Sample records for behavior fifteen experience-sampling

  1. Metacognitive Strategies and Test Performance: An Experience Sampling Analysis of Students' Learning Behavior

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    Ulrike E. Nett


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore students’ learning-related cognitions prior to an in-class achievement test, with a focus on metacognitive strategy use. A sample of 70 students in grade 11 (58.6% female, Mage=17.09 years completed a series of structured, state-based measures over a two-week period via the experience sampling method until the day before a class test. Results illustrated students’ self-regulatory ability to preserve their motivational and cognitive resources, with test-related cognitions evidenced significantly more often in learning-related as opposed leisure settings. Metacognitive strategy use was also found to significantly increase as the test date approached underscoring the goal-oriented nature of situated learning behaviors. Higher intercepts and increases in frequency of test-related cognitions over time positively corresponded to test performance. Of the three metacognitive strategies assessed, monitoring was found to positively correspond with test performance. Implications for future practice as well as implications for future research employing the experience sampling method are discussed.

  2. Theoretical Antecedents of Standing at Work: An Experience Sampling Approach Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

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    M. Renée Umstattd Meyer


    Full Text Available Time spent sitting has been associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cancer, obesity, and mental health impairments. However, 75% of Americans spend most of their days sitting, with work-sitting accounting for 63% of total daily sitting time. Little research examining theory-based antecedents of standing or sitting has been conducted. This lack of solid groundwork makes it difficult to design effective intervention strategies to decrease sitting behaviors. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB as our theoretical lens to better understand factors related with beneficial standing behaviors already being practiced, we examined relationships between TPB constructs and time spent standing at work among “positive deviants” (those successful in behavior change. Experience sampling methodology (ESM, 4 times a day (midmorning, before lunch, afternoon, and before leaving work for 5 consecutive workdays (Monday to Friday, was used to assess employees’ standing time. TPB scales assessing attitude (α = 0.81–0.84, norms (α = 0.83, perceived behavioral control (α = 0.77, and intention (α = 0.78 were developed using recommended methods and collected once on the Friday before the ESM surveys started. ESM data are hierarchically nested, therefore we tested our hypotheses using multilevel structural equation modeling with Mplus. Hourly full-time university employees (n = 50; 70.6% female, 84.3% white, mean age = 44 (SD = 11, 88.2%in full-time staff positions with sedentary occupation types (time at desk while working ≥6 hours/day participated. A total of 871 daily surveys were completed. Only perceived behavioral control (β = 0.45, p < 0.05 was related with work-standing at the event-level (model fit: just fit; mediation through intention was not supported. This is the first study to examine theoretical antecedents of real-time work-standing in a naturalistic field setting among positive deviants. These relationships should be further

  3. Momentary affect and risky behavior correlates of prescription drug misuse among young adult dating couples: An experience sampling study. (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M; Blumenstock, Shari M


    Although published research based on retrospective survey designs has established prescription drug misuse as a serious health issue for individuals and society, misuse behavior has not been investigated as it occurs in daily life and important relationships. To address this gap, young adult romantic couples were recruited from the community to participate in an experience sampling study. Participants were identified through phone screen procedures as having engaged in recent prescription drug misuse behavior. Participants (n=46 couples) completed electronic diary reports throughout the day for 10days, tapping momentary affect, sexual experiences, prescription drug misuse, and alcohol and other drug use. Dyadic multilevel modeling revealed a more consistent pattern of associations between prescription drug misuse and problematic affective and behavioral outcomes for female partners than male partners. Specifically, during epochs of females' prescription drug misuse, they experienced relatively higher levels of negative affect and sexual regret. Also, females who misused prescriptions more during the study period evidenced lower levels of sexual enjoyment and engaged in more unprotected sex, alcohol use, and heavy alcohol use in daily life. Males' in-the-moment prescription drug misuse was not associated with their concurrent outcomes, though males with relatively more misuse across the reporting period were more likely to engage in heavy drinking. Couples' time together emerged as a moderator of prescription drug misuse in daily life: Females who spent relatively more time with their partner across the study were less likely to engage in misuse, and proportion of time spent together moderated several of the momentary misuse-outcome linkages. This study supports the use of ecologically-valid sampling methods for characterizing young adults' prescription drug misuse in daily life and relationship contexts.

  4. Using the Experience Sampling Method in the Context of Contingency Management for Substance Abuse Treatment (United States)

    Husky, Mathilde M.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Barry, Danielle; Petry, Nancy M.


    Contingency management (CM) treatments have been shown to be effective in reducing substance use. This manuscript illustrates how the experience sampling method (ESM) can depict behavior and behavior change and can be used to explore CM treatment mechanisms. ESM characterizes idiosyncratic patterns of behavior and offers the potential to determine…

  5. Study of Fifteen Runaway Patients. (United States)

    Benalcazar, Becquer


    Studied 15 adolescent runaways in an inpatient long-term treatment setting. Results showed that more runaways were male, and most were away only a short time. In many cases, behavior improvement resulted. Impulsive behavior and anxiety were related to the short time and distance of elopement. (Author/JAC)

  6. Experience-Sampling Methodology with a Mobile Device in Fibromyalgia

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    Castilla Diana


    Full Text Available This work describes the usability studies conducted in the development of an experience-sampling methodology (ESM system running in a mobile device. The goal of the system is to improve the accuracy and ecology in gathering daily self-report data in individuals suffering a chronic pain condition, fibromyalgia. The usability studies showed that the developed software to conduct ESM with mobile devices (smartphones, cell phones can be successfully used by individuals with fibromyalgia of different ages and with low level of expertise in the use of information and communication technologies. 100% of users completed the tasks successfully, although some have completely illiterate. Also there seems to be a clear difference in the way of interaction obtained in the two studies carried out.

  7. Operational foreshock forecasting: Fifteen years after (United States)

    Ogata, Y.


    We are concerned with operational forecasting of the probability that events are foreshocks of a forthcoming earthquake that is significantly larger (mainshock). Specifically, we define foreshocks as the preshocks substantially smaller than the mainshock by a magnitude gap of 0.5 or larger. The probability gain of foreshock forecast is extremely high compare to long-term forecast by renewal processes or various alarm-based intermediate-term forecasts because of a large event’s low occurrence rate in a short period and a narrow target region. Thus, it is desired to establish operational foreshock probability forecasting as seismologists have done for aftershocks. When a series of earthquakes occurs in a region, we attempt to discriminate foreshocks from a swarm or mainshock-aftershock sequence. Namely, after real time identification of an earthquake cluster using methods such as the single-link algorithm, the probability is calculated by applying statistical features that discriminate foreshocks from other types of clusters, by considering the events' stronger proximity in time and space and tendency towards chronologically increasing magnitudes. These features were modeled for probability forecasting and the coefficients of the model were estimated in Ogata et al. (1996) for the JMA hypocenter data (M≧4, 1926-1993). Currently, fifteen years has passed since the publication of the above-stated work so that we are able to present the performance and validation of the forecasts (1994-2009) by using the same model. Taking isolated events into consideration, the probability of the first events in a potential cluster being a foreshock vary in a range between 0+% and 10+% depending on their locations. This conditional forecasting performs significantly better than the unconditional (average) foreshock probability of 3.7% throughout Japan region. Furthermore, when we have the additional events in a cluster, the forecast probabilities range more widely from nearly 0% to

  8. Reciprocal Markov Modeling of Feedback Mechanisms Between Emotion and Dietary Choice Using Experience-Sampling Data. (United States)

    Lu, Ji; Pan, Junhao; Zhang, Qiang; Dubé, Laurette; Ip, Edward H


    With intensively collected longitudinal data, recent advances in the experience-sampling method (ESM) benefit social science empirical research, but also pose important methodological challenges. As traditional statistical models are not generally well equipped to analyze a system of variables that contain feedback loops, this paper proposes the utility of an extended hidden Markov model to model reciprocal the relationship between momentary emotion and eating behavior. This paper revisited an ESM data set (Lu, Huet, & Dube, 2011) that observed 160 participants' food consumption and momentary emotions 6 times per day in 10 days. Focusing on the analyses on feedback loop between mood and meal-healthiness decision, the proposed reciprocal Markov model (RMM) can accommodate both hidden ("general" emotional states: positive vs. negative state) and observed states (meal: healthier, same or less healthy than usual) without presuming independence between observations and smooth trajectories of mood or behavior changes. The results of RMM analyses illustrated the reciprocal chains of meal consumption and mood as well as the effect of contextual factors that moderate the interrelationship between eating and emotion. A simulation experiment that generated data consistent with the empirical study further demonstrated that the procedure is promising in terms of recovering the parameters.

  9. Reciprocal Markov modeling of feedback mechanisms between emotion and dietary choice using experience sampling data (United States)

    Lu, Ji; Pan, Junhao; Zhang, Qiang; Dubé, Laurette; Ip, Edward H.


    With intensively collected longitudinal data, recent advances in Experience Sampling Method (ESM) benefit social science empirical research, but also pose important methodological challenges. As traditional statistical models are not generally well-equipped to analyze a system of variables that contain feedback loops, this paper proposes the utility of an extended hidden Markov model to model reciprocal relationship between momentary emotion and eating behavior. This paper revisited an ESM data set (Lu, Huet & Dube, 2011) that observed 160 participants’ food consumption and momentary emotions six times per day in 10 days. Focusing on the analyses on feedback loop between mood and meal healthiness decision, the proposed Reciprocal Markov Model (RMM) can accommodate both hidden (“general” emotional states: positive vs. negative state) and observed states (meal: healthier, same or less healthy than usual) without presuming independence between observations and smooth trajectories of mood or behavior changes. The results of RMM analyses illustrated the reciprocal chains of meal consumption and mood as well as the effect of contextual factors that moderate the interrelationship between eating and emotion. A simulation experiment that generated data consistent to the empirical study further demonstrated that the procedure is promising in terms of recovering the parameters. PMID:26717120

  10. Fifteen: Combining Magic Squares and Tic-Tac-Toe (United States)

    Yeo, Joseph B. W.


    Most students love to play games. Ernest (1986) believed that games could be used to teach mathematics effectively in four areas: motivation, concept development, reinforcement of skills, and practice of problem-solving strategies. Fifteen is an interesting and thought-provoking game that helps students learn mathematics at the same time. Playing…

  11. Emotional experience improves with age : Evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling

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    Carstensen, L.L.; Turan, B.; Scheibe, S.; Ram, N.; Ersner-Hershfield, H.; Samanez-Larkin, G.R.; Brooks, K.P.; Nesselroade, J.R.


    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N =

  12. Supporting Opportunities for Context-Aware Social Matching: An Experience Sampling Study

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    Mayer, Julia; Barkhuus, Louise; Hiltz, Starr Roxanne


    opportunities to map out the design space of opportunistic social matching systems. We contribute insights gained from a study combining Experience Sampling Method (ESM) with 85 students of a U.S. university and interviews with 15 of these participants. A generalized linear mixed model analysis (n=1704) showed...

  13. Experience-Sampling Research Methods and Their Potential for Education Research (United States)

    Zirkel, Sabrina; Garcia, Julie A.; Murphy, Mary C.


    Experience-sampling methods (ESM) enable us to learn about individuals' lives in context by measuring participants' feelings, thoughts, actions, context, and/or activities as they go about their daily lives. By capturing experience, affect, and action "in the moment" and with repeated measures, ESM approaches allow researchers…

  14. Disadvantaged Youth Report Less Negative Emotion to Minor Stressors When with Peers: An Experience Sampling Study (United States)

    Uink, Bep Norma; Modecki, Kathryn Lynn; Barber, Bonnie L.


    Previous Experience Sampling Method (ESM) studies demonstrate that adolescents' daily emotional states are heavily influenced by their immediate social context. However, despite adolescence being a risk period for exposure to daily stressors, research has yet to examine the influence of peers on adolescents' emotional responses to stressors…

  15. Mood disorders in everyday life : A systematic review of experience sampling and ecological momentary assessment studies

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    Aan het Rot, M.; Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, R.A.


    In the past two decades, the study of mood disorder patients using experience sampling methods (ESM) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has yielded important findings. In patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), the dynamics of their everyday mood have been associated with various aspec

  16. How does self-injury feel? Examining automatic positive reinforcement in adolescent self-injurers with experience sampling. (United States)

    Selby, Edward A; Nock, Matthew K; Kranzler, Amy


    One of the most frequently reported, yet understudied, motivations for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) involves automatic positive reinforcement (APR), wherein sensations arising from NSSI reinforce and promote the behavior. The current study used experience sampling methodology with a clinical sample of self-injuring adolescents (N=30) over a 2-week period during which the adolescents reported NSSI behaviors, and rated if an APR motivation was present, and if so whether that motivation pertained to feeling "pain," "stimulation," or "satisfaction." Over 50% of the sample reported at least one instance of NSSI for APR reasons. No significant differences were found on demographic factors or psychiatric comorbidity for those with and without an APR motivation. However, those with an APR motivation reported elevated NSSI thoughts, longer duration of those thoughts, and more NSSI behaviors. They also reported more alcohol use thoughts, alcohol use, impulsive spending, and binge eating. The most commonly reported sensation following NSSI for APR was "satisfaction." However those endorsing feeling pain reported the most NSSI behaviors. These findings provide new information about the APR motivations for NSSI and shed light on the different sensations felt.

  17. Brain Embolism Secondary to Cardiac Myxoma in Fifteen Chinese Patients

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    Youming Long


    Full Text Available Background. Heart myxoma-related embolisms commonly involve the central nervous system, but data are lacking in Chinese patients. Methods. 27 patients diagnosed with myxoma were reviewed retrospectively. Results. Among 27 patients, fourteen (51.9% patients were women. Fifteen (55.6% patients had brain embolisms. Rarely, patients were misdiagnosed with central nervous system vasculitis (n = 2, moyamoya disease (n = 1, and neuromyelitis optica (n = 1. We found positive associations between mRS (>3 and female gender (r = 0.873, P10 × 109/L (r = 0.722, P = 0.002, tumour size (r = 0.866, P0.05. Conclusions. Neurologic manifestations in Chinese patients with cardiac myxoma-related stroke were complicated and multifarious. Female gender, infection, other severe complications, low SBP, tumour size, bilateral brain lesions, TACI, and high WBC counts could be associated with a poor prognosis.

  18. Radial Star Formation Histories in Fifteen Nearby Galaxies

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    Dale, Daniel A; Egan, Arika A; Hatlestad, Alan J; Herzog, Laura J; Leung, Andrew S; McLane, Jacob N; Phenicie, Christopher; Roberts, Jareth S; Barnes, Kate L; Boquien, Mederic; Calzetti, Daniela; Cook, David O; Kobulnicky, Henry A; Staudaher, Shawn M; van Zee, Liese


    New deep optical and near-infrared imaging is combined with archival ultraviolet and infrared data for fifteen nearby galaxies mapped in the Spitzer Extended Disk Galaxy Exploration Science survey. These images are particularly deep and thus excellent for studying the low surface brightness outskirts of these disk-dominated galaxies with stellar masses ranging between 10^8 and 10^11 Msun. The spectral energy distributions derived from this dataset are modeled to investigate the radial variations in the galaxy colors and star formation histories. Taken as a whole, the sample shows bluer and younger stars for larger radii until reversing near the optical radius, whereafter the trend is for redder and older stars for larger galacto-centric distances. These results are consistent with an inside-out disk formation scenario coupled with an old stellar outer disk population formed through radial migration and/or the cumulative history of minor mergers and accretions of satellite dwarf galaxies. However, these trends...

