reactions at the ABA/alumina interfaces. At the shortest joining time used, this phase was observed in the form of a micron-size continuous layer in contact with the ABA, alongside a nanometre-size layer on the alumina that was mostly composed of γ-TiO grains. Occasionally, single grains of Ti 3 O 2 were observed in the thin layer on alumina. In the joints prepared with Ag–35.3Cu–1.8Ti wt.%, the interfacial structure evolved considerably with joining time, eventually leading to a high degree of inhomogeneity across the length of the joint at the highest T p . The level of purity of alumina was not found to affect the overall interfacial microstructure, which is attributed to the formation of various solid solutions. It is suggested that Ti 3 Cu 3 O forms initially on the alumina. Diffusion of Ti occurs subsequently to form titanium oxide at the Ti 3 Cu 3 O/alumina interface

  11. POROUS MICROSTRUCTURE OF THE INTERFACIAL TRANSITION ZONE IN GEOPOLYMER COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinerová M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with a comparison of the differences in the structure, composition and micromechanical properties of a metakaolinite geopolymer composite matrix, inside and outside of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ with quartz grains of added silica sand. The microstructure is investigated by a measurement of the mercury porosimetry, microscopy and by a measurement in SEM and AFM, completed by Raman spectroscopy. Weaker mechanical properties, micropores in the ITZ, a higher concentration of Al atoms and hydroxyl groups than in the ambient matrix were detected. The water transport is probably the reason for the micropore formation, caused by disequilibrium in the course of solid-phase building from geopolymer dispersion.

  12. Interfacial microstructure and joining properties of Titanium–Zirconium–Molybdenum alloy joints brazed using Ti–28Ni eutectic brazing alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, X.G., E-mail: songxg@hitwh.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Special Welding Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Tian, X. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Special Welding Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Zhao, H.Y. [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Special Welding Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Si, X.Q.; Han, G.H.; Feng, J.C. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Special Welding Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2016-01-20

    Vacuum brazing of Titanium–Zirconium–Molybdenum (Abbreviated as TZM) alloy using Ti–28Ni (wt%) eutectic brazing alloy was successfully achieved in this study. Reliable TZM brazed joints were obtained at the temperatures ranging from 1000 °C to 1160 °C for 600 s. The interfacial microstructure of TZM joints was characterized by employing SEM, EDS and XRD. The effects of brazing temperature on interfacial microstructure and joining properties were investigated in details. TZM brazed joints mainly consisted of δ-Ti{sub 2}Ni phase and Ti-based solid solution (Ti(s,s)). The interfacial microstructure of TZM joints was influenced obviously by brazing temperature. Both the thickness of brazing seam and the amount of δ-Ti{sub 2}Ni phase was reduced with the increasing brazing temperature, while the Ti(s,s) layer did not change significantly. The maximum average shear strength of TZM joints reached 107 MPa when brazed at 1080 °C. The presence of δ-Ti{sub 2}Ni intermetallic phase and crack-like structure in joints deteriorated the joining properties, which resulted in the formation of brittle fracture after shear test. In addition, fracture locations were related to the brazing temperature. When the brazing temperature was relatively low, cracks initiated and propagated in the continuous δ-Ti{sub 2}Ni layer. However, the fracture locations preferred to locating at the interface between TZM substrate and brazing seam when brazing temperature exceeded 1080 °C.

  13. Visualization of interfacial behavior of liquid jet in pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yuta; Abe, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Akiko; Nariai, Hideki; Matsuo, Eiji; Chitose, Keiko; Koyama, Kazuya; Itoh, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    For the safety design of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR), it is strongly required that the post accident heat removal (PAHR) is achieved after a postulated core disruptive accident (CDA). In the PAHR, it is important that the molten core material is quenched (breakup) in sodium coolant. In the previous studies, it is pointed out that the jet breakup behavior is significantly influenced by the fragmentation behavior on the jet surface in the coolant. However, the process from interfacial instability to fragmentation on the jet surface to jet breakup is not elucidated in detail yet. In the present study, the jet breakup behavior is observed to obtain the fragmentation behavior on the jet surface in coolant in detail. The transparent fluid is used as the core material and is injected into the water as the coolant. The velocity distribution of internal flow of the jet is measured by PIV technique and shear stress is calculated from PIV results. From experimental results, unstable interfacial wave is confirmed as upstream and grown up toward downstream. The fragments are torn apart at the end of developed wave. Shear stress is strongly acted on jet surface. From the results, the correlation between the interfacial behavior of the jet and the generation process of fragments are discussed. (author)

  14. Interfacial behavior of alkaline protease at the air-water and oil-water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yue

    2018-03-01

    The interfacial behavior of alkaline protease at the air-water and n-hexane-water interfaces was investigated using interfacial tension, dilatational rheology and dynamic light scattering. Additionally, different adsorption models which are Langmuir, Frumkin, Reorientation-A and Reorientation-R were used to fitting the data of equilibrium interfacial tension for further understanding the interfacial behavior of alkaline protease. Data fitting of the equilibrium interfacial tension was achieved by IsoFit software. The results show that the molecules arrangement of the alkaline protease at the n-hexane-water interface is more tightly than at the air-water interface. The data were further analyzed to indicate that the hydrophobic chains of alkaline protease penetrate into oil phase deeper than the air phase. Also data indicate that the electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic interactions at the n-hexane-water interface are stronger than at the air-water interface within molecules of the alkaline protease. Based on comprehensive analysis of the adsorption kinetics and interfacial rheological properties, interfacial structures mechanism of alkaline protease at n-hexane-water and air-water interfaces was proposed.

  15. Interfacial microstructure of partial transient liquid phase bonded Si3N4-to-Inconel 718 joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Joong; Park, Jin-Woo; Eagar, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    This work presents transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the interfacial microstructure in Si 3 N 4 -to-Inconel 718 joints with Ni interlayers produced by partial transient liquid phase bonding (PTLPB). Ti and Cu microfoils have been inserted between Si 3 N 4 and the Ni interlayer and joining has been performed at lower temperatures than previous PTLPBs of Si 3 N 4 with the same insert metals. The TEM work is focused on phase identification of the reaction layers between the Si 3 N 4 and the Ni interlayer. According to the TEM analysis, most of the Cu precipitates without reacting with Ti and Ni. Si diffused in the filler metal and thin reaction layer formed at the interface between Si 3 N 4 and the filler metal producing good bond-formation and hence, high interfacial strength. No interfacial fractures occurred after cooling from the bonding temperature of 900 deg. C, which supports the results observed in the TEM analysis. This work confirms that this joining process can produce a more heat resistant Si 3 N 4 -to-Inconel 718 joint than active brazing using Ag-Cu-Ti alloys

  16. Modeling of Pressure Dependence of Interfacial Tension Behaviors of Supercritical CO2 + Crude Oil Systems Using a Basic Parachor Expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayanand, S.

    2017-01-01

    Parachor based expressions (basic and mechanistic) are often used to model the experimentally observed pressure dependence of interfacial tension behaviors of complex supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO 2 ) and crude oil mixtures at elevated temperatures. However, such modeling requires various input data (e.g. compositions and densities of the equilibrium liquid and vapor phases, and molecular weights and diffusion coefficients for various components present in the system). In the absence of measured data, often phase behavior packages are used for obtaining these input data for performing calculations. Very few researchers have used experimentally measured input data for performing parachor based modeling of the experimental interfacial tension behaviors of sc-CO 2 and crude oil systems that are of particular interest to CO 2 injection in porous media based enhanced oil recovery operations. This study presents the results of parachor based modeling performed to predict pressure dependence of interfacial tension behaviors of a complex sc-CO 2 and crude oil system for which experimentally measured data is available in public domain. Though parachor model based on calculated interfacial tension behaviors shows significant deviation from the measured behaviors in high interfacial tension region, difference between the calculated and the experimental behaviors appears to vanish in low interfacial tension region. These observations suggest that basic parachor expression based calculated interfacial tension behaviors in low interfacial tension region follow the experimental interfacial tension behaviors more closely. An analysis of published studies (basic and mechanistic parachor expressions based on modeling of pressure dependence of interfacial tension behaviors of both standard and complex sc-CO 2 and crude oil systems) and the results of this study reinforce the need of better description of gas-oil interactions for robust modeling of pressure dependence of

  17. Interfacial microstructure and mechanical property of Ti6Al4V/A6061 dissimilar joint by direct laser brazing without filler metal and groove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Zhihua; Nakata, Kazuhiro; Wu, Aiping; Liao, Jinsun

    2013-01-01

    Laser brazing of Ti6Al4V and A6061-T6 alloys with 2 mm thickness was conducted by focusing laser beam on aluminum alloy side, and the effect of laser offset distance on microstructure and mechanical properties of the dissimilar butt joint was investigated. Laser offset has a great influence on the thickness of interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer and the mechanical property of joint. The thickness of interfacial IMC layer is less than 500 nm, and the average tensile strength of the joint reaches 64% of aluminum base material strength, when suitable welding conditions are used. The interfacial IMC is TiAl 3 . The formation of interfacial IMC layer and its effect on mechanical property of the joint are discussed in the present study.

  18. Interfacial Shear Strength and Adhesive Behavior of Silk Ionomer Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghan; Geryak, Ren D; Zhang, Shuaidi; Ma, Ruilong; Calabrese, Rossella; Kaplan, David L; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2017-09-11

    The interfacial shear strength between different layers in multilayered structures of layer-by-layer (LbL) microcapsules is a crucial mechanical property to ensure their robustness. In this work, we investigated the interfacial shear strength of modified silk fibroin ionomers utilized in LbL shells, an ionic-cationic pair with complementary ionic pairing, (SF)-poly-l-glutamic acid (Glu) and SF-poly-l-lysine (Lys), and a complementary pair with partially screened Coulombic interactions due to the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) segments and SF-Glu/SF-Lys[PEG] pair. Shearing and adhesive behavior between these silk ionomer surfaces in the swollen state were probed at different spatial scales and pressure ranges by using functionalized atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips as well as functionalized colloidal probes. The results show that both approaches were consistent in analyzing the interfacial shear strength of LbL silk ionomers at different spatial scales from a nanoscale to a fraction of a micron. Surprisingly, the interfacial shear strength between SF-Glu and SF-Lys[PEG] pair with partially screened ionic pairing was greater than the interfacial shear strength of the SF-Glu and SF-Lys pair with a high density of complementary ionic groups. The difference in interfacial shear strength and adhesive strength is suggested to be predominantly facilitated by the interlayer hydrogen bonding of complementary amino acids and overlap of highly swollen PEG segments.

  19. Interfacial adhesion of laser clad functionally graded materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y. T.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. T. M.

    2003-01-01

    Specially designed samples of laser clad AlSi40 functionally graded materials (FGM) are made for evaluating the interfacial adhesion. To obtain the interfacial bond strength notches are made right at the interface of the FGMs. In-situ microstructural observations during straining in a field-emission

  20. Interfacial adhesion of laser clad functionally graded materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hosson, JTM; Pei, YT; Ocelik, [No Value; Sudarshan, TS; Stiglich, JJ; Jeandin, M

    2002-01-01

    Specially designed samples of laser clad AlSi40 functionally graded materials (FGM) are made for evaluating the interfacial adhesion. To obtain the interfacial bond strength notches are made right at the interface of the FGMs. In-sitit microstructural observations during straining in an FEG-ESEM

  1. Influence of aggregate size, water cement ratio and age on the microstructure of the interfacial transition zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsharief, Amir; Cohen, Menashi D.; Olek, Jan

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the effect of water-cement ratio (w/c), aggregate size, and age on the microstructure of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between normal weight aggregate and the bulk cement paste. Backscattered electron images (BSE) obtained by scanning electron microscope were used to characterize the ITZ microstructure. The results suggest that the w/c plays an important role in controlling the microstructure of the ITZ and its thickness. Reducing w/c from 0.55 to 0.40 resulted in an ITZ with characteristics that are not distinguishable from those of the bulk paste as demonstrated by BSE images. Aggregate size appears to have an important influence on the ITZ characteristics. Reducing the aggregate size tends to reduce the ITZ porosity. The evolution of the ITZ microstructure relative to that of the bulk paste appears to depend on the initial content of the unhydrated cement grains (UH). The results suggest that the presence of a relatively low amount of UH in the ITZ at early age may cause the porosity of the ITZ, relative to that of the bulk paste, to increase with time. The presence of relatively large amount of UH in the ITZ at early ages may cause its porosity, relative to that of the bulk paste, to decrease with time

  2. Interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of Cf/AZ91D composites with TiO2 and PyC fiber coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaolin; Qi, Lehua; Zhang, Ting; Ju, Luyan; Li, Hejun

    2017-10-01

    In spite of the effectiveness of the fiber coatings on interface modification of carbon fiber reinforced magnesium matrix composites, the cost and exclusive equipment for the coatings preparation are usually ignored during research work. In this paper, pyrolytic carbon (PyC) and TiO 2 were coated on carbon fiber surface to study the effects of fiber coatings on interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced AZ91D composites (C f /AZ91D composites). It was indicated that both the two coatings could modify the interface and improve the mechanical properties of the composites. The ultimate tensile strength of the TiO 2 -C f /AZ91D and the PyC-C f /AZ91D composite were 333MPa and 400MPa, which were improved by 41.7% and 70.2% respectively, compared with the untreated-C f /AZ91D composite. The microstructure observation revealed that the strengthening of the composites relied on fiber integrity and moderate interfacial bonding. MgO nano-particles were generated at the interface due to the reaction of TiO 2 with Mg in the TiO 2 -C f /AZ91D composite. The volume expansion resulting from the reaction let to disordered intergranular films and crystal defects at the interface. The fibers were protected and the interfacial reaction was restrained by PyC coating in the PyC-C f /AZ91D composite. The principle to select the coating of fiber was proposed by comparing the effectiveness and cost of the coatings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coupled Interfacial Tension and Phase Behavior Model Based on Micellar Curvatures

    KAUST Repository

    Torrealba, V. A.; Johns, R. T.

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a consistent and robust model that predicts interfacial tensions for all microemulsion Winsor types and overall compositions. The model incorporates film bending arguments and Huh's equation and is coupled to phase behavior

  4. Micromechanical performance of interfacial transition zone in fiber-reinforced cement matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharda, V.; Němeček, J.; Štemberk, P.

    2017-09-01

    The paper investigates microstructure, chemical composition and micromechanical behavior of an interfacial transition zone (ITZ) in steel fiber reinforced cement matrix. For this goal, a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation and elastic homogenization theory are used. The investigated sample of cement paste with dispersed reinforcement consists of cement CEM I 42,5R and a steel fiber TriTreg 50 mm. The microscopy revealed smaller portion of clinkers and larger porosity in the ITZ. Nanoindentation delivered decreased elastic modulus in comparison with cement bulk (67%) and the width of ITZ (∼ 40 μm). The measured properties served as input parameters for a simple two-scale model for elastic properties of the composite. Although, no major influence of ITZ properties on the composite elastic behavior was found, the findings about the ITZ reduced properties and its size can serve as input to other microstructural fracture based models.

  5. Interfacial Microstructure and Properties of Steel/Aluminum Powder Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUAN Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on first-principles density functional theory, the Fe/Al interface model of steel/aluminum laser welding was constructed by layer technique. The Fe/Al interface was studied by metal atom X (X=Sn, Sr, Zr, Ce, La.The results show that Sn, Sr and Ce preferentially displace the Al atoms at the Fe/Al interface, while La and Zr preferentially displace the Fe atoms at the Fe/Al interface. Alloying promotes the transfer of Fe/Al interfacial electrons between different orbits, enhances the ionic bond properties of Fe-Al, improves the Fe/Al interface binding capacity, improves the brittle fracture of Fe/Al interface, and the alloying effect of Sn most notable. On the basis of this, the laser lap welding test of Sn and Zr powder was carried out on 1.4mm thick DC51D+ZF galvanized steel and 1.2mm thick 6016 aluminum alloy specimen. The results show that the addition of powder can promote the flowability of the molten bath and change the composition and microstructure of the joint interface. The tensile strength of the steel/aluminum joint is 327.41MPa and the elongation is 22.93% with the addition of Sn powder, which is obviously improved compared with the addition of Zr powder and without the addition of powder.

  6. Microstructure, mechanical property and corrosion behavior of interpenetrating (HA + β-TCP)/MgCa composite fabricated by suction casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Dong, L.H.; Li, J.T.; Li, X.L.; Ma, X.L.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2013-01-01

    The novel interpenetrating (HA + β-TCP)/MgCa composites were fabricated by infiltrating MgCa alloy into porous HA + β-TCP using suction casting technique. The microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviors of the composites have been evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical testing, electrochemical and immersion tests. It was shown that the composites had compact structure and the interfacial bonding between MgCa alloy and HA + β-TCP scaffolds was very well. The ultimate compressive strength of the composites was about 500–1000 fold higher than that of the original porous scaffolds, and it still retained quarter-half of the strength of the bulk MgCa alloy. The electrochemical and immersion tests indicated that the corrosion resistance of the composites was better than that of the MgCa matrix alloy, and the corrosion products of the composite surface were mainly Mg(OH) 2 , HA and Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 . Meanwhile, the mechanical and corrosive properties of the (HA + β-TCP)/MgCa composites were adjustable by the choice of HA content. - Highlights: • The composites were fabricated by infiltrating MgCa alloy into porous HA + β-TCP. • The microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties were investigated. • It showed composites had compact structures and good interfacial bonding. • The mechanical and corrosive properties can be adjustable by the HA content. • The corrosion mechanism of the composite has been explained

  7. Comparison of crude oil interfacial behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetge, J.H.; Panchev, N. [Champion Technologies Inc., Fresno, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The bulk properties of crude oil are used to predict its behaviour with regards to treatment, transport and processing. Surface active components, such as asphaltenes, are often used to study or explain critical interfacial behaviour of crude oil. This study investigated the differences and similarities in the interfacial behaviour of the collective surface active component in various crude oils from different sources. The properties of interfaces between crude oil and water were compared using a Teclis drop shape tensiometer. A portion of a crude oil sample was diluted in toluene and contacted with water in a rising drop configuration. Dynamic surface tension and interfacial rheology was examined as a function of time from the early stages of interface formation. Sinusoidal oscillation of the drop volume allowed for the evaluation of visco-elastic behaviour of the crude oil/water interface as it developed with time. The Gibbs elastic modulus, as well as its elastic and viscose components were calculated from the drop shape. The interfacial behaviour was expressed in terms of concentration, oscillation frequency and interface age. It was concluded that knowledge of crude oil interfacial character could be of value in the treatment, transport and processing of crude oils because the its behaviour may play a significant role in crude oil production and processing.

  8. Modification of the Interfacial Interaction between Carbon Fiber and Epoxy with Carbon Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejing Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of the hybrid materials and epoxy and carbon fiber (CF composites were improved significantly as compared to the CF composites made from unmodified epoxy. The reasons could be attributed to the strong interfacial interaction between the CF and the epoxy composites for the existence of carbon nanomaterials. The microstructure and dispersion of carbon nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and optical microscopy (OM. The results showed that the dispersion of the hybrid materials in the polymer was superior to other carbon nanomaterials. The high viscosity and shear stress characterized by a rheometer and the high interfacial friction and damping behavior characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA indicated that the strong interfacial interaction was greatly improved between fibers and epoxy composites. Remarkably, the tensile tests presented that the CF composites with hybrid materials and epoxy composites have a better reinforcing and toughening effect on CF, which further verified the strong interfacial interaction between epoxy and CF for special structural hybrid materials.

  9. Racial variations in interfacial behavior of lipids extracted from worn soft contact lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Svitova, TF; Lin, MC

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore interfacial behaviors and effects of temperature and dilatation on dynamic properties of multilayered human tear lipids extracted from silicone hydrogel (SiH) lenses worn by asymptomatic Asian and white subjects. METHODS: Interfacial properties of lipids extracted from Focus NandD lenses worn by 14 subjects continuously for 1 month were studied. The lipids were deposited on an air bubble immersed in a model tear electrolyte (MTE) solution to form 100 ± 20-nm-thick films. S...

  10. A model for simulation of coupled microstructural and compositional evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikare, Veena; Homer, Eric R.; Holm, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    The formation, transport and segregation of components in nuclear fuels fundamentally control their behavior, performance, longevity and safety. Most nuclear fuels enter service with a uniform composition consisting of a single phase with two or three components. Fission products form, introducing more components. The segregation and transport of the components is complicated by the underlying microstructure consisting of grains, pores, bubbles and more, which is evolving under temperature gradients during service. As they evolve, components and microstructural features interact such that composition affects microstructure and vice versa. The ability to predict the interdependent compositional and microstructural evolution in 3D as a function of burn-up would greatly improve the ability to design safe, high burn-up nuclear fuels. We present a model that combines elements of Potts Monte Carlo, MC, and the phase-field model to treat coupled microstructural-compositional evolution. This hybrid model uses an equation of state, EOS, based on the microstructural state and the composition. The microstructural portion uses the traditional MC EOS and the compositional portion uses the phase-field EOS: E hyb = N Σ i=1 (E v (q i ,C)+1/2 n Σ j=1 J(q i ,q j )) + ∫κ c (∇C) 2 dV. E v is the bulk free energy of each site i and J is the bond energy between neighboring sites i and j; thus, this term defines the microstructural interfacial energy. The last term is the compositional interfacial energy as defined in the traditional phase-field model. Evolution of coupled microstructure-composition is simulated by minimizing free energy in a path dependent manner. This model will be presented and will be demonstrated by applying it to evolution of nuclear fuels during service. (author)

  11. Methodology for assessing the interfacial sliding stress of a 2D woven SiC-SiC composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morvan, J.-M.; Baste, S. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France)

    1999-03-01

    A micromechanical model is established to assess the value of the interfacial sliding stress as a function of the elastic and inelastic strains, the transverse crack density and the area upon which the sliding takes. The interfacial sliding stress is then measured during all the tensile test whether the damage occurs at the meso or at the microstructure level of a 2D SiC-SiC composite. The ultrasonic characterization through the complete determination of the stiffness tensor along a tensile test detects all the damage mechanisms and allows a strain partition under load which separates the various mechanisms responsible for the non-linear behavior of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). It results that, according to the scale of the composite, the interfacial sliding stress exhibits a different value due to the nature of the bonding. (orig.) 13 refs.

  12. Interfacial Microstructure and Shear Strength of Brazed Cu-Cr-Zr Alloy Cylinder and Cylindrical Hole by Au Based Solder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaihua Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Au-Ge-Ni solder was chosen for brazing of the Cu-Cr-Zr alloy cylinder and a part with a cylindrical hole (sleeve below 550 °C. The Au based solder was first sintered on the surface of the cylinder and then brazed to the inner surface of the sleeve. The effects of the heating process, the temperature and the holding time at the temperature on the microstructure of the sintered layer on the surface of the cylinder, the brazed interfacial microstructure, and the brazed shear strength between the cylinder and the sleeve were investigated by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, and tensile shear tests. By approach of side solder melt feeding and brazing under proper parameters, the voids and micro cracks due to a lack of enough solder melt feeding are greatly lessened and the brazed shear strength of 100 MPa is ensured even with large clearances around 0.01 mm.

  13. Interfacial behavior of polar, weakly polar, and nonpolar compounds bound to activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun'ko, V M; Turov, V V; Zarko, V I; Goncharuk, O V; Nychiporuk, Yu M; Kozynchenko, O P; Skubiszewska-Zięba, J; Leboda, R; Charmas, B; Balakin, D Yu; Ptushinskii, Yu G

    2013-08-15

    Detailed analysis of the interfacial behavior of water and weakly polar or nonpolar organics adsorbed alone or co-adsorbed onto activated carbons (AC) at different temperatures is a complex problem important for practical applications of adsorbents. Interaction of water, 1-decanol, and n-decane with AC possessing highly developed porosity (pore volume Vp≈1.4-2.3 cm(3)/g, specific surface area S(BET)≈1500-3500 m(2)/g) was studied over a broad temperature range using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermoporometry, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, cryoporometry, and temperature-programmed desorption with mass-spectrometry control methods. Comparison of the pore size distributions (PSD) calculated using the DSC thermoporometry, NMR cryoporometry, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms allows us to determine localization of adsorbates in different pores, as well as changes in the PSD of AC due to freezing of adsorbates in pores. Theoretical calculations (using ab initio HF/6-31G(d,p), DFT B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), and PM7 methods) explain certain aspects of the interfacial behavior of water, decane, and decanol adsorbed onto AC that appear in the experimental data. Obtained results show strong temperature dependence (above and below the freezing point, Tf, of bulk liquids) of the interfacial behavior of adsorbates on the textural characteristics and hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties of AC and the adsorbate amounts that affect the distributions of adsorbates unfrozen at T

  14. A common microstructure in behavioral hearing thresholds and stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, James B; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2017-11-01

    Behavioral hearing thresholds and otoacoustic emission (OAE) spectra often exhibit quasiperiodic fluctuations with frequency. For behavioral and OAE responses to single tones-the latter referred to as stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs)-this microstructure has been attributed to intracochlear reflections of SFOAE energy between its region of generation and the middle ear boundary. However, the relationship between behavioral and SFOAE microstructures, as well as their presumed dependence on the properties of the SFOAE-generation mechanism, have yet to be adequately examined. To address this, behavioral thresholds and SFOAEs evoked by near-threshold tones were compared in 12 normal-hearing female subjects. The microstructures observed in thresholds and both SFOAE amplitudes and delays were found to be strikingly similar. SFOAE phase accumulated an integer number of cycles between the frequencies of microstructure maxima, consistent with a dependence of microstructure periodicity on SFOAE propagation delays. Additionally, microstructure depth was correlated with SFOAE magnitude in a manner resembling that predicted by the intracochlear reflection framework, after assuming reasonable values of parameters related to middle ear transmission. Further exploration of this framework may yield more precise estimates of such parameters and provide insight into their frequency dependence.

  15. Essays on Market Microstructure, Behavioral Finance, and Asset Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochec, Marek

    2009-01-01

    This is a study on various aspects of market microstructure, behavioral finance and asset management. In the first chapter we put the PIN variable (Probability of Information-based trading) to test. The PIN variable has been used extensively in the microstructure literature despite the fact that its construction is based on rather strong…

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of metal/oxide and metal/silicide interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, L.; Miracle, D.; Abbaschian, R.

    1995-01-01

    Fracture energies of Al 2 O 3 /Nb interfaces and MoSi 2 /Nb interfaces with and without Al 2 O 3 coating were measured using sandwich-type chevron-notched specimens. The relations between the mechanical properties, microstructures, types of bonds at the interface and processing routes were explored. The fracture energy of the Al 2 O 3 /Nb interface was determined to be 9 J/m 2 and changed to 16 J/m 2 when Nb was pre-oxidized before the formation of the Al 2 O 3 /Nb interface. The fracture energy of the MoSi 2 /Nb interface could not be determined directly because of the formation of the interfacial compounds. However, the fracture energy at the MoSi 2 /Nb interfacial region was found to depend on the interfacial bond strength, roughness of interfaces and microstructure of interfacial compounds. The interfacial fracture energies of Al 2 O 3 with silicides, MoSi 2 , Nb 5 Si 3 , or (Nb, Mo)Si 2 were estimated to be about 16 J/m 2 , while the interfacial fracture energies between two silicides or between Nb and a silicide were larger than 34 J/m 2 . The measured fracture energies between two silicides or between Nb and a silicide were larger than 34 J/m 2 . The measured fracture energies of the various interfaces are discussed in terms of the interfacial microstructures and types of bonds at the interfaces

  17. Microstructure and Interfacial Reactions During Vacuum Brazing of Stainless Steel to Titanium Using Ag-28 pct Cu Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laik, A.; Shirzadi, A. A.; Sharma, G.; Tewari, R.; Jayakumar, T.; Dey, G. K.

    2015-02-01

    Microstructural evolution and interfacial reactions during vacuum brazing of grade-2 Ti and 304L-type stainless steel (SS) using eutectic alloy Ag-28 wt pct Cu were investigated. A thin Ni-depleted zone of -Fe(Cr, Ni) solid solution formed on the SS-side of the braze zone (BZ). Cu from the braze alloy, in combination with the dissolved Fe and Ti from the base materials, formed a layer of ternary compound , adjacent to Ti in the BZ. In addition, four binary intermetallic compounds, CuTi, CuTi, CuTi and CuTi formed as parallel contiguous layers in the BZ. The unreacted Ag solidified as islands within the layers of CuTi and CuTi. Formation of an amorphous phase at certain locations in the BZ could be revealed. The -Ti(Cu) layer, formed due to diffusion of Cu into Ti-based material, transformed to an -Ti + CuTi eutectoid with lamellar morphology. Tensile test showed that the brazed joints had strength of 112 MPa and failed at the BZ. The possible sequence of events that led to the final microstructure and the mode of failure of these joints were delineated.

  18. Dependence of triboelectric charging behavior on material microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew E.; Gil, Phwey S.; Holonga, Moses; Yavuz, Zelal; Baytekin, H. Tarik; Sankaran, R. Mohan; Lacks, Daniel J.

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate that differences in the microstructure of chemically identical materials can lead to distinct triboelectric charging behavior. Contact charging experiments are carried out between strained and unstrained polytetrafluoroethylene samples. Whereas charge transfer is random between samples of identical strain, when one of the samples is strained, systematic charge transfer occurs. No significant changes in the molecular-level structure of the polymer are observed by XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy after deformation. However, the strained surfaces are found to exhibit void and craze formation spanning the nano- to micrometer length scales by molecular dynamics simulations, SEM, UV-vis spectroscopy, and naked-eye observations. This suggests that material microstructure (voids and crazes) can govern the triboelectric charging behavior of materials.

  19. Microstructural evaluation of interfacial intermetallic compounds in Cu wire bonding with Al and Au pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Giun; Kim, Sang Min; Lee, Jae Young; Choi, Mi Ri; Choe, Si Hyun; Kim, Ki Hong; Ryu, Jae Sung; Kim, Sangshik; Han, Seung Zeon; Kim, Won Yong; Lim, Sung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study on the difference in interfacial behavior of thermally aged Cu wire bonding with Al and Au pads was conducted using transmission electron microscopy. During high-temperature lifetime testing of Cu wire bonding with Al and Au pads at 175 °C for up to 2000 h, different growth rates and growth characteristics were investigated in the Cu–Al intermetallic compounds (IMCs), including CuAl 2 , CuAl and Cu 9 Al 4 , and in the Cu–Au IMCs, including (Au,Cu), Cu 3 Au and (Cu,Au). Because of the lower growth rates and greater ductility of Cu–Au IMCs compared to those of Cu–Al IMCs, the Cu wire bonding with the Au pad showed relatively better thermal aging properties of bond pull strength and ball shear strength than those with the Al pad counterpart. In this study, the coherent interfaces were found to retard the growth of IMCs, and a variety of orientation relationships between wire, pad and interfacial IMCs were identified

  20. Hot deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of TA15 titanium alloy with nonuniform microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pengfei; Zhan, Mei, E-mail: zhanmei@nwpu.edu.cn; Fan, Xiaoguang; Lei, Zhenni; Cai, Yang

    2017-03-24

    The flow behavior and microstructure evolution of a near α titanium alloy with nonuniform microstructure during hot deformation were studied by isothermal compression test and electron backscatter diffraction technique. It is found that the nonuniform microstructure prior to deformation consists of equiaxed α, lamellar α in the colony form and β phase, and the α colony keeps the Burgers orientation relationship with β phase. The flow stress of nonuniform microstructure exhibits significant flow softening after reaching the peak stress at a low strain, which is similar to the lamellar microstructure. Nevertheless, the existence of equiaxed α in nonuniform microstructure makes its flow stress and softening rate be lower than the lamellar microstructure. During deformation, the lamellar α undertakes most of the deformation and turns to be rotated, bended and globularized. Moreover, these phenomena exhibit significant heterogeneity due to the orientation dependence of the deformation of lamellar α. The continuous dynamic recrystallization and bending of lamellar α lead to the “fragmentation” during globularization of lamellar α. The bending of lamellar α is speculated as a form of plastic buckling, because the bending of lamellar α almost proceed in the manner of “rigid rotation” and presents opposite bending directions for the adjacent colonies.

  1. Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Deep Drawing DC04 Steel at Different Length Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Schreijäg, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The deformation behavior of steels is strongly influenced by their microstructure which is a result of the alloying elements and thermal treatments. In this work, the microstructure and the deformation behavior of a non-alloyed deep drawing DC04 steel was investigated. The microstructure was analyzed during heat treatment by EBSD, then microcompression experiments were performed on selected microstructural units and then bulk steel samples were mechanically tested by tensile experiments.

  2. Wetting Behavior of Mold Flux Droplet on Steel Substrate With or Without Interfacial Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lejun; Li, Jingwen; Wang, Wanlin; Sohn, Il

    2017-08-01

    The slag entrapment in mold tends to cause severe defects on the slab surface, especially for casting steels containing active alloy elements such as Al, Ti, and Mn. The wetting behavior of molten mold flux on the initial solidified shell is considered to be a key factor to determine the entrapment of mold slag on the shell surface. Therefore, the wetting behavior of mold flux droplet on the steel substrate with or without interfacial reaction was investigated by the sessile drop method. The results indicated that the melting process of mold flux has a significant influence on the variation of contact angle, and the final contact angle for Flux1 droplet on 20Mn23AlV is only 15 deg, which is lower than the other two cases due to the intensive interracial reactions occurring in this case. In addition, the thickness of the interaction layer for the case of Flux1 on 20Mn23AlV is 10- μm greater than the other two cases, which confirms that the most intensive reactions occurred at the interface area. The microstructure and element distribution at the interface analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) suggested that the increase of wettability of mold flux droplet on the steel substrate is caused by the migration of Al, Mn, and Si elements occurring in the vicinity of the interface. The results obtained in this article can reveal the mechanism of flux entrapment by hook or shell and provide theoretic guidance for mold flux design and optimization.

  3. Dynamic interfacial tension behavior of alkyl amino sulfonate in crude oil-brine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhao Hua; Luo, Yue [Yangtze Univ., Jingzhou, Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering

    2013-09-15

    The compatibility of surfactants, a series of alkyl amino sulfonate containing various the length of alkyl chain (dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl and octadecyl, developed in our laboratory), with formation water matching the Xinjiang Oil Field reservoir water and the dynamic interfacial tensions (DIT) behaviors between the crude oil and the formation water for a number of alkaline flooding systems were measured. These surfactants are found to be well compatible with formation water up to 0.10g L{sup -1} surfactant concentration, especially Dodec-AS and Tetradec-AS show a good compatibility with formation water over the full range of surfactant concentration investigated (0.01-0.20g L{sup -1}). All surfactants exhibit the dynamic interfacial tension behavior, and can reach and maintain low interfacial tension at very low concentration. The time for reaching the equilibrium DIT (DIT{sub eq}) is longer for surfactant with stronger lipophilicity, e.g. octadecyl-AS. It is interestingly found that the ratio value between DIT{sub eq} and the tension at crude oil/reservoir water interface in the absence of surfactant is in the range of 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} mN m{sup -1}, accordingly based on which and the previous results, four surfactants individually or with other additives together may become potent candidates for enhanced oil recovery. Fortunately, the alkyl amino sulfonate combinational systems without alkali designed by our group can reduce the interfacial tension even to 10{sup -4} mN m{sup -1} at very low surfactant concentration. These surfactants or their systems have characteristic of 'Green', in addition to the excellent salt-tolerance and the less expensive cost for enhanced oil recovery, and therefore they are good oil-displacing reagents for enhanced oil recovery. (orig.)

  4. The influence of interfacial energies and gravitational levels on the directionally solidified structures in hypermonotectic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J. B.; Curreri, P. A.; Sandlin, A. C.

    1988-01-01

    Various Cu-Pb-Al alloys were directionally solidified under 1-g conditions and alternating high-g/low-g conditions (achieved using NSAS's KC-135 aircraft) as a means of studying the influence of interfacial energies and gravitational levels on the resulting microstructures. Directional solidification of low Al content alloys was found to result in samples with coarser more irregular microstructures than in alloys with high Al contents under all the gravity conditions considered. Structures are correlated with interfacial energies, growth rates, and gravitational levels.

  5. Friction behavior of a microstructured polymer surface inspired by snake skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Martina J; Heepe, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the influence of microstructures found on ventral scales of the biological model, Lampropeltis getula californiae, the California King Snake, on the friction behavior. For this purpose, we compared snake-inspired anisotropic microstructured surfaces to other microstructured surfaces with isotropic and anisotropic geometry. To exclude that the friction measurements were influenced by physico-chemical variations, all friction measurements were performed on the same epoxy polymer. For frictional measurements a microtribometer was used. Original data were processed by fast Fourier transformation (FFT) with a zero frequency related to the average friction and other peaks resulting from periodic stick-slip behavior. The data showed that the specific ventral surface ornamentation of snakes does not only reduce the frictional coefficient and generate anisotropic frictional properties, but also reduces stick-slip vibrations during sliding, which might be an adaptation to reduce wear. Based on this extensive comparative study of different microstructured polymer samples, it was experimentally demonstrated that the friction-induced stick-slip behavior does not solely depend on the frictional coefficient of the contact pair.

  6. Friction behavior of a microstructured polymer surface inspired by snake skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina J. Baum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to understand the influence of microstructures found on ventral scales of the biological model, Lampropeltis getula californiae, the California King Snake, on the friction behavior. For this purpose, we compared snake-inspired anisotropic microstructured surfaces to other microstructured surfaces with isotropic and anisotropic geometry. To exclude that the friction measurements were influenced by physico-chemical variations, all friction measurements were performed on the same epoxy polymer. For frictional measurements a microtribometer was used. Original data were processed by fast Fourier transformation (FFT with a zero frequency related to the average friction and other peaks resulting from periodic stick-slip behavior. The data showed that the specific ventral surface ornamentation of snakes does not only reduce the frictional coefficient and generate anisotropic frictional properties, but also reduces stick-slip vibrations during sliding, which might be an adaptation to reduce wear. Based on this extensive comparative study of different microstructured polymer samples, it was experimentally demonstrated that the friction-induced stick-slip behavior does not solely depend on the frictional coefficient of the contact pair.

  7. Interfacial behavior of perchlorate versus chloride ions in saturated aqueous salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, S; Kuo, I W; Baer, M D; Bluhm, H

    2009-04-14

    In recent years combination of theoretical and experimental work have presented a novel view of the aqueous interface wherein hard and/or multiply charged ions are excluded from the interface, but large polarizable anions show interfacial enhancement relative to the bulk. The observed trend in the propensity of anions to adsorb at the air/water interface appears to be reverse of the Hofmeister series for anions. This study focuses on experimental and theoretical examination of the partitioning behavior of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) and chloride (Cl{sup -}) ions at the air/water interface. We have used ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique to directly probe the interfacial concentrations of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and Cl{sup -} ions in sodium perchlorate and sodium chloride solutions, respectively. Experimental observations are compared with first principles molecular dynamics simulations. Both experimental and simulation results show enhancement of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} ion at the interface, compared with the absence of such enhancement in the case of Cl{sup -} ion. These observations are in agreement with the expected trend in the interfacial propensity of anions based on the Hofmeister series.

  8. Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal dealloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geslin, Pierre-Antoine; McCue, Ian; Gaskey, Bernard; Erlebacher, Jonah; Karma, Alain

    2015-11-19

    Liquid metal dealloying has emerged as a novel technique to produce topologically complex nanoporous and nanocomposite structures with ultra-high interfacial area and other unique properties relevant for diverse material applications. This process is empirically known to require the selective dissolution of one element of a multicomponent solid alloy into a liquid metal to obtain desirable structures. However, how structures form is not known. Here we demonstrate, using mesoscale phase-field modelling and experiments, that nano/microstructural pattern formation during dealloying results from the interplay of (i) interfacial spinodal decomposition, forming compositional domain structures enriched in the immiscible element, and (ii) diffusion-coupled growth of the enriched solid phase and the liquid phase into the alloy. We highlight how those two basic mechanisms interact to yield a rich variety of topologically disconnected and connected structures. Moreover, we deduce scaling laws governing microstructural length scales and dealloying kinetics.

  9. Microstructural effects on the creep and crack propagation behaviors of γ-Ti aluminide alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupinc, V.; Onofrio, G.; Nazmy, M.; Staubli, M.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma titanium aluminides class of materials possess several unique physical and mechanical properties. These characteristics can be attractive for specific industrial applications. By applying different heat treatment schedules one can change the microstructural features of this class of materials. In the present investigation, two heat treatment schedules were used to produce two different microstructures, duplex (D) and nearly lamellar (NL) in the cast and HIP'ed Ti-47Al-2W-0.5Si alloy. The tensile strength and creep behavior, in the 700--850 C temperature range, of this alloy have been determined and correlated to the corresponding microstructures. In addition, the fatigue crack propagation behavior in this alloy has been studied at different temperatures. The results on the creep behavior showed that the alloy with nearly lamellar microstructure has a strongly improved creep strength as compared with that of the duplex microstructure

  10. Phase behavior, rheological characteristics and microstructure of sodium caseinate-Persian gum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Farzad; Kadkhodaee, Rassoul; Emadzadeh, Bahareh; Phillips, Glyn O

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the phase behavior of sodium caseinate-Persian gum mixtures was investigated. The effect of thermodynamic incompatibility on phase distribution of sodium caseinate fractions as well as the flow behavior and microstructure of the biopolymer mixtures were also studied. The phase diagram clearly demonstrated the dominant effect of Persian gum on the incompatibility of the two biopolymers. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis indicated no selective fractionation of sodium caseinate subunits between equilibrium phases upon de-mixing. The microstructure of mixtures significantly changed depending on their position within the phase diagram. Fitting viscometric data to Cross and Bingham models revealed that the apparent viscosity, relaxation time and shear thinning behavior of the mixtures is greatly influenced by the volume ratio and concentration of the equilibrium phases. There is a strong dependence of the flow behavior of sodium caseinate-Persian gum mixtures on the composition of the equilibrium phases and the corresponding microstructure of the system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Interfacial shear behavior of composite flanged concrete beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moataz Awry Mahmoud

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Composite concrete decks are commonly used in the construction of highway bridges due to their rapid constructability. The interfacial shear transfer between the top slab and the supporting beams is of great significance to the overall deck load carrying capacity and performance. Interfacial shear capacity is directly influenced by the distribution and the percentage of shear connectors. Research and design guidelines suggest the use of two different approaches to quantify the required interfacial shear strength, namely based on the maximum compressive forces in the flange at mid span or the maximum shear flow at the supports. This paper investigates the performance of flanged reinforced concrete composite beams with different shear connector’s distribution and reinforcing ratios. The study incorporated both experimental and analytical programs for beams. Key experimental findings suggest that concentrating the connectors at the vicinity of the supports enhances the ductility of the beam. The paper proposes a simple and straight forward approach to estimate the interfacial shear capacity that was proven to give good correlation with the experimental results and selected code provisions. The paper presents a method to predict the horizontal shear force between precast beams and cast in-situ slabs.

  12. Microscale interfacial behavior at vapor film collapse on high-temperature particle surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yutaka; Tochio, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    It has been pointed out that vapor film on a premixed high-temperature droplet surface should be collapsed to trigger vapor explosion. Thus, it is important to clarify the micromechanism of vapor film collapse behavior for the occurrence of vapor explosion. In the present study, microscale vapor-liquid interface behavior upon vapor film collapse caused by an external pressure pulse is experimentally observed and qualitatively analyzed. In the analytical investigation, interfacial temperature and interface movement were estimated with heat conduction analysis and visual data processing technique. Results show that condensation can possibly occur at the vapor-liquid interface when the pressure pulse arrived. That is, this result indicates that the vapor film collapse behavior is dominated not by fluid motion but by phase change. (author)

  13. Microstructure evaluation and mechanical behavior of high-niobium containing titanium aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Glenn Estep, Jr.

    Ti-Al-Nb-based alloys with gamma(TiAl)+sigma(Nb2Al) microstructure have shown promise for potential high temperature applications due to their high specific strength. Recent research has been aimed towards increasing strength and operating temperatures through microstructural refinement and control. Alloys with 10 - 30% sigma-phase have been investigated, exploring relationships between chemistry, microstructure development, and flow behavior. Alloys with composition Ti-45Al-xNb-5Cr-1Mo (where x = 15, 20, 25 at%) have been produced, characterized, and tested at high temperature under compression. Processing, microstructure and mechanical property relationships are thoroughly investigated to reveal a significant connection between phase stability, morphology and their resultant effects on mechanical properties. Phase transformation temperatures and stability ranges were predicted using the ThermoCalc software program and a titanium aluminide database, investigated through thermal analysis, and alloys were heat treated to develop an ultrafine gamma+sigma microstructure. It has been demonstrated that microstructural development in these alloys is sensitive to composition and processing parameters, and heating and cooling rates are vital to the modification of gamma+sigma microstructure in these alloys. Towards the goal of designing a high-Nb titanium aluminide with ultrafine, disconnected gamma+sigma morphology, it has been established that microstructural control can be accomplished in alloys containing 15-25at% Nb through targeted chemistry and processing controls. The strength and flow softening characteristics show strain rate sensitivity that is also affected by temperature. From the standpoint of microstructure development and mechanical behavior at elevated temperature, the most favorable results are obtained with the 20 at% Nb alloy, which produces a combination of high strength and fine disconnected gamma+sigma microstructure. Microstructural analysis reveals

  14. Influence of the micro- and nanoscale local mechanical properties of the interfacial transition zone on impact behavior of concrete made with different aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdem, Savaş; Dawson, Andrew Robert; Thom, Nicholas Howard

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the microscale local mechanical properties of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) on macro-level mechanical response and impact behavior is studied for concretes made with copper slag and gravel aggregates. 3D nanotech vertical scanning interferometry, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray micro-analysis, digital image analysis, and 3D X-ray computed tomography were used to characterize the microstructures and the ITZs. It was deduced that a stronger and denser ITZ in the copper slag specimen would reduce its vulnerability to stiffness loss and contribute to its elastic and more ductile response under impact loading. The analysis also indicated that a significant degeneration in the pore structure of the gravel specimen associated with a relatively weaker and non-homogeneous ITZ occurred under impact. Finally, it was also concluded that increased roughness of ITZ may contribute to the load-carrying capacity of concrete under impact by improving contact point interactions and energy dissipation.

  15. Modeling the Effects of Interfacial Characteristics on Gas Permeation Behavior of Nanotube-Mixed Matrix Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehrazi, Ehsan; Sharif, Alireza; Omidkhah, Mohammadreza; Karimi, Mohammad

    2017-10-25

    Theoretical approaches that accurately predict the gas permeation behavior of nanotube-containing mixed matrix membranes (nanotube-MMMs) are scarce. This is mainly due to ignoring the effects of nanotube/matrix interfacial characteristics in the existing theories. In this paper, based on the analogy of thermal conduction in polymer composites containing nanotubes, we develop a model to describe gas permeation through nanotube-MMMs. Two new parameters, "interfacial thickness" (a int ) and "interfacial permeation resistance" (R int ), are introduced to account for the role of nanotube/matrix interfacial interactions in the proposed model. The obtained values of a int , independent of the nature of the permeate gas, increased by increasing both the nanotubes aspect ratio and polymer-nanotube interfacial strength. An excellent correlation between the values of a int and polymer-nanotube interaction parameters, χ, helped to accurately reproduce the existing experimental data from the literature without the need to resort to any adjustable parameter. The data includes 10 sets of CO 2 /CH 4 permeation, 12 sets of CO 2 /N 2 permeation, 3 sets of CO 2 /O 2 permeation, and 2 sets of CO 2 /H 2 permeation through different nanotube-MMMs. Moreover, the average absolute relative errors between the experimental data and the predicted values of the proposed model are very small (less than 5%) in comparison with those of the existing models in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study where such a systematic comparison between model predictions and such extensive experimental data is presented. Finally, the new way of assessing gas permeation data presented in the current work would be a simple alternative to complex approaches that are usually utilized to estimate interfacial thickness in polymer composites.

  16. Evaluation of interfacial mechanical properties under shear loading in EB-PVD TBCs by the pushout method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Seok [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Liu Yufu [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Kagawa, Yutaka [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)]. E-mail: kagawa@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-06-15

    A new simple pushout technique for evaluation of interfacial shear mechanical properties in thermal barrier coatings has been developed. The technique is similar to the pushout test of fiber-reinforced ceramics, except for the specimen shape and support method. The technique has been applied to evaluation of interfacial delamination toughness, {gamma} {sub i}, of the electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) ZrO{sub 2} thermal barrier coating (TBC) system. The change of {gamma} {sub i} in the EB-PVD system with thermal exposure is measured and discussed in terms of microstructural change and delamination crack path. The measured delamination toughness varied from {gamma} {sub i} = 10 to 115 J/m{sup 2}. The delamination path and TGO growth were found to be closely related. The delamination toughness significantly decreases due to the formation and growth of a spinel phase in the TGO layer. The relation between delamination toughness and delamination behavior is discussed.

  17. Racial Variations in Interfacial Behavior of Lipids Extracted from Worn Soft Contact Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitova, Tatyana F.; Lin, Meng C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore interfacial behaviors and effect of temperature and dilatation on dynamic properties of multilayered human tear lipids extracted from silicone hydrogel (SiH) lenses worn by asymptomatic Asian and Caucasian subjects. Methods Interfacial properties of lipids extracted from Focus® N&D lenses worn by 14 subjects continuously for 1 month were studied. The lipids were deposited on an air bubble immersed in a model tear electrolytes (MTE) solution to form 100 ± 20 nm-thick films. Surface pressure was recorded during slow expansion/contraction cycles to evaluate compressibility and hysteresis of lipid films. Films were also subjected to fast step-strain dilatations at temperatures 22°–45° C for their visco-elastic properties assessment. Results Iso-cycles for Asian and Caucasian lipids were similar at low surface pressures, but had distinctly different compressibility and hysteresis at dynamic pressures exceeding 30 mN/m. Rheological parameters of reconstituted lipids were also dissimilar between Asian and Caucasian. The elastic modulusE∞ for Caucasian lipids was 1.5 times higher than that for Asian lipids, whereas relaxation time (t) was on average 1.3 times higher for Asian. No significant changes were observed in rheological properties of both Asian and Caucasian lipids when temperature increased from 22.0° to 36.5° C. However, for Caucasian lipids, E∞ reduced considerably at temperatures above 42.0° C, while t remained unchanged. For Asian lipids, both E∞ and t started to decline as temperature increased to 38° C and higher. Conclusions Higher elastic modulus of Caucasian lipids and elasticity threshold at certain deformations indicate stronger structure and intermolecular interactions as compared with more viscous Asian lipids. The differences in interfacial behaviors between Asian and Caucasian lipids may be associated with the differences in their chemical compositions. PMID:24270592

  18. Racial variations in interfacial behavior of lipids extracted from worn soft contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitova, Tatyana F; Lin, Meng C

    2013-12-01

    To explore interfacial behaviors and effects of temperature and dilatation on dynamic properties of multilayered human tear lipids extracted from silicone hydrogel (SiH) lenses worn by asymptomatic Asian and white subjects. Interfacial properties of lipids extracted from Focus N&D lenses worn by 14 subjects continuously for 1 month were studied. The lipids were deposited on an air bubble immersed in a model tear electrolyte (MTE) solution to form 100 ± 20-nm-thick films. Surface pressure was recorded during slow expansion/contraction cycles to evaluate compressibility and hysteresis of lipid films. Films were also subjected to fast step-strain dilatations at temperatures of 22 to 45°C for their viscoelastic property assessment. Isocycles for Asian and white lipids were similar at low surface pressures but had distinctly different compressibility and hysteresis at dynamic pressures exceeding 30 mN/m. Rheological parameters of reconstituted lipids were also dissimilar between Asian and white. The elastic modulus E∞ for white lipids was 1.5 times higher than that for Asian lipids, whereas relaxation time (t) was on average 1.3 times higher for Asian. No significant changes were observed in rheological properties of both Asian and white lipids when temperature increased from 22.0 to 36.5°C. However, for white lipids, E∞ reduced considerably at temperatures higher than 42.0°C, whereas t remained unchanged. For Asian lipids, both E∞ and t started to decline as temperature increased to 38°C and higher. Higher elastic modulus of white lipids and elasticity threshold at certain deformations indicate stronger structure and intermolecular interactions as compared with more viscous Asian lipids. The differences in interfacial behaviors between Asian and white lipids may be associated with the differences in their chemical compositions.

  19. Model of interfacial melting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Zuckermann, Martin J.

    1987-01-01

    A two-dimensional model is proposed to describe systems with phase transitions which take place in terms of crystalline as well as internal degrees of freedom. Computer simulation of the model shows that the interplay between the two sets of degrees of freedom permits observation of grain-boundar......-boundary formation and interfacial melting, a nonequilibrium process by which the system melts at the boundaries of a polycrystalline domain structure. Lipid membranes are candidates for systems with pronounced interfacial melting behavior....

  20. Liquid spreading on ceramic-coated carbon nanotube films and patterned microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hangbo; Hart, A. John

    2015-11-01

    We study the capillary-driven liquid spreading behavior on films and microstructures of ceramic-coated vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) fabricated on quartz substrates. The nanoscale porosity and micro-scale dimensions of the CNT structures, which can be precisely varied by the fabrication process, enable quantitative measurements that can be related to analytical models of the spreading behavior. Moreover, the conformal alumina coating by atomic layer deposition (ALD) prevents capillary-induced deformation of the CNTs upon meniscus recession, which has complicated previous studies of this topic. Washburn-like liquid spreading behavior is observed on non-patterned CNT surfaces, and is explained using a scaling model based on the balance of capillary driving force and the viscous drag force. Using these insights, we design patterned surfaces with controllable spreading rates and study the contact line pinning-depinning behavior. The nanoscale porosity, controllable surface chemistry, and mechanical stability of coated CNTs provide significantly enhanced liquid-solid interfacial area compared to solid microstructures. As a result, these surface designs may be useful for applications such as phase-change heat transfer and electrochemical energy storage. Funding for this project is provided by the National Institutes of Health and the MIT Center for Clean Water and Clean Energy supported by the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals.

  1. Tuning the Interfacial Mechanical Behaviors of Monolayer Graphene/PMMA Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guorui; Dai, Zhaohe; Liu, Luqi; Hu, Hai; Dai, Qing; Zhang, Zhong

    2016-08-31

    The van der Waals (vdW) force dominated interface between graphene and polymer matrix creates weak points in the mechanical sense. Chemical functionalization was expected to be an effective approach in transfer of the outstanding performance of graphene across multiple length scales up to the macroscopic level, due to possible improvements in the interfacial adhesion. However, published works showed the contradiction that improvements, insensitivity, or even worsening of macro-mechanical performance have all been reported in graphene-based polymer nanocomposites. Particularly central cause of such discrepancy is the variations in graphene/polymer interfacial chemistry, which is critical in nanocomposites with vast interfacial area. Herein, O3/H2O gaseous mixture was utilized to oxidize monolayer graphene sheet with controlled functionalization degrees. Hydrogen bonds (H bonds) are expected to form between oxidized graphene sheet/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) at the interface. On the basis of in situ tensile-micro Raman spectroscopy, the impacts of bonding types (vdW and H-bonds) on both key interfacial parameters (such as interfacial shear strength and critical length) and failure modes of graphene/PMMA nanocomposite were clarified for the first time at the microscopic level. Our results show that owing to improved interfacial interaction via H bonds, the interface tends to be stiffening and strengthening. Moreover, the mechanical properties of the functionalized graphene/PMMA interface will be set by the competition between the enhanced interfacial adhesion and the degraded elastic modulus of graphene, which was caused by structural defects in the graphene sheet during the functionalization process and could lead to catastrophic failure of graphene sheets in our experimental observation. Our results will be helpful to design various nanofiller-based nanocomposites with high mechanical performance.

  2. Local cyclic deformation behavior and microstructure of railway wheel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, F.; Eifler, D.

    2004-01-01

    The current investigations concentrate on the relation between the loading and environmental conditions, the local microstructure and the fatigue behavior of highly stressed railway wheel and tire steels. Experiments under stress control and total strain control were performed at ambient temperature with servohydraulic testing systems. Superimposed mean loadings allow an evaluation of cyclic creep and mean stress relaxation effects. Strain, temperature and electrical measuring techniques were used to characterize the cyclic deformation behavior of specimens from different depth positions of the cross-sections of UIC-specified wheel components (UIC: International Railway Union). The measured values show a strong interrelation. The microstructural characterization of the different material conditions was done by light and scanning electron microscopy together with digital image processing

  3. Tensile behavior change depending on the microstructure of a Fe-Cu alloy produced from rapidly solidified powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakisawa, Hideki; Minagawa, Kazumi; Halada, Kohmei

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between consolidating temperature and the tensile behavior of iron alloy produced from Fe-Cu rapidly solidified powder is investigated. Fe-Cu powder fabricated by high-pressure water atomization was consolidated by heavy rolling at 873-1273 K. Microstructural changes were observed and tensile behavior was examined. Tensile behavior varies as the consolidating temperature changes, and these temperature-dependent differences depend on the morphology of the microstructure on the order of micrometers. The sample consolidated at 873 K shows a good strength/elongation balance because the powder microstructure and primary powder boundaries are maintained. The samples consolidated at the higher temperatures have a microstructure of recrystallized grains, and these recrystallized samples show the conventional relationship between tensile behavior and grain size in ordinal bulk materials

  4. Scaling of interfacial jump conditions; Escalamiento de condiciones de salto interfacial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quezada G, S.; Vazquez R, A.; Espinosa P, G., E-mail: sequga@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Apdo. Postal 55-535, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    To model the behavior of a nuclear reactor accurately is needed to have balance models that take into account the different phenomena occurring in the reactor. These balances have to be coupled together through boundary conditions. The boundary conditions have been studied and different treatments have been given to the interface. In this paper is a brief description of some of the interfacial jump conditions that have been proposed in recent years. Also, the scaling of an interfacial jump condition is proposed, for coupling the different materials that are in contact within a nuclear reactor. (Author)

  5. Microstructure and creep behavior of an orthorhombic Ti-25Al-17Nb-1Mo alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.W.; Zou, D.X.; Li, S.Q.; Lee, C.S.; Lai, J.K.L.

    1998-01-01

    Microstructural evolution during three heat-treatment schedules and the terminal microstructures in an orthorhombic alloy of Ti-25Al-17Nb-1Mo were observed and analyzed with optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The creep behavior of the alloy with three different microstructures (a coarse-lath, fine-lath, and fine equiaxed microstructure) was studied over a temperature range of 600 C to 750 C and over a stress range of 150 to 400 MPa in air. The steady-state creep rates, apparent stress exponents, and apparent creep activation energies of the various samples have been determined. The results show that creep behaviors in the alloy are strongly influenced by microstructure. The effect on creep by some of the microstructural features, such as the multivariants within the coarse laths and the interfaces of the laths and the equiaxed grains, is also discussed

  6. Casting and stress-strain simulations of a cast ductile iron component using microstructure based mechanical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, Jakob; Svensson, Ingvar L

    2012-01-01

    The industrial demand for increased component performance with concurrent reductions in component weight, development times and verifications using physical prototypes drives the need to use the full potential of casting and Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations to correctly predict the mechanical behavior of cast components in service. The mechanical behavior of the component is determined by the casting process, and factors as component geometry and casting process parameters are known to affect solidification and microstructure formation throughout the component and cause local variations in mechanical behavior as well as residual stresses. Though residual stresses are known to be an important factor in the mechanical behavior of the component, the importance of local mechanical behavior is not well established and the material is typically considered homogeneous throughout the component. This paper deals with the influence of solidification and solid state transformation on microstructure formation and the effect of local microstructure variations on the mechanical behavior of the cast component in service. The current work aims to investigate the coupling between simulation of solidification, microstructure and local variations in mechanical behavior and stress-strain simulation. This is done by performing several simulations of a ductile iron component using a recently developed simulation strategy, a closed chain of simulations for cast components, able to predict and describe the local variations in not only elastic but also plastic behavior throughout the component by using microstructural parameters determined by simulations of microstructural evolution in the component during the casting process. In addition the residual stresses are considered. The results show that the FEM simulation results are significantly affected by including microstructure based mechanical behavior. When the applied load is low and the component is subjected to stress levels

  7. Microstructure and interfacial behaviour of Alumina/Inconel 600 joints prepared by brazing route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laik, A.; Mishra, P.; Bhanumurthy, K.; Kashyap, B.P.

    2010-01-01

    Joining of metals to ceramics remains a technological challenge due to the wide difference in the physical and mechanical properties of the two classes of materials. Attempt was made to produce leak tight joints between Inconel-600 and alumina using the brazing route with Au-Ni brazing alloy. Alumina tubes were metallised following the Mo-Mn route and then coated with Ni. The metallised alumina tubes were brazed to Inconel-600 ferrules using Au-18%Ni brazing alloy under vacuum, at optimised process parameters. In order to study the effect of prolong annealing on the microstructural stability and the micro-chemistry of the brazing zone, brazed joints were subjected to prolong annealing at 400 deg C and 560 deg C for 8000 hrs each. Detailed analysis of the interfacial structure of the brazing zones was done using an electron probe microanalyser (EPMA). X-ray maps of the elements Fe, Ni, Cr, Al, Au, Mo and Mn along with BSE images of the brazing zone are given. These X-ray maps precisely reveal the micro-chemistry of the brazing zones. The various phases formed were identified. The distribution of the various elements across the interfaces was also obtained, which helps to reveal the chemical behaviour of the individual elements during the process of brazing. Two phases appear very distinctly in the brazement, one is rich in Au and the other is rich in Ni. Depending upon their affinity, rest of the elements shows a partitioning in these two phases. While Fe, Cr and Mo get dissolved in the Ni-rich phase, Mn seems to partition in the Au-rich phase. The microstructure and the X-ray maps of the couple annealed at 400 deg C shows that the spatial variation in the composition throughout the brazing zone gets homogenised due to diffusion at high temperatures. This effect is even more pronounced on annealing at 560 deg C. Moreover, the transport of Cr from the Inconel side to the surface of alumina is very evident. On annealing at 560 deg C, a region rich in Cr, was found to

  8. Processing and microstructural characterization of B4C-Al cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, D.C.; Pyzik, A.J.; Aksay, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reaction thermodynamics and wetting studies were employed to evaluate boron carbide-aluminum cermets. Wetting phonomenon and interfacial reactions are characterized using ''macroscale'' and ''microscale'' techniques. Macroscale evaluation involved aluminium sessile drop studies on boron carbide substrates. Microscale evaluation involved the fabrication of actural cermet microstructures and their characterization through sem, x-ray diffraction, metallography, and electron microprobe. Contact-angle measurements and interfacial-reaction products are reported

  9. Metallurgical and interfacial characterization of PFM Co-Cr dental alloys fabricated via casting, milling or selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jabbari, Y S; Koutsoukis, T; Barmpagadaki, X; Zinelis, S

    2014-04-01

    Bulk and interfacial characterization of porcelain fused to metal (PFM) Co-Cr dental alloys fabricated via conventional casting, milling and selective laser melting. Three groups of metallic specimens made of PFM Co-Cr dental alloys were prepared using casting (CST), milling (MIL) and selective laser sintering (SLM). The porosity of the groups was evaluated using X-ray scans. The microstructures of the specimens were evaluated via SEM examination, EDX and XRD analysis. Vickers hardness testing was utilized to measure the hardness of the specimens. Interfacial characterization was conducted on the porcelain-covered specimens from each group to test the elemental distribution with and without the application of INmetalbond. The elemental distribution of the probed elements was assessed using EDX line profile analysis. Hardness results were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Holm-Sidak's method (α=0.05). X-ray radiography revealed the presence of porosity only in the CST group. Different microstructures were identified among the groups. Together with the γ phase matrix, a second phase, believed to be the Co3Mo phase, was also observed by SEM and subsequent XRD analysis. Cr7C3 and Cr23C6 carbides were also identified via XRD analysis in the CST and MIL groups. The hardness values were 320±12 HV, 297±5 HV and 371±10 HV, and statistically significant differences were evident among the groups. The microstructure and hardness of PFM Co-Cr dental alloys are dependent on the manufacturing technique employed. Given the differences in microstructural and hardness properties among the tested groups, further differences in their clinical behavior are anticipated. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Skin-inspired hydrogel-elastomer hybrids with robust interfaces and functional microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Hyunwoo; Zhang, Teng; Parada, German Alberto; Liu, Xinyue; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2016-06-01

    Inspired by mammalian skins, soft hybrids integrating the merits of elastomers and hydrogels have potential applications in diverse areas including stretchable and bio-integrated electronics, microfluidics, tissue engineering, soft robotics and biomedical devices. However, existing hydrogel-elastomer hybrids have limitations such as weak interfacial bonding, low robustness and difficulties in patterning microstructures. Here, we report a simple yet versatile method to assemble hydrogels and elastomers into hybrids with extremely robust interfaces (interfacial toughness over 1,000 Jm-2) and functional microstructures such as microfluidic channels and electrical circuits. The proposed method is generally applicable to various types of tough hydrogels and diverse commonly used elastomers including polydimethylsiloxane Sylgard 184, polyurethane, latex, VHB and Ecoflex. We further demonstrate applications enabled by the robust and microstructured hydrogel-elastomer hybrids including anti-dehydration hydrogel-elastomer hybrids, stretchable and reactive hydrogel-elastomer microfluidics, and stretchable hydrogel circuit boards patterned on elastomer.