  19. Unaware yet reliant on attention: Experience sampling reveals that mind-wandering impedes implicit learning. (United States)

    Franklin, Michael S; Smallwood, Jonathan; Zedelius, Claire M; Broadway, James M; Schooler, Jonathan W


    Although implicit learning has been widely studied, controversy remains regarding its reliance on attentional resources. A central issue in this controversy is the question of how best to manipulate attention. The usual approach of comparing implicit learning in a serial reaction time (SRT) task under single- versus dual-task conditions is known to be problematic, because the secondary task may not only divert attention away from the primary task, but also interfere with the implicit-learning process itself. To address this confound, in the present study we used an experience-sampling instead of a dual-task approach. We assessed lapses of attention (mind-wandering) with experience-sampling thought probes during a standard implicit-learning SRT task. The results revealed a significant negative correlation between mind-wandering and implicit learning. Thus, greater task focus was associated with improved implicit sequence learning. This result suggests that, at least in the context of this SRT task, optimal implicit learning relies on attention.

  20. Fifteen Years of Slow Slip and Tremor Observations at the Northern Costa Rica Subduction Zone (United States)

    Schwartz, S. Y.; Dixon, T. H.; Protti, M.; González, V. M.


    Coordinated long-term geophysical observations at the northern Costa Rica seismogenic zone, facilitated by NSF's MARGINS program, have greatly expanded our understanding of its megathrust behavior. Here we review fifteen years of seismic, geodetic, ocean bottom fluid flow and pressure sensor data collected on or near the Nicoya Peninsula, above the shallow thrust interface that document a variety of slow slip behaviors. These include relatively deep (~30-40 km), large slow slip events that occur about every 2 years, smaller events that locate at more intermediate depth (10-15 km) and occur more frequently (~1 per year), and very shallow events at the toe of the margin wedge that produce no discernible GPS signal on land but are detected on seafloor pressure sensors. Most of these slow slip events at the toe are accompanied by seismic tremor. Short-term, GPS only observations might have detected a few of these slow slip events; however, the longer more diverse instrument deployment was necessary to reveal their greater complexity. This demonstrates the need for a sustained, multi-instrument deployment and off-shore instrumentation at several different subduction zones, like that proposed for the Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO), to significantly advance our understanding of slow slip at convergent boundaries. Similar instrumentation to what exists in Nicoya is presently being established in the Osa-Burica region of southern Costa Rica to capture earthquake cycle deformation there. These two installations can provide a good nucleus for a larger circum-Pacific SZO effort.

  1. Mind wandering in Chinese daily lives--an experience sampling study. (United States)

    Song, Xiaolan; Wang, Xiao


    Mind wandering has recently received extensive research because it reveals an important characteristic of our consciousness: conscious experience can arise internally and involuntarily. As the first attempt to examine mind wandering in a non-western population, the present study used experience-sampling method to collect the daily momentary mind wandering episodes in a Chinese sample. The results showed that mind wandering was also a ubiquitous experience among the Chinese population, and, instead of emerging out of nowhere, it was often elicited by external or internal cues. Furthermore, most of the mind wandering episodes involved prospective thinking and were closely related to one's personal life. Finally, the frequency of mind wandering was influenced by some contextual factors. These results taken together suggest that mind wandering plays an important role in helping people to maintain a continuous feeling of "self" and to prepare them to cope with the upcoming events.

  2. Mind wandering in Chinese daily lives--an experience sampling study.

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    Xiaolan Song

    Full Text Available Mind wandering has recently received extensive research because it reveals an important characteristic of our consciousness: conscious experience can arise internally and involuntarily. As the first attempt to examine mind wandering in a non-western population, the present study used experience-sampling method to collect the daily momentary mind wandering episodes in a Chinese sample. The results showed that mind wandering was also a ubiquitous experience among the Chinese population, and, instead of emerging out of nowhere, it was often elicited by external or internal cues. Furthermore, most of the mind wandering episodes involved prospective thinking and were closely related to one's personal life. Finally, the frequency of mind wandering was influenced by some contextual factors. These results taken together suggest that mind wandering plays an important role in helping people to maintain a continuous feeling of "self" and to prepare them to cope with the upcoming events.

  3. Does body satisfaction influence self-esteem in adolescents' daily lives? An experience sampling study. (United States)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Skouteris, Helen; Richardson, Ben; Nihill, Kristy; Watson, Brittany; Solomon, Daniel


    This study examined, within the context of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model, state-based associations between self-esteem and body satisfaction using the experience sampling method. One hundred and forty-four adolescent girls (mean age = 14.28 years) completed up to 6 assessments per day for one week using Palm Digital Assistants, in addition to baseline measures of trait body satisfaction and self-esteem. Results showed considerable variation in both state-based constructs within days, and evidence of effects of body satisfaction on self-esteem, but not vice versa. Although these state-based associations were small in size and weakened as the time lag between assessments increased for the sample as a whole, individual differences in the magnitude of these effects were observed and predicted by trait self-esteem and body satisfaction. Collectively, these findings offer support for key tenets of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model.

  4. Experience sampling-based personalized feedback and positive affect: a randomized controlled trial in depressed patients.

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    Jessica A Hartmann

    Full Text Available Positive affect (PA plays a crucial role in the development, course, and recovery of depression. Recently, we showed that a therapeutic application of the experience sampling method (ESM, consisting of feedback focusing on PA in daily life, was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms. The present study investigated whether the experience of PA increased during the course of this intervention.Multicentre parallel randomized controlled trial. An electronic random sequence generator was used to allocate treatments.University, two local mental health care institutions, one local hospital.102 pharmacologically treated outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder, randomized over three treatment arms.Six weeks of ESM self-monitoring combined with weekly PA-focused feedback sessions (experimental group; six weeks of ESM self-monitoring combined with six weekly sessions without feedback (pseudo-experimental group; or treatment as usual (control group.The interaction between treatment allocation and time in predicting positive and negative affect (NA was investigated in multilevel regression models.102 patients were randomized (mean age 48.0, SD 10.2 of which 81 finished the entire study protocol. All 102 patients were included in the analyses. The experimental group did not show a significant larger increase in momentary PA during or shortly after the intervention compared to the pseudo-experimental or control groups (χ2(2 = 0.33, p = .846. The pseudo-experimental group showed a larger decrease in NA compared to the control group (χ2(1 = 6.29, p =.012.PA-focused feedback did not significantly impact daily life PA during or shortly after the intervention. As the previously reported reduction in depressive symptoms associated with the feedback unveiled itself only after weeks, it is conceivable that the effects on daily life PA also evolve slowly and therefore were not captured by the experience sampling procedure

  5. Experience Sampling-Based Personalized Feedback and Positive Affect: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Depressed Patients (United States)

    Hartmann, Jessica A.; Wichers, Marieke; Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Kramer, Ingrid; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Peeters, Frenk; Schruers, Koen R. J.; van Bemmel, Alex L.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Delespaul, Philippe; van Os, Jim; Simons, Claudia J. P.


    Objectives Positive affect (PA) plays a crucial role in the development, course, and recovery of depression. Recently, we showed that a therapeutic application of the experience sampling method (ESM), consisting of feedback focusing on PA in daily life, was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms. The present study investigated whether the experience of PA increased during the course of this intervention. Design Multicentre parallel randomized controlled trial. An electronic random sequence generator was used to allocate treatments. Settings University, two local mental health care institutions, one local hospital. Participants 102 pharmacologically treated outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder, randomized over three treatment arms. Intervention Six weeks of ESM self-monitoring combined with weekly PA-focused feedback sessions (experimental group); six weeks of ESM self-monitoring combined with six weekly sessions without feedback (pseudo-experimental group); or treatment as usual (control group). Main outcome The interaction between treatment allocation and time in predicting positive and negative affect (NA) was investigated in multilevel regression models. Results 102 patients were randomized (mean age 48.0, SD 10.2) of which 81 finished the entire study protocol. All 102 patients were included in the analyses. The experimental group did not show a significant larger increase in momentary PA during or shortly after the intervention compared to the pseudo-experimental or control groups (χ2 (2) =0.33, p=.846). The pseudo-experimental group showed a larger decrease in NA compared to the control group (χ2 (1) =6.29, p=.012). Conclusion PA-focused feedback did not significantly impact daily life PA during or shortly after the intervention. As the previously reported reduction in depressive symptoms associated with the feedback unveiled itself only after weeks, it is conceivable that the effects on daily life PA also evolve

  6. Well-being in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: a pilot Experience Sampling Study

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    Ruben Gustav Leonhardt Real


    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of this longitudinal study was to identify predictors of instantaneous well-being in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Based on flow theory well-being was expected to be highest when perceived demands and perceived control were in balance, and that thinking about the past would be a risk factor for rumination which would in turn reduce well-being.MethodsUsing the experience sampling method, data on current activities, associated aspects of perceived demands, control, and well-being were collected from 10 patients with ALS three times a day for two weeks.ResultsResults show that perceived control was uniformly and positively associated with well-being, but that demands were only positively associated with well-being when they were perceived as controllable. Mediation analysis confirmed thinking about the past, but not thinking about the future, to be a risk factor for rumination and reduced well-being. DiscussionFindings extend our knowledge of factors contributing to well-being in ALS as not only perceived control but also perceived demands can contribute to well-being. They further show that a focus on present experiences might contribute to increased well-being.

  7. Emotional experience improves with age: evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling. (United States)

    Carstensen, Laura L; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Brooks, Kathryn P; Nesselroade, John R


    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory.

  8. Use of the experience sampling method in the context of clinical trials (United States)

    Verhagen, Simone J W; Hasmi, Laila; Drukker, Marjan; van Os, J; Delespaul, Philippe A E G


    Objective The experience sampling method (ESM) is a structured diary technique to appraise subjective experiences in daily life. It is applied in psychiatric patients, as well as in patients with somatic illness. Despite the potential of ESM assessment, the improved logistics and its increased administration in research, its use in clinical trials remains limited. This paper introduces ESM for clinical trials in psychiatry and beyond. Methods ESM is an ecologically valid method that yields a comprehensive view of an individual's daily life. It allows the assessment of various constructs (eg, quality of life, psychopathology) and psychological mechanisms (eg, stress-sensitivity, coping). These constructs are difficult to assess using cross-sectional questionnaires. ESM can be applied in treatment monitoring, as an ecological momentary intervention, in clinical trials, or in single case clinical trials. Technological advances (eg, smartphone applications) make its implementation easier. Results Advantages of ESM are highlighted and disadvantages are discussed. Furthermore, the ecological nature of ESM data and its consequences are explored, including the potential pitfalls of ambiguously formulated research questions and the specificities of ESM in statistical analyses. The last section focuses on ESM in relation to clinical trials and discusses its future use in optimising clinical decision-making. Conclusions ESM can be a valuable asset in clinical trial research and should be used more often to study the benefits of treatment in psychiatry and somatic health. PMID:27443678

  9. Emotions, self-esteem, and paranoid episodes: an experience sampling study. (United States)

    Thewissen, Viviane; Bentall, Richard P; Oorschot, Margreet; A Campo, Joost; van Lierop, Thom; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez


    OBJECTIVES. The evidence to date for a causal role of emotions in the generation of paranoid symptoms is scarce, mainly because of a lack of studies investigating the longitudinal association between emotional processes and paranoia. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether momentary emotional experiences (anxiety, depression, anger/irritability) and self-esteem predicted the onset and duration of a paranoid episode. We also studied whether levels of emotional experiences and self-esteem were respectively higher and lower during a paranoid episode. DESIGN. A 1-week, prospective momentary assessment study. METHODS. Data were collected using the experience sampling method, a structured self-assessment diary technique. The sample consisted of 158 individuals who ranged across the paranoia continuum. Participants with a psychotic disorder were recruited from in-patient and out-patient mental health services. Participants without psychotic disorder were sampled from the general population. RESULTS. Specific aspects of emotional experience were implicated in the onset and persistence of paranoid episodes. Both an increase in anxiety and a decrease in self-esteem predicted the onset of paranoid episodes. Cross-sectionally, paranoid episodes were associated with high levels of all negative emotions and low level of self-esteem. Initial intensity of paranoia and depression was associated with longer, and anger/irritability with shorter duration of paranoid episodes. CONCLUSIONS. Paranoid delusionality is driven by negative emotions and reductions in self-esteem, rather than serving an immediate defensive function against these emotions and low self-esteem. Clinicians need to be aware of the central role of emotion-related processes and especially self-esteem in paranoid thinking.

  10. Tracking human activity and well-being in natural environments using wearable sensors and experience sampling. (United States)

    Doherty, Sean T; Lemieux, Christopher J; Canally, Culum


    A growing range of studies have begun to document the health and well-being benefits associated with contact with nature. Most studies rely on generalized self-reports following engagement in the natural environment. The actual in-situ experience during contact with nature, and the environmental features and factors that evoke health benefits have remained relatively unexplored. Smartphones offer a new opportunity to monitor and interact with human subjects during everyday life using techniques such as Experience Sampling Methods (ESM) that involve repeated self-reports of experiences as they occur in-situ. Additionally, embedded sensors in smartphones such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and accelerometers can accurately trace human activities. This paper explores how these techniques can be combined to comprehensively explore the perceived health and well-being impacts of contact with nature. Custom software was developed to passively track GPS and accelerometer data, and actively prompt subjects to complete an ESM survey at regular intervals throughout their visit to a provincial park in Ontario, Canada. The ESM survey includes nine scale questions concerning moods and emotions, followed by a series of open-ended experiential questions that subjects provide recorded audio responses to. Pilot test results are used to illustrate the nature, quantity and quality of data obtained. Participant activities were clearly evident from GPS maps, including especially walking, cycling and sedate activities. From the ESM surveys, participants reported an average of 25 words per question, taking an average of 15 s to record them. Further qualitative analysis revealed that participants were willing to provide considerable insights into their experiences and perceived health impacts. The combination of passive and interactive techniques is sure to make larger studies of this type more affordable and less burdensome in the future, further enhancing the ability to understand

  11. DMPD: NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16723122 NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. Gloi...svg) (.html) (.csml) Show NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. PubmedID 16723122 Title NF-kappaB act...ivation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later.

  12. Loneliness in the Daily Lives of Adolescents: An Experience Sampling Study Examining the Effects of Social Contexts (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike


    The main aim of the present study was to examine state levels of loneliness in adolescence. Both concurrent associations and temporal dynamics between social contexts and state levels of loneliness were examined. Data were collected from 286 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14.19 years, 59% girls) by using the Experience Sampling Method. Results…

  13. Assessing the Relationship between Family Mealtime Communication and Adolescent Emotional Well-Being Using the Experience Sampling Method (United States)

    Offer, Shira


    While most prior research has focused on the frequency of family meals the issue of which elements of family mealtime are most salient for adolescents' well-being has remained overlooked. The current study used the experience sampling method, a unique form of time diary, and survey data drawn from the 500 Family Study (N = 237 adolescents with…

  14. Temporal focus, temporal distance, and mind-wandering valence: Results from an experience sampling and an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spronken, M.; Holland, R.W.; Figner, B.C.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.


    When mind-wandering, people may think about events that happened in the past, or events that may happen in the future. Using experience sampling, we first aimed to replicate the finding that future-oriented thoughts show a greater positivity bias than past-oriented thoughts. Furthermore, we investig

  15. Psychotic reactivity to daily life stress and the dopamine system: a study combining experience sampling and [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. (United States)

    Hernaus, Dennis; Collip, Dina; Lataster, Johan; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Myin, Erik; Ceccarini, Jenny; Van Laere, Koen; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez


    Stressful life events increase the risk for psychosis, and the subjective experience of stress related to daily life activities drives moment-to-moment variation in psychotic intensity. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies suggest that dopaminergic (DAergic) activity mediates the behavioral response to an experimental stressor. However, it is not known how alterations in this DAergic stress response relate to the subjective experience of stress in real life situations assessed in momentary assessment studies. This study combined [18F]fallypride PET with an Experience Sampling ambulatory assessment approach to examine the association between the prefrontal DAergic response to experimentally induced stress and real life psychotic reactivity to the subjective experience of stress in daily life. Healthy first-degree relatives of individuals with a psychotic disorder (N = 14) and healthy controls (N = 11) participated in (a) a psychosocial [18F]fallypride PET stress paradigm and (b) an experience sampling study, using a structured diary approach. Mixed multilevel random intercept models revealed that stress-induced [18F]fallypride displacement, indicative of DAergic activity, in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) was associated with psychotic reactivity to daily life stress in the entire sample. Lower levels of [18F]fallypride displacement to stress predicted increased psychotic reactivity to daily life stress. This study combined PET neuroimaging with real life behavioral assessments in the investigation of psychotic symptoms; we showed decreased [18F]fallypride displacement to stress in VMPFC to be associated with increased psychotic reactivity to daily life stress. The preliminary evidence in this study demonstrates that it is possible to acquire a grasp on how brain function is associated with contextualized experience, which has relevance for neuroimaging studies in general.

  16. The Influence of Chronic Ego Depletion on Goal Adherence: An Experience Sampling Study. (United States)

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin; Wei, Chuguang


    Although ego depletion effects have been widely observed in experiments in which participants perform consecutive self-control tasks, the process of ego depletion remains poorly understood. Using the strength model of self-control, we hypothesized that chronic ego depletion adversely affects goal adherence and that mental effort and motivation are involved in the process of ego depletion. In this study, 203 students reported their daily performance, mental effort, and motivation with respect to goal directed behavior across a 3-week time period. People with high levels of chronic ego depletion were less successful in goal adherence than those with less chronic ego depletion. Although daily effort devoted to goal adherence increased with chronic ego depletion, motivation to adhere to goals was not affected. Participants with high levels of chronic ego depletion showed a stronger positive association between mental effort and performance, but chronic ego depletion did not play a regulatory role in the effect of motivation on performance. Chronic ego depletion increased the likelihood of behavior regulation failure, suggesting that it is difficult for people in an ego-depletion state to adhere to goals. We integrate our results with the findings of previous studies and discuss possible theoretical implications.

  17. Motivational and neural correlates of self-control of eating: A combined neuroimaging and experience sampling study in dieting female college students. (United States)

    Lopez, Richard B; Milyavskaya, Marina; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Heatherton, Todd F


    Self-regulation is a critical ability for maintaining a wide range of health behaviors, especially in preventing overeating and weight gain. Previous work has identified various threats to self-control in the eating domain, chief among which are desire strength and negative affect. In the present study, we examined individual differences in college-aged dieters' experiences of these threats as they encountered temptations to eat in their daily lives, and tested whether these differences characterized sub-groups of dieters with divergent self-control outcomes. Specifically, 75 dieting females (age range: 18-23) participated in a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and experience sampling study. Participants passively viewed food cues during a fMRI session, and then reported their daily eating behaviors for one week via ecological momentary assessment. We examined the characteristics of dieters who exhibited the most favorable combination of the aforementioned factors (i.e., low desire strength and positive mood) and who were thus most successful at regulating their eating. These dieters endorsed more autonomous reasons for their self-regulatory goals, and during the food cue reactivity task more readily recruited the inferior frontal gyrus, a brain region associated with inhibitory control. We suggest that these motivational and neural correlates may also be implicated in self-regulation of other important health behaviors.

  18. Psychological processes underlying the association between childhood trauma and psychosis in daily life:an experience sampling study


    Reininghaus, Ulrich; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte Emily Juliette; Valmaggia, Lucia Rita; Kempton, Matthew; Calem, Maria De Almeida Ribeiro; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Hubbard, Kathryn Mary Frances; Dazzan, Paola; Beards, Stephanie Frances Richmond; Fisher, Helen; Mills, John Gregory; McGuire, Philip; Craig, Tom K.J; Garety, Philippa Anne; Van Os, Johannas


    Background: Evidence has accumulated that implicates childhood trauma in the aetiology of psychosis, but our understanding of the putative psychological processes and mechanisms through which childhood trauma impacts on individuals and contributes to the development of psychosis remains limited. We aimed to investigate whether stress sensitivity and threat anticipation underlie the association between childhood abuse and psychosis. Method: We used the Experience Sampling Method to measure str...

  19. Dimensional synthesis of six-bar Stephenson II linkage for fifteen precision points path generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Nafees


    Full Text Available This paper presents the dimensional synthesis of a planar six-bar Stephenson II linkage having single degree of freedom with rotational constraints. The objective of the synthesis is to determine all the link lengths with their orientations of the linkage that is capable to follow the path specified by fifteen precision points. The analytical loop closure equations are formed using dyad and triad technique by means of complex number mathematics for path generation. These equations are solved simultaneously for fifteen displacement positions of coupler tracing point to determine various link lengths with their corresponding orientations. The displacement vector and coupler link motion are the prescribed parameters. The effectiveness of mechanism synthesis has been demonstrated on a numerical example. The solution of loop closure equations has been obtained using a MATLAB code. Finally, the determined link lengths with their orientations have been verified using SAM software.

  20. Behaviorism (United States)

    Moore, J.


    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  1. Parasitological Indices of Malaria Transmission in Children under Fifteen Years in Two Ecoepidemiological Zones in Southwestern Burkina Faso (United States)

    Sangaré, Ibrahim; Coulibaly, Sanata; Namountougou, Moussa; Paré-Toé, Léa; Ouédraogo, Anicet Georges; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Foy, Brian D.


    Twenty years after the latest publications performed on the parasitological indices of malaria transmission in northwest of the second city of Burkina Faso, it was important to update the epidemiological profile of malaria in children under the age of 15 years. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the parasitological parameters of malaria transmission by season, area, and age in the two zones (rice and savanna) in the northwest of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Overall, the results showed that there was no significant difference in the parasitological indices of malaria transmission within children under fifteen years between the rice site and the savannah site and whatever the season (P > 0.05). The profound environmental modifications that occurred in the rice zone would have led to changes in vector behavior and consequently to changes in the epidemiological profile of malaria, contrary to the results obtained since the last publications. An entomological study correlated with this study is therefore necessary for effective decision-making for the malaria control in both areas. Future research must now focus on the impact that these profound environmental modifications of rice area are having on malaria control in Burkina Faso.

  2. A comprehensive analysis of fifteen genes of steviol glycosides biosynthesis pathway in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). (United States)

    Kumar, Hitesh; Kaul, Kiran; Bajpai-Gupta, Suphla; Kaul, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay


    Stevia [Stevia rebuaidana (Bertoni); family: Asteraceae] is known to yield diterpenoid steviol glycosides (SGs), which are about 300 times sweeter than sugar. The present work analyzed the expression of various genes of the SGs biosynthesis pathway in different organs of the plant in relation to the SGs content. Of the various genes of the pathway, SrDXS, SrDXR, SrCPPS, SrKS, SrKO and three glucosyltransferases namely SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1 were reported from stevia. Here, we report cloning of seven additional full-length cDNA sequences namely, SrMCT, SrCMK, SrMDS, SrHDS, SrHDR, SrIDI and SrGGDPS followed by expression analysis of all the fifteen genes vis-à-vis SGs content analysis. SGs content was highest in the leaf at 3rd node position (node position with reference to the apical leaf as the first leaf) as compared to the leaves at other node positions. Except for SrDXR and SrKO, gene expression was maximum in leaf at 1st node and minimum in leaf at 5th node. The expression of SrKO was highest in leaf at 3rd node while in case of SrDXR expression showed an increase up to 3rd leaf and decrease thereafter. SGs accumulated maximum in leaf tissue followed by stem and root, and similar was the pattern of expression of all the fifteen genes. The genes responded to the modulators of the terpenopids biosynthesis. Gibberellin (GA(3)) treatment up-regulated the expression of SrMCT, SrCMK, SrMDS and SrUGT74G1, whereas methyl jasmonate and kinetin treatment down-regulated the expression of all the fifteen genes of the pathway.

  3. Using Negative Emotions to Trace the Experience of Borderline Personality Pathology: Interconnected Relationships Revealed in an Experience Sampling Study. (United States)

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R Michael


    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after 3 hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology.

  4. Understanding the relationships between self-esteem, experiential avoidance, and paranoia: structural equation modelling and experience sampling studies. (United States)

    Udachina, Alisa; Thewissen, Viviane; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Fitzpatrick, Sam; O'kane, Aisling; Bentall, Richard P


    Hypothesized relationships between experiential avoidance (EA), self-esteem, and paranoia were tested using structural equation modeling in a sample of student participants (N = 427). EA in everyday life was also investigated using the Experience Sampling Method in a subsample of students scoring high (N = 17) and low (N = 15) on paranoia. Results showed that paranoid students had lower self-esteem and reported higher levels of EA than nonparanoid participants. The interactive influence of EA and stress predicted negative self-esteem: EA was particularly damaging at high levels of stress. Greater EA and higher social stress independently predicted lower positive self-esteem. Low positive self-esteem predicted engagement in EA. A direct association between EA and paranoia was also found. These results suggest that similar mechanisms may underlie EA and thought suppression. Although people may employ EA to regulate self-esteem, this strategy is maladaptive as it damages self-esteem, incurs cognitive costs, and fosters paranoid thinking.

  5. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  6. Fifteen Years of Cold Matter on the Atom Chip: Promise, Realizations, and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, Mark; Zhou, Shuyu; Groswasser, David; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron


    Here we review the field of atom chips in the context of Bose-Einstein Condensates (BEC) as well as cold matter in general. Twenty years after the first realization of the BEC and fifteen years after the realization of the atom chip, the latter has been found to enable extraordinary feats: from producing BECs at a rate of several per second, through the realization of matter-wave interferometry, and all the way to novel probing of surfaces and new forces. In addition, technological applications are also being intensively pursued. This review will describe these developments and more, including new ideas which have not yet been realized.

  7. Banking concentration in the European Union during the last fifteen years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santillán-Salgado Roberto J.


    Full Text Available The increase in the concentration of the banking industry across European Union countries during the last fifteen years can be explained in terms of: a global factors, like the comprehensive adoption of technological innovations, the intensification of competition that has resulted from the deregulation of the financial sector and, more recently, as a consequence of the government interventions and forced acquisitions prompted by the 2007-2009 financial crisis; and, b factors that have been specific to the E.U., in particular, the structural changes that took place in the region as a result of the creation of the Single Financial Market (1993 and the introduction of the euro (1999. This work analyzes the concentration process of the banking industry in the E.U. during the last fifteen years giving preeminence to the strategic choices made by the region’s commercial banks. It also reports the most visible E.U. banks’ M&As and government interventions that resulted from the 2007-2009 financial crisis, make a preliminary evaluation of the outcomes, and suggests possible future trends for the banking industry in the region.

  8. Teachers’ emotional experiences and exhaustion as predictors of emotional labor in the classroom: an experience sampling study (United States)

    Keller, Melanie M.; Chang, Mei-Lin; Becker, Eva S.; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.


    Emotional exhaustion (EE) is the core component in the study of teacher burnout, with significant impact on teachers’ professional lives. Yet, its relation to teachers’ emotional experiences and emotional labor (EL) during instruction remains unclear. Thirty-nine German secondary teachers were surveyed about their EE (trait), and via the experience sampling method on their momentary (state; N = 794) emotional experiences (enjoyment, anxiety, anger) and momentary EL (suppression, faking). Teachers reported that in 99 and 39% of all lessons, they experienced enjoyment and anger, respectively, whereas they experienced anxiety less frequently. Teachers reported suppressing or faking their emotions during roughly a third of all lessons. Furthermore, EE was reflected in teachers’ decreased experiences of enjoyment and increased experiences of anger. On an intra-individual level, all three emotions predict EL, whereas on an inter-individual level, only anger evokes EL. Explained variances in EL (within: 39%, between: 67%) stress the relevance of emotions in teaching and within the context of teacher burnout. Beyond implying the importance of reducing anger, our findings suggest the potential of enjoyment lessening EL and thereby reducing teacher burnout. PMID:25566124

  9. Mindfulness and mood stimulate each other in an upward spiral: a mindful walking intervention using experience sampling. (United States)

    Gotink, Rinske A; Hermans, Karlijn S F M; Geschwind, Nicole; De Nooij, Reinier; De Groot, Wouter T; Speckens, Anne E M

    The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of mindful walking in nature as a possible means to maintain mindfulness skills after a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) or mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course. Mindful walking alongside the river Rhine took place for 1, 3, 6, or 10 days, with a control period of a similar number of days, 1 week before the mindful walking period. In 29 mindfulness participants, experience sampling method (ESM) was performed during the control and mindful walking period. Smartphones offered items on positive and negative affect and state mindfulness at random times during the day. Furthermore, self-report questionnaires were administered before and after the control and mindful walking period, assessing depression, anxiety, stress, brooding, and mindfulness skills. ESM data showed that walking resulted in a significant improvement of both mindfulness and positive affect, and that state mindfulness and positive affect prospectively enhanced each other in an upward spiral. The opposite pattern was observed with state mindfulness and negative affect, where increased state mindfulness predicted less negative affect. Exploratory questionnaire data indicated corresponding results, though non-significant due to the small sample size. This is the first time that ESM was used to assess interactions between state mindfulness and momentary affect during a mindfulness intervention of several consecutive days, showing an upward spiral effect. Mindful walking in nature may be an effective way to maintain mindfulness practice and further improve psychological functioning.

  10. Social Daydreaming and Adjustment: An Experience-Sampling Study of Socio-Emotional Adaptation During a Life Transition. (United States)

    Poerio, Giulia L; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor


    Estimates suggest that up to half of waking life is spent daydreaming; that is, engaged in thought that is independent of, and unrelated to, one's current task. Emerging research indicates that daydreams are predominately social suggesting that daydreams may serve socio-emotional functions. Here we explore the functional role of social daydreaming for socio-emotional adjustment during an important and stressful life transition (the transition to university) using experience-sampling with 103 participants over 28 days. Over time, social daydreams increased in their positive characteristics and positive emotional outcomes; specifically, participants reported that their daydreams made them feel more socially connected and less lonely, and that the content of their daydreams became less fanciful and involved higher quality relationships. These characteristics then predicted less loneliness at the end of the study, which, in turn was associated with greater social adaptation to university. Feelings of connection resulting from social daydreams were also associated with less emotional inertia in participants who reported being less socially adapted to university. Findings indicate that social daydreaming is functional for promoting socio-emotional adjustment to an important life event. We highlight the need to consider the social content of stimulus-independent cognitions, their characteristics, and patterns of change, to specify how social thoughts enable socio-emotional adaptation.