  11. Modeling the effect of water vapor on the interfacial behavior of high-temperature air in contact with Fe20Cr surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chialvo, Ariel A.; Brady, Michael P.; Keiser, James R.; Cole, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Atomistic view of the contrasting interfacial behavior between high-temperature dry- and wet-air in contact with stainless steels. → H 2 O preferentially adsorbs and displaces oxygen at the metal-fluid interface. → Findings are consistent with Ehlers et al.'s proposed competitive adsorption mechanism for the interpretation of the breakaway oxidation. → Significant impact of the inhomogeneous density distribution between the interfacial- and bulk-environments on the fluid transport. -- This work uses molecular dynamics simulation to provide an atomistic view of the contrasting interfacial behavior between high-temperature dry air and wet (10-40 vol.% water) air in contact with stainless steels. A key finding was that H 2 O preferentially adsorbs and displaces oxygen at the metal-fluid interface. We also discuss how these findings are consistent with Ehlers et al. proposed competitive adsorption mechanism for the interpretation of the breakaway oxidation, and highlight their impact on other properties.

  12. Concurrent multiscale modeling of microstructural effects on localization behavior in finite deformation solid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Coleman N.; Foulk, James W.; Mota, Alejandro; Lim, Hojun; Littlewood, David J.

    2018-02-01

    The heterogeneity in mechanical fields introduced by microstructure plays a critical role in the localization of deformation. To resolve this incipient stage of failure, it is therefore necessary to incorporate microstructure with sufficient resolution. On the other hand, computational limitations make it infeasible to represent the microstructure in the entire domain at the component scale. In this study, the authors demonstrate the use of concurrent multiscale modeling to incorporate explicit, finely resolved microstructure in a critical region while resolving the smoother mechanical fields outside this region with a coarser discretization to limit computational cost. The microstructural physics is modeled with a high-fidelity model that incorporates anisotropic crystal elasticity and rate-dependent crystal plasticity to simulate the behavior of a stainless steel alloy. The component-scale material behavior is treated with a lower fidelity model incorporating isotropic linear elasticity and rate-independent J2 plasticity. The microstructural and component scale subdomains are modeled concurrently, with coupling via the Schwarz alternating method, which solves boundary-value problems in each subdomain separately and transfers solution information between subdomains via Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this study, the framework is applied to model incipient localization in tensile specimens during necking.

  13. Effect of Direct Current on Solid-Liquid Interfacial Tension and Wetting Behavior of Ga–In–Sn Alloy Melt on Cu Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of direct current (DC on the wetting behavior of Cu substrate by liquid Ga–25In–13Sn alloy at room temperature is investigated using a sessile drop method. It is found that there is a critical value for current intensity, below which the decrease of contact angle with increasing current intensity is approximately linear and above which contact angle tends to a stable value from drop shape. Current polarity is a negligible factor in the observed trend. Additionally, the observed change in contact angles is translated into the corresponding change in solid-liquid interfacial tension using the equation of state for liquid interfacial tensions. The solid-liquid interfacial tension decreases under DC. DC-induced promotion of solute diffusion coefficient is likely to play an important role in determining the wettability and solid-liquid interfacial tension under DC.

  14. Transient interfacial tension and dilatational rheology of diffuse polymer-polymer interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, G.W.M.; Zdravkov, A.N.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate the influence of molecular weight and molecular weightasymmetry across an interface on the transient behavior of the interfacial tension. The interfacial tension was measured as a function of time for a range of polymer combinations with a broadrange of interfacial properties using a

  15. Effect of compression deformation on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snir, Y.; Ben-Hamu, G.; Eliezer, D.; Abramov, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Metallurgical features (mainly twinning, dislocation accumulation, and dynamic recrystallization). ► The thermo-mechanical state (amount of deformation and its temperature). ► The corrosion behavior of wrought Mg-alloys. This correlation was emphasized by the mechanical behavior measured through micro-hardness. ► Microstructural changes during deformation, and potentio-dynamic corrosion tests were correlated. - Abstract: The effect of deformation on the corrosion and mechanical behavior of wrought Mg-alloys AZ31, AM50, and ZK60 was investigated. The materials’ behavior was correlated to the changes in metallurgical features, during compression, into different amounts of deformation at three temperatures: 250° C, 280° C, and 350° C. The metallurgical features were monitored by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was observed that there is a very strong correlation between three features: 1. metallurgical features (mainly twinning, dislocation accumulation, and dynamic recrystallization); 2. The thermo-mechanical state (amount of deformation and its temperature); and 3. The corrosion behavior of wrought Mg-alloys. This correlation was emphasized by the mechanical behavior measured through micro-hardness. Microstructural changes during deformation, and potentio-dynamic corrosion tests were correlated. These results show that studies on the effect of thermo-mechanical state (related to the microstructure) on the corrosion behavior of wrought Mg-alloys are essential in order to optimize their applicability to plastic forming processes.

  16. Microstructure of polymer-clay nanocomposites studied by positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.J.; Liu, L.M.; Fang, P.F.; Chen, Z.; Wang, H.M.; Zhang, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    The epoxy-rectorite nanocomposites with different rectorite contents, epoxide equivalent were prepared and its microstructure was studied by positron annihilation and X-ray diffraction (XRD). At low rectorite content (0-2.0%), the free volume size in nanocomposites is nearly the same, but its concentration decreases with increasing content; the exfoliated structure was observed by XRD and interfacial layer formation between rectorite platelets and epoxy matrix was probed by positrons. Comparing with epoxy-montmorillonite, the exfoliated structure and interfacial layers are easier formed in epoxy-rectorite nanocomposites

  17. Interfacial Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Joints of Commercially Pure Aluminum and 304 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Balamagendiravarman; Thirunavukarasu, Gopinath; Kundu, Sukumar; Kailas, Satish V.; Chatterjee, Subrata

    2018-05-01

    In the present investigation, friction stir welding of commercially pure aluminum and 304 stainless steel was carried out at varying tool rotational speeds from 200 to 1000 rpm in steps of 200 rpm using 60 mm/min traverse speed at 2 (degree) tool tilt angle. Microstructural characterization of the interfacial zone was carried out using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy indicated the presence of FeAl3 intermetallic phase. Thickness of the intermetallic layer increased with the increase in tool rotational speed. X-ray diffraction studies indicated the formation of intermetallic phases like FeAl2, Fe4Al13, Fe2Al5, and FeAl3. A maximum tensile strength of 90% that of aluminum along with 4.5% elongation was achieved with the welded sample at tool rotational speed of 400 rpm. The stir zone showed higher hardness as compared to base metals, heat affected zone, and thermo-mechanically affected zone due to the presence of intermetallics. The maximum hardness value at the stir zone was achieved at 1000 rpm tool rotational speed.

  18. Direct measurement of anisotropy of interfacial free energy from grain boundary groove morphology in transparent organic metal analong systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustwick, Bryce A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Both academia and industry alike have paid close attention to the mechanisms of microstructural selection during the solidification process. The forces that give rise to and the principles which rule the natural selection of particular morphologies are important to understanding and controlling new microstructures. Interfacial properties play a very crucial role to the selection of such microstructure formation. In the solidification of a metallic alloy, the solid-liquid interface is highly mobile and responds to very minute changes in the local conditions. At this interface, the driving force must be large enough to drive solute diffusion, maintain local curvature, and overcome the kinetic barrier to move the interface. Therefore, the anisotropy of interfacial free energy with respect to crystallographic orientation is has a significant influence on the solidification of metallic systems. Although it is generally accepted that the solid-liquid interfacial free energy and its associated anisotropy are highly important to the overall selection of morphology, the confident measurement of these particular quantities remains a challenge, and reported values are scarce. Methods for measurement of the interfacial free energy include nucleation experiments and grain boundary groove experiments. The predominant method used to determine anisotropy of interfacial energy has been equilibrium shape measurement. There have been numerous investigations involving grain boundaries at a solid-liquid interface. These studies indicated the GBG could be used to describe various interfacial energy values, which affect solidification. Early studies allowed for an estimate of interfacial energy with respect to the GBG energy, and finally absolute interfacial energy in a constant thermal gradient. These studies however, did not account for the anisotropic nature of the material at the GBG. Since interfacial energy is normally dependent on orientation of the crystallographic plane of the

  19. Enhanced Corrosion Resistance and Interfacial Conductivity of TiC x/a-C Nanolayered Coatings via Synergy of Substrate Bias Voltage for Bipolar Plates Applications in PEMFCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Peiyun; Zhang, Weixin; Bi, Feifei; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin

    2018-06-06

    Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are one kind of renewable and clean energy conversion device, whose metallic bipolar plates are one of the key components. However, high interfacial contact resistance and poor corrosion resistance are still great challenges for the commercialization of metallic bipolar plates. In this study, we demonstrated a novel strategy for depositing TiC x /amorphous carbon (a-C) nanolayered coatings by synergy of 60 and 300 V bias voltage to enhance corrosion resistance and interfacial conductivity. The synergistic effects of bias voltage on the composition, microstructure, surface roughness, electrochemical corrosion behaviors, and interfacial conductivity of TiC x /a-C coatings were explored. The results revealed that the columnar structures in the inner layer were suppressed and the surface became rougher with the 300 V a-C layer outside. The composition analysis indicated that the sp 2 content increased with an increase of 300 V sputtering time. Due to the synergy strategy of bias voltage, lower corrosion current densities were achieved both in potentiostatic polarization (1.6 V vs standard hydrogen electrode) and potentiodynamic polarization. With the increase of 300 V sputtering time, the interfacial conductivity was improved. The enhanced corrosion resistance and interfacial conductivity of the TiC x /a-C coatings would provide new opportunities for commercial bipolar plates.

  20. Modeling of the flow behavior of SAE 8620H combing microstructure evolution in hot forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaobin; Wang, Baoyu; Tang, Xuefeng

    2017-10-01

    With the development of net-shape forming technology, hot forming process is widely applied to manufacturing gear parts, during which, materials suffer severe plastic distortion and microstructure changes continually. In this paper, to understand and model the flow behavior and microstructure evolution, SAE 8620H, a widely used gear steel, is selected as the object and the flow behavior and microstructure evolution are observed by an isothermal hot compression tests at 1273-1373 K with a strain rate of 0.1-10 s-1. Depending on the results of the compression test, a set of internal-state-variable based unified constitutive equations is put forward to describe the flow behavior and microstructure evaluation of SAE 8620H. Moreover, the evaluation of the dislocation density and the fraction of dynamic recrystallization based on the theory of thermal activation is modeled and reincorporated into the constitutive law. The material parameters in the constitutive model are calculated based on the measured flow stress and dynamic recrystallization fraction. The predicted flow stress under different deformation conditions has a good agreement with the measured results.

  1. Interfacial Microstructure and Its Influence on Resistivity of Thin Layers Copper Cladding Steel Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjuan; Ding, Zhimin; Zhao, Ruirong

    2018-04-01

    The interfacial microstructure and resistivity of cold-drawn and annealed thin layers copper cladding steel (CCS) wires have been systematically investigated by the methods of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and resistivity testing. The results showed that the Cu and Fe atoms near interface diffused into each other matrixes. The Fe atoms diffused into Cu matrixes and formed a solid solution. The mechanism of solid solution is of substitution type. When the quantity of Fe atoms exceeds the maximum solubility, the supersaturated solid solution would form Fe clusters and decompose into base Cu and α-Fe precipitated phases under certain conditions. A few of α-Fe precipitates was observed in the copper near Cu/Fe interfaces of cold-drawn CCS wires, with 1-5 nm in size. A number of α-Fe precipitates of 1-20 nm in size can be detected in copper near Cu/Fe interfaces of CCS wires annealed at 850°C. When annealing temperature was less than 750°C, the resistivity of CCS wires annealed was lower than that of cold-drawn CCS wires. However, when annealing temperature was above 750°C, the resistivity of CCS wires was greater than that of cold-drawn CCS wires and increased with rising the annealing temperature. The relationship between nanoscale α-Fe precipitation and resistivity of CCS wires has been well discussed.

  2. Nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-12-31

    The present work summarizes recent progress in the investigation of nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys foils produced at exceptionally high cooling rates. We focus here on the potential of modification of hydrogen desorption kinetics in respect to weak and strong trapping sites that could serve as hydrogen sinks in Al materials. It is shown that it is important to elucidate the surface microstructure of the Al alloy foils at the submicrometer scale because rapidly solidified microstructural features affect hydrogen trapping at nanostructured defects. We discuss the profound influence of solute atoms on hydrogen−lattice defect interactions in the alloys. with emphasis on role of vacancies in hydrogen evolution; both rapidly solidified pure Al and conventionally processed aluminum samples are considered.

  3. Investigating interfacial contact configuration and behavior of single-walled carbon nanotube-based nanodevice with atomistic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Jianlei, E-mail: cjlxjtu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Jianwei [Xi’an Jiaotong University, State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering (China); He, Xiaoqiao, E-mail: bcxqhe@cityu.edu.hk [City University of Hong Kong, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering (Hong Kong); Mei, Xuesong; Wang, Wenjun [Xi’an Jiaotong University, State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering (China); Yang, Xinju [Fudan University, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics (China); Xie, Hui; Yang, Lijun; Wang, Yang [Harbin Institute of Technology, State Key Laboratory of Robotics and Systems (China)

    2017-03-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), are considered to be the promising candidates for next-generation interconnects with excellent physical and chemical properties ranging from ultrahigh mechanical strength, to electrical properties, to thermal conductivity, to optical properties, etc. To further study the interfacial contact configurations of SWNT-based nanodevice with a 13.56-Å diameter, the corresponding simulations are carried out with the molecular dynamic method. The nanotube collapses dramatically into the surface with the complete collapse on the Au/Ag/graphite electrode surface and slight distortion on the Si/SiO{sub 2} substrate surface, respectively. The related dominant mechanism is studied and explained. Meanwhile, the interfacial contact configuration and behavior, depended on other factors, are also analyzed in this article.

  4. Phase-Field Simulation of Microstructure Evolution in Industrial A2214 Alloy During Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming; Tang, Ying; Zhang, Lijun; Sun, Weihua; Du, Yong

    2015-07-01

    By linking to the thermodynamic and atomic mobility databases in Al alloys well established in our research group, the microstructure evolution in industrial A2214 alloy (Al-4.5Cu-0.5Mg-1.0Si, in wt pct) during solidification process was studied by means of two-dimensional phase-field simulation via MICRostructure Evolution Simulation Software in the framework of the multi-phase-field formalism. The thermophysical parameters including interfacial energies and interfacial mobilities were carefully chosen for reproducing the experimental features. The solidification sequence due to the present phase-field simulation conforms to both equilibrium calculation and Scheil simulation. The predicted microstructure reproduces the experimental data very well. These facts indicate that a quantitative phase-field simulation was achieved in the present work. Moreover, the mechanisms of characteristic patterns and microstructure formation were revealed with the aid of the phase-field simulation. In addition, the effect of cooling rate on the secondary dendrite arm spacing and microsegregation was also investigated through comprehensive comparison with the experimental data.

  5. Improving interfacial, mechanical and tribological properties of alumina coatings on Al alloy by plasma arc heat-treatment of substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guoliang; An, Yulong; Zhao, Xiaoqin; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin; Li, Shuangjian; Liu, Xia; Deng, Wen

    2017-07-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings can be used to improve the mechanical properties and wear resistance of aluminum alloys, but there are still some challenges to effectively increase their interfacial adhesion. Thus we conducted plasma arc-heat treatment (PA-HT) of Al alloy substrate before plasma spraying, hoping to tune the microstructure of Al2O3 coatings and improve their interfacial strength as well as mechanical and tribological properties. The influences of PA-HT on the microstructure of alumina coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, while its effect on mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated by a nano-indentation tester and a friction and wear tester. Results demonstrate that a few columnar δ-Al2O3 generated on substrate surface after PA-HT at 200-250 °C can induce the epitaxial growth of γ-Al2O3 grains in Al2O3 coatings, thereby enhancing their interfacial bonding. Besides, elevating substrate temperature can help alumina droplets to melt into the interior of substrate and eliminate holes at the interface, finally increasing the interfacial anchorage force. More importantly, no interfacial holes can allow the heat of droplets to be rapidly transmitted to substrate, which is beneficial to yield smaller crystals in coatings and greatly enhance their strength, hardness and wear resistance.

  6. Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujan, G.K.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Afifi, A.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lead free solders currently in use are prone to develop thick interfacial intermetallic compound layers with rough morphology which are detrimental to the long term solder joint reliability. A novel method has been developed to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers between lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder ball and copper substrate by doping a water soluble flux with metallic nanoparticles. Four types of metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium) were used to investigate their effects on the wetting behavior and interfacial microstructural evaluations after reflow. Nanoparticles were dispersed manually with a water soluble flux and the resulting nanoparticle doped flux was placed on copper substrate. Lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls of diameter 0.45 mm were placed on top of the flux and were reflowed at a peak temperature of 240 °C for 45 s. Angle of contact, wetting area and interfacial microstructure were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the angle of contact increased and wetting area decreased with the addition of cobalt, molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles to flux. On the other hand, wettability improved with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Cross-sectional micrographs revealed that both nickel and cobalt nanoparticle doping transformed the morphology of Cu 6 Sn 5 from a typical scallop type to a planer one and reduced the intermetallic compound thickness under optimum condition. These effects were suggested to be related to in-situ interfacial alloying at the interface during reflow. The minimum amount of nanoparticles required to produce the planer morphology was found to be 0.1 wt.% for both nickel and cobalt. Molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles neither appear to undergo alloying during reflow nor have any influence at the solder/substrate interfacial reaction. Thus, doping of flux

  7. Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujan, G.K., E-mail: sgkumer@gmail.com; Haseeb, A.S.M.A., E-mail: haseeb@um.edu.my; Afifi, A.B.M., E-mail: amalina@um.edu.my

    2014-11-15

    Lead free solders currently in use are prone to develop thick interfacial intermetallic compound layers with rough morphology which are detrimental to the long term solder joint reliability. A novel method has been developed to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers between lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder ball and copper substrate by doping a water soluble flux with metallic nanoparticles. Four types of metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium) were used to investigate their effects on the wetting behavior and interfacial microstructural evaluations after reflow. Nanoparticles were dispersed manually with a water soluble flux and the resulting nanoparticle doped flux was placed on copper substrate. Lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls of diameter 0.45 mm were placed on top of the flux and were reflowed at a peak temperature of 240 °C for 45 s. Angle of contact, wetting area and interfacial microstructure were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the angle of contact increased and wetting area decreased with the addition of cobalt, molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles to flux. On the other hand, wettability improved with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Cross-sectional micrographs revealed that both nickel and cobalt nanoparticle doping transformed the morphology of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} from a typical scallop type to a planer one and reduced the intermetallic compound thickness under optimum condition. These effects were suggested to be related to in-situ interfacial alloying at the interface during reflow. The minimum amount of nanoparticles required to produce the planer morphology was found to be 0.1 wt.% for both nickel and cobalt. Molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles neither appear to undergo alloying during reflow nor have any influence at the solder/substrate interfacial reaction. Thus, doping

  8. Interfacial tensions of binary mixtures of ethanol with octane, decane, dodecane, and tetradecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, Andres; Cartes, Marcela; Segura, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Experimental interfacial tensions in binary mixtures with aneotropic behavior. → Experimental interfacial tensions for ethanol + hydrocarbon mixtures. → Aneotropic displacement in ethanol mixtures. - Abstract: This contribution is devoted to the experimental characterization of interfacial tensions of a representative group of binary mixtures pertaining to the (ethanol + linear hydrocarbon) series (i.e. octane, decane, dodecane, and tetradecane). Experimental measurements were isothermically performed using a maximum differential bubble pressure technique, which was applied over the whole mole fraction range and over the temperature range 298.15 K < T/K < 318.15 K. Experimental results show that the interfacial tensions of (ethanol + octane or decane) negatively deviate from the linear behavior and that sharp minimum points on concentration, or aneotropes, are observed for each isotherm. The interfacial tensions of (ethanol + dodecane or tetradecane), in turn, are characterized by combined deviations from the linear behavior, and inflecting behavior observed on concentration for each isotherm. The experimental evidence also shows that these latter mixtures are close to exhibit aneotropy. For the case of (ethanol + octane or decane) mixtures, aneotropy was clearly induced by the similarity of the interfacial tension values of the constituents. The inflecting behavior of the interfacial tensions of (ethanol + dodecane or tetradecane), in turn, was observed in the vicinity of the coordinates of the critical point of these mixtures, thus pointing to the fact that the quasi-aneotropic singularity that affects these mixtures was provoked by the proximity of an immiscibility gap of the liquid phase. Finally, the experimental data of interfacial tensions were smoothed with the Scott-Myers expansion, from which it is possible to conclude that the observed aneotropic concentrations weakly depend on temperature for all the analyzed mixtures.

  9. Wavelength dependence of liquid-vapor interfacial tension of Ga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongxu; Yang Bin; Rice, Stuart A.; Lin Binhua; Meron, Mati; Gebhardt, Jeff; Graber, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The wave-vector dependence of the liquid-vapor interfacial tension of Ga, γ(q), has been determined from diffuse x-ray scattering measurements. The ratio γ(q)/γ(0)=1 for q -1 decreases to 0.5 near q=0.22 Angstrom -1 , and increases strongly for larger q. The observed form for γ(q)/γ(0) is consistent with the prediction from the Mecke-Dietrich theory when the known stratified liquid-vapor interfacial density profile of Ga and a pseudopotential based pair interaction with appropriate asymptotic (r→∞) behavior are used. The detailed behavior of γ(q)/γ(0) depends on the particular forms of both the interfacial density profile and the asymptotic falloff of the atomic pair interaction

  10. Microstructural characterization of concrete prepared with recycled aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Mafalda; Evangelista, Luís; de Brito, Jorge; Ferro, Alberto C

    2013-10-01

    Several authors have reported the workability, mechanical properties, and durability of concrete produced with construction waste replacing the natural aggregate. However, a systematic microstructural characterization of recycled aggregate concrete has not been reported. This work studies the use of fine recycled aggregate to replace fine natural aggregate in the production of concrete and reports the resulting microstructures. The used raw materials were natural aggregate, recycled aggregate obtained from a standard concrete, and Portland cement. The substitution extent was 0, 10, 50, and 100 vol%; hydration was stopped at 9, 24, and 96 h and 28 days. Microscopy was focused on the cement/aggregate interfacial transition zone, enlightening the effect of incorporating recycled aggregate on the formation and morphology of the different concrete hydration products. The results show that concretes with recycled aggregates exhibit typical microstructural features of the transition zone in normal strength concrete. Although overall porosity increases with increasing replacement, the interfacial bond is apparently stronger when recycled aggregates are used. An addition of 10 vol% results in a decrease in porosity at the interface with a corresponding increase of the material hardness. This provides an opportunity for development of increased strength Portland cement concretes using controlled amounts of concrete waste.

  11. Analytical expression for the evolution of interfacial area density between transformed grains during nucleation and growth transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rios, P.R.; Godiksen, R.B.; Schmidt, Søren

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows that interfacial area density between transformed grains during nucleation and growth transformations and the contiguity are useful descriptors of microstructural evolution. These descriptors are evaluated analytically and compared with results from computer simulation. Usage...

  12. Scaling of interfacial jump conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quezada G, S.; Vazquez R, A.; Espinosa P, G.

    2015-09-01

    To model the behavior of a nuclear reactor accurately is needed to have balance models that take into account the different phenomena occurring in the reactor. These balances have to be coupled together through boundary conditions. The boundary conditions have been studied and different treatments have been given to the interface. In this paper is a brief description of some of the interfacial jump conditions that have been proposed in recent years. Also, the scaling of an interfacial jump condition is proposed, for coupling the different materials that are in contact within a nuclear reactor. (Author)

  13. Incorporation of Interfacial Intermetallic Morphology in Fracture Mechanism Map for Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Kumar, P.; Dutta, I.; Sidhu, R.; Renavikar, M.; Mahajan, R.

    2014-01-01

    A fracture mechanism map (FMM) is a powerful tool which correlates the fracture behavior of a material to its microstructural characteristics in an explicit and convenient way. In the FMM for solder joints, an effective thickness of the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer ( t eff) and the solder yield strength ( σ ys,eff) are used as abscissa and ordinate axes, respectively, as these two predominantly affect the fracture behavior of solder joints. Earlier, a definition of t eff, based on the uniform thickness of IMC ( t u) and the average height of the IMC scallops ( t s), was proposed and shown to aptly explain the fracture behavior of solder joints on Cu. This paper presents a more general definition of t eff that is more widely applicable to a range of metallizations, including Cu and electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG). Using this new definition of t eff, mode I FMM for SAC387/Cu joints has been updated and its validity was confirmed. A preliminary FMM for SAC387/Cu joints with ENIG metallization is also presented.

  14. Influence of the microstructure on the corrosion behavior of magnetron sputter-quenched amorphous metallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.; Williams, R. M.; Landel, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The microstructure and corrosion behavior of magnetron sputter deposited amorphous metallic films of (Mo6ORu40)82B18 under varying sputtering atmospheres have been investigated. The microstructural details and topology of the films have been studied by scanning electron microscopy and correlated with the deposition conditions. By reducing the pressure of pure argon gas, the characteristic features of rough surface and columnar growth full of vertical voids can be converted into a mirror-smooth finish with very dense deposits. Films deposited in the presence of O2 or N2 exhibit columnar structure with vertical voids. Film deposited in pure argon at low pressure show remarkably high corrosion resistance due to the formation of a uniform passive surface layer. The influence of the microstructure and surface texture on the corrosion behavior is discussed.

  15. Computational and Experimental Studies of Microstructure-Scale Porosity in Metallic Fuels for Improved Gas Swelling Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mllett, Paul [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Deo, Chaitanya [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Mariani, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2018-01-29

    This proposal will investigate the stability of bimodal pore size distributions in metallic uranium and uranium-zirconium alloys during sintering and re-sintering annealing treatments. The project will utilize both computational and experimental approaches. The computational approach includes both Molecular Dynamics simulations to determine the self-diffusion coefficients in pure U and U-Zr alloys in single crystals, grain boundaries, and free surfaces, as well as calculations of grain boundary and free surface interfacial energies. Phase-field simulations using MOOSE will be conducted to study pore and grain structure evolution in microstructures with bimodal pore size distributions. Experiments will also be performed to validate the simulations, and measure the time-dependent densification of bimodal porous compacts.

  16. Role of intermetallics on the mechanical fatigue behavior of Cu–Al ball bond interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassnig, A., E-mail: alice.lassnig@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); Pelzer, R. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstrae 2, 9500 Villach (Austria); Gammer, C. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Khatibi, G. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology and Analytics, Getreidemarkt 9, 1060 Wien (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    The mechanical fatigue behavior of Cu–Al interfaces occurring in thermosonic ball bonds –typically used in microelectronic packages for automotive applications – is investigated by means of a specially designed fatigue test technique. Fully reversed cyclic shear stresses are induced at the bond interface, leading to subsequent fatigue lift off failure and revealing the weakest site of the bond. A special focus is set on the role of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMC) on the fatigue performance of such interfaces. Therefore fatigue life curves were obtained for three representative microstructural states: The as-bonded state is compared to two annealed states at 200 °C for 200 h and at 200 °C for 2000 h respectively. In the moderately annealed state two IMC layers (Al{sub 2}Cu, Al{sub 4}Cu{sub 9}) could be identified, whereas in the highly aged state the original pad metallization was almost entirely consumed and AlCu is formed as a third IMC. Finally, the crack path is traced back as a function of interfacial microstructure by means of electron microscopy techniques. Whereas conventional static shear tests reveal no significant decrease of the bond shear force with increased IMC formation the fatigue tests prove a clear degradation in the cyclic mechanical performance. It can be concluded that during cycling the crack deflects easily into the formed intermetallics, leading to early failure of the ball bonds due to their brittle nature. - Highlights: • High cycle fatigue of various miniaturized Cu–Al interfaces is investigated. • Interfacial intermetallic compounds consist of Al2Cu, AlCu and Al4Cu9. • Static shear strength shows minor dependency on interfacial phase formation. • Fatigue tests prove significant degradation with intermetallic compound evolution. • Fatigue fracture surface analysis reveal microstructure dependent crack path.

  17. Role of intermetallics on the mechanical fatigue behavior of Cu–Al ball bond interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassnig, A.; Pelzer, R.; Gammer, C.; Khatibi, G.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical fatigue behavior of Cu–Al interfaces occurring in thermosonic ball bonds –typically used in microelectronic packages for automotive applications – is investigated by means of a specially designed fatigue test technique. Fully reversed cyclic shear stresses are induced at the bond interface, leading to subsequent fatigue lift off failure and revealing the weakest site of the bond. A special focus is set on the role of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMC) on the fatigue performance of such interfaces. Therefore fatigue life curves were obtained for three representative microstructural states: The as-bonded state is compared to two annealed states at 200 °C for 200 h and at 200 °C for 2000 h respectively. In the moderately annealed state two IMC layers (Al 2 Cu, Al 4 Cu 9 ) could be identified, whereas in the highly aged state the original pad metallization was almost entirely consumed and AlCu is formed as a third IMC. Finally, the crack path is traced back as a function of interfacial microstructure by means of electron microscopy techniques. Whereas conventional static shear tests reveal no significant decrease of the bond shear force with increased IMC formation the fatigue tests prove a clear degradation in the cyclic mechanical performance. It can be concluded that during cycling the crack deflects easily into the formed intermetallics, leading to early failure of the ball bonds due to their brittle nature. - Highlights: • High cycle fatigue of various miniaturized Cu–Al interfaces is investigated. • Interfacial intermetallic compounds consist of Al2Cu, AlCu and Al4Cu9. • Static shear strength shows minor dependency on interfacial phase formation. • Fatigue tests prove significant degradation with intermetallic compound evolution. • Fatigue fracture surface analysis reveal microstructure dependent crack path

  18. The evolution of interfacial morphology during coarsening: A comparison between 4D experiments and phase-field simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagesen, L.K.; Fife, J.L.; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of the solid–liquid interface in an Al–Cu dendritic microstructure is predicted using a phase-field model and compared to experimental data. The interfacial velocities are measured during isothermal coarsening using in situ X-ray tomographic microscopy. Good qualitative agreement...

  19. Phase-field modelling of microstructural evolution and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingzhi

    As one of the most powerful techniques in computational materials science, the diffuse-interface phase-field model has been widely employed for simulating various meso-scale microstructural evolution processes. The main purpose of this thesis is to develop a quantitative phase-field model for predicting microstructures and properties in real alloy systems which can be linked to existing thermodynamic/kinetic databases and parameters obtained from experimental measurements or first-principle calculations. To achieve this goal; many factors involved in complicated real systems are investigated, many of which are often simplified or ignored in existing models, e.g. the dependence of diffusional atomic mobility and elastic constants on composition. Efficient numerical techniques must be developed to solve those partial differential equations that are involved in modelling microstructural evolutions and properties. In this thesis, different spectral methods were proposed for the time-dependent phase-field kinetic equations and diffusion equations. For solving the elastic equilibrium equation with the consideration of elastic inhomogeneity, a conjugate gradient method was utilized. The numerical approaches developed were generally found to be more accurate and efficient than conventional approach such as finite difference method. A composition-dependent Cahn-Hilliard equation was solved by using a semi-implicit Fourier-spectral method. It was shown that the morphological evolutions in bulk-diffusion-controlled coarsening and interface-diffusion-controlled developed similar patterns and scaling behaviors. For bulk-diffusion-controlled coarsening, a cubic growth law was obeyed in the scaling regime, whereas a fourth power growth law was observed for interface-diffusion-controlled coarsening. The characteristics of a microstructure under the influence of elastic energy depend on elastic properties such as elastic anisotropy, lattice mismatch, elastic inhomogeneity and

  20. Effect of interfacial composition and crumbliness on aroma release in soy protein/sugar beet pectin mixed emulsion gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jun-Jie; Guo, Jian; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, soy protein isolate/sugar beet pectin (SPI/SBP) emulsion gels were prepared through an enzymatic gelation process. The effects of emulsifier (SBP, SPI or SPI/SBP complex) and emulsification process on the microstructure, texture, breakdown properties and aroma release behavior of resulting emulsion gels were investigated. Oil emulsification by SBP/SPI complex resulted in a higher amount of emulsifier absorbing on the oil-water interface than by SBP and SPI alone, indicating that a more compact interfacial network was formed. Flocculation of oil droplets was observed and corresponding emulsion gels exhibited lower fracture force and strain when the oil was emulsified by SPI and SBP/SPI complex. Moreover, emulsion gels with small droplets produced a greater quantity of small fragments after mastication. However, microstructure did not have a significant effect on breakdown properties of emulsion gels. Headspace gas chromatography analysis showed that the release rate of ethyl butyrate before and after mastication was significantly lower in emulsion gel with more compact network, but the release of aroma compounds with higher hydrophobicity did not show a significant influence of the microstructure and texture of emulsion gel. This finding provides a useful application for designing semi-solid foods with desirable flavor perception. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Microfluidic ultralow interfacial tensiometry with magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Scott S H; Wexler, Jason S; Wan, Jiandi; Stone, Howard A

    2013-01-07

    We describe a technique that measures ultralow interfacial tensions using paramagnetic spheres in a co-flow microfluidic device designed with a magnetic section. Our method involves tuning the distance between the co-flowing interface and the magnet's center, and observing the behavior of the spheres as they approach the liquid-liquid interface-the particles either pass through or are trapped by the interface. Using threshold values of the magnet-to-interface distance, we make estimates of the two-fluid interfacial tension. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique for measuring very low interfacial tensions, O(10(-6)-10(-5)) N m(-1), by testing solutions of different surfactant concentrations, and we show that our results are comparable with measurements made using a spinning drop tensiometer.

  2. Interfacial microstructure of NiSi x/HfO2/SiO x/Si gate stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribelyuk, M.A.; Cabral, C.; Gusev, E.P.; Narayanan, V.

    2007-01-01

    Integration of NiSi x based fully silicided metal gates with HfO 2 high-k gate dielectrics offers promise for further scaling of complementary metal-oxide- semiconductor devices. A combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy and small probe electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis has been applied to study interfacial reactions in the undoped gate stack. NiSi was found to be polycrystalline with the grain size decreasing from top to bottom of NiSi x film. Ni content varies near the NiSi/HfO x interface whereby both Ni-rich and monosilicide phases were observed. Spatially non-uniform distribution of oxygen along NiSi x /HfO 2 interface was observed by dark field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy and EELS. Interfacial roughness of NiSi x /HfO x was found higher than that of poly-Si/HfO 2 , likely due to compositional non-uniformity of NiSi x . No intermixing between Hf, Ni and Si beyond interfacial roughness was observed

  3. Crystalline Molybdenum Oxide Thin-Films for Application as Interfacial Layers in Optoelectronic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; dos Reis, Roberto; Chen, Gong

    2017-01-01

    The ability to control the interfacial properties in metal-oxide thin films through surface defect engineering is vital to fine-tune their optoelectronic properties and thus their integration in novel optoelectronic devices. This is exemplified in photovoltaic devices based on organic, inorganic...... or hybrid technologies, where precise control of the charge transport properties through the interfacial layer is highly important for improving device performance. In this work, we study the effects of in situ annealing in nearly stoichiometric MoOx (x ∼ 3.0) thin-films deposited by reactive sputtering. We...... with structural characterizations, this work addresses a novel method for tuning, and correlating, the optoelectronic properties and microstructure of device-relevant MoOx layers....

  4. Tunable anomalous hall effect induced by interfacial catalyst in perpendicular multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Peng, W. L.; Sun, Q. Y.; Liu, Y. W.; Dong, B. W.; Zheng, X. Q.; Yu, G. H.; Wang, C.; Zhao, Y. C.; Wang, S. G.

    2018-04-01

    The interfacial structures, playing a critical role on the transport properties and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in thin films and multilayers, can be modified by inserting an ultrathin functional layer at the various interfaces. The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in the multilayers with core structure of Ta/CoFeB/X/MgO/Ta (X: Hf or Pt) is tuned by interfacial catalytic engineering. The saturation anomalous Hall resistance (RAH) is increased by 16.5% with 0.1 nm Hf insertion compared with the reference sample without insertion. However, the RAH value is decreased by 9.0% with 0.1 nm Pt insertion. The interfacial states were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS results indicate that a strong bonding between Hf and O for Hf insertion, but no bonding between Pt and O for Pt insertion. The bonding between metal and oxygen leads to various oxygen migration behavior at the interfaces. Therefore, the opposite behavior about the RAH originates from the different oxygen behavior due to various interfacial insertion. This work provides a new approach to manipulate spin transport property for the potential applications.

  5. Three-Dimensional Visualization of Interfacial Phenomena Using Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Ian C.

    Surfactants play an integral role in numerous functions ranging from stabilizing the emulsion in a favorite salad dressing to organizing the cellular components that make life possible. We are interested in lung surfactant, which is a mixture of lipids and proteins essential for normal respiration because it modulates the surface tension of the air-liquid interface of the thin fluid lining in the lungs. Through this surface tension modulation, lung surfactant ensures effortless lung expansion and prevents lung collapse during exhalation, thereby effecting proper oxygenation of the bloodstream. The function of lung surfactant, as well as numerous interfacial lipid systems, is not solely dictated by the behavior of materials confined to the two-dimensional interface. Rather, the distributions of materials in the liquid subphase also greatly influence the performance of interfacial films of lung surfactant. Therefore, to better understand the behavior of lung surfactant and other interfacial lipid systems, we require a three-dimensional characterization technique. In this dissertation, we have developed a novel confocal microscopy methodology for investigating the interfacial phenomena of surfactants at the air-liquid interface of a Langmuir trough. Confocal microscopy provides the excellent combination of in situ, fast, three-dimensional visualization of multiple components of the lung surfactant system that other characterization techniques lack. We detail the solutions to the numerous challenges encountered when imaging a dynamic air-liquid interface with a high-resolution technique like confocal microscopy. We then use confocal microscopy to elucidate the distinct mechanisms by which a polyelectrolyte (chitosan) and nonadsorbing polymer (polyethylene glycol) restore the function of lung surfactant under inhibitory conditions mimicking the effects of lung trauma. Beyond this physiological model, we also investigate several one- and two-component interfacial films

  6. Fouling behavior of microstructured hollow fibers in cross-flow filtrations: Critical flux determination and direct visual observation of particle deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culfaz, P.Z.; Haddad, M.; Wessling, Matthias; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2011-01-01

    The fouling behavior of microstructured hollow fiber membranes was investigated in cross-flow filtrations of colloidal silica and yeast. In addition to the as-fabricated microstructured fibers, twisted fibers made by twisting the microstructured fibers around their own axes were tested and compared

  7. Microstructure and wear behavior of austempered high carbon high silicon steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Palaksha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the influence of austempering temperature and time on the microstructure and dry sliding wear behavior of high silicon steel was studied. The test specimens were initially austenitised at 900°C for 30 minutes, thereafter austempered at various temperatures 280°C, 360°C and 400°C, for varying duration from 30 to 120 minutes. These samples after austempering heat treatment were subsequently air cooled to room temperature, to generate typical ausferritic microstructures and then correlated with the wear property. The test outcomes demonstrate the slight increase in specific wear rate with increase in both austempering temperature and time. Specific wear rate was found to be minimum at an austempering temperature of 280°C, that exhibits lower bainite microstructure with high hardness, on the other hand specific wear rate was found to be slightly high at increased austempering temperatures at 360°C and 400°C, due to the upper bainite structure that offered lower hardness to the matrix. The sample austempered at 280°C for 30 minutes offered superior wear resistance when compared to other austempering conditions, mainly due to the presence of fine acicular bainitic ferrite along with stabilized retained austenite and also some martensite in the microstructure.

  8. An improved interfacial bonding model for material interface modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liqiang; Wang, Xiaodu; Zeng, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    An improved interfacial bonding model was proposed from potential function point of view to investigate interfacial interactions in polycrystalline materials. It characterizes both attractive and repulsive interfacial interactions and can be applied to model different material interfaces. The path dependence of work-of-separation study indicates that the transformation of separation work is smooth in normal and tangential direction and the proposed model guarantees the consistency of the cohesive constitutive model. The improved interfacial bonding model was verified through a simple compression test in a standard hexagonal structure. The error between analytical solutions and numerical results from the proposed model is reasonable in linear elastic region. Ultimately, we investigated the mechanical behavior of extrafibrillar matrix in bone and the simulation results agreed well with experimental observations of bone fracture. PMID:28584343

  9. High Temperature Deformation Behavior and Microstructure Evolution of Ti-4Al-4Fe-0.25Si Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Jong Woo; Lee, Yongmoon; Lee, Chong Soo [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Jong-Taek [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gi Yeong [KPCM Incorporated, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Hot deformation behavior of Ti-4Al-4Fe-0.25Si alloy with martensite microstructure was investigated by compression tests at temperatures of 1023 – 1173 K (α+β phase region) and strain rates of 10{sup -3} – 1 s{sup -1}. By analyzing the deformation behavior, plastic deformation instability parameters including strain rate sensitivity, deformation temperature sensitivity, efficiency of power dissipation, and Ziegler’s instability were evaluated as a function of deformation temperature and strain rate, and they were further examined by drawing deformation processing maps. The microstructure evolution was also studied to determine the deformation conditions under which equiaxed α phase was formed in the microstructure without remnants or kinked α phase platelets and shear bands, these last two of which cause severe cracks during post-forming process. Based on the combined results of the processing maps and the microstructure analysis, the optimum α+β forging conditions for Ti-4Al-4Fe-0.25Si alloy were determined.

  10. Improving interfacial, mechanical and tribological properties of alumina coatings on Al alloy by plasma arc heat-treatment of substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Guoliang [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); An, Yulong, E-mail: csuayl@sohu.com [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhao, Xiaoqin; Zhou, Huidi [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Jianmin, E-mail: chenjm@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Shuangjian; Liu, Xia; Deng, Wen [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Columnar δ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} induces epitaxial growth of γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains in coating after PA-HT. • Epitaxial growth greatly enhances interfacial bonding of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating on Al alloy. • Penetration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} droplets into Al alloy increases interfacial anchorage force. • Crystal structure of the alumina coatings can be refined after PA-HT of substrate. • Mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings are improved after PA-HT. - Abstract: Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings can be used to improve the mechanical properties and wear resistance of aluminum alloys, but there are still some challenges to effectively increase their interfacial adhesion. Thus we conducted plasma arc-heat treatment (PA-HT) of Al alloy substrate before plasma spraying, hoping to tune the microstructure of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings and improve their interfacial strength as well as mechanical and tribological properties. The influences of PA-HT on the microstructure of alumina coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, while its effect on mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated by a nano-indentation tester and a friction and wear tester. Results demonstrate that a few columnar δ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} generated on substrate surface after PA-HT at 200–250 °C can induce the epitaxial growth of γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings, thereby enhancing their interfacial bonding. Besides, elevating substrate temperature can help alumina droplets to melt into the interior of substrate and eliminate holes at the interface, finally increasing the interfacial anchorage force. More importantly, no interfacial holes can allow the heat of droplets to be rapidly transmitted to substrate, which is beneficial to yield smaller crystals in coatings and greatly enhance their strength, hardness and wear resistance.

  11. Interfacial Micromechanics in Fibrous Composites: Design, Evaluation, and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhenkun; Li, Xuan; Qin, Fuyong; Qiu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances of interfacial micromechanics in fiber reinforced composites using micro-Raman spectroscopy are given. The faced mechanical problems for interface design in fibrous composites are elaborated from three optimization ways: material, interface, and computation. Some reasons are depicted that the interfacial evaluation methods are difficult to guarantee the integrity, repeatability, and consistency. Micro-Raman study on the fiber interface failure behavior and the main interface mechanical problems in fibrous composites are summarized, including interfacial stress transfer, strength criterion of interface debonding and failure, fiber bridging, frictional slip, slip transition, and friction reloading. The theoretical models of above interface mechanical problems are given. PMID:24977189

  12. Analysis of the Microstructure and Oxidation Behavior of Some Commercial Carbon Fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Kim, Bohye; Yang, Kap Seung; Im, Hun Kook; Bang, Yun Hyuk; Kim, Sung Ryong

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between the microstructure, mechanical properties, and oxidation behavior of pitch-, polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-, and Rayon-based carbon fibers (CFs) has been studied in detail. Three types of carbon fiber were exposed to isothermal oxidation in air and the weight change was measured by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) apparatus. After activation energy was gained according to the conversion at reacting temperature, the value of specific surface area and the surface morphology was compared, and the reaction mechanism of oxidation affecting development of pores of carbon fibers was examined. This study will lead to a new insight into the relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties of carbon fibers

  13. Relationships among the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Fatigue Behavior in Thin Ti6Al4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures of Ti6Al4V are complex and strongly affect its mechanical properties and fatigue behavior. This paper investigates the role of microstructure on mechanical and fatigue properties of thin-section Ti6Al4V sheets, with the aim of reviewing the effects of microstructure on fatigue properties where suboptimal microstructures might result following heat treatment of assemblies that may not be suited to further annealing, for example, following laser welding. Samples of Ti6Al4V sheet were subjected to a range of heat treatments, including annealing and water quenching from temperatures ranging from 650°C to 1050°C. Micrographs of these samples were inspected for microstructure, and hardness, 0.2% proof stress, elongation, and fracture strength were measured and attributed back to microstructure. Fractography was used to support the findings from microstructure and mechanical analyses. The strength ranking from high to low for the microstructures of thin Ti6Al4V sheets observed in this study is as follows: acicular α′ martensite, Widmanstätten, bimodal, and equiaxed microstructure. The fatigue strength ranking from high to low is as follows: equiaxed, bimodal, Widmanstätten, and acicular α′ martensite microstructure.

  14. Controlling Interfacial Separation in Porous Structures by Void Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, Ahmed; Elbanna, Ahmed

    Manipulating interfacial response for enhanced adhesion or fracture resistance is a problem of great interest to scientists and engineers. In many natural materials and engineering applications, an interface exists between a porous structure and a substrate. A question that arises is how the void distribution in the bulk may affect the interfacial response and whether it is possible to alter the interfacial toughness without changing the surface physical chemistry. In this paper, we address this question by studying the effect of patterning voids on the interfacial-to-the overall response of an elastic plate glued to a rigid substrate by bilinear cohesive material. Different patterning categories are investigated; uniform, graded, and binary voids. Each case is subjected to upward displacement at the upper edge of the plate. We show that the peak force and maximum elongation at failure depend on the voids design and by changing the void size, alignment or gradation we may control these performance measures. We relate these changes in the measured force displacement response to energy release rate as a measure of interfacial toughness. We discuss the implications of our results on design of bulk heterogeneities for enhanced interfacial behavior.

  15. Role of interfacial effects in carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécastaings, G; Delhaès, P; Derré, A; Saadaoui, H; Carmona, F; Cui, S

    2004-09-01

    The interfacial effects are critical to understand the nanocomposite behavior based on polymer matrices. These effects are dependent upon the morphology of carbon nanotubes, the type of used polymer and the processing technique. Indeed, we show that the different parameters, as the eventual surfactant use, the ultrasonic treatment and shear mixing have to be carefully examined, in particular, for nanotube dispersion and their possible alignment. A series of multiwalled nanotubes (MWNT) have been mixed with a regular epoxy resin under a controlled way to prepare nanocomposites. The influence of nanotube content is examined through helium bulk density, glass transition temperature of the matrix and direct current electrical conductivity measurements. These results, including the value of the percolation threshold, are analyzed in relationship with the mesostructural organization of these nanotubes, which is observed by standard and conductive probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The wrapping effect of the organic matrix along the nanotubes is evidenced and analyzed to get a better understanding of the final composite characteristics, in particular, for eventually reinforcing the matrix without covalent bonding.

  16. Microstructure and deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy by high-power laser solid forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Y.M.; Lin, X.; Fu, X.; Tan, H.; Chen, J.; Huang, W.D.

    2017-01-01

    This work investigated the microstructure and tensile deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy fabricated using a high-power laser solid forming (LSF) additive manufacturing. The results show that the post-fabricated heat-treated microstructure consists of coarse columnar prior-β grains (630–1000 μm wide) and α-laths (5–9 μm) under different scanning velocities (900 and 1500 mm/min), which caused large elongation (∼18%) superior to the conventional laser additive manufacturing Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The deformation behavior of the LSF Ti-6Al-4V alloy was investigated using in situ tensile test scanning electron microscopy. The results show that shear-bands appeared along the α/β interface and slip-bands occurred within the α-laths, which lead to cracks decaying in a zigzag-pattern in the LSF Ti-6Al-4V alloy with basket-weave microstructure. These results demonstrate that the small columnar prior-β grains and fine basket-weave microstructure exhibiting more α/β interfaces and α-laths can disperse the load and resist the deformation in the LSF Ti-6Al-4V components. In addition, a modified microstructure selection map of the LSF Ti-6Al-4V alloy was established, which can reasonably predict the microstructure evolution and relative grain size in the LSF process.

  17. Effect of microstructure evolution of the lamellar alpha on impact toughness in a two-phase titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jianwei; Zeng, Weidong; Zhao, Yawei; Jia, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the evolution of the lamellar alpha microstructure on the impact toughness of Ti-17 alloy are investigated. For this purpose, the beta-processed material is isothermally forged at 820 °C and subsequently heat treated using the combination of solid solution and aging treatment. Then the impact tests are carried out at room temperature. The corresponding microstructure and fracture surface are examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Microstructural observations reveal that globularization behavior is the main feature of microstructure evolution and the globularization fraction increases with the increasing of prestrain. However, globularization behavior has a negative influence on the impact toughness of Ti-17 alloy. In this work, the impact toughness have been obtained in the range of 29–55 J/cm 2 via varying globularization fraction of alpha phase. A linear relationship between the impact toughness and globularization fraction can be observed though the quantitative analysis. The linear equation is expressed as A=−0.3232f+59.885. The two major reasons can be used to explain the effect of globularization fraction on the impact property of Ti-17 alloy. One explanation is that the lamellar structure can provide excellent interfacial strengthening effect, which can improve the toughness of material, and makes it not easy to fracture. On the other hand, the fracture surface of specimen with the lamellar structure has larger amplitude of ups and downs. A long crack path length will be generated during fracture process. By contrast, the fracture of specimen with the equiaxed structure presents more flat surface and shorter crack path.

  18. Effect of microstructure on corrosion behavior of Ag-30Cu-27Sn alloy in vitro media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehisaki, Mehdi; Aryana, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High cooling rates decrease the number of Ag intermetallic particles in Cu-rich phase. • Increasing cooling rate improves corrosion behavior of Ag-30Cu-27Sn dental alloy. • Cathode/anode ratio in Cu-rich phases determines the corrosion behavior of alloy. - Abstract: In the present work, three simple heat treatment cycles were used to study the effects of microstructure on electrochemical corrosion behavior of Ag-30Cu-27Sn dental alloy. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to investigate the corrosion behavior of as-cast and heat treated samples in synthetic saliva solution. The presence of intermetallic compounds were studied by X-ray diffraction method (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDAX). The microstructural observations and electrochemical corrosion results revealed that, increasing the cooling rate improves the corrosion behavior of under investigation samples. Improvement of the corrosion behavior is attributed to reducing the area of fine distributed Ag 3 Sn islands in the Cu-rich matrix which decrease the cathode/anode ratio of microgalvanic cells

  19. Predictive modeling of interfacial damage in substructured steels: application to martensitic microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maresca, F; Kouznetsova, V G; Geers, M G D

    2016-01-01

    Metallic composite phases, like martensite present in conventional steels and new generation high strength steels exhibit microscale, locally lamellar microstructures characterized by alternating layers of phases or crystallographic variants. The layers can be sub-micron down to a few nanometers thick, and they are often characterized by high contrasts in plastic properties. As a consequence, fracture in these lamellar microstructures generally occurs along the layer interfaces or within one of the layers, typically parallel to the interface. This paper presents a computational framework that addresses the lamellar nature of these microstructures, by homogenizing the plastic deformation at the mesoscale by using the microscale response of the laminates. Failure is accounted for by introducing a family of damaging planes that are parallel to the layer interface. Mode I, mode II and mixed-mode opening are incorporated. The planes along which failure occurs are captured using a smeared damage approach. Coupling of damage with isotropic or anisotropic plasticity models, like crystal plasticity, is straightforward. The damaging planes and directions do not need to correspond to crystalline slip planes, and normal opening is also included. Focus is given on rate-dependent formulations of plasticity and damage, i.e. converged results can be obtained without further regularization techniques. The validation of the model using experimental observations in martensite-austenite lamellar microstructures in steels reveals that the model correctly predicts the main features of the onset of failure, e.g. the necking point, the failure initiation region and the failure mode. Finally, based on the qualitative results obtained, some material design guidelines are provided for martensitic and multi-phase steels. (paper)

  20. Effects of post-weld heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of TLP bonded Inconel718 superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, J.; Wang, Y.F.; Song, X.G.; Li, C.; Feng, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Transient liquid phase bonding of Inconel718 superalloy was carried out using a commercial Ni–Cr–Si–B amorphous interlayer. The interfacial microstructure of Inconel718 joints was analyzed by a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. In particular, the effects of post-weld heat treatment on the interfacial microstructure and joining properties of Inconel718 joints were investigated in detail. The results showed that the precipitation of second phases in joints induced by post-weld heat treatment were beneficial to the improvement of joint properties. A tensile strength of 1130 MPa with an elongation percentage of 7% was achieved for a sample bonded at 1050 °C/60 min+1180 °C/60 min followed by the post-weld heat treatment

  1. Interfacial reaction effects on erosion of aluminum matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, J.P.; Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima; Matsumura, M.

    1999-01-01

    Alumina borate (A 18 B 4 O 33 ) whisker reinforced aluminum composites have attracted interest because of their high specific strength, high modulus and low cost. An obvious feature of the microstructure in A 18 B 4 O 33 /Al composite is that an interfacial reaction exists between the whisker and the aluminum alloy. In order to discuss the influence of interface interaction between the whisker and matrix on the erosion resistance of composites, two reaction treatments are conducted. From the results of the treated composites, it can be obtained about the erosion characteristics of the composite materials under steady-state conditions

  2. Evaluating interfacial shear stresses in composite hollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiham Adawi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analytical evaluation of the interfacial shear stresses for composite hollowcore slabs with concrete topping is rare in the literature. Adawi et al. (2014 estimated the interfacial shear stiffness coefficient (ks that governs the behavior of the interface between hollowcore slabs and the concrete topping using push-off tests. This parameter is utilized in this paper to provide closed form solutions for the differential equations governing the behavior of simply supported composite hollowcore slabs. An analytical solution based on the deformation compatibility of the composite section and elastic beam theory, is developed to evaluate the shear stresses along the interface. Linear finite element modeling of the full-scale tests presented in Adawi et al. (2015 is also conducted to validate the developed analytical solution. The proposed analytical solution was found to be adequate in estimating the magnitude of horizontal shear stress in the studied composite hollowcore slabs.

  3. Large-time behavior of solutions to a reaction-diffusion system with distributed microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntean, A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We study the large-time behavior of a class of reaction-diffusion systems with constant distributed microstructure arising when modeling diffusion and reaction in structured porous media. The main result of this Note is the following: As t ¿ 8 the macroscopic concentration vanishes, while

  4. Interfacial microstructure of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} brazing joint with Cu-Zn-Ti filler alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: hitzhangjie@hit.edu.cn; Zhang, X.M.; Zhou, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Naka, M. [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Svetlana, Atroshenko [Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics, Saint-Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2008-11-15

    In this study, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic was jointed by a brazing technique with a Cu-Zn-Ti filler alloy. The interfacial microstructure between Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic and filler alloy in the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} joint was observed and analyzed by using electron-probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that there are two reaction layers at the ceramic/filler interface in the joint, which was obtained by brazing at a temperature and holding time of 1223 K and 15 min, respectively. The layer nearby the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic is a TiN layer with an average grain size of 100 nm, and the layer nearby the filler alloy is a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}N{sub x} layer with an average grain size of 1-2 {mu}m. Thickness of the TiN and Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}N{sub x} layers is about 1 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m, respectively. The formation mechanism of the reaction layers was discussed. A model showing the microstructure from Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic to filler alloy in the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} joint was provided as: Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic/TiN reaction layer/Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}N{sub x} reaction layer/Cu-Zn solution.

  5. Interfacial phenomenon theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Deuk

    2000-02-01

    This book is composed of 8 chapters. It tells what interfacial phenomenon is by showing interfacial energy, characteristic of interface and system of interface from chapter 1. It also introduces interfacial energy and structure theory, molecular structure and orientation theory, and interfacial electricity phenomenon theory in the following 3 chapters. It still goes on by introducing super molecule cluster, disequilibrium dispersion, and surface and film through 3 chapters. And the last chapter is about colloid and application of interface.

  6. Microstructure and wear behavior of friction stir processed cast hypereutectic aluminum silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rosli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypereutectic as-cast Al-18Si-Cu-Ni alloy was subjected to friction stir processing (FSP. The resultant effect of FSP on the alloy was evaluated by microstructure analysis and wear tests (dry sliding. A significant microstructural modification and enhancement in wear behavior of Al-18Si-Cu-Ni alloy was recorded after friction stir processing. Wear resistance improvement was related to considerable modification in size, morphology and distribution of silicon particles, and hardness improvement. It was found that lower tool rotation speed was more effective to refine silicon particles and in turn increase wear resistance. Minimum Si particle mean area of about 47.8 µm2, and wear rate of 0.0155 mg/m was achieved.

  7. Performance Analysis of a Recycled Concrete Interfacial Transition Zone in a Rapid Carbonization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongbing Yue

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of recycled concrete interface structures, a multi-interface reconstruction model was established. To study the microstructure evolution of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ during the carbonization process of recycled concrete, the microstructure characteristics of the ITZ of C30, C40, and C50 grade recycled concrete and the mortar matrix before and after carbonization were studied through the microhardness tester and SEM. The results show that the microhardness values of the ITZ and the mortar matrix are obviously increased and that the width of the ITZ decreases, while the ITZ performance of the C50 grade recycled concrete is not significantly changed. The ITZ exhibits a large amount of granular CaCO3 after carbonization, the pores are refined, and microcracks are generated. Overall, there are significant differences in the microstructures between the ITZ and the mortar matrix before and after carbonization.

  8. Microstructural behavior of iron and bismuth added Sn-1Ag-Cu solder under elevated temperature aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Bakhtiar, E-mail: engrbakhtiaralikhan@gmail.com; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd, E-mail: faizul@um.edu.my; Jauhari, Iswadi, E-mail: iswadi@um.edu.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    An extensive study was done to investigate the microstructural behavior of iron (Fe) and bismuth (Bi) added Sn-1Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) under severe thermal aging conditions. The isothermal aging was done at 200 °C for 100 h, 200 h, and 300 h. Optical microscopy with cross-polarized light revealed that the grain size significantly reduces with Fe/Bi addition to the base alloy SAC105 and remains literally the same after thermal aging. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with backscattered electron detector and their further analysis via imageJ software indicated that Fe/Bi added SAC105 showed a significant reduction in the IMCs size (Ag{sub 3}Sn and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}), especially the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMCs, as well as β-Sn matrix and a refinement in the microstructure, which is due to the presence of Bi in the alloys. Moreover, their microstructure remains much more stable under severe thermal aging conditions, which is because of the presence of both Fe and Bi in the alloy. The microstructural behavior suggests that Fe/Bi modified SAC105 would have much improved reliability under severe thermal environments. These modified alloys also have relatively low melting temperature and low cost.

  9. Effect of Nb on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Corrosion Behavior, and Cytotoxicity of Ti-Nb Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Jai-Youl; Hwang, Moon-Jin; Song, Ho-Jun; Park, Yeong-Joon

    2015-09-09

    In this paper, the effects of Nb addition (5-20 wt %) on the microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, and cytotoxicity of Ti-Nb alloys were investigated with the aim of understanding the relationship between phase/microstructure and various properties of Ti-xNb alloys. Phase/microstructure was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, and TEM. The results indicated that the Ti-xNb alloys (x = 10, 15, and 20 wt %) were mainly composed of α + β phases with precipitation of the isothermal ω phase. The volume percentage of the ω phase increased with increasing Nb content. We also investigated the effects of the alloying element Nb on the mechanical properties (including Vickers hardness and elastic modulus), oxidation protection ability, and corrosion behavior of Ti-xNb binary alloys. The mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of Ti-xNb alloys were found to be sensitive to Nb content. These experimental results indicated that the addition of Nb contributed to the hardening of cp-Ti and to the improvement of its oxidation resistance. Electrochemical experiments showed that the Ti-xNb alloys exhibited superior corrosion resistance to that of cp-Ti. The cytotoxicities of the Ti-xNb alloys were similar to that of pure titanium.

  10. Effect of Cu addition on microstructure and corrosion behavior of spray-deposited Zn–30Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Xiong Baiqing; Zhang Yongan; Liu Hongwei; Li Zhihui; Li Xiwu; Qu Chu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Zn–30Al–xCu alloys were synthesized by the spray atomization and deposition technique. ► Immersion test and electrochemical measurements have been used to estimate the corrosion rate and the behavior. ► The result indicates that the 1 wt.% Cu addition displays superior corrosion resistance. - Abstract: In this study, one binary Zn–30Al and three ternary Zn–30Al–Cu alloys were synthesized by the spray atomization and deposition technique. The microstructures of the spray-deposited alloys were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). Immersion test, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance measurements have been used to estimate the corrosion rate and the behavior. The results indicate that the 1 wt.% Cu addition to spray-deposited Zn–30Al alloy does not make significant change in microstructure. However, with the 2, 4 wt.% Cu additions to the alloy, some ε-CuZn 4 compounds with particle or irregular shapes were observed on the grain boundaries in the microstructures. Immersion test and electrochemical measurements confirmed that the 1 wt.% Cu addition displays superior corrosion resistance, whereas the 2, 4 wt.% Cu additions have a baneful effect on the corrosion behavior.

  11. Mesoscale Interfacial Dynamics in Magnetoelectric Nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shashank, Priya [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2009-12-14

    Biphasic composites are the key towards achieving enhanced magnetoelectric response. In order understand the control behavior of the composites and resultant symmetry of the multifunctional product tensors, we need to synthesized model material systems with the following features (i) interface formation through either deposition control or natural decomposition; (ii) a very high interphase-interfacial area, to maximize the ME coupling; and (iii) an equilibrium phase distribution and morphology, resulting in preferred crystallographic orientation relations between phases across the interphase-interfacial boundaries. This thought process guided the experimental evolution in this program. We initiated the research with the co-fired composites approach and then moved on to the thin film laminates deposited through the rf-magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition process

  12. Use of micro-tomography for validation of method to identify interfacial shear strength from tensile tests of short regenerated cellulose fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajlane, A.; Miettinen, A.; Madsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The interfacial shear strength of short regenerated cellulose fibre/polylactide composites was characterized by means of an industry-friendly adhesion test method. The interfacial shear strength was back-calculated from the experimental tensile stress-strain curves of composites by using a micro......-mechanical model. The parameters characterizing the microstructure of the composites, e.g. fibre length and orientation distributions, used as input in the model were obtained by micro-tomography. The investigation was carried out on composites with untreated and surface treated fibres with various fibre weight...