  11. Teachers' emotional experiences and exhaustion as predictors of emotional labor in the classroom: an experience sampling study. (United States)

    Keller, Melanie M; Chang, Mei-Lin; Becker, Eva S; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C


    Emotional exhaustion (EE) is the core component in the study of teacher burnout, with significant impact on teachers' professional lives. Yet, its relation to teachers' emotional experiences and emotional labor (EL) during instruction remains unclear. Thirty-nine German secondary teachers were surveyed about their EE (trait), and via the experience sampling method on their momentary (state; N = 794) emotional experiences (enjoyment, anxiety, anger) and momentary EL (suppression, faking). Teachers reported that in 99 and 39% of all lessons, they experienced enjoyment and anger, respectively, whereas they experienced anxiety less frequently. Teachers reported suppressing or faking their emotions during roughly a third of all lessons. Furthermore, EE was reflected in teachers' decreased experiences of enjoyment and increased experiences of anger. On an intra-individual level, all three emotions predict EL, whereas on an inter-individual level, only anger evokes EL. Explained variances in EL (within: 39%, between: 67%) stress the relevance of emotions in teaching and within the context of teacher burnout. Beyond implying the importance of reducing anger, our findings suggest the potential of enjoyment lessening EL and thereby reducing teacher burnout.

  12. Teachers’ emotional experiences and exhaustion as predictors of emotional labor in the classroom: An Experience Sampling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie M. Keller


    Full Text Available Emotional exhaustion is the core component in the study of teacher burnout, with significant impact on teachers’ professional lives. Yet, its relation to teachers’ emotional experiences and emotional labor during instruction remains unclear. Thirty-nine German secondary teachers were surveyed about their emotional exhaustion (trait, and via the Experience Sampling Method on their momentary (state; N = 794 emotional experiences (enjoyment, anxiety, anger and momentary emotional labor (suppression, faking. Teachers reported that in 99% and 39% of all lessons, they experienced enjoyment and anger, respectively, whereas they experienced anxiety less frequently. Teachers reported suppressing or faking their emotions during roughly a third of all lessons. Furthermore, emotional exhaustion was reflected in teachers’ decreased experiences of enjoyment and increased experiences of anger. On an intra-individual level, all three emotions predict emotional labor, whereas on an inter-individual level, only anger evokes emotional labor. Explained variances in emotional labor (within: 39%, between: 67% stress the relevance of emotions in teaching and within the context of teacher burnout. Beyond implying the importance of reducing anger, our findings suggest the potential of enjoyment lessening emotional labor and thereby reducing teacher burnout.

  13. Real-world emotion? An experience-sampling approach to emotion experience and regulation in bipolar I disorder. (United States)

    Gruber, June; Kogan, Aleksandr; Mennin, Douglas; Murray, Greg


    Laboratory studies suggest that bipolar disorder is characterized by emotion dysregulation, yet emotion disturbance has not been systematically described using more ecologically valid methods. Using an experience-sampling approach, we therefore sought to investigate positive and negative emotionality, emotion regulation strategies, and functioning among remitted individuals with bipolar I disorder (BD; n = 31) compared with both healthy controls (CTL; n = 32) and remitted individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 21). Hierarchical linear modeling analyses of self-report data spanning a 6-day consecutive period revealed that the BD group aligned with the CTL group in reporting greater positive emotionality than the MDD group, but aligned with the MDD group in reporting greater negative emotionality than the CTL group. Furthermore, the BD and MDD groups reported greater general use of emotion regulation strategies than the CTL group. These findings suggest that BD is characterized by amplified emotionality as well as increased efforts to regulate emotions in everyday life. Discussion focuses on implications for BD, as well as identification of unique (disorder-specific) and shared (transdiagnostic) features of emotion disturbance.

  14. Social daydreaming and adjustment: An experience-sampling study of socio-emotional adaptation during a life transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Lara Poerio


    Full Text Available Estimates suggest that up to half of waking life is spent daydreaming; that is, engaged in thought that is independent of, and unrelated to, one’s current task. Emerging research indicates that daydreams are predominately social suggesting that daydreams may serve socio-emotional functions. Here we explore the functional role of social daydreaming for socio-emotional adjustment during an important and stressful life transition (the transition to university using experience-sampling with 103 participants over 28 days. Over time, social daydreams increased in their positive characteristics and positive emotional outcomes; specifically, participants reported that their daydreams made them feel more socially connected and less lonely, and that the content of their daydreams became less fanciful and involved higher quality relationships. These characteristics then predicted less loneliness at the end of the study, which, in turn was associated with greater social adaptation to university. Feelings of connection resulting from social daydreams were also associated with less emotional inertia in participants who reported being less socially adapted to university. Findings indicate that social daydreaming is functional for promoting socio-emotional adjustment to an important life event. We highlight the need to consider the social content of stimulus-independent cognitions, their characteristics, and patterns of change, to specify how social thoughts enable socio-emotional adaptation.

  15. A historical perspective on fifteen years of laser damage thresholds at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainer, F.; De Marco, F.P.; Staggs, M.C.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Atherton, L.J.; Sheehan, L.M.


    We have completed a fifteen year, referenced and documented compilation of more than 15,000 measurements of laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDT) conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These measurements cover the spectrum from 248 to 1064 nm with pulse durations ranging from < 1 ns to 65 ns and at pulse-repetition frequencies (PRF) from single shots to 6.3 kHz. We emphasize the changes in LIDTs during the past two years since we last summarized our database. We relate these results to earlier data concentrating on improvements in processing methods, materials, and conditioning techniques. In particular, we highlight the current status of anti-reflective (AR) coatings, high reflectors (HR), polarizers, and frequency-conversion crystals used primarily at 355 nm and 1064 nm.

  16. Developmental profiles on the basis of the FTF (Five to Fifteen) questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Sommer, Søren;


    The Five to Fifteen parent questionnaire (FTF) was developed to offer a neuropsychological dimension to the assessment of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and other child psychiatric disorders. The domains included in the FTF were motor skills, executive functions, perception......, memory, language, social skills and learning, in addition to a domain for emotional and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to test the clinical validity and utility of the FTF with a main focus on discriminant and criterion validity. The clinical sample consisted of 155 clinically...... diagnosed children (ICD-10 criteria), 102 were tested with WISC-III. The parents rated their children independent of the diagnostic evaluation. The results were presented as profiles. These clinical profiles were compared to those of a Swedish norm sample consisting of 854 children from the age of five...

  17. Beijing fifteen years on: the persistence of barriers to gender mainstreaming in health policy. (United States)

    Payne, Sarah


    In 2010, fifteen years after the Beijing declaration on women's rights, the UN Commission on the Status of Women met to review progress in gender mainstreaming. Reports on gender equality by member states revealed differences in the degree of change achieved in this period, while highlighting common barriers to gender mainstreaming. The same barriers have long been identified by academics and activists, but prove remarkably resistant to strategies to address gender inequalities. This paper reviews approaches to gender mainstreaming in the context of health policy, and suggests that a model of the obstacles to gender mainstreaming, which identifies barriers as essentially pragmatic, conceptual, or political in origin, might enable a more explicit discussion of the factors underlying this resistance and the ways in which they might be challenged.

  18. A therapeutic application of the experience sampling method in the treatment of depression: a randomized controlled trial (United States)

    Kramer, Ingrid; Simons, Claudia JP; Hartmann, Jessica A; Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Peeters, Frenk; Schruers, Koen; Bemmel, Alex L; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Delespaul, Philippe; Os, Jim; Wichers, Marieke


    In depression, the ability to experience daily life positive affect predicts recovery and reduces relapse rates. Interventions based on the experience sampling method (ESM-I) are ideally suited to provide insight in personal, contextualized patterns of positive affect. The aim of this study was to examine whether add-on ESM-derived feedback on personalized patterns of positive affect is feasible and useful to patients, and results in a reduction of depressive symptomatology. Depressed outpatients (n=102) receiving pharmacological treatment participated in a randomized controlled trial with three arms: an experimental group receiving add-on ESM-derived feedback, a pseudo-experimental group participating in ESM but receiving no feedback, and a control group. The experimental group participated in an ESM procedure (three days per week over a 6-week period) using a palmtop. This group received weekly standardized feedback on personalized patterns of positive affect. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale – 17 (HDRS) and Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (IDS) scores were obtained before and after the intervention. During a 6-month follow-up period, five HDRS and IDS assessments were completed. Add-on ESM-derived feedback resulted in a significant and clinically relevant stronger decrease in HDRS score relative to the control group (p<0.01; −5.5 point reduction in HDRS at 6 months). Compared to the pseudo-experimental group, a clinically relevant decrease in HDRS score was apparent at 6 months (B=−3.6, p=0.053). Self-reported depressive complaints (IDS) yielded the same pattern over time. The use of ESM-I was deemed acceptable and the provided feedback easy to understand. Patients attempted to apply suggestions from ESM-derived feedback to daily life. These data suggest that the efficacy of traditional passive pharmacological approach to treatment of major depression can be enhanced by using person-tailored daily life information regarding positive affect. PMID:24497255

  19. Flow situations during everyday practice in a medical hospital ward. Results from a study based on experience sampling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejlertsson Göran


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing is a constant balance between strain and stimulation and work and health research with a positive reference point has been recommended. A health-promoting circumstance for subjective experience is flow, which is a psychological state, when individuals concurrently experience happiness, motivation and cognitive efficiency. Flow situations can be identified through individuals' estimates of perceived challenge and skills. There is, to the best of our knowledge, no published study of flow among health care staff. The aim of this study was to identify flow-situations and study work-related activities and individual factors associated with flow situations, during everyday practice at a medical emergency ward in Sweden, in order to increase the knowledge on salutogenic health-promoting factors. Methods The respondents consisted of 17 assistant nurses and 14 registered nurses, who randomly and repeatedly answered a small questionnaire, through an experience sampling method, during everyday nursing practice. The study resulted in 497 observations. Flow situations were defined as an exact match between a high challenge and skill estimation and logistic regression models were used to study different variables association to flow situations. Results The health care staff spent most of its working time in individual nursing care and administrative and communicative duties. The assistant nurses were more often occupied in individual nursing care, while the registered nurses were more involved in medical care and administrative and communicative duties. The study resulted in 11.5% observations of flow situations but the relative number of flow situations varied between none to 55% among the participants. Flow situations were positively related to medical care activities and individual cognitive resources. Taking a break was also positively associated with flow situations among the assistant nurses. Conclusions The result showed

  20. An analysis on flavonoids contents in Mao Luang fruits of fifteen cultivars (Antidesma bunius), grown in northeast Thailand. (United States)

    Butkhup, L; Samappito, S


    This investigation was carried out at the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham Province, Northeast Thailand. The study aimed to analyze flavonoids contents in ripe fruits of fifteen Mao Luang cultivars (Antidesma bunius) harvested from dipterocarp forest of the mountainous areas of Phupan Valley, Sakon Nakhon Province, Northeast Thailand. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with five replications. The fifteen cultivars were used as treatments. An amount of 2 kg of ripe fruits of each cultivar was collected and extracted for juice solutions. The analysis was carried out with the use of RP-HPLC laboratory system. The results showed that fruits of the fifteen Mao Luang cultivars contained three different kinds of flavonoids, i.e., catechin, procyanidin B1 and procyanidin B2. These three chemical compounds were the major flavonoids in all analyzed fruit samples of the fifteen cultivars. The highest amount of procyanidin B1 was found with Lompat followed by Maeloogdog with values of 4122.75 and 3993.88 mg 100 g(-1) of fresh weight, respectively and the highest amount of procyanidin B2 was found with Sangkrow 2 followed by Fapratan with values of 5,006.39 and 3,689.42 mg 100 g(-1) of fresh weight, respectively. Catechin contents in fruits of the fifteen cultivars varied from 73.39 to 316.22 mg 100 g(-1) of fresh weight for Sangkrow 5 and Fapratan, respectively where Fapratan was the highest among the fifteen cultivars followed by Sangkrow 2 with values of 316.22 and 175.40 mg 100 g(-1) of fresh weight, respectively. In terms of grand total amounts of flavonoids, Sangkrow 2 was the best followed by Fapratan, Sangkrow 1 and Maeloogdog, whilst the rest were of secondary importance.

  1. Fifteen new T dwarfs discovered in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Pinfield, D J; Tamura, M; Leggett, S K; Lodieu, N; Lucas, P W; Mortlock, D J; Warren, S J; Homeier, D; Ishi, M; Deacon, N R; McMahon, R G; Hewett, P C; Osorio, M R Zapatero; Martín, E L; Jones, H R A; Venemans, B P; Day-Jones, A; Dobbie, P D; Folkes, S L; Dye, S; Allard, F; Baraffe, I; Navascues, D Barrado y; Casewell, S L; Chiu, K; Chabrier, G; Clarke, F; Hodgkin, S T; Magazzù, A; McCaughrean, M J; Moraux, E; Nakajima, T; Pavlenko, Y; Tinney, C G


    We present the discovery of fifteen new T2.5-T7.5 dwarfs (with estimated distances between ~24-93pc, identified in the first three main data releases of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey. This brings the total number of T dwarfs discovered in the Large Area Survey (to date) to 28. These discoveries are confirmed by near infrared spectroscopy, from which we derive spectral types on the unified scheme of Burgasser et al. (2006). Seven of the new T dwarfs have spectral types of T2.5-T4.5, five have spectral types of T5-T5.5, one is a T6.5p, and two are T7-7.5. We assess spectral morphology and colours to identify T dwarfs in our sample that may have non-typical physical properties (by comparison to solar neighbourhood populations). The colours of the full sample of LAS T dwarfs show a possible trend to bluer Y-J with decreasing effective temperature beyond T8. By accounting for the main sources of incompleteness (selection, follow-up and spatial) as well as the effects of unresolved binarity and Malmquist bias,...

  2. Purity, Victimhood and Agency: Fifteen years of the UN Trafficking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Wijers


    Full Text Available When the women’s movement reverted back to the nineteenth-century Victorian concept of ‘trafficking in women’ to address abuses of migrant women in the sex industry, it unwittingly adopted not only a highly morally biased concept—dividing women into innocent victims in need of rescue and guilty ones who can be abused with impunity—but also one with racist and nationalistic overtones. Despite efforts to counter these flaws, this inheritance continues to define the debate on trafficking today, exemplified by the distinction made by the United Nations Trafficking Protocol between so-called ‘sexual exploitation’ and ‘labour exploitation’ and its focus on the aspects of recruitment and movement. As a result, its implementation in the last fifteen years has led to a range of oppressive measures against sex workers and migrants in the name of combating trafficking. The focus on the purity and victimhood of women, coupled with the protection of national borders, not only impedes any serious effort to address the exploitation of human beings under forced labour and slavery-like conditions, but actually causes harm. The call of the anti-trafficking movement for a human rights-based approach does not necessarily solve these fundamental problems, as it tends to restrict itself to protecting the rights of trafficked persons, while neglecting or even denying the human rights of sex workers and migrants.

  3. ADHD and language impairment: A study of the parent questionnaire FTF (Five to Fifteen). (United States)

    Bruce, Barbro; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nettelbladt, Ulrika


    The parental questionnaire FTF (Five to Fifteen) was given to parents of 76 children (mean age 11 years) diagnosed with ADHD. About half of the children had at least once been referred to a speech- and language pathologist. Most of them had not received any intervention or follow-up. A factor analysis identified six problem areas, which explain close to 75% of the total variation: Cognitive Skills, Motor/Perception, Emotion/Socialisation/Behaviour, Attention, Literacy Skills and Activity Control. The majority of the children had pragmatic problems, which are associated with some of the core aspects of the ADHD symptoms, especially inattention and impulsiveness. Communication and language comprehension caused these children many more problems than expressive language. Problems of reading and writing were very frequent. IQ-score was associated with maths and reading/writing. Additional items reflecting language skills, in particular language comprehension and pragmatics, were also found in other domains in the FTF, mainly in Executive functions, Learning and Social skills. Problems with language and pragmatics thus seem to be associated with the typical problems with learning and social skills in children with ADHD.

  4. In vitro anti-hepatoma activity of fifteen natural medicines from Canada. (United States)

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Liu, Li-Teh; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Lin, Chun-Ching


    Fifteen crude drugs, Stellaria media Cyrill. (Caryophyllaceae), Calendula officinalis L. (Compositae), Achillea millefolium L. (Compositae), Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae), Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae), Satureja hortensis L. (Labiatae), Coptis groenlandica Salisb. (Ranunculaceae), Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Leguminosae), Origanum majorana L. (Labiatae), Centella asiatica L. (Umbelliferae), Caulophyllum thalictroides Mich. (Berberidaceae), Picea rubens Sargent. (Pinaceae), Rhamnus purshiana D.C. (Rhamnaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), which have been used as folk medicine in Canada, were evaluated for their anti-hepatoma activity on five human liver-cancer cell lines, i.e. HepG2/C3A, SK-HEP-1, HA22T/VGH, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5. The samples were examined by in vitro evaluation for their cytotoxicity. The results showed that the effects of crude drugs on hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines were different from those against non hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines. C. groenlandica was observed to be the most effective against the growth of all five cell lines and its chemotherapeutic values will be of interest for further studies.

  5. Methane dissociation on Ni(111): A fifteen-dimensional potential energy surface using neural network method (United States)

    Shen, Xiangjian; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhaojun; Shao, Kejie; Zhang, Dong H.


    In the present work, we develop a highly accurate, fifteen-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) of CH4 interacting on a rigid flat Ni(111) surface with the methodology of neural network (NN) fit to a database consisted of about 194 208 ab initio density functional theory (DFT) energy points. Some careful tests of the accuracy of the fitting PES are given through the descriptions of the fitting quality, vibrational spectrum of CH4 in vacuum, transition state (TS) geometries as well as the activation barriers. Using a 25-60-60-1 NN structure, we obtain one of the best PESs with the least root mean square errors: 10.11 meV for the entrance region and 17.00 meV for the interaction and product regions. Our PES can reproduce the DFT results very well in particular for the important TS structures. Furthermore, we present the sticking probability S0 of ground state CH4 at the experimental surface temperature using some sudden approximations by Jackson's group. An in-depth explanation is given for the underestimated sticking probability.

  6. Further discoveries in the ever-expanding genus Begonia (Begoniaceae: fifteen new species from Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hughes


    Full Text Available Fifteen new species of Begonia L. from Sumatra are described and illustrated, in Begonia sect. Bracteibegonia (B. beludruvenea M.Hughes sp. nov. and B. jackiana M.Hughes sp. nov., B. sect. Petermannia (B. harauensis Girm. sp. nov., B. sect. Platycentrum (B. leuserensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. sect. Reichenheimia (B. fluvialis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. halabanensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. karangputihensis Girm. sp. nov., B. kemumuensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. korthalsiana Miq. ex M.Hughes sp. nov., B. kudoensis Girm. sp. nov., B. lilliputana M.Hughes sp. nov., B. olivacea Ardi sp. nov., B. raoensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. simolapensis Ardi sp. nov. and B. sect. Sphenanthera (B. pseudoscottii Girm. sp. nov.. Using the International Union for the Conservation of Nature criteria, 6 are considered to be Least Concern, 5 Vulnerable and 4 Data Deficient. A key to 58 of the 63 currently accepted Begonia species in Sumatra is provided.

  7. Association between fifteen risk factors and progressing ischemic stroke in the Han population of northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shan-shan; TENG Da; YOU Ding-yun; SU Zhi-qiang; LI Fang; ZHAO Ji-yang


    Background The mortality and disability associated with progressing ischemic stroke are much higher than general ischemic stroke. This study was conducted to determine the risk factors for progressing ischemic stroke in the Han population of northeast China.Methods A total of 2511 patients with ischemic stroke within 24 hours admitted to Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University were studied, from November 2007 to May 2009. All of the patients were classified into the progressing or non-progressing group according to the scores of the Scandinavian Neurological Stroke Scale. Fifteen putative risk factors were evaluated. The influence of risk factors for progressing ischemic stroke was analyzed with the simple Logistic analysis, the multiple Logistic analysis, and the stepwise Logistic regression model. All the statistical analysis was performed by SAS 9.1.Results Totally 359 (14.3%) patients met the criteria for progressing ischemic stroke. The Logistic analysis showed that age, family stroke history, smoking history, hypertension on admission, a drop in blood pressure after admission to the hospital, high serum glucose on admission, and fever were related to progressing ischemic stroke in the Han population of northeast China.Conclusion People of the ischemic stroke with these factors are more likely to develop progressing ischemic stroke.

  8. Construction of somatic athletes who train in WTF Taekwondo MUKS "Fifteen" in Bydgoszcz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieslicka Miroslawa.


    Full Text Available Introduction. The sports training process consists of two phenomena, on the one hand is the level of motor skills, on the other player's body to adapt to certain types and sizes of exercise, what the result is the formation of body specific to the sport. Objective. The objective was to measure the somatic features on school students practicing taekwondo and comparison with regional research Kujawsko-Pomorskie conducted by Marek Napierala. Materials and methods. The research was done on secondary school students (aged 14.5 - 16.5 years taekwondo training in Student Interschool Sports Club " Fifteen " in Bydgoszcz. We analyzed somatic features (height, weight, and BMI. There have been a correlation analysis between pairs of traits studied to investigate the relationships between the parameters of body and compared with regional research Kujawsko-Pomorskie conducted by Marek Napierala. Results and conclusions. In the case of boys outside the body of the youngest age category (14.5 years, greater than their peers from the regional research. In the group of girls higher average body height of girls exhibit regional research. Taekwondo trains are characterized by low BMI, which in most places in the range of normal. In all three age categories were characterized by higher body weight in girls with regional research. In this age the boys of regional research are on average 6.08 kg heavier than their peers who train taekwondo.

  9. An empirical investigation on different methods of economic growth rate forecast and its behavior from fifteen countries across five continents (United States)

    Yin, Yip Chee; Hock-Eam, Lim


    Our empirical results show that we can predict GDP growth rate more accurately in continent with fewer large economies, compared to smaller economies like Malaysia. This difficulty is very likely positively correlated with subsidy or social security policies. The stage of economic development and level of competiveness also appears to have interactive effects on this forecast stability. These results are generally independent of the forecasting procedures. Countries with high stability in their economic growth, forecasting by model selection is better than model averaging. Overall forecast weight averaging (FWA) is a better forecasting procedure in most countries. FWA also outperforms simple model averaging (SMA) and has the same forecasting ability as Bayesian model averaging (BMA) in almost all countries.

  10. Fifteen-year Assessment of a Permeable Reactive Barrier for Treatment of Chromate and Trichloroethylene in Groundwater (United States)

    The fifteen-year performance of a granular iron, permeable reactive barrier (PRB; Elizabeth City, North Carolina) is reviewed with respect to contaminant treatment (hexavalent chromium and trichloroethylene) and hydraulic performance. Due to in-situ treatment of the chromium sou...

  11. A Cross-Cultural Exploration of the Everyday Social Participation of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Australia and Taiwan: An Experience Sampling Study (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Bundy, Anita C.; Cordier, Reinie; Chien, Yi-Ling; Einfeld, Stewart L.


    Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder commonly have limited social participation. This study aimed to examine the similarities and differences of everyday participation among males and females with autism spectrum disorder in Australia and Taiwan, using an experience sampling methodology. A total of 14 Australians (4 males, aged 16-43…

  12. Deletion of Fifteen Open Reading Frames from Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Fails to Improve Immunogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif Khalaf Alharbi

    Full Text Available Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA is a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus, which has been used as a recombinant vaccine vector in many vaccine development programmes. The loss of many immunosuppressive and host-range genes resulted in a safe and immunogenic vaccine vector. However it still retains some immunomodulatory genes that may reduce MVA immunogenicity. Earlier reports demonstrated that the deletion of the A41L, B15R, C6L, or C12L open reading frames (ORFs enhanced cellular immune responses in recombinant MVA (rMVA by up to 2-fold. However, previously, we showed that deletion of the C12L, A44L, A46R, B7R, or B15R ORFs from rMVA, using MVA-BAC recombineering technology, did not enhance rMVA immunogenicity at either peak or memory cellular immune responses. Here, we extend our previous study to examine the effect of deleting clusters of genes on rMVA cellular immunogenicity. Two clusters of fifteen genes were deleted in one rMVA mutant that encodes either the 85A antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or an immunodominant H2-Kd-restricted murine malaria epitope (pb9. The deletion mutants were tested in prime only or prime and boost vaccination regimens. The responses showed no improved peak or memory CD8+ T cell frequencies. Our results suggest that the reported small increases in MVA deletion mutants could not be replicated with different antigens, or epitopes. Therefore, the gene deletion strategy may not be taken as a generic approach for improving the immunogenicity of MVA-based vaccines, and should be carefully assessed for every individual recombinant antigen.

  13. Fifteen fatal fallacies of financial fundamentalism Quince falacias funestas del fundamentalismo financiero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickrey William


    Full Text Available In this article, Professor Vickrey shows that current economic policy is based on incomplete analyses, counterfactual assumptions, and false analogies. The article examines in detail fifteen fallacies which, taken together, lead to policies which at best generate economic lethargy with unemployment rates close to 5 or 6 percent. For Professor Vickrey, this situation is harmful in that it reduces potential production between 10 and 15 percent even if the loss is distributed in an equitable way among the population; but when it turns into unemployment of 10, 20, and up to 40 percent for the less favored groups, the additional harm in terms of poverty, family breakup, school absence and dropout, illegitimacy,
    drug use, and crime becomes very serious. Thus these policies are like a 'premeditated homicidal fire' and, even worse, when they are carried to their ultimate consequences, in search of 'budgetary equilibrium', they can lead to a deep depression.En este articulo, el profesor Vickrey muestra que la politica economica actual se basa en analisis incompletos, supuestos contrafactuales y analogias falsas. El articulo examina en detalle quince falacias que, en conjunto, llevan a politicas que, en el mejor de los casos, generan un letargo economico con tasas de desempleo cercanas al 5 o 6 por ciento. Para el profesor Vickrey, esta situacion es perjudicial por cuanto reduce la produccion potencial entre un 10 y un 15 por ciento aun asi la perdida de se reparte de forma equitativa entre toda la poblacion; pero cuando se traduce un desempleo de 10, 20 o hasta 40 por ciento para los grupos desfavorecidos, los perjuicios adicionales en terminos de pobreza, ruptura familiar, ausencia y desercion escolar, ilegitimidad, uso de drogas y crimenes llegan a ser muy graves. De modo que estas politicas se asemejan a un "incendio homicida premeditado" y, aun peor, cuando se llevan hasta sus ultimas concecuencias, en busca de un 'presupuesto equilibrado

  14. X-Rays from the Explosion Site: Fifteen Years of Light Curves of SN 1993J (United States)

    Chandra, Poonam; Dwarkadas, Vikram V.; Ray, Alak; Immler, Stefan; Pooley, David


    We present a comprehensive analysis of the X-ray light curves of SN 1993J in a nearby galaxy M81. This is the only supernova other than SN 1987A, which is so extensively followed in the X-ray bands. Here we report on SN 1993J observations with the Chandra in the year 2005 and 2008, and Swift observations in 2005, 2006 and 2008. We combined these observations with all available archival data of SN 1993J, which includes ROSAT, ASCA, Chandra, and XMM-Newton, observations from 1993 April to 2006 August. In this paper we report the X-ray light curves of SN 1993J, extending up to fifteen years, in the soft (0.3-2.4 keV), hard (2-8 keV) and combined (0.3-8 keV) bands. The hard and soft-band fluxes decline at different rates initially, but after about 5 years they both undergo a t(sup -1) decline. The soft X-rays, which are initially low, start dominating after a few hundred days. We interpret that most of the emission below 8 keV is coming from the reverse shock which is radiative initially for around first 1000-2000 days and then turn into adiabatic shock. Our hydrodynamic simulation also confirms the reverse shock origin of the observed light curves. We also compare the Ha line luminosity of SN 1993J with its X-ray light curve and note that the Ha line luminosity has a fairly high fraction of the X-ray emission, indicating presence of clumps in the emitting plasma.

  15. A Fifteen Year Record of Global Natural Gas Flaring Derived from Satellite Data

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    Mikhail Zhizhin


    Full Text Available We have produced annual estimates of national and global gas flaring and gas flaring efficiency from 1994 through 2008 using low light imaging data acquired by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP. Gas flaring is a widely used practice for the disposal of associated gas in oil production and processing facilities where there is insufficient infrastructure for utilization of the gas (primarily methane. Improved utilization of the gas is key to reducing global carbon emissions to the atmosphere. The DMSP estimates of flared gas volume are based on a calibration developed with a pooled set of reported national gas flaring volumes and data from individual flares. Flaring efficiency was calculated as the volume of flared gas per barrel of crude oil produced. Global gas flaring has remained largely stable over the past fifteen years, in the range of 140 to 170 billion cubic meters (BCM. Global flaring efficiency was in the seven to eight cubic meters per barrel from 1994 to 2005 and declined to 5.6 m3 per barrel by 2008. The 2008 gas flaring estimate of 139 BCM represents 21% of the natural gas consumption of the USA with a potential retail market value of $68 billion. The 2008 flaring added more than 278 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e into the atmosphere. The DMSP estimated gas flaring volumes indicate that global gas flaring has declined by 19% since 2005, led by gas flaring reductions in Russia and Nigeria, the two countries with the highest gas flaring levels. The flaring efficiency of both Russia and Nigeria improved from 2005 to 2008, suggesting that the reductions in gas flaring are likely the result of either improved utilization of the gas, reinjection, or direct venting of gas into the atmosphere, although the effect of uncertainties in the satellite data cannot be ruled out. It is anticipated that the capability to estimate gas flaring volumes based on satellite data will spur improved utilization of

  16. The Inhibitory Effect of Oridonin on the Growth of Fifteen Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhui Chen; Shaobin Wang; Dongyang Chen; Guisheng Chang; Qingfeng Xin; Shoujun Yuan; Zhongying Shen


    OBJECTIVE To study the inhibitory effect of oridonin on the growth of cancer cells.METHODS Fifteen human cancer cell lines were subjected to various concentrations of oridonin in culture medium.The inhibitory rate of cell growth was measured by the MTT assay.and compared with a negative control and 5-Fu-positive control.RESULTS The 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) and maximal inhibi tion (Imax) of oridonin shown by studying the growth of the cancer cell lines were as follows:leukemias (HL60 cells:3.9 μg/ml and 73.8%.K562 cells:4.3 μg/ml and 76.2%):esophageal cancers (SHEEC cells:15.4 μg/ml and 99.2%,Eca109 cells:15.1 μg/ml and 84.6%,TE1 cells:4.0 μg/ml and 70.2%):gastric cancers (BGC823 cells:7.6 μg/ml and 98.7%,SGC7901 cells:12.3 μg/ml and 85.7%):colon cancers (HT29 cells:13.6 μg/ml and 97.2%,HCT cells:14.5 μg/ml and 96.5%):liver cancers (Bel7402 cells:15.2 μg/ml and 89.2%,HepG2 cells:7.1 μg/ml and 88.3%):pancreatic cancer (PC3 cells:11.3 μg/ml and 68.4%):lung cancer (A549 cells:18.6 μg/ml and 98.0%):breast cancer (MCF7 cells:18.4 μg/ml and 84.7%):uterine cervix cancer (Hela cells:13.7μg/ml and 98.5%).CONCLUSION Oridonin had a relatively wide anti-tumor spectrum,and a relatively strong inhibitory effect on the growth of the 15 human cancer cells.Inhibitory effects were concentration dependent.