  13. A study of microstructure, quasi-static response, fatigue, deformation and fracture behavior of high strength alloy steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Manigandan

    The history of steel dates back to the 17th century and has been instrumental in the betterment of every aspect of our lives ever since, from the pin that holds the paper together to the Automobile that takes us to our destination steel touches everyone every day. Path breaking improvements in manufacturing techniques, access to advanced machinery and understanding of factors like heat treatment, corrosion resistance have aided in the advancement in the properties of steel in the last few years. In this dissertation document, the results of a study aimed at the influence of alloy chemistry, processing and influence of the quasi static and fatigue behavior of seven alloy steels is discussed. The microstructure of the as-received steel was examined and characterized for the nature and morphology of the grains and the presence of other intrinsic features in the microstructure. The tensile, cyclic fatigue and bending fatigue tests were done on a fully automated closed-loop servo-hydraulic test machine at room temperature. The failed samples of high strength steels were examined in a scanning electron microscope for understanding the fracture behavior, especially the nature of loading be it quasi static, cyclic fatigue or bending fatigue . The quasi static and cyclic fatigue fracture behavior of the steels examined coupled with various factors contributing to failure are briefly discussed in light of the conjoint and mutually interactive influences of intrinsic microstructural effects, nature of loading, and stress (load)-deformation-microstructural interactions.

  14. Interfacial Compatibility in Microelectronics Moving Away from the Trial and Error Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Laurila, Tomi; Paulasto-Kröckel, Mervi; Turunen, Markus; Mattila, Toni T; Kivilahti, Jorma

    2012-01-01

    Interfaces between dissimilar materials are met everywhere in microelectronics and microsystems. In order to ensure faultless operation of these highly sophisticated structures, it is mandatory to have fundamental understanding of materials and their interactions in the system. In this difficult task, the “traditional” method of trial and error is not feasible anymore; it takes too much time and repeated efforts. In Interfacial Compatibility in Microelectronics, an alternative approach is introduced. In this revised method four fundamental disciplines are combined: i) thermodynamics of materials ii) reaction kinetics iii) theory of microstructures and iv) stress and strain analysis. The advantages of the method are illustrated in Interfacial Compatibility in Microelectronics which includes: •solutions to several common reliability issues in microsystem technology, •methods to understand and predict failure mechanisms at interfaces between dissimilar materials and •an approach to DFR based on deep un...

  15. The microstructure, mechanical stress, texture, and electromigration behavior of Al-Pd alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodbell, K. P.; Knorr, D. B.; Mis, J. D.

    1993-06-01

    As the minimum feature size of interconnect lines decreases below 0.5 urn, the need to control the line microstructure becomes increasingly important. The alloy content, deposition process, fabrication method, and thermal history all determine the microstructure of an interconnect, which, in turn, affects its performance and reliability. The motivation for this work was to characterize the microstructure of various sputtered Al-Pd alloys (Al-0.3wt.%Pd, Al-2Cu-0.3Pd, and Al-0.3Nb-0.3Pd) vs sputtered Al-Cu control samples (Al-0.5Cu and Al-2Cu) and to assess the role of grain size, mechanical stress, and crystallographic texture on the electromigration behavior of submicrometer wide lines. The grain size, mechanical stress, and texture of blanket films were measured as a function of annealing. The as-deposited film stress was tensile and followed a similar stress history on heating for all of the films; on cooling, however, significant differences were observed between the Al-Pd and Al-Cu films in the shape of their stress-temperature-curves. A strong (111) crystallographic texture was typically found for Al-Cu films deposited on SiO2. A stronger (111) texture resulted when Al-Cu was deposited on 25 nm titanium. Al-0.3Pd films, however, exhibited either a weak (111) or (220) texture when deposited on SiO2, which reverted to a strong (111) texture when deposited on 25 nm titanium. The electromigration lifetimes of passivated, ≈0.7 μm wide lines at 250°C and 2.5 × 106 A/cm2 for both single and multi-level samples (separated with W studs) are reported. The electromigration behavior of Al-0.3Pd was found to be less dependent on film microstructure than on the annealing atmosphere used, i.e. forming gas (90% N2-10%H2) annealed Al-0.3Pd films were superior to all of the alloys investigated, while annealing in only N2 resulted in poor lifetimes.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical performance of depositing CuSi3 Cu alloy onto 30CrMnSi steel plate by the novel consumable and non-consumable electrodes indirect arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun; Cao, Jian; Feng, Jicai

    2010-01-01

    A novel consumable and non-consumable electrodes indirect arc welding (CNC-IAW) with low heat input was successfully applied in depositing CuSi 3 Cu alloy onto 30CrMnSi steel plate. The indirect arc was generated between the consumable and non-consumable welding torch. The microstructure of the deposited weld was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and optical microscopy (OM). The results showed that the dilution ratio of the bead-on-plate weld was controlled no higher than 5% and the deleterious iron picking up was effectively restrained. The deposited metal mainly consisted of ε-Cu solid solution and a small amount of Fe 2 Si phase. In the interfacial zone between the deposited metal and base metal, the thickness of the zone changed from thick to thin and the microstructure changed from complex to simple from the middle to both sides. In the middle of the interfacial zone, the microstructure presented three sub-layers consisting of Fe 3 Si (L)/Fe 3 Si (S) + ε-Cu/α-Fe. In the both sides of the interfacial zone, the microstructure presented single α-Fe layer. The formation mechanism of the interfacial zone could be successfully explained by the formation of the Fe liquid-solid phase zone adjacent to the Fe base metal and the interfusion between Fe and Si. The average compressive shear strength reached 321 MPa and its fracture morphology mainly belonged to ductile fracture.

  17. Microstructural study and wear behavior of ductile iron surface alloyed by Inconel 617

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi Jeshvaghani, R.; Jaberzadeh, M.; Zohdi, H.; Shamanian, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Ni-base alloy was deposited on the surface of ductile iron by TIG welding process. • Microstructure of alloyed layer consisted of carbides embedded in Ni-rich dendrite. • Hardness and wear resistance of coated sample greatly improved. • The formation of oxide layer and delamination were dominant mechanisms of wear. - Abstract: In this research, microstructure and wear behavior of Ni-based alloy is discussed in detail. Using tungsten inert gas welding process, coating of nearly 1–2 mm thickness was deposited on ductile iron. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, as well as X-ray diffraction analysis and electron probe microanalysis were used to characterize the microstructure of the surface alloyed layer. Micro-hardness and wear resistance of the alloyed layer was also studied. Results showed that the microstructure of the alloyed layer consisted of M 23 C 6 carbides embedded in Ni-rich solid solution dendrites. The partial melted zone (PMZ) had eutectic ledeburit plus martensite microstructure, while the heat affected zone (HAZ) had only a martensite structure. It was also noticed that hardness and wear resistance of the alloyed layer was considerably higher than that of the substrate. Improvement of wear resistance is attributed to the solution strengthening effect of alloying elements and also the presence of hard carbides such as M 23 C 6 . Based on worn surface analysis, the dominant wear mechanisms of alloyed layer were found to be oxidation and delamination

  18. Multi-Scale Modeling of Microstructural Evolution in Structural Metallic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei

    Metallic alloys are a widely used class of structural materials, and the mechanical properties of these alloys are strongly dependent on the microstructure. Therefore, the scientific design of metallic materials with superior mechanical properties requires the understanding of the microstructural evolution. Computational models and simulations offer a number of advantages over experimental techniques in the prediction of microstructural evolution, because they can allow studies of microstructural evolution in situ, i.e., while the material is mechanically loaded (meso-scale simulations), and bring atomic-level insights into the microstructure (atomistic simulations). In this thesis, we applied a multi-scale modeling approach to study the microstructural evolution in several metallic systems, including polycrystalline materials and metallic glasses (MGs). Specifically, for polycrystalline materials, we developed a coupled finite element model that combines phase field method and crystal plasticity theory to study the plasticity effect on grain boundary (GB) migration. Our model is not only coupled strongly (i.e., we include plastic driving force on GB migration directly) and concurrently (i.e., coupled equations are solved simultaneously), but also it qualitatively captures such phenomena as the dislocation absorption by mobile GBs. The developed model provides a tool to study the microstructural evolution in plastically deformed metals and alloys. For MGs, we used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the nucleation kinetics in the primary crystallization in Al-Sm system. We calculated the time-temperature-transformation curves for low Sm concentrations, from which the strong suppressing effect of Sm solute on Al nucleation and its influencing mechanism are revealed. Also, through the comparative analysis of both Al attachment and Al diffusion in MGs, it has been found that the nucleation kinetics is controlled by interfacial attachment of Al, and that

  19. Establishing a Quantitative Functional Relationship between Capillary Pressure Saturation and Interfacial Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlo Montemagno

    2002-01-01

    We propose to continue our collaborative research focused on advanced technologies for subsurface contamination problems. Our approach combines new multi-phase flow theory, novel laboratory experiments, and non-traditional computational simulators to investigate practical approaches to include interfacial areas in descriptions of subsurface contaminant transport and remediation. Because all inter-phase mass transfer occurs at fluid-fluid interfaces, and it is this inter-phase mass transfer that leads to the difficult, long-term ground-water contamination problems, it is critical to include interfacial behavior in the problem description. This is currently lacking in all standard models of complex ground-water contamination problems. In our earlier project, we developed tools appropriate for inclusion of interfacial areas under equilibrium conditions. These include advanced laboratory techniques and targeted computational experiments that validated certain key theoretical conjecture s. However, it has become clear that to include interfacial behavior fully into a description of the multi-phase flow and contamination problems, the fully dynamic case must be considered. Therefore, we need to develop both experimental and computational tools that can capture the dynamic nature of interfacial movements. Development and application of such tools will allow the theory to be evaluated, and will lead to significant improvements in our understanding of complex subsurface contamination problems, thereby allowing us to develop and evaluate improved remediation technologies

  20. Microstructural Evolution and Fracture Behavior of Friction-Stir-Welded Al-Cu Laminated Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beygi, R.; Kazeminezhad, Mohsen; Kokabi, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we attempt to characterize the microstructural evolution during friction stir butt welding of Al-Cu-laminated composites and its effect on the fracture behavior of the joint. Emphasis is on the material flow and particle distribution in the stir zone. For this purpose, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, energy-dispersive spectroscopy EDS and XRD analyses, hardness measurements, and tensile tests are carried out on the joints. It is shown that intermetallic compounds exist in lamellas of banding structure formed in the advancing side of the welds. In samples welded from the Cu side, the banding structure in the advancing side and the hook formation in the retreating side determine the fracture behavior of the joint. In samples welded from the Al side, a defect is formed in the advancing side of the weld, which is attributed to insufficient material flow. It is concluded that the contact surface of the laminate (Al or Cu) with the shoulder of the FSW tool influences the material flow and microstructure of welds.

  1. Microstructure and Tensile-Shear Properties of Resistance Spot-Welded Medium Mn Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Jia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The medium Mn steels are gaining increasing attention due to their excellent combination of mechanical properties and material cost. A cold-rolled 0.1C5Mn medium Mn steel with a ferrite matrix plus metastable austenite duplex microstructure was resistance spot-welded with various welding currents and times. The nugget size rose with the increase of heat input, but when the welding current exceeded the critical value, the tensile-shear load increased slowly and became unstable due to metal expulsion. The fusion zone exhibited a lath martensite microstructure, and the heat-affected zone was composed of a ferrite/martensite matrix with retained austenite. The volume fraction of retained austenite decreased gradually from the base metal to the fusion zone, while the microhardness presented a reverse varying trend. Interfacial failure occurred along the interface of the steel sheets with lower loading capacity. Sufficient heat input along with serious expulsion brought about high stress concentration around the weld nugget, and the joint failed in partial interfacial mode. Pull-out failure was absent in this study.

  2. Interfacial enhancement of carbon fiber composites by growing TiO2 nanowires onto amine-based functionalized carbon fiber surface in supercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lichun; Li, Nan; Wu, Guangshun; Song, Guojun; Li, Xiaoru; Han, Ping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Yudong

    2018-03-01

    A novel amine-based functionalization method was developed to improve the interfacial adhesion between TiO2 NWs and CFs in supercritical water. The microstructure, morphology and mechanical properties of CFs were investigated. It was found that introducing hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) dendrimers and branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) on CF could increase significantly the adhesion strength between CF and TiO2 NWs and their interfacial shear strength with epoxy resin, and the order is CF-PEI-TiO2 NWs > CF-HMTA-TiO2 NWs > CF-COOH-TiO2 NWs > CF-TiO2 NW. Meanwhile, the reinforcing mechanisms and interfacial failure modes have also been discussed. We believe that these effective methods may provide theoretical foundation for the preparation of high performance composite materials.

  3. Homogenization for rigid suspensions with random velocity-dependent interfacial forces

    KAUST Repository

    Gorb, Yuliya

    2014-12-01

    We study suspensions of solid particles in a viscous incompressible fluid in the presence of random velocity-dependent interfacial forces. The flow at a small Reynolds number is modeled by the Stokes equations, coupled with the motion of rigid particles arranged in a periodic array. The objective is to perform homogenization for the given suspension and obtain an equivalent description of a homogeneous (effective) medium, the macroscopic effect of the interfacial forces and the effective viscosity are determined using the analysis on a periodicity cell. In particular, the solutions uωε to a family of problems corresponding to the size of microstructure ε and describing suspensions of rigid particles with random surface forces imposed on the interface, converge H1-weakly as ε→0 a.s. to a solution of a Stokes homogenized problem, with velocity dependent body forces. A corrector to a homogenized solution that yields a strong H1-convergence is also determined. The main technical construction is built upon the Γ-convergence theory. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Models and Correlations of Interfacial and Wall Frictions for the SPACE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo Hyung; Hwang, Moon Kyu; Chung, Bub Dong

    2010-04-01

    This report describes models and correlations for the interfacial and wall frictions implemented in the SPACE code which has the capability to predict thermal-hydraulic behavior of nuclear power plants. The interfacial and wall frictions are essential to solve the momentum conservation equations of gas, continuous liquid and droplet. The interfacial and wall frictions are dealt in the Chapter 2 and 3, respectively. In Chapter 4, selection criteria for models and correlations are explained. In Chapter 5, the origins of the selected models and correlations used in this code are examined to check whether they are in confliction with intellectual proprietary rights

  5. Effect of the microstructure of mortars with low hydraulicity slag on their behavior in aggressive environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hadj sadok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Slag is one of the most used cement additives. Due to its latent hydraulic nature, attached to its hydraulicity, it can contribute to a microstructural modification and an improvement of the durability of the concrete face of aggressive environments. In this study, a low active slag is used in the manufacture of mortars as a substitute for cement, at a maximum rate of 50%. Firstly, a study of the microstructure with mercury porosimetry was used for determination of microstructural parameters (porosity, diameters and volume distribution. The behavior of mortars in aggressive environments (sodium and magnesium sulphate and seawater was studied later. Despite the low reactivity of studied slag, its presence especially at 50% rate, in the long term, has led to a refinement of the microstructure. This effect, among others, led to better resistivity of the mortars in the sulphate environnements.

  6. Phase field study of interfacial diffusion-driven spheroidization in a composite comprized of two mutually insoluble phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Liang [Ames Laboratory; Russell, Alan [Ames Laboratory

    2014-03-27

    The phase field approach is a powerful computational technique to simulate morphological and microstructural evolution at the mesoscale. Spheroidization is a frequently observed morphological change of mesoscale heterogeneous structures during annealing. In this study, we used the diffuse interface phase field method to investigate the interfacial diffusion-driven spheroidization of cylindrical rod structures in a composite comprised of two mutually insoluble phases in a two-dimensional case. Perturbation of rod radius along a cylinder's axis has long been known to cause the necessary chemical potential gradient that drives spheroidization of the rod by Lord Rayleigh's instability theory. This theory indicates that a radius perturbation wavelength larger than the initial rod circumference would lead to cylindrical spheroidization. We investigated the effect of perturbation wavelength, interfacial energy, volume diffusion, phase composition, and interfacial percentage on the kinetics of spheroidization. The results match well with both the Rayleigh's instability criterion and experimental observations.

  7. Loading nature of the interfacial cracks in a joint component under fusion-relevant thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    One of the standard design concepts for divertor components in a fusion reactor is the bonded joint structure. Understanding the loading nature of interfacial cracks are significant for the assessment of structural integrity of divertor joint components. In this paper, the thermomechanical loading nature of interfacial cracks is discussed. A bi-material joint element consisting of the CFC/TZM system is considered. A typical fusion operation condition is simulated assuming a pulsed high heat flux loading. Stress singularities near the interfacial crack tips are characterized quantitatively in terms of the fracture mechanical parameters. The evolution of the stress intensity factors and the energy release rate during the given transient thermal load are determined. The difference in loading characteristics between the edge crack and the center crack is discussed. High heat flux cycling tests are performed on brazed CFC/TZM divertor elements in an electron beam test facility. The microstructures of the damaged interface agree with the predicted fracture modes. The loading nature and possible failure mechanisms are discussed for a fusion-relevant thermal loading. (orig.)

  8. Laser-Based Surface Modification of Microstructure for Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenfeng; Sun, Ting; Cao, Yu; Li, Shaolong; Liu, Chang; Tang, Qingru

    2018-05-01

    Bonding repair is a powerful feature of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP). Based on the theory of interface bonding, the interface adhesion strength and reliability of the CFRP structure will be directly affected by the microscopic features of the CFRP surface, including the microstructure, physical, and chemical characteristics. In this paper, laser-based surface modification was compared to Peel-ply, grinding, and polishing to comparatively evaluate the surface microstructure of CFRP. The surface microstructure, morphology, fiber damage, height and space parameters were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser confocal microscopy (LCM). Relative to the conventional grinding process, laser modification of the CFRP surface can result in more uniform resin removal and better processing control and repeatability. This decreases the adverse impact of surface fiber fractures and secondary damage. The surface properties were significantly optimized, which has been reflected such things as the obvious improvement of surface roughness, microstructure uniformity, and actual area. The improved surface microstructure based on laser modification is more conducive to interface bonding of CFRP structure repair. This can enhance the interfacial adhesion strength and reliability of repair.

  9. Interfacial area and interfacial transfer in two-phase systems. DOE final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Mamoru; Hibiki, T.; Revankar, S.T.; Kim, S.; Le Corre, J.M.

    2002-07-01

    In the two-fluid model, the field equations are expressed by the six conservation equations consisting of mass, momentum and energy equations for each phase. The existence of the interfacial transfer terms is one of the most important characteristics of the two-fluid model formulation. The interfacial transfer terms are strongly related to the interfacial area concentration and to the local transfer mechanisms such as the degree of turbulence near interfaces. This study focuses on the development of a closure relation for the interfacial area concentration. A brief summary of several problems of the current closure relation for the interfacial area concentration and a new concept to overcome the problem are given.

  10. Predictive modeling of interfacial damage in substructured steels: application to martensitic microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maresca, F.; Kouznetsova, V.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic composite phases, like martensite present in conventional steels and new generation high strength steels exhibit microscale, locally lamellar microstructures characterized by alternating layers of phases or crystallographic variants. The layers can be sub-micron down to a few nanometers

  11. Cyclic Fiber Push-In Test Monitors Evolution of Interfacial Behavior in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    1998-01-01

    SiC fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites are being developed for high-temperature advanced jet engine applications. Obtaining a strong, tough composite material depends critically on optimizing the mechanical coupling between the reinforcing fibers and the surrounding matrix material. This has usually been accomplished by applying a thin C or BN coating onto the surface of the reinforcing fibers. The performance of these fiber coatings, however, may degrade under cyclic loading conditions or exposure to different environments. Degradation of the coating-controlled interfacial behavior will strongly affect the useful service lifetime of the composite material. Cyclic fiber push-in testing was applied to monitor the evolution of fiber sliding behavior in both C- and BN-coated small-diameter (15-mm) SiC-fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites. The cyclic fiber push-in tests were performed using a desktop fiber push-out apparatus. At the beginning of each test, the fiber to be tested was aligned underneath a 10- mm-diameter diamond punch; then, the applied load was cycled between selected maximum and minimum loads. From the measured response, the fiber sliding distance and frictional sliding stresses were determined for each cycle. Tests were performed in both room air and nitrogen. Cyclic fiber push-in tests of C-coated, SiC-fiber-reinforced SiC showed progressive increases in fiber sliding distances along with decreases in frictional sliding stresses for continued cycling in room air. This rapid degradation in interfacial response was not observed for cycling in nitrogen, indicating that moisture exposure had a large effect in immediately lowering the frictional sliding stresses of C-coated fibers. These results indicate that matrix cracks bridged by C-coated fibers will not be stable, but will rapidly grow in moisture-containing environments. In contrast, cyclic fiber push-in tests of both BN-coated, SiC-fiber-reinforced SiC and BNcoated, Si

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of SiO2-BN ceramic and Invar alloy joints brazed with Ag–Cu–Ti+TiH2+BN composite filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ag–Cu–Ti + TiH2+BN composite filler was prepared to braze SiO2-BN ceramic and Invar alloy. The interfacial microstructure, mechanical properties, and residual stress distribution of the brazed joints were investigated. The results show that a wave-like Fe2Ti–Ni3Ti structure appears in the Invar substrate and a thin TiN–TiB2 reaction layer forms adjacent to the SiO2-BN ceramic. The added BN particles react with Ti to form TiN–TiB fine-particles, which is beneficial to refine the microstructure of the brazing seam and to greatly inhibit the brittle compounds formation. The interfacial microstructure at various brazing temperatures was analyzed, and the mechanism for the interfacial reactions responsible for the bonding was proposed. The maximum shear strength of the joints brazed with the composite filler at 880 °C for 10 min is 39 MPa, which is 30% greater than that brazed with Ag–Cu–Ti alloy. The improvement of the joint strength is attributed to the variation of joint microstructure and the reduction of tensile stresses induced in the SiO2-BN ceramic. The finite element analysis indicates that the peak tensile stress decreases from 230 to 142 MPa due to the addition of BN particles in the ceramic.

  13. Microstructure and strain rate effects on the mechanical behavior of particle reinforced epoxy-based reactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bradley William

    The effects of reactive metal particles on the microstructure and mechanical properties of epoxy-based composites is investigated in this work. Particle reinforced polymer composites show promise as structural energetic materials that can provide structural strength while simultaneously being capable of releasing large amounts of chemical energy through highly exothermic reactions occurring between the particles and with the matrix. This advanced class of materials is advantageous due to the decreased amount of high density inert casings needed for typical energetic materials and for their ability to increase payload expectancy and decrease collateral damage. Structural energetic materials can be comprised of reactive particles that undergo thermite or intermetallic reactions. In this work nickel (Ni) and aluminum (Al) particles were chosen as reinforcing constituents due to their well characterized mechanical and energetic properties. Although, the reactivity of nickel and aluminum is well characterized, the effects of their particle size, volume fractions, and spatial distribution on the mechanical behavior of the epoxy matrix and composite, across a large range of strain rates, are not well understood. To examine these effects castings of epoxy reinforced with 20--40 vol.% Al and 0--10 vol.% Ni were prepared, while varying the aluminum nominal particle size from 5 to 50 mum and holding the nickel nominal particle size constant at 50 mum. Through these variations eight composite materials were produced, possessing unique microstructures exhibiting different particle spatial distributions and constituent makeup. In order to correlate the microstructure to the constitutive response of the composites, techniques such as nearest-neighbor distances, and multiscale analysis of area fractions (MSAAF) were used to quantitatively characterize the microstructures. The composites were investigated under quasi-static and dynamic compressive loading conditions to characterize

  14. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Ni-Alloy/CrN Nanolayered Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Hsiang Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ni-alloy/CrN nanolayered coatings, Ni-Al/CrN and Ni-P/CrN, were deposited on (100 silicon wafer and AISI 420 stainless steel substrates by dual-gun sputtering technique. The influences of the layer microstructure on corrosion behavior of the nanolayered thin films were investigated. The bilayer thickness was controlled approximately 10 nm with a total coating thickness of 1m. The single-layer Ni-alloy and CrN coatings deposited at 350∘C were also evaluated for comparison. Through phase identification, phases of Ni-P and Ni-Al compounds were observed in the single Ni-alloy layers. On the other hand, the nanolayered Ni-P/CrN and Ni-Al/CrN coatings showed an amorphous/nanocrystalline microstructure. The precipitation of Ni-Al and Ni-P intermetallic compounds was suppressed by the nanolayered configuration of Ni-alloy/CrN coatings. Through Tafel analysis, the corr and corr values ranged from –0.64 to –0.33 V and 1.42×10−5 to 1.14×10−6 A/cm2, respectively, were deduced for various coating assemblies. The corrosion mechanisms and related behaviors of the coatings were compared. The coatings with a nanolayered Ni-alloy/CrN configuration exhibited a superior corrosion resistance to single-layer alloy or nitride coatings.

  15. Microstructural effects on constitutive and fatigue fracture behavior of TinSilverCopper solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jonathon P.

    As microelectronic package construction becomes more diverse and complex, the need for accurate, geometry-independent material constitutive and failure models increases. Evaluations of packages based on accelerated environmental tests (such as accelerated thermal cycling or power cycling) only provide package-dependent reliability information. In addition, extrapolations of such test data to life predictions under field conditions are often empirical. Besides geometry, accelerated environmental test data must account for microstructural factors such as alloy composition or isothermal aging condition, resulting in expensive experimental variation. In this work, displacement-controlled, creep, and fatigue lap shear tests are conducted on specially designed SnAgCu test specimens with microstructures representative to those found in commercial microelectronic packages. The data are used to develop constitutive and fatigue fracture material models capable of describing deformation and fracture behavior for the relevant temperature and strain rate ranges. Furthermore, insight is provided into the microstructural variation of solder joints and the subsequent effect on material behavior. These models are appropriate for application to packages of any geometrical construction. The first focus of the thesis is on Pb-mixed SnAgCu solder alloys. During the transition from Pb-containing solders to Pb-free solders, joints composed of a mixture of SnPb and SnAgCu often result from either mixed assemblies or rework. Three alloys of 1, 5 and 20 weight percent Pb were selected so as to represent reasonable ranges of Pb contamination expected from different 63Sn37Pb components mixed with Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu. Displacement-controlled (constant strain rate) and creep tests were performed at temperatures of 25°C, 75°C, and 125°C using a double lap shear test setup that ensures a nearly homogeneous state of plastic strain at the joint interface. Rate-dependent constitutive models for Pb

  16. Microstructures and oxidation behavior of some Molybdenum based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Pratik Kumar [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The advent of Ni based superalloys revolutionized the high temperature alloy industry. These materials are capable of operating in extremely harsh environments, comprising of temperatures around 1050 C, under oxidative conditions. Demands for increased fuel efficiency, however, has highlighted the need for materials that can be used under oxidative conditions at temperatures in excess of 1200 C. The Ni based superalloys are restricted to lower temperatures due to the presence of a number of low melting phases that melt in the 1250 - 1450 C, resulting in softening of the alloys above 1000 C. Therefore, recent research directions have been skewed towards exploring and developing newer alloy systems. This thesis comprises a part of such an effort. Techniques for rapid thermodynamic assessments were developed and applied to two different systems - Mo-Si alloys with transition metal substitutions (and this forms the first part of the thesis) and Ni-Al alloys with added components for providing high temperature strength and ductility. A hierarchical approach towards alloy design indicated the Mo-Ni-Al system as a prospective candidate for high temperature applications. Investigations on microstructures and oxidation behavior, under both isothermal and cyclic conditions, of these alloys constitute the second part of this thesis. It was seen that refractory metal systems show a marked microstructure dependence of oxidation.

  17. Abnormal flow behavior and necklace microstructure of powder metallurgy superalloys with previous particle boundaries (PPBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, Yongquan, E-mail: luckyning@nwpu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Zhou, Cong; Liang, Houquan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Fu, M.W., E-mail: mmmwfu@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-01-15

    Powder metallurgy (P/M) has been introduced as an innovative process to manufacture high performance components with fine, homogenous and segregation-free microstructure. Unfortunately, previous particle boundary (PPB) precipitated during the powder metallurgy process. Since undesirable PPB is detrimental to mechanical properties, hot extrusion or/and isothermal forging are needed. In present research, isothermal compression tests were conducted on P/M FGH4096 superalloys with typical PPBs. Abnormal flow behavior during high-speed deformation has been quantitatively investigated. Caused by the competition mechanism between work-hardening and dynamic-softening, abnormal flow behaves typical four stages (viz., work-hardening, stable, softening and steady). Microstructure observation for hardening or/and softening mechanism has been investigated. Meanwhile, necklace microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscope, and the grain fraction analysis was performed by using electron backscatter diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy was used for characterizing the boundary structure. Necklace microstructural mechanism for processing P/M superalloys has been developed, and the dynamic recrystallization model has also been conducted. Bulge–corrugation model is the primary nucleation mechanism for P/M superalloys with PPBs. When PPB is entirely covered with new grains, necklace microstructure has formed. Bulge–corrugation mechanism can repeatedly take place in the following necklace DRX.

  18. Stress, microstructure and evolution under ion irradiation in thin films grown by ion beam sputtering: modelling and application to interfacial effects in metallic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelle, A.

    2006-09-01

    We have investigated the formation of the interfacial chemical mixing in Mo/Ni multilayers, and particularly the influence of ballistic effects during the growth. For this purpose, hetero-epitaxial b.c.c./f.c.c. Mo(110)/Ni(111) multilayers were grown by two deposition methods: thermal evaporation and direct ion beam sputtering. As a preliminary, an accurate description of the stress state in pure sputtered Mo thin films was required. Microstructural and stress state analyses were essentially carried out by X-ray diffraction, and ion irradiation was used as a powerful tool to control the stress level. We showed that thermal evaporated thin films exhibit a weak tensile growth stress (∼ 0.6 GPa) that can be accounted for by the grain boundary relaxation model, whereas sputtered thin films develop large compressive growth stress (- 2 to - 4 GPa). This latter results from the bombardment of the growing film by the energetic particles involved during the sputtering process (atomic peening phenomenon), which induces the formation of defects in the layers, generating volume distortions. We thus developed a stress model that includes a hydrostatic stress component to account for these volume strains. This model allowed us to determine the 'unstressed and free of defects lattice parameter' a 0 , solely linked to chemical effects. For epitaxial Mo layers, it was possible to separate coherency stress from growth stress due to their distinct kinetic evolution during ion irradiation. Therefore, the stress analysis enabled us to determine the a 0 values in Mo sub-layers of Mo/Ni superlattices. A tendency to the formation of an interfacial alloy is observed independently of the growth conditions, which suggests that thermodynamic forces favour the exchange mechanism. However, the extent of the intermixing effect is clearly enhanced by ballistic effects. (author)

  19. Establishing a Quantitative Functional Relationship between Capillary Pressure Saturation and Interfacial Area; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlo Montemagno

    2002-01-01

    We propose to continue our collaborative research focused on advanced technologies for subsurface contamination problems. Our approach combines new multi-phase flow theory, novel laboratory experiments, and non-traditional computational simulators to investigate practical approaches to include interfacial areas in descriptions of subsurface contaminant transport and remediation. Because all inter-phase mass transfer occurs at fluid-fluid interfaces, and it is this inter-phase mass transfer that leads to the difficult, long-term ground-water contamination problems, it is critical to include interfacial behavior in the problem description. This is currently lacking in all standard models of complex ground-water contamination problems. In our earlier project, we developed tools appropriate for inclusion of interfacial areas under equilibrium conditions. These include advanced laboratory techniques and targeted computational experiments that validated certain key theoretical conjecture s. However, it has become clear that to include interfacial behavior fully into a description of the multi-phase flow and contamination problems, the fully dynamic case must be considered. Therefore, we need to develop both experimental and computational tools that can capture the dynamic nature of interfacial movements. Development and application of such tools will allow the theory to be evaluated, and will lead to significant improvements in our understanding of complex subsurface contamination problems, thereby allowing us to develop and evaluate improved remediation technologies

  20. Interfacial structures - Thermodynamical and experimental studies of the interfacial mass transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Jean-Emile

    1972-01-01

    In the first section, we put forward hypotheses concerning the structure of the interfacial regions between two immiscible liquid phases. It appears that the longitudinal structure is comparable with that of a crystallized solid and that the transversal structure is nearest of that of a liquid. In the second section, we present a thermodynamical treatment of the irreversible phenomena in the interfacial region. The equation of evolution of a system consisting of two immiscible liquid phases are deduced. The third part allows an experimental verification of the theoretical relations. We also make clear, in certain cases, the appearance of a great 'interfacial resistance' which slows down the interfacial mass transfer. (author) [fr

  1. Intermetallic Growth and Interfacial Properties of the Grain Refiners in Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Cheng, Nanpu; Chen, Zhiqian; Xie, Zhongjing; Hui, Liangliang

    2018-01-01

    Al3TM(TM = Ti, Zr, Hf, Sc) particles acting as effective grain refiners for Al alloys have been receiving extensive attention these days. In order to judge their nucleation behaviors, first-principles calculations are used to investigate their intermetallic and interfacial properties. Based on energy analysis, Al3Zr and Al3Sc are more suitable for use as grain refiners than the other two intermetallic compounds. Interfacial properties show that Al/Al3TM(TM = Ti, Zr, Hf, Sc) interfaces in I-ter interfacial mode exhibit better interface wetting effects due to larger Griffith rupture work and a smaller interface energy. Among these, Al/Al3Sc achieves the lowest interfacial energy, which shows that Sc atoms should get priority for occupying interfacial sites. Additionally, Sc-doped Al/Al3(Zr, Sc) interfacial properties show that Sc can effectively improve the Al/Al3(Zr, Sc) binding strength with the Al matrix. By combining the characteristics of interfaces with the properties of intermetallics, the core-shell structure with Al3Zr-core or Al3Zr(Sc1-1)-core encircled with an Sc-rich shell forms. PMID:29677155

  2. Water/ionic liquid/organic three-phase interfacial synthesis of coral-like polypyrrole toward enhanced electrochemical capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Linrui; Yuan Changzhou; Li Diankai; Yang Long; Shen Laifa; Zhang Fang; Zhang Xiaogang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Interfacial synthesis strategies are proposed to synthesize PPy samples. → Water/ionic liquid /organic three-phase interface for preparing coral-like PPy. → Coral-like PPy with more ordered structure and better electronic conductivity. → Coral-like PPy owns higher rate performance and better electrochemical stability. - Abstract: Two interfacial synthesis strategies are proposed to synthesize polypyrrole samples for electrochemical capacitors (ECs). In contrast to water/organic two-phase route, unique water/ionic liquid (IL)/organic three-phase interface strategy is first performed to prepare coral-like polypyrrole with even better electrochemical capacitance, where 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate IL, as a 'buffering zone', is set between the water and organic phases to control the morphology and micro-structure of the polypyrrole phase during polymerization. The polypyrrole synthesized by three-phase interfacial route owns more ordered structure, less charge transfer resistance and better electronic conductivity, compared with two-phase method, and delivers larger specific capacitance, higher rate performance and better electrochemical stability at large current densities in 3 M KCl aqueous electrolyte.

  3. Interfacial self-organization of bolaamphiphiles bearing mesogenic groups: relationships between the molecular structures and their self-organized morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Liu, Guanqing; Xu, Rui; Yin, Shouchun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xi

    2008-04-15

    This article discusses the relationship between the molecular structure of bolaamphiphiles bearing mesogenic groups and their interfacial self-organized morphology. On the basis of the molecular structures of bolaamphiphiles, we designed and synthesized a series of molecules with different hydrophobic alkyl chain lengths, hydrophilic headgroups, mesogenic groups, and connectors between the alkyl chains and the mesogenic group. Through investigating their interfacial self-organization behavior, some experiential rules are summarized: (1) An appropriate alkyl chain length is necessary to form stable surface micelles; (2) different categories of headgroups have a great effect on the interfacial self-organized morphology; (3) different types of mesogenic groups have little effect on the structure of the interfacial assembly when it is changed from biphenyl to azobenzene or stilbene; (4) the orientation of the ester linker between the mesogenic group and alkyl chain can greatly influence the interfacial self-organization behavior. It is anticipated that this line of research may be helpful for the molecular engineering of bolaamphiphiles to form tailor-made morphologies.

  4. Microstructural Characterization Of Laser Heat Treated AISI 4140 Steel With Improved Fatigue Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh M.C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of surface heat treatment using laser radiation on the fatigue strength and corresponding microstructural evolution of AISI 4140 alloy steel was investigated in this research. The AISI 4140 alloy steel was radiated by a diode laser to give surface temperatures in the range between 600 and 800°C, and subsequently underwent vibration peening. The fatigue behavior of surface-treated specimens was examined using a giga-cycle ultrasonic fatigue test, and it was compared with that of non-treated and only-peened specimens. Fatigue fractured surfaces and microstructural evolution with respect to the laser treatment temperatures were investigated using an optical microscope. Hardness distribution was measured using Vickers micro-hardness. Higher laser temperature resulted in higher fatigue strength, attributed to the phase transformation.

  5. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of laser processed NiTi alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marattukalam, Jithin J; Singh, Amit Kumar; Datta, Susmit; Das, Mitun; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bontha, Srikanth; Kalpathy, Sreeram K

    2015-12-01

    Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™), a commercially available additive manufacturing technology, has been used to fabricate dense equiatomic NiTi alloy components. The primary aim of this work is to study the effect of laser power and scan speed on microstructure, phase constituents, hardness and corrosion behavior of laser processed NiTi alloy. The results showed retention of large amount of high-temperature austenite phase at room temperature due to high cooling rates associated with laser processing. The high amount of austenite in these samples increased the hardness. The grain size and corrosion resistance were found to increase with laser power. The surface energy of NiTi alloy, calculated using contact angles, decreased from 61 mN/m to 56 mN/m with increase in laser energy density from 20 J/mm(2) to 80 J/mm(2). The decrease in surface energy shifted the corrosion potentials to nobler direction and decreased the corrosion current. Under present experimental conditions the laser power found to have strong influence on microstructure, phase constituents and corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microstructure of aluminized coating on a Ni-Cr alloy after annealing treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.-L.; Gan Dershin

    2008-01-01

    The effects of annealing on the microstructure of first stage (high-Al activity pack) aluminized coating on Ni-15Cr alloy prepared by pack cementation method were analyzed by transmission electron microscope. The coating consists of a thin layer of γ'-Ni 3 Al, an interfacial zone of mixed β-NiAl and α-Cr, and a thick outer zone of β-NiAl (A layer) and mixed β-NiAl and α-Cr (B layer). Martensitic transformation was observed in the β-NiAl grains in the interfacial zone. Parallel crystallographic relationship was found at the γ/γ' interface in the substrate and the α/β interface in the interfacial zone. Cr 2 Al was found to precipitate in the β-NiAl and α-Cr grains in the B layer of the outer zone. The formation mechanisms of the coating layers, the precipitates, and the observed crystallographic relationships are discussed

  7. Bioinspired design and interfacial failure of biomedical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Nima

    The deformation mechanism of nacre as a model biological material is studied in this project. A numerical model is presented which consists of tensile pillars, shear pillars, asperities and aragonite platelets. It has been shown that the tensile pillars are the main elements that control the global stiffness of the nacre structure. Meanwhile, ultimate strength of the nacre structure is controlled by asperities and their behavior and the ratio of L/2D which is itself a function of the geometry of the platelets. Protein/shear pillars provide the glue which holds the assembly of entire system together, particularly in the direction normal to the platelets main axis. This dissertation also presents the results of a combined theoretical/computational and experimental effort to develop crack resistant dental multilayers that are inspired by the functionally graded dento-enamel junction (DEJ) structure that occurs between dentin and enamel in natural teeth. The complex structures of natural teeth and ceramic crowns are idealized using at layered configurations. The potential effects of occlusal contact are then modeled using finite element simulations of Hertzian contact. The resulting stress distributions are compared for a range of possible bioinspired, functionally graded architecture. The computed stress distributions show that the highest stress concentrations in the top ceramic layer of crown structures are reduced significantly by the use of bioinspired functionally graded architectures. The reduced stresses are shown to be associated with significant improvements (30%) in the pop-in loads over a wide range of clinically-relevant loading rates. The implications of the results are discussed for the design of bioinspired dental ceramic crown structures. The results of a combined experimental and computational study of mixed mode fracture in glass/cement and zirconia/cement interfaces that are relevant to dental restorations is also presented. The interfacial fracture

  8. Effect of the microstructure on the creep behavior of PM Udimet 720 superalloy--experiments and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubiez-Le Goff, Sophie; Couturier, Raphaeel; Guetaz, Laure; Burlet, Helene

    2004-01-01

    Powder metallurgy processed Udimet 720 is a high creep strength nickel-based superalloy considered for high temperature turbine disks for nuclear gas cooled reactors working under 700 deg. C. Both fine-grained and coarse-grained microstructures have been obtained by applying respectively a subsolvus or a supersolvus solution treatments, followed by ageing treatments. In both microstructures, the distribution of the strengthening γ' precipitates has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The creep curves of the coarse-grained microstructure show the three usual creep stages. On the contrary, the creep curves of the fine-grained microstructure show a transition directly from primary to apparent tertiary creep without any obvious steady state. According to TEM analyses, Orowan loops surround Udimet 720 CR γ' and U720 HS γ' at high stress whereas U720 HS γ' are sheared at low stress. To describe the behavior of the superalloy Udimet 720, a specific creep model is developed on the basis of McLean and Dyson models including physical damage parameters

  9. Influence of Boron on the Creep Behavior and the Microstructure of Particle Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Siebeck

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The reinforcement of aluminum alloys with particles leads to the enhancement of their mechanical properties at room temperature. However, the creep behavior at elevated temperatures is often negatively influenced. This raises the question of how it is possible to influence the creep behavior of this type of material. Within this paper, selected creep and tensile tests demonstrate the beneficial effects of boron on the properties of precipitation-hardenable aluminum matrix composites (AMCs. The focus is on the underlying microstructure behind this effect. For this purpose, boron was added to AMCs by means of mechanical alloying. Comparatively higher boron contents than in steel are investigated in order to be able to record their influence on the microstructure including the formation of potential new phases as well as possible. While the newly formed phase Al3BC can be reliably detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD, it is difficult to obtain information about the phase distribution by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM investigations. An important contribution to this is finally provided by the investigation using Raman microscopy. Thus, the homogeneous distribution of finely scaled Al3BC particles is detectable, which allows conclusions about the microstructure/property relationship.

  10. Microstructure, vertical strain control and tunable functionalities in self-assembled, vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Aiping; Bi, Zhenxing; Jia, Quanxi; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.; Wang, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) oxide thin films have recently stimulated a significant amount of research interest owing to their novel architecture, vertical interfacial strain control and tunable material functionalities. In this work, the growth mechanisms of VAN thin films have been investigated by varying the composite material system, the ratio of the two constituent phases, and the thin film growth conditions including deposition temperature and oxygen pressure as well as growth rate. It has been shown that thermodynamic parameters, elastic and interfacial energies and the multiple phase ratio play dominant roles in the resulting microstructure. In addition, vertical interfacial strain has been observed in BiFeO 3 (BFO)- and La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSMO)-based VAN thin film systems; the vertical strain could be tuned by the growth parameters and selection of a suitable secondary phase. The tunability of physical properties such as dielectric loss in BFO:Sm 2 O 3 VAN and low-field magnetoresistance in LSMO-based VAN systems has been demonstrated. The enhancement and tunability of those physical properties have been attributed to the unique VAN architecture and vertical strain control. These results suggest that VAN architecture with novel microstructure and unique vertical strain tuning could provide a general route for tailoring and manipulating the functionalities of oxide thin films

  11. Effects of Ag addition on solid–state interfacial reactions between Sn–Ag–Cu solder and Cu substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ming; Ko, Yong-Ho; Bang, Junghwan; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Chang-Woo; Li, Mingyu

    2017-01-01

    Low–Ag–content Sn–Ag–Cu (SAC) solders have attracted much recent attention in electronic packaging for their low cost. To reasonably reduce the Ag content in Pb–free solders, a deep understanding of the basic influence of Ag on the SAC solder/Cu substrate interfacial reaction is essential. Previous studies have discussed the influence of Ag on the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness. However, because IMC growth is the joint result of multiple factors, such characterizations do not reveal the actual role of Ag. In this study, changes in interfacial IMCs after Ag introduction were systemically and quantitatively characterized in terms of coarsening behaviors, orientation evolution, and growth kinetics. The results show that Ag in the solder alloy affects the coarsening behavior, accelerates the orientation concentration, and inhibits the growth of interfacial IMCs during solid–state aging. The inhibition mechanism was quantitatively discussed considering the individual diffusion behaviors of Cu and Sn atoms, revealing that Ag inhibits interfacial IMC growth primarily by slowing the diffusion of Cu atoms through the interface. - Highlights: •Role of Ag in IMC formation during Sn–Ag–Cu soldering was investigated. •Ag affects coarsening, crystallographic orientation, and IMC growth. •Diffusion pathways of Sn and Cu are affected differently by Ag. •Ag slows Cu diffusion to inhibit IMC growth at solder/substrate interface.

  12. Effects of Ag addition on solid–state interfacial reactions between Sn–Ag–Cu solder and Cu substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming [Micro-Joining Center, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Incheon 21999 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Yong-Ho [Micro-Joining Center, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Incheon 21999 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291, Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Junghwan [Micro-Joining Center, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Incheon 21999 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taek-Soo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291, Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Woo, E-mail: cwlee@kitech.re.kr [Micro-Joining Center, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Incheon 21999 (Korea, Republic of); Li, Mingyu, E-mail: myli@hit.edu.cn [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Low–Ag–content Sn–Ag–Cu (SAC) solders have attracted much recent attention in electronic packaging for their low cost. To reasonably reduce the Ag content in Pb–free solders, a deep understanding of the basic influence of Ag on the SAC solder/Cu substrate interfacial reaction is essential. Previous studies have discussed the influence of Ag on the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness. However, because IMC growth is the joint result of multiple factors, such characterizations do not reveal the actual role of Ag. In this study, changes in interfacial IMCs after Ag introduction were systemically and quantitatively characterized in terms of coarsening behaviors, orientation evolution, and growth kinetics. The results show that Ag in the solder alloy affects the coarsening behavior, accelerates the orientation concentration, and inhibits the growth of interfacial IMCs during solid–state aging. The inhibition mechanism was quantitatively discussed considering the individual diffusion behaviors of Cu and Sn atoms, revealing that Ag inhibits interfacial IMC growth primarily by slowing the diffusion of Cu atoms through the interface. - Highlights: •Role of Ag in IMC formation during Sn–Ag–Cu soldering was investigated. •Ag affects coarsening, crystallographic orientation, and IMC growth. •Diffusion pathways of Sn and Cu are affected differently by Ag. •Ag slows Cu diffusion to inhibit IMC growth at solder/substrate interface.

  13. Two-phase interfacial area and flow regime modeling in FLOWTRAN-TF code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.G. III; Lee, S.Y.; Flach, G.P.; Hamm, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    FLOWTRAN-TF is a new two-component, two-phase thermal-hydraulics code to capture the detailed assembly behavior associated with loss-of-coolant accident analyses in multichannel assemblies of the SRS reactors. The local interfacial area of the two-phase mixture is computed by summing the interfacial areas contributed by each of three flow regimes. For smooth flow regime transitions, the code uses an interpolation technique in terms of component void fraction for each basic flow regime

  14. Interfacial effects in multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Interfacial structure and the atomic interactions between atoms at interfaces in multilayers or nano-laminates have significant impact on the physical properties of these materials. A technique for the experimental evaluation of interfacial structure and interfacial structure effects is presented and compared to experiment. In this paper the impact of interfacial structure on the performance of x-ray, soft x-ray and extreme ultra-violet multilayer optic structures is emphasized. The paper is concluded with summary of these results and an assessment of their implications relative to multilayer development and the study of buried interfaces in solids in general

  15. Effect of fiber coating on interfacial shear strength of SiC/SiC by nano-indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinoki, T.; Zhang, W.; Kohyama, A.; Noda, T.

    1998-01-01

    In order to quantitatively evaluate mechanical properties of fibers, matrices and their interfaces in fiber reinforced SiC/SiC composites, fiber push-out tests have been carried out. From the indentation load vs. displacement relations, the fiber push-out process has been discussed in comparison with the C/C composites and the loads for fiber push-in and those for fiber push-out were estimated. The trends of load-displacement curve of fiber push-out process depended on specimen thickness. The curve in the case of thick specimen had a micro step indicating fiber push-in and a larger step corresponding to fiber push-out. However just a larger step indicating fiber push-out was seen without fiber push-in process in the case of thin specimen. Interfacial shear stress was discussed and defined in both cases. The effects of fiber coatings on interfacial shear stress obtained from thin specimens were analyzed. The relationship between bending stress and interfacial shear stress of SiC (pcs) /SiC (CVI) is preliminarily postulated together with microstructural characteristics of the composites. (orig.)

  16. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of laser surface-treated AZ31B Mg bio-implant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tso-Chang; Ho, Yee-Hsien; Joshi, Sameehan S; Rajamure, Ravi S; Dahotre, Narendra B

    2017-05-01

    Although magnesium and magnesium alloys are considered biocompatible and biodegradable, they suffer from poor corrosion performance in the human body environment. In light of this, surface modification via rapid surface melting of AZ31B Mg alloy using a continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser was conducted. Laser processing was performed with laser energy ranging from 1.06 to 3.18 J/mm 2 . The corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid of laser surface-treated and untreated AZ31B Mg alloy samples was evaluated using electrochemical technique. The effect of laser surface treatment on phase and microstructure evolution was evaluated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Microstructure examination revealed grain refinement as well as formation and uniform distribution of Mg 17 Al 12 phase along the grain boundary for laser surface-treated samples. Evolution of such unique microstructure during laser surface treatment indicated enhancement in the corrosion resistance of laser surface-treated samples compared to untreated alloy.

  17. On the interfacial interaction between bituminous binders and mineral surfaces as present in asphalt mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Hartmut R., E-mail: hartmut.fischer@tno.nl [TNO Technical Sciences, De Rondom 1, 5612 AP Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dillingh, E.C.; Hermse, C.G.M. [TNO Technical Sciences, De Rondom 1, 5612 AP Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct measurement of the contact angle between different phases of the microstructure of bitumen and aggregate surfaces of different chemical nature using AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Common schema of adhesion of bitumen on aggregates via asphaltene precipitation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface roughness/porosity more important than chemical nature for strength of adhesion between aggregate and bitumen. - Abstract: The interfacial interaction between bituminous binders and several mineral surfaces of different chemical nature as present in asphalt mixtures has been investigated using atomic force microscopy. Several dry mineral surfaces display comparable wetting with respect to the different phases present in the micro-structure of bitumen, regardless of differences in their chemical nature. The peri/catana-phase shows a preferential wetting due to adsorption of asphaltene aggregates to the mineral surfaces.

  18. On the interfacial interaction between bituminous binders and mineral surfaces as present in asphalt mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Hartmut R.; Dillingh, E.C.; Hermse, C.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Direct measurement of the contact angle between different phases of the microstructure of bitumen and aggregate surfaces of different chemical nature using AFM. ► Common schema of adhesion of bitumen on aggregates via asphaltene precipitation. ► Surface roughness/porosity more important than chemical nature for strength of adhesion between aggregate and bitumen. - Abstract: The interfacial interaction between bituminous binders and several mineral surfaces of different chemical nature as present in asphalt mixtures has been investigated using atomic force microscopy. Several dry mineral surfaces display comparable wetting with respect to the different phases present in the micro-structure of bitumen, regardless of differences in their chemical nature. The peri/catana-phase shows a preferential wetting due to adsorption of asphaltene aggregates to the mineral surfaces.

  19. Creep of Two-Phase Microstructures for Microelectronic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Heidi Linch [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The mechanical properties of low-melting temperature alloys are highly influenced by their creep behavior. This study investigates the dominant mechanisms that control creep behavior of two-phase, low-melting temperature alloys as a function of microstructure. The alloy systems selected for study were In-Ag and Sn-Bi because their eutectic compositions represent distinctly different microstructure.” The In-Ag eutectic contains a discontinuous phase while the Sn-Bi eutectic consists of two continuous phases. In addition, this work generates useful engineering data on Pb-free alloys with a joint specimen geometry that simulates microstructure found in microelectronic applications. The use of joint test specimens allows for observations regarding the practical attainability of superplastic microstructure in real solder joints by varying the cooling rate. Steady-state creep properties of In-Ag eutectic, Sn-Bi eutectic, Sn-xBi solid-solution and pure Bi joints have been measured using constant load tests at temperatures ranging from O°C to 90°C. Constitutive equations are derived to describe the steady-state creep behavior for In-Ageutectic solder joints and Sn-xBi solid-solution joints. The data are well represented by an equation of the form proposed by Dom: a power-law equation applies to each independent creep mechanism. Rate-controlling creep mechanisms, as a function of applied shear stress, test temperature, and joint microstructure, are discussed. Literature data on the steady-state creep properties of Sn-Bi eutectic are reviewed and compared with the Sn-xBi solid-solution and pure Bi joint data measured in the current study. The role of constituent phases in controlling eutectic creep behavior is discussed for both alloy systems. In general, for continuous, two-phase microstructure, where each phase exhibits significantly different creep behavior, the harder or more creep resistant phase will dominate the creep behavior in a lamellar microstructure. If a

  20. Strengthening behavior of beta phase in lamellar microstructure of TiAl alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanliang; Seo, D. Y.; Maruyama, K.

    2010-01-01

    β phase can be introduced to TiAl alloys by the additions of β stabilizing elements such as Cr, Nb, W, and Mo. The β phase has a body-centered cubic lattice structure and is softer than the α2 and γ phases in TiAl alloys at elevated temperatures, and hence is thought to have a detrimental effect on creep strength. However, fine β precipitates can be formed at lamellar interfaces by proper heat treatment conditions and the β interfacial precipitate improves the creep resistance of fully lamellar TiAl alloys, since the phase interface of γ/β retards the motion of dislocations during creep. This paper reviews recent research on high-temperature strengthening behavior of the β phase in fully lamellar TiAl alloys.

  1. Monte Carlo studies on the interfacial properties and interfacial structures of ternary symmetric blends with gradient copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dachuan; Guo, Hongxia

    2012-08-09

    Using Monte Carlo simulation methods, the effects of the comonomer sequence distribution on the interfacial properties (including interfacial tension, interfacial thickness, saturated interfacial area per copolymer, and bending modulus) and interfacial structures (including chain conformations and comonomer distributions of the simulated copolymers at the interfaces) of a ternary symmetric blend containing two immiscible homopolymers and one gradient copolymer are investigated. We find that copolymers with a larger composition gradient width have a broader comonomer distribution along the interface normal, and hence more pronouncedly enlarge the interfacial thickness and reduce the interfacial tension. Furthermore, the counteraction effect, which arises from the tendency of heterogeneous segments in gradient copolymers to phase separate and enter their miscible phases to reduce the local enthalpy, decreases the stretching of copolymers along the interface normal direction. As a result, copolymers with a larger width of gradient composition can occupy a larger interfacial area and form softer monolayers at saturation and are more efficient in facilitating the formation of bicontinuous microemulsions. Additionally, chain length ratio, segregation strength, and interactions between homopolymers and copolymers can alter the interfacial character of gradient copolymers. There exists a strong coupling between the comonomer sequence distribution, chain conformation, and interfacial properties. Especially, bending modulus is mainly determined by the complicated interplay of interfacial copolymer density and interfacial chain conformation.

  2. Microstructure and properties of an Al-Ti-Cu-Si brazing alloy for SiC-metal joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chun-duo; Ma, Rui-na; Wang, Wei; Cao, Xiao-ming; Yu, Yan

    2017-05-01

    An Al-Ti-Cu-Si solid-liquid dual-phase alloy that exhibits good wettability and appropriate interfacial reaction with SiC at 500-600°C was designed for SiC-metal joining. The microstructure, phases, differential thermal curves, and high-temperature wetting behavior of the alloy were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and the sessile drop method. The experimental results show that the 76.5Al-8.5Ti-5Cu-10Si alloy is mainly composed of Al-Al2Cu and Al-Si hypoeutectic low-melting-point microstructures (493-586°C) and the high-melting-point intermetallic compound AlTiSi (840°C). The contact angle, determined by high-temperature wetting experiments, is approximately 54°. Furthermore, the wetting interface is smooth and contains no obvious defects. Metallurgical bonding at the interface is attributable to the reaction between Al and Si in the alloy and ceramic, respectively. The formation of the brittle Al4C3 phase at the interface is suppressed by the addition of 10wt% Si to the alloy.

  3. Analysis on Interfacial Performance of CFRPConcrete with Different Thickness of Adhesive Layer and CFRP Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Qingyong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The bond behavior of CFRP-concrete interface is the analysis foundation for concrete structures with external strengthening CFRP. In the paper, the influences of the thickness of CFRP plate and adhesive layer on interfacial adhesive properties are investigated through the finite element program. The influence rules of the thickness on the interfacial ultimate bearing capacity and the effective bond length are performed. The results show that the thickness of adhesive layer and CFRP plate has a significant effect on the interfacial performance of CFRP-concrete.

  4. The ITZ in concrete with natural and recycled aggregates : Study of microstructures based on image and SEM analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifazi, G.; Capobianco, G.; Serranti, S.; Eggimann, M.; Wagner, E.; Di Maio, F.; Lotfi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure of the Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ) between cement paste and aggregate in concrete utilizing Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in order to identify possible effects on the ITZ related to different recipes and production parameters. SEM is

  5. Dynamic modeling of interfacial structures via interfacial area transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seungjin, Kim; Mamoru, Ishii

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows:In the current thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes using the two-fluid model, the empirical correlations that are based on the two-phase flow regimes and regime transition criteria are being employed as closure relations for the interfacial transfer terms. Due to its inherent shortcomings, however, such static correlations are inaccurate and present serious problems in the numerical analysis. In view of this, a new dynamic approach employing the interfacial area transport equation has been studied. The interfacial area transport equation dynamically models the two-phase flow regime transitions and predicts continuous change of the interfacial area concentration along the flow field. Hence, when employed in the thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes, it eliminates artificial bifurcations stemming from the use of the static flow regime transition criteria. Therefore, the interfacial area transport equation can make a leapfrog improvement in the current capability of the two-fluid model from both scientific and practical point of view. Accounting for the substantial differences in the transport phenomena of various sizes of bubbles, the two-group interfacial area transport equations have been developed. The group 1 equation describes the transport of small-dispersed bubbles that are either distorted or spherical in shapes, and the group 2 equation describes the transport of large cap, slug or churn-turbulent bubbles. The source and sink terms in the right hand-side of the transport equations have been established by mechanistically modeling the creation and destruction of bubbles due to major bubble interaction mechanisms. The coalescence mechanisms include the random collision driven by turbulence, and the entrainment of trailing bubbles in the wake region of the preceding bubble. The disintegration mechanisms include the break-up by turbulence impact, shearing-off at the rim of large cap bubbles and the break-up of large cap

  6. Investigations on Microstructure and Corrosion behavior of Superalloy 686 weldments by Electrochemical Corrosion Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmurugan, B.; Manikandan, M.

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, microstructure and the corrosion behavior of Nickel based superalloy 686 and its weld joints has been investigated by synthetic sea water environment. The weldments were fabricated by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (PCGTAW) techniques with autogenous mode and three different filler wires (ERNiCrMo-4, ERNiCrMo-10 and ERNiCrMo-14). Microstructure and Scanning electron microscope examination was carried out to evaluate the structural changes in the fusion zones of different weldments. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was carried out to evaluate the microsegregation of alloying elements in the different weld joints. Potentiodynamic polarization study was experimented on the base metal and weld joints in the synthetic sea water environment to evaluate the corrosion rate. Tafel’s interpolation technique was used to obtain the corrosion rate. The microstructure examination revealed that the fine equiaxed dendrites were observed in the pulsed current mode. EDS analysis shows the absence of microsegregation in the current pulsing technique. The corrosion rates of weldments are compared with the base metal. The results show that the fine microstructure with the absence of microsegregation in the PCGTA weldments shows improved corrosion resistance compared to the GTAW. Autogenous PCGTAW shows higher corrosion resistance irrespective of all weldments employed in the present study.

  7. Effect of nano-SiO2 particles and curing time on development of fiber-matrix bond properties and microstructure of ultra-high strength concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zemei; Khayat, Kamal Henri; Shi, Caijun

    2017-01-01

    Bond properties between fibers and cementitious matrix have significant effect on the mechanical behavior of composite materials. In this study, the development of steel fiber-matrix interfacial bond properties in ultra-high strength concrete (UHSC) proportioned with nano-SiO 2 varying between 0 and 2%, by mass of cementitious materials, was investigated. A statistical model relating either bond strength or pullout energy to curing time and nano-SiO 2 content was proposed by using the response surface methodology. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and backscatter scanning electron microscopy (BSEM) were used to characterize the microstructure of the matrix and the fiber-matrix interface, respectively. Micro-hardness around the embedded fiber and hydration products of the matrix were evaluated as well. Test results indicated that the optimal nano-SiO 2 dosage was 1% in terms of the bond properties and the microstructure. The proposed quadratic model efficiently predicted the bond strength and pullout energy with consideration of curing time and nano-SiO 2 content. The improvement in bond properties associated with nano-silica was correlated with denser matrix and/or interface and stronger bond and greater strength of hydration products based on microstructural analysis.

  8. Focused-ion-beam induced interfacial intermixing of magnetic bilayers for nanoscale control of magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, D M; Atkinson, D; Hase, T P A

    2014-01-01

    Modification of the magnetic properties in a thin-film ferromagnetic/non-magnetic bilayer system by low-dose focused ion-beam (FIB) induced intermixing is demonstrated. The highly localized capability of FIB may be used to locally control magnetic behaviour at the nanoscale. The magnetic, electronic and structural properties of NiFe/Au bilayers were investigated as a function of the interfacial structure that was actively modified using focused Ga + ion irradiation. Experimental work used MOKE, SQUID, XMCD as well as magnetoresistance measurements to determine the magnetic behavior and grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity to elucidate the interfacial structure. Interfacial intermixing, induced by low-dose irradiation, is shown to lead to complex changes in the magnetic behavior that are associated with monotonic structural evolution of the interface. This behavior may be explained by changes in the local atomic environment within the interface region resulting in a combination of processes including the loss of moment on Ni and Fe, an induced moment on Au and modifications to the spin-orbit coupling between Au and NiFe. (paper)

  9. Correlation of microstructure and strain hardening behavior in the ultrafine-grained Nb-bearing dual phase steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatei Kalashami, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, A., E-mail: ahmad_k@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghassemali, E. [Jönköping University, School of Engineering, Department of Materials and Manufacturing, P.O. Box 1026, SE-551 11 Jönköping (Sweden); Najafizadeh, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazaheri, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65178-38695 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Ultrafine-grained dual phase (DP) steels with different Nb contents (0.00, 0.06 and 0.12 wt%) were produced by cold-rolling followed by intercritical annealing of ferrite/martensite starting microstructure at 770 °C for different holding times. Scanning electron microscopy, equipped with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) detector, nanoindentation and tensile testing were used to characterize microstructural evolutions and their correlations to the strain hardening and fracture behavior. EBSD results confirmed the retardation effect of Nb on recrystallization. It was found that the strains stored in the grains and density of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) were increased with the addition of Nb. Strain hardening analysis showed that plastic deformation of the DP steels occurred in three distinct stages, which based on the EBSD results, nanoindentation and fracture analysis, were controlled by microstructural features such martensite volume fraction and size, density of GNDs and individual ferrite and martensite tensile properties.

  10. High temperature deformation behavior and microstructural evolutions of a high Zr containing WE magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asqardoust, Sh.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A. [School of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fatemi, S.M., E-mail: mfatemi@ut.ac.ir [Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradjoy-Hamedani, M. [School of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-05

    Magnesium alloys containing RE elements (WE grade) are considered as potential materials for high temperature structural applications. To this end, it is crucial to study the flow behavior and the microstructural evolution of these alloys at high temperatures. In present work, the hot compression testing was employed to investigate the deformation behavior of a rolled WE54 magnesium alloy at elevated temperatures. The experimental material failed to deform to target strain of 0.6 at 250 and 300 °C, while the straining was successfully performed at 350 °C. A flow softening was observed at 350 °C, which was related to the depletion of RE strengthener elements, particularly Y atoms, from the solid solution and dynamic precipitation of β phases. It was suggested that the Zener pinning effect of the latter precipitates might retard the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization. As the temperature increased to 450 and 500 °C, the RE elements dissolved in the matrix and thus dynamic recrystallization could considerably progress in the microstructure. The comparative study of specimens cut along transverse ad normal direction (TD and ND specimens) implied that the presence of RE elements might effectively reduce the yield anisotropy in WE54 rolled alloy. Microstructural observations indicated a higher fraction of dynamically-recrystallized grains for the ND specimens. This was discussed relying on the different shares of deformation mechanism during compressing the TD and ND specimens. - Highlights: • Deformation behavior of a high Zr WE alloy was addressed at low strain rate. • Dynamic precipitation was realized at 350 °C. • The occurrence of DRX was retarded due to Zener pinning effect. • A higher DRX fraction was obtained in ND specimens comparing with TD ones.

  11. Liquid film and interfacial wave behavior in air-water countercurrent flow through vertical short multi-tube geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinzhao; Giot, M.

    1992-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on air-water countercurrent flow through short multi-tube geometries (tube number n = 3, diameter d = 36mm, length I = 2d, 10d and 20d). The time-varying thicknesses of the liquid films trickling down the individual tubes are measured by means of conductance probes mounted flush at different locations of the inner wall surfaces. Detailed time series analyses of the measured film thicknesses provide some useful information about the film flow behavior as well as the interfacial wave characteristics in individual tubes, which can be used as some guidelines for developing more general predictive flooding models. 18 refs., 18 figs., 1 tabs

  12. Thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior of the intermetallic gamma-TiAl alloy TNB-V5 with different microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M; Biermann, H

    2010-01-01

    The cyclic deformation and fatigue behavior of the γ-TiAl alloy TNB-V5 is studied under thermo-mechanical load for the three technically important microstructures Fully-Lamellar (FL), Near-Gamma (NG) and Duplex (DP), respectively. Thus, thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were carried out with different temperature-strain cycles, different temperature ranges from 400 0 C to 800 0 C and with two different strain ranges. Cyclic deformation curves, stress-strain hysteresis loops and fatigue lives are presented. The type of microstructure shows a surprisingly small influence on the cyclic deformation and fatigue behavior under TMF conditions. For a general life prediction the damage parameter of Smith, Watson and Topper P SWT is well suitable, if the testing and the application temperature ranges, respectively, include temperatures above the ductile-brittle transition temperature (approx. 750 0 C). If the maximum temperature is below that temperature, the brittle materials' behavior yields a high scatter of fatigue lives and a low slope of the fatigue life curve and therefore the damage parameter P SWT cannot be applied for the live prediction.

  13. Joining mechanism of Ti/Al dissimilar alloys during laser welding-brazing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuhai; Li Liqun; Chen Yanbin; Huang Jihua

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The microstructures of interfacial zones were confirmed in detail by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Interfacial reaction layers of brazing joint were composed of α-Ti, nanosize granular Ti 7 Al 5 Si 12 and serration-shaped TiAl 3 . For the first time, obvious stacking fault structure in intermetallic phase TiAl 3 was found when the thickness of the reaction layer was very thin (approximately below 1 μm). → Metallurgical characteristics for laser welding-brazing process in the environment of far from equilibrium was expounded by microstructures of the joints, the characteristics of thermal process and element diffusion behavior. - Abstract: Joining mechanism of Ti/Al dissimilar alloys was investigated during laser welding-brazing process with automated wire feed. The microstructures of fusion welding and brazing zones were analysed in details by transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was found that microstructures of fusion welding zone consist of α-Al grains and ternary near-eutectic structure with α-Al, Si and Mg 2 Si. Interfacial reaction layers of brazing joint were composed of α-Ti, nanosize granular Ti 7 Al 5 Si 12 and serration-shaped TiAl 3 . For the first time, apparent stacking fault structure in intermetallic phase TiAl 3 was found when the thickness of the reaction layer was very thin (approximately less than 1 μm). Furthermore, crystallization behavior of fusion zone and mechanism of interfacial reaction were discussed in details.

  14. Polyindole/ carboxylated-multiwall carbon nanotube composites produced by in-situ and interfacial polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Leela; Singh, Arun Kumar; Prakash, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Composites of polyindole (PIn), a conducting polymer, with carboxylated-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT/PIn) were synthesized; the synthesis was done using (i) two miscible solvents (in-situ method) and (ii) two immiscible solvents (interfacial method). A tubular composite, with a uniform coating of the polymer over c-MWCNTs, was observed in the case of interfacial synthesis. However, the in-situ synthesis of c-MWCNT/PIn composites exhibited a densely packed spherical morphology, with c-MWCNT incorporated within the polymer spheres. The spherical morphology was probably obtained due to fast polymerization kinetics and the formation of micelles in case of in-situ polymerization, whereas tubular morphology was obtained in case of interfacial polymerization due to the sufficient time provided for the growth of polymer chains over the c-MWCNT surfaces. Nanoscale electrical properties of composites, in a metal/(c-MWCNT/PIn) configuration, were studied using current sensing atomic force microscopy. Interfacial c-MWCNT/PIn composite, on Al metal substrate, exhibited a typical rectifying diode behavior. This composite had manifested enormous potential for electronic applications and fabrication of nanoscale organic devices. Highlights: ► Polyindole/c-MWNT nanocomposites produced by in-situ and interfacial polymerization. ► Densely packed spherical morphology was observed in in-situ polymerization route. ► Tubular core-shell morphology was observed in interfacial polymerization route. ► Interfacial nanocomposite manifested a nano-schottky junction with Al metal.

  15. Microstructure taxonomy based on spatial correlations: Application to microstructure coarsening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, Tony; Wodo, Olga; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2016-01-01

    To build materials knowledge, rigorous description of the material structure and associated tools to explore and exploit information encoded in the structure are needed. These enable recognition, categorization and identification of different classes of microstructure and ultimately enable to link structure with properties of materials. Particular interest lies in the protocols capable of mining the essential information in large microstructure datasets and building robust knowledge systems that can be easily accessed, searched, and shared by the broader materials community. In this paper, we develop a protocol based on automated tools to classify microstructure taxonomies in the context of coarsening behavior which is important for long term stability of materials. Our new concepts for enhanced description of the local microstructure state provide flexibility of description. The mathematical description of microstructure that capture crucial attributes of the material, although central to building materials knowledge, is still elusive. The new description captures important higher order spatial information, but at the same time, allows down sampling if less information is needed. We showcase the classification protocol by studying coarsening of binary polymer blends and classifying steady state structures. We study several microstructure descriptions by changing the microstructure local state order and discretization and critically evaluate their efficacy. Our analysis revealed the superior properties of microstructure representation is based on the first order-gradient of the atomic fraction.

  16. The AlSi10Mg samples produced by selective laser melting: single track, densification, microstructure and mechanical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying; Chen, Zhen; Du, Jun; He, Yuyang; Li, Junfeng; Zhou, Yatong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermal behavior of AlSi10Mg molten pool was analyzed. • The SLM-processed sample with a relatively low surface roughness was obtained. • Effects of parameters on surface topography of scan track were investigated. • Effects of parameters on microstructure of parts were investigated. • Optimum processing parameters for AlSi10Mg SLM was obtained. - Abstract: This densification behavior and attendant microstructural characteristics of the selective laser melting (SLM) processed AlSi10Mg alloy affected by the processing parameters were systematically investigated. The samples with a single track were produced by SLM to study the influences of laser power and scanning speed on the surface morphologies of scan tracks. Additionally, the bulk samples were produced to investigate the influence of the laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing on the densification level and the resultant microstructure. The experimental results showed that the level of porosity of the SLM-processed samples was significantly governed by energy density of laser beam and the hatch spacing. The tensile properties of SLM-processed samples and the attendant fracture surface can be enhanced by decreasing the level of porosity. The microstructure of SLM-processed samples consists of supersaturated Al-rich cellular structure along with eutectic Al/Si situated at the cellular boundaries. The Si content in the cellular boundaries increases with increasing the laser power and decreasing the scanning speed. The hardness of SLM-processed samples was significantly improved by this fine microstructure compared with the cast samples. Moreover, the hardness of SLM-processed samples at overlaps was lower than the hardness observed at track cores.

  17. The AlSi10Mg samples produced by selective laser melting: single track, densification, microstructure and mechanical behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying, E-mail: zywei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhen; Du, Jun; He, Yuyang; Li, Junfeng; Zhou, Yatong

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • The thermal behavior of AlSi10Mg molten pool was analyzed. • The SLM-processed sample with a relatively low surface roughness was obtained. • Effects of parameters on surface topography of scan track were investigated. • Effects of parameters on microstructure of parts were investigated. • Optimum processing parameters for AlSi10Mg SLM was obtained. - Abstract: This densification behavior and attendant microstructural characteristics of the selective laser melting (SLM) processed AlSi10Mg alloy affected by the processing parameters were systematically investigated. The samples with a single track were produced by SLM to study the influences of laser power and scanning speed on the surface morphologies of scan tracks. Additionally, the bulk samples were produced to investigate the influence of the laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing on the densification level and the resultant microstructure. The experimental results showed that the level of porosity of the SLM-processed samples was significantly governed by energy density of laser beam and the hatch spacing. The tensile properties of SLM-processed samples and the attendant fracture surface can be enhanced by decreasing the level of porosity. The microstructure of SLM-processed samples consists of supersaturated Al-rich cellular structure along with eutectic Al/Si situated at the cellular boundaries. The Si content in the cellular boundaries increases with increasing the laser power and decreasing the scanning speed. The hardness of SLM-processed samples was significantly improved by this fine microstructure compared with the cast samples. Moreover, the hardness of SLM-processed samples at overlaps was lower than the hardness observed at track cores.

  18. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of direct metal laser sintered Inconel alloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Derek H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Bicknell, Jonathan; Jorgensen, Luke [Turbocam Energy Solutions, Turbocam International, Dover, NH 03820 (United States); Patterson, Brian M.; Cordes, Nikolaus L. [Materials Science Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Tsukrov, Igor [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Knezevic, Marko, E-mail: marko.knezevic@unh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, we investigate microstructure and quasi-static mechanical behavior of the direct metal laser sintered Inconel 718 superalloy as a function of build direction (BD). The printed material was further processed by annealing and double-aging, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and machining. We characterize porosity fraction and distribution using micro X-ray computed tomography (μXCT), grain structure and crystallographic texture using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and mechanical response in quasi-static tension and compression using standard mechanical testing at room temperature. Analysis of the μXCT imaging shows that majority of porosity develops in the outer layer of the printed material. However, porosity inside the material is also present. The EBSD measurements reveal formation of columnar grains, which favor < 001 > fiber texture components along the BD. These measurements also show evidence of coarse-grained microstructure present in the samples treated by HIP. Finally, analysis of grain boundaries reveal that HIP results in a large number of annealing twins compared to that in samples that underwent annealing and double-aging. The yield strength varies with the testing direction by approximately 7%, which is governed by a combination of grain morphology and crystallographic texture. In particular, we determine tension–compression asymmetry in the yield stress as well as anisotropy of the material flow during compression. We find that HIP lowers yield stress but improves ductility relative to the annealed and aged material. These results are discussed and critically compared with the data reported for wrought material in the same condition. - Highlights: • Microstructure and mechanical properties of DMLS Inconel 718 are studied in function of build direction. • Inhomogeneity of microstructure in the material in several conditions is quantified by μXCT and EBSD. • Anisotropy and asymmetry in the mechanical response are

  19. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of direct metal laser sintered Inconel alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Derek H.; Bicknell, Jonathan; Jorgensen, Luke; Patterson, Brian M.; Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Tsukrov, Igor; Knezevic, Marko

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate microstructure and quasi-static mechanical behavior of the direct metal laser sintered Inconel 718 superalloy as a function of build direction (BD). The printed material was further processed by annealing and double-aging, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and machining. We characterize porosity fraction and distribution using micro X-ray computed tomography (μXCT), grain structure and crystallographic texture using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and mechanical response in quasi-static tension and compression using standard mechanical testing at room temperature. Analysis of the μXCT imaging shows that majority of porosity develops in the outer layer of the printed material. However, porosity inside the material is also present. The EBSD measurements reveal formation of columnar grains, which favor fiber texture components along the BD. These measurements also show evidence of coarse-grained microstructure present in the samples treated by HIP. Finally, analysis of grain boundaries reveal that HIP results in a large number of annealing twins compared to that in samples that underwent annealing and double-aging. The yield strength varies with the testing direction by approximately 7%, which is governed by a combination of grain morphology and crystallographic texture. In particular, we determine tension–compression asymmetry in the yield stress as well as anisotropy of the material flow during compression. We find that HIP lowers yield stress but improves ductility relative to the annealed and aged material. These results are discussed and critically compared with the data reported for wrought material in the same condition. - Highlights: • Microstructure and mechanical properties of DMLS Inconel 718 are studied in function of build direction. • Inhomogeneity of microstructure in the material in several conditions is quantified by μXCT and EBSD. • Anisotropy and asymmetry in the mechanical response are determined by

  20. Fabrication and microstructure of CNTs activated sintered W–Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, J.J.; Hao, X.N.; Li, J.; Wang, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication and microstructure of CNTs activated sintered W-Nb alloys were investigated. • CNTs could significantly enhance the sintering ability of W-Nb alloys at a low temperature. • The improved sintering was due to the enhanced diffusion of W atoms along the GBs induced by CNTs. • The grain size in CNTs activated sintered W-Nb alloys decreased with increasing the Nb content. -- Abstract: In order to fabricate highly dense W-based alloys at low temperature, in the present work, high-energy ball milling and hot pressing were applied to fabricate W–Nb alloys (mass fraction of Nb varied from 0.5% to 5%), where CNTs were used as the activated sintering additives. The phase composition and microstructure were characterized by XRD and SEM equipped with EDS, respectively. The study found coupled effects of CNTs activated sintering and Nb addition on the enhanced sintering ability and refined microstructure of W at 1500 °C. The main results are: (i) XRD characterization revealed that the high-energy ball milling could significantly reduce the crystallite size of W particles and increase lattice distortion, which would enhance the sintering behavior of W alloys. (ii) The addition of CNTs to W (W–0.1CNTs) led to the formation of nanoscale interfacial layer between W grains during hot pressing, resulting in considerable densification and grain growth. Based on this result, it suggested that the activated sintering of W in the present work is due to an enhanced diffusion of W atoms along the GBs induced by CNTs. (iii) With the addition of CNTs to W–Nb alloys, the densification was improved again, but was not so obvious. The optimal densification was obtained for the W–0.1CNTs–1Nb specimen. Moreover, the microstructure characterization in CNTs activated sintered W–Nb alloys indicated that the distribution of sphere-like W(Nb) solid solution particles and decreased W grain sizes with increasing Nb content are the main microstructure features

  1. Microstructural evolution and strain hardening behavior of the cold-drawn austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeom Yong; Jin, Won

    1998-01-01

    The strain induced α ' -martensite formation and the strain hardening behavior of metastable austenitic stainless steel during cold drawing have been investigated. The strain induced α ' -martensite nucleates mainly at the intersection of the mechanical twins rather than ε-martensite. It could be explained by the increase of stacking fault energy which arises from the heat generated during high speed drawing and, for AISI 304/Cu, the additional effect of Cu additions. The strain hardening behavior of austenitic stainless steel is strongly related to the microstructural evolution accompanied by strain induced α ' -martensite. The work hardening rates of cold-drawn 304 increased with increasing interstitial element(C,N) contents which affect the strength of the strain induced α ' -martensite

  2. Microstructure of ultra high performance concrete containing lithium slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhi-Hai; Du, Shi-Gui; Chen, Deng

    2018-04-03

    Lithium slag (LS) is discharged as a byproduct in the process of the lithium carbonate, and it is very urgent to explore an efficient way to recycle LS in order to protect the environments and save resources. Many available supplementary cementitious materials for partial replacement of cement and/or silica fume (SF) can be used to prepare ultra high performance concrete (UHPC). The effect of LS to replace SF partially by weight used as a supplementary cementitious material (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of binder) on the compressive strengths and microstructure evolution of UHPC has experimentally been studied by multi-techniques including mercury intrusion porosimetry, scanning electron microscope and nanoindentation technique. The results show that the use of LS degrades the microstructure of UHPC at early ages, and however, the use of LS with the appropriate content improves microstructure of UHPC at later ages. The hydration products of UHPC are mainly dominated by ultra-high density calcium-silicate-hydrate (UHD C-S-H) and interfacial transition zone (ITZ) in UHPC has similar compact microstructure with the matrix. The use of LS improves the hydration degree of UHPC and increases the elastic modulus of ITZ in UHPC. LS is a promising substitute for SF for preparation UHPC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulations of Precipitate Microstructure Evolution during Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaisheng; Sterner, Gustaf; Chen, Qing; Jou, Herng-Jeng; Jeppsson, Johan; Bratberg, Johan; Engström, Anders; Mason, Paul

    Precipitation, a major solid state phase transformation during heat treatment processes, has for more than one century been intensively employed to improve the strength and toughness of various high performance alloys. Recently, sophisticated precipitation reaction models, in assistance with well-developed CALPHAD databases, provide an efficient and cost-effective way to tailor precipitate microstructures that maximize the strengthening effect via the optimization of alloy chemistries and heat treatment schedules. In this presentation, we focus on simulating precipitate microstructure evolution in Nickel-base superalloys under arbitrary heat treatment conditions. The newly-developed TC-PRISMA program has been used for these simulations, with models refined especially for non-isothermal conditions. The effect of different cooling profiles on the formation of multimodal microstructures has been thoroughly examined in order to understand the underlying thermodynamics and kinetics. Meanwhile, validations against several experimental results have been carried out. Practical issues that are critical to the accuracy and applicability of the current simulations, such as modifications that overcome mean-field approximations, compatibility between CALPHAD databases, selection of key parameters (particularly interfacial energy and nucleation site densities), etc., are also addressed.

  4. Effect of Microstructure on Time Dependent Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior In a P/M Turbine Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, Ignacy J.; Gabb, T. P.; Bonacuse, P.; Gayda, J.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the processes which govern hold time crack growth behavior in the LSHR disk P/M superalloy. Nineteen different heat treatments of this alloy were evaluated by systematically controlling the cooling rate from the supersolvus solutioning step and applying various single and double step aging treatments. The resulting hold time crack growth rates varied by more than two orders of magnitude. It was shown that the associated stress relaxation behavior for these heat treatments was closely correlated with the crack growth behavior. As stress relaxation increased, the hold time crack growth resistance was also increased. The size of the tertiary gamma' in the general microstructure was found to be the key microstructural variable controlling both the hold time crack growth behavior and stress relaxation. No relationship between the presence of grain boundary M23C6 carbides and hold time crack growth was identified which further brings into question the importance of the grain boundary phases in determining hold time crack growth behavior. The linear elastic fracture mechanics parameter, Kmax, is unable to account for visco-plastic redistribution of the crack tip stress field during hold times and thus is inadequate for correlating time dependent crack growth data. A novel methodology was developed which captures the intrinsic crack driving force and was able to collapse hold time crack growth data onto a single curve.

  5. Ceramic coatings: A phenomenological modeling for damping behavior related to microstructural features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassini, N.; Patsias, S.; Lambrinou, K.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has shown that both stiffness and damping of ceramic coatings exhibit different non-linearities. These properties strongly depend on the microstructure, which is characterized by heterogeneous sets of elastic elements with mesoscopic sizes and shapes, as in non-linear mesoscopic elastic materials. To predict the damping properties of this class of materials, we have implemented a phenomenological model that characterizes their elastic properties. The model is capable of reproducing the basic features of the observed damping behavior for zirconia coatings prepared by air plasma spraying and electron-beam physical-vapor-deposition

  6. Stainless steel fibre reinforced aluminium matrix composites processed by squeeze casting: relationship between processing conditions and interfacial microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, C.; Marchal, Y.; Boland, F.; Delannay, F.

    1993-01-01

    This work investigates the influence of some processing parameters on the extent of interfacial reaction in squeeze cast aluminium matrix composites reinforced with 12 μm diameter, continuous stainless steel fibres. The average thickness of the reaction layer at fibre/matrix interfaces was measured by image analysis. When casting was made in a die at room temperature, the thickness of the reaction layer was affected on a distance of several mm from the lateral surface or from the bottom of the preform. The results indicate that the major part of the reaction occurs before solidification of the liquid metal. The control of the extent of interfacial reaction can be achieved through optimization of both infiltration parameters and features of the preform such as the volume fraction of the fibres. (orig.)

  7. Microencapsulation of Ethion by Interfacial Polymerization Utilizing Potassium Phthalimide-N-oxyl (PPINO) as a Promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghbeli, M. R.; Abedi, V.; Dekamin, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    Poly urea microcapsules containing an active agent, i.e. ethion as pesticide, have been prepared by interfacial polymerization between 2, 4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and diethylenetriamine (DETA) in an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion system. The effects of the nature of the emulsifier, the monomer weight ratio, and a novel promoter, i.e. potassium phthalimide-N-oxyl (PPINO), on the morphology, microstructure, and thermal stability of the microcapsules have been investigated. PPINO was used as a water-soluble promoter capable of dimerizing and trimerizing the isocyanate reactant in the interfacial polymerization. The transmission electron microscopy micrographs showed that the addition of the promoter had no significant effect on the microcapsule shell thickness. Increasing the amount of PPINO caused the degree of crystallinity of the polymer shell to decrease considerably. In addition, increasing the amount of promoter up to 2 wt % caused the thermal stability of the microcapsules to decrease, while using promoter beyond this level resulted in higher thermal stability.

  8. Cofiring behavior and interfacial structure of NiCuZn ferrite/PMN ferroelectrics composites for multilayer LC filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Chunlin; Zhou Ji; Cui Xuemin; Wang Xiaohui; Yue Zhenxing; Li Longtu

    2006-01-01

    The cofiring behavior, interfacial structure and cofiring migration between NiCuZn ferrite and lead magnesium niobate (PMN)-based relaxor ferroelectric materials were investigated via thermomechanical analyzer (TMA), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Mismatched sintering shrinkage between NiCuZn ferrite and PMN was modified by adding an appropriate amount of sintering aids, Bi 2 O 3 , into NiCuZn ferrite. Pyrochlore phase appeared in the mixture of NiCuZn ferrite and PMN, which is detrimental to the final electric properties of LC filters. EDS results indicated that the interdiffusion at the heterogeneous interfaces in the composites, such as Fe, Pb, Zn, existed which can strengthen combinations between ferrite layers and ferroelectrics layers

  9. Influence of reinforcement weight fraction on microstructure and properties of submicron WC-Cop/Cu bulk MMCs prepared by direct laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Dongdong; Shen, Yifu

    2007-01-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), due to its flexibility in materials and shapes, exhibits a great potential for fabricating complex shaped bulk metal matrix composites (MMCs). In the present work, the submicron WC-10% Co particulate reinforced Cu matrix composites were prepared using DMLS. The influence of reinforcement content on the sintered densification and the attendant microstructures, e.g. the dispersion homogeneity of the reinforcing particulates and the interfacial bonding ability, was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscope (AFM). It shows that using a low reinforcement content of 20 wt.% results in a poor densification with severe balling phenomena, due to a higher average composite coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and a superheating of the melt. A heterogeneous microstructure with a significant particulate aggregation is obtained at a high reinforcement content of 40 wt.%, because of a limited liquid formation and the resultant high liquid viscosity and reduced Marangoni effect. Using an optimal reinforcement content of 30 wt.% leads to a uniform distribution of the reinforcing particulates and a compatible interfacial microstructure, so as to obtain a favorable sintered density of 90.3% theoretical density

  10. Effect of deep cryogenic treatment and tempering on microstructure and mechanical behaviors of a wear-resistant austempered alloyed bainitic ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liqing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of deep cryogenic treatment in combination with conven- tional heat treatment process was investigated on microstructure and mechanical behaviors of alloyed bainitic ductile iron. Three processing schedules were employed to treat this alloyed ductile iron including direct tempering treatment, tempering.+deep cryogenic treatment and deep cryogenic treatment.+tempering treatments. The microstructure and mechanical behavior, especially the wear resistance, have been evaluated after treated by these three schedules. The results show that martensite microstructure can be obviously refined and the precipitation of dispersed carbides is promoted by deep cryogenic treatment at .−196 ∘C for 3 h after tempered at 450 ∘C for 2 h. In this case, the alloyed bainitic ductile iron possesses rather high hardness and wear-resistance than those processed by other two schedules. The main wear mechanism of the austempered alloyed ductile iron with deep cryogenic treatment and tempering is micro-cutting wear in association with plastic deformation wear.

  11. Thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior of the intermetallic gamma-TiAl alloy TNB-V5 with different microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, M [now at IAV GmbH, Kauffahrtei 25, D-09120 Chemnitz (Germany); Biermann, H, E-mail: marcel.roth@iav.d [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute for Materials Engineering, Gustav-Zeuner-Strasse 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The cyclic deformation and fatigue behavior of the {gamma}-TiAl alloy TNB-V5 is studied under thermo-mechanical load for the three technically important microstructures Fully-Lamellar (FL), Near-Gamma (NG) and Duplex (DP), respectively. Thus, thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were carried out with different temperature-strain cycles, different temperature ranges from 400{sup 0}C to 800{sup 0}C and with two different strain ranges. Cyclic deformation curves, stress-strain hysteresis loops and fatigue lives are presented. The type of microstructure shows a surprisingly small influence on the cyclic deformation and fatigue behavior under TMF conditions. For a general life prediction the damage parameter of Smith, Watson and Topper P{sub SWT} is well suitable, if the testing and the application temperature ranges, respectively, include temperatures above the ductile-brittle transition temperature (approx. 750{sup 0}C). If the maximum temperature is below that temperature, the brittle materials' behavior yields a high scatter of fatigue lives and a low slope of the fatigue life curve and therefore the damage parameter P{sub SWT} cannot be applied for the live prediction.

  12. Self-Q-switching behavior of erbium-doped tellurite microstructured fiber lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Zhi-Xu; Yao, Chuan-Fei; Kang, Zhe; Qin, Guan-Shi; Qin, Wei-Ping; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2014-01-01

    We reported self-Q-switching behavior of erbium-doped tellurite microstructured fiber (EDTMF) lasers and further demonstrated a self-Q-switched EDTMF laser with a high repetition rate of more than 1 MHz. A 14 cm EDTMF was used as the gain medium. Upon a pump power of ∼705 mW at 1480 nm, output pulses with a lasing wavelength of ∼1558 nm, a repetition rate of ∼1.14 MHz, and a pulse width of ∼282 ns were generated from the fiber by employing a linear cavity. The maximum output power was ∼316 mW and the slope efficiency was about 72.6% before the saturation of the laser power. Moreover, the influence of the fiber length on laser performances was investigated. The results showed that self-Q-switching behavior in our experiments was caused by the re-absorption originated from the ineffectively pumped part of the active fiber.

  13. Analysis of the mechanical response of biomimetic materials with highly oriented microstructures through 3D printing, mechanical testing and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Obaldia, Enrique Escobar; Jeong, Chanhue; Grunenfelder, Lessa Kay; Kisailus, David; Zavattieri, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Many biomineralized organisms have evolved highly oriented nanostructures to perform specific functions. One key example is the abrasion-resistant rod-like microstructure found in the radular teeth of Chitons (Cryptochiton stelleri), a large mollusk. The teeth consist of a soft core and a hard shell that is abrasion resistant under extreme mechanical loads with which they are subjected during the scraping process. Such remarkable mechanical properties are achieved through a hierarchical arrangement of nanostructured magnetite rods surrounded with α-chitin. We present a combined biomimetic approach in which designs were analyzed with additive manufacturing, experiments, analytical and computational models to gain insights into the abrasion resistance and toughness of rod-like microstructures. Staggered configurations of hard hexagonal rods surrounded by thin weak interfacial material were printed, and mechanically characterized with a cube-corner indenter. Experimental results demonstrate a higher contact resistance and stiffness for the staggered alignments compared to randomly distributed fibrous materials. Moreover, we reveal an optimal rod aspect ratio that lead to an increase in the site-specific properties measured by indentation. Anisotropy has a significant effect (up to 50%) on the Young's modulus in directions parallel and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rods, and 30% on hardness and fracture toughness. Optical microscopy suggests that energy is dissipated in the form of median cracks when the load is parallel to the rods and lateral cracks when the load is perpendicular to the rods. Computational models suggest that inelastic deformation of the rods at early stages of indentation can vary the resistance to penetration. As such, we found that the mechanical behavior of the system is influenced by interfacial shear strain which influences the lateral load transfer and therefore the spread of damage. This new methodology can help to elucidate

  14. Dynamic modeling of interfacial structures via interfacial area transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seungjin, Kim; Mamoru, Ishii

    2005-01-01

    The interfacial area transport equation dynamically models the two-phase flow regime transitions and predicts continuous change of the interfacial area concentration along the flow field. Hence, when employed in the numerical thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes, it eliminates artificial bifurcations stemming from the use of the static flow regime transition criteria. Accounting for the substantial differences in the transport phenomena of various sizes of bubbles, the two-group interfacial area transport equations have been developed. The group 1 equation describes the transport of small-dispersed bubbles that are either distorted or spherical in shapes, and the group 2 equation describes the transport of large cap, slug or churn-turbulent bubbles. The source and sink terms in the right-hand-side of the transport equations have been established by mechanistically modeling the creation and destruction of bubbles due to major bubble interaction mechanisms. In the present paper, the interfacial area transport equations currently available are reviewed to address the feasibility and reliability of the model along with extensive experimental results. These include the data from adiabatic upward air-water two-phase flow in round tubes of various sizes, from a rectangular duct, and from adiabatic co-current downward air-water two-phase flow in round pipes of two sizes. (authors)

  15. The effect of quench rate on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior of U-6 Wt Pct Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckelmeyer, K.H.; Romiy, A.D.; Weirick, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of cooling rate on microstructure, mechanical behavior, corrosion resistance, and subsequent age hardenability is discussed. Cooling rates in excess of 20 Ks -1 cause the parent γ-phase to transform martensitically to a niobium supersaturated variant of the α-phase. This phase exhibits low hardness and strength, high ductility, good corrosion resistance, and age hardenability. As cooling rate decreases from 10 Ks -1 to 0.2 Ks -1 , microstructural changes (consistent with spinodal decomposition) occur to an increasing extent. These changes produce increases in hardness and strength and decreases in ductility, corrosion resistance, and age hardenability. At cooling rates less than 0.2 Ks -1 the parent phase undergoes cellular decomposition to a coarse two-phase lamellar microstructure which exhibits intermediate strength and ductility, reduced corrosion resistance, and no age hardenability. An analysis of the cooling rates indicates that fully martensitic microstructures can be obtained in plates as thick as 50 mm

  16. Study of the microstructural evolution and rheological behavior by semisolid compression between parallel plate of the alloy A356 solidified under a continuously rotating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva L, Ricardo; Sanchez V, Cristian; Mannheim C, Rodolfo; Bustos C, Oscar

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a study of the rheological behavior of the alloy A356, with and without continuous magnetic agitation during its solidification, in semisolid state. The evaluation was performed using a parallel plate compression rheometer with the digital recording of position and time data. The microstructural evolution was also studied at the start and end of the semisolid compression test. The procedure involved tests of short cylinders extracted from billets with a non dendritic microstructure cast under a continuously rotating magnetic field. These pieces were tested in different solid fractions, at constant charges and at constant deformation velocities. When the test is carried out at a constant charge the equation can be determined that governs the rheological behavior of the material in semisolid state following a power grade of two Ostwald-de-Waele parameters. But when the test is done at a constant deformation speed the flow behavior of the material can be described in the semisolid shaping process. The results obtained show that the morphology of the phases present in the microstructure is highly relevant to its rheological behavior. A globular coalesced rosette to rosette type microstructure was found to have the typical behavior of a fluid when shaped in a semisolid state but a cast dendritic structure did not behave this way. Also the Arrhenius type dependence of viscosity with temperature was established (CW)

  17. Effect of microstructure on high-temperature mechanical behavior of nickel-base superalloys for turbine disc applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Heather Joan

    2007-05-01

    Engineers constantly seek advancements in the performance of aircraft and power generation engines, including, lower costs and emissions, and improved fuel efficiency. Nickel-base superalloys are the material of choice for turbine discs, which experience some of the highest temperatures and stresses in the engine. Engine performance is proportional to operating temperatures. Consequently, the high-temperature capabilities of disc materials limit the performance of gas-turbine engines. Therefore, any improvements to engine performance necessitate improved alloy performance. In order to take advantage of improvements in high-temperature capabilities through tailoring of alloy microstructure, the overall objectives of this work were to establish relationships between alloy processing and microstructure, and between microstructure and mechanical properties. In addition, the projected aimed to demonstrate the applicability of neural network modeling to the field of Ni-base disc alloy development and behavior. The first phase of this work addressed the issue of how microstructure varies with heat treatment and by what mechanisms these structures are formed. Further it considered how superalloy composition could account for microstructural variations from the same heat treatment. To study this, four next-generation Ni-base disc alloys were subjected to various controlled heat-treatments and the resulting microstructures were then quantified. These quantitative results were correlated to chemistry and processing, including solution temperature, cooling rate, and intermediate hold temperature. A complex interaction of processing steps and chemistry was found to contribute to all features measured; grain size, precipitate distribution, grain boundary serrations. Solution temperature, above a certain threshold, and cooling rate controlled grain size, while cooling rate and intermediate hold temperature controlled precipitate formation and grain boundary serrations. Diffusion

  18. Effect of calcium on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of microarc oxidized Mg-xCa alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yaokun; Chen, Chuanzhong; Feng, Rui; Cui, Hongwei; Gong, Benkui; Zheng, Tingting; Ji, Yarou

    2018-01-16

    Magnesium alloys are potential biodegradable implants for biomedical applications, and calcium (Ca) is one kind of ideal element being examined for magnesium alloys and biodegradable ceramic coatings owing to its biocompatibility and mechanical suitability. In this study, microarc oxidation (MAO) coatings were prepared on Mg-xCa alloys to study the effect of Ca on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of Mg-xCa alloys and their surface MAO coatings. The electrochemical corrosion behavior was investigated using an electrochemical workstation, and the degradability and bioactivity were evaluated by soaking tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) solutions. The corrosion products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffractometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The effects of Ca on the alloy phase composition, microstructure, MAO coating formation mechanism, and corrosion behavior were investigated. Results showed that the Mg-0.82Ca alloy and MAO-coated Mg-0.82Ca exhibited the highest corrosion resistance. The number and distribution of Mg 2 Ca phases can be controlled by adjusting the Ca content in the Mg-xCa alloys. The proper amount of Ca in magnesium alloy was about 0.5-0.8 wt. %. The pore size, surface roughness, and corrosion behavior of microarc oxidized Mg-xCa samples can be controlled by the number and distribution of the Mg 2 Ca phase. The corrosion behaviors of microarc oxidized Mg-Ca in SBF solutions were discussed.

  19. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of High Temperature Solders: Effects of High Temperature Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnine, M.; Tolla, B.; Vahora, N.

    2018-04-01

    This paper explores the effects of aging on the mechanical behavior, microstructure evolution and IMC formation on different surface finishes of two high temperature solders, Sn-5 wt.% Ag and Sn-5 wt.% Sb. High temperature aging showed significant degradation of Sn-5 wt.% Ag solder hardness (34%) while aging has little effect on Sn-5 wt.% Sb solder. Sn-5 wt.% Ag experienced rapid grain growth as well as the coarsening of particles during aging. Sn-5 wt.% Sb showed a stable microstructure due to solid solution strengthening and the stable nature of SnSb precipitates. The increase of intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness during aging follows a parabolic relationship with time. Regression analysis (time exponent, n) indicated that IMC growth kinetics is controlled by a diffusion mechanism. The results have important implications in the selection of high temperature solders used in high temperature applications.

  20. Al-Co Alloys Prepared by Vacuum Arc Melting: Correlating Microstructure Evolution and Aqueous Corrosion Behavior with Co Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Lekatou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypereutectic Al-Co alloys of various Co contents (7–20 weight % (wt.% Co were prepared by vacuum arc melting, aiming at investigating the influence of the cobalt content on the microstructure and corrosion behavior. Quite uniform and directional microstructures were attained. The obtained microstructures depended on the Co content, ranging from fully eutectic growth (7 wt.% and 10 wt.% Co to coarse primary Al9Co2 predominance (20 wt.% Co. Co dissolution in Al far exceeded the negligible equilibrium solubility of Co in Al; however, it was hardly uniform. By increasing the cobalt content, the fraction and coarseness of Al9Co2, the content of Co dissolved in the Al matrix, and the hardness and porosity of the alloy increased. All alloys exhibited similar corrosion behavior in 3.5 wt.% NaCl with high resistance to localized corrosion. Al-7 wt.% Co showed slightly superior corrosion resistance than the other compositions in terms of relatively low corrosion rate, relatively low passivation current density and scarcity of stress corrosion cracking indications. All Al-Co compositions demonstrated substantially higher resistance to localized corrosion than commercially pure Al produced by casting, cold rolling and arc melting. A corrosion mechanism was formulated. Surface films were identified.

  1. A Linear Gradient Theory Model for Calculating Interfacial Tensions of Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1996-01-01

    excellent agreement between the predicted and experimental IFTs at high and moderate levels of IFTs, while the agreement is reasonably accurate in the near-critical region as the used equations of state reveal classical scaling behavior. To predict accurately low IFTs (sigma ... with proper scaling behavior at the critical point is at least required.Key words: linear gradient theory; interfacial tension; equation of state; influence parameter; density profile....

  2. Interfacial, mechanical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NiAl composites respective to long term thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jia; Hu, Weiping; Gottstein, Guenter [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physical Metallurgy and Metal Physics

    2010-07-01

    The long term thermal stability of NiAl-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites was investigated. During annealing of the composites at 973 K and 1373 K for 2000 hours, the NiAl-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system showed excellent chemical stability. However, grain growth and embrittlement progressed in the polycrystalline NiAl matrix. The interfacial shear strength decreased from 222{+-}50 MPa for the as-fabricated sample to 197{+-}48 MPa and 150{+-}38 MPa for the samples annealed at 973 K and 1373 K, respectively. The microstructure change during annealing at 973K and 1373 K affected the tensile strength differently. The potential causes of microstructure and interface structure change and their impact on mechanical properties are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Effects of the Microstructure on Segregation behavior of Ni-Cr-Mo High Strength Low Alloy RPV Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Gyu; Wee, Dang Moon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel has an improved fracture toughness and strength, compared to commercial Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy RPV steel SA508 Gr.3. Higher strength and fracture toughness of low alloy steels could be achieved by adding Ni and Cr. So there are several researches on SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for a RPV application. The operation temperature and time of a reactor pressure vessel is more than 300 .deg. C and over 40 years. Therefore, in order to apply the SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for a reactor pressure vessel, it requires a resistance of thermal embrittlement in the high temperature range including temper embrittlement resistance. S. Raoul reported that the susceptibility to temper embrittlement was increasing a function of the cooling rate in SA533 steel, which suggests the martensitic microstructures resulting from increased cooling rates are more susceptible to temper embrittlement. However, this result has not been proved yet. So the comparison of temper embrittlement behavior was made between martensitic microstructure and bainitic microstructure with a viewpoint of boundary features in SA508 Gr.4N, which have mixture of tempered bainite/martensite. In this study, we have compared temper embrittlement behaviors of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel with changing volume fraction of martensite. The mechanical properties of these low alloy steels) were evaluated after a long-term heat treatment(450 .deg. C, 2000hr. Then, the images of the segregated boundaries were observed and segregation behavior was analyzed by AES. In order to compare the misorientation distributions of model alloys, grain boundary structures were measured with EBSD

  4. Processing, Microstructure and Creep Behavior of Mo-Si-B-Based Intermetallic Alloys for Very High Temperature Structural Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay Vasudevan

    2008-03-31

    This research project is concerned with developing a fundamental understanding of the effects of processing and microstructure on the creep behavior of refractory intermetallic alloys based on the Mo-Si-B system. In the first part of this project, the compression creep behavior of a Mo-8.9Si-7.71B (in at.%) alloy, at 1100 and 1200 C was studied, whereas in the second part of the project, the constant strain rate compression behavior at 1200, 1300 and 1400 C of a nominally Mo-20Si-10B (in at.%) alloy, processed such as to yield five different {alpha}-Mo volume fractions ranging from 5 to 46%, was studied. In order to determine the deformation and damage mechanisms and rationalize the creep/high temperature deformation data and parameters, the microstructure of both undeformed and deformed samples was characterized in detail using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with back scattered electron imaging (BSE) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD)/orientation electron microscopy in the SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microstructure of both alloys was three-phase, being composed of {alpha}-Mo, Mo{sub 3}Si and T2-Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2} phases. The values of stress exponents and activation energies, and their dependence on microstructure were determined. The data suggested the operation of both dislocation as well as diffusional mechanisms, depending on alloy, test temperature, stress level and microstructure. Microstructural observations of post-crept/deformed samples indicated the presence of many voids in the {alpha}-Mo grains and few cracks in the intermetallic particles and along their interfaces with the {alpha}-Mo matrix. TEM observations revealed the presence of recrystallized {alpha}-Mo grains and sub-grain boundaries composed of dislocation arrays within the grains (in Mo-8.9Si-7.71B) or fine sub-grains with a high density of b = 1/2<111> dislocations (in Mo-20Si-10B), which

  5. Pore shape of honeycomb-patterned films: modulation and interfacial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ling-Shu; Ke, Bei-Bei; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2012-01-12

    The control of the pore size of honeycomb-patterned films has been more or less involved in most work on the topic of breath figures. Modulation of the pore shape was largely ignored, although it is important to applications in replica molding, filtration, particle assembly, and cell culture. This article reports a tunable pore shape for patterned films prepared from commercially available polystyrene (PS). We investigated the effects of solvents including tetrahydrofuran (THF) and chloroform (CF) and hydrophilic additives including poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Water droplets on/in the polymer solutions were observed and analyzed for simulating the formation and stabilization of breath figures. Interfacial tensions of the studied systems were measured and considered as a main factor to modulate the pore shape. Results indicate that the pores gradually change from near-spherical to ellipsoidal with the increase of additive content when using CF as the solvent; however, only ellipsoidal pores are formed from the THF solution. It is demonstrated that the aggregation of the additives at the water/polymer solution interface is more efficient in the THF solution than that in the CF solution. This aggregation decreases the interfacial tension, stabilizes the condensed water droplets, and shapes the pores of the films. The results may facilitate our understanding of the dynamic breath figure process and provide a new pathway to prepare patterned films with different pore structures.

  6. Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of High-Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licavoli, Joseph J.; Gao, Michael C.; Sears, John S.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2015-10-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) have generated interest in recent years due to their unique positioning within the alloy world. By incorporating a number of elements in high proportion, usually of equal atomic percent, they have high configurational entropy, and thus, they hold the promise of interesting and useful properties such as enhanced strength and alloy stability. The present study investigates the mechanical behavior, fracture characteristics, and microstructure of two single-phase FCC HEAs CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeNiMn with some detailed attention given to melting, homogenization, and thermo-mechanical processing. Ingots approaching 8 kg in mass were made by vacuum induction melting to avoid the extrinsic factors inherent to small-scale laboratory button samples. A computationally based homogenization heat treatment was given to both alloys in order to eliminate any solidification segregation. The alloys were then fabricated in the usual way (forging, followed by hot rolling) with typical thermo-mechanical processing parameters employed. Transmission electron microscopy was subsequently used to assess the single-phase nature of the alloys prior to mechanical testing. Tensile specimens (ASTM E8) were prepared with tensile mechanical properties obtained from room temperature through 800 °C. Material from the gage section of selected tensile specimens was extracted to document room and elevated temperature deformation within the HEAs. Fracture surfaces were also examined to note fracture failure modes. The tensile behavior and selected tensile properties were compared with results in the literature for similar alloys.

  7. Interfacial Reaction and IMC Growth of an Ultrasonically Soldered Cu/SAC305/Cu Structure during Isothermal Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to accelerate the growth of interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC layers in a soldering structure, Cu/SAC305/Cu was first ultrasonically spot soldered and then subjected to isothermal aging. Relatively short vibration times, i.e., 400 ms and 800 ms, were used for the ultrasonic soldering. The isothermal aging was conducted at 150 °C for 0, 120, 240, and 360 h. The evolution of microstructure, the IMC layer growth mechanism during aging, and the shear strength of the joints after aging were systemically investigated. Results showed the following. (i Formation of intermetallic compounds was accelerated by ultrasonic cavitation and streaming effects, the thickness of the interfacial Cu6Sn5 layer increased with aging time, and a thin Cu3Sn layer was identified after aging for 360 h. (ii The growth of the interfacial IMC layer of the ultrasonically soldered Cu/SAC305/Cu joints followed a linear function of the square root of the aging time, revealing a diffusion-controlled mechanism. (iii The tensile shear strength of the joint decreased to a small extent with increasing aging time, owing to the combined effects of IMC grain coarsening and the increase of the interfacial IMC. (iv Finally, although the fracture surfaces and failure locations of the joint soldered with 400 ms and 800 ms vibration times show similar characteristics, they are influenced by the aging time.

  8. Interfacial Microstructure Formed by Reactive Metal Penetration of Al into Mullite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, T.B.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Fahrenholtz, W.G.; Loehman, R.E.; Lu, P.

    1999-01-01

    Microstructure in the reaction interface between molten Al and dense mullite have been studied by transmission electron microscopy to provide insight into mechanisms for forming ceramic-metal composites by reactive metal penetration. The reactions, which have the overall stoichiometry, 3Al number sign iz01 + (8+ x)A1 + 13 AlzO + xA1 + 6Si, were carried out at temperatures of 900, 1100, and 1200oC for 5 minutes and 60 minutes, and 1400oC for 15 minutes. Observed phases generally were those given in the above reaction, although their proportions and interracial rnicrostructures differed strongly with reaction temperature. After reaction at 900oC, a thin Al layer separated unreacted mullite from the cx-AlzO and Al reaction products. No Si phase was found near the reaction front. After 5 minutes at 1100''C, the nxtction front contained Si, ct-A120, and an aluminum oxide phase with a high concentration of Si. After 60 minutes at 11O(YC many of the cx-A120g particles were needle-shaped with a preferred orientation. After reaction at 1200oC, the reaction front contained a high density of Si particles that formed a continuous layer over many of the mullite grains. The sample reacted at 140VC for 15 minutes had a dense ct-A120J reaction layer less than 2m thick. Some isolated Si particles were present between the a-AlzO layer and the unreacted mullite. Using previously measured reaction kinetics data, the observed temperature dependence of the interracial microstructure have been modeled as three sequential steps, each one of which is rate-limiting in a different temperature range

  9. Bonding to CAD-CAM Composites: An Interfacial Fracture Toughness Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldafrawy, M; Ebroin, M G; Gailly, P A; Nguyen, J-F; Sadoun, M J; Mainjot, A K

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the interfacial fracture toughness (IFT) of composite cement with dispersed filler (DF) versus polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) composite blocks after 2 different surface pretreatments using the notchless triangular prism (NTP) test. Two DFs (Cerasmart [CRT] and Lava Ultimate [LVA]), 2 PICNs (Enamic [ENA] and experimental PICN [EXP]), and e.max CAD lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (EMX, control) prism samples were bonded to their counterparts with Variolink Esthetic DC composite cement after either hydrofluoric acid etching (HF) or gritblasting (GR). Both procedures were followed by silanization. All samples ( n = 30 per group) were thermocycled (10,000 cycles) and tested for their IFT in a water bath at 36°C. Moreover, representative samples from each group were subjected to a developed interfacial area ratio (Sdr) measurement by profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization. EXP-HF gave the highest IFT (1.85 ± 0.39 MPa·m 1/2 ), followed by EMX-HF and ENA-HF, while CRT-HF gave the lowest (0.15 ± 0.22 MPa·m 1/2 ). PICNs gave significantly better results with HF, and DF showed better results with GR. A 2-way analysis of variance indicated that there were significantly higher IFT and Sdr for PICNs than for DF. A positive correlation ( r² = 0.872) was found between IFT and Sdr. SEM characterization showed the specific microstructure of the surface of etched PICNs, indicating the presence of a retentive polymer-based honeycomb structure. Etching of the typical double-network microstructure of PICNs causes an important increase in the Sdr and IFT, while DF should be gritblasted. DF exhibited significantly lower Sdr and IFT values than PICNs. The present results show the important influence of the material class and surface texture, and consequently the micromechanical bond, on the adhesive interface performance of CAD

  10. Interfacial reactions in Ti-6Al-4V with laser-embedded SiC particles and the origin of intergranular corrosion susceptibility of an Al-Mg alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM; Carter, CB; Hall, EL; Nutt,; Briant, CL

    2000-01-01

    In the first part of the paper the microstructure of Ti-6Al-4V with laser embedded SiC particle is explained. The interfacial reaction between Ti and SiC is responsible for the largely improved wear resistance of the Ti alloy. In the second part the phase responsible for the intergranular corrosion

  11. The formation mechanism of eutectic microstructures in NiAl-Cr composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Cogswell, Daniel A; Xu, Guanglong; Milenkovic, Srdjan; Cui, Yuwen

    2016-07-20

    NiAl-based eutectic alloys, consisting of an ordered bcc matrix (B2) and disordered bcc fibers (A2), have been a subject of intensive efforts aimed at tailoring the properties of many of the currently used nickel-based superalloys. A thermodynamic phase field model was developed on a thermodynamic foundation and fully integrated with a thermo-kinetic database of the Ni-Al-Cr ternary system to elucidate the resulting peculiar eutectic microstructure. Invoking a variation of the liquid/solid interfacial thickness with temperature, we simulated the characteristic sunflower-like eutectic microstructures in the NiAl-Cr composites, consistent with experimental observations. The mechanism that governs the formation of the peculiar eutectic morphology was envisioned from the modeled evolutions associated with six sequential steps. Our calculations show that the conditional spinodal decomposition occurring in sequence could further trim and revise the microstructure of the eutectics by generating fine-domain structures, thereby providing an additional method to explore the novel NiAl-based eutectic composites with tunable properties at elevated temperatures.

  12. Influence of reinforcement weight fraction on microstructure and properties of submicron WC-Co{sub p}/Cu bulk MMCs prepared by direct laser sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Dongdong [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao Street, 210016 Nanjing (China)]. E-mail: dongdonggu@hotmail.com; Shen, Yifu [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao Street, 210016 Nanjing (China)]. E-mail: yifushen@nuaa.edu.cn

    2007-04-04

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), due to its flexibility in materials and shapes, exhibits a great potential for fabricating complex shaped bulk metal matrix composites (MMCs). In the present work, the submicron WC-10% Co particulate reinforced Cu matrix composites were prepared using DMLS. The influence of reinforcement content on the sintered densification and the attendant microstructures, e.g. the dispersion homogeneity of the reinforcing particulates and the interfacial bonding ability, was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscope (AFM). It shows that using a low reinforcement content of 20 wt.% results in a poor densification with severe balling phenomena, due to a higher average composite coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and a superheating of the melt. A heterogeneous microstructure with a significant particulate aggregation is obtained at a high reinforcement content of 40 wt.%, because of a limited liquid formation and the resultant high liquid viscosity and reduced Marangoni effect. Using an optimal reinforcement content of 30 wt.% leads to a uniform distribution of the reinforcing particulates and a compatible interfacial microstructure, so as to obtain a favorable sintered density of 90.3% theoretical density.

  13. Nucleation and microstructure development in Cr-Mo-V tool steel during gas atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behúlová, M.; Grgač, P.; Čička, R.

    2017-11-01

    Nucleation studies of undercooled metallic melts are of essential interest for the understanding of phase selection, growth kinetics and microstructure development during their rapid non-equilibrium solidification. The paper deals with the modelling of nucleation processes and microstructure development in the hypoeutectic tool steel Ch12MF4 with the chemical composition of 2.37% C, 12.06 % Cr, 1.2% Mo, 4.0% V and balance Fe [wt. %] in the process of nitrogen gas atomization. Based on the classical theory of homogeneous nucleation, the nucleation temperature of molten rapidly cooled spherical particles from this alloy with diameter from 40 μm to 600 μm in the gas atomization process is calculated using various estimations of parameters influencing the nucleation process - the Gibbs free energy difference between solid and liquid phases and the solid/liquid interfacial energy. Results of numerical calculations are compared with experimentally measured nucleation temperatures during levitation experiments and microstructures developed in rapidly solidified powder particles from the investigated alloy.

  14. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of a CMnSiAl TRIP Steel Subjected to Partial Austenitization Along with Quenching and Partitioning Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, H.; Chao, Q.; Cai, M. H.; Pavlina, E. J.; Rolfe, B.; Hodgson, P. D.; Beladi, H.

    2018-02-01

    The present study investigated the microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior in a low carbon CMnSiAl transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, which was subjected to a partial austenitization at 1183 K (910 °C) followed by one-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) treatment at different isothermal holding temperatures of [533 K to 593 K (260 °C to 320 °C)]. This thermal treatment led to the formation of a multi-phase microstructure consisting of ferrite, tempered martensite, bainitic ferrite, fresh martensite, and retained austenite, offering a superior work-hardening behavior compared with the dual-phase microstructure (i.e., ferrite and martensite) formed after partial austenitization followed by water quenching. The carbon enrichment in retained austenite was related to not only the carbon partitioning during the isothermal holding process, but also the carbon enrichment during the partial austenitization and rapid cooling processes, which has broadened our knowledge of carbon partitioning mechanism in conventional Q&P process.

  15. Microstructure and sliding wear characterization of Cu/TiB2 copper matrix composites fabricated via friction stir processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dinaharan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The poor wear performance of copper is improved by reinforcing hard ceramic particles. The present work reports the fabrication of Cu/TiB2 (0, 6, 12, 18 vol.% copper matrix composites (CMCs using friction stir processing (FSP. TiB2 particles were initially packed together into a machined groove and were subjected to FSP under a constant set of process parameters. The microstructure was observed using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The wear behavior was examined using a pin-on-disc apparatus. The micrographs showed a homogeneous distribution of TiB2 particles without aggregation and segregation. The distribution of TiB2 particles was closely persistent across the stir zone. TiB2 particles were well bonded with the copper matrix without any interfacial reaction. Many TiB2 particles fractured during FSP. The grains in the composite were extensively refined because of dynamic recrystallization and pinning effect of TiB2 particles. The wear behavior under dry sliding condition was presented in detail.

  16. Microstructures and recrystallization behavior of severely hot-deformed tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathaudhu, S.N.; De Rosset, A.J.; Hartwig, K.T.; Kecskes, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    When coarse-grained (CG) tungsten (W) is heavily worked by equal-channel angular extrusion (ECAE), the grain size is reduced to the ultrafine-grained/nanocrystalline regimes (UFG/NC) and the strength and ductility increase. Because of the brittle nature of CG W, the material must be hot-extruded, and, if the temperatures are near the recrystallization temperature (T rc ), gains in properties may not be maximized. In this study, the recrystallization behavior of ECAE-processed CG W is examined as a function of the imparted strain (i.e., number of extrusions) and the hot-working extrusion temperature. Up to four ECAE passes were performed in tooling with a 90 deg. channel intersection, and at temperatures of 1000 deg. C or 1200 deg. C. Subsequent 60 min annealing of the worked material to 1600 deg. C allowed for the determination of T rc . Vickers microhardness measurements and scanning electron microscopy, were used to characterize the microstructures in the as-worked and recrystallized states. The ECAE-processed W shows increased microstructural break-up and refinement with increasing strain and decreasing hot-working temperature in the fully worked state. T rc was determined to be ∼1400 deg. C, which is nearly independent of the number of extrusions and the working temperature. These results show that if ECAE is accomplished below 1400 deg. C (i.e., at 1000 deg. C or lower) the attractive properties of the UFG/NC-worked W may be retained. Specifically, below 1000 deg. C, with increasing strain imparted to the material, high hardness values with a concomitant grain size refinement (∼350 nm) could be expected

  17. Effects of Stress Ratio and Microstructure on Fatigue Failure Behavior of Polycrystalline Nickel Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Guan, Z. W.; Wang, Q. Y.; Liu, Y. J.; Li, J. K.

    2018-05-01

    The effects of microstructure and stress ratio on high cycle fatigue of nickel superalloy Nimonic 80A were investigated. The stress ratios of 0.1, 0.5 and 0.8 were chosen to perform fatigue tests in a frequency of 110 Hz. Cleavage failure was observed, and three competing failure crack initiation modes were discovered by a scanning electron microscope, which were classified as surface without facets, surface with facets and subsurface with facets. With increasing the stress ratio from 0.1 to 0.8, the occurrence probability of surface and subsurface with facets also increased and reached the maximum value at R = 0.5, meanwhile the probability of surface initiation without facets decreased. The effect of microstructure on the fatigue fracture behavior at different stress ratios was also observed and discussed. Based on the Goodman diagram, it was concluded that the fatigue strength of 50% probability of failure at R = 0.1, 0.5 and 0.8 is lower than the modified Goodman line.

  18. Microstructure, elastic deformation behavior and mechanical properties of biomedical β-type titanium alloy thin-tube used for stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuxing; Yu, Zhentao; Ong, Chun Yee Aaron; Kent, Damon; Wang, Gui

    2015-05-01

    Cold-deformability and mechanical compatibility of the biomedical β-type titanium alloy are the foremost considerations for their application in stents, because the lower ductility restricts the cold-forming of thin-tube and unsatisfactory mechanical performance causes a failed tissue repair. In this paper, β-type titanium alloy (Ti-25Nb-3Zr-3Mo-2Sn, wt%) thin-tube fabricated by routine cold rolling is reported for the first time, and its elastic behavior and mechanical properties are discussed for the various microstructures. The as cold-rolled tube exhibits nonlinear elastic behavior with large recoverable strain of 2.3%. After annealing and aging, a nonlinear elasticity, considered as the intermediate stage between "double yielding" and normal linear elasticity, is attributable to a moderate precipitation of α phase. Quantitive relationships are established between volume fraction of α phase (Vα) and elastic modulus, strength as well as maximal recoverable strain (εmax-R), where the εmax-R of above 2.0% corresponds to the Vα range of 3-10%. It is considered that the "mechanical" stabilization of the (α+β) microstructure is a possible elastic mechanism for explaining the nonlinear elastic behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of diffusive transport in cementitious materials: influence of microstructure in mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larbi, B.

    2013-01-01

    Concrete durability is a subject of considerable interest, especially with the use of cement based materials on structures increasingly demanding on term of sustainability and resistance to aggressive ions penetration or radionuclide release. Diffusion is considered as one of the main transport phenomena that cause migration of aggressive solutes and radionuclide in a porous media according to most studies. In order to enable more effective prediction of structures service life, the understanding of the link between cement based materials microstructure and transport macro properties needed to be enhanced. In this context, the present study is undertaken to enhance our understanding of the links between microstructure and tritiated water diffusivity in saturated mortars. The effect of aggregates via the ITZ (Interfacial Transition Zone) on transport properties and materials durability is studied. (author) [fr

  20. On the Specific Role of Microstructure in Governing Cyclic Fatigue, Deformation, and Fracture Behavior of a High-Strength Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigandan, K.; Srivatsan, T. S.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the results of an experimental study that focused on evaluating the conjoint influence of microstructure and test specimen orientation on fully reversed strain-controlled fatigue behavior of the high alloy steel X2M are presented and discussed. The cyclic stress response of this high-strength alloy steel revealed initial hardening during the first few cycles followed by gradual softening for most of fatigue life. Cyclic strain resistance exhibited a linear trend for the variation of elastic strain amplitude with reversals to failure, and plastic strain amplitude with reversals to failure. Fracture morphology was the same at the macroscopic level over the entire range of cyclic strain amplitudes examined. However, at the fine microscopic level, the alloy steel revealed fracture to be essentially ductile with features reminiscent of predominantly "locally" ductile and isolated brittle mechanisms. The mechanisms governing stress response at the fine microscopic level, fatigue life, and final fracture behavior are presented and discussed in light of the mutually interactive influences of intrinsic microstructural effects, deformation characteristics of the microstructural constituents during fully reversed strain cycling, cyclic strain amplitude, and resultant response stress.

  1. Interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of brazed aluminum / stainless steel - joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V.; Elßner, M.; Uhlig, T.; Wagner, G.

    2017-03-01

    Due to the demand of mass and cost reduction, joints based on dissimilar metals become more and more interesting. Especially there is a high interest for joints between stainless steel and aluminum, often necessary for example for automotive heat exchangers. Brazing offers the possibilities to manufacture several joints in one step at, in comparison to fusion welding, lower temperatures. In the recent work, aluminum / stainless steel - joints are produced by induction brazing using an AlSi10 filler and a non-corrosive flux. The mechanical properties are determined by tensile shear tests as well as fatigue tests at ambient and elevated temperatures. The microstructure of the brazed joints and the fracture surfaces of the tested samples are investigated by SEM.

  2. Macroscopic and Microstructural Aspects of the Transformation Behavior in a Polycrystalline NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benafan, Othmane; Noebe, Ronald D.; Padula, Santo A., II; Lerch, Bradley A.; Bigelow, Glen S.; Gaydosh, Darrell J.; Garg, Anita; An, Ke; Vaidyanathan, Raj

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical and microstructural behavior of a polycrystalline Ni(49.9)Ti(50.1) (at.%) shape memory alloy was investigated as a function of temperature around the transformation regime. The bulk macroscopic responses, measured using ex situ tensile deformation and impulse excitation tests, were compared to the microstructural evolution captured using in situ neutron diffraction. The onset stress for inelastic deformation and dynamic Young's modulus were found to decrease with temperature, in the martensite regime, reaching a significant minimum at approximately 80 C followed by an increase in both properties, attributed to the martensite to austenite transformation. The initial decrease in material compliance during heating affected the ease with which martensite reorientation and detwinning could occur, ultimately impacting the stress for inelastic deformation prior to the start of the reverse transformation.

  3. Interfacial forces in aqueous media

    CERN Document Server

    van Oss, Carel J

    2006-01-01

    Thoroughly revised and reorganized, the second edition of Interfacial Forces in Aqueous Media examines the role of polar interfacial and noncovalent interactions among biological and nonbiological macromolecules as well as biopolymers, particles, surfaces, cells, and both polar and apolar polymers. The book encompasses Lifshitz-van der Waals and electrical double layer interactions, as well as Lewis acid-base interactions between colloidal entities in polar liquids such as water. New in this Edition: Four previously unpublished chapters comprising a new section on interfacial propertie

  4. Using a novel rigid-fluoride polymer to control the interfacial thickness of graphene and tailor the dielectric behavior of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianghui; Chen, Sheng; Lv, Xuguang; Luo, Hang; Zhang, Dou; Bowen, Chris R

    2018-01-24

    Polymer nanocomposites based on conductive fillers for high performance dielectrics have attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, a number of physical issues are unclear, such as the effect of interfacial thickness on the dielectric properties of the polymer nanocomposites, which limits the enhancement of permittivity. In this research, two core-shell structured reduced graphene oxide (rGO)@rigid-fluoro-polymer conducting fillers with different shell thicknesses are prepared using a surface-initiated reversible-addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization method, which are denoted as rGO@PTFMS-1 with a thin shell and rGO@PTFMS-2 with a thick shell. A rigid liquid crystalline fluoride-polymer poly{5-bis[(4-trifluoro-methoxyphenyl)oxycarbonyl]styrene} (PTFMS) is chosen for the first time to tailor the shell thicknesses of rGO via tailoring the degree of polymerization. The effect of interfacial thickness on the dielectric behavior of the P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) nanocomposites with rGO and modified rGO is studied in detail. The results demonstrate that the percolation threshold of the nanocomposites increased from 0.68 vol% to 1.69 vol% with an increase in shell thickness. Compared to the rGO@PTFMS-1/P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) composites, the rGO@PTFMS-2/P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) composites exhibited a higher breakdown strength and a lower dielectric constant, which can be interpreted by interfacial polarization and the micro-capacitor model, resulting from the insulating nature of the rigid-polymer shell and the change of rGO's morphology. The findings provide an innovative approach to tailor dielectric composites, and promote a deeper understanding of the influence of interfacial region thickness on the dielectric performance.