    Armstrong, Richard A.; Kotzbauer, Paul T.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Campbell, Meghan C.; Hurth, Kyle M; Schmidt, Robert E.; Cairns, Nigel J.


    The α-synuclein-immunoreactive pathology of dementia associated with Parkinson disease (DPD) comprises Lewy bodies (LB), Lewy neurites (LN), and Lewy grains (LG). The densities of LB, LN, LG together with vacuoles, neurons, abnormally enlarged neurons (EN), and glial cell nuclei were measured in fifteen cases of DPD. Densities of LN and LG were up to 19 and 70 times those of LB respectively, depending on region. Densities were significantly greater in amygdala, entorhinal cortex (EC), and sec...

  18. Planned missing-data designs in experience-sampling research: Monte Carlo simulations of efficient designs for assessing within-person constructs. (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J; Kwapil, Thomas R; Walsh, Molly A; Myin-Germeys, Inez


    Experience-sampling research involves trade-offs between the number of questions asked per signal, the number of signals per day, and the number of days. By combining planned missing-data designs and multilevel latent variable modeling, we show how to reduce the items per signal without reducing the number of items. After illustrating different designs using real data, we present two Monte Carlo studies that explored the performance of planned missing-data designs across different within-person and between-person sample sizes and across different patterns of response rates. The missing-data designs yielded unbiased parameter estimates but slightly higher standard errors. With realistic sample sizes, even designs with extensive missingness performed well, so these methods are promising additions to an experience-sampler's toolbox.

  19. Chemosystematic identification of fifteen new cocaine-bearing Erythroxylum cultigens grown in Colombia for illicit cocaine production. (United States)

    Casale, John F; Mallette, Jennifer R; Jones, Laura M


    Colombian coca farmers have historically cultivated three varieties of coca for cocaine production (Erythroxylum novogranatense var. novogranatense, Erythroxylum novogranatense var. truxillense, and Erythroxylum coca var. ipadu). Within the past 13 years, 15 new cultigens of cocaine-bearing Erythroxylum have been propagated by Colombian coca farmers; each with differing physical characteristics, yet producing cocaine alkaloids at similar levels found in the historical and native varieties. Fifteen new cultigens were collected from throughout Colombia and propagated along with the three historical varieties within an experimental field in Colombia. Five plants/cultigen were randomly selected and examined for alkaloid content to determine their varietal characteristics when compared to the three known varieties. Ten cultigens gave classic Erythroxylum coca var. ipadu alkaloid profiles, four cultigens produced alkaloid profiles consistent with a hybridization of Erythroxylum novogranatense and Erythroxylum coca var. ipadu, while one cultigen gave heterogeneous alkaloid profiles that could not be characterized.

  20. The inter-relationship between mood, self-esteem and response styles in adolescent offspring of bipolar parents: an experience sampling study. (United States)

    Pavlickova, Hana; Turnbull, Oliver H; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Bentall, Richard P


    The response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) proposes three main strategies individuals employ in response to low mood: rumination, active coping (distraction and problem-solving) and risk taking. Although recent research has suggested this theory has utility in understanding the symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD), the role of these processes in conferring vulnerability to the condition is poorly understood. Twenty-three adolescent children of patients with BD and 25 offspring of well parents completed the Experience Sampling Method (ESM; Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 1987) diary for six days. Longitudinal analyses were carried out to examine inter-relationships between mood, self-esteem and response styles. Increased negative as well as positive mood resulted in greater rumination in both groups. Low self-esteem triggered greater risk-taking at the subsequent time point in the at-risk group, while negative affect instigated increased active coping in the control group. In both groups, engagement in risk-taking improved mood at the subsequent time point, whilst rumination dampened self-esteem. Differential longitudinal associations between mood, self-esteem and response styles between at-risk and control children suggest early psychological vulnerability in the offspring of BD parents, with important indications for early intervention.

  1. The Association between Television-Viewing Behaviors and Adolescent Dating Role Attitudes and Behaviors (United States)

    Rivadeneyra, Rocio; Lebo, Melanie J.


    Two hundred and fifteen ninth grade students were surveyed to examine the relationship between television use and gender role attitudes and behavior in dating situations. Findings indicate the existence of a relationship between watching "romantic" television programming and having more traditional gender role attitudes in dating situations.…

  2. Sexual Violence Against Children under Fifteen Years in the Case Lubanga: Critical Analysis and a Proposed Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Alberto Dias


    Full Text Available One of the most controversial issues that the Pre-Trial Chamber I of the International Criminal Court had to decide in their judgment against Thomas Lubanga Dyilo was the legal treatment of the acts of sexual violence committed during the armed conflict of Ituri. This was a challenging aspect because the Prosecutor had previously decided not to present charges based on sex crimes. On the contrary, he mostly focused his prosecutorial strategy on the war crimes of conscripting, enlisting children under the age of fifteen years or using them to participate actively in hostilities. Facing that situation, the majority of the Trial Chamber I decided not to analyse the issue, while judge Elizabeth Odio Benito took up this point and considered that acts of sexual violence constitute an active participation in hostilities. In this essay I will critically analyse both opinions with the aim of offering an alternative explanation. The latter could be read as follows: despite the fact that acts of sexual violence were not included in the charges, they are covered by the conducts of conscripting or enlisting.

  3. Weatherization Beyond the Numbers: Case Studies of Fifteen High-performing Weatherization Agencies - Conducted May 2011 through July 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Beth A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The report presents fifteen individual case studies of high-performing and unique local weatherization agencies. This research was one component of the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. The agencies were chosen to represent a range of contexts and approaches to weatherization. For example, the set of agencies includes a mix of urban and rural agencies, those that mainly use in-house crews to weatherize homes versus those that use contractor crews, and a mix of locations, from very cold climates to moderate to hot humid and dry climates. The case studies were mainly based on site visits to the agencies that encompassed interviews with program directors, weatherization crews, and recipients of weatherization. This information was supplemented by secondary materials. The cases document the diversity of contexts and challenges faced by the agencies and how they operate on a day-by-day basis. The cases also high common themes found throughout the agencies, such as their focus on mission and respect for their clients.

  4. Fast differentiation of meats from fifteen animal species by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection using copper nanoparticle plated electrodes. (United States)

    Chou, Chi-Chung; Lin, Show-Ping; Lee, Kuo-Ming; Hsu, Cheng-Teng; Vickroy, Thomas W; Zen, Jyh-Myng


    A simple, rapid and reliable method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was developed to routinely differentiate among meat products from fifteen food animal species. Samples from cattle, pigs, goats, deer, horses, chickens, ducks, ostriches, salmon, cod, shrimp, crabs, scallops, bullfrogs and alligators each exhibited unique electrochemical profiles. Species-specific markers exhibited reproducible peak retention times with coefficients of variation less then 6% across different runs, body regions and subjects. The method requires no derivatization or extraction steps and may be applicable to fresh or cooked meats. Incubation of fresh beef, pork or chicken at room temperature for 24h or repeated freezing and thawing changed the intensity but not the pattern of species-specific peaks. In conclusion, this method appears suitable for rapid differentiation of meats from various food animal species and demonstrates the utility of electrochemical detection to supplement existing immunochemical and molecular biological methods. The possibility of using this method to detect adulteration and degradative changes of meat proteins is discussed.

  5. A quantitative study of α-synuclein pathology in fifteen cases of dementia associated with Parkinson disease. (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard A; Kotzbauer, Paul T; Perlmutter, Joel S; Campbell, Meghan C; Hurth, Kyle M; Schmidt, Robert E; Cairns, Nigel J


    The α-synuclein-immunoreactive pathology of dementia associated with Parkinson disease (DPD) comprises Lewy bodies (LB), Lewy neurites (LN), and Lewy grains (LG). The densities of LB, LN, LG together with vacuoles, neurons, abnormally enlarged neurons (EN), and glial cell nuclei were measured in fifteen cases of DPD. Densities of LN and LG were up to 19 and 70 times those of LB, respectively, depending on region. Densities were significantly greater in amygdala, entorhinal cortex (EC), and sectors CA2/CA3 of the hippocampus, whereas middle frontal gyrus, sector CA1, and dentate gyrus were least affected. Low densities of vacuoles and EN were recorded in most regions. There were differences in the numerical density of neurons between regions, but no statistical difference between patients and controls. In the cortex, the density of LB and vacuoles was similar in upper and lower laminae, while the densities of LN and LG were greater in upper cortex. The densities of LB, LN, and LG were positively correlated. Principal components analysis suggested that DPD cases were heterogeneous with pathology primarily affecting either hippocampus or cortex. The data suggest in DPD: (1) ratio of LN and LG to LB varies between regions, (2) low densities of vacuoles and EN are present in most brain regions, (3) degeneration occurs across cortical laminae, upper laminae being particularly affected, (4) LB, LN and LG may represent degeneration of the same neurons, and (5) disease heterogeneity may result from variation in anatomical pathway affected by cell-to-cell transfer of α-synuclein.

  6. Guidelines for Cognitive Behavioral Training within Doctoral Psychology Programs in the United States: Report of the Inter-Organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K.; Ronan, George F.; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D.; Belar, Cynthia D.; Berry, Sharon L.; Christofff, Karen A.; Craighead, Linda W.; Dougher, Michael J.; Dowd, E. Thomas; Herbert, James D.; McFarr, Lynn M.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Sauer, Eric M.; Strauman, Timothy J.


    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a yearlong series of…

  7. The Effect of Positive Verbal Reinforcement on the Study Behavior of Eighth Grade Students. (United States)

    Lake-Jones, Felicia

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of verbal reinforcement on the study behavior of eighth grade students. Twelve middle school students participated. The target students were observed fifteen minutes a day, three days per week. Study behavior was noted with a check or a zero. If the subject was participating in class the…

  8. One the way to European Union: changes in the Czech education system during the last fifteen years

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    Milada Rubusicová


    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to describe the changes in the educationalsystem in the Czech Republic that have taken place from the beginning of the 1990’s up to the present. The first part includes a brief characterisation of the initial situation typical of the socialist model of education and a specification ofthose areas that were viewed sceptically or critically after the „velvet revolution»in 1989, and that have been identified as areas where a change is desirable. Next part of the paper describes the course of changes and reforms of education in subsequent years. Periodisation of reforms is carried out on the basisof a general model that has been created, as one of possible approaches, for postsocialist countries in transformation. Each part of the model, i.e. the correctivereforms, modernization reforms, structural reforms and system reforms, containsan outline of the respective individual changes that took place in the Czech Republic in the course of the last, almost fifteen years, and the changes arecritically evaluated.There are some documents (e.g. the Czech «White Paper» that are of essential importance to the recent and current situation in the Czech educational systembecause they create basic visions and orientation but also a strategy of future changes. The documents are treated in the next section of the present text. It isfollowed by a brief analysis of the current situation of the Czech educational system, namely as regards the educational opportunities and participation in education, structure and network of schools, financing of the Czech educational system, and finally the school leavers’ prospects at the labour market.The last part of the paper deals with the outlooks of further development of the Czech educational system in connection with the entry into the European Union,and a conclusion is drawn that it involves mutual convergence of problems caused by global economic and social forces that also leads to


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The present paper reports thirty-three species of the genus Cryptolechia in China. Fifteen speciesare described as new to science: C. deflecta sp. nov. , C. kangxianensis sp. nov. , C. microbyrsa sp. nov. ,C.falsivespertina sp. nov., C.cornutivalvata sp. nov., C .fasciruptasp. nov., C. neargometra sp. nov., C.paranthaedeaga sp. nov., C.sp. nov., C. stictifascia sp. nov., C.jigongshanica sp. nov., C. mirabilis sp. nov., C. anthaedeaga sp. nov., C. gei sp. nov. and C. varifascirupta sp. nov. The genital structures of the new species are illustrated.

  10. The evaluation of fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. for fresh fruit production in the Pretoria region

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    A. B. Wessels


    Full Text Available Fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica were evaluated for three successive seasons at the University of Pretoria Research Farm. Yields were recorded and external and internal fruit quality factors were identified and considered. Following this investigation, minimum standards were suggested and the cultivars under review were compared. The cultivars Morado, Algerian, Fusicaulis van Heerden, Fresno, Mexican and Nudosa met all or most of the standards set. It is concluded that for fresh fruit production these cultivars are best suited for planting in the Pretoria region and in areas with similar climatic conditions.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Fifteen Constituents of Jitai Tablet Using Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Triple Quadrupole Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

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    Shuping Wang


    Full Text Available An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of fifteen constituents in Jitai tablet (JTT, a complex Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription (TCMP used in treating opiate addiction. Benefitting from a small particle size (1.8 µm C18 column, accelerated analysis with satisfactory resolution, sensitivity and selectivity were achieved in a single run within 7 min with linear gradient elution of acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v formic acid in water. The analytical signal was obtained by multiple reaction monitoring transitions via electrospray ionization source operating in both positive and negative ionization mode. The approach was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability, stability and recovery. All analytes showed good linearity over a wide concentration range (r > 0.99. The method limits ranged from 0.03 ng/mL to 19.35 ng/mL which are sensitive enough for quality control studies. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of fifteen constituents in JTT. In conclusion, our experimental results demonstrate that UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS is a useful approach for the overall quality assessment of complex TCMPs.

  12. Benefits of transformational behaviors for leaders: A daily investigation of leader behaviors and need fulfillment. (United States)

    Lanaj, Klodiana; Johnson, Russell E; Lee, Stephanie M


    Although a large body of work has examined the benefits of transformational leadership, this work has predominantly focused on recipients of such behaviors. Recent research and theory, however, suggest that there are also benefits for those performing behaviors reflective of transformational leadership. Across 2 experience-sampling studies, we investigate the effects of such behaviors on actors' daily affective states. Drawing from affective events theory and self-determination theory we hypothesize and find that engaging in behaviors reflective of transformational leadership is associated with improvement in actors' daily affect, more so than engaging in behaviors reflective of transactional, consideration, initiating structure, and participative leadership. Behaviors reflective of transformational leadership improved actors' affect in part by fulfilling their daily needs. Furthermore, extraversion and neuroticism moderated these effects such that extraverts benefitted less whereas neurotics benefitted more from these behaviors in terms of affective changes. We consider the theoretical and practical implications of these findings and offer directions for future research.