  5. Dentin-cement Interfacial Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmeh, A.R.; Chong, E.Z.; Richard, G.; Festy, F.; Watson, T.F.

    2012-01-01

    The interfacial properties of a new calcium-silicate-based coronal restorative material (Biodentine™) and a glass-ionomer cement (GIC) with dentin have been studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-Raman spectroscopy, and two-photon auto-fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation (SHG) imaging. Results indicate the formation of tag-like structures alongside an interfacial layer called the “mineral infiltration zone”, where the alkaline caustic effect of the calcium silicate cement’s hydration products degrades the collagenous component of the interfacial dentin. This degradation leads to the formation of a porous structure which facilitates the permeation of high concentrations of Ca2+, OH-, and CO32- ions, leading to increased mineralization in this region. Comparison of the dentin-restorative interfaces shows that there is a dentin-mineral infiltration with the Biodentine, whereas polyacrylic and tartaric acids and their salts characterize the penetration of the GIC. A new type of interfacial interaction, “the mineral infiltration zone”, is suggested for these calcium-silicate-based cements. PMID:22436906

  6. Microstructural characterization of a rapidly solidified ultrahigh strength Al94.5Cr3Co1.5Ce1 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, D.H.; Hono, K.; Inoue, A.

    2000-01-01

    The microstructure of a rapidly solidified Al 94.5 Cr 3 Co 1.5 Ce 1 alloy has been examined in detail by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM). In the as-quenched microstructure, nanoscale particles of a solute-enriched amorphous phase and an Al-Cr compound are dispersed in randomly oriented fine grains of α-Al ( 200nm ). The interface between the Al grains and the amorphous particles is not smooth but irregular with atomic protrusions and concavities, suggesting that interfacial instability occurs during the solidification process. Nanoscale amorphous particles are formed as a result of solute trapping within the rapidly grown Al grains. After annealing at 400 C for 15 minutes grain growth occurs, and the interface of the Al grains is smoothed. The amorphous region trapped within the grains if crystallized to an Al-Cr compound, but no icosahedral phase has been confirmed. The APFIM results have revealed that Cr and Ce atoms have a similar partitioning behavior, i.e., they are rejected from the α-Al phase and partitioned into the trapped amorphous regions. On the other hand, Co atoms are not partitioned between the two phases in the as-quenched state but are partitioned into the α-Al grains in the annealed alloys being rejected from the Al compounds and finally form Al-Co compounds. Based on these microstructural characterization results, the origins of high strength of this alloy are discussed

  7. The Influence of Post-Build Microstructure on the Electrochemical Behavior of Additively Manufactured 17-4 PH Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoudt, M R; Ricker, R E; Lass, E A; Levine, L E

    2017-03-01

    The additive manufacturing (AM) build process produces a segregated microstructure with significant variations in composition and phases that are uncommon in traditional wrought materials. As such, the relationship between the post-build microstructure and the corrosion resistance is not well understood. Stainless steel alloy 17-4PH is an industrially-relevant alloy for applications requiring high-strength and good corrosion resistance. A series of potentiodynamic scans conducted in a deaerated 0.5 mol/L NaCl solution evaluated the influence of these microstructural differences on the pitting behavior of SS17-4. The pitting potentials were found to be higher in the samples of additively-processed material than in samples of the alloy in wrought form. This indicates that the additively-processed material is more resistant to localized corrosion and pitting in this environment than the wrought alloy. The results also suggest that after homogenization, the additively-produced SS17-4 could be more resistant to pitting than wrought SS17-4 in an actual service environment.

  8. Inter-particle and interfacial interaction of magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Che Jin; Hwang, Yosun; Park, Jongnam; An, Kwangjin; Lee, Youjin; Lee, Jinwoo; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Park, J.-G.

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand inter-particle as well as interfacial interaction of magnetic nanoparticles, we have prepared several Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles in the ranges from 3 to 50 nm. These nanoparticles are particularly well characterized in terms of size distribution with a standard deviation (σ) in size less than 0.4 nm. We investigated the inter-particle interaction by measuring the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles while controlling inter-particle distances by diluting the samples with solvents. According to this study, blocking temperatures dropped by 8-17 K with increasing the inter-particle distances from a few nm to 140 nm while the overall shape and qualitative behavior of the magnetization remain unchanged. It implies that most features observed in the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles are due to the intrinsic properties of the nanoparticles, not due to the inter-particle interaction. We then examined possible interfacial magnetic interaction in the core-shell structure of our Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles

  9. Effect of annealing treatment on microstructure evolution and the associated corrosion behavior of a super-duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, B.; Jiang, Y.M.; Gao, J.; Li, J.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of annealing temperature on the pitting corrosion of a super-duplex stainless steel (SDSS) with mischmetal addition was investigated in chloride solution by critical pitting temperature (CPT) measurement. The corrosion behavior is strongly dependent on the microstructure, namely the presence of secondary phases, elemental partitioning behavior and volume fractions of ferrite and austenite. Based on CPT results and alloying rules, the optimal annealing temperature is determined as 1070 o C and a guideline for further development of improved SDSS is formulated.

  10. Interfacial free energy of the NaCl crystal-melt interface from capillary wave fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Jorge; MacDowell, Luis G; Sanz, Eduardo

    2015-04-07

    In this work we study, by means of molecular dynamics simulations, the solid-liquid interface of NaCl under coexistence conditions. By analysing capillary waves, we obtain the stiffness for different orientations of the solid and calculate the interfacial free energy by expanding the dependency of the interfacial free energy with the solid orientation in terms of cubic harmonics. We obtain an average value for the solid-fluid interfacial free energy of 89 ± 6 mN m(-1) that is consistent with previous results based on the measure of nucleation free energy barriers [Valeriani et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 194501 (2005)]. We analyse the influence of the simulation setup on interfacial properties and find that facets prepared as an elongated rectangular stripe give the same results as those prepared as squares for all cases but the 111 face. For some crystal orientations, we observe at small wave-vectors a behaviour not consistent with capillary wave theory and show that this behavior does not depend on the simulation setup.

  11. Microstructure and wear behavior of stellite 6 cladding on 17-4 PH stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholipour, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamanian, M., E-mail: shamanian@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ashrafizadeh, F. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-04-07

    Research highlights: > The microstructure of the surface layer consisted of carbides embedded in a Co-rich solid solution with dendritic structure. Primary phases formed during the process were identified as Co(FCC) and lamellar eutectic phases (M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, M{sub 6}C, Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3}). > Microhardness profiles showed that hardness increases from interface to the coating surface. This is due to the finer size of the grains at coating surface in comparison to that at interface and also diffusion of Fe adjacent to the interface. > The delamination was suggested as the dominant mechanism of the wear. In this regard, plate-like wear debris consisted of voids and cracks. In addition, due to increase in surface temperature, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide phase was formed during wear tests. - Abstract: This paper deals with the investigation of the microstructure and wear behavior of the stellite 6 cladding on precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel (17-4PH) using gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) method. 17-4 PH stainless steel is widely used in oil and gas industries. Optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were employed to study the microstructure and wear mechanisms. X-ray diffraction analysis was also used to identify phases formed in the coating. The results showed that the microstructure of the surface layer consisted of carbides embedded in a Co-rich solid solution with a dendritic structure. In addition, the dendritic growth in the coating was epitaxial. Primary phases formed during the process were Co (fcc), Co (hcp), lamellar eutectic phases, M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} type carbides. The results of the wear tests indicated that the delamination was the dominant mechanism. So, it is necessary to apply an inter-layer between the substrate and top coat.

  12. Predicting the mixed-mode I/II spatial damage propagation along 3D-printed soft interfacial layer via a hyperelastic softening model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Li, Yaning

    2018-07-01

    A methodology was developed to use a hyperelastic softening model to predict the constitutive behavior and the spatial damage propagation of nonlinear materials with damage-induced softening under mixed-mode loading. A user subroutine (ABAQUS/VUMAT) was developed for numerical implementation of the model. 3D-printed wavy soft rubbery interfacial layer was used as a material system to verify and validate the methodology. The Arruda - Boyce hyperelastic model is incorporated with the softening model to capture the nonlinear pre-and post- damage behavior of the interfacial layer under mixed Mode I/II loads. To characterize model parameters of the 3D-printed rubbery interfacial layer, a series of scarf-joint specimens were designed, which enabled systematic variation of stress triaxiality via a single geometric parameter, the slant angle. It was found that the important model parameter m is exponentially related to the stress triaxiality. Compact tension specimens of the sinusoidal wavy interfacial layer with different waviness were designed and fabricated via multi-material 3D printing. Finite element (FE) simulations were conducted to predict the spatial damage propagation of the material within the wavy interfacial layer. Compact tension experiments were performed to verify the model prediction. The results show that the model developed is able to accurately predict the damage propagation of the 3D-printed rubbery interfacial layer under complicated stress-state without pre-defined failure criteria.

  13. Interfacial self-healing of nanocomposite hydrogels: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiming; Gao, Zheming; Yu, Kunhao

    2017-12-01

    Polymers with dynamic bonds are able to self-heal their fractured interfaces and restore the mechanical strengths. It is largely elusive how to analytically model this self-healing behavior to construct the mechanistic relationship between the self-healing properties (e.g., healed interfacial strength and equilibrium healing time) and the material compositions and healing conditions. Here, we take a self-healable nanocomposite hydrogel as an example to illustrate an interfacial self-healing theory for hydrogels with dynamic bonds. In the theory, we consider the free polymer chains diffuse across the interface and reform crosslinks to bridge the interface. We analytically reveal that the healed strengths of nanocomposite hydrogels increase with the healing time in an error-function-like form. The equilibrium self-healing time of the full-strength recovery decreases with the temperature and increases with the nanoparticle concentration. We further analytically reveal that the healed interfacial strength decreases with increasing delaying time before the healing process. The theoretical results quantitatively match with our experiments on nanosilica hydrogels, and also agree well with other researchers' experiments on nanoclay hydrogels. We expect that this theory would open promising avenues for quantitative understanding of the self-healing mechanics of various polymers with dynamic bonds, and offer insights for designing high-performance self-healing polymers.

  14. Structural integrity of additive materials: Microstructure, fatigue behavior, and surface processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Todd A.

    Although Additive Manufacturing (AM) offers numerous performance advantages over existing methods, AM structures are not being utilized for critical aerospace and mechanical applications due to uncertainties in their structural integrity as a result of the microstructural variations and defects arising from the AM process itself. Two of these uncertainties are the observed scatter in tensile strength and fatigue lives of direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) parts. With strain localization a precursor for material failure, this research seeks to explore the impact of microstructural variations in DMLS produced materials on strain localization. The first part of this research explores the role of the microstructure in strain localization of DMLS produced IN718 and Ti6Al4V specimens (as-built and post-processed) through the characterization of the linkage between microstructural variations, and the accumulation of plastic strain during monotonic and low cycle fatigue loading. The second part of this research explores the feasibility for the application of select surface processing techniques in-situ during the DMLS build process to alter the microstructure in AlSi10Mg to reduce strain localization and improve material cohesion. This study is based on utilizing experimental observations through the employment of advanced material characterization techniques such as digital image correlation to illustrate the impacts of DMLS microstructural variation.

  15. Microstructures and mechanical properties of aging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaw, P.K.; Viswanathan, R.; Murty, K.L.; Simonen, E.P.; Frear, D.

    1993-01-01

    This book contains a collection of papers presented at the symposium on ''Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Aging Materials,'' that was held in Chicago, IL. November 2-5, 1992 in conjunction with the Fall Meeting of The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society (TMS). The subjects of interest in the symposium included: (1) mechanisms of microstructural degradation, (2) effects of microstructural degradation on mechanical behavior, (3) development of life prediction methodology for in-service structural and electronic components, (4) experimental techniques to monitor degradation of microstructures and mechanical properties, and (5) effects of environment on microstructural degradation and mechanical properties. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  16. Computer simulation of phase transformation and plastic deformation in IN718 superalloy: Microstructural evolution during precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, N.; Lv, D.C.; Zhang, H.L.; McAllister, D.; Zhang, F.; Mills, M.J.; Wang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Microstructural evolution during co-precipitation of γ′, γ″ and δ phases from a supersaturated γ matrix during aging of superalloy Inconel 718 (IN718) is investigated by computer simulation using the phase-field method. The precipitation model is quantitative, using as model inputs ab initio calculations of elastic constants, experimental data on lattice parameters, precipitate–matrix orientation relationship, interfacial energy of each individual precipitate phase and interdiffusivities, and a Ni–Nb–Al pseudo-ternary thermodynamic database specifically developed for IN718. In order to simulate statistically representative multiphase microstructures observed in the alloy, the Kim–Kim–Suzuki treatment of interfaces is employed. Simulation results show how alloy composition, lattice misfit, external stress, temperature and time affect precipitate microstructure and variant selection during isothermal aging, without any a priori assumptions about key microstructural features including size, shape, volume fraction and spatial distribution of different types of precipitates and different variants of the same precipitate phase. The shapes of precipitates and their coarsening kinetics are analyzed based on the two-dimensional moment invariant. The various multiphase microstructures generated by the simulations have been used as model inputs in a study to investigate how precipitate microstructure (in particular shape and spatial distribution) influences the strength of IN718

  17. The role of bismuth on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of ternary Mg–1.2Ca–xBi alloys for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tok, H.Y.; Hamzah, E., E-mail: Esah@fkm.utm.my; Bakhsheshi-Rad, H.R.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Secondary phases have a significant effect on corrosion properties of the alloys. • Microstructure of Mg–Ca–xBi was refined significantly after Bi addition. • Addition of 0.5 wt.% Bi to Mg–Ca alloy leads to increase corrosion resistance. • Microstructure analysis showed needle-shaped precipitates at the grain boundaries. - Abstract: In this study the influence of various Bi additions on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of the Mg–1.2Ca–xBi alloys (x = 0.5, 1.5, 3, 5, 12 wt.%) were evaluated by using optical and scanning electron microscopy, immersion and electrochemical tests. Microstructural observations showed that the refinement efficiency became more pronounced with increased Bi amount. Microstructural results of Mg–1.2Ca–xBi (x = 0.5, 1.5, and 3) indicated that the formation of three distinct phases—namely α-Mg, Mg{sub 2}Ca and Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2}. However, further addition of Bi to 5 and 12 wt.% leads to evolution of α-Mg, Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2}, and Mg{sub 2}Bi{sub 2}Ca phases. The addition of Bi up to 0.5 wt.% enhanced corrosion resistance while further addition from 1.5 to 12 wt.% accelerated the degradation rate because of the emergence of more galvanic coupling between the α-Mg phases and secondary phases. The analyses showed that the Mg–1.2Ca–0.5Bi alloy gives the best corrosion resistance behavior, which makes it ideal for biodegradable medical applications.

  18. Characterization of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient for hot stamping processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Xi; Liu, Xiaochuan; Fang, Haomiao; Ji, Kang; El Fakir, Omer; Wang, LiLiang

    2016-08-01

    In hot stamping processes, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) between the forming tools and hot blank is an essential parameter which determines the quenching rate of the process and hence the resulting material microstructure. The present work focuses on the characterization of the IHTC between an aluminium alloy 7075-T6 blank and two different die materials, cast iron (G3500) and H13 die steel, at various contact pressures. It was found that the IHTC between AA7075 and cast iron had values 78.6% higher than that obtained between AA7075 and H13 die steel. Die materials and contact pressures had pronounced effects on the IHTC, suggesting that the IHTC can be used to guide the selection of stamping tool materials and the precise control of processing parameters.

  19. Effects of sintering temperature on the microstructural evolution and wear behavior of WCp reinforced Ni-based coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan-hui; Bai, Yang; Ye, Xu-chu

    2014-12-01

    This article focuses on the microstructural evolution and wear behavior of 50wt%WC reinforced Ni-based composites prepared onto 304 stainless steel substrates by vacuum sintering at different sintering temperatures. The microstructure and chemical composition of the coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The wear resistance of the coatings was tested by thrust washer testing. The mechanisms of the decomposition, dissolution, and precipitation of primary carbides, and their influences on the wear resistance have been discussed. The results indicate that the coating sintered at 1175°C is composed of fine WC particles, coarse M6C (M=Ni, Fe, Co, etc.) carbides, and discrete borides dispersed in solid solution. Upon increasing the sintering temperature to 1225°C, the microstructure reveals few incompletely dissolved WC particles trapped in larger M6C, Cr-rich lamellar M23C6, and M3C2 in the austenite matrix. M23C6 and M3C2 precipitates are formed in both the γ/M6C grain boundary and the matrix. These large-sized and lamellar brittle phases tend to weaken the wear resistance of the composite coatings. The wear behavior is controlled simultaneously by both abrasive wear and adhesive wear. Among them, abrasive wear plays a major role in the wear process of the coating sintered at 1175°C, while the effect of adhesive wear is predominant in the coating sintered at 1225°C.

  20. Single-Molecule Interfacial Electron Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, H. Peter [Bowling Green State Univ., Bowling Green, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Center for Photochemical Sciences

    2017-11-28

    This project is focused on the use of single-molecule high spatial and temporal resolved techniques to study molecular dynamics in condensed phase and at interfaces, especially, the complex reaction dynamics associated with electron and energy transfer rate processes. The complexity and inhomogeneity of the interfacial ET dynamics often present a major challenge for a molecular level comprehension of the intrinsically complex systems, which calls for both higher spatial and temporal resolutions at ultimate single-molecule and single-particle sensitivities. Combined single-molecule spectroscopy and electrochemical atomic force microscopy approaches are unique for heterogeneous and complex interfacial electron transfer systems because the static and dynamic inhomogeneities can be identified and characterized by studying one molecule at a specific nanoscale surface site at a time. The goal of our project is to integrate and apply these spectroscopic imaging and topographic scanning techniques to measure the energy flow and electron flow between molecules and substrate surfaces as a function of surface site geometry and molecular structure. We have been primarily focusing on studying interfacial electron transfer under ambient condition and electrolyte solution involving both single crystal and colloidal TiO2 and related substrates. The resulting molecular level understanding of the fundamental interfacial electron transfer processes will be important for developing efficient light harvesting systems and broadly applicable to problems in fundamental chemistry and physics. We have made significant advancement on deciphering the underlying mechanism of the complex and inhomogeneous interfacial electron transfer dynamics in dyesensitized TiO2 nanoparticle systems that strongly involves with and regulated by molecule-surface interactions. We have studied interfacial electron transfer on TiO2 nanoparticle surfaces by using ultrafast single

  1. Interfacial heat transfer - State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, G.

    1987-01-01

    Interfacial heat exchanges control the interfacial mass exchange rate, depend on the interfacial area, and are tied to the prediction of thermal nonequilibrium. The nature of the problem usually requires the formulation of mechanistic laws and precludes the general use of universal correlations. This is partly due to the fact that the length scale controlling the interfacial exchanges varies widely from one situation to another and has a strong influence on the exchange coefficients. Within the framework of the ''two-fluid models'', the exchanges occurring at the interfaces are explicitly taken into consideration by the jump condition linking the volumetric mass exchange (evaporation) rate between the phases, to the interfacial energy transfer rates

  2. Interfacial and Surface Science | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science group within the Material Science Center. He oversees research studies of surfaces and interfaces Interfacial and Surface Science Interfacial and Surface Science Image of irregular-outlined, light address a broad range of fundamental and applied issues in surface and interfacial science that are

  3. The microstructure and creep behavior of cold rolled udimet 188 sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlert, C J; Longanbach, S C

    2011-06-01

    Udimet 188 was subjected to thermomechanical processing (TMP) in an attempt to understand the effects of cold-rolling deformation on the microstructure and tensile-creep behavior. Commercially available sheet was cold rolled to varying amounts of deformation (between 5-35% reduction in sheet thickness) followed by a solution treatment at 1,464 K (1,191 °C) for 1 h and subsequent air cooling. This sequence was repeated four times to induce a high-volume fraction of low-energy grain boundaries. The resultant microstructure was characterized using electron backscattered diffraction. The effect of the TMP treatment on the high-temperature [1,033-1,088 K (760-815 °C)] creep behavior was evaluated. The measured creep stress exponents (6.0-6.8) suggested that dislocation creep was dominant at 1,033 K (760 °C) for stresses ranging between 100-220 MPa. For stresses ranging between 25-100 MPa at 1,033 K (760 °C), the stress exponents (2.3-2.8) suggested grain boundary sliding was dominant. A significant amount of grain boundary cracking was observed both on the surface and subsurface of deformed samples. To assess the mechanisms of crack nucleation, in situ scanning electron microscopy was performed during the elevated-temperature tensile-creep deformation. Cracking occurred preferentially along general high-angle grain boundaries (GHAB) and less than 25% of the cracks were found on low-angle grain boundaries (LAB) and coincident site lattice boundaries (CSLB). Creep rupture experiments were performed at T = 1,088 K (815 °C) and σ = 165 MPa and the greatest average time-to-rupture was exhibited by the TMP sheet with the greatest fraction of LAB+CSLB. However, a clear correlation was not exhibited between the grain boundary character distribution and the minimum creep rates. The findings of this work suggest that although grain boundary engineering may be possible for this alloy, simply relating the fraction of grain boundary types to the creep resistance is not

  4. Microstructure, Corrosion and Magnetic Behavior of an Aged Dual-Phase Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziouche, A.; Haddad, A.; Badji, R.; Zergoug, M.; Zoubiri, N.; Bedjaoui, W.; Abaidia, S.

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, the effect of the precipitation phenomena on corrosion and magnetic behavior of an aged dual-phase stainless steel was investigated. Aging treatment caused the precipitation of the σ phase, chromium carbides and secondary austenite, which was accompanied by the shifting of the δ/γ interfaces inside the δ ferrite grains. Aging between 700 and 850 °C strongly deteriorated the pitting corrosion resistance of the studied material. Magnetic investigation of the aged material using the vibration sample magnetic technique revealed the sensitivity of the intrinsic magnetic properties to the smallest microstructural change. This was confirmed by the Eddy current technique that led also to the evaluation of the aging-induced localized corrosion.

  5. Stochastic Effects in Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glicksman M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We are currently studying microstructural responses to diffusion-limited coarsening in two-phase materials. A mathematical solution to late-stage multiparticle diffusion in finite systems is formulated with account taken of particle-particle interactions and their microstructural correlations, or "locales". The transition from finite system behavior to that for an infinite microstructure is established analytically. Large-scale simulations of late-stage phase coarsening dynamics show increased fluctuations with increasing volume fraction, Vv, of the mean flux entering or leaving particles of a given size class. Fluctuations about the mean flux were found to depend on the scaled particle size, R/, where R is the radius of a particle and is the radius of the dispersoid averaged over the population within the microstructure. Specifically, small (shrinking particles tend to display weak fluctuations about their mean flux, whereas particles of average, or above average size, exhibit strong fluctuations. Remarkably, even in cases of microstructures with a relatively small volume fraction (Vv ~ 10-4, the particle size distribution is broader than that for the well-known Lifshitz-Slyozov limit predicted at zero volume fraction. The simulation results reported here provide some additional surprising insights into the effect of diffusion interactions and stochastic effects during evolution of a microstructure, as it approaches its thermodynamic end-state.

  6. Study on mechanical and microstructure behavior of submerged arc welding flux using red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, Rishi; Pandey, Pankaj K.; Upadhyay, Renu

    2018-05-01

    This paper emphasis on utilization of Red Mud for preparing submerged arc welding flux and study its mechanical and microstructure behavior. Among the six fluxes prepared in the laboratory, Flux no. 1 (basicity 1.106) found to be best due to its running performance, micro hardness and Brinell hardness. The hardness value (HV) of the fluxes was varying from 165.70 to 217.15 at a load of 1000gm respectively. From the micrograph of welded metal, acicular ferrite found to be optimum which helps in increasing the ductility and hardness of the welded material.

  7. Effects of Metallic Nanoparticles on Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds in Tin-Based Solders for Microelectronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Arafat, M. M.; Tay, S. L.; Leong, Y. M.

    2017-10-01

    Tin (Sn)-based solders have established themselves as the main alternative to the traditional lead (Pb)-based solders in many applications. However, the reliability of the Sn-based solders continues to be a concern. In order to make Sn-based solders microstructurally more stable and hence more reliable, researchers are showing great interest in investigating the effects of the incorporation of different nanoparticles into them. This paper gives an overview of the influence of metallic nanoparticles on the characteristics of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Sn-based solder joints on copper substrates during reflow and thermal aging. Nanocomposite solders were prepared by mechanically blending nanoparticles of nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn) and titanium (Ti) with Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu and Sn-3.5Ag solder pastes. The composite solders were then reflowed and their wetting characteristics and interfacial microstructural evolution were investigated. Through the paste mixing route, Ni, Co, Zn and Mo nanoparticles alter the morphology and thickness of the IMCs in beneficial ways for the performance of solder joints. The thickness of Cu3Sn IMC is decreased with the addition of Ni, Co and Zn nanoparticles. The thickness of total IMC layer is decreased with the addition of Zn and Mo nanoparticles in the solder. The metallic nanoparticles can be divided into two groups. Ni, Co, and Zn nanoparticles undergo reactive dissolution during solder reflow, causing in situ alloying and therefore offering an alternative route of alloy additions to solders. Mo nanoparticles remain intact during reflow and impart their influence as discrete particles. Mechanisms of interactions between different types of metallic nanoparticles and solder are discussed.

  8. Microstructural Evolution and the Precipitation Behavior in X90 Linepipe Steel During Isothermal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Wang, H. T.; Wang, Z. D.; Misra, R. D. K.; Wang, G. D.

    2018-03-01

    Thermomechanical controlled processing of 560-MPa (X90) linepipe steel was simulated in the laboratory using a thermomechanical simulator to study the microstructural evolution and precipitation behavior during isothermal holding. The results indicated that martensite was obtained when the steels were isothermally held for 5 s at 700 °C. Subsequently, granular bainite and acicular ferrite transformation occurred with increased holding time. Different amount of polygonal ferrite formed after isothermally holding for 600-3600 s. Pearlite nucleated after isothermally holding for 3600 s. Precipitation occurred after isothermal holding for 5 s and continuous precipitation occurred at grain boundaries after isothermally holding for 600 s. After isothermally holding for 3600 s, large Nb/Ti carbide precipitated. The presence of MX-type precipitates was confirmed by diffraction pattern. The interphase precipitation (IP) occurred between 5 and 30 s. Maximum hardness was obtained after isothermally holding for 600 s when IP occurred and rapidly decreased to a low value, mainly because polygonal ferrite dominated the microstructure after isothermally holding for 3600 s.

  9. Microstructure and fracture in SiC whisker reinforced 2124 aluminum composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieh, T. G.; Raninen, R. A.; Chellman, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The microstructures of extruded and hot-rolled 2124 Al-15 percent (by weight) SiC whisker composites have been investigated, experimentally. Among the specific factors studied were: the strength of the whisker-matrix interfaces; (2) the presence of oxides; (3) the presence of defective whiskers; (4) and the presence of distribution of intermetallic compounds, impurities in the SiC(w) powder, and microstructural inhomogeneities. Modifications in the microstructure of the SiC/AL composites due to hot rolling and extrusion are illustrated in a series of microphotographs. It was found that hot rolling along the axis of extrusion was associated with some types of whisker damage, while the whiskers still retain their original orientation. Hot-rolling perpendicular to the axis of extrusion, however, tended to rotate the whiskers and produced a nearly isotropic material. Whisker free zones were virtually eliminated or reduced in size by hot rolling. In situ Auger fractography of the composite showed that the interfacial bonding between the SiC and the Al matrix was good and that Al2O2 had no significant influence on the fracture mechanics of the composite.

  10. Effect of chemical composition and microstructure on the mechanical behavior of fish scales from Megalops Atlanticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Duran, S; Arola, D; Ossa, E A

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the composition, microstructure and mechanical behavior of scales from the Megalops Atlanticus (Atlantic tarpon). The microstructure and composition were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and RAMAN spectroscopy, respectively. The mechanical properties were evaluated in uniaxial tension as a function of position along the length of the fish (head, mid-length and tail). Results showed that the scales are composed of collagen and hydroxyapatite, and these constituents are distributed within three well-defined layers from the bottom to the top of the scale. The proportion of these layers with respect to the total scale thickness varies radially. The collagen fibers are arranged in plies with different orientations and with preferred orientation in the longitudinal direction of the fish. Results from the tensile tests showed that scales from Megalops Atlanticus exhibit variations in the elastic modulus as a function of body position. Additional testing performed with and without the highly mineralized top layers of the scale revealed that the mechanical behavior is anisotropic and that the highest strength was exhibited along the fish length. Furthermore, removing the top mineralized layers resulted in an increase in the tensile strength of the scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Drastic modification of the piezoresistive behavior of polymer nanocomposites by using conductive polymer coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Ventura, Isaac Aguilar; Zhou, Jian; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    We obtained highly conductive nanocomposites by adding conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS)-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to pristine insulating Polycarbonate. Because the PEDOT/PSS ensures efficient charge transfer both along and between the CNTs, we could attribute the improvement in electrical conductivity to coating. In addition to improving the electrical conductivity, the coating also modified the piezoresistive behavior of the nanocomposites compared to the material with pristine uncoated CNTs: whereas CNT/Polycarbonate samples exhibited a very strong piezoresistive effect, PEDOT/PSS-coated MWCNT/Polycarbonate samples exhibited very little piezoresistivity. We studied this change in piezoresistive behavior in detail by investigating various configurations of filler content. We investigated how this observation could be explained by changes in the microstructure and in the conduction mechanism in the interfacial regions between the nanofillers. Our study suggests that tailoring the piezoresistive response to specific application requirements is possible.

  12. Drastic modification of the piezoresistive behavior of polymer nanocomposites by using conductive polymer coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Ventura, Isaac Aguilar

    2015-07-21

    We obtained highly conductive nanocomposites by adding conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS)-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to pristine insulating Polycarbonate. Because the PEDOT/PSS ensures efficient charge transfer both along and between the CNTs, we could attribute the improvement in electrical conductivity to coating. In addition to improving the electrical conductivity, the coating also modified the piezoresistive behavior of the nanocomposites compared to the material with pristine uncoated CNTs: whereas CNT/Polycarbonate samples exhibited a very strong piezoresistive effect, PEDOT/PSS-coated MWCNT/Polycarbonate samples exhibited very little piezoresistivity. We studied this change in piezoresistive behavior in detail by investigating various configurations of filler content. We investigated how this observation could be explained by changes in the microstructure and in the conduction mechanism in the interfacial regions between the nanofillers. Our study suggests that tailoring the piezoresistive response to specific application requirements is possible.

  13. Molecular Dynamics-based Simulations of Bulk/Interfacial Structures and Diffusion Behaviors in Nuclear Waste Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jincheng

    2018-03-16

    This NEUP Project aimed to generate accurate atomic structural models of nuclear waste glasses by using large-scale molecular dynamics-based computer simulations and to use these models to investigate self-diffusion behaviors, interfacial structures, and hydrated gel structures formed during dissolution of these glasses. The goal was to obtain realistic and accurate short and medium range structures of these complex oxide glasses, to provide a mechanistic understanding of the dissolution behaviors, and to generate reliable information with predictive power in designing nuclear waste glasses for long-term geological storage. Looking back of the research accomplishments of this project, most of the scientific goals initially proposed have been achieved through intensive research in the three and a half year period of the project. This project has also generated a wealth of scientific data and vibrant discussions with various groups through collaborations within and outside of this project. Throughout the project one book chapter and 14 peer reviewed journal publications have been generated (including one under review) and 16 presentations (including 8 invited talks) have been made to disseminate the results of this project in national and international conference. Furthermore, this project has trained several outstanding graduate students and young researchers for future workforce in nuclear related field, especially on nuclear waste immobilization. One postdoc and four PhD students have been fully or partially supported through the project with intensive training in the field material science and engineering with expertise on glass science and nuclear waste disposal

  14. Strain hardening behavior and microstructural evolution during plastic deformation of dual phase, non-grain oriented electrical and AISI 304 steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Guilherme Corrêa; Gonzalez, Berenice Mendonça; Arruda Santos, Leandro de, E-mail: leandro.arruda@demet.ufmg.br

    2017-01-27

    Strain hardening behavior and microstructural evolution of non-grain oriented electrical, dual phase, and AISI 304 steels, subjected to uniaxial tensile tests, were investigated in this study. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature and the strain hardening behavior of the steels was characterized by three different parameters: modified Crussard–Jaoul stages, strain hardening rate and instantaneous strain hardening exponent. Optical microscopic analysis, X-ray diffraction measurements, phase quantification by Rietveld refinement and hardness tests were also carried out in order to correlate the microstructural and mechanical responses to plastic deformation. Distinct strain hardening stages were observed in the steels in terms of the instantaneous strain hardening exponent and the strain hardening rate. The dual phase and non-grain oriented steels exhibited a two-stage strain hardening behavior while the AISI 304 steel displayed multiple stages, resulting in a more complex strain hardening behavior. The dual phase steels showed a high work hardening capacity in stage 1, which was gradually reduced in stage 2. On the other hand, the AISI 304 steel showed high strain hardening capacity, which continued to increase up to the tensile strength. This is a consequence of its additional strain hardening mechanism, based on a strain-induced martensitic transformation, as shown by the X-ray diffraction and optical microscopic analyses.

  15. Stability of interfacial waves in two-phase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W S [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The influence of the interfacial pressure and the flow distribution in the one-dimensional two-fluid model on the stability problems of interfacial waves is discussed. With a proper formulation of the interfacial pressure, the following two-phase phenomena can be predicted from the stability and stationary criteria of the interfacial waves: onset of slug flow, stationary hydraulic jump in a stratified flow, flooding in a vertical pipe, and the critical void fraction of a bubbly flow. It can be concluded that the interfacial pressure plays an important role in the interfacial wave propagation of the two-fluid model. The flow distribution parameter may enhance the flow stability range, but only plays a minor role in the two-phase characteristics. (author). 20 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  16. Interfacial Instabilities in Evaporating Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Ross; Sefiane, Khellil; Matar, Omar

    2007-11-01

    We study the effect of substrate thermal properties on the evaporation of sessile drops of various liquids. An infra-red imaging technique was used to record the interfacial temperature. This technique illustrates the non-uniformity in interfacial temperature distribution that characterises the evaporation process. Our results also demonstrate that the evaporation of methanol droplets is accompanied by the formation of wave-trains in the interfacial temperature field; similar patterns, however, were not observed in the case of water droplets. More complex patterns are observed for FC-72 refrigerant drops. The effect of substrate thermal conductivity on the structure of the complex pattern formation is also elucidated.

  17. Microstructural Characteristics and m23c6 Precipitate Behavior of the Course-Grained Heat-Affected Zone of T23 Steel without Post-Weld Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Hyeong Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural characteristics of a simulated heat-affected zone (HAZ in SA213-T23 (2.25Cr-1.6W steel used for boiler tubes employed in thermal power plants were investigated using nital, alkaline sodium picrate, and Murakami’s etchants. In order to investigate the microstructure formation process of the HAZ in the welding process, simulated HAZ specimens were fabricated at intervals of 100 °C for peak temperatures between 950 and 1350 °C, and the microstructural features and precipitate behavior at various peak temperatures were observed. The alkaline-sodium-picrate-etched microstructures exhibited a black dot or band, which was not observed in the natal-etched microstructure. As the temperature increased from 950 to 1350 °C, the black dot and band became wider and thicker. Experimental analyses using an electron probe micro-analyzer, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy revealed the appearance of austenite in the black dot region at a peak temperature of 950 °C; its amount increased up to a peak temperature of 1050 °C and thereafter decreased as the peak temperature further increased. The amount of M23C6 decreased with an increase in peak temperature. Based on these results, we investigated the behaviors of austenite and M23C6 as functions of the peak temperature.

  18. Effect of Atmospheric Ions on Interfacial Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chang Kurt Kung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of atmospheric positivity on the electrical properties of interfacial water was explored. Interfacial, or exclusion zone (EZ water was created in the standard way, next to a sheet of Nafion placed horizontally at the bottom of a water-filled chamber. Positive atmospheric ions were created from a high voltage source placed above the chamber. Electrical potential distribution in the interfacial water was measured using microelectrodes. We found that beyond a threshold, the positive ions diminished the magnitude of the negative electrical potential in the interfacial water, sometimes even turning it to positive. Additionally, positive ions produced by an air conditioner were observed to generate similar effects; i.e., the electrical potential shifted in the positive direction but returned to negative when the air conditioner stopped blowing. Sometimes, the effect of the positive ions from the air conditioner was strong enough to destroy the structure of interfacial water by turning the potential decidedly positive. Thus, positive air ions can compromise interfacial water negativity and may explain the known negative impact of positive ions on health.

  19. Microstructural evolution and the variation of tensile behavior after aging heat treatment of precipitation hardened martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jong-Ho; Jeong, JaeSuk; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging temperature on the microstructural evolution and the tensile behavior of precipitation hardened martensitic steel were investigated. Microscopic analysis using transmission electron microscope (TEM) was combined with the microstructural analysis using the synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize the microstructural evolution with aging temperature. Peak hardness was obtained by precipitation of the Ni 3 Al ordered phase. After aging at temperature range from 420 to 590 °C, spherical Ni 3 Al precipitates and ellipsoidal M 23 C 6 carbides were observed within laths and at lath boundaries, respectively. Strain hardening behavior was analyzed with Ludwik equation. It is observed that the plastic strain regimes can be divided into two different stages by a rapid increase in strain hardening followed by a comparatively lower increase. At the first strain hardening stage, the aged specimen exhibited higher strain hardening exponent than the as-quenched specimen, and the exponent in the aged specimen was not changed considerably with increasing aging temperature. It is revealed that the strain hardening exponents at the first and the second stages were associated with the Ni 3 Al precipitates and the domain size representing the coherent scattering area, respectively. - Highlights: • All of aged specimen exhibited higher strain hardening exponent than the as-quenched specimen at the first stage. • The value of strain hardening exponent in the aged specimen was nearly constant with aging temperature. • Ni 3 Al precipitation dominantly influenced to the increase of strain hardening exponent at the first strain hardening stage. • Domain size was associated with strain hardening exponent at the second strain hardening stage

  20. Microstructural evolution and the variation of tensile behavior after aging heat treatment of precipitation hardened martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jong-Ho, E-mail: jongho.shin@doosan.com [Casting and Forging Technology Development Team, Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, 22 Doosanvolvo-ro, Changwon 642-792 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, JaeSuk [Materials and Manufacturing Development Team, Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, 22 Doosanvolvo-ro, Changwon 642-792 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Wook [Casting and Forging Technology Development Team, Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, 22 Doosanvolvo-ro, Changwon 642-792 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The effects of aging temperature on the microstructural evolution and the tensile behavior of precipitation hardened martensitic steel were investigated. Microscopic analysis using transmission electron microscope (TEM) was combined with the microstructural analysis using the synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize the microstructural evolution with aging temperature. Peak hardness was obtained by precipitation of the Ni{sub 3}Al ordered phase. After aging at temperature range from 420 to 590 °C, spherical Ni{sub 3}Al precipitates and ellipsoidal M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides were observed within laths and at lath boundaries, respectively. Strain hardening behavior was analyzed with Ludwik equation. It is observed that the plastic strain regimes can be divided into two different stages by a rapid increase in strain hardening followed by a comparatively lower increase. At the first strain hardening stage, the aged specimen exhibited higher strain hardening exponent than the as-quenched specimen, and the exponent in the aged specimen was not changed considerably with increasing aging temperature. It is revealed that the strain hardening exponents at the first and the second stages were associated with the Ni{sub 3}Al precipitates and the domain size representing the coherent scattering area, respectively. - Highlights: • All of aged specimen exhibited higher strain hardening exponent than the as-quenched specimen at the first stage. • The value of strain hardening exponent in the aged specimen was nearly constant with aging temperature. • Ni{sub 3}Al precipitation dominantly influenced to the increase of strain hardening exponent at the first strain hardening stage. • Domain size was associated with strain hardening exponent at the second strain hardening stage.

  1. Effect of Micro-Structure on Fatigue Behavior of Intact Rocks under Completely Reversed Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Jamali Zavareh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock formations and structures can be subjected to both static and dynamic loadings. Static loadings resulting from different sources such as gravity and tectonic forces and dynamic forces are intermittently transmitted via vibrations of the earth’s crust, through major earthquakes, rock bursts, rock blasting and drilling and also, traffic. Reaction of rocks to cyclic and repetitive stresses resulting from dynamic loads has been generally neglected with the exception of a few rather limited studies. In this study, , two crystalline quarry stones in Iran; (Natanz gabbro and Green onyx and one non-crystalline rock (Asmari limestone are used to evaluate the effect of micro-structure of intact rock on fatigue behavior. These rocks have different mineral compositions and formation conditions. A new apparatus based on rotating beam fatigue testing machine (R.R.Moore, which is commonly used for laboratory fatigue test in metals, is developed and fatigue behavior and existence of the endurance limit were evaluated for the mentioned rocks based on stress-life method. The obtained results in the variation of applied amplitude stress versus loading cycle number (S-N diagram followed common relationship in other materials. In addition, the endurance limit is perceived for all tested rocks. The results also illustrated that the endurance limits for all types of tested rocks in this study are ranged between 0.4 and 0.6 of their tensile strengths. The endurance limit to tensile strength fraction of green onyx and Natanz gabbro were approximated in a higher value compared to the Asmari limestone with non-crystalline micro-structure.

  2. The effect of sheet processing on the microstructure, tensile, and creep behavior of INCONEL alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlert, C. J.; Dickmann, D. S.; Eisinger, Ny. N. C.

    2006-01-01

    The grain size, grain boundary character distribution (GBCD), creep, and tensile behavior of INCONEL alloy 718 (IN 718) were characterized to identify processing-microstructure-property relationships. The alloy was sequentially cold rolled (CR) to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80 pct followed by annealing at temperatures between 954 °C and 1050 °C and the traditional aging schedule used for this alloy. In addition, this alloy can be superplastically formed (IN 718SPF) to a significantly finer grain size and the corresponding microstructure and mechanical behavior were evaluated. The creep behavior was evaluated in the applied stress (σ a ) range of 300 to 758 MPa and the temperature range of 638 °C to 670 °C. Constant-load tensile creep experiments were used to measure the values of the steady-state creep rate and the consecutive load reduction method was used to determine the values of backstress (σ0). The values for the effective stress exponent and activation energy suggested that the transition between the rate-controlling creep mechanisms was dependent on effective stresses (σ e =σ a σ0) and the transition occurred at σ e ≅ 135 MPa. The 10 to 40 pct CR samples exhibited the greatest 650 °C strength, while IN 718SPF exhibited the greatest room-temperature (RT) tensile strength (>1550 MPa) and ductility (ɛ f >16 pct). After the 954 °C annealing treatment, the 20 pct CR and 30 pct CR microstructures exhibited the most attractive combination of elevated-temperature tensile and creep strength, while the most severely cold-rolled materials exhibited the poorest elevated-temperature properties. After the 1050 °C annealing treatment, the IN 718SPF material exhibited the greatest backstress and best creep resistance. Electron backscattered diffraction was performed to identify the GBCD as a function of CR and annealing. The data indicated that annealing above 1010 °C increased the grain size and resulted in a greater fraction of twin boundaries, which in

  3. Interfacial spectroscopic characterization of organic/ferromagnet hetero-junction of 3,4,9,10-perylene-teracarboxylic dianhydride-based organic spin valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jhen-Yong; Ou Yang, Kui-Hon; Li, Kai-Shin [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Bo-Yao [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Shiu, Hung-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hao; Chan, Yuet-Loy; Wei, Der-Hsin; Chang, Fan-Hsiu; Lin, Hong-Ji [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 30076 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Wen-Chung, E-mail: wchiang@faculty.pccu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Chinese Culture University, 11114 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Minn-Tsong, E-mail: mtlin@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-24

    We report interfacial characterization of 3,4,9,10-perylene-teracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA)-based organic spin valves (OSV) dusted with a thin layer of partially oxidized alumina at the organic semiconductor (OSC)/ferromagnet (FM) interfaces. Up to 13.5% magnetoresistance is achieved at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal interfacial electronic interaction between PTCDA and FM while the application of a thin alumina layer at the PTCDA/FM interfaces prevents the electronic hybridization and effectively preserves the spin injection into the OSC spacer. This finding demonstrates the critical effect of interfacial structure on magnetotransport behavior in OSV.

  4. Microstructures and electrochemical behaviors of the friction stir welding dissimilar weld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changbin; Zhang, Jiayan; Ge, Jiping

    2011-06-01

    By using optical microscope, the microstructures of 5083/6082 friction stir welding (FSW) weld and parent materials were analyzed. Meanwhile, at ambient temperature and in 0.2 mol/L NaHS03 and 0.6 mol/L NaCl solutionby gravimetric test, potentiodynamic polarization curve test, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, the electrochemical behavior of 5083/6082 friction stir welding weld and parent materials were comparatively investigated by gravimetric test, potentiodynamic polarization curve test, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation. The results indicated that at given processing parameters, the anti-corrosion property of the dissimilar weld was superior to those of the 5083 and 6082 parent materials. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-scale modeling of elasto-plastic response of SnAgCu lead-free solder alloys at different ageing conditions: Effect of microstructure evolution, particle size effects and interfacial failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki, Milad; Cugnoni, Joel, E-mail: joel.cugnoni@epfl.ch; Botsis, John

    2016-04-20

    In microelectronics applications, SnAgCu lead-free solder joints play the important role of ensuring both the mechanical and electrical integrity of the components. In such applications, the SnAgCu joints are subjected to elevated homologous temperatures for an extended period of time causing significant microstructural changes and leading to reliability issues. In this study, the link between the change in microstructures and deformation behavior of SnAgCu solder during ageing is explained by developing a hybrid multi-scale microstructure-based modeling approach. Herein, the SnAgCu solder alloy is seen as a three phase metal matrix composite in which Ag{sub 3}Sn and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} hard intermetallics play the role of reinforcements and Sn the role of a ductile matrix. The hardening of the Sn matrix due to fine intermetallics in the eutectic mixture is modeled by incorporating the mean field effects of geometrically necessary dislocations. Subsequently, a two level homogenization procedure based on micromechanical finite element (FE) models is used to capture the interactions between the different phases. For this purpose, tomographic images of microstructures obtained by Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and synchrotron X-Ray in different ageing conditions are directly used to generate statistically representative volume elements (RVE) using 3D FE models. The constitutive behavior of the solder is determined by sequentially performing two scales of numerical homogenization at the eutectic level and then at the dendrite level. For simplification, the anisotropy of Sn as well as the potential recovery processes have been neglected in the modeling. The observed decrease in the yield strength of solder due to ageing is well captured by the adopted modeling strategy and allows explaining the different ageing mechanisms. Finally, the effects of potential debonding at the intermetallic particle-matrix interface as well as particle fracture on the overall strength of solder are

  6. Effect of Cationic Surface Modification on the Rheological Behavior and Microstructure of Nanocrystalline Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Tang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the microstructure and rheological behavior of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC and cationically modified NCC (CNCC were comparatively studied. The resultant CNCC generally showed improved dispersion and higher thermal stability in comparison to the un-modified NCC. The rheological behavior demonstrated that the viscosity of the NCC suspension substantially decreased with the increasing shear rate (0.01–100 s−1, showing the typical characteristics of a pseudoplastic fluid. In contrast, the CNCC suspensions displayed a typical three-region behavior, regardless of changes in pH, temperature, and concentration. Moreover, the CNCC suspensions exhibited higher shear stress and viscosity at a given shear rate (0.01–100 s−1 than the NCC suspension. Meanwhile, the dynamic viscoelasticity measurements revealed that the CNCC suspensions possessed a higher elastic (G′ and loss modulus (G″ than NCC suspensions over the whole frequency range (0.1–500 rad·s−1, providing evidence that the surface cationization of NCC makes it prone to behave as a gel-like structure.

  7. Interfacial binding of cutinase rather than its catalytic activity determines the steady state interfacial tension during oil drop lipid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipsen, J A; van Schaick, M A; Dijkman, R; van der Hijden, H T; Verheij, H M; Egmond, M R

    1999-02-01

    Hydrolysis of triglycerides by cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi causes in oil drop tensiometer experiments a decrease of the interfacial tension. A series of cutinase variants with amino acid substitutions at its molecular surface yielded different values of the steady state interfacial tension. This tension value poorly correlated with the specific activity as such nor with the total activity (defined as the specific activity multiplied by the amount of enzyme bound) of the cutinase variants. Moreover, it appeared that at activity levels above 15% of that of wild type cutinase the contribution of hydrolysis to the decrease of the tension is saturating. A clear positive correlation was found between the interfacial tension plateau value and the interfacial binding of cutinase, as determined with attenuated total reflection Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). These results indicate that the interfacial steady state level is not determined by the rate of hydrolysis, but mainly by the interfacial binding of cutinase.

  8. Chemical Imaging and Dynamical Studies of Reactivity and Emergent Behavior in Complex Interfacial Systems. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibener, Steven J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). James Franck Inst. and Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-03-11

    This research program explored the efficacy of using molecular-level manipulation, imaging and scanning tunneling spectroscopy in conjunction with supersonic molecular beam gas-surface scattering to significantly enhance our understanding of chemical processes occurring on well-characterized interfaces. One program focus was on the spatially-resolved emergent behavior of complex reaction systems as a function of the local geometry and density of adsorbate-substrate systems under reaction conditions. Another focus was on elucidating the emergent electronic and related reactivity characteristics of intentionally constructed single and multicomponent atom- and nanoparticle-based materials. We also examined emergent chirality and self-organization in adsorbed molecular systems where collective interactions between adsorbates and the supporting interface lead to spatial symmetry breaking. In many of these studies we combined the advantages of scanning tunneling (STM) and atomic force (AFM) imaging, scanning tunneling local electronic spectroscopy (STS), and reactive supersonic molecular beams to elucidate precise details of interfacial reactivity that had not been observed by more traditional surface science methods. Using these methods, it was possible to examine, for example, the differential reactivity of molecules adsorbed at different bonding sites in conjunction with how reactivity is modified by the local configuration of nearby adsorbates. At the core of this effort was the goal of significantly extending our understanding of interfacial atomic-scale interactions to create, with intent, molecular assemblies and materials with advanced chemical and physical properties. This ambitious program addressed several key topics in DOE Grand Challenge Science, including emergent chemical and physical properties in condensed phase systems, novel uses of chemical imaging, and the development of advanced reactivity concepts in combustion and catalysis including carbon

  9. Effect of short-chain branching on interfacial polymer structure and dynamics under shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sohdam; Kim, Jun Mo; Cho, Soowon; Baig, Chunggi

    2017-11-22

    We present a detailed analysis on the effect of short-chain branches on the structure and dynamics of interfacial chains using atomistic nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of confined polyethylene melts in a wide range of shear rates. The intrinsically fast random motions of the short branches constantly disturb the overall chain conformation, leading to a more compact and less deformed chain structure of the short-chain branched (SCB) polymer against the imposed flow field in comparison with the corresponding linear polymer. Moreover, such highly mobile short branches along the backbone of the SCB polymer lead to relatively weaker out-of-plane wagging dynamics of interfacial chains, with highly curvy backbone structures in the intermediate flow regime. In conjunction with the contribution of short branches (as opposed to that of the backbone) to the total interfacial friction between the chains and the wall, the SCB polymer shows a nearly constant behavior in the degree of slip (d s ) with respect to shear rate in the weak-to-intermediate flow regimes. On the contrary, in the strong flow regime where irregular chain rotation and tumbling dynamics occur via intensive dynamical collisions between interfacial chains and the wall, an enhancement effect on the chain detachment from the wall, caused by short branches, leads to a steeper increase in d s for the SCB polymer than for the linear polymer. Remarkably, the SCB chains at the interface exhibit two distinct types of rolling mechanisms along the backbone, with a half-dumbbell mesoscopic structure at strong flow fields, in addition to the typical hairpin-like tumbling behavior displayed by the linear chains.

  10. Modeling of microstructure property relationships in titanium-aluminum-vanadium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiley, Jaimie Scott

    Fuzzy logic neural network models were developed to predict the room temperature tensile behavior of Ti-6Al-4V. This involved the development of a database relating microstructure to properties. This necessitated establishing heat treatment processes to develop microstructural features, mechanical testing of samples, creating rigorous stereology procedures, developing numerical models to predict mechanical behavior, and determining trends and inter-relationships relating microstructural features to mechanical properties. Microstructural features were developed using a Gleeble(TM) 1500 Thermal-mechanical simulator. Samples were obtained from mill annealed plate material and both alpha + beta forged and beta forged materials. A total of 72 samples were beta solutionized and heat treated using different heating and cooling conditions. Rigorous stereology procedures were developed to characterize the important microstructural features. The features included Widmanstatten alpha lath thickness, volume fraction of total alpha, volume fraction of Widmanstatten alpha, grain boundary alpha thickness, mean edge length, colony scale factor, and prior beta grain size factor. Chemical composition was also determined using standard chemical analysis and microscopy techniques. The samples were tested for yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation at room temperature. Results from the tests and the characterization were used to develop fuzzy logic neural network models to predict the mechanical behaviors and develop relationships between the microstructural features (using CubiCalc RTC(TM)). Results were compared to standard multi-variable regression models. The fuzzy logic neural network models were able to predict the yield, and ultimate tensile strength, within acceptable error ranges with a limited number of input data samples. The models also predicted the elongation values but with larger errors. Of particular importance, the models identified the importance of

  11. Effect of microstructure on shape memory effect and transformation behavior in an Fe-32Mn-6.5Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Choi, C. S.; Jee, K. K.; Shin, M. C.; Jang, W. Y.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of microstructure and pre-strain on Shape Memory Effect(SME) and transformation behavior in an Fe-32Mn-6.5Si alloy. The alloy was annealed at various temperatures from 600 to 1200 .deg. C for 1 hour to vary microstructure after cold rolling. Shape memory effect and reverse transformation behavior were examined through bending test and TMA after deforming the alloy with various degree of pre-strain. Austenite grain size increases with an increase in heat treatment temperature, except the specimen heat-treated at 600 .deg. C, which remains unrecrystallized. The specimen heat-treated at 600 .deg. C, retaining cold rolling effect, exhibits the best SME due to a high Md temperature. In the recrystallized specimens, the larger grain size, the better SME. As grain size increases, the reverse transformation range becomes shorter, indicating that reverse transformation takes place with less constraint. The better SME in a large grain size can be attributed to the easiness of the reverse transformation

  12. Influence of Manufacturing Parameters on Microstructure and Hydrogen Sorption Behavior of Electron Beam Melted Titanium Ti-6Al-4V Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushilina, Natalia; Syrtanov, Maxim; Kashkarov, Egor; Murashkina, Tatyana; Kudiiarov, Viktor; Laptev, Roman; Lider, Andrey; Koptyug, Andrey

    2018-05-10

    Influence of manufacturing parameters (beam current from 13 to 17 mA, speed function 98 and 85) on microstructure and hydrogen sorption behavior of electron beam melted (EBM) Ti-6Al-4V parts was investigated. Optical and scanning electron microscopies as well as X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the microstructure and phase composition of EBM Ti-6Al-4V parts. The average α lath width decreases with the increase of the speed function at the fixed beam current (17 mA). Finer microstructure was formed at the beam current 17 mA and speed function 98. The hydrogenation of EBM Ti-6Al-4V parts was performed at the temperatures 500 and 650 °С at the constant pressure of 1 atm up to 0.3 wt %. The correlation between the microstructure and hydrogen sorption kinetics by EBM Ti-6Al-4V parts was demonstrated. Lower average hydrogen sorption rate at 500 °C was in the sample with coarser microstructure manufactured at the beam current 17 mA and speed function 85. The difference of hydrogen sorption kinetics between the manufactured samples at 650 °C was insignificant. The shape of the kinetics curves of hydrogen sorption indicates the phase transition α H + β H →β H .

  13. Microstructure and bonding mechanism of Al/Ti bonded joint using Al-10Si-1Mg filler metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Woong H.; Bong, Ha H.; Hong, Soon H.

    2003-01-01

    The microstructures and liquid state diffusion bonding mechanism of cp-Ti to 1050 Al using an Al-10.0wt.%Si-1.0wt.%Mg filler metal with 100 μm in thickness have been investigated at 620 deg. C under 1x10 -4 Torr. The effects of bonding process parameters on microstructure of bonded joint have been analyzed by using an optical microscope, AES, scanning electron microscopy and EDS. The interfacial bond strength of Al/Ti bonded joints was measured by the single lap shear test. The results show that the bonding at the interface between Al and filler metal proceeds by wetting the Al with molten filler metal, and followed by removal of oxide layer on surface of Al. The interface between Al and filler metal moved during the isothermal solidification of filler metal by the diffusion of Si from filler metal into Al layer. The interface between Al and filler metal became curved in shape with increasing bonding time due to capillary force at grain boundaries. The bonding at the interface between Ti and filler metal proceeds by the formation of two different intermetallic compound layers, identified as Al 5 Si 12 Ti 7 and Al 12 Si 3 Ti 5 , followed by the growth of the intermetallic compound layers. The interfacial bond strength at Al/Ti joint increased with increasing bonding time up to 25 min at 620 deg. C. However, the interfacial bond strength of Al/Ti joint decreased after bonding time of 25 min at 620 deg. C due to formation of cavities in Al near Al/intermetallic interfaces

  14. Partitioning and interfacial tracers for differentiating NAPL entrapment configuration: column-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, D; Barranco, F T; Illangasekare, T H

    2001-12-15

    Research on the use of partitioning and interfacial tracers has led to the development of techniques for estimating subsurface NAPL amount and NAPL-water interfacial area. Although these techniques have been utilized with some success at field sites, current application is limited largely to NAPL at residual saturation, such as for the case of post-remediation settings where mobile NAPL has been removed through product recovery. The goal of this study was to fundamentally evaluate partitioning and interfacial tracer behavior in controlled column-scale test cells for a range of entrapment configurations varying in NAPL saturation, with the results serving as a determinant of technique efficacy (and design protocol) for use with complexly distributed NAPLs, possibly at high saturation, in heterogeneous aquifers. Representative end members of the range of entrapment configurations observed under conditions of natural heterogeneity (an occurrence with residual NAPL saturation [discontinuous blobs] and an occurrence with high NAPL saturation [continuous free-phase LNAPL lens]) were evaluated. Study results indicated accurate prediction (using measured tracer retardation and equilibrium-based computational techniques) of NAPL amount and NAPL-water interfacial area for the case of residual NAPL saturation. For the high-saturation LNAPL lens, results indicated that NAPL-water interfacial area, but not NAPL amount (underpredicted by 35%), can be reasonably determined using conventional computation techniques. Underprediction of NAPL amount lead to an erroneous prediction of NAPL distribution, as indicated by the NAPL morphology index. In light of these results, careful consideration should be given to technique design and critical assumptions before applying equilibrium-based partitioning tracer methodology to settings where NAPLs are complexly entrapped, such as in naturally heterogeneous subsurface formations.

  15. Interfacial reactions between titanium and borate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brow, R.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saha, S.K.; Goldstein, J.I. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science

    1992-12-31

    Interfacial reactions between melts of several borate glasses and titanium have been investigated by analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A thin titanium boride interfacial layer is detected by XPS after short (30 minutes) thermal treatments. ASEM analyses after longer thermal treatments (8--120 hours) reveal boron-rich interfacial layers and boride precipitates in the Ti side of the interface.

  16. Incorporating interfacial phenomena in solidification models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckermann, Christoph; Wang, Chao Yang

    1994-01-01

    A general methodology is available for the incorporation of microscopic interfacial phenomena in macroscopic solidification models that include diffusion and convection. The method is derived from a formal averaging procedure and a multiphase approach, and relies on the presence of interfacial integrals in the macroscopic transport equations. In a wider engineering context, these techniques are not new, but their application in the analysis and modeling of solidification processes has largely been overlooked. This article describes the techniques and demonstrates their utility in two examples in which microscopic interfacial phenomena are of great importance.

  17. Structure from Dynamics: Vibrational Dynamics of Interfacial Water as a Probe of Aqueous Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The structural heterogeneity of water at various interfaces can be revealed by time-resolved sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. The vibrational dynamics of the O–H stretch vibration of interfacial water can reflect structural variations. Specifically, the vibrational lifetime is typically found to increase with increasing frequency of the O–H stretch vibration, which can report on the hydrogen-bonding heterogeneity of water. We compare and contrast vibrational dynamics of water in contact with various surfaces, including vapor, biomolecules, and solid interfaces. The results reveal that variations in the vibrational lifetime with vibrational frequency are very typical, and can frequently be accounted for by the bulk-like heterogeneous response of interfacial water. Specific interfaces exist, however, for which the behavior is less straightforward. These insights into the heterogeneity of interfacial water thus obtained contribute to a better understanding of complex phenomena taking place at aqueous interfaces, such as photocatalytic reactions and protein folding. PMID:29490138

  18. Enhanced interfacial radiation-induced reaction for improving the interfacial adhesion of incompatible polymer blend PP/BR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changhai; Yang Huili; Xu Jun

    1995-01-01

    γ-radiation induced interfacial changes of incompatible polymer isotactic polypropylene (PP) and cis1,4-polybutadiene (BR) blends containing polyfunctional monomer (PFM) triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) were investigated. The results of the study are as following: PP is incompatible with BR; TAIC is hardly dissolved in both PP and BR; when blended with PP/BR, the concentration of TAIC in the interfacial region is higher than that in dispersion phase of BR or matrix of PP. The crosslinking and/or grafting of which TAIC occurred under radiation in the interfacial region anchored the dispersed BR phase to PP matrix. The interaction between adjacent phases is changed from sole van der Waals force to co-action of both chemical bond and molecular forces. Crosslinking between adjacent phases links the dispersed phase with PP matrix, and grafting in the boundary regions increases the thickness of interface. These result in a good interfacial adhesion between dispersed phase and matrix. (author)

  19. Microstructures and superplasticity in near-gamma titanium aluminide alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bampton, C.C.; Martin, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    Microstructure control by thermomechanical processing in near-gamma titanium aluminide alloys has recently progressed to a point where the authors are able to reliably produce a wide range of microstructures in a single alloy. The authors are now studying the basic superplastic deformation microstructures. Correlations are made between microstructural details and flow stress, strain hardening, strain-rate hardening, necking, cavitation and failure. Special emphasis is given to the cavitation behavior since this phenomenon may constitute a major limitation to the useful application of superplastic forming for gamma TiAl structures

  20. Interfacial microstructure and shear strength of reactive air brazed oxygen transport membrane ceramic-metal alloy joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    FR, Wahid Muhamad; Yoon, Dang-Hyok; Raju, Kati; Kim, Seyoung; Song, Kwang-sup; Yu, Ji Haeng

    2018-01-01

    To fabricate a multi-layered structure for maximizing oxygen production, oxygen transport membrane (OTM) ceramics need to be joined or sealed hermetically metal supports for interfacing with the peripheral components of the system. Therefore, in this study, Ag-10 wt% CuO was evaluated as an effective filler material for the reactive air brazing of dense Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ-La0.7Sr0.3MnO3±δ (GDC-LSM) OTM ceramics. Thermal decomposition in air and wetting behavior of the braze filler was performed. Reactive air brazing was performed at 1050 °C for 30 min in air to join GDC-LSM with four different commercially available high temperature-resistant metal alloys, such as Crofer 22 APU, Inconel 600, Fecralloy, and AISI 310S. The microstructure and elemental distribution of the ceramic-ceramic and ceramic-metal interfaces were examined from polished cross-sections. The mechanical shear strength at room temperature for the as-brazed and isothermally aged (800 °C for 24 h) joints of all the samples was compared. The results showed that the strength of the ceramic-ceramic joints was decreased marginally by aging; however, in the case of metal-ceramic joints, different decreases in strengths were observed according to the metal alloy used, which was explained based on the formation of different oxide layers at the interfaces.

  1. Microstructure evolution during annealing of TiAl/NiCoCrAl multilayer composite prepared by EB-PVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rubing, E-mail: zrb86411680@126.com [Department of Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Deming [Beijing General Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Beijing 100044 (China); Chen, Guiqing [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Yuesheng [Department of Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2014-07-01

    TiAl/NiCoCrAl laminate composite sheet with a thickness of 0.4–0.6 mm as well as a dimension of 150 mm × 100 mm was fabricated successfully by using electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) method. The annealing treatment was processed at 1123 and 1323 K for 3 h in a high vacuum atmosphere, respectively. The phase composition and microstructure of TiAl/NiCoCrAl microlaminated sheet have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Based on the sheet characterization and results of the microstructure evolution during annealing treatment process, the diffusion mechanism of interfacial reaction in TiAl/NiCoCrAl microlaminate was investigated and discussed.

  2. Interfacial effect on physical properties of composite media: Interfacial volume fraction with non-spherical hard-core-soft-shell-structured particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenxiang; Duan, Qinglin; Ma, Huaifa; Chen, Wen; Chen, Huisu

    2015-11-02

    Interfaces are known to be crucial in a variety of fields and the interfacial volume fraction dramatically affects physical properties of composite media. However, it is an open problem with great significance how to determine the interfacial property in composite media with inclusions of complex geometry. By the stereological theory and the nearest-surface distribution functions, we first propose a theoretical framework to symmetrically present the interfacial volume fraction. In order to verify the interesting generalization, we simulate three-phase composite media by employing hard-core-soft-shell structures composed of hard mono-/polydisperse non-spherical particles, soft interfaces, and matrix. We numerically derive the interfacial volume fraction by a Monte Carlo integration scheme. With the theoretical and numerical results, we find that the interfacial volume fraction is strongly dependent on the so-called geometric size factor and sphericity characterizing the geometric shape in spite of anisotropic particle types. As a significant interfacial property, the present theoretical contribution can be further drawn into predicting the effective transport properties of composite materials.

  3. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2002-03-04

    The objective of this project was to develop a knowledge base that is helpful for the design of improved processes for mobilizing and producing oil left untapped using conventional techniques. The main goal was to develop and evaluate mixtures of new or modified surfactants for improved oil recovery. In this regard, interfacial properties of novel biodegradable n-alkyl pyrrolidones and sugar-based surfactants have been studied systematically. Emphasis was on designing cost-effective processes compatible with existing conditions and operations in addition to ensuring minimal reagent loss.

  4. Roles of acidic functional groups of carbon fiber surfaces in enhancing interfacial adhesion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2005-01-01

    The gas phase ozone treatment was used as a method to bind acidic oxygen functional groups on carbon fiber surfaces. The ozone treatment on carbon fibers was varied with the ozone concentration and treatment time. Surface analyses of the carbon fibers before and after treatments were performed by FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), and dynamic contact angle measurements. Mechanical interfacial properties of the fibers/polymer composites were investigated by using critical stress intensity factor (K IC ) and critical energy release rate (G IC ) measurements. From the results of FT-IR and XPS, it was observed that the oxygen functional groups, such as -OH, O-C=O, C=O, and C-O, were attached on the carbon fiber surfaces after the ozone treatment. The mechanical interfacial properties of the composites also showed higher values than those of untreated composites. Ozone treatment is attributed to the increase of both the acidic functional groups and the degree of adhesion at interfaces between the fibers and polymeric resin in composites

  5. Effect of calcium content on the microstructure, hardness and in-vitro corrosion behavior of biodegradable Mg-Ca binary alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Eslami Harandi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Effect of calcium addition on microstructure, hardness value and corrosion behavior of five different Mg-xCa binary alloys (x = 0.7, 1, 2, 3, 4 wt. (% was investigated. Notable refinement in microstructure of the alloy occurred with increasing calcium content. In addition, more uniform distribution of Mg2Ca phase was observed in a-Mg matrix resulted in an increase in hardness value. The in-vitro corrosion examination using Kokubo simulated body fluid showed that the addition of calcium shifted the fluid pH value to a higher level similar to those found in pure commercial Mg. The high pH value amplified the formation and growth of bone-like apatite. Higher percentage of Ca resulted in needle-shaped growth of the apatite. Electrochemical measurements in the same solution revealed that increasing Ca content led to higher corrosion rates due to the formation of more cathodic Mg2Ca precipitate in the microstructure. The results therefore suggested that Mg-0.7Ca with the minimum amount of Mg2Ca is a good candidate for bio-implant applications.

  6. Effect of calcium content on the microstructure, hardness and in-vitro corrosion behavior of biodegradable Mg-Ca binary alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Eslami Harandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of calcium addition on microstructure, hardness value and corrosion behavior of five different Mg-xCa binary alloys (x = 0.7, 1, 2, 3, 4 wt. (% was investigated. Notable refinement in microstructure of the alloy occurred with increasing calcium content. In addition, more uniform distribution of Mg2Ca phase was observed in a-Mg matrix resulted in an increase in hardness value. The in-vitro corrosion examination using Kokubo simulated body fluid showed that the addition of calcium shifted the fluid pH value to a higher level similar to those found in pure commercial Mg. The high pH value amplified the formation and growth of bone-like apatite. Higher percentage of Ca resulted in needle-shaped growth of the apatite. Electrochemical measurements in the same solution revealed that increasing Ca content led to higher corrosion rates due to the formation of more cathodic Mg2Ca precipitate in the microstructure. The results therefore suggested that Mg-0.7Ca with the minimum amount of Mg2Ca is a good candidate for bio-implant applications.

  7. Effects of Mn addition on the microstructure and indentation creep behavior of the hot dip Zn coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Youbin; Zeng, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mn addition could significantly refine the grain of the Zn coating. • Twins could be observed in the Zn coatings. • The stress exponent of the Zn coating increases with Mn addition. • The creep process of the Zn coating is dominated by dislocation climb and twins. - Abstract: The Zn coatings with different Mn additions were prepared by hot dip process, and the effects of the Mn addition on the microstructure and indentation creep behavior of the coatings were investigated through scanning electron microscope and constant-load holding indentation technique at the room temperature. Some twins can be observed in the microstructure of Zn coating, which may account for the formation of the large thermal misfit stress between the zinc coating and the steel substrate. The amount of twin microstructure in the Zn coating decreases with the Mn addition. It is also found that Mn addition could induce MnZn 13 phases to precipitate along the grain boundary and significantly refine the grains of Zn coatings. The steady-state stress of the Zn coating could be improved by Mn addition. The creep stress exponent values are in the range of 14–46 and increases with Mn addition. The creep process of the Zn coating is dominated by dislocation climb and twin formation

  8. Local measurement of interfacial area, interfacial velocity and liquid turbulence in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiki, T.; Hogsett, S.; Ishii, M.

    1998-01-01

    Double sensor probe and hotfilm anemometry methods were developed for measuring local flow characteristics in bubbly flow. The formulation for the interfacial area concentration measurement was obtained by improving the formulation derived by Kataoka and Ishii. The assumptions used in the derivation of the equation were verified experimentally. The interfacial area concentration measured by the double sensor probe agreed well with one by the photographic method. The filter to validate the hotfilm anemometry for measuring the liquid velocity and turbulent intensity in bubbly flow was developed based on removing the signal due to the passing bubbles. The local void fraction, interfacial area concentration, interfacial velocity, Sauter mean diameter, liquid velocity, and turbulent intensity of vertical upward air-water flow in a round tube with inner diameter of 50.8 mm were measured by using these methods. A total of 54 data sets were acquired consisting of three superficial gas flow rates, 0.039, 0.067, and 0.147 m/s, and three superficial liquid flow rates, 0.60, 1.00, and 1.30 m/s. The measurements were performed at the three locations: L/D=2, 32, and 62. This data is expected to be used for the development of reliable constitutive relations which reflect the true transfer mechanisms in two-phase flow. (author)

  9. Preparation, microstructures, and properties of PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Rankin, D.T.; Smith, P.K.

    1976-01-01

    PuO 2 pellets with controlled microstructures were fabricated to meet operational requirements for packaged heat sources. Size distributions, morphologies (forms and structures), and packing densities were measured on calcined and milled powders, slugged compacts, and presintered granules. These variables influence microstructure, porosity distribution, and fracture behavior of hot-pressed and sintered PuO 2

  10. Rheological and interfacial properties at the equilibrium of almond gum tree exudate (Prunus dulcis) in comparison with gum arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Sessa, Mariarenata; Ferrari, Giovanna; Hamdi, Salem; Donsi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Almond gum contains an arabinogalactan-type polysaccharide, which plays an important role in defining its interfacial and rheological properties. In this study, rheological and interfacial properties of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions were comparatively investigated. The interfacial tension of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions was measured using the pendant drop method in hexadecane. The asymptotic interfacial tension values for almond gum were significantly lower than the corresponding values measured for gum arabic, especially at high concentration. Rheological properties were characterized by steady and oscillatory tests using a coaxial geometry. Almond gum flow curves exhibited a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with a tendency to a Newtonian plateau at low shear rate, while gum arabic flow curves exhibited such behavior only at high shear rate. The influence of temperature (5-50  ℃) on the flow curves was studied at 4% (m/m) gum concentration and the Newtonian viscosities at infinite and at zero shear rate, for gum arabic and almond gum, respectively, were accurately fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The dynamic properties of the two gum dispersions were also studied. Both gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties, with the viscous component being predominant in a wider range of concentrations for almond gum, while for gum arabic the elastic component being higher than the elastic one especially at higher concentrations.The rheological and interfacial tension properties of almond gum suggest that it may represent a possible substitute of gum arabic in different food applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Engineering Behavior of Concrete with Recycled Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayob Afizah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is extensively used as construction materials in Malaysia. Concrete contributes suitable feature for construction industry for instance durability, adequate compressive strength, fire resistance, availability and is economic as compared to other construction materials. Depletion of natural resources and disposal of construction and demolition waste remarkably claim environmental threat. In this paper, the engineering behavior, durability, and concrete microstructure of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA on short-term concrete properties were investigated. The studied concrete at design mix proportion of 1:0.55:2.14:2.61 (weight of cement :coarse aggregates :sand :water used to obtain medium-high compressive strength with 20%, 50%, and 100% of RCA. Results show that for the same water/cement ratio, RCA replacement up to 50% still achieved the targeted compressive strength of 25 MPa at 28 curing days. Addition, at similar RCA replacement, the highest carbonation depth value was found at 1.03 mm which could be attributed to the pozzolanic reaction, thus led to lower carbonation resistance. Scanning electron microscopy microstructure shows that the RCA surface was porous and covered with loose particles. Moreover, the interfacial transition zone was composed of numerous small pores, micro cracks, and fissures that surround the mortar matrix. On the basis of the obtained results, recommendable mineral admixtures of RCA are necessary to enhance the quality of concrete construction.

  12. Measurement of local interfacial area concentration in boiling loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoung, Ho Kang; Byong, Jo Yun; Goon, Cherl Park

    1995-01-01

    An accurate prediction of two-phase flow is essential to many energy systems, including nuclear reactors. To model the two-phase flow, detailed information on the internal flow structure is required. The void fraction and interfacial area concentration are important fundamental parameters characterizing the internal structure of two-phase flow. The interfacial area concentration is defined as the available interfacial area per unit volume of the two-phase mixture in calculations of the interfacial transport of mass, momentum, and energy. Although a number of studies have been made in this area, the interfacial area concentration in two-phase flow has not been sufficiently investigated either experimentally or analytically. Most existing models for interfacial area concentration are limited to area-averaged interfacial area concentration in a flow channel. And the studies on local interfacial area concentration are limited to the case of air-water two-phase flow. However, the internal flow structure of steam-water two-phase flow having various bubble sizes could be quite different from that of air-water two-phase flow, the reliability of which weak in practical applications. In this study, the local interfacial area concentration steam-water two-phase flow has been investigated experimentally in a circular boiling tube having a heating rod in the center, and for the low flow with liquid superficial velocity <1 m/s

  13. A Constitutive Relationship between Fatigue Limit and Microstructure in Nanostructured Bainitic Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Inga; Rementeria, Rosalia; Caballero, Francisca G.; Kuntz, Matthias; Sourmail, Thomas; Kerscher, Eberhard

    2016-01-01

    The recently developed nanobainitic steels show high strength as well as high ductility. Although this combination seems to be promising for fatigue design, fatigue properties of nanostructured bainitic steels are often surprisingly low. To improve the fatigue behavior, an understanding of the correlation between the nanobainitic microstructure and the fatigue limit is fundamental. Therefore, our hypothesis to predict the fatigue limit was that the main function of the microstructure is not necessarily totally avoiding the initiation of a fatigue crack, but the microstructure has to increase the ability to decelerate or to stop a growing fatigue crack. Thus, the key to understanding the fatigue behavior of nanostructured bainite is to understand the role of the microstructural features that could act as barriers for growing fatigue cracks. To prove this hypothesis, we carried out fatigue tests, crack growth experiments, and correlated these results to the size of microstructural features gained from microstructural analysis by light optical microscope and EBSD-measurements. Finally, we were able to identify microstructural features that influence the fatigue crack growth and the fatigue limit of nanostructured bainitic steels. PMID:28773953

  14. Interfacial effects in a multistage mixer-settler operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiinshiung Horng; Daluh Lu; Yingchu Hoh

    1988-01-01

    A pilot-scale mixer-settler with twenty-one stages was used to investigate the interfacial tension change during extraction cycle for the complicated system: NdCl 3 -SmCl 3 -EuCl 3 -GdCl 3 -TbCl 3 -DyCl 3 -HCl- 1 M D2EHPA-kerosene. Interfacial tension, total rare earth (TRE) concentrations in both phases, aqueous acidities, and organic entrainment in the raffinate, etc., were measured for each stage. Murphree stage efficiencies based on organic phase were calculated and related to the interfacial tension profiles. In general, the lower the interfacial tension, the higher the stage efficiency observed. For the extraction section, the stage efficiency ranged from 80% - 100%, but for stripping (including scrubbing) section, it varied from 100% - 15%. For high acidic stripping agent, 5 M HCl, the relatively lower stage efficiency might be due to the protonation of the acidic extractant, therefore the interfacial resistance increased significantly. From the information of stage efficiency, mass transfer direction, and interfacial tension versus solute concentration etc., the Marangoni effect could be used to explain the interfacial phenomena of this complicated extraction system. The results of real stream tests in this investigation will be useful in future plant design. (author)

  15. Modeling the microstructural evolution during constrained sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Tikare, V.

    A numerical model able to simulate solid state constrained sintering of a powder compact is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for free sintering with a finite element (FE) method for calculating stresses on a microstructural level. The microstructural response...... to the stress field as well as the FE calculation of the stress field from the microstructural evolution is discussed. The sintering behavior of two powder compacts constrained by a rigid substrate is simulated and compared to free sintering of the same samples. Constrained sintering result in a larger number...

  16. A 2-DOF microstructure-dependent model for the coupled torsion/bending instability of rotational nanoscanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keivani, M.; Abadian, N.; Koochi, A.; Mokhtari, J.; Abadyan, M.

    2016-10-01

    It has been well established that the physical performance of nanodevices might be affected by the microstructure. Herein, a two-degree-of-freedom model base on the modified couple stress theory is developed to incorporate the impact of microstructure in the torsion/bending coupled instability of rotational nanoscanner. Effect of microstructure dependency on the instability parameters is determined as a function of the microstructure parameter, bending/torsion coupling ratio, van der Waals force parameter and geometrical dimensions. It is found that the bending/torsion coupling substantially affects the stable behavior of the scanners especially those with long rotational beam elements. Impact of microstructure on instability voltage of the nanoscanner depends on coupling ratio and the conquering bending mode over torsion mode. This effect is more highlighted for higher values of coupling ratio. Depending on the geometry and material characteristics, the presented model is able to simulate both hardening behavior (due to microstructure) and softening behavior (due to torsion/bending coupling) of the nanoscanners.

  17. Influence of Manufacturing Parameters on Microstructure and Hydrogen Sorption Behavior of Electron Beam Melted Titanium Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pushilina

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Influence of manufacturing parameters (beam current from 13 to 17 mA, speed function 98 and 85 on microstructure and hydrogen sorption behavior of electron beam melted (EBM Ti-6Al-4V parts was investigated. Optical and scanning electron microscopies as well as X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the microstructure and phase composition of EBM Ti-6Al-4V parts. The average α lath width decreases with the increase of the speed function at the fixed beam current (17 mA. Finer microstructure was formed at the beam current 17 mA and speed function 98. The hydrogenation of EBM Ti-6Al-4V parts was performed at the temperatures 500 and 650 °С at the constant pressure of 1 atm up to 0.3 wt %. The correlation between the microstructure and hydrogen sorption kinetics by EBM Ti-6Al-4V parts was demonstrated. Lower average hydrogen sorption rate at 500 °C was in the sample with coarser microstructure manufactured at the beam current 17 mA and speed function 85. The difference of hydrogen sorption kinetics between the manufactured samples at 650 °C was insignificant. The shape of the kinetics curves of hydrogen sorption indicates the phase transition αH + βH→βH.

  18. CO2 interfacial properties: application to multiphase flow at reservoir conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalbaud, C.

    2007-07-01

    In this work we deal with the interfacial properties of CO 2 at reservoir conditions with a special interest on deep saline aquifers. Each chapter of this dissertation represents a different physical scale studied with different experimental devices and simulation tools. The results obtained in the first part of this study represent a complete data set of brine-CO 2 interfacial tension at reservoir conditions. A semi-analytical equation is proposed in order to facilitate the work of reservoir engineers. The second deals with the interfacial properties at the pore scale using glass micro-models at different wettability conditions. This part shows the wetting behavior of CO 2 on hydrophobic or oil-wet solid surfaces. A pore network model was used for the interpretation and exploitation of these results. The third part corresponds to two different experimental approaches at the core scale at different wettability conditions associated to a modelling at flue Darcy scale. This part is a significant contribution to the validation of COORES compositional reservoir simulator developed by IFP. It has also allow us to estimate multiphase properties, Pc and kr, for brine-CO 2 systems at reservoir conditions. This study presents the necessary scales to model CO 2 storage in deep saline aquifers. (author)

  19. The Effect of Simulated Thermomechanical Processing on the Transformation Behavior and Microstructure of a Low-Carbon Mo-Nb Linepipe Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, P.; Wynne, B. P.; Davies, C. H. J.; Hodgson, P. D.

    2015-01-01

    The present work investigates the transformation behavior of a low-carbon Mo-Nb linepipe steel and the corresponding transformation product microstructures using deformation dilatometry. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams have been constructed for both the fully recrystallized austenite and that deformed in uniaxial compression at 1148 K (875 °C) to a strain of 0.5 for cooling rates ranging from 0.1 to about 100 K/s. The obtained microstructures have been studied in detail using electron backscattered diffraction complemented by transmission electron microscopy. Heavy deformation of the parent austenite has caused a significant expansion of the polygonal ferrite transformation field in the CCT diagram, as well as a shift in the non-equilibrium ferrite transformation fields toward higher cooling rates. Furthermore, the austenite deformation has resulted in a pronounced refinement in both the effective grain (sheaf/packet) size and substructure unit size of the non-equilibrium ferrite microstructures. The optimum microstructure expected to display an excellent balance between strength and toughness is a mix of quasi-polygonal ferrite and granular bainite (often termed "acicular ferrite") produced from the heavily deformed austenite within a processing window covering the cooling rates from about 10 to about 100 K/s.

  20. Squeeze casting of aluminum alloy A380: Microstructure and tensile behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A380 alloy with a relatively thick cross-section of 25 mm was squeeze cast using a hydraulic press with an applied pressure of 90 MPa. Microstructure and tensile properties of the squeeze cast A380 were characterized and evaluated in comparison with the die cast counterpart. Results show that the squeeze cast A380 possesses a porosity level much lower than the die cast alloy, which is disclosed by both optical microscopy and the density measurement technique. The results of tensile testing indicate the improved tensile properties, specifically ultimate tensile strength (UTS: 215.9 MPa and elongation (Ef: 5.4%, for the squeeze cast samples over those of the conventional high-pressure die cast part (UTS: 173.7 MPa, Ef: 1.0%. The analysis of tensile behavior shows that the squeeze cast A380 exhibits a high tensile toughness (8.5 MJ·m-3 and resilience (179.3 kJ·m-3 compared with the die cast alloy (toughness: 1.4 MJ·m-3, resilience: 140.6 kJ·m-3, despite that, during the onset of plastic deformation, the strain-hardening rate of the die cast specimen is higher than that of the squeeze cast specimens. The microstructure analyzed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM shows that both the squeeze and die cast specimens contain the primary α-Al, Al2Cu, Al5FeSi phase and the eutectic Si phase. But, the Al2Cu phase present in the squeeze cast alloy is relatively large in size and quantity. The SEM fractography evidently reveals the ductile fracture features of the squeeze cast A380 alloy.

  1. Microstructural characterization and electrochemical corrosion behavior of Incoloy 800 in sulphate and chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, Fabio Abud; Schvartzman, Monica Maria de Abreu Mendonca; Campos, Wagner Reis da Costa; Aguiar, Antonio Eugenio de; Chaim, Marcos Souza

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion has been the major cause of tube failures in steam generators (SG) tubes in nuclear power plants. Problems have resulted from impurities in the secondary water systems which are originated from leaks of cooling water. It is important to understand the compatibility of steam generator tube materials with the environment. This study presents the microstructural characterization and electrochemical behavior of the Incoloy 800 in sodium chloride and sodium sulphate aqueous solutions at 80 degree C. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization, cyclic polarization and open circuit potential (OCP) measurements were the electrochemical techniques applied in this work. The pitting resistance of Incoloy 800 in chloride plus sulphate mixtures were also examined. Experiments performed in solutions with different concentrations of Cl- and SO 4 2- ions in solution (200 ppb, 500 ppb, 1ppm, 5 ppm, 50 ppm and 100 ppm) showed that this concentrations range had no substantial effect on the anodic behavior of the alloy. After polarization no localized corrosion was found on the samples. (author)

  2. Interfacial Behavior of Polymers: Using Interfaces to Manipulate Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering

    2015-02-26

    The self-assembly of block copolymers into arrays of nanoscopic domains with areal densities approaching 10 terbit/in2 offer tremendous promise for the fabrication of ultrahigh density storage devices, batteries and other energy relevant devices. Interfacial interactions play a key role in dictating the orientation and ordering of these self-assembling materials. We have investigated the use of preferential and neutral solvents to overcome interfacial interactions and to rapid accelerate the dynamics of these materials, since the high molecular weight of the polymers significantly slows diffusion processes. Using a tailor-made chamber, we have introduced solvent vapor annealing (SVA) where solvent with a well-defined vapor pressures sells the copolymer film, enabling control over the solvent content in the film and, therefore, the thermodynamics governing the microphase separation of the copolymer, the interactions with the substrate and air interfaces and the dynamics. This tailor-made chamber also allows us to perform in situ grazing incidence x-ray scattering studies where the copolymer films can be characterized on the nanoscopic level over macroscopic distances. The methodologies developed in our laboratories are now used in numerous laboratories world-wide. We have found that arrays of block copolymer microdomains with perfect orientational order can be achieved over macroscopic areas using the SVA processes but the translational order is perturbed during the film drying process. As the copolymer film is swollen, the confinement of the film to the substrate introduces a frustration to the ordering of the microdomains. After equilibrium is achieved, when the swollen films are brought very close to the ordering transition, near perfect ordering is achieved. However, upon removal of the solvent, the confinement of the film to the substrate introduces translational disorder. We have investigated the influence of the rate of solvent removal and have found that

  3. PA6 and Kevlar fiber reinforced isotactic polypropylene: Structure, mechanical properties and crystallization and melting behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Songfang; Cheng, Lei; Guo, Yong; Zheng, Yuying; Li, Baoming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► KF was modified with caprolactam using toluenediisocyanate (TDI) as bridge. ► Modified KF improves interfacial interaction of iPP/KF/PA6 composites. ► Fiber and nylon 6 inhibited the crystallization of PP continuous phase. -- Abstract: To improve the thermal and mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP), iPP/Kevlar fiber (KF)/polyamide 6 (PA6) composites were prepared via the melt-extrusion method on twin-screw extruder. Kevlar fiber was modified with caprolactam using toluenediisocyanate (TDI) as bridge. The microstructure of modified KF was successfully characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the results showed that KF was bonded with caprolactam and became coarser. Then the modified KF was introduced into iPP, the composites have better mechanical and thermal properties, implying that modification of KF was helpful to improve the interfacial interaction of iPP/KF/PA6 composites. Besides, the crystallization curves indicated that crystallization behavior of PA6 in the composites was homogeneous and fractional. Furthermore, compatibilizer content played an important role in the mechanical and thermal properties of composites.

  4. Interfacial structures in downward two-phase bubbly flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjape, S.S.; Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Kelly, J.

    2003-01-01

    Downward two-phase flow was studied considering its significance in view of Light Water Reactor Accidents (LWR) such as Loss of Heat Sink (LOHS) by feed water loss or secondary pipe break. The flow studied, was an adiabatic, air-water, co-current, vertically downward two-phase flow. The experimental test sections had internal hydraulic diameters of 25.4 mm and 50.8 mm. Flow regime map was obtained using the characteristic signals obtained from an impedance void meter, employing neural network based identification methodology to minimize the subjective judgment in determining the flow regimes. A four sensor conductivity probe was used to measure the local two phase flow parameters, which characterize the interfacial structures. The local time averaged two-phase flow parameters measured were: void fraction (α), interfacial area concentration (a i ), bubble velocity (v g ), and Sauter mean diameter (D Sm ). The flow conditions were from the bubbly flow regime. The local profiles of these parameters as well as their axial development revealed the nature of the interfacial structures and the bubble interaction mechanisms occurring in the flow. Furthermore, this study provided a good database for the development of the interfacial area transport equation, which dynamically models the changes in the interfacial area along the flow field. An interfacial area transport equation was developed for downward flow based on that developed for the upward flow, with certain modifications in the bubble interaction terms. The area averaged values of the interfacial area concentration were compared with those predicted by the interfacial area transport model. (author)

  5. Investigation of the histology and interfacial bonding between carbonated hydroxyapatite cement and bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Keya; Hao Libo; Tang Peifu; Wang Zheng; Wen Ning; Du Mingkui; Wang Jifang; Wang Yan; Yang Yun; Li Jiangtao

    2009-01-01

    An ideal bone implant should facilitate the formation of a new bone layer as an osteo-integrated interface between bone and the implanted biomaterials. In the present work, the interface between carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) cement and bone was evaluated by interfacial bonding strength measurements and histological characterizations. CHA cement was implanted into a mongrel dog's femoral supracondylar and below the tibial plateau area, and was then tested ex vivo by, respectively, detaching and pullout experiments. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was used as a control. CHA cement could be directly injected and solidified in situ to repair bone defects. Histology results showed that CHA bonded with bone through gradual remodeling and was replaced by new bone tissue, which is an attribute for excellent biocompatibility. The interfacial bonding strength increased with implantation time. After 16 weeks implantation, the measured detaching force and the pullout force between CHA and bone were 281 ± 16 N and 512.5 ± 14.5 N, respectively. These values were several times higher compared to 5 days implantation. In contrast, the control showed a fibrous microstructure between PMMA and bone, and the detaching force and the pullout force decreased with implantation time. The results strongly suggest that CHA can form a better osteo-integrated interface compared to PMMA, and could be used as an ideal biomaterial for bone defect repair.

  6. Effect of Interfacial Modifying on Thermo-physical Properties of SiCp/Cu Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Meng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available SiCp/Cu composites were successfully fabricated by vacuum hot-pressing method. Molybdenum coating was deposited on the surface of silicon carbide by sol-gel method. The effects of the interfacial design on thermo-physical properties of SiCp/Cu composites were studied. The results indicate that:continuous and uniform MoO3 coating can be deposited on the surface of silicon carbide by peroxomolybdic acid sol-gel system, and the best processing parameters are as follows:SiC:MoO3=5:1(mass ratio, H2O2:C2H5OH=1:1(volume ratio, and surface pretreatment with acetone and hydrofluoric acid is good to the deposition and growth of MoO3 coating. After hydrogen reduction at 540℃ for 90min the MoO3 is changed into MoO2, and then hydrogen reduction at 940℃ for 90min the MoO2 is changed into Mo absolutely, and the Mo coating is continuous and uniform. SiCp/Cu composites prepared by vacuum hot-pressing method show a compact and uniform microstructure, and the thermal conductivity of the composites is increased obviously after the Mo coating interfacial modification, which can reach 214.16W·m-1·K-1 when the volume of silicon carbide is about 50%.

  7. The Interfacial Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Diffusion-Bonded Joints of 316L Stainless Steel and the 4J29 Kovar Alloy Using Nickel as an Interlayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingfeng Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 316L stainless steel (Fe–18Cr–11Ni and a Kovar (Fe–29Ni–17Co or 4J29 alloy were diffusion-bonded via vacuum hot-pressing in a temperature range of 850–950 °C with an interval of 50 °C for 120 min and at 900 °C for 180 and 240 min, under a pressure of 34.66 MPa. Interfacial microstructures of diffusion-bonded joints were characterized by optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. The inter-diffusion of the elements across the diffusion interface was revealed via electron probe microanalysis (EPMA. The mechanical properties of the joints were investigated via micro Vickers hardness and tensile strength. The results show that an Ni interlayer can serve as an effective diffusion barrier for the bonding of 316L stainless steel and the 4J29 Kovar alloy. The composition of the joints was 316L/Ni s.s (Fe–Cr–Ni/remnant Ni/Ni s.s (Fe–Co–Ni/4J29. The highest tensile strength of 504.91 MPa with an elongation of 38.75% was obtained at 900 °C for 240 min. After the width of nickel solid solution (Fe–Co–Ni sufficiently increased, failure located at the 4J29 side and the fracture surface indicated a ductile nature.

  8. Interfacial Shear Strength of Multilayer Graphene Oxide Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Matthew; Cao, Changhong; Sun, Hao; Sun, Yu; Filleter, Tobin; Singh, Chandra Veer

    2016-02-23

    Graphene oxide (GO) is considered as one of the most promising layered materials with tunable physical properties and applicability in many important engineering applications. In this work, the interfacial behavior of multilayer GO films was directly investigated via GO-to-GO friction force microscopy, and the interfacial shear strength (ISS) was measured to be 5.3 ± 3.2 MPa. Based on high resolution atomic force microscopy images and the available chemical data, targeted molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate the influence of functional structure, topological defects, and interlayer registry on the shear response of the GO films. Theoretical values for shear strength ranging from 17 to 132 MPa were predicted for the different structures studied, providing upper bounds for the ISS. Computational results also revealed the atomic origins of the stochastic nature of friction measurements. Specifically, the wide scatter in experimental measurements was attributed to variations in functional structure and topological defects within the sliding volume. The findings of this study provide important insight for understanding the significant differences in strength between monolayer and bulk graphene oxide materials and can be useful for engineering topological structures with tunable mechanical properties.

  9. Interfacial Phonon Transport Through Si/Ge Multilayer Film Using Monte Carlo Scheme With Spectral Transmissivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ran

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of interfacial phonon transport accounting for detailed phonon spectral properties is desired because of its importance for design of nanoscale energy systems. In this work, we investigate the interfacial phonon transport through Si/Ge multilayer films using an efficient Monte Carlo scheme with spectral transmissivity, which is validated for cross-plane phonon transport through both Si/Ge single-layer and Si/Ge bi-layer thin films by comparing with the discrete-ordinates solution. Different thermal boundary conductances between even the same material pair are declared at different interfaces within the multilayer system. Furthermore, the thermal boundary conductances at different interfaces show different trends with varying total system size, with the variation slope, very different as well. The results are much different from those in the bi-layer thin film or periodic superlattice. These unusual behaviors can be attributed to the combined interfacial local non-equilibrium effect and constraint effect from other interfaces.

  10. The effect of blast furnace slag on the microstructure of the cement paste/steel interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onabolu, O.A.; Pratt, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The microstructures of steel reinforced ordinary Portland cement mortar samples, and those containing 40% and 70% slag as cement replacement, have been studied by electron optical techniques, after exposure to stagnant sea-water at 23 0 C for 320 days. Fracture surfaces along the interface with steel were examined using secondary electron imaging in the SEM. This revealed differences between the OPC and slag specimens as regards the morphology of the phases and the amounts of calcium hydroxide present. The microstructure at the interface with steel was studied by means of back scattered electron imaging combined with quantitative image analysis. Chloride concentrations at sections around the interface were determined by means of an EDXA facility linked to the SEM. Even after 320 days immersion in sea-water, there was some calcium hydroxide present in the interfacial zone

  11. Effect of Microstructure on the Wear Behavior of Heat Treated SS-304 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sliding wear characteristics of some heat treated SS-304 stainless steel against EN-8 steel in dry condition have been studied in the present experimental work. Samples of SS-304 stainless steel have been heated in a muffle furnace in desired temperature and allowed to dwell for two hours. The heated specimen are then cooled in different media namely inside the furnace, open air, cutting grade oil (grade 44 and water at room temperature to obtain different grades of heat treatment. Microstructures and corresponding micro hardness of the samples have been measured along with Feritscopic studies. Wear characteristics have been studied in a multi tribo-tester (Ducom in dry sliding condition against EN-8 steel roller. Speed, load on job and duration of test run have been considered as the experimental parameters. The wear of the samples have been obtained directly from ‘Winducom 2006’ software. Mass loss of the samples before and after operation has also been considered as the measure of wear in the present study. All the samples have been slid against EN-8 steel roller with fixed experimental parameters. The data have been plotted, compared and analyzed. Effect of microstructures as well as micro hardness on the wear behavior has been studied and concluded accordingly.

  12. On the interfacial thermodynamics of nanoscale droplets and bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, David S.; Kerr, Karl J.; Torabi, Korosh

    2011-07-01

    We present a new self-consistent thermodynamic formalism for the interfacial properties of nanoscale embryos whose interiors do not exhibit bulklike behavior and are in complete equilibrium with the surrounding mother phase. In contrast to the standard Gibbsian analysis, whereby a bulk reference pressure based on the same temperature and chemical potentials of the mother phase is introduced, our approach naturally incorporates the normal pressure at the center of the embryo as an appropriate reference pressure. While the interfacial properties of small embryos that follow from the use of these two reference pressures are different, both methods yield by construction the same reversible work of embryo formation as well as consistency between their respective thermodynamic and mechanical routes to the surface tension. Hence, there is no a priori reason to select one method over another. Nevertheless, we argue, and demonstrate via a density-functional theory (with the local density approximation) analysis of embryo formation in the pure component Lennard-Jones fluid, that our new method generates more physically appealing trends. For example, within the new approach the surface tension at all locations of the dividing surface vanishes at the spinodal where the density profile spanning the embryo and mother phase becomes completely uniform (only the surface tension at the Gibbs surface of tension vanishes in the Gibbsian method at this same limit). Also, for bubbles, the location of the surface of tension now diverges at the spinodal, similar to the divergent behavior exhibited by the equimolar dividing surface (in the Gibbsian method, the location of the surface of tension vanishes instead). For droplets, the new method allows for the appearance of negative surface tensions (the Gibbsian method always yields positive tensions) when the normal pressures within the interior of the embryo become less than the bulk pressure of the surrounding vapor phase. Such a

  13. Revealing microstructure and dislocation behavior in BAlN/AlGaN heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haiding; Wu, Feng; Park, Young Jae; Al tahtamouni, T. M.; Liao, Che-Hao; Guo, Wenzhe; Alfaraj, Nasir; Li, Kuang-Hui; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.; Li, Xiaohang

    2017-01-01

    We reveal the microstructure and dislocation behavior in 20-pair B0.14Al0.86N/Al0.70Ga0.30N multiple-stack heterostructures (MSHs) exhibiting an increasing dislocation density along the c-axis, which is attributed to the continuous generation of dislocations (edge and mixed-type) within the individual B0.14Al0.86N layers. At the MSH interfaces, the threading dislocations were accompanied by a string of V-shape pits extending to the surface, leading to interface roughening and the formation of surface columnar features. Strain maps indicated an approximately 1.5% tensile strain and 1% compressive strain in the B0.14Al0.86N and Al0.70Ga0.30N layers, respectively. Twin structures were observed, and the MSH eventually changed from monocrystalline to polycrystalline.

  14. Revealing microstructure and dislocation behavior in BAlN/AlGaN heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haiding

    2017-12-18

    We reveal the microstructure and dislocation behavior in 20-pair B0.14Al0.86N/Al0.70Ga0.30N multiple-stack heterostructures (MSHs) exhibiting an increasing dislocation density along the c-axis, which is attributed to the continuous generation of dislocations (edge and mixed-type) within the individual B0.14Al0.86N layers. At the MSH interfaces, the threading dislocations were accompanied by a string of V-shape pits extending to the surface, leading to interface roughening and the formation of surface columnar features. Strain maps indicated an approximately 1.5% tensile strain and 1% compressive strain in the B0.14Al0.86N and Al0.70Ga0.30N layers, respectively. Twin structures were observed, and the MSH eventually changed from monocrystalline to polycrystalline.

  15. Laser-irradiated thermodynamic behaviors of spallation and recombination at solid-state interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.-Y.; Huang, P.-H.

    2008-01-01

    A microscopic insight of interfacial spallation and recombination behaviors at multilayer thin-film interface induced by incident femtosecond pulsed laser is presented in this paper. Such two different aforementioned behaviors are investigated via the thermodynamic trajectories obtained by using standard Lennard-Jones (L-J) molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Based on the simulation results, the interfacial damages of multilayer thin film are dominated by a critical threshold that induces an extraordinary expansive dynamics and phase transitions leading to the structural softened and tensile spallation at interface. The critical damage threshold is evaluated at around 8.5 J/m 2 which governs the possible occurrence of two different regimes, i.e. interfacial spallaiton and recombination. In interfacial damage region, quasi-isothermal thermodynamic trajectories can be observed after the interfacial spallation occurs. Moreover, the result of thermodynamic trajectories analyses indicates that, the relaxation of pressure wave may cause the over-heated interfacial zone to reduce volumetric density, thus leading to structural softness and even weaken interfacial structural strength. The crucial effect leading to the phenomenon of low tension spallation is identified

  16. Interplay of interfacial noise and curvature-driven dynamics in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Parna; Sen, Parongama

    2017-02-01

    We explore the effect of interplay of interfacial noise and curvature-driven dynamics in a binary spin system. An appropriate model is the generalized two-dimensional voter model proposed earlier [M. J. de Oliveira, J. F. F. Mendes, and M. A. Santos, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 26, 2317 (1993), 10.1088/0305-4470/26/10/006], where the flipping probability of a spin depends on the state of its neighbors and is given in terms of two parameters, x and y . x =0.5 andy =1 correspond to the conventional voter model which is purely interfacial noise driven, while x =1 and y =1 correspond to the Ising model, where coarsening is fully curvature driven. The coarsening phenomena for 0.5 x y =1 is studied in detail. The dynamical behavior of the relevant quantities show characteristic differences from both x =0.5 and 1. The most remarkable result is the existence of two time scales for x ≥xc where xc≈0.7 . On the other hand, we have studied the exit probability which shows Ising-like behavior with a universal exponent for any value of x >0.5 ; the effect of x appears in altering the value of the parameter occurring in the scaling function only.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of pulsed laser surface melted AISI D2 cold work tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasavol, N.; Abdollah-zadeh, A.; Ganjali, M.; Alidokht, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Melted zone contained fine dendrites in the bottom and equiaxed grains on the top. ► Microstructural refinements of PLSM led to microhardness enhancement. ► Higher scanning rate and lower laser energy were more effective to refine the microstructure. - Abstract: D2 cold work tool steel (CWTS) was subjected to pulse laser surface melting (PLSM) at constant frequency of 20 Hz Nd: YAG laser with different energies, scanning rate and pulse durations radiated to the surface. Characterizing the PLSM, with optical and field emission scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction and surface hardness mapping technique was used to evaluate the microhardness and mechanical behavior of different regions of melting pool. Increasing laser energy and reducing the laser scanning rate results in deeper melt pool formation. Moreover, PLSM has led to entirely dissolution of the carbides and re-solidification of cellular/dendritic structure of a fine scale surrounded by a continuous interdendritic network. This caused an increase in surface microhardness, 2–4 times over that of the base metal.

  18. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of pulsed laser surface melted AISI D2 cold work tool steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasavol, N. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollah-zadeh, A., E-mail: zadeh@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, M. [Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 14155-4777, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alidokht, S.A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melted zone contained fine dendrites in the bottom and equiaxed grains on the top. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural refinements of PLSM led to microhardness enhancement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher scanning rate and lower laser energy were more effective to refine the microstructure. - Abstract: D2 cold work tool steel (CWTS) was subjected to pulse laser surface melting (PLSM) at constant frequency of 20 Hz Nd: YAG laser with different energies, scanning rate and pulse durations radiated to the surface. Characterizing the PLSM, with optical and field emission scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction and surface hardness mapping technique was used to evaluate the microhardness and mechanical behavior of different regions of melting pool. Increasing laser energy and reducing the laser scanning rate results in deeper melt pool formation. Moreover, PLSM has led to entirely dissolution of the carbides and re-solidification of cellular/dendritic structure of a fine scale surrounded by a continuous interdendritic network. This caused an increase in surface microhardness, 2-4 times over that of the base metal.

  19. Effect of Solidification Behavior on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Ni-Cr-Fe Superalloy Investment Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Maodong; Wang, Jun; Gao, Haiyan; Han, Yanfeng; Wang, Guoxiang; He, Shuxian

    2017-01-01

    The effect of solidification behavior on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Ni-Cr-Fe superalloy investment casting is given. Metallographic and image analysis have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructures’ evolution. For the parts with the thickness of 3 mm and 24 mm, the volume fraction and maximum equivalent radius of the Laves phase increases from 0.3% to 1.2%, from 11.7 μm to 23.4 μm, respectively. Meanwhile, the volume fraction and maximum equivalent radius of carbides increase from 0.3% to 0.5%, from 8.1 μm to 9.9 μm, respectively. In addition, the volume fraction of microporosity increases from 0.3% to 2.7%. As a result, the ultimate tensile strength is reduced from 1125.5 MPa to 820.9 MPa, the elongation from 13.3% to 7.7%, and the quality index from 1294.2 MPa to 954.0 MPa, respectively. A typical brittle fracture is observed on the tensile fracture. As the cooling rate decreases, the microstructures become coarser. PMID:28772611

  20. Microstructure, tensile properties and fracture behavior of high temperature Al–Si–Mg–Cu cast alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, A.M.A., E-mail: madel@uqac.ca [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Box 43721, Suez (Egypt); Samuel, F.H. [Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, QC, Canada G7H 2B1 (Canada); Al Kahtani, Saleh [Industrial Engineering Program, Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, Al Kharj (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-08-10

    The high temperature tensile behavior of 354 aluminum cast alloy was investigated in the presence of Zr and Ni. The cast alloys were given a solutionizing treatment followed by artificial aging at 190 °C for 2 h. High temperature tensile tests were conducted at various temperatures from 25 °C to 300 °C. Optical microscopy and electron probe micro-analyzer were used to study the microstructure of different intermetallic phases formed. The fractographic observations of fracture surface were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy to understand the fracture mechanism. The results revealed that the intermetallics phases of (Al, Si){sub 3}(Zr, Ti), Al{sub 3}CuNi and Al{sub 9}NiFe are the main feature in the microstructures of alloys with Zr and Ni additions. The results also indicated that the tensile strength of alloy decreases with an increase in temperature. The combined addition of 0.2 wt% Zr and 0.2 wt% Ni leads to a 30% increase in the tensile properties at 300 °C compared to the base alloy. Zr and Ni bearing phases played a vital role in the fracture mechanism of the alloys studied.

  1. Microstructure, tensile properties and fracture behavior of high temperature Al–Si–Mg–Cu cast alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.M.A.; Samuel, F.H.; Al Kahtani, Saleh

    2013-01-01

    The high temperature tensile behavior of 354 aluminum cast alloy was investigated in the presence of Zr and Ni. The cast alloys were given a solutionizing treatment followed by artificial aging at 190 °C for 2 h. High temperature tensile tests were conducted at various temperatures from 25 °C to 300 °C. Optical microscopy and electron probe micro-analyzer were used to study the microstructure of different intermetallic phases formed. The fractographic observations of fracture surface were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy to understand the fracture mechanism. The results revealed that the intermetallics phases of (Al, Si) 3 (Zr, Ti), Al 3 CuNi and Al 9 NiFe are the main feature in the microstructures of alloys with Zr and Ni additions. The results also indicated that the tensile strength of alloy decreases with an increase in temperature. The combined addition of 0.2 wt% Zr and 0.2 wt% Ni leads to a 30% increase in the tensile properties at 300 °C compared to the base alloy. Zr and Ni bearing phases played a vital role in the fracture mechanism of the alloys studied

  2. Interfacial Water-Transport Effects in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienitz, Brian; Yamada, Haruhiko; Nonoyama, Nobuaki; Weber, Adam

    2009-11-19

    It is well known that the proton-exchange membrane is perhaps the most critical component of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. Typical membranes, such as Nafion(R), require hydration to conduct efficiently and are instrumental in cell water management. Recently, evidence has been shown that these membranes might have different interfacial morphology and transport properties than in the bulk. In this paper, experimental data combined with theoretical simulations will be presented that explore the existence and impact of interfacial resistance on water transport for Nafion(R) 21x membranes. A mass-transfer coefficient for the interfacial resistance is calculated from experimental data using different permeation cells. This coefficient is shown to depend exponentially on relative humidity or water activity. The interfacial resistance does not seem to exist for liquid/membrane or membrane/membrane interfaces. The effect of the interfacial resistance is to flatten the water-content profiles within the membrane during operation. Under typical operating conditions, the resistance is on par with the water-transport resistance of the bulk membrane. Thus, the interfacial resistance can be dominant especially in thin, dry membranes and can affect overall fuel-cell performance.

  3. Macroscopic investigation of water volume effects on interfacial dynamic behaviors between clathrate hydrate and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Minjun; Couzis, Alexander; Lee, Jae W

    2013-05-14

    This study investigated the effects of the water volume on the interfacial dynamics between cyclopentane (CP) hydrate and water droplet in a CP/n-decane oil mixture. The adhesion force between CP hydrate and various water droplets was determined using the z-directional microbalance. Through repetition of precise measurements over several cycles from contact to detachment, we observed abnormal wetting behaviors in the capillary bridge during the retraction process when the water drop volume is larger than 100 μL. With the increase in water droplet volumes, the contact force between CP hydrate and water also increases up to 300 μL. However, there is a dramatic reduction of increasing rate in the contact forces over 300 μL of water droplet. With the addition of the surfactants of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) to the water droplet, the contact force between CP hydrate and solution droplet exhibits a lower value and a transition volume of the contact force comes with a smaller solution volume of 200 μL. The water volume effects on the liquid wetting of the probe and the size of capillary bridges provide important insight into hydrate growth and aggregation/agglomeration in the presence of free water phase inside gas/oil pipelines.

  4. Mapping White Matter Microstructure in the One Month Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D C; Planalp, E M; Wooten, W; Adluru, N; Kecskemeti, S R; Frye, C; Schmidt, C K; Schmidt, N L; Styner, M A; Goldsmith, H H; Davidson, R J; Alexander, A L

    2017-08-29

    White matter microstructure, essential for efficient and coordinated transmission of neural communications, undergoes pronounced development during the first years of life, while deviations to this neurodevelopmental trajectory likely result in alterations of brain connectivity relevant to behavior. Hence, systematic evaluation of white matter microstructure in the normative brain is critical for a neuroscientific approach to both typical and atypical early behavioral development. However, few studies have examined the infant brain in detail, particularly in infants under 3 months of age. Here, we utilize quantitative techniques of diffusion tensor imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging to investigate neonatal white matter microstructure in 104 infants. An optimized multiple b-value diffusion protocol was developed to allow for successful acquisition during non-sedated sleep. Associations between white matter microstructure measures and gestation corrected age, regional asymmetries, infant sex, as well as newborn growth measures were assessed. Results highlight changes of white matter microstructure during the earliest periods of development and demonstrate differential timing of developing regions and regional asymmetries. Our results contribute to a growing body of research investigating the neurobiological changes associated with neurodevelopment and suggest that characteristics of white matter microstructure are already underway in the weeks immediately following birth.

  5. A Constitutive Relationship between Fatigue Limit and Microstructure in Nanostructured Bainitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Mueller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed nanobainitic steels show high strength as well as high ductility. Although this combination seems to be promising for fatigue design, fatigue properties of nanostructured bainitic steels are often surprisingly low. To improve the fatigue behavior, an understanding of the correlation between the nanobainitic microstructure and the fatigue limit is fundamental. Therefore, our hypothesis to predict the fatigue limit was that the main function of the microstructure is not necessarily totally avoiding the initiation of a fatigue crack, but the microstructure has to increase the ability to decelerate or to stop a growing fatigue crack. Thus, the key to understanding the fatigue behavior of nanostructured bainite is to understand the role of the microstructural features that could act as barriers for growing fatigue cracks. To prove this hypothesis, we carried out fatigue tests, crack growth experiments, and correlated these results to the size of microstructural features gained from microstructural analysis by light optical microscope and EBSD-measurements. Finally, we were able to identify microstructural features that influence the fatigue crack growth and the fatigue limit of nanostructured bainitic steels.

  6. Effects of post annealing on the microstructure, mechanical properties and cavitation erosion behavior of arc-sprayed FeNiCrBSiNbW coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jinran; Wang, Zehua; Lin, Pinghua; Cheng, Jiangbo; Zhang, Xin; Hong, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • FeNiCrBSiNbW coatings were prepared by arc spraying process. • Microstructural changes of the coatings were investigated by TEM. • As-sprayed coating had higher cavitation erosion resistance than annealed coatings. • The mechanism for annealing-induced change in cavitation erosion was discussed. - Abstract: FeNiCrBSiNbW coatings were fabricated via arc spraying process and were subsequently annealed at 450, 550 and 650 °C for 1 h to study the effect of annealing treatment on the microstructure, mechanical properties and cavitation erosion behavior. Microstructure was studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that oxides, fine crystalline particles and borides were formed after annealing at 650 °C. With increasing annealing temperature, the coatings showed reductions in porosity and fracture toughness, and an increase in microhardness. The cavitation erosion behavior of the coatings was investigated in distilled water. The results showed that the cavitation erosion resistance of the coatings decreased with increasing annealing temperature, and the as-sprayed coating exhibited the best cavitation erosion resistance among the four kinds of coatings. This was attributed to the good fracture toughness, high amorphous phase content and the absence of oxides in the as-sprayed coating

  7. An Implementation of Interfacial Transport Equation into the CUPID code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ik Kyu; Cho, Heong Kyu; Yoon, Han Young; Jeong, Jae Jun

    2009-11-15

    A component scale thermal hydraulic analysis code, CUPID (Component Unstructured Program for Interfacial Dynamics), is being developed for the analysis of components for a nuclear reactor, such as reactor vessel, steam generator, containment, etc. It adopted a three-dimensional, transient, two phase and three-field model. In order to develop the numerical schemes for the three-field model, various numerical schemes have been examined including the SMAS, semi-implicit ICE, SIMPLE. The governing equations for a 2-phase flow are composed of mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations for each phase. These equation sets are closed by the interfacial transfer rate of mass, momentum, and energy. The interfacial transfer of mass, momentum, and energy occurs through the interfacial area, and this area plays an important role in the transfer rate. The flow regime based correlations are used for calculating the interracial area in the traditional style 2-phase flow model. This is dependent upon the flow regime and is limited to the fully developed 2-phase flow region. Its application to the multi-dimensional 2-phase flow has some limitation because it adopts the measured results of 2-phase flow in the 1-dimensional tube. The interfacial area concentration transport equation had been suggested in order to calculate the interfacial area without the interfacial area correlations. The source terms to close the interfacial area transport equation should be further developed for a wide ranger usage of it. In this study, the one group interfacial area concentration transport equation has been implemented into the CUPID code. This interfacial area concentration transport equation can be used instead of the interfacial area concentration correlations for the bubbly flow region.

  8. An Implementation of Interfacial Transport Equation into the CUPID code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik Kyu; Cho, Heong Kyu; Yoon, Han Young; Jeong, Jae Jun

    2009-11-01

    A component scale thermal hydraulic analysis code, CUPID (Component Unstructured Program for Interfacial Dynamics), is being developed for the analysis of components for a nuclear reactor, such as reactor vessel, steam generator, containment, etc. It adopted a three-dimensional, transient, two phase and three-field model. In order to develop the numerical schemes for the three-field model, various numerical schemes have been examined including the SMAS, semi-implicit ICE, SIMPLE. The governing equations for a 2-phase flow are composed of mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations for each phase. These equation sets are closed by the interfacial transfer rate of mass, momentum, and energy. The interfacial transfer of mass, momentum, and energy occurs through the interfacial area, and this area plays an important role in the transfer rate. The flow regime based correlations are used for calculating the interracial area in the traditional style 2-phase flow model. This is dependent upon the flow regime and is limited to the fully developed 2-phase flow region. Its application to the multi-dimensional 2-phase flow has some limitation because it adopts the measured results of 2-phase flow in the 1-dimensional tube. The interfacial area concentration transport equation had been suggested in order to calculate the interfacial area without the interfacial area correlations. The source terms to close the interfacial area transport equation should be further developed for a wide ranger usage of it. In this study, the one group interfacial area concentration transport equation has been implemented into the CUPID code. This interfacial area concentration transport equation can be used instead of the interfacial area concentration correlations for the bubbly flow region

  9. Single-Molecule Interfacial Electron Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Wilson [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2018-02-03

    Interfacial electron transfer (ET) plays an important role in many chemical and biological processes. Specifically, interfacial ET in TiO2-based systems is important to solar energy technology, catalysis, and environmental remediation technology. However, the microscopic mechanism of interfacial ET is not well understood with regard to atomic surface structure, molecular structure, bonding, orientation, and motion. In this project, we used two complementary methodologies; single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning-tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM and STS) to address this scientific need. The goal of this project was to integrate these techniques and measure the molecular dependence of ET between adsorbed molecules and TiO2 semiconductor surfaces and the ET induced reactions such as the splitting of water. The scanning probe techniques, STM and STS, are capable of providing the highest spatial resolution but not easily time-resolved data. Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy is capable of good time resolution but requires further development to match the spatial resolution of the STM. The integrated approach involving Peter Lu at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) and Wilson Ho at the University of California, Irvine (UC Irvine) produced methods for time and spatially resolved chemical imaging of interfacial electron transfer dynamics and photocatalytic reactions. An integral aspect of the joint research was a significant exchange of graduate students to work at the two institutions. This project bridged complementary approaches to investigate a set of common problems by working with the same molecules on a variety of solid surfaces, but using appropriate techniques to probe under ambient (BGSU) and ultrahigh vacuum (UCI) conditions. The molecular level understanding of the fundamental interfacial electron transfer processes obtained in this joint project will be important for developing efficient light harvesting

  10. Interfacial rheology of asphaltenes at oil-water interfaces and interpretation of the equation of state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Jayant P; Pauchard, Vincent; Couzis, Alexander; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2013-04-16

    In an earlier study, oil-water interfacial tension was measured by the pendant drop technique for a range of oil-phase asphaltene concentrations and viscosities. The interfacial tension was found to be related to the relative surface coverage during droplet expansion. The relationship was independent of aging time and bulk asphaltenes concentration, suggesting that cross-linking did not occur at the interface and that only asphaltene monomers were adsorbed. The present study extends this work to measurements of interfacial rheology with the same fluids. Dilatation moduli have been measured using the pulsating droplet technique at different frequencies, different concentrations (below and above CNAC), and different aging times. Care was taken to apply the technique in conditions where viscous and inertial effects are small. The elastic modulus increases with frequency and then plateaus to an asymptotic value. The asymptotic or instantaneous elasticity has been plotted against the interfacial tension, indicating the existence of a unique relationship, between them, independent of adsorption conditions. The relationship between interfacial tension and surface coverage is analyzed with a Langmuir equation of state. The equation of state also enabled the prediction of the observed relationship between the instantaneous elasticity and interfacial tension. The fit by a simple Langmuir equation of state (EOS) suggests minimal effects of aging and of nanoaggregates or gel formation at the interface. Only one parameter is involved in the fit, which is the surface excess coverage Γ∞ = 3.2 molecules/nm(2) (31.25 Å(2)/molecule). This value appears to agree with flat-on adsorption of monomeric asphaltene structures consisting of aromatic cores composed of an average of six fused rings and supports the hypothesis that nanoaggregates do not adsorb on the interface. The observed interfacial effects of the adsorbed asphaltenes, correlated by the Langmuir EOS, are consistent with

  11. Mean free path dependent phonon contributions to interfacial thermal conductance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Yi; Liu, Chenhan; Chen, Weiyu; Cai, Shuang; Chen, Chen; Wei, Zhiyong; Bi, Kedong; Yang, Juekuan; Chen, Yunfei, E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn

    2017-06-15

    Interfacial thermal conductance as an accumulation function of the phonon mean free path is rigorously derived from the thermal conductivity accumulation function. Based on our theoretical model, the interfacial thermal conductance accumulation function between Si/Ge is calculated. The results show that the range of mean free paths (MFPs) for phonons contributing to the interfacial thermal conductance is far narrower than that for phonons contributing to the thermal conductivity. The interfacial thermal conductance is mainly contributed by phonons with shorter MFPs, and the size effects can be observed only for an interface constructed by nanostructures with film thicknesses smaller than the MFPs of those phonons mainly contributing to the interfacial thermal conductance. This is why most experimental measurements cannot detect size effects on interfacial thermal conductance. A molecular dynamics simulation is employed to verify our proposed model. - Highlights: • A model to account for the interfacial thermal conductance as an accumulation function of phonon mean free path is proposed; • The model predicts that the range of mean free paths (MFPs) for phonons contributing to the interfacial thermal conductance is far narrower than that contributing to the thermal conductivity; • This model can be conveniently implemented to estimate the size effects on the interfacial thermal conductance for the interfaces formed by a nanostructure contacting a substrate.

  12. Interfacial characterization of soil-embedded optical fiber for ground deformation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cheng-Cheng; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin; She, Jun-Kuan

    2014-01-01

    Recently fiber-optic sensing technologies have been applied for performance monitoring of geotechnical structures such as slopes, foundations, and retaining walls. However, the validity of measured data from soil-embedded optical fibers is strongly influenced by the properties of the interface between the sensing fiber and the soil mass. This paper presents a study of the interfacial properties of an optical fiber embedded in soil with an emphasis on the effect of overburden pressure. Laboratory pullout tests were conducted to investigate the load-deformation characteristics of a 0.9 mm tight-buffered optical fiber embedded in soil. Based on a tri-linear interfacial shear stress-displacement relationship, an analytical model was derived to describe the progressive pullout behavior of an optical fiber from soil matrix. A comparison between the experimental and predicted results verified the effectiveness of the proposed pullout model. The test results are further interpreted and discussed. It is found that the interfacial bond between an optical fiber and soil is prominently enhanced under high overburden pressures. The apparent coefficients of friction of the optical fiber/soil interface decrease as the overburden pressure increases, due to the restrained soil dilation around the optical fiber. Furthermore, to facilitate the analysis of strain measurement, three working states of a soil-embedded sensing fiber were defined in terms of two characteristic displacements. (paper)

  13. Influence of Tm-doping on microstructure and luminescence behavior of barium strontium titanate thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingyang; Zhang Tianjin; Pan Ruikun; Ma Zhijun; Wang Jinzhao

    2012-01-01

    Tm-doped Ba 0.8 Sr 0.2 TiO 3 thick films were prepared by the screen-printing technique on the alumina substrate. The microstructure of the Tm-doped BST thick films was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. All the samples showed a typical perovskite polycrystalline structure when sintered at 1260 °C. The substitution behavior of Tm 3+ ion in BST was found to change with increasing the Tm 3+ concentration. The observed Tm-related red emission reaches the maximum at 0.2 mol% Tm 3+ concentration. The effects of concentration quenching on the luminescence intensity were discussed.

  14. Suppression of interfacial reactions between Li4Ti5O12 electrode and electrolyte solution via zinc oxide coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Cuiping; He, Yan-Bing; Li, Hongfei; Li, Baohua; Du, Hongda; Qin, Xianying; Kang, Feiyu

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO) based batteries have severe gassing behavior due to the strong interfacial reactions between LTO and the electrolyte solution, which hampers the practical application of LTO in high power LIBs. The ZnO coating on LTO particles as a barrier layer can effectively suppress the interfacial reactions between LTO and the electrolyte solution. Simultaneously, the ZnO coating significantly reduces the charge-transfer resistance and increases the lithium ion diffusion coefficient, which leads to great improvement of rate and cyclic performance of LTO electrode. - Highlights: • A ZnO coating layer was constructed on the LTO particles by a chemical process as a barrier layer between LTO and surrounding electrolyte solution. • The ZnO coating can effectively stabilize the electrode/electrolyte interface and suppress interfacial reactions between LTO and electrolyte solution. • The ZnO coating can improve the electronic conductivity and lithium ion diffusion coefficient, which contributes to a great improvement in cyclic and high rate capabilities of LTO electrode. • The ZnO coating on LTO may be an effective method to solve the gassing behavior of LTO based battery and promote its wide application in lithium ion power battery. - Abstract: Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO) based batteries have severe gassing behavior during charge/discharge and storage process. The interfacial reactions between LTO and electrolyte solution may be the main reason. In this work, the LTO spinel particles are modified with ZnO coating using a chemical process to reduce the surface reactivity of LTO particles. Results show that the ZnO coating can effectively stabilize the electrode/electrolyte interface and suppress the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film. Simultaneously, this ZnO modification can improve the electronic conductivity and lithium ion diffusion coefficient, which contributes to a great improvement in cyclic and high rate

  15. Microstructural study of multiaxial low cycle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Sakane

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relationship between the stress response and the microstructure under tension-torsion multiaxial proportional and nonproportional loadings. Firstly, this paper discusses the material dependency of additional hardening of FCC materials in relation with the stacking fault energy of the materials. The FCC materials studied were Type 304 stainless steel, pure copper, pure nickel, pure aluminum and 6061 aluminum alloy. The material with lower stacking fault energy showed stronger additional hardening, which was discussed in relation with slip morphology and dislocation structures. This paper, next, discusses dislocation structures of Type 304 stainless steel under proportional and nonproportional loadings at high temperature. The relationship between the microstructure and the hardening behavior whether isotropic or anisotropic was discussed. The re-arrangeability of dislocation structure was discussed in loading mode change tests. Microstructures of the steel was discussed in more extensively programmed multiaxial low cycle fatigue tests at room temperature, where three microstructures, dislocation bundle, stacking fault and cells, which were discussed in relation with the stress response. Finally, temperature dependence of the microstructure was discussed under proportional and nonproportional loadings, by comparing the microstructures observed at room and high temperatures.

  16. Propagation of SH waves in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate: Effects of interfacial imperfection couplings and the related physical mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Hong-Xing [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Li, Yong-Dong, E-mail: LYDbeijing@163.com [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Academy of Armored Force Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China); Xiong, Tao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Academy of Armored Force Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China); Guan, Yong [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China)

    2016-09-07

    The problem of dispersive SH wave in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate that contains an imperfect interface is considered in the present work. An imperfection coupling model is adopted to describe the magnetic, electric and mechanical imperfections on the interface. A transcendental dispersion equation is derived and numerically solved to get the phase velocity. The validity of the numerical procedure is verified in a degenerated case. The effects of the coupled interfacial imperfections on the dispersion behavior of SH waves are discussed in detail and the related underlying physical mechanisms are explained. - Highlights: • SH-wave is investigated in a multiferroic plate with coupled interfacial imperfections. • SH-wave is affected by both interfacial imperfections and their inter-couplings. • Physical mechanisms of the effects are explained via energy transformations.