  13. Volatile Exsolution Experiments: Sampling Exsolved Magmatic Fluids (United States)

    Tattitch, B.; Blundy, J. D.


    In magmatic arcs the conditions of volatile exsolution exert a direct control on the composition of exsolved magmatic volatiles phases (MVPs), as well as on their parental magmas. The ability to accurately assess the exchange of major and trace elements between MVPs and magmas is key to understanding the evolution of arc magmas. The trace element signatures measured in arc volcanoes, fumaroles, and hydrothermal ore deposits are greatly influenced by the role of MVPs. In order to investigate the interplay and evolution of melts and MVPs we need experimental methods to simulate MVP exsolution that impose minimal external constraints on their equilibration. Previous experiments have focused on evaluating the exchange of elements between aqueous fluids and silicate melts under equilibrium conditions[1,2]. However, the large mass proportion of fluid to melt in these experiment designs is unrealistic. As a result, the idealized compositions of the aqueous fluids may exert a strong control on melt compositions for which they are out of equilibrium, especially at low melt fractions. In contrast, other experiments have focused on the melt during crystallization but must calculate MVP compositions by mass balance[3]. In order to investigate MVPs and magmas during this critical period of MVP exsolution, we present a new two-stage fluid-melt experimental design. Stage one experiments generate super-liquidus hydrous melts using Laguna del Maule rhyolites and dactites, as analogues for ascending arc magmas. Stage two experiments allow aliquots of stage one melt/glass to crystallize and exsolve MVPs. The design then uses pressure cycling to promote infiltration of in-situ fractured quartz[4] and traps the MVPs as synthetic fluid inclusions. We present results from trial stage 2 experiments, which produced synthetic fluid inclusions consistent with literature values of fluid-melt Cl partitioning[5] and of sufficient size for LA-ICPMS analysis. Trace element partitioning for Li, Na, K, Cu, Mo, and Au will also be presented. [1] Candela P.A. and Holland H.D. (1984) GCA 48, 373-380 [2] Simon et al. (2006) GCA 70, 5583-5600. [3] Clemente B., Scaillet B., Pichavant M. (2004) Jour. Pet. 45, 2171-2196 [4] Sterner S.M. and Bodnar R.J. (1991) Am. J. Sci. 291, 1-54. [5] Webster J.D. and Holloway J.R. (1988) GCA 52, 2091-2105.

  14. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease (United States)

    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.


    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals…

  15. A Pilot Study of Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Hispanics with Major Depression (United States)

    Interian, Alejandro; Allen, Lesley A.; Gara, Michael A.; Escobar, Javier I.


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for major depression among Hispanics in primary care. Cultural adaptations were applied based on a range of cultural considerations described in the literature. Fifteen Hispanic primary care patients with major depression were enrolled. All…

  16. Fifteen minute stories about training. (United States)

    Crowther, Catherine; Wiener, Jan; Tserashchuk, Alena; Tsivinsky, Vladimir; Volodina, Elena; Alexandrova, Natalia L


    This panel presentation at the Journal's conference in St Petersburg responded to the conference theme of 'Ancestors in Personal, Professional and Social History' by relating it to the experience of training and being trained on the IAAP 'router' programme in Russia. The two organizers of the programme (JW and CC) have worked in Russia for over 12 years, bringing analysts from Britain to Moscow and St Petersburg on a 'shuttle' basis as supervisors and personal analysts. A few months after handing over the router programme in December 2010 to the Russian colleagues they had trained, they invited four analysts, three Russian and one Belarusian, to tell a short personal story about their training, linking it to the theme of 'the Ancestors'. The resulting four stories are very different but complement each other, using imagery to illustrate issues concerning both value and ambivalence. JW and CC jointly wrote their story about the programme in response to the four stories, reflecting on some of their themes and from them, giving consideration to the flexibility and limits of such a model of cross-cultural training. Themes in the stories included the possibility of mutual adaptation to another culture without losing tradition and identity; moving on from doctrinaire Soviet attitudes in education to embrace 'not knowing'; both organizers and routers learning from mistakes and from joint experience without guilt or shame; the need to protect reflective space amidst the constraints of time and geography. All Russian and UK contributors could finally acknowledge their shared luck to find themselves in the right place at the right time to respond to the collective revival of psychoanalytic practice in Russia.

  17. Fifteen new species of Penicillium. (United States)

    Visagie, C M; Renaud, J B; Burgess, K M N; Malloch, D W; Clark, D; Ketch, L; Urb, M; Louis-Seize, G; Assabgui, R; Sumarah, M W; Seifert, K A


    We introduce 15 new species of Penicillium isolated from a diverse range of locations, including Canada, Costa Rica, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Tanzania, USA and the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, from a variety of habitats, including leaf surfaces in tropical rain forests, soil eaten by chimpanzees, infrabuccal pockets of carpenter ants, intestinal contents of caterpillars and soil. The new species are classified in sections Aspergilloides (1), Canescentia (2), Charlesia (1), Exilicaulis (3), Lanata-Divaricata (7) and Stolkia (1). Each is characterised and described using classical morphology, LC-MS based extrolite analyses and multigene phylogenies based on ITS, BenA and CaM. Significant extrolites detected include andrastin, pulvilloric acid, penitrem A and citrinin amongst many others.

  18. Fifteen new species of Penicillium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visagie, C.M.; Renaud, J.B.; Burgess, K.M.N.; Malloch, D.W.; Clark, D.; Ketch, L.; Urb, M.; Louis-Seize, G.; Assabgui, R.; Sumarah, M.W.; Seifert, K.A.


    We introduce 15 new species of Penicillium isolated from a diverse range of locations, including Canada, Costa Rica, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Tanzania, USA and the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, from a variety of habitats, including leaf surfaces in tropical rain forests, soil eaten by chimpanzees,

  19. A novel reverse phase stability indicating RP-UPLC method for the quantitative determination of fifteen related substances in Ranolazine drug substance and drug product. (United States)

    Malati, Vakamulla; Reddy, Anumala Raghupati; Mukkanti, K; Suryanarayana, M V


    A gradient reverse-phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic (RP-UPLC) method was developed for the quantitative determination of Ranolazine and potential process-related impurities (starting materials, positional isomers, degradants and byproducts) at the level of 0.1 μg mL(-1) to 0.3 μg mL(-1). Fifteen potential impurities were identified in the crude samples during the process development. Tentative structures for all the impurities were assigned based on m/z values from LC-MS/MS analysis. This method can be used for the quality control of both drug substance and drug product. All these impurities were separated with a gradient UPLC method by using a polar embedded Waters Acquity BEH RP18 100 mm × 2.1 mm,1.7 μm column, monobasic sodium buffer, a basic organic modifier and acetonitrile in the mobile phase. Further, this method is also capable of separating a major oxidative degradant Di-N-oxide. Impurities having electron donating groups(+I effect) on the phenyl ring increased the retention by improved п-п interactions. The drug was subjected to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH)-prescribed hydrolytic, oxidative, photolytic and thermal stress conditions. The performance of the method was validated according to the present ICH guidelines for specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, precision, ruggedness and robustness.

  20. Correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from fifteen Eucalyptus species growing in the Korbous and Jbel Abderrahman arboreta (North East Tunisia). (United States)

    Elaissi, Ameur; Rouis, Zyed; Mabrouk, Samia; Salah, Karima Bel Haj; Aouni, Mahjoub; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Farhat, Farhat; Chemli, Rachid; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia


    The essential oils of fifteen Eucalyptus species harvested from the Jbel Abderrahman and Korbous arboreta (North East Tunisia) were screened for their antibacterial activities by the agar disc diffusion method. Eighteen major components as identified by GC/FID and GC/MS were selected for a study of the chemical and biological activity variability. The main one was 1,8-cineole, followed by spathulenol, trans-pinocarveol, α-pinene, p-cymene, globulol, cryptone, β-phellandrene, viridiflorol, borneol, limonene and isospathulenol. The chemical principal component analysis identified five species groups and subgroups, where each group constituted a chemotype, however that of the values of zone diameter of the inhibition (zdi) identified six groups of Eucalyptus oils, characterized by their antibacterial inhibition ability. The strongest activity was shown by E. platypus oil against Enterococcus faecalis and by E. lamannii oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A correlation between the levels of some major components and the antibacterial activities was observed.

  1. Correlation Between Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from Fifteen Eucalyptus Species Growing in the Korbous and Jbel Abderrahman Arboreta (North East Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri


    Full Text Available The essential oils of fifteen Eucalyptus species harvested from the Jbel Abderrahman and Korbous arboreta (North East Tunisia were screened for their antibacterial activities by the agar disc diffusion method. Eighteen major components as identified by GC/FID and GC/MS were selected for a study of the chemical and biological activity variability. The main one was 1,8-cineole, followed by spathulenol, trans-pinocarveol, α-pinene, p-cymene, globulol, cryptone, β-phellandrene, viridiflorol, borneol, limonene and isospathulenol. The chemical principal component analysis identified five species groups and subgroups, where each group constituted a chemotype, however that of the values of zone diameter of the inhibition (zdi identified six groups of Eucalyptus oils, characterized by their antibacterial inhibition ability. The strongest activity was shown by E. platypus oil against Enterococcus faecalis and by E. lamannii oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A correlation between the levels of some major components and the antibacterial activities was observed.

  2. Feeding behavior of dairy cows in feedlot and fed on crude glycerin levels in the diet


    Murilo de Almeida Meneses; Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Alex Resende Schio; Robério Rodrigues Silva; Dicastro Dias de Souza; Antônio Ferraz Porto Junior


    Current experiment evaluated the inclusion effect of crude glycerin levels in the diet on the feeding behavior of confined dairy cows. Fifteen crossbred Holsteinx Zebu cows were used, divided into three 5 x 5 Latin squares, with treatments: control (no addition of glycerin) and inclusion of 50, 100, 150 and 200 gcrude glycerin per kg of dry matter (DM) in the diet. The animals were subjected to five visual assessments of feeding behavior for 24 hours in each period. Linear increase on feeding...

  3. 体验取样法在情绪研究中的应用优势%The Application of Experience Sampling Method and its Advantages in Emotion Regulation Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓欣媚; 丁雪辰; 桑标


    The present review aims to introduce the role and implication of Experience Sampling Method ( ESM) in the studies of emotion regulation. Dynamic nature of emotion and emotion development,naturalis-tic emotion-evoked situation,and various contributions of emotion development require researchers to make further methodological considerations when conducting emotion and emotion development studies. ESM takes advantages in emotion regulation research for several reasons: firstly,continuous and repeated assessment of momentary emotional events and relevant variables at regular frequent intervals throughout a relatively long pe-riod make it less susceptible to memory bias and implicit emotional attitude; secondly,experience sampling method puts emotional events in real social settings,thus improving the ecological validity of the study; third-ly,researchers could conduct multilevel and multivariate statistical analysis of massive sampling data and fruitful information by using ESM. In conclusion,ESM will be used more and more with further studies of e-motion and emotion regulation.%情绪研究的难题在于其具有动态变化性、情境依存性和个体差异性三大特征,这亟需研究者在对情绪及其相关变量测查时做特别的考量,而传统的情绪研究方法在这些方面存在欠缺。在这种情况下,体验取样法在情绪研究中具有得天独厚的优势:首先,它可以在一定时间跨度内对情绪事件进行即时、连续、重复地测量,降低了潜在记忆偏差和个人偏好的影响;其次,它把情绪事件置于真实的社会环境中,增强了研究的生态效度;另外,它丰富庞大的数据采集量能够从多水平、多角度、多变量分析个体情绪的整个变化过程。随着情绪研究的不断深入,体验取样法将会得到越来越多的运用。

  4. Evaluation of fifteen local plants as larvicidal agents against an Indian strain of dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Sarita eKumar


    Full Text Available The adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures for the control of mosquito vectors have received wide public apprehension because of several problems like insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans and non-target organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and development of alternative strategies using eco-friendly, environmentally safe, bio-degradable plant products which are non-toxic to non target organisms too. In view of this, fifteen plants were collected from local areas in New Delhi, India. Different parts of these plants were separated, dried, mechanically grinded and sieved to get fine powder. The 200 g of each part was soaked in 1000 mL of different solvents separately and the crude extracts, thus formed, were concentrated using a vacuum evaporator at 45ºC under low pressure. Each extract was screened to explore its potential as a mosquito larvicidal agent against early fourth instars of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti using WHO protocol. The preliminary screening showed that only ten plants possessed larvicidal potential as they could result in 100% mortality at 1000 ppm. Further evaluation of the potential larvicidal extracts established the hexane leaf extracts of Lantana camara to be most effective extracts exhibiting a significant LC50 value of 30.71 ppm while the Phyllanthus emblica fruit extracts were found to be least effective with an LC50 value of 298.93 ppm. The extracts made from different parts of other five plants; Achyranthes aspera, Zingiber officinalis, Ricinus communis, Trachyspermun ammi and Cassia occidentalis also possessed significant larvicidal potential with LC¬50 values ranging from 55.0 to 74.67 ppm. Other three extracts showed moderate toxicity against Aedes aegypti larvae. Further investigations would be needed to isolate and identify the primary component responsible for the larvicidal efficiency of the

  5. Atmospheric pressure gas chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of fifteen organochlorine pesticides in soil and water. (United States)

    Cheng, Zhipeng; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Xiaohu; Chen, Zenglong; Pan, Xinglu; Zheng, Yongquan


    In this study, the application of atmospheric pressure gas chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APGC-QTOF-MS) has been investigated for simultaneous determination of fifteen organochlorine pesticides in soil and water. Soft ionization of atmospheric pressure gas chromatography was evaluated by comparing with traditional more energetic electron impact ionization (EI). APGC-QTOF-MS showed a sensitivity enhancement by approximately 7-305 times. The QuEChERs (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method was used to pretreat the soil samples and solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup was used for water samples. Precision, accuracy and stability experiments were undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of the method. The results showed that the mean recoveries for all the pesticides from the soil samples were 70.3-118.9% with 0.4-18.3% intra-day relative standard deviations (RSD) and 1.0-15.6% inter-day RSD at 10, 50 and 500 μg/L levels, while the mean recoveries of water samples were 70.0-118.0% with 1.1-17.8% intra-day RSD and 0.5-12.2% inter-day RSD at 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 μg/L levels. Excellent linearity (0.9931 ≦ r(2)≤ 0.9999) was obtained for each pesticides in the soil and water matrix calibration curves within the range of 0.01-1.0mg/L. The limits of detection (LOD) for each of the 15 pesticides was less than 3.00 μg/L, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) was less than 9.99 μg/L in soil and water. Furthermore, the developed method was successfully applied to monitor the targeted pesticides in real soil and water samples.