  17. Propagation of SH waves in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate: Effects of interfacial imperfection couplings and the related physical mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hong-Xing; Li, Yong-Dong; Xiong, Tao; Guan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The problem of dispersive SH wave in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate that contains an imperfect interface is considered in the present work. An imperfection coupling model is adopted to describe the magnetic, electric and mechanical imperfections on the interface. A transcendental dispersion equation is derived and numerically solved to get the phase velocity. The validity of the numerical procedure is verified in a degenerated case. The effects of the coupled interfacial imperfections on the dispersion behavior of SH waves are discussed in detail and the related underlying physical mechanisms are explained. - Highlights: • SH-wave is investigated in a multiferroic plate with coupled interfacial imperfections. • SH-wave is affected by both interfacial imperfections and their inter-couplings. • Physical mechanisms of the effects are explained via energy transformations.

  18. Microstructural evolution and homogeneous viscous flow behavior of a Cu–Zr based bulk metallic glass composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.Y.; Yuan, Z.Z.; Li, D.X.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Stress–strain behaviors of the BMGCs are strain rate and temperature dependent. • Micro-crystals are compressed to concave polygon in shape and align in line. • Nano-crystals nuclear and aggregate during high temperature deformation. • Deformation behavior is governed by homogeneous flow of the amorphous matrix. - Abstract: The high temperature compression behavior of Cu 40 Zr 44 Ag 8 Al 8 rods with 6 mm in diameter was investigated and compared with the literature data. Microstructure of the as-cast rods were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscope in the composites state with microscale Al 3 Zr particles embedded in the amorphous matrix. Deformation results show that the stress–strain behaviors of the bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) are strain rate and temperature dependent. In addition, SEM observations reveal that the initially spherical and randomly distributed microscale particles in the amorphous matrix deform to concave polygon in shape and align perpendicular to the load direction during the compression. Meanwhile nano-crystals precipitate continuously from the matrix and aggregate during deformation. Rheological analysis show that the BMGCs exhibit a transition from Newtonian to non-Newtonian in flow behavior dependent on the stain rate. Particles in the amorphous matrix have reinforcement effect on the BMGCs, but the deformation behavior is still dominated by the homogeneous flow of the amorphous matrix phase

  19. Microstructural and hardness behavior of graphene-nanoplatelets/aluminum composites synthesized by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Bustamante, R.; Bolaños-Morales, D.; Bonilla-Martínez, J.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Martínez-Sánchez, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pure aluminum was reinforced with graphene-platelets by using mechanical milling. • The composites were studied after sintering condition. • Milling time and graphene-platelet enhance the mechanical behavior of the composites. - Abstract: Graphene can be considered as an ideal reinforcement for the production of composites due to its outstanding mechanical properties. These characteristics offer an increased opportunity for their study in the production of metal matrix composites (MMCs). In this research, the studied composites were produced by mechanical alloying (MA). The employed milling times were of 1, 3 and 5 h. GNPs were added in 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 wt% into an aluminum powder matrix. Milled powders were cold consolidated and subsequently sintered. Composites were microstructurally characterized with Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The hardness behavior in composites was evaluated with a Vickers micro-hardness test. A homogeneous dispersion of graphene during MA and the proper selection of sintering conditions were considered to produce optimized composites. The obtained results with electron microscopy indicate a homogeneous dispersion of GNPs into the aluminum matrix. Analyses showed GNPs edges where the structure of the graphene layers conserved after MA is observed

  20. Development of interfacial area transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jin; Ishii, Mamoru; Kelly, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The interfacial area transport equation dynamically models the changes in interfacial structures along the flow field by mechanistically modeling the creation and destruction of dispersed phase. Hence, when employed in the numerical thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes, it eliminates artificial bifurcations stemming from the use of the static flow regime transition criteria. Accounting for the substantial differences in the transport mechanism for various sizes of bubbles, the transport equation is formulated for two characteristic groups of bubbles. The group 1 equation describes the transport of small-dispersed bubbles, whereas the group 2 equation describes the transport of large cap, slug or churn-turbulent bubbles. To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of interfacial area transport equation available at present, it is benchmarked by an extensive database established in various two-phase flow configurations spanning from bubbly to churn-turbulent flow regimes. The geometrical effect in interfacial area transport is examined by the data acquired in vertical air-water two-phase flow through round pipes of various sizes and a confined flow duct, and by those acquired in vertical co-current downward air-water two-phase flow through round pipes of two different sizes

  1. Microstructure history effect during sequential thermomechanical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassar, Reza S.; Murphy, John; Burton, Christina; Horstemeyer, Mark F.; El kadiri, Haitham; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2008-01-01

    The key to modeling the material processing behavior is the linking of the microstructure evolution to its processing history. This paper quantifies various microstructural features of an aluminum automotive alloy that undergoes sequential thermomechanical processing which is comprised hot rolling of a 150-mm billet to a 75-mm billet, rolling to 3 mm, annealing, and then cold rolling to a 0.8-mm thickness sheet. The microstructural content was characterized by means of electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results clearly demonstrate the evolution of precipitate morphologies, dislocation structures, and grain orientation distributions. These data can be used to improve material models that claim to capture the history effects of the processing materials

  2. Modeling and measurement of interfacial area concentration in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjape, Sidharth; Ishii, Mamoru; Hibiki, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents experimental and modeling approaches in characterizing interfacial structures in gas-liquid two-phase flow. For the modeling of the interfacial structure characterization, the interfacial area transport equation proposed earlier has been studied to provide a dynamic and mechanistic prediction tool for two-phase flow analysis. A state-of-the-art four-sensor conductivity probe technique has been developed to obtain detailed local interfacial structure information in a wide range of flow regimes spanning from bubbly to churn-turbulent flows. Newly obtained interfacial area data in 8 x 8 rod-bundle test section are also presented. This paper also reviews available models of the interfacial area sink and source terms and existing databases. The interfacial area transport equation has been benchmarked using condensation bubbly flow data.

  3. Microstructure and surface chemistry of amorphous alloys important to their friction and wear behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the microstructure and surface chemistry of amorphous alloys, and their effects on tribological behavior. The results indicate that the surface oxide layers present on amorphous alloys are effective in providing low friction and a protective film against wear in air. Clustering and crystallization in amorphous alloys can be enhanced as a result of plastic flow during the sliding process at a low sliding velocity, at room temperature. Clusters or crystallines with sizes to 150 nm and a diffused honeycomb-shaped structure are produced on sizes to 150 nm and a diffused honeycomb-shaped structure are produced on the wear surface. Temperature effects lead to drastic changes in surface chemistry and friction behavior of the alloys at temperatures to 750 C. Contaminants can come from the bulk of the alloys to the surface upon heating and impart to the surface oxides at 350 C and boron nitride above 500 C. The oxides increase friction while the boron nitride reduces friction drastically in vacuum.

  4. Microstructural evaluation of NiTi-based films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crăciunescu, Corneliu M., E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro; Mitelea, Ion, E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro; Budău, Victor, E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Politehnica University of Timisoara (Romania); Ercuţa, Aurel [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Politehnica University of Timisoara and Department of Physics, West University Timisoara (Romania)

    2014-11-24

    Shape memory alloy films belonging to the NiTi-based systems were deposited on heated and unheated substrates, by magnetron sputtering in a custom made system, and their structure and composition was analyzed using electron microscopy. Several substrates were used for the depositions: glass, Cu-Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni and Ti-NiCu shape memory alloy ribbons and kapton. The composition of the Ti-Ni-Cu films showed limited differences, compared to the one of the target and the microstructure for the DC magnetron sputtering revealed crystallized structure with features determined on peel off samples from a Si wafer. Both inter and transcrystalline fractures were observed and related to the interfacial stress developed on cooling from deposition temperature.

  5. Rheological Behavior and Microstructure of Ceramic Particulate/Aluminum Alloy Composites. Ph.D. Thesis Final Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hee-Kyung

    1990-01-01

    The rheological behavior and microstructure were investigated using a concentric cylinder viscometer for three different slurries: semi-solid alloy slurries of a matrix alloy, Al-6.5wt percent Si: composite slurries, SiC (sub p) (8.5 microns)/Al-6.5wt percent Si, with the same matrix alloy in the molten state, and composite slurries of the same composition with the matrix alloy in the semi-solid state. The pseudoplasticity of these slurries was obtained by step changes of the shear rate from a given initial shear rate. To study the thixotropic behavior of the system, a slurry was allowed to rest for different periods of time, prior to shearing at a given initial shear rate. In the continuous cooling experiments, the viscosities of these slurries were dependent on the shear rate, cooling rate, volume fraction of the primary solid of the matrix alloy, and volume fraction of silicon carbide. In the isothermal experiments, all three kinds of slurries exhibited non-Newtonian behavior, depending on the volume fraction of solid particles.

  6. Effects of microstructural inclusions on fatigue life of polyether ether ketone (PEEK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsiriwong, Jutima; Shrestha, Rakish; Shamsaei, Nima; Lugo, Marcos; Moser, Robert D

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effects of microstructural inclusions on fatigue life of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) was investigated. Due to the versatility of its material properties, the semi-crystralline PEEK polymer has been increasingly adopted in a wide range of applications particularly as a biomaterial for orthopedic, trauma, and spinal implants. To obtain the cyclic behavior of PEEK, uniaxial fully-reversed strain-controlled fatigue tests were conducted at ambient temperature and at 0.02 mm/mm to 0.04 mm/mm strain amplitudes. The microstructure of PEEK was obtained using the optical and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine the microstructural inclusion properties in PEEK specimen such as inclusion size, type, and nearest neighbor distance. SEM analysis was also conducted on the fracture surface of fatigue specimens to observe microstructural inclusions that served as the crack incubation sites. Based on the experimental strain-life results and the observed microstructure of fatigue specimens, a microstructure-sensitive fatigue model was used to predict the fatigue life of PEEK that includes both crack incubation and small crack growth regimes. Results show that the employed model is applicable to capture microstructural effects on fatigue behavior of PEEK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Uncertainty analysis of an interfacial area reconstruction algorithm and its application to two group interfacial area transport equation validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, A.J.; Manera, A.; Beyer, M.; Lucas, D.; Prasser, H.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Wire mesh sensors (WMS) are state of the art devices that allow high resolution (in space and time) measurement of 2D void fraction distribution over a wide range of two-phase flow regimes, from bubbly to annular. Data using WMS have been recorded at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) (Lucas et al., 2010; Beyer et al., 2008; Prasser et al., 2003) for a wide combination of superficial gas and liquid velocities, providing an excellent database for advances in two-phase flow modeling. In two-phase flow, the interfacial area plays an integral role in coupling the mass, momentum and energy transport equations of the liquid and gas phase. While current models used in best-estimate thermal-hydraulic codes (e.g. RELAP5, TRACE, TRACG, etc.) are still based on algebraic correlations for the estimation of the interfacial area in different flow regimes, interfacial area transport equations (IATE) have been proposed to predict the dynamic propagation in space and time of interfacial area (Ishii and Hibiki, 2010). IATE models are still under development and the HZDR WMS experimental data provide an excellent basis for the validation and further advance of these models. The current paper is focused on the uncertainty analysis of algorithms used to reconstruct interfacial area densities from the void-fraction voxel data measured using WMS and their application towards validation efforts of two-group IATE models. In previous research efforts, a surface triangularization algorithm has been developed in order to estimate the surface area of individual bubbles recorded with the WMS, and estimate the interfacial area in the given flow condition. In the present paper, synthetically generated bubbles are used to assess the algorithm’s accuracy. As the interfacial area of the synthetic bubbles are defined by user inputs, the error introduced by the algorithm can be quantitatively obtained. The accuracy of interfacial area measurements is characterized for different bubbles

  8. Uncertainty analysis of an interfacial area reconstruction algorithm and its application to two group interfacial area transport equation validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, A.J., E-mail: akshayjd@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Rad. Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Manera, A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Rad. Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Beyer, M.; Lucas, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Prasser, H.-M. [Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-12-15

    Wire mesh sensors (WMS) are state of the art devices that allow high resolution (in space and time) measurement of 2D void fraction distribution over a wide range of two-phase flow regimes, from bubbly to annular. Data using WMS have been recorded at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) (Lucas et al., 2010; Beyer et al., 2008; Prasser et al., 2003) for a wide combination of superficial gas and liquid velocities, providing an excellent database for advances in two-phase flow modeling. In two-phase flow, the interfacial area plays an integral role in coupling the mass, momentum and energy transport equations of the liquid and gas phase. While current models used in best-estimate thermal-hydraulic codes (e.g. RELAP5, TRACE, TRACG, etc.) are still based on algebraic correlations for the estimation of the interfacial area in different flow regimes, interfacial area transport equations (IATE) have been proposed to predict the dynamic propagation in space and time of interfacial area (Ishii and Hibiki, 2010). IATE models are still under development and the HZDR WMS experimental data provide an excellent basis for the validation and further advance of these models. The current paper is focused on the uncertainty analysis of algorithms used to reconstruct interfacial area densities from the void-fraction voxel data measured using WMS and their application towards validation efforts of two-group IATE models. In previous research efforts, a surface triangularization algorithm has been developed in order to estimate the surface area of individual bubbles recorded with the WMS, and estimate the interfacial area in the given flow condition. In the present paper, synthetically generated bubbles are used to assess the algorithm’s accuracy. As the interfacial area of the synthetic bubbles are defined by user inputs, the error introduced by the algorithm can be quantitatively obtained. The accuracy of interfacial area measurements is characterized for different bubbles

  9. Role of interfacial rheological properties in oil field chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos-Szabo, J.; Lakatos, I.; Kosztin, B.

    1996-12-31

    Interfacial rheological properties of different Hungarian crude oil/water systems were determined in wide temperature and shear rate range and in presence of inorganic electrolytes, tensides, alkaline materials and polymers. The detailed laboratory study definitely proved that the interfacial rheological properties are extremely sensitive parameters towards the chemical composition of inmiscible formation liquids. Comparison and interpretation of the interfacial rheological properties may contribute significantly to extension of the weaponry of the reservoir characterization, better understanding of the displacement mechanism, development of the more profitable EOR/IOR methods, intensification of the surface technologies, optimization of the pipeline transportation and improvement of the refinery operations. It was evidenced that the interfacial rheology is an efficient and powerful detection technique, which may enhance the knowledge on formation, structure, properties and behaviour of interfacial layers. 17 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Ti–6Al–4V welded joints via electron beam welding: Microstructure, fatigue properties, and fracture behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoguang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Co-Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engine, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Shaolin [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Qi, Hongyu, E-mail: qhy@buaa.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Co-Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engine, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-03-01

    The effect of microstructural characteristics on the fatigue properties of electron beam-welded joints of forged Ti–6Al–4V and its fracture behavior were investigated. Tensile tests and fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature in air atmosphere. The test data were analyzed in relation to microstructure, high-cycle fatigue properties, low-cycle fatigue properties, and fatigue crack propagation properties. The high-cycle fatigue test results indicated that the fatigue strength of the joint welded via electron beam welding was higher than that of the base metal because the former had a high yield strength and all high-cycle fatigue specimens were fractured in the base metal. Although the joint specimens had a lower low-cycle fatigue life than the base metal, they mainly ruptured at the fusion zone of the joint specimen and their crack initiation mechanism is load-dependent. The fatigue crack propagation test results show that the joint had a slower crack propagation rate than the base metal, which can be attributed to the larger grain in the fusion zone.

  11. Microstructure, corrosion behavior and cytotoxicity of biodegradable Mg-Sn implant alloys prepared by sub-rapid solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chaoyong; Pan, Fusheng; Zhao, Shuang; Pan, Hucheng; Song, Kai; Tang, Aitao

    2015-09-01

    In this study, biodegradable Mg-Sn alloys were fabricated by sub-rapid solidification, and their microstructure, corrosion behavior and cytotoxicity were investigated by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, immersion test, potentiodynamic polarization test and cytotoxicity test. The results showed that the microstructure of Mg-1Sn alloy was almost equiaxed grain, while the Mg-Sn alloys with higher Sn content (Sn≥3 wt.%) displayed α-Mg dendrites, and the secondary dendrite arm spacing of the primary α-Mg decreased significantly with increasing Sn content. The Mg-Sn alloys consisted of primary α-Mg matrix, Sn-rich segregation and Mg2Sn phase, and the amount of Mg2Sn phases increased with increasing Sn content. Potentiodynamic polarization and immersion tests revealed that the corrosion rates of Mg-Sn alloys increased with increasing Sn content. Cytotoxicity test showed that Mg-1Sn and Mg-3Sn alloys were harmless to MG63 cells. These results of the present study indicated that Mg-1Sn and Mg-3Sn alloys were promising to be used as biodegradable implants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Interfacial Energy and Fine Defect Structures for Incoherent Films

    OpenAIRE

    Cermelli, Paolo; Gurtin, Morton E.; Leoni, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    This note summarizes recent results in which modern techniques of the calculus of variations are used to obtain qualitative features of film-substrate interfaces for a broad class of interfacial energies. In particular, we show that the existence of a critical thickness for incoherency and the formation of interfacial dislocations depend strongly on the convexity and smoothness of the interfacial energy function.

  13. Fatigue crack growth behaviors in hot-rolled low carbon steels: A comparison between ferrite–pearlite and ferrite–bainite microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Mingfei; Yu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The roles of microstructure types in fatigue crack growth behaviors in ferrite–pearlite steel and ferrite–bainite steel were investigated. The ferrite–bainite dual-phase microstructure was obtained by intermediate heat treatment, conducted on ferrite–pearlite hot-rolled low carbon steel. This paper presents the results from investigation using constant stress-controlled fatigue tests with in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fatigue crack growth (FCG) rate tests, and fatigue fractography analysis. Microscopy images arrested by in-situ SEM showed that the fatigue crack propagation in F–P steel could become unstable more ealier compared with that in F–B steel. The fatigue cracks in ferrite–pearlite were more tortuous and could propagate more freely than that in ferrite–bainite microstructures. However, frequent crack branching were observed in ferrite–bainite steel and it indicated that the second hard bainite phase effectively retarded the crack propagation. The variation of FCG rate (da/dN) with stress intensity factor range (ΔK) for F–P and F–B steels was discussed within the Paris region. It was shown that FCG rate of F–P steel was higher than that of F–B steel. Moreover, the fatigue fracture surface analysis proved that grain boundaries could also play a role in the resistance of crack propagation.

  14. Exploiting interfacial water properties for desalination and purification applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongwu (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Varma, Sameer; Nyman, May Devan; Alam, Todd Michael; Thuermer, Konrad; Holland, Gregory P.; Leung, Kevin; Liu, Nanguo (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Xomeritakis, George K. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Frankamp, Benjamin L.; Siepmann, J. Ilja (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Cygan, Randall Timothy; Hartl, Monika A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Travesset, Alex (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Anderson, Joshua A. (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Huber, Dale L.; Kissel, David J. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Lorenz, Christian Douglas; Major, Ryan C. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); McGrath, Matthew J. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Farrow, Darcie; Cecchi, Joseph L. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); van Swol, Frank B.; Singh, Seema; Rempe, Susan B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Feibelman, Peter Julian; Houston, Jack E.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Chen, Zhu (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Zhu, Xiaoyang (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Dunphy, Darren Robert (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Orendorff, Christopher J.; Pless, Jason D.; Daemen, Luke L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Gerung, Henry (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Ockwig, Nathan W.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Stevens, Mark Jackson

    2008-09-01

    A molecular-scale interpretation of interfacial processes is often downplayed in the analysis of traditional water treatment methods. However, such an approach is critical for the development of enhanced performance in traditional desalination and water treatments. Water confined between surfaces, within channels, or in pores is ubiquitous in technology and nature. Its physical and chemical properties in such environments are unpredictably different from bulk water. As a result, advances in water desalination and purification methods may be accomplished through an improved analysis of water behavior in these challenging environments using state-of-the-art microscopy, spectroscopy, experimental, and computational methods.

  15. Interface Microstructure and Deformation Behavior of an Al-Cu Dissimilar Metal Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Su Eun; Kwon, Yong-Nam [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Su [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Jung; Bae, Dong Hyun [Korea Clad Tech. Co. Ltd., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    The aim of this article is to elucidate the influence of reduction ratio during roll bonding on the microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and room-temperature formability of Al-Cu 2-ply clad metal. The evolution of the interface microstructure was first characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) attached with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The presence of an intermetallic compound as well as severe grain refinement was detected at the interface of the Al-Cu bimetal fabricated under the highest reduction ratio of 65% adopted in this study. Taking into account the difference of the microstructure with a reduction the ratio, mechanical properties and bonding strength were then evaluated by uniaxial tensile and peel tests. It was observed that the bonding strength, elongation and tensile strength for Al-Cu 2-ply sheets were incomparably reduced by decreasing the reduction ratio during the roll bonding process, which directly correlated with the microstructural evolution at the interface. Moreover, the higher reduction ratio during the roll bonding, the more room temperature formability could be achieved for Al-Cu 2-ply sheet by applying both three-point bending and Erichsen tests.

  16. Micro-computer system for quantitative image analysis of damage microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohyama, A.; Kohno, Y.; Satoh, K.; Igata, N.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative image analysis of radiation induced damage microstructure is very important in evaluating material behaviors in radiation environment. But, quite a few improvement have been seen in quantitative analysis of damage microstructure in these decades. The objective of this work is to develop new system for quantitative image analysis of damage microstructure which could improve accuracy and efficiency of data sampling and processing and could enable to get new information about mutual relations among dislocations, precipitates, cavities, grain boundaries, etc. In this system, data sampling is done with X-Y digitizer. The cavity microstructure in dual-ion irradiated 316 SS is analyzed and the effectiveness of this system is discussed. (orig.)

  17. The Role of Shearing Energy and Interfacial Gibbs Free Energy in the Emulsification Mechanism of Waxy Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil is generally produced with water, and the water cut produced by oil wells is increasingly common over their lifetime, so it is inevitable to create emulsions during oil production. However, the formation of emulsions presents a costly problem in surface process particularly, both in terms of transportation energy consumption and separation efficiency. To deal with the production and operational problems which are related to crude oil emulsions, especially to ensure the separation and transportation of crude oil-water systems, it is necessary to better understand the emulsification mechanism of crude oil under different conditions from the aspects of bulk and interfacial properties. The concept of shearing energy was introduced in this study to reveal the driving force for emulsification. The relationship between shearing stress in the flow field and interfacial tension (IFT was established, and the correlation between shearing energy and interfacial Gibbs free energy was developed. The potential of the developed correlation model was validated using the experimental and field data on emulsification behavior. It was also shown how droplet deformation could be predicted from a random deformation degree and orientation angle. The results indicated that shearing energy as the energy produced by shearing stress working in the flow field is the driving force activating the emulsification behavior. The deformation degree and orientation angle of dispersed phase droplet are associated with the interfacial properties, rheological properties and the experienced turbulence degree. The correlation between shearing stress and IFT can be quantified if droplet deformation degree vs. droplet orientation angle data is available. When the water cut is close to the inversion point of waxy crude oil emulsion, the interfacial Gibbs free energy change decreased and the shearing energy increased. This feature is also presented in the special regions where

  18. Effect of stress evolution on microstructural behavior in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, G.Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, 50 UNIST-gil, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon Soo; Jamison, L.M. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Robinson, A.B. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Lee, K.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Dong-Seong, E-mail: dssohn@unist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, 50 UNIST-gil, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel irradiated to high burnup at high power (high fission rate) exhibited microstructural changes including deformation of the fuel particles, pore growth, and rupture of the Al matrix. The driving force for these microstructural changes was meat swelling resulting from a combination of fuel particle swelling and interaction layer (IL) growth. In some cases, pore growth in the interaction layers also contributed to meat swelling. The main objective of this work was to determine the stress distribution within the fuel meat that caused these phenomena. A mechanical equilibrium between the stress generated by fuel meat swelling and the stress relieved by fission-induced creep in the meat constituents (U-Mo particles, Al matrix, and IL) was considered. Test plates with well-recorded fabrication data and irradiation conditions were used, and their post-irradiation examination (PIE) data was obtained. ABAQUS finite element analysis (FEA) was utilized to simulate the microstructural evolution of the plates. The simulation results allowed for the determination of effective stress and hydrostatic stress exerted on the meat constituents. The effects of fabrication and irradiation parameters on the stress distribution that drives microstructural evolutions, such as pore growth in the IL and Al matrix rupture, were investigated. - Highlights: •Post-irradiation data for irradiated miniplates were analyzed by using their optical microscopy images. •ABAQUS finite element analysis (FEA) package was utilized to simulate the microstructural evolution of the selected plates. •Stresses were assessed to analyze their effects on microstructural changes during irradiation.

  19. Interfacial Thermal Transport via One-Dimensional Atomic Junction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohuan Xiong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern information technology, as integration density increases rapidly and the dimension of materials reduces to nanoscale, interfacial thermal transport (ITT has attracted widespread attention of scientists. This review introduces the latest theoretical development in ITT through one-dimensional (1D atomic junction model to address the thermal transport across an interface. With full consideration of the atomic structures in interfaces, people can apply the 1D atomic junction model to investigate many properties of ITT, such as interfacial (Kapitza resistance, nonlinear interface, interfacial rectification, and phonon interference, and so on. For the ballistic ITT, both the scattering boundary method (SBM and the non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF method can be applied, which are exact since atomic details of actual interfaces are considered. For interfacial coupling case, explicit analytical expression of transmission coefficient can be obtained and it is found that the thermal conductance maximizes at certain interfacial coupling (harmonic mean of the spring constants of the two leads and the transmission coefficient is not a monotonic decreasing function of phonon frequency. With nonlinear interaction—phonon–phonon interaction or electron–phonon interaction at interface, the NEGF method provides an efficient way to study the ITT. It is found that at weak linear interfacial coupling, the nonlinearity can improve the ITT, but it depresses the ITT in the case of strong-linear coupling. In addition, the nonlinear interfacial coupling can induce thermal rectification effect. For interfacial materials case which can be simulated by a two-junction atomic chain, phonons show interference effect, and an optimized thermal coupler can be obtained by tuning its spring constant and atomic mass.

  20. Interfacial potential approach for Ag/ZnO (0001) interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Hong-Quan; Shen Jiang; Qian Ping; Chen Nan-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Systematic approaches are presented to extract the interfacial potentials from the ab initio adhesive energy of the interface system by using the Chen—Möbius inversion method. We focus on the interface structure of the metal (111)/ZnO (0001) in this work. The interfacial potentials of Ag—Zn and Ag—O are obtained. These potentials can be used to solve some problems about Ag/ZnO interfacial structure. Three metastable interfacial structures are investigated in order to check these potentials. Using the interfacial potentials we study the procedure of interface fracture in the Ag/ZnO (0001) interface and discuss the change of the energy, stress, and atomic structures in tensile process. The result indicates that the exact misfit dislocation reduces the total energy and softens the fracture process. Meanwhile, the formation and mobility of the vacancy near the interface are observed. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  1. Effect of microscopic structure on deformation in nano-sized copper and Cu/Si interfacial cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumigawa, Takashi, E-mail: sumigawa@cyber.kues.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Nakano, Takuya; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the effect of microscopic structure on the mechanical properties of nano-sized components (nano-components). We developed a bending specimen with a substructure that can be observed by means of a transmission electron microscope (TEM). We examined the plastic behavior of a Cu bi-crystal and the Cu/Si interfacial cracking in a nano-component. TEM images indicated that an initial plastic deformation takes place near the interface edge (the junction between the Cu/Si interface and the surface) in the Cu film with a high critical resolved shear stress (400–420 MPa). The deformation developed preferentially in a single grain. Interfacial cracking took place at the intersection between the grain boundary and the Cu/Si interface, where a high stress concentration existed due to deformation mismatch. These results indicate that the characteristic mechanical behavior of a nano-component is governed by the microscopic stress field, which takes into account the crystallographic structure. - Highlights: ► A nano-component specimen including a bi-crystal copper layer was prepared. ► A loading test with in-situ transmission electron microscopy was conducted. ► The plastic and cracking behaviors were governed by microscopic stress. ► Stress defined under continuum assumption was still present in nano-components.

  2. The analysis of interfacial waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galimov, Azat Yu.; Drew, Donald A.; Lahey, Richard T.; Moraga, Francisco J.

    2005-01-01

    We present analytical results for stable stratified wavy two-phase flow and functional forms for the various interfacial force densities in a two-fluid model. In particular, we have derived analytically the components of the non-drag interfacial force density [Drew, D.A., Passman, S.L., 1998. Theory of Multicomponent Fluids. Springer-Verlag, New York; Nigmatulin, T.R., Drew, D.A., Lahey, R.T., Jr., 2000. An analysis of wavy annular flow. In: International Conference on Multiphase Systems, ICMS'2000, Ufa, Russia, June 15-17], Reynolds stress tensor, and the term, (p-bar cl i -p-bar cl )-bar α cl , where p-bar cl i is interfacial average pressure, p-bar cl the average pressure, and α cl is the volume fraction of the continuous liquid phase. These functional forms should be useful for assessing two-fluid closure relations and Computational Multiphase Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) numerical models for stratified wavy flows. Moreover, it appears that this approach can be generalized to other flow regimes (e.g., annular flows)

  3. Microstructural evolution, mechanical properties, and strain hardening behavior of ultrafine grained commercial pure copper during the accumulative roll bonding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattah-alhosseini, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65178-38695 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imantalab, O., E-mail: o.imantalab@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65178-38695 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazaheri, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65178-38695 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keshavarz, M.K. [Department of Engineering Physics, Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal (Canada)

    2016-01-05

    In this study, the microstructural evolution, mechanical properties, and strain hardening behavior of commercial pure copper processed by the accumulative roll bonding (ARB) were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicated that with increasing the number of ARB cycles, the grain size of samples decreased. An Ultrafine grained (UFG) structure with an average grain size of about 200 nm was achieved after four cycles of ARB. The yield and ultimate tensile strength of pure copper with the UFG microstructure was reached about 360 MPa and 396 MPa (about 400% and 100% higher than that of the annealed state), respectively. All ARB-processed copper samples showed lower strain hardening exponent in comparison with the annealed state. Moreover, the strain hardening rate increased with increasing ARB cycles up to 3 cycles and then decreased.

  4. Microstructural evolution, mechanical properties, and strain hardening behavior of ultrafine grained commercial pure copper during the accumulative roll bonding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattah-alhosseini, A.; Imantalab, O.; Mazaheri, Y.; Keshavarz, M.K.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the microstructural evolution, mechanical properties, and strain hardening behavior of commercial pure copper processed by the accumulative roll bonding (ARB) were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicated that with increasing the number of ARB cycles, the grain size of samples decreased. An Ultrafine grained (UFG) structure with an average grain size of about 200 nm was achieved after four cycles of ARB. The yield and ultimate tensile strength of pure copper with the UFG microstructure was reached about 360 MPa and 396 MPa (about 400% and 100% higher than that of the annealed state), respectively. All ARB-processed copper samples showed lower strain hardening exponent in comparison with the annealed state. Moreover, the strain hardening rate increased with increasing ARB cycles up to 3 cycles and then decreased.

  5. EBSD Analysis of Deformed and Partially Recrystallized Microstructures in ECAE-Processed Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Bowen, Jacob R.; Godfrey, A.

    2012-01-01

    The deformed microstructure and recrystallization behavior of copper samples processed using equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) have been investigated. The heavily deformed microstructure was found to be non-uniform through the sample thickness and to vary in a manner consistent with the non...

  6. Modeling interfacial area transport in multi-fluid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Many typical chemical engineering operations are multi-fluid systems. They are carried out in distillation columns (vapor/liquid), liquid-liquid contactors (liquid/liquid) and other similar devices. An important parameter is interfacial area concentration, which determines the rate of interfluid heat, mass and momentum transfer and ultimately, the overall performance of the equipment. In many cases, the models for determining interfacial area concentration are empirical and can only describe the cases for which there is experimental data. In an effort to understand multiphase reactors and the mixing process better, a multi-fluid model has been developed as part of a research effort to calculate interfacial area transport in several different types of in-line static mixers. For this work, the ensemble-averaged property conservation equations have been derived for each fluid and for the mixture. These equations were then combined to derive a transport equation for the interfacial area concentration. The final, one-dimensional model was compared to interfacial area concentration data from two sizes of Kenics in-line mixer, two sizes of concurrent jet and a Tee mixer. In all cases, the calculated and experimental data compared well with the highest scatter being with the Tee mixer comparison.

  7. Effect of Cu addition on coercivity and interfacial state of Nd-Fe-B/Nd-rich thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, M; Sugimoto, S; Fukada, T; Tezuka, N; Goto, R

    2010-01-01

    This study provides the effect of Cu addition on coercivity (H cJ ) and interfacial microstructure in Nd-Fe-B/Nd-rich thin films. All films were deposited by using ultra high vacuum (UHV) magnetron sputtering, and the Nd-Fe-B layer was oxidized under several atmospheres with different oxygen content. Then, the films were annealed at 250-550 0 C under UHV. The films oxidized in low vacuum (10 -2 -10 -5 Pa) (under low oxygen state) exhibited the recovery of H cJ by the annealing at 450 0 C. On the contrary, the H cJ of the films oxidized in Ar (under high oxygen state) decreased with increasing annealing temperature. However, the H cJ increased drastically at the temperatures above 550 0 C. In addition, the Cu added films, which were annealed at temperatures above 350 0 C, showed higher coercivities than the films without Cu addition. The XRD analysis suggested the existence of C-Nd 2 O 3 phase in the Cu added films annealed at 550 0 C. It can be considered that the Cu addition decreases the eutectic temperature of Nd-rich phase and influences the interfacial state between Nd 2 Fe 14 B and Nd-rich phase.

  8. Probing Interfacial Water on Nanodiamonds in Colloidal Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Tristan; Yuzawa, Hayato; Nagasaka, Masanari; Yamanoi, Ryoko; Osawa, Eiji; Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Aziz, Emad F

    2015-08-06

    The structure of interfacial water layers around nanoparticles dispersed in an aqueous environment may have a significant impact on their reactivity and on their interaction with biological species. Using transmission soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid, we demonstrate that the unoccupied electronic states of oxygen atoms from water molecules in aqueous colloidal dispersions of nanodiamonds have a different signature than bulk water. X-ray absorption spectroscopy can thus probe interfacial water molecules in colloidal dispersions. The impacts of nanodiamond surface chemistry and concentration on interfacial water electronic signature are discussed.

  9. The mechanism of formation of a fine duplex microstructure in Ti-48Al-2Mn-2Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanujan, R.V.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of formation of the fine duplex microstructure resulting from the α → γ transformation in water-quenched Ti-48Al-2Mn-2Nb alloys was studied using transmission and analytical electron microscopy. As-cast Ti-48Al-2Mn-2Nb alloys were heat treated in the α phase field and water quenched to room temperature. The resulting microstructure (referred to as a fine duplex microstructure) consisted of equiaxed grains and abutting lath colonies. Both the colonies and the grains were composed of the γ phase, twinned γ laths, and α 2 laths. It was found that the transformation from α to γ in the fine duplex microstructure took place through long range diffusional processes, and competitive growth between the equiaxed and lath morphology occurred. Nucleation of the γ phase from the α matrix can occur through nucleation on stacking faults, followed by growth through the sympathetic nucleation and growth of new γ laths on a substrate lath. The observed misorientations and the interfacial structures between the laths were found to be consistent with such a mechanism. Competition between such nucleation and growth mechanisms for the equiaxed and lath morphologies of γ leads to the formation of lath colonies (of γ and α 2 ) interspersed with equiaxed grains in these alloys

  10. Interfacial structures and area transport in upward and downward two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjape, S. S.; Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Kelly, J.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out for upward and downward two-phase flow to study local interfacial structures and interfacial area transport. The flow studied, is an adiabatic, air-water, co-current, two-phase flow, in 25.4 mm and 50.8 mm ID test sections. Flow regime map is obtained using the characteristic signals obtained from an impedance void meter, employing neural network based identification methodology. A four sensor conductivity probe is used to measure the local two phase flow parameters, in bubbly flow regime. The local profiles of these parameters as well as their axial development reveal the nature of the interfacial structures and the bubble interaction mechanisms occurring in the flow. Furthermore, this study provides a good database for the development of the interfacial area transport equation, which dynamically models the changes in the interfacial area along a flow field. An interfacial area transport equation is used for downward flow based on that developed for the upward flow, with certain modifications in the bubble interaction terms. The area averaged values of the interfacial area concentration are compared with those predicted by the interfacial area transport model. The differences in the interfacial structures and interfacial area transport in co-current downward and upward two-phase flows are studied

  11. Stress, microstructure and evolution under ion irradiation in thin films grown by ion beam sputtering: modelling and application to interfacial effects in metallic multilayers; Contraintes, microstructure et sollicitation sous irradiation aux ions de films minces elabores par pulverisation ionique: modelisation et application a l'etude des effets interfaciaux dans des multicouches metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelle, A

    2006-09-15

    We have investigated the formation of the interfacial chemical mixing in Mo/Ni multilayers, and particularly the influence of ballistic effects during the growth. For this purpose, hetero-epitaxial b.c.c./f.c.c. Mo(110)/Ni(111) multilayers were grown by two deposition methods: thermal evaporation and direct ion beam sputtering. As a preliminary, an accurate description of the stress state in pure sputtered Mo thin films was required. Microstructural and stress state analyses were essentially carried out by X-ray diffraction, and ion irradiation was used as a powerful tool to control the stress level. We showed that thermal evaporated thin films exhibit a weak tensile growth stress ({approx} 0.6 GPa) that can be accounted for by the grain boundary relaxation model, whereas sputtered thin films develop large compressive growth stress (- 2 to - 4 GPa). This latter results from the bombardment of the growing film by the energetic particles involved during the sputtering process (atomic peening phenomenon), which induces the formation of defects in the layers, generating volume distortions. We thus developed a stress model that includes a hydrostatic stress component to account for these volume strains. This model allowed us to determine the 'unstressed and free of defects lattice parameter' a{sub 0}, solely linked to chemical effects. For epitaxial Mo layers, it was possible to separate coherency stress from growth stress due to their distinct kinetic evolution during ion irradiation. Therefore, the stress analysis enabled us to determine the a{sub 0} values in Mo sub-layers of Mo/Ni superlattices. A tendency to the formation of an interfacial alloy is observed independently of the growth conditions, which suggests that thermodynamic forces favour the exchange mechanism. However, the extent of the intermixing effect is clearly enhanced by ballistic effects. (author)

  12. Stress, microstructure and evolution under ion irradiation in thin films grown by ion beam sputtering: modelling and application to interfacial effects in metallic multilayers; Contraintes, microstructure et sollicitation sous irradiation aux ions de films minces elabores par pulverisation ionique: modelisation et application a l'etude des effets interfaciaux dans des multicouches metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelle, A

    2006-09-15

    We have investigated the formation of the interfacial chemical mixing in Mo/Ni multilayers, and particularly the influence of ballistic effects during the growth. For this purpose, hetero-epitaxial b.c.c./f.c.c. Mo(110)/Ni(111) multilayers were grown by two deposition methods: thermal evaporation and direct ion beam sputtering. As a preliminary, an accurate description of the stress state in pure sputtered Mo thin films was required. Microstructural and stress state analyses were essentially carried out by X-ray diffraction, and ion irradiation was used as a powerful tool to control the stress level. We showed that thermal evaporated thin films exhibit a weak tensile growth stress ({approx} 0.6 GPa) that can be accounted for by the grain boundary relaxation model, whereas sputtered thin films develop large compressive growth stress (- 2 to - 4 GPa). This latter results from the bombardment of the growing film by the energetic particles involved during the sputtering process (atomic peening phenomenon), which induces the formation of defects in the layers, generating volume distortions. We thus developed a stress model that includes a hydrostatic stress component to account for these volume strains. This model allowed us to determine the 'unstressed and free of defects lattice parameter' a{sub 0}, solely linked to chemical effects. For epitaxial Mo layers, it was possible to separate coherency stress from growth stress due to their distinct kinetic evolution during ion irradiation. Therefore, the stress analysis enabled us to determine the a{sub 0} values in Mo sub-layers of Mo/Ni superlattices. A tendency to the formation of an interfacial alloy is observed independently of the growth conditions, which suggests that thermodynamic forces favour the exchange mechanism. However, the extent of the intermixing effect is clearly enhanced by ballistic effects. (author)

  13. Nanoscale interfacial defect shedding in a growing nematic droplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Sebastian; Provatas, Nikolas; Rey, Alejandro

    2017-08-01

    Interfacial defect shedding is the most recent known mechanism for defect formation in a thermally driven isotropic-to-nematic phase transition. It manifests in nematic-isotropic interfaces going through an anchoring switch. Numerical computations in planar geometry established that a growing nematic droplet can undergo interfacial defect shedding, nucleating interfacial defect structures that shed into the bulk as +1/2 point defects. By extending the study of interfacial defect shedding in a growing nematic droplet to larger length and time scales, and to three dimensions, we unveil an oscillatory growth mode involving shape and anchoring transitions that results in a controllable regular distributions of point defects in planar geometry, and complex structures of disclination lines in three dimensions.

  14. Migration of interfacial oxygen ions modulated resistive switching in oxide-based memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Gao, S.; Zeng, F.; Tang, G. S.; Li, S. Z.; Song, C.; Fu, H. D.; Pan, F.

    2013-07-01

    Oxides-based resistive switching memory induced by oxygen ions migration is attractive for future nonvolatile memories. Numerous works had focused their attentions on the sandwiched oxide materials for depressing the characteristic variations, but the comprehensive studies of the dependence of electrodes on the migration behavior of oxygen ions are overshadowed. Here, we investigated the interaction of various metals (Ni, Co, Al, Ti, Zr, and Hf) with oxygen atoms at the metal/Ta2O5 interface under electric stress and explored the effect of top electrode on the characteristic variations of Ta2O5-based memory device. It is demonstrated that chemically inert electrodes (Ni and Co) lead to the scattering switching characteristics and destructive gas bubbles, while the highly chemically active metals (Hf and Zr) formed a thick and dense interfacial intermediate oxide layer at the metal/Ta2O5 interface, which also degraded the resistive switching behavior. The relatively chemically active metals (Al and Ti) can absorb oxygen ions from the Ta2O5 film and avoid forming the problematic interfacial layer, which is benefit to the formation of oxygen vacancies composed conduction filaments in Ta2O5 film thus exhibit the minimum variations of switching characteristics. The clarification of oxygen ions migration behavior at the interface can lead further optimization of resistive switching performance in Ta2O5-based memory device and guide the rule of electrode selection for other oxide-based resistive switching memories.

  15. Microstructural origins of yield-strength changes in AISI 316 during fission or fusion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Panayotou, N.F.; Johnson, G.D.

    1981-08-01

    The changes in yield strength of AISI 316 irradiated in breeder reactors have been successfully modeled in terms of concurrent changes in microstructural components. Two new insights involving the strength contributions of voids and Frank loops have been incorporated into the hardening models. Both the radiation-induced microstructure and the yield strength exhibit transients which are then followed by saturation at a level dependent on the irradiation temperature. Extrapolation to anticipated fusion behavior based on microstructural comparisons leads to the conclusion that the primary influence of transmutational differences is only to alter the transient behavior and not the saturation level of yield strength

  16. Interfacial depinning transitions in disordered media: revisiting an old puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moglia, Belén; Albano, Ezequiel V; Villegas, Pablo; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Interfaces advancing through random media represent a number of different problems in physics, biology and other disciplines. Here, we study the pinning/depinning transition of the prototypical non-equilibrium interfacial model, i.e. the Kardar–Parisi–Zhang equation, advancing in a disordered medium. We will separately analyze the cases of positive and negative non-linearity coefficients, which are believed to exhibit qualitatively different behavior: the positive case shows a continuous transition that can be related to directed-percolation-depinning, while in the negative case there is a discontinuous transition and faceted interfaces appear. Some studies have argued from different perspectives that both cases share the same universal behavior. By using a number of computational and scaling techniques we will shed light on this puzzling situation and conclude that the two cases are intrinsically different. (paper)

  17. Microstructural evaluation of a varistor block utilized in high voltage surge arresters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, J.M. de; Dias, R.; Furtado, J.G. de M.; Assuncao, F.C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Varistor is a semiconductor ceramic device characterized to have a high non-linear electrical resistance, it is used as active element of surge arresters with purpose of protecting of electro-electronics systems. Its properties are directly dependents of chemical composition and microstructural characteristics, such as grain size, porosity, twins and phases distribution. This work has the objective to characterize microstructurally a commercial varistor block of ZnO used in high voltage surge arrest and from this characterization to infer aspects about of its electrical macroscopic performance. DRX and SEM-EDS were used for microstructural analysis. The microstructural evaluation allows pointing the critical points of microstructure and, suggest relevant aspects to the improvement of commercial varistor microstructure, optimizing the electrothermal behavior of the device. (author)

  18. Microstructures and mechanical behavior of magnesium processed by ECAP at ice-water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Dai; Li, Taotao; Liang, Wei; Wen, Xiyu; Yang, Fuqian

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium of high purity is processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) up to eight passes at the ice-water temperature, in which a core–shell-like structure is used. The core–shell-like structure consists of pure iron (Fe) of 1.5 mm in thickness as the shell and magnesium (Mg) as the core. The microstructure, texture and mechanical behavior of the ECAP-processed Mg are studied. The ECAP processing leads to the formation of fine and equiaxed grains of ~1.1 µm. The basal planes initially parallel to the extrusion direction evolve to slanted basal planes with the tilting angle in a range of 25°–45° to the extrusion direction. Increasing the number of the extrusion passes leads to the decreasing of twins and dislocation density in grains, while individual grains after eight passes still have high dislocation density. The large decreases of twins and the dislocation density make dynamic recrystallization (DRX) difficult, resulting in the decrease of the degree of DRX. Tension test reveals that the mechanical behavior of the ECAP-processed Mg is dependent on grain refinement and textures. The yield strength of the ECAP-extruded Mg first increases with the decrease of the grain size, and then decreases with further decrease of the grain size.

  19. Influence of ceramic particulate type on microstructure and tensile strength of aluminum matrix composites produced using friction stir processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dinaharan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir processing (FSP was applied to produce aluminum matrix composites (AMCs. Aluminum alloy AA6082 was used as the matrix material. Various ceramic particles, such as SiC, Al2O3, TiC, B4C and WC, were used as reinforcement particle. AA6082 AMCs were produced using a set of optimized process parameters. The microstructure was studied using optical microscopy, filed emission scanning electron microscopy and electron back scattered diagram. The results indicated that the type of ceramic particle did not considerably vary the microstructure and ultimate tensile strength (UTS. Each type of ceramic particle provided a homogeneous dispersion in the stir zone irrespective of the location and good interfacial bonding. Nevertheless, AA6082/TiC AMC exhibited superior hardness and wear resistance compared to other AMCs produced in this work under the same set of experimental conditions. The strengthening mechanisms and the variation in the properties are correlated to the observed microstructure. The details of fracture mode are further presented.

  20. Effects of microstructure of clay on diffusion behavior of radionuclides in buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hiroshi; Sato, Seichi; Kozaki, Tamotsu

    2001-03-01

    Diffusion behavior of radionuclides in compacted bentonite plays an important role in the performance assessment of bentonite buffer material in geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Microstructure of bentonite is considered to be one of the key parameters to affect on the diffusion behavior. In this study, therefore, two kinds of montmorillonite (major clay mineral of bentonite) with different particle sizes were prepared, and characterized with several methods. In addition, the apparent and effective diffusion coefficients of HTO, Cl - , and Cs + were determined using the montmorillonite samples with different particle sizes and dry densities. In the sample characterization, the specific surface areas of montmorillonite samples with different particle sizes were determined by the BET and the EGME methods, and the particle size distributions of each sample were analyzed by laser diffraction/scattering particle size analysis. Microstructure of the samples was also observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The BET method gave a higher specific surface area of the fine grained sample than of the coarse sample, while the EGME method gave same values for both samples. The laser diffraction/scattering particle size analysis using ethanol as a dispersion medium gave different particle size distributions, but when the samples were dispersed in water with Na 6 (PO 3 ) 6 , the particle size distributions were similar. These findings indicate that the montmorillonite layers, which compose the montmorillonite particles, have the same size, even if the particle sizes of the samples are different. In the diffusion experiments, it was found that the apparent diffusion coefficients of HTO and Cl - for the fine grained sample were higher than for the coarse grained sample at two dry densities, 1.0 and 1.8 Mg m -3 , while the opposite particle size effect was observed for Cs + ions. These findings cannot be explained by changes

  1. Microstructure and Strain Rate-Dependent Tensile Deformation Behavior of Fiber Laser-Welded Butt Joints of Dual-Phase Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Dong, Danyang; Han, Zhiqiang; Yang, Zhibin; Wang, Lu; Dong, Qingwei

    2018-05-01

    The microstructure and tensile deformation behavior of the fiber laser-welded similar and dissimilar dual-phase (DP) steel joints over a wide range of strain rates from 10-3 to 103 s-1 were investigated for the further applications on the lightweight design of vehicles. The high strain rate dynamic tensile deformation process and full-field strain distribution of the base metals and welded joints were examined using the digital image correlation method and high-speed photography. The strain rate effects on the stress-strain responses, tensile properties, deformation, and fracture behavior of the investigated materials were analyzed. The yield stress (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the dissimilar DP780/DP980 welded joints were lying in-between those of the DP780 and DP980 base metals, and all materials exhibited positive strain rate dependence on the YS and UTS. Owing to the microstructure heterogeneity, the welded joints showed relatively lower ductility in terms of total elongation (TE) than those of the corresponding base metals. The strain localization started before the maximum load was reached, and the strain localization occurred earlier during the whole deformation process with increasing strain rate. As for the dissimilar welded joint, the strain localization tended to occur in the vicinity of the lowest hardness value across the welded joint, which was in the subcritical HAZ at the DP780 side. As the strain rate increased, the typical ductile failure characteristic of the investigated materials did not change.

  2. Microstructure and Strain Rate-Dependent Tensile Deformation Behavior of Fiber Laser-Welded Butt Joints of Dual-Phase Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Dong, Danyang; Han, Zhiqiang; Yang, Zhibin; Wang, Lu; Dong, Qingwei

    2018-04-01

    The microstructure and tensile deformation behavior of the fiber laser-welded similar and dissimilar dual-phase (DP) steel joints over a wide range of strain rates from 10-3 to 103 s-1 were investigated for the further applications on the lightweight design of vehicles. The high strain rate dynamic tensile deformation process and full-field strain distribution of the base metals and welded joints were examined using the digital image correlation method and high-speed photography. The strain rate effects on the stress-strain responses, tensile properties, deformation, and fracture behavior of the investigated materials were analyzed. The yield stress (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the dissimilar DP780/DP980 welded joints were lying in-between those of the DP780 and DP980 base metals, and all materials exhibited positive strain rate dependence on the YS and UTS. Owing to the microstructure heterogeneity, the welded joints showed relatively lower ductility in terms of total elongation (TE) than those of the corresponding base metals. The strain localization started before the maximum load was reached, and the strain localization occurred earlier during the whole deformation process with increasing strain rate. As for the dissimilar welded joint, the strain localization tended to occur in the vicinity of the lowest hardness value across the welded joint, which was in the subcritical HAZ at the DP780 side. As the strain rate increased, the typical ductile failure characteristic of the investigated materials did not change.

  3. Microstructure and magnetic behavior of Mn doped GeTe chalcogenide semiconductors based phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Adam Abdalla Elbashir; Cheng, Xiaomin; Abuelhassan, Hassan H.; Miao, Xiang Shui

    2017-06-01

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) are the most promising candidates to be used as an active media in the universal data storage and spintronic devices, due to their large differences in physical properties of the amorphous-crystalline phase transition behavior. In the present study, the microstructure, magnetic and electrical behaviors of Ge0.94Mn0.06Te thin film were investigated. The crystallographic structure of Ge0.94Mn0.06Te thin film was studied sing X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM). The XRD pattern showed that the crystallization structure of the film was rhombohedral phase for GeTe with a preference (202) orientation. The HR-TEM image of the crystalline Ge0.94Mn0.06Te thin film demonstrated that, there were two large crystallites and small amorphous areas. The magnetization as a function of the magnetic field analyses of both amorphous and crystalline states showed the ferromagnetic hysteretic behaviors. Then, the hole carriers concentration of the film was measured and it found to be greater than 1021 cm-3 at room temperature. Moreover, the anomalous of Hall Effect (AHE) was clearly observed for the measuring temperatures 5, 10 and 50 K. The results demonstrated that the magnitude of AHE decreased when the temperature was increasing.

  4. Interfacial friction in low flowrate vertical annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.M.; Freitas, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    During boil-off and reflood transients in nuclear reactors, the core liquid inventory and inlet flowrate are largely determined by the interfacial friction in the reactor core. For these transients, annular flow occurs at relatively modest liquid flowrates and at the low heat fluxes typical of decay heat conditions. The resulting low vapor Reynolds numbers, are out of the data range used to develop the generally accepted interfacial friction relations for annular flow. In addition, most existing annular flow data comes from air/liquid adiabatic experiments with fully developed flows. By contrast, in a reactor core, the flow is continuously developing along the heated length as the vapor flowrate increases and the flow regimes evolve from bubbly to annular flow. Indeed, the entire annular flow regime may exist only over tens of L/D's. Despite these limitations, many of the advanced reactor safety analysis codes employ the Wallis model for interfacial friction in annular flow. Our analyses of the conditions existing at the end-of-reflood in the PERICLES tests have indicated that the Wallis model seriously underestimates the interfacial shear for low vapor velocity cocurrent upflow. To extend the annular flow data base to diabatic low flowrate conditions, the DADINE tests were re-analyzed. In these tests, both pressure drop and local cross-section averaged void fractions were measured. Thus, both the wall and interfacial shear can be deduced. Based on the results of this analysis, a new correlation is proposed for interfacial friction in annular flow. (authors). 5 figs., 12 refs

  5. Interface feature characterization and Schottky interfacial layer confirmation of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongchao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, 410083 Changsha (China); Chongyi Zhangyuan Tungsten Industry Corporation Limited, 341300 Ganzhou (China); Tang, Ningxin; Yang, Hongzhi; Leng, Xian [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, 410083 Changsha (China); Zou, Jianpeng, E-mail: zoujp@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, 410083 Changsha (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Interfacial fusion of TiO{sub 2} nanotube film increases with annealing temperature. • Interface bonding force of the film increases with annealing temperature. • We report the forth stage of nanofibers formation in the growing mechanism. • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes grow from Schottky interface layer rather than from Ti substrate. • Schottky interface layer's thickness of 35–45 nm is half the diameter of nanotube. - Abstract: We report here characterization of the interfacial microstructure and properties of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotube array films fabricated by anodization. Field effect scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoindentation, atomic force microscopy (AFM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to characterize the interface of the film. With increasing annealing temperature from 200 °C to 800 °C, the interfacial fusion between the film and the Ti substrate increased. The phase transformation of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube film from amorphous to anatase to rutile took place gradually; as the phase transformation progressed, the force needed to break the film increased. The growth of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays occurs in four stages: barrier layer formation, penetrating micropore formation, regular nanotube formation, and nanofiber formation. The TiO{sub 2} nanotubes grow from the Schottky interface layer rather than from the Ti substrate. The Schottky interface layer's thickness of 35–45 nm was identified as half the diameter of the corresponding nanotube, which shows good agreement to the Schottky interface layer growth model. The TiO{sub 2} nanotube film was amorphous and the Ti substrate was highly crystallized with many dislocation walls.

  6. Evaluating interfacial adhesion properties of Pt/Ti thin-film by using acousto-optic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae Sung [Graduate School of Automotive Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Didie, David; Yoshida, Sanichiro [Dept. of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond (United States); Park, Ik Keun [Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    We propose an acousto-optic technique for the nondestructive evaluation of adhesion properties of a Pt/Ti thin-film interface. Since there are some problems encountered when using prevailing techniques to nondestructively evaluate the interfacial properties of micro/nano-scale thin-films, we applied an interferometer that combined the acoustic and optical methods. This technique is based on the Michelson interferometer but the resultant surface of the thin film specimen makes interference instead of the mirror when the interface is excited from the acoustic transducer at the driving frequency. The thin film shows resonance-like behavior at a certain frequency range, resulting in a low-contrast fringe pattern. Therefore, we represented quantitatively the change in fringe pattern as a frequency spectrum and discovered the possibility that the interfacial adhesion properties of a thin film can be evaluated using the newly proposed technique.

  7. The Interfacial Behavior between Biochar and Soil Minerals and Its Effect on Biochar Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Zhao, Ling; Gao, Bin; Xu, Xiaoyun; Cao, Xinde

    2016-03-01

    In this study, FeCl3, AlCl3, CaCl2, and kaolinite were selected as model soil minerals and incubated with walnut shell derived biochar for 3 months and the incubated biochar was then separated for the investigation of biochar-mineral interfacial behavior using XRD and SEM-EDS. The XPS, TGA, and H2O2 oxidation were applied to evaluate effects of the interaction on the stability of biochar. Fe8O8(OH)8Cl1.35 and AlCl3·6H2O were newly formed on the biochar surface or inside of the biochar pores. At the biochar-mineral interface, organometallic complexes such as Fe-O-C were generated. All the 4 minerals enhanced the oxidation resistance of biochar surface by decreasing the relative contents of C-O, C═O, and COOH from 36.3% to 16.6-26.5%. Oxidation resistance of entire biochar particles was greatly increased with C losses in H2O2 oxidation decreasing by 13.4-79.6%, and the C recalcitrance index (R50,bicohar) in TGA analysis increasing from 44.6% to 45.9-49.6%. Enhanced oxidation resistance of biochar surface was likely due to the physical isolation from newly formed minerals, while organometallic complex formation was probably responsible for the increase in oxidation resistance of entire biochar particles. Results indicated that mineral-rich soils seemed to be a beneficial environment for biochar since soil minerals could increase biochar stability, which displays an important environmental significance of biochar for long-term carbon sequestration.

  8. Interfacial area transport of bubbly flow in a small diameter pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiki, Takashi; Takamasa, Tomoji; Ishii, Mamoru

    2001-01-01

    In relation to the development of the interfacial area transport equation, this study focused on modeling of the interfacial area transport mechanism of vertical adiabatic air-water bubbly flows in a relatively small diameter pipe where the bubble size-to-pipe diameter ratio was relatively high and the radial motion of bubbles was restricted by the presence of the pipe wall. The sink term of the interfacial area concentration was modeled by considering wake entrainment as a possible bubble coalescence mechanism, whereas the source term was neglected by assuming negligibly small bubble breakup for low liquid velocity conditions based on visual observation. One-dimensional interfacial area transport equation with the derived sink term was evaluated by using five datasets of vertical adiabatic air-water bubbly flows measured in a 9.0 mm-diameter pipe (superficial gas velocity: 0.013-0.052 m/s, superficial liquid velocity: 0.58-1.0 m/s). The modeled interfacial area transport equation could reproduce the proper trend of the axial interfacial area transport and predict the measured interfacial area concentrations within an average relative deviation of ±11.1%. It was recognized that the present model would be promising for predicting the interfacial area transport of the examined bubbly flows. (author)

  9. Particle and surfactant interactions effected polar and dispersive components of interfacial energy in nanocolloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, A. R.; Das, Sarit K.; Agnihotri, Prabhat K.; Dhar, Purbarun

    2017-08-01

    We segregate and report experimentally for the first time the polar and dispersive interfacial energy components of complex nanocolloidal dispersions. In the present study, we introduce a novel inverse protocol for the classical Owens Wendt method to determine the constitutive polar and dispersive elements of surface tension in such multicomponent fluidic systems. The effect of nanoparticles alone and aqueous surfactants alone are studied independently to understand the role of the concentration of the dispersed phase in modulating the constitutive elements of surface energy in fluids. Surfactants are capable of altering the polar component, and the combined particle and surfactant nanodispersions are shown to be effective in modulating the polar and dispersive components of surface tension depending on the relative particle and surfactant concentrations as well as the morphological and electrostatic nature of the dispersed phases. We observe that the combined surfactant and particle colloid exhibits a similar behavior to that of the particle only case; however, the amount of modulation of the polar and dispersive constituents is found to be different from the particle alone case which brings to the forefront the mechanisms through which surfactants modulate interfacial energies in complex fluids. Accordingly, we are able to show that the observations can be merged into a form of quasi-universal trend in the trends of polar and dispersive components in spite of the non-universal character in the wetting behavior of the fluids. We analyze the different factors affecting the polar and dispersive interactions in such complex colloids, and the physics behind such complex interactions has been explained by appealing to the classical dispersion theories by London, Debye, and Keesom as well as by Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory. The findings shed light on the nature of wetting behavior of such complex fluids and help in predicting the wettability and the degree of

  10. Interfacial crystalline structures in injection over-molded polypropylene and bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bowen; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Genjie; Guo, Shaoyun; Huang, Jian

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes interfacial crystalline structures found in injection overmolded polypropylene components and the relationship of these structures to bond strength between the components. The combined effects of the development of hierarchical gradient structures and the particular thermomechanical environment near the interface on the interfacial crystalline structures were investigated in detail by PLM, SEM, DSC, WAXD, and infrared dichroism spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that during molding there was competitive formation of interfacial crystalline structures consisted of "shish-kebab" layer (SKL) and a transcrystalline layers (TCL). Variation in shear stress (controlled by injection pressure and injection speed) plays an important role in the formation of the SKL. The formation of TCL is influenced by the thermal environment, namely melt temperature and mold temperature. Increasing within certain limits, interfacial temperature and the thermal gradient near the interface promotes β-iPP growth. The relationship between interfacial crystalline structures and interfacial bond strength was established by lap shear measurement. The interfacial bond strength is improved by enhancing the formation of TCL, but reduced if SKL predominates.

  11. Microstructures and Properties of 40Cu/Ag(Invar) Composites Fabricated by Powder Metallurgy and Subsequent Thermo-Mechanical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Huang, Yingqiu; Liu, Xiangyu; Yang, Lei; Shi, Changdong; Wu, Yucheng; Tang, Wenming

    2018-03-01

    Composites of 40Cu/Ag(Invar) were prepared via pressureless sintering and subsequent thermo-mechanical treatment from raw materials of electroless Ag-plated Invar alloy powder and electrolytic Cu powder. Microstructures and properties of the prepared composites were studied to evaluate the effect of the Ag layer on blocking Cu/Invar interfacial diffusion in the composites. The electroless-plated Ag layer was dense, uniform, continuous, and bonded tightly with the Invar alloy substrate. During sintering of the composites, the Ag layer effectively prevented Cu/Invar interfacial diffusion. During cold-rolling, the Ag layer was deformed uniformly with the Invar alloy particles. The composites exhibited bi-continuous network structure and considerably improved properties. After sintering at 775 °C and subsequent thermo-mechanical treatment, the 40Cu/Ag(Invar) composites showed satisfactory comprehensive properties: relative density of 99.0 pct, hardness of HV 253, thermal conductivity of 55.7 W/(m K), and coefficient of thermal expansion of 11.2 × 10-6/K.

  12. Microscale fracture mechanisms of a Cr3C2-NiCr HVOF coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Andrew L.; White, Ken W.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal spray coatings, often composed of heterogeneous, multiphase microstructures, may, consequently, exhibit complex fracture behavior. For such coating structures, conventional mechanical evaluation methods fail to isolate the contribution of microstructural features to the overall fracture behavior. For this reason, this study employed focused ion beam machined (FIB) microcantilever beams and FIB sectioning methods to study the fracture mechanisms important at the scale of the heterogeneous Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr thermal spray coating. We found three fracture modes, namely, intergranular matrix fracture, matrix/carbide interfacial fracture, and carbide cleavage. By comparison, microindentation-induced cracks, the frequency of crack deflection around carbides is significantly more prevalent at this much larger crack dimension. This mechanistic variation provides some insight into the specific role and limitations of the microcantilever beam technique for fracture characterization of composite microstructures.

  13. Interfacial patterns in magnetorheological fluids: Azimuthal field-induced structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Eduardo O; Lira, Sérgio A; Miranda, José A

    2015-08-01

    Despite their practical and academic relevance, studies of interfacial pattern formation in confined magnetorheological (MR) fluids have been largely overlooked in the literature. In this work, we present a contribution to this soft matter research topic and investigate the emergence of interfacial instabilities when an inviscid, initially circular bubble of a Newtonian fluid is surrounded by a MR fluid in a Hele-Shaw cell apparatus. An externally applied, in-plane azimuthal magnetic field produced by a current-carrying wire induces interfacial disturbances at the two-fluid interface, and pattern-forming structures arise. Linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theory, and a vortex sheet approach are used to access early linear and intermediate nonlinear time regimes, as well as to determine stationary interfacial shapes at fully nonlinear stages.

  14. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of CoCrFeMnNbNi High-Entropy Alloy Coating by TIG Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-yi Huo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alloy cladding coatings are widely prepared on the surface of tools and machines. High-entropy alloys are potential replacements of nickel-, iron-, and cobalt-base alloys in machining due to their excellent strength and toughness. In this work, CoCrFeMnNbNi HEA coating was produced on AISI 304 steel by tungsten inert gas cladding. The microstructure and wear behavior of the cladding coating were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, microhardness tester, pin-on-ring wear tester, and 3D confocal laser scanning microscope. The microstructure showed up as a nanoscale lamellar structure matrix which is a face-centered-cubic solid solution and niobium-rich Laves phase. The microhardness of the cladding coating is greater than the structure. The cladding coating has excellent wear resistance under the condition of dry sliding wear, and the microploughing in the worn cladding coating is shallower and finer than the worn structure, which is related to composition changes caused by forming the nanoscale lamellar structure of Laves phase.

  15. Effect of friction stir welding on microstructure and corrosion behavior of LF6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghauri, Faizan Ali; Farooq, A.; Ahmad, A.; Deen, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    The LF6 aluminum alloy plates were joined by friction stir welding method. The tool rotational (1180 rpm) and transverse speed (0.56 mm s-1) were kept constant during welding of 4 mm thick plates. The microstructural features, hardness and tensile properties of the welded samples were determined to evaluate the structural integrity in comparison with the base metal. The electrochemical behavior of base metal (BM), thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) and weld nugget zone (WNZ) was also investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3.5% NaCl solution. The microstructural study revealed significant grain refinement and agglomeration of β (Mg2Al3) intermetallic precipitates in the WNZ. The relatively higher hardness and a decrease in the ductility (3%) also assured the formation of precipitates β precipitates in the WNZ welded samples. The fracture surface of welded sample also revealed the existence of β precipitates within the elongated dimples which may be considered as the crack initiation sites. The relatively lower corrosion rate (23.68 mpy) and higher charge transfer resistance (403 Ω cm2) of BM compared to WNZ could be associated with the galvanic dissolution of Al-matrix through competitive charge transfer and relaxation (adsorption/desorption of intermediate species) processes specifically at the vicinity of the β precipitates.

  16. Optimization of interfacial properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites via a modified polyacrylate emulsion sizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xiaomin [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhu, Bo, E-mail: zhubo@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Cai, Xun, E-mail: caixunzh@sdu.edu.cn [School of Computer Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan 250101 (China); Liu, Jianjun [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Qiao, Kun [Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Yu, Junwei [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • An improved interfacial adhesion in CF/EP composite by FSMPA sizing was put forward. • Sized CFs featured promotions of wettability, chemical activity and mechanical property. • A sizing mechanism containing chemical interaction and physical absorption was proposed. - Abstract: The adhesion behavior of epoxy resin to carbon fibers has always been a challenge, on account of the inertness of carbon fibers and the lack of reactive functional groups. In this work, a modified polyacrylate sizing agent was prepared to modify the interface between the carbon fiber and the epoxy matrix. The surface characteristics of carbon fibers were investigated to determine chemical composition, morphology, wettability, interfacial phase analysis and interfacial adhesion. Sized carbon fibers featured improved wettability and a slightly decreased surface roughness due to the coverage of a smooth sizing layer, compared with the unsized ones. Moreover, the content of surface activated carbon atoms increased from 12.65% to 24.70% and the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of carbon fiber/epoxy composites raised by 14.2%, indicating a significant improvement of chemical activity and mechanical property. SEM images of the fractured surface of composites further proved that a gradient interfacial structure with increased thicknesses was formed due to the transition role of the sizing. Based on these results, a sizing mechanism consisting of chemical interaction bonding and physical force absorption was proposed, which provides an efficient and feasible method to solve the poor adhesion between carbon fiber and epoxy matrix.

  17. Optimization of interfacial properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites via a modified polyacrylate emulsion sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Xiaomin; Zhu, Bo; Cai, Xun; Liu, Jianjun; Qiao, Kun; Yu, Junwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved interfacial adhesion in CF/EP composite by FSMPA sizing was put forward. • Sized CFs featured promotions of wettability, chemical activity and mechanical property. • A sizing mechanism containing chemical interaction and physical absorption was proposed. - Abstract: The adhesion behavior of epoxy resin to carbon fibers has always been a challenge, on account of the inertness of carbon fibers and the lack of reactive functional groups. In this work, a modified polyacrylate sizing agent was prepared to modify the interface between the carbon fiber and the epoxy matrix. The surface characteristics of carbon fibers were investigated to determine chemical composition, morphology, wettability, interfacial phase analysis and interfacial adhesion. Sized carbon fibers featured improved wettability and a slightly decreased surface roughness due to the coverage of a smooth sizing layer, compared with the unsized ones. Moreover, the content of surface activated carbon atoms increased from 12.65% to 24.70% and the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of carbon fiber/epoxy composites raised by 14.2%, indicating a significant improvement of chemical activity and mechanical property. SEM images of the fractured surface of composites further proved that a gradient interfacial structure with increased thicknesses was formed due to the transition role of the sizing. Based on these results, a sizing mechanism consisting of chemical interaction bonding and physical force absorption was proposed, which provides an efficient and feasible method to solve the poor adhesion between carbon fiber and epoxy matrix.

  18. Influence of the interfacial peptide organization on the catalysis of hydrogen evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doneux, Th; Dorcák, V; Palecek, E

    2010-01-19

    The hydrogen evolution reaction is catalyzed by peptides and proteins adsorbed on electrode materials with high overpotentials for this reaction, such as mercury. The catalytic response characteristics are known to be very sensitive to the composition and structure of the investigated biomolecule, opening the way to the implementation of a label-free, reagentless electroanalytical method in protein analysis. Herein, it is shown using the model peptide Cys-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala that the interfacial organization significantly influences the catalytic behavior. This peptide forms at the electrode two distinct films, depending on the concentration and accumulation time. The low-coverage film, composed of flat-lying molecules (area per molecule of approximately 250-290 A(2)), yields a well-defined catalytic peak at potentials around -1.75 V. The high-coverage film, made of upright-oriented peptides (area per molecule of approximately 43 A(2)), is catalytically more active and the peak is observed at potentials less negative by approximately 0.4 V. The higher activity, evidenced by constant-current chronopotentiometry and cyclic voltammetry, is attributed to an increase in the acid dissociation constant of the amino acid residues as a result of the low permittivity of the interfacial region, as inferred from impedance measurements. An analogy is made to the known differences in acidic-basic behaviors of solvent-exposed and hydrophobic domains of proteins.

  19. Microstructural influence on fatigue properties of a high-strength spring steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.S.; Lee, K.A.; Li, D.M. [Pohang Univ. of Sci. and Technol. (Korea, Republic of). Center for Adv. Aerospace Mater.; Yoo, S.J.; Nam, W.J. [Technical Research Laboratory, Pohang Iron and Steel Co. Ltd, Pohang 790-785 (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-30

    A study has been made to investigate the fatigue properties of a high-strength spring steel in relation to the microstructural variation via different heat treatments. Rotating-bending fatigue and fatigue crack growth (FCG) tests were conducted to evaluate the fatigue properties, and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) unit was used to characterize the tempered microstructure. The results indicate that the fatigue endurance {sigma}{sub f} increases with increasing tempering temperature, reaching a maximum at 450 C, then decreases. The increase of {sigma}{sub f} is mainly attributed to the refined distribution of precipitation, together with the structural uniformity of tempered martensite. The softening of tempered martensite due to excessive precipitation accounts for the decrease of {sigma}{sub f}. By contrast, the FCG results show an insensitivity of the stage-II growth behavior to the microstructural changes for the whole range of tempering temperature tested. The insensitivity is interpreted in terms of the counterbalancing microstructure-dependent contributions to the FCG behavior. (orig.) 30 refs.

  20. Microstructure of ZnO thin films deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, A.N., E-mail: amber.reed.5@us.af.mil [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Shamberger, P.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Hu, J.J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); University of Dayton Research Institute, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Muratore, C. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Bultman, J.E. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); University of Dayton Research Institute, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Voevodin, A.A., E-mail: andrey.voevodin@us.af.mil [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering was used to deposit thin (~ 100 nm) zinc oxide (ZnO) films from a ceramic ZnO target onto substrates heated to 150 °C. The resulting films had strong crystallinity, highly aligned (002) texture and low surface roughness (root mean square roughness less than 10 nm), as determined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force spectroscopy measurements. Deposition pressure and target–substrate distance had the greatest effect on film microstructure. The degree of alignment in the films was strongly dependent on the gas pressure. Deposition at pressures less than 0.93 Pa resulted in a bimodal distribution of grain sizes. An initial growth layer with preferred orientations (101) and (002) parallel to the interface was observed at the film–substrate interface under all conditions examined here; the extent of that competitive region was dependent on growth conditions. Time-resolved current measurements of the target and ion energy distributions, determined using energy resolved mass spectrometry, were correlated to film microstructure in order to investigate the effect of plasma conditions on film nucleation and growth. - Highlights: • Low temperature growth of nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) films. • ZnO films had a highly (002) textured, smooth, dense microstructure. • Dominant (002) orientation of films was pressure dependent. • Interfacial (101)/(002) mixed orientation layer controlled by substrate location.

  1. Influence of Zn Interlayer on Interfacial Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TIG Lap-Welded Mg/Al Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiong; Wang, Kehong

    2016-03-01

    This study explored 6061 Al alloy and AZ31B Mg alloy joined by TIG lap welding with Zn foils of varying thicknesses, with the additional Zn element being imported into the fusion zone to alloy the weld seam. The microstructures and chemical composition in the fusion zone near the Mg substrate were examined by SEM and EDS, and tensile shear strength tests were conducted to investigate the mechanical properties of the Al/Mg joints, as well as the fracture surfaces, and phase compositions. The results revealed that the introduction of an appropriate amount of Zn transition layer improves the microstructure of Mg/Al joints and effectively reduces the formation of Mg-Al intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The most common IMCs in the fusion zone near the Mg substrate were Mg-Zn and Mg-Al-Zn IMCs. The type and distribution of IMCs generated in the weld zone differed according to Zn additions; Zn interlayer thickness of 0.4 mm improved the sample's mechanical properties considerably compared to thicknesses of less than 0.4 mm; however, any further increase in Zn interlayer thickness of above 0.4 mm caused mechanical properties to deteriorate.

  2. DETECTION OF POLARIZED QUASI-PERIODIC MICROSTRUCTURE EMISSION IN MILLISECOND PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Kishalay; Sharma, Prateek [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Gupta, Yashwant, E-mail: kde@caltech.edu [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 3, Pune 411007 (India)

    2016-12-10

    Microstructure emission, involving short timescale, often quasi-periodic, intensity fluctuations in subpulse emission, is well known in normal period pulsars. In this Letter, we present the first detections of quasi-periodic microstructure emission from millisecond pulsars (MSPs), from Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations of two MSPs at 325 and 610 MHz. Similar to the characteristics of microstructure observed in normal period pulsars, we find that these features are often highly polarized and exhibit quasi-periodic behavior on top of broader subpulse emission, with periods of the order of a few μ s. By measuring their widths and periodicities from single pulse intensity profiles and their autocorrelation functions, we extend the microstructure timescale–rotation period relationship by more than an order of magnitude down to rotation periods ∼5 ms, and find it to be consistent with the relationship derived earlier for normal pulsars. The similarity of behavior is remarkable, given the significantly different physical properties of MSPs and normal period pulsars, and rules out several previous speculations about the possible different characteristics of microstructure in MSP radio emission. We discuss the possible reasons for the non-detection of these features in previous high time resolution MSP studies along with the physical implications of our results, both in terms of a geometric beam sweeping model and temporal modulation model for micropulse production.

  3. Ultrasonic Spot and Torsion Welding of Aluminum to Titanium Alloys: Process, Properties and Interfacial Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balle, Frank; Magin, Jens

    Hybrid lightweight structures shape the development of future vehicles in traffic engineering and the aerospace industry. For multi-material concepts made out of aluminum and titanium alloys, the ultrasonic welding technique is an alternative effective joining technology. The overlapped structures can be welded in the solid state, even without gas shielding. In this paper the conventional ultrasonic spot welding with longitudinal oscillation mode is compared to the recent ultrasonic torsion welding with a torsional mode at 20 kHz working frequency. For each technique the process parameters welding force, welding energy and oscillation amplitude were optimized for the hybrid joints using design of experiments. Relationships between the process parameters, mechanical properties and related welding zone should be understood. Central aspects of the research project are microscopic studies of the joining zone in cross section and extensive fracture surface analysis. Detailed electron microscopy and spectroscopy of the hybrid interface help to understand the interfacial formation during ultrasonic welding as well as to transfer the gained knowledge for further multi-metal joints.

  4. Surface Nb-ALLOYING on 0.4C-13Cr Stainless Steel: Microstructure and Tribological Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengwang; You, Kai; Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yihui; Wang, Zhenxia; Liu, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    0.4C-13Cr stainless steel was alloyed with niobium using double glow plasma surface alloying and tribological properties of Nb-alloyed steel such as hardness, friction and wear were measured. Effects of the alloying temperature on microstructure and the tribological behavior of the alloyed steel were investigated compared with untreated steel. Formation mechanisms of Nb-alloyed layers and increased wear resistance were also studied. The result shows that after surface Nb-alloying treatment, the 0.4C-13Cr steel exhibits a diffusion adhesion at the alloyed layer/substrate interface and improved tribological property. The friction coefficient of Nb-alloyed steel is decreased by about 0.3-0.45 and the wear rate after Nb-alloying is only 2-5% of untreated steel.

  5. Experimental study on interfacial area transport in downward two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanyi

    In view of the importance of two group interfacial area transport equations and lack of corresponding accurate downward flow database that can reveal two group interfacial area transport, a systematic database for adiabatic, air-water, vertically downward two-phase flow in a round pipe with inner diameter of 25.4 mm was collected to gain an insight of interfacial structure and provide benchmarking data for two-group interfacial area transport models. A four-sensor conductivity probe was used to measure the local two phase flow parameters and data was collected with data sampling frequency much higher than conventional data sampling frequency to ensure the accuracy. Axial development of local flow parameter profiles including void fraction, interfacial area concentration, and Sauter mean diameter were presented. Drastic inter-group transfer of void fraction and interfacial area was observed at bubbly to slug transition flow. And the wall peaked interfacial area concentration profiles were observed in churn-turbulent flow. The importance of local data about these phenomenon on flow structure prediction and interfacial area transport equation benchmark was analyzed. Bedsides, in order to investigate the effect of inlet conditions, all experiments were repeated after installing the flow straightening facility, and the results were briefly analyzed. In order to check the accuracy of current data, the experiment results were cross-checked with rotameter measurement as well as drift-flux model prediction, the averaged error is less than 15%. Current models for two-group interfacial area transport equation were evaluated using these data. The results show that two-group interfacial area transport equations with current models can predict most flow conditions with error less than 20%, except some bubbly to slug transition flow conditions and some churn-turbulent flow conditions. The disagreement between models and experiments could result from underestimate of inter

  6. An Analysis of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties on Friction Stir Welded Joint of Dissimilar 304 Stainless Steel and Commercially Pure Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamagendiravarman M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, friction stir welding of dissimilar 304 stainless steel and commercially pure aluminium was performed under the following condition of tool rotational speed 1000 rpm, traverse speed 60 mm/min and tool tilt angle 2 degree. Microstructural characterisation was carried out by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM. Optical images shows that the microstructural change is very minimum in steel side when compared to aluminium side due to the difference in mechanical and thermal properties. The intermetallic compound Al3Fe was observed at the interfacial region and stir region of the welded joint. The maximum ultimate tensile strength is 78% of commercially pure aluminium base metal. Microhardness profile was measured across the weld interface and the maximum value reaches at the stir zone due to the formation of intermettalics.

  7. Microstructure and Tensile Behavior of Al8Co17Cr17Cu8Fe17Ni33 (at.%) High-Entropy Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, H. M.; Manzoni, A.; Völkl, R.; Wanderka, N.; Glatzel, U.

    2013-12-01

    Microstructure evolution and tensile behavior of the high-entropy alloy Al8Co17Cr17Cu8Fe17Ni33 (at.%) are investigated at room temperature and at 500°C in the as-cast state and under different heat-treatment conditions. Detailed microstructural characterizations are carried out using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The equilibrium phase evolution as a function of temperature was calculated using the Thermo-Calc software (Thermo-Calc Software, Stockholm, Sweden) integrated with TTNi-7 database. The observed majority phase is a face-centered cubic solid solution for all tested specimens. Tensile ductility at room temperature and at elevated temperature is enhanced by heat treatment at 1150°C. An embrittlement phenomenon has been observed after a heat treatment at 700°C resulting in significant degradation in tensile properties.

  8. Instant polysaccharide-based emulsions: impact of microstructure on lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torcello-Gómez, Amelia; Foster, Timothy J

    2017-06-21

    The development of emulsion-based products through optimisation of ingredients, reduction in energy-input during manufacture, while fulfilling healthy attributes, are major objectives within the food industry. Instant emulsions can meet these features, but comprehensive studies are necessary to investigate the effect of the initial formulation on the final microstructure and, in turn, on the in vitro lipolysis, comprising the double aim of this work. The instant emulsion is formed within 1.5-3 min after pouring the aqueous phase into the oil phase which contains a mixture of emulsifier (Tween 20), swelling particles (Sephadex) and thickeners (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, HPMC, and guar gum, GG) under mild shearing (180 rpm). The creation of oil-in-water emulsions is monitored in situ by viscosity analysis, the final microstructure visualised by microscopy and the release of free fatty acids under simulated intestinal conditions quantified by titration. Increasing the concentration and molecular weight (M w ) of GG leads to smaller emulsion droplets due to increased bulk viscosity upon shearing. This droplet size reduction is magnified when increasing the M w of HPMC or swelling capacity of viscosifying particles. In addition, in the absence of the emulsifier Tween 20, the sole use of high-Mw HPMC is effective in emulsification due to combined increased bulk viscosity and interfacial activity. Hence, optimisation of the ingredient choice and usage level is possible when designing microstructures. Finally, emulsions with larger droplet size (>20 μm) display a slower rate and lower extent of lipolysis, while finer emulsions (droplet size ≤20 μm) exhibit maximum rate and extent profiles. This correlates with the extent of emulsion destabilisation observed under intestinal conditions.

  9. Interfacial shear stress in stratified flow in a horizontal rectangular duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorencez, C.; Kawaji, M.; Murao, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Interfacial shear stress has been experimentally examined for both cocurrent and countercurrent stratified wavy flows in a horizontal interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress values at high gas flow rates which could be attributed to the assumptions and procedures involved in each method. The interfacial waves and secondary motions were also found to have significant effects on the accuracy of Reynolds stress and turbulence kinetic energy extrapolation methods

  10. Interfacial shear stress in stratified flow in a horizontal rectangular duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorencez, C.; Kawaji, M. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Murao, Y. [Tokushima Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Interfacial shear stress has been experimentally examined for both cocurrent and countercurrent stratified wavy flows in a horizontal interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress values at high gas flow rates which could be attributed to the assumptions and procedures involved in each method. The interfacial waves and secondary motions were also found to have significant effects on the accuracy of Reynolds stress and turbulence kinetic energy extrapolation methods.

  11. Mechanical properties and microstructure analysis of fly ash geopolymeric recycled concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, X.S.; Collins, F.G.; Zhao, X.L.; Wang, Q.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sodium silicate solution and sodium hydroxide solution were used to activate fly ash, which substitute cement totally in the concrete. ► Utilizing two kinds of waste materials (fly ash and recycled aggregates) at the same time. ► The mechanical properties and microstructures were studied and compared with different recycled aggregates replacement ratios. ► Such concrete has greater compressive strength and better microstructure than ordinary concrete and also geopolymer concrete. - Abstract: Six mixtures with different recycled aggregate (RA) replacement ratios of 0%, 50% and 100% were designed to manufacture recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) and alkali-activated fly ash geopolymeric recycled concrete (GRC). The physical and mechanical properties were investigated indicating different performances from each other. Optical microscopy under transmitted light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were carried out in this study in order to identify the mechanism underlying the effects of the geopolymer and RA on concrete properties. The features of aggregates, paste and interfacial transition zone (ITZ) were compared and discussed. Experimental results indicate that using alkali-activated fly ash geopolymer as replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) effectively improved the compressive strength. With increasing of RA contents in both RAC and GRC, the compressive strength decreased gradually. The microstructure analysis shows that, on one hand, the presence of RA weakens the strength of the aggregates and the structure of ITZs; on the other hand, due to the alkali-activated fly ash in geopolymer concrete, the contents of Portlandite (Ca(OH) 2 ) and voids were reduced, as well as improved the matrix homogeneity. The microstructure of GRC was changed by different reaction products, such as aluminosilicate gel.

  12. Mathematical Investigation of Fluid Flow, Mass Transfer, and Slag-steel Interfacial Behavior in Gas-stirred Ladles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Nastac, Laurentiu

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the Euler-Euler and Euler-Lagrange modeling approaches were applied to simulate the multiphase flow in the water model and gas-stirred ladle systems. Detailed comparisons of the computational and experimental results were performed to establish which approach is more accurate for predicting the gas-liquid multiphase flow phenomena. It was demonstrated that the Euler-Lagrange approach is more accurate than the Euler-Euler approach. The Euler-Lagrange approach was applied to study the effects of the free surface setup, injected bubble size, gas flow rate, and slag layer thickness on the slag-steel interaction and mass transfer behavior. Detailed discussions on the flat/non-flat free surface assumption were provided. Significant inaccuracies in the prediction of the surface fluid flow characteristics were found when the flat free surface was assumed. The variations in the main controlling parameters (bubble size, gas flow rate, and slag layer thickness) and their potential impact on the multiphase fluid flow and mass transfer characteristics (turbulent intensity, mass transfer rate, slag-steel interfacial area, flow patterns, etc.,) in gas-stirred ladles were quantitatively determined to ensure the proper increase in the ladle refining efficiency. It was revealed that by injecting finer bubbles as well as by properly increasing the gas flow rate and the slag layer thickness, the ladle refining efficiency can be enhanced significantly.

  13. Characterizing ingestive behavior through licking microstructure: Underlying neurobiology and its use in the study of obesity in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alexander W

    2018-02-01

    Ingestive behavior is controlled by multiple distinct peripheral and central physiological mechanisms that ultimately determine whether a particular food should be accepted or avoided. As rodents consume a fluid they display stereotyped rhythmic tongue movements, and by analyzing the temporal distribution of pauses of licking, it is possible through analyses of licking microstructure to uncover dissociable evaluative and motivational variables that contribute to ingestive behavior. The mean number of licks occurring within each burst of licking (burst and cluster size) reflects the palatability of the consumed solution, whereas the frequency of initiating novel bouts of licking behavior (burst and cluster number) is dependent upon the degree of gastrointestinal inhibition that accrues through continued fluid ingestion. This review describes the analysis of these measures within a context of the behavioral variables that come to influence the acceptance or avoidance of a fluid, and the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie alterations in the temporal distribution of pauses of licks. The application of these studies to models of obesity in animals is also described. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An Investigation of the Microstructure and Fatigue Behavior of Additively Manufactured AISI 316L Stainless Steel with Regard to the Influence of Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Blinn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To exploit the whole potential of Additive Manufacturing, it is essential to investigate the complex relationships between Additive Manufacturing processes, the resulting microstructure, and mechanical properties of the materials and components. In the present work, Selective Laser Melted (SLM (process category: powder bed fusion, Laser Deposition Welded (LDW (process category: direct energy deposition and, for comparison, Continuous Casted and then hot and cold drawn (CC austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L blanks were investigated with regard to their microstructure and mechanical properties. To exclude the influence of surface topography and focus the investigation on the volume microstructure, the blanks were turned into final geometry of specimens. The additively manufactured (AM- blanks were manufactured in both the horizontal and vertical building directions. In the horizontally built specimens, the layer planes are perpendicular and in vertical building direction, they are parallel to the load axis of the specimens. The materials from different manufacturing processes exhibit different chemical composition and hence, austenite stability. Additionally, all types of blanks were heat treated (2 h, 1070 °C, H2O and the influence of the heat treatment on the properties of differently manufactured materials were investigated. From the cyclic deformation curves obtained in the load increase tests, the anisotropic fatigue behavior of the AM-specimens could be detected with only one specimen in each building direction for the different Additive Manufacturing processes, which could be confirmed by constant amplitude tests. The results showed higher fatigue strength for horizontally built specimens compared to the vertical building direction. Furthermore, the constant amplitude tests show that the austenite stability influences the fatigue behavior of differently manufactured 316L. Using load increase tests as an efficient rating method of the

  15. Organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Shanxin, E-mail: xiongsx@xust.edu.cn; Yin, Siyuan; Wang, Yuyun; Kong, Zhenzhen; Lan, Jinpeng; Zhang, Runlan; Gong, Ming; Wu, Bohua; Chu, Jia; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • We review the effects of interfacial interactions in electrochromic nanocomposites. • Interfacial interactions are useful for film fabrication and property-enhancement. • The strong interaction can enhance the electron conduction and structural strength. • The weak interactions exist widely between organic and inorganic phases. • Multiple weak interactions can provide various performance-adjusting approaches. - Abstract: Electrochromic properties of organic or inorganic materials can be improved through preparing organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites. In electrochromic nanocomposites, the interfacial interactions between the organic and inorganic phases play three important roles in preparation and application of the nanocomposites. Firstly, the interfacial interactions result in stable molecular structures. Secondly, they also improve the electron conduction and ion transport process in the nanocomposites. Thirdly, they enhance the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the nanocomposites. In this paper, we review the common interfacial interactions including covalent bond, coordination bond, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interaction between the organic and inorganic phases in the electrochromic nanocomposites. The preparation method, the relationship between the structure and properties, and the mechanism of modulation of electrochromic effect in the nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions are surveyed. The strong interfacial interaction, e.g., covalent bond, is helpful for obtaining electrochromic nanocomposites with high electron conduction and high structural strength. However it is very complicated to construct covalent bond between the organic and inorganic phases. Another strong interfacial interaction, the coordination bond is mainly confined to preparation of electrochromic complex of metal ion and pyridine derivative. While, the weak interfacial interactions, e

  16. Organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Shanxin; Yin, Siyuan; Wang, Yuyun; Kong, Zhenzhen; Lan, Jinpeng; Zhang, Runlan; Gong, Ming; Wu, Bohua; Chu, Jia; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We review the effects of interfacial interactions in electrochromic nanocomposites. • Interfacial interactions are useful for film fabrication and property-enhancement. • The strong interaction can enhance the electron conduction and structural strength. • The weak interactions exist widely between organic and inorganic phases. • Multiple weak interactions can provide various performance-adjusting approaches. - Abstract: Electrochromic properties of organic or inorganic materials can be improved through preparing organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites. In electrochromic nanocomposites, the interfacial interactions between the organic and inorganic phases play three important roles in preparation and application of the nanocomposites. Firstly, the interfacial interactions result in stable molecular structures. Secondly, they also improve the electron conduction and ion transport process in the nanocomposites. Thirdly, they enhance the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the nanocomposites. In this paper, we review the common interfacial interactions including covalent bond, coordination bond, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interaction between the organic and inorganic phases in the electrochromic nanocomposites. The preparation method, the relationship between the structure and properties, and the mechanism of modulation of electrochromic effect in the nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions are surveyed. The strong interfacial interaction, e.g., covalent bond, is helpful for obtaining electrochromic nanocomposites with high electron conduction and high structural strength. However it is very complicated to construct covalent bond between the organic and inorganic phases. Another strong interfacial interaction, the coordination bond is mainly confined to preparation of electrochromic complex of metal ion and pyridine derivative. While, the weak interfacial interactions, e

  17. Innovative microstructures in ThO2-UO2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutty, T.R.G.; Sengupta, A.K.; Majumdar, S.; Sah, D.N.; Kamath, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    The basic properties that really matter to the nuclear scientists are those that have greatest influence on microstructure: crystal structure, defects concentration and phase stability. The role of microstructure and crystal defects in determining the engineering properties are always acknowledged. Microstructure of nuclear fuels controls the in-pile fuel behavior like fission gas release, plasticity, in-pile creep and swelling. Conventional nuclear ceramic fabrication process consists of a number of stages, including calcination, milling, incorporating additives, pressing, drying and densification. Since each of these steps affects the microstructure of fuel pellets they must all be understood and a more holistic approach is required when processing nuclear ceramics compared to metals and polymers. It is possible to obtain a wide range of microstructures for ThO 2 -UO 2 system if a proper fabrication route is chosen. It is possible to tailor microstructure as per our requirement so that an improved behaviour during irradiation is expected. The improvement in plasticity and fission gas release can be attained by modifying the microstructure during fabrication. This paper deals with fabrication of ThO 2 -UO 2 pellets of varying U content and its characterization with the help of optical microscopy, XRD, SEM and EPMA. The microstructures are characterized in terms grain size, pore size and its distribution and homogeneity of uranium. (author)

  18. Prediction of shock initiation thresholds and ignition probability of polymer-bonded explosives using mesoscale simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seokpum; Wei, Yaochi; Horie, Yasuyuki; Zhou, Min

    2018-05-01

    The design of new materials requires establishment of macroscopic measures of material performance as functions of microstructure. Traditionally, this process has been an empirical endeavor. An approach to computationally predict the probabilistic ignition thresholds of polymer-bonded explosives (PBXs) using mesoscale simulations is developed. The simulations explicitly account for microstructure, constituent properties, and interfacial responses and capture processes responsible for the development of hotspots and damage. The specific mechanisms tracked include viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, fracture, post-fracture contact, frictional heating, and heat conduction. The probabilistic analysis uses sets of statistically similar microstructure samples to directly mimic relevant experiments for quantification of statistical variations of material behavior due to inherent material heterogeneities. The particular thresholds and ignition probabilities predicted are expressed in James type and Walker-Wasley type relations, leading to the establishment of explicit analytical expressions for the ignition probability as function of loading. Specifically, the ignition thresholds corresponding to any given level of ignition probability and ignition probability maps are predicted for PBX 9404 for the loading regime of Up = 200-1200 m/s where Up is the particle speed. The predicted results are in good agreement with available experimental measurements. A parametric study also shows that binder properties can significantly affect the macroscopic ignition behavior of PBXs. The capability to computationally predict the macroscopic engineering material response relations out of material microstructures and basic constituent and interfacial properties lends itself to the design of new materials as well as the analysis of existing materials.

  19. Basic equations of interfacial area transport in gas-liquid two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, I.; Yoshida, K.; Naitoh, M.; Okada, H.; Morii, T.

    2011-01-01

    The rigorous and consistent formulations of basic equations of interfacial area transport were derived using correlation functions of characteristic function of each phase and velocities of each phase. Turbulent transport term of interfacial area concentration was consistently derived and related to the difference between interfacial velocity and averaged velocity of each phase. Constitutive equations of turbulent transport terms of interfacial area concentration were proposed for bubbly flow. New transport model and constitutive equations were developed for churn flow. These models and constitutive equations are validated by experimental data of radial distributions of interfacial area concentration in bubbly and churn flow. (author)

  20. Interfacial failure in dissimilar weld joint of high boron 9% chromium steel and nickel-based alloy under high-temperature creep condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Tetsuya, E-mail: MATSUNAGA.Tetsuya@nims.go.jp; Hongo, Hiromichi, E-mail: HONGO.Hiromichi@nims.go.jp; Tabuchi, Masaaki, E-mail: TABUCHI.Masaaki@nims.go.jp

    2017-05-17

    The advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) power generation system is expected to become the next-generation base-load power station in Japan. Dissimilar weld joints between high-Cr heat-resistant steels and nickel-based alloys with a nickel-based filler metal (Alloy 82) will need to be adopted for this purpose. However, interfacial failure between the steels and weld metal has been observed under high-temperature creep conditions. Fractography and microstructure observations showed the failure initiated in a brittle manner by an oxide notch at the bottom of the U-groove. The fracture then proceeded along the bond line in a ductile manner with shallow dimples, where micro-Vickers hardness tests showed remarkable softening in the steel next to the bond line. In addition, the steel showed a much larger total elongation and reduction of area than the weld metal at low stresses under long-term creep conditions, leading to mismatch deformation at the interface. According to the results, it can be concluded that the interfacial failure between the 9Cr steels and Alloy 82 weld metal is initiated by an oxide notch and promoted by softening and the difference in the plasticity of the steels and weld metal.

  1. Biomimetic microstructures for photonic and fluidic synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Maria; Mpatzaka, Theodora; Alexandropoulos, Dimitris; Vainos, Nikolaos A.

    2017-08-01

    Nature-inspired micro- and nano-structures offer a unique platform for the development of novel synergetic systems combining photonic and microfluidic functionalities. In this context, we examine the paradigm of butterfly Vanessa cardui and develop artificial diffractive microstructures inspired by its natural designs. Softlithographic and nanoimprint protocols are developed to replicate surfaces of natural specimens. Further to their optical behavior, interphases tailored by such microstructures exhibit enhanced hydrophobic properties, as compared to their planar counterparts made of the same materials. Such synergies exploited by new design approaches pave the way to prospective optofluidic, lab-on-chip and sensing applications.

  2. Environmental Fatigue Behaviors of CF8M Stainless Steel in 310 .deg. C Deoxygenated Water - Effects of Hydrogen and Microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hun; Cho, Pyungyeon; Jang, Changheui [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Soon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    The effects of environment and microstructure on low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviors of CF8M stainless steels containing 11% of ferrites were investigated in a 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water environment. The reduction of LCF life of CF8M in a 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water was smaller than 316LN stainless steels. Based on the microstructure and fatigue surface analyses, it was confirmed that the hydrogen induced cracking contributed to the reduction in LCF life for CF8M as well as for 316LN. However, many secondary cracks were found on the boundaries of ferrite phases in CF8M, which effectively reduced the stress concentration at the crack tip. Because of the reduced stress concentration, the accelerated fatigue crack growth by hydrogen induced cracking was less significant, which resulted in the smaller environmental effects for CF8M than 316LN in a 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water.

  3. Microstructure-based approach for predicting crack initiation and early growth in metals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, James V.; Emery, John M.; Brewer, Luke N.; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Puskar, Joseph David; Bartel, Timothy James; Dingreville, Remi P. M.; Foulk, James W., III; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Boyce, Brad Lee

    2009-09-01

    Fatigue cracking in metals has been and is an area of great importance to the science and technology of structural materials for quite some time. The earliest stages of fatigue crack nucleation and growth are dominated by the microstructure and yet few models are able to predict the fatigue behavior during these stages because of a lack of microstructural physics in the models. This program has developed several new simulation tools to increase the microstructural physics available for fatigue prediction. In addition, this program has extended and developed microscale experimental methods to allow the validation of new microstructural models for deformation in metals. We have applied these developments to fatigue experiments in metals where the microstructure has been intentionally varied.

  4. Microstructure and dynamic tensile behavior of DP600 dual phase steel joint by laser welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Danyang, E-mail: dongdanyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Yang, Yuling, E-mail: yulingyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Jinfeng, E-mail: lijinfengboda@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Ma, Min, E-mail: sharon6789@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jiang, Tao, E-mail: tao.jiang906@yahoo.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2014-01-31

    Dual phase (DP) steels have been widely used in the automotive industry to reduce vehicle weight and improve car safety. In such applications welding and joining have to be involved, which would lead to a localized change of the microstructure and property, and create potential safety and reliable issues under dynamic loading. The aim of the present study is to examine the rate-dependent mechanical properties, deformation and fracture behavior of DP600 steel and its welded joint (WJ) produced by Nd:YAG laser welding over a wide range of strain rates (0.001–1133 s{sup −1}). Laser welding results in not only significant microhardness increase in the fusion zone (FZ) and inner heat-affected zone (HAZ), but also the formation of a softened zone in the outer HAZ. The yield strength (YS) of the DP600 steel increases and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) remains almost unchanged, but the ductility decreases after welding. The DP600 base metal (BM) and WJ are of positive strain rate sensitivity and show similar stress–strain response at all studied strain rates. The enhanced ductility at strain rates ranging from 1 to 100 s{sup −1} is attributed to the retardation of the propagation of plastic strain localization due to the positive strain rate sensitivity and the thermal softening caused by deformation induced adiabatic temperature rise during dynamic tensile deformation. The tensile failure occurs in the inner HAZ of the joint and the distance of failure location from the weld centerline decreases with increasing strain rate. The mechanism for the changing failure location can be related to the different strain rate dependence of the plastic deformation behavior of the microstructures in various regions across the joint. The DP600 WJ absorbs more energy over the whole measured strain rates than that of the BM due to the higher strength at the same strain when the deformation only up to 10% is considered.

  5. Effect of Post-Braze Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Shear Strength of Cemented Carbide and Steel Using Ag-Based Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winardi, Y.; Triyono; Muhayat, N.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect temperature of heat treatment process on the interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of cemented carbide/carbon steel single lap joint brazed using Ag based alloy filler metal. The brazing process was carried out using torch brazing. Heat treatment process was carried out in induction furnace on the temperature of 700, 725, and 750°C, for 30 minutes. Microstructural examinations and phase analysis were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS). Shear strength of the joints was measured by the universal testing machine. The results of the microstructural analyses of the brazed area indicate that the increase temperature of treatment lead to the increase of solid solution phase of enrichted Cu. Based on EDS test, the carbon elements spread to all brazed area, which is disseminated by base metals. Shear strength joint is increased with temperature treatment. The highest shear strength of the brazed joint was 214,14 MPa when the heated up at 725°C.

  6. Interfacial thermal conductance in multilayer graphene/phosphorene heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ying-Yan; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Mai, Yiu-Wing; Lai, Siu-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Vertical integration of 2D materials has recently appeared as an effective method for the design of novel nano-scale devices. Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we study the interfacial thermal transport property of graphene/phosphorene heterostructures where phosphorene is sandwiched in between graphene. Various modulation techniques are thoroughly explored. We found that the interfacial thermal conductance at the interface of graphene and phosphorene can be enhanced significantly by using vacancy defects, hydrogenation and cross-plane compressive strain. By contrast, the reduction in the interfacial thermal conductance can be achieved by using cross-plane tensile strain. Our results provide important guidelines for manipulating the thermal transport in graphene/phosphorene based-nano-devices. (paper)

  7. Relationship of microstructure to fracture topography in orthopedic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbertson, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Two major alloys used for orthopedic implants are 316L stainless steel and a cast cobalt--chromium--molybdenum alloy similar to Haynes Stellite 21. Another alloy that is just being introduced is Ti--6Al--4V. All three of these alloys are used in different conditions with different microstructures. Standard specimens with typical microstructures encountered in orthopedic applications were loaded to fracture in both overload and fatigue modes. Different rates of loading were also used in some cases. The fracture surfaces of these standard samples were analyzed in the Scanning Electron Microscope. An attempt was made to relate the fracture behavior, as evidenced by the fracture typography, to the microstructure of the alloy as revealed by metallography

  8. Computing optimal interfacial structure of modulated phases

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jie; Wang, Chu; Shi, An-Chang; Zhang, Pingwen

    2016-01-01

    We propose a general framework of computing interfacial structures between two modulated phases. Specifically we propose to use a computational box consisting of two half spaces, each occupied by a modulated phase with given position and orientation. The boundary conditions and basis functions are chosen to be commensurate with the bulk structures. It is observed that the ordered nature of modulated structures stabilizes the interface, which enables us to obtain optimal interfacial structures...

  9. Microstructure, cold workability and strain hardening behavior of trimodaled AA 6061-TiO2 nanocomposite prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivasankaran, S.; Sivaprasad, K.; Narayanasamy, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Trimodaled composites consisting of UFG and CG matrix phases and ceramic phase were produced successfully. → Cold deformation behavior was investigated. → The 15% CG trimodaled composite yielded a high compressive strength of 935 MPa. → The 30% CG composite exhibited higher ductility while maintaining strength and toughness. - Abstract: In the present work, the improvement of compressive ductility while maintaining high strength and toughness for nanocrystalline materials by cold upsetting (incremental loads) of bulk trimodaled composite was studied. Mechanically alloyed nanocrystalline (NC) AA 6061 alloy powders reinforced with nano TiO 2 were blended with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 wt.% coarse grain (CG) elemental powders related to AA 6061 alloy composition to produce trimodal microstructure. The synthesized composite preforms were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The room temperature compressive deformation behavior was evaluated under triaxial stress state condition. With increasing percentage of CG phase in the nanocomposite, the gradual improvement in compressive ductility was observed at the cost of a small amount of strength but it favored the ease of deformation. The 15% CG trimodal composite exhibited an extremely high compressive strength of 935 MPa due to non-coalescence of individual CG particles and effective load transfer occurred in multi scale microstructures. But the 30% CG trimodal composite showed an incremental compressive ductility of around 16% while sacrificing a small amount of strength (845 MPa) and this composite displayed improved toughness (area under true effective stress and true effective strain curve) of over 600% than nanocomposite (0% CG). Also, the percentage cold workability of 30% CG composite was six times higher than that of 0% CG composite. Hence, the 30% CG trimodal composite was observed to be the good one as

  10. Development of the novel ferrous-based stainless steel for biomedical applications, part I: high-temperature microstructure, mechanical properties and damping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Zong; Chen, Shih-Chung; Shih, Yung-Hsun; Hung, Jing-Ming; Lin, Chia-Cheng; Lin, Li-Hsiang; Ou, Keng-Liang

    2011-10-01

    This research investigated the high-temperature microstructure, mechanical properties, and damping behavior of Fe-9 Al-30 Mn-1C-5 Co (wt.%) alloy by means of electron microscopy, experimental model analysis, and hardness and tensile testing. Subsequent microstructural transformation occurred when the alloy under consideration was subjected to heat treatment in the temperature range of 1000-1150 °C: γ → (γ+κ). The κ-phase carbides had an ordered L'1(2)-type structure with lattice parameter a = 0.385 nm. The maximum yield strength (σ(y)), hardness, elongation, and damping coefficient of this alloy are 645 MPa, Hv 292, ~54%, and 178.5 × 10(-4), respectively. These features could be useful in further understanding the relationship between the biocompatibility and the wear and corrosion resistance of the alloy, so as to allow the development of a promising biomedical material. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies on the disbonding initiation of interfacial cracks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, Brian J. (Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA); Pearson, Raymond A. (Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA)

    2005-08-01

    With the continuing trend of decreasing feature sizes in flip-chip assemblies, the reliability tolerance to interfacial flaws is also decreasing. Small-scale disbonds will become more of a concern, pointing to the need for a better understanding of the initiation stage of interfacial delamination. With most accepted adhesion metric methodologies tailored to predict failure under the prior existence of a disbond, the study of the initiation phenomenon is open to development and standardization of new testing procedures. Traditional fracture mechanics approaches are not suitable, as the mathematics assume failure to originate at a disbond or crack tip. Disbond initiation is believed to first occur at free edges and corners, which act as high stress concentration sites and exhibit singular stresses similar to a crack tip, though less severe in intensity. As such, a 'fracture mechanics-like' approach may be employed which defines a material parameter--a critical stress intensity factor (K{sub c})--that can be used to predict when initiation of a disbond at an interface will occur. The factors affecting the adhesion of underfill/polyimide interfaces relevant to flip-chip assemblies were investigated in this study. The study consisted of two distinct parts: a comparison of the initiation and propagation phenomena and a comparison of the relationship between sub-critical and critical initiation of interfacial failure. The initiation of underfill interfacial failure was studied by characterizing failure at a free-edge with a critical stress intensity factor. In comparison with the interfacial fracture toughness testing, it was shown that a good correlation exists between the initiation and propagation of interfacial failures. Such a correlation justifies the continuing use of fracture mechanics to predict the reliability of flip-chip packages. The second aspect of the research involved fatigue testing of tensile butt joint specimens to determine lifetimes at sub

  12. Work hardening behavior study of structural alloys for cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, D.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Previous investigation on aluminum-lithium alloys have indicated different dependencies of the work hardening behavior on temperature. This variation in temperature dependence is attributed to differences in microstructure rather than composition. An understanding of the microstructural effect on the observed thermal dependency is important as it may allow the tailoring of deformation properties through mechanical processing. Work hardening analyses on other aluminum alloys and a number of structural steels have been performed to better elucidate the role played by microstructure in determining the work hardening behavior. In the paper correlations between the differences in mechanical behavior and the various microstructures observed are presented

  13. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Laser Synthesized Cobalt Based Powder on Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, O. S.; Popoola, A. P. I.; Pityana, S. L.; Oloruntoba, D. T.

    2018-05-01

    The corrosion behavior of titanium alloys when used for various dynamic offshore components has been a major concern of titanium drilling risers in deepwater energy extraction. A way of achieving specified requirement is the development of coatings suitable to protect the base material against corrosion. In this work, laser cladding technique which is known as a leading edge due to its distinctive properties and outcomes was used in synthesizing Co-based powder on titanium alloy. The processing parameters used were laser power of 900W; scan speed of 0.6 to 1.2 m/min; powderfeedrate1.0g/min;beamspotsize3mm;gasflowrate1.2L/min.The effects of cobalt addition and laser parameters on corrosion behavior of laser clad Ti6AL4V coating in 0.5M sulfuric medium were investigated using linear potentiodynamic polarization. The changes in microstructure and corrosion behavior were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while the X –ray diffraction (XRD) indicates the intermetallics in the coatings. Results showed that the coatings displayed good metallurgical bonding with dendritic formations between the coatings and the substrate. The anodic current density increased with lower scan speed. However, the corrosion current densities of laser-clad samples were lower than Ti6Al4V alloy.

  14. Microstructure and Tensile Behavior of Laser Arc Hybrid Welded Dissimilar Al and Ti Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Gao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fiber laser-cold metal transfer arc hybrid welding was developed to welding-braze dissimilar Al and Ti alloys in butt configuration. Microstructure, interface properties, tensile behavior, and their relationships were investigated in detail. The results show the cross-weld tensile strength of the joints is up to 213 MPa, 95.5% of same Al weld. The optimal range of heat input for accepted joints was obtained as 83–98 J·mm−1. Within this range, the joint is stronger than 200 MPa and fractures in weld metal, or else, it becomes weaker and fractures at the intermetallic compounds (IMCs layer. The IMCs layer of an accepted joint is usually thin and continuous, which is about 1μm-thick and only consists of TiAl2 due to fast solidification rate. However, the IMCs layer at the top corner of fusion zone/Ti substrate is easily thickened with increasing heat input. This thickened IMCs layer consists of a wide TiAl3 layer close to FZ and a thin TiAl2 layer close to Ti substrate. Furthermore, both bead shape formation and interface growth were discussed by laser-arc interaction and melt flow. Tensile behavior was summarized by interface properties.

  15. Microstructure, mechanical behavior and low temperature superplasticity of ECAP processed ZM21 Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostaed, Ehsan, E-mail: ehsan.mostaed@polimi.it [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Fabrizi, Alberto [Department of Management and Engineering, Università di Padova, Stradella S. Nicola 3, 36100 Vicenza (Italy); Dellasega, David [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Bonollo, Franco [Department of Management and Engineering, Università di Padova, Stradella S. Nicola 3, 36100 Vicenza (Italy); Vedani, Maurizio [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • We studied the effects of texture and grain size on ZM21 alloy mechanical behavior. • Yielding asymmetry was alleviated by either texture weakening or grain refining. • At room temperature and 150 °C fracture elongation was strongly texture dependent. • Superplasticity at 200 °C was influenced by grain size, appearing only in UFG alloy. - Abstract: In this study, ultra-fine grained ZM21 Mg alloy was obtained through two-stage equal channel angular pressing process (ECAP) at temperatures of 200 and 150 °C. For each stage four passes were used. Plastic behavior, mechanical asymmetry and low temperature superplasticity of ultra-fine grained ZM21 alloy were investigated as a function of processing condition with particular attention to microstructural and texture evolution. Microstructural observations showed that after the first stage of ECAP an equiaxed ultra-fine grain (UFG) structure with average size of 700 nm was obtained. Additional stage did not cause any further grain refinement. However, Electron Backscattered Diffraction analysis showed that the original extrusion fiber texture evolved into a new one featuring a favorable alignment of the basal planes along ECAP shear planes. Such a preferential alignment provided a considerably higher Schmid factor value of 0.32, resulting in a remarkable loss in tensile yield stress, from 212 to 110 MPa and an improvement of the tensile fracture elongation, from 24% to 40%. Tensile and compression tests at room temperature revealed that yielding asymmetry could be alleviated by either weakening of basal plane fiber texture or by grain refinement. Tensile tests at 150 °C showed that texture supplies a significant contribution to plastic flow and elongation, making dislocation slip the dominant mechanism for deformation, while grain boundary sliding was not actively operated at this temperature. However, at 200 °C the effect of texture on fracture elongation of UFG alloys was subtle and the impact

  16. Interfacial area transport of subcooled boiling flow in a vertical annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Caleb S.; Ozar, Basar; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru, E-mail: ishii@purdue.edu

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Discussion of boiling and wall nucleation dataset obtained in a vertical annulus. • Overview of the interfacial area transport equation modeling in boiling flow. • Comparison of bubble departure diameter and frequency with existing models. • Evaluation of the interfacial area transport equation prediction in boiling flow. - Abstract: In an effort to improve the prediction of void fraction and heat transfer characteristics in two-phase systems, the two-group interfacial area transport equation has been developed for use with the two-group two-fluid model. The two-group approach treats spherical/distorted bubbles as Group-1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group-2. Therefore, the interfacial area transport of steam-water two-phase flow in a vertical annulus has been investigated experimentally, including bulk flow parameters and wall nucleation characteristics. The theoretical modeling of interfacial area transport equation with phase change terms is introduced and discussed along with the experimental results. Benchmark of the interfacial area transport equation is performed considering the effects of bubble interaction mechanisms such as bubble break-up and coalescence, as well as, effects of phase change mechanisms such as wall nucleation and condensation for subcooled boiling. From the benchmark, sensitivity in the constitutive relations for Group-1 phase change mechanisms, such as wall nucleation and condensation is clear. The Group-2 interfacial area transport is shown to be dominated by the interfacial heat transfer mechanism causing expansion of Group-1 bubbles into Group-2 bubbles in the boiling flow.

  17. Microscale fracture mechanisms of a Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr HVOF coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Andrew L., E-mail: Andrew.robertson99987@gmail.com; White, Ken W.

    2017-03-14

    Thermal spray coatings, often composed of heterogeneous, multiphase microstructures, may, consequently, exhibit complex fracture behavior. For such coating structures, conventional mechanical evaluation methods fail to isolate the contribution of microstructural features to the overall fracture behavior. For this reason, this study employed focused ion beam machined (FIB) microcantilever beams and FIB sectioning methods to study the fracture mechanisms important at the scale of the heterogeneous Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr thermal spray coating. We found three fracture modes, namely, intergranular matrix fracture, matrix/carbide interfacial fracture, and carbide cleavage. By comparison, microindentation-induced cracks, the frequency of crack deflection around carbides is significantly more prevalent at this much larger crack dimension. This mechanistic variation provides some insight into the specific role and limitations of the microcantilever beam technique for fracture characterization of composite microstructures.

  18. The Shear Strength and Fracture Behavior of Sn-Ag- xSb Solder Joints with Au/Ni-P/Cu UBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa-Teng; Hu, Shuen-Yuan; Hong, Ting-Fu; Chen, Yin-Fa

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of Sb addition on the shear strength and fracture behavior of Sn-Ag-based solders with Au/Ni-P/Cu underbump metallization (UBM) substrates. Sn-3Ag- xSb ternary alloy solder joints were prepared by adding 0 wt.% to 10 wt.% Sb to a Sn-3.5Ag alloy and joining them with Au/Ni-P/Cu UBM substrates. The solder joints were isothermally stored at 150°C for up to 625 h to study their microstructure and interfacial reaction with the UBM. Single-lap shear tests were conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties, thermal resistance, and failure behavior. The results show that UBM effectively suppressed intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and growth during isothermal storage. The Sb addition helped to refine the Ag3Sn compounds, further improving the shear strength and thermal resistance of the solders. The fracture behavior evolved from solder mode toward the mixed mode and finally to the IMC mode with increasing added Sb and isothermal storage time. However, SnSb compounds were found in the solder with 10 wt.% Sb; they may cause mechanical degradation of the solder after long-term isothermal storage.

  19. Microstructure and degradation performance of biodegradable Mg-Si-Sr implant alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Santos, Andrea; Marco, Iñigo; Moelans, Nele; Hort, Norbert; Van der Biest, Omer

    2017-02-01

    In this work the microstructure and degradation behavior of several as-cast alloy compositions belonging to the Mg rich corner of the Mg-Si-Sr system are presented and related. The intermetallic phases are identified and analyzed describing the microstructure evolution during solidification. It is intended in this work to obtain insight in the behavior of the ternary alloys in in vitro tests and to analyze the degradation behavior of the alloys under physiologically relevant conditions. The as-cast specimens have been exposed to immersion tests, both mass loss (ML) and potentiodynamic polarization (PDP). The degradation rate (DR) have been assessed and correlated to microstructure features, impurity levels and alloy composition. The initial reactions resulted to be more severe while the degradation stabilizes with time. A higher DR is related with a high content of the Mg 17 Sr 2 phase and with the presence of coarse particles of the intermetallics Mg 2 Si, MgSiSr and MgSi 2 Sr. Specimens with a higher DR typically have higher levels of impurities and alloy contents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical properties and microstructure analysis of fly ash geopolymeric recycled concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X S; Collins, F G; Zhao, X L; Wang, Q Y

    2012-10-30

    Six mixtures with different recycled aggregate (RA) replacement ratios of 0%, 50% and 100% were designed to manufacture recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) and alkali-activated fly ash geopolymeric recycled concrete (GRC). The physical and mechanical properties were investigated indicating different performances from each other. Optical microscopy under transmitted light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were carried out in this study in order to identify the mechanism underlying the effects of the geopolymer and RA on concrete properties. The features of aggregates, paste and interfacial transition zone (ITZ) were compared and discussed. Experimental results indicate that using alkali-activated fly ash geopolymer as replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) effectively improved the compressive strength. With increasing of RA contents in both RAC and GRC, the compressive strength decreased gradually. The microstructure analysis shows that, on one hand, the presence of RA weakens the strength of the aggregates and the structure of ITZs; on the other hand, due to the alkali-activated fly ash in geopolymer concrete, the contents of Portlandite (Ca(OH)(2)) and voids were reduced, as well as improved the matrix homogeneity. The microstructure of GRC was changed by different reaction products, such as aluminosilicate gel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Power laws and elastic nonlinearity in materials with complex microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalerandi, M., E-mail: marco.scalerandi@infm.polito.it

    2016-01-28

    Nonlinear ultrasonic methods have been widely used to characterize the microstructure of damaged solids and consolidated granular media. Besides distinguishing between materials exhibiting classical nonlinear behaviors from those exhibiting hysteresis, it could be of importance the discrimination between ultrasonic indications from different physical sources (scatterers). Elastic hysteresis could indeed be due to dislocations, grain boundaries, stick-slip at interfaces, etc. Analyzing data obtained on various concrete samples, we show that the power law behavior of the nonlinear indicator vs. the energy of excitation could be used to classify different microscopic features. In particular, the power law exponent ranges between 1 and 3, depending on the nature of nonlinearity. We also provide a theoretical interpretation of the collected data using models for clapping and hysteretic nonlinearities. - Highlights: • Several materials exhibit a nontrivial nonlinear elastic behavior which can be ascribed to different physical sources. • The quantitative nonlinear response is dependent on the type of microstructure present in the material. • A nonlinear indicator could be defined which depends on the excitation energy of the sample. • Assuming a power law dependence, the exponent depends on the microstructure of the material and could evolve in time. • Experimental results on concrete are discussed and a theoretical description is proposed.

  2. Effect of cooling rate on microstructure and deformation behavior of Ti-based metallic glassy/crystalline powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Huang, Y.J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shen, J., E-mail: junshen@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu, Y.Q.; Huang, H. [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Zou, J., E-mail: j.zou@uq.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2010-08-20

    The microstructures and deformation behavior of Ti-based metallic powders were comprehensively investigated. It has been found that, with increasing the powder size, the phase constituent alters from pure glassy to glassy with crystalline phases (face centered cubic structured NiSnZr and hexagonal structured Ti{sub 3}Sn phases). Our results suggest that the synergetic effect of the thermodynamics and kinetics determines the subsequent characteristics of the crystalline precipitations. Through comparative nanoindentation tests, it was found that the small powders exhibit more pop-in events and a larger pile-up ratio, suggesting that the plastic deformation of the metallic powders is governed by the combined effects of the free volume and the crystallization, which are determined by the cooling rate.

  3. Interfacial structures in confined cap-turbulent and churn-turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaodong; Kim, Seungjin; Cheng Ling; Ishii, Mamoru; Beus, Stephen G.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to study and model the interfacial structure development of air-water two-phase flow in a confined flow passage. Experiments of a total of 13 flow conditions in cap-turbulent and churn-turbulent flow regimes are carried out in a vertical air-water upward two-phase flow experimental loop with a test section of 200 mm in width and 10 mm in gap. Miniaturized four-sensor conductivity probes are used to measure local two-phase parameters at three different elevations for each flow condition. Bubble characteristics captured by the probes are categorized into two groups in view of the two-group interfacial area transport equation, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as Group 1 and cap/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group 2. The acquired local parameters are time-averaged void fraction, interfacial velocity, bubble number frequency, interfacial area concentration, and bubble Sauter mean diameter for each group of bubbles. Also, the line-averaged and area-averaged data are presented and discussed in detail. The comparisons of these parameters at different elevations demonstrate the development of interfacial structures along the flow direction due to bubble interactions and the hydrodynamic effects. Furthermore, these data can serve as one part of the experimental data for investigation of the interfacial area transport in a confined two-phase flow

  4. Curvature dependence of the electrolytic liquid-liquid interfacial tension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, Markus; de Graaf, J.; Zwanikken, J.W.; van Roij, R.H.H.G.

    2009-01-01

    The interfacial tension of a liquid droplet surrounded by another liquid in the presence of microscopic ions is studied as a function of the droplet radius. An analytical expression for the interfacial tension is obtained within a linear Poisson–Boltzmann theory and compared with numerical results

  5. Interfacial stresses in strengthened beam with shear cohesive zone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results of parametric study are compared with those of Smith and Teng. They confirm the accuracy of the proposed approach in predicting both interfacial shear and normal stresses. Keywords. Strengthened beam; interfacial stresses; cohesive zone; shear deformation. 1. Introduction. The FRP plates can be either ...

  6. Microstructures and martensitic transformation behavior of superelastic Ti-Ni-Ag scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuanglei; Kim, Eun-soo [School of Materials Science and Engineering & ERI, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gazwadong, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon-wook [Department of Material Engineering, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Tae-hyun, E-mail: tahynam@gnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering & ERI, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gazwadong, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The B2-R-B19′ transformation occurred in 49Ti-50.3Ni-0.7Ag alloy fibers. • Annealing treated alloy fibers showed superelastic recovery ratio of 93%. • Ageing treated scaffold had an elastic modulus of 0.67 GPa. • Ageing treated scaffold exhibited good superelasticity at human body temperature. - Abstract: Ti-Ni-Ag scaffolds were prepared by sintering rapidly solidified alloy fibers. Microstructures and transformation behaviors of alloy fibers and scaffolds were investigated by means of electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The B2-R-B19′ transformation occurs in alloy fibers. The alloy fibers have good superelasticity with superelastic recovery ratio of 93% after annealing heat treatment. The as-sintered Ti-Ni-Ag scaffolds possess three-dimensional and interconnected pores and have the porosity level of 80%. The heat treated Ti-Ni-Ag scaffolds not only have an elastic modulus of 0.67 GPa, which match well with that of cancellous bone, but also show excellent superelasticity at human body temperature. In terms of the mechanical properties, the Ti-Ni-Ag scaffolds in this study can meet the main requirements of bone scaffold for the purpose of bone replacement applications.

  7. Effect of microstructure on static and dynamic mechanical properties of high strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jinbo

    The high speed deformation behavior of a commercially available dual phase (DP) steel was studied by means of split Hopkinson bar apparatus in shear punch (25m/s) and tension (1000s-1) modes with an emphasis on the influence of microstructure. The cold rolled sheet material was subjected to a variety of heat treatment conditions to produce several different microstructures, namely ferrite plus pearlite, ferrite plus bainite and/or acicular ferrite, ferrite plus bainite and martensite, and ferrite plus different fractions of martensite. Static properties (0.01mm/s for shear punch and 0.001s -1 for tension) of all the microstructures were also measured by an MTS hydraulic machine and compared to the dynamic properties. The effects of low temperature tempering and bake hardening were investigated for some ferrite plus martensite microstructures. In addition, two other materials, composition designed as high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, were heat treated and tested to study the effect of alloy chemistry on the microstructure and property relationship. A strong effect of microstructure on both static and dynamic properties and on the relationship between static and dynamic properties was observed. According to the variation of dynamic factor with static strength, three groups of microstructures with three distinct behaviors were identified, i.e. classic dual phase (ferrite plus less than 50% martensite), martensite-matrix dual phase (ferrite plus more than 50% martensite), and non-dual phase (ferrite plus non-martensite). Under the same static strength level, the dual phase microstructure was found to absorb more dynamic energy than other microstructures. It was also observed that the general dependence of microstructure on static and dynamic property relationship was not strongly influenced by chemical composition, except the ferrite plus martensite microstructures generated by the TRIP chemistry, which exhibited

  8. Visualization of Wave Propagation and Fine Structure in Frictional Motion of Unconstrained Soft Microstructured Tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heepe, Lars; Filippov, Alexander E.; Kovalev, Alexander E.

    2017-01-01

    from previous friction tests of microstructured elastomers fixed onto a rigid support, allowing only for shear deformations of surface microstructures and the backing layer, but not for stretching of the entire sample. Three different types of microstructured tapes were tested and their frictional...... behavior compared to results from numerical simulations. In both experimental and numerical cases, visualization of wave propagation and fine structure in friction is obtained....

  9. Liquid-liquid interfacial tension of electrolyte solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bier, Markus; Zwanikken, Jos; van Roij, Rene

    2008-01-01

    It is theoretically shown that the excess liquid-liquid interfacial tension between two electrolyte solutions as a function of the ionic strength I behaves asymptotically as O(- I^0.5) for small I and as O(+- I) for large I. The former regime is dominated by the electrostatic potential due to an unequal partitioning of ions between the two liquids whereas the latter regime is related to a finite interfacial thickness. The crossover between the two asymptotic regimes depends sensitively on mat...

  10. Interfacial reaction pathways and kinetics during annealing of 111-textured Al/TiN bilayers: A synchrotron x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, J.-S.; Desjardins, P.; Lavoie, C.; Petrov, I.; Cabral, C. Jr.; Greene, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    Growth of TiN layers in most diffusion-barrier applications is limited to deposition temperatures T s s =450 deg. C on SiO 2 by ultrahigh vacuum reactive magnetron sputter deposition in pure N 2 . Al overlayers, 160 nm thick with inherited 111 preferred orientation, were then deposited at T s =100 deg. C without breaking vacuum. The as-deposited TiN layer is underdense due to the low deposition temperature (T s /T m ≅0.23 in which T m is the melting point) resulting in kinetically limited adatom mobilities leading to atomic shadowing which, in turn, results in a columnar microstructure with both inter- and intracolumnar voids. The Al overlayer is fully dense. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction was used to follow interfacial reaction kinetics during postdeposition annealing o