  6. Fifteen novel mutations in the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, 2, 3, 4, 4L, 5 and 6 genes from Iranian patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). (United States)

    Rezvani, Zahra; Didari, Elmira; Arastehkani, Ahoura; Ghodsinejad, Vadieh; Aryani, Omid; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Houshmand, Massoud


    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an optic nerve dysfunction resulting from mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is transmitted in a maternal pattern of inheritance. It is caused by three primary point mutations: G11778A, G3460A and T14484C; in the mitochondrial genome. These mutations are sufficient to induce the disease, accounting for the majority of LHON cases, and affect genes that encode for the different subunits of mitochondrial complexes I and III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Other mutations are secondary mutations associated with the primary mutations. The purpose of this study was to determine MT-ND variations in Iranian patients with LHON. In order to determine the prevalence and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in the LHON patients, their DNA was studied using PCR and DNA sequencing analysis. Sequencing of MT-ND genes from 35 LHON patients revealed a total of 44 nucleotide variations, in which fifteen novel variations-A14020G, A13663G, C10399T, C4932A, C3893G, C10557A, C12012A, C13934T, G4596A, T12851A, T4539A, T4941A, T13255A, T14353C and del A 4513-were observed in 27 LHON patients. However, eight patients showed no variation in the ND genes. These mutations contribute to the current database of mtDNA polymorphisms in LHON patients and may facilitate the definition of disease-related mutations in human mtDNA. This research may help to understand the disease mechanism and open up new diagnostic opportunities for LHON.

  7. Fifteen-Year Follow-Up Results of Presurgical Orthopedics Followed by Primary Correction for Unilateral Cleft Lip Nose in Program SEHATI in Indonesia. (United States)

    Sulaiman, Farida Kamil; Haryanto, Inge Gustiningsih; Hak, Syafrudin; Nakamura, Norifumi; Sasaguri, Masaaki; Ohishi, Masamichi


    Objective : To assess long-term effects of nasal correction in infancy on nasal form and growth in patients with unilateral cleft lip, alveolus, and palate (UCLP). Design : Retrospective longitudinal study. Patients : Seventeen patients with complete UCLP treated in Program SEHATI in Harapan Kita Children and Maternity Hospital, Indonesia, and followed for approximately 15 years were enrolled. Interventions : Subjects received presurgical orthopedics using a Hotz's plate and simultaneous primary lip and nose repair in which the lower lateral cartilage was repositioned through a reverse-U incision. Main Outcome Measures : Preoperative and postoperative nasal forms, including the nostril height and width ratio, the ratio of the height of the top of the alar groove, and the ratio of nostril surface areas were analyzed using color photos taken serially. One-way analysis of variance was used for statistical analyses. Results : The nostril height and width ratio and the height of the alar groove were significantly improved postoperatively and maintained for 15 years. The mean ratio of nostril surface areas was 1.01 ± 0.12 fifteen years postoperatively, and there was no significant difference from the ratio 1 year postoperatively. The major persistent deformities were septal deviation and a small skin web on the nostril rim. Conclusions : Our primary cleft lip nose correction has provided an acceptable nose form and absence of disturbance of the nasal growth in patients with UCLP. However, the repositioning of the nasal cartilage at infancy might not eliminate the need for secondary correction after puberty.

  8. A preliminary factor analytic investigation into the firstorder factor structure of the Fifteen Factor Plus (15FQ+ on a sample of Black South African managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seretse Moyo


    Full Text Available Orientation: The Fifteen Factor Questionnaire Plus (15FQ+ is a prominent personality questionnaire that organisations frequently use in personnel selection in South Africa.Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to undertake a factor analytic investigation of the first-order factor structure of the 15FQ+.Motivation for the study: The construct validity of the 15FQ+, as a measure of personality, is necessary even though it is insufficient to justify its use in personnel selection.Research design, approach and method: The researchers evaluated the fit of the measurement model, which the structure and scoring key of the 15FQ+ implies, in a quantitative study that used an ex post facto correlation design through structural equation modelling. They conducted a secondary data analysis. They selected a sample of 241 Black South African managers from a large 15FQ+ database.Main findings: The researchers found good measurement model fit. The measurement model parameter estimates were worrying. The magnitude of the estimated model parameters suggests that the items generally do not reflect the latent personality dimensions the designers intended them to with a great degree of precision. The items are reasonably noisy measures of the latent variables they represent.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should use the 15FQ+ carefully on Black South African managers until further local research evidence becomes available.Contribution/value-add: The study is a catalyst to trigger the necessary additional research we need to establish convincingly the psychometric credentials of the 15FQ+ as a valuable assessment tool in South Africa.

  9. Genetic diversity and differentiation in reef-building Millepora species, as revealed by cross-species amplification of fifteen novel microsatellite loci (United States)

    Planes, Serge; Zhou, Yuxiang; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Boissin, Emilie


    Quantifying the genetic diversity in natural populations is crucial to address ecological and evolutionary questions. Despite recent advances in whole-genome sequencing, microsatellite markers have remained one of the most powerful tools for a myriad of population genetic approaches. Here, we used the 454 sequencing technique to develop microsatellite loci in the fire coral Millepora platyphylla, an important reef-builder of Indo-Pacific reefs. We tested the cross-species amplification of these loci in five other species of the genus Millepora and analysed its success in correlation with the genetic distances between species using mitochondrial 16S sequences. We succeeded in discovering fifteen microsatellite loci in our target species M. platyphylla, among which twelve were polymorphic with 2–13 alleles and a mean observed heterozygosity of 0.411. Cross-species amplification in the five other Millepora species revealed a high probability of amplification success (71%) and polymorphism (59%) of the loci. Our results show no evidence of decreased heterozygosity with increasing genetic distance. However, only one locus enabled measures of genetic diversity in the Caribbean species M. complanata due to high proportions of null alleles for most of the microsatellites. This result indicates that our novel markers may only be useful for the Indo-Pacific species of Millepora. Measures of genetic diversity revealed significant linkage disequilibrium, moderate levels of observed heterozygosity (0.323–0.496) and heterozygote deficiencies for the Indo-Pacific species. The accessibility to new polymorphic microsatellite markers for hydrozoan Millepora species creates new opportunities for future research on processes driving the complexity of their colonisation success on many Indo-Pacific reefs. PMID:28243525

  10. Qualitative suggestions about chemical weed control of poplar in the nursery and possible improvement on the basis of experimental trials over fifteen years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro M


    Full Text Available In this work the results of over fifteen years of experimentation are summarized, concerning the possibility of use of herbicides included in several chemical classes and with various mechanisms of action on poplar clones of different species, European and North American. The active ingredients were tested mainly singly or in commercial mixtures as well, applied before emergence (interpreted here as sprout of poplar cuttings not yet occurred and before weed infestation or after emergence (interpreted here as cuttings with sprouts 20-25 cm long and after weed colonisation. Almost 50% of the 43 tested formulations has proved to be unserviceable in poplar nursery because of the hard damage induced on plantlets, i.e. dicotyledonicides and those with a wide action range, especially applied after emergence. It was the case of acetolactate synthase inhibitors and synthetic auxins. About 25% of formulations has proved to be utilizable with limited risks and 20% without risk. After emergence, the lowest damage was caused by graminicide compounds included in the class of acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors (e.g. diclofop-methyl, cycloxydim; before emergence, very good applicative opportunities were showed by microtubule assembly inhibitors, especially propyzamide, and the cellulose synthesis inhibitor isoxaben. Among the herbicides utilizable with some risk after emergence, the photosynthesis inhibitors pyridate and phenmedipham (singly or in mixture were interesting since they are the only ones that allow the control of broad-leaved weeds in the presence of herbaceous poplar shoots. Before emergence, flufenacet and isoxaflutole were remarkable as well, the latter being active versus hardly limited weeds. In summary, besides the two aforesaid compounds, the graminicide cycloxydim and - more cautiously - clodinafop and propaquizafop may be hopefully introduced in poplar nurseries after emergence, in association with the wide action range mixture of

  11. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone reduces sexual motivation but not lordosis behavior in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piekarski, David J; Zhao, Sheng; Jennings, Kimberly J


    these neuropeptides serve as neuromodulators to coordinate female sexual behavior with the limited window of fertility has not been thoroughly explored. In the present study, either intact or ovariectomized, hormone-treated female hamsters were implanted for fifteen days with chronic release osmotic pumps filled...

  12. Change in Daily Life Behaviors and Depression : Within-Person and Between-Person Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Simons, Claudia J. P.; Hartmann, Jessica A.; Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Kramer, Ingrid; Booij, Sanne H.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Delespaul, Philippe; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Wichers, Marieke


    Objective: This study examined associations between daily physical, sedentary, social, and leisure behaviors and depressive symptoms (a) at a macrolevel, over the course of an Experience Sampling (ESM) self-monitoring intervention, and (b) at a microlevel, by examining daily within-person associatio

  13. A questão racial na política brasileira (os últimos quinze anos The racial question in Brazilian politics (the past fifteen years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sérgio Alfredo Guimarães


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analiso o modo como a questão racial tem marcado a política brasileira nos últimos quinze anos. Começo expondo o que significou a idéia de democracia racial no processo de construção da nacionalidade brasileira, para depois, com a brevidade que o espaço exige, resenhar os estudos sobre o comportamento eleitoral dos negros brasileiros e tratar da emergência de movimentos sociais negros e de sua incorporação ao sistema político. Meu entendimento é que devemos ver na "democracia racial" um compromisso político e social do moderno estado republicano brasileiro, que vigeu, alternando força e convencimento, do Estado Novo de Vargas até o final da ditadura militar. Tal compromisso, hoje em crise, consistiu na incorporação da população negra brasileira ao mercado de trabalho, na ampliação da educação formal, enfim na criação das condições infra-estruturais de uma sociedade de classes que desfizesse os estigmas criados pela escravidão. A imagem do negro enquanto povo comum e o banimento, no pensamento social brasileiro, do conceito de "raça", substituído pelos de "cultura" e "classe social", são as expressões maiores desse compromisso.In this article, I analyze how the racial question has marked Brazilian politics in the past fifteen years. I start by showing what the idea of racial democracy meant to the process of reconstruction of the Brazilian nationality, and go on to review the studies on the voting behaviour of the Brazilian Black population and discuss the emergence of Black social movements and their incorporation into the political system. I understand that we must see "racial democracy" as a political and social compromise of the Brazilian modern republican state, which was in power from the Vargas' New State until the end of the military dictatorship. This compromise which at present is in crisis, consisted of the incorporation of the Brazilian Black population into the work market, of the

  14. 部分芝麻新品种耐渍性鉴定%Waterlogging Tolerance Identification of Fifteen New Sesame Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立峰; 郑磊; 张仙美; 梁彦桢; 吴鹤敏; 邵艳芳; 张秀荣; 王林海; 沈荟祥


    以平均萎蔫株率、平均死亡株率为鉴定指标对15个国内近几年选育的白芝麻品种进行了淹水鉴定,结果表明:在同一小区同一天内,下午萎蔫株数高于上午萎蔫株数,萎蔫植株应以下午调查为好;撤水后3d内萎蔫株率有不同程度的波动,但总体水平相差不大,撤水后第1天的萎蔫株率可以作为调查的指标;光照和温度是影响植株萎蔫发生的主要天气因素;冀芝1号在整个鉴定过程中没有出现萎蔫死亡现象,为抗性优良品种,并且其早期耐淹的能力能遗传给后代.豫芝4号(新)、陕芝3号在整个鉴定中出现萎蔫或死亡植株较少,为耐渍品种,其余品种抗性一般或差.%This experiment assessed waterlogging tolerance of fifteen new sesame varieties by flooding using the average rate of wilting plants and the average rate of death plants as indicators. The results showed that; in the same block, the number of wilting plants in the afternoon was higher than that in the morning. So the number of wilting plants should be investigated in the afternoon; the ratio of wilting plants within three days after the withdrawal of water had little changes, so the ratio of wilting plants in the first day after withdrawing the water could be used as the variety's wilting rate. Both light and temperature were important weather factors which affected the plant wilting. Jizhi NO. 1, which was of high tolerance to waterlogging, wilting and death did not appear in the entire assessment process for the resistant varieties, and the tolerant ability to early submergence stress could transmit to their offspring. Yuzhi No. 4 (new) and Shanzhi NO. 3 were tolerant varieties;other varieties were of average or poor sensitivity to flooding.

  15. Verbal behavior


    Michael, Jack


    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  16. Periodic behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Napp, Diego; Shankar, Shiva


    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R^n. These properties - in particular the Nullstellensatz describing the Willems closure - are closely related to integral and rational points on affine algebraic varieties.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napp, Diego; Put, Marius van der; Shankar, Shiva


    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R(n). These properties-in particular the Nullste

  18. Behaviorally Speaking. (United States)

    Porter, Elias H.; Dutton, Darell W. J.


    Consists of two articles focusing on (1) a modern behavioral model that takes cues from Hippocrates' Four Temperaments and (2) use of a behavioral approach to improve the effectiveness of meetings. Lists positive and negative behaviors within the meeting context. (CH)

  19. Gender differences on the Five to Fifteen questionnaire in a non-referred sample with inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity and a clinic-referred sample with hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Kadesjö, Björn


    The aim of the present study was to examine gender differences in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity on the Five to Fifteen (FTF) parent questionnaire. First, non-referred girls (n = 43) and boys (n = 51) with problems of attention and hyperactivity-impulsivity and then cli...... of a gender mixed normative sample may lead to overestimation of impairment in boys with HKD, but the type of sample applied to define impairment on the FTF should depend on the purpose for applying the questionnaire....

  20. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.


    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  1. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology. (United States)

    Staats, A W


    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  2. The good and bad of being fair: effects of procedural and interpersonal justice behaviors on regulatory resources. (United States)

    Johnson, Russell E; Lanaj, Klodiana; Barnes, Christopher M


    The justice literature has paid considerable attention to the beneficial effects of fair behaviors for recipients of such behaviors. It is possible, however, that exhibiting fair behaviors may come at a cost for actors. In this article, we integrate ego depletion theory with organizational justice research in order to examine the consequences of justice behaviors for actors. We used an experience-sampling method in a sample of managerial employees to examine the relations of performing procedural justice and interpersonal justice behaviors with subsequent changes in actors' regulatory resources. Our results indicate that procedural justice behaviors are draining, whereas interpersonal justice behaviors are replenishing for actors. Depletion, in turn, adversely affected the performance of citizenship behavior, and depletion mediated relations of justice behavior with citizenship. Furthermore, 2 traits that impact self-regulatory skills--extraversion and neuroticism--moderated the replenishing effects of engaging in interpersonal justice behaviors. We conclude by discussing implications and avenues for future research.

  3. Teleological behaviorism. (United States)

    Rachlin, H


    A psychological science of efficient causes, using internal mechanisms to explain overt behavior, is distinguished from another psychological science, based on Aristotelian final causes, using external objects and goals to explain overt behavior. Efficient-cause psychology is designed to answer the question of how a particular act is emitted; final-cause psychology is designed to answer the question of why a particular act is emitted. Physiological psychology, modern cognitive psychology, and some parts of behaviorism including Skinnerian behaviorism are efficient-cause psychologies; final-cause psychology, a development of Skinnerian behaviorism, is here called teleological behaviorism. Each of these two conceptions of causality in psychology implies a different view of the mind, hence a different meaning of mental terms.

  4. Factors affecting linkage to care and engagement in care for newly diagnosed HIV-positive adolescents within fifteen adolescent medicine clinics in the United States. (United States)

    Philbin, Morgan M; Tanner, Amanda E; DuVal, Anna; Ellen, Jonathan M; Xu, Jiahong; Kapogiannis, Bill; Bethel, Jim; Fortenberry, J Dennis


    Early linkage to care and engagement in care are critical for initiation of medical interventions. However, over 50 % of newly diagnosed persons do not receive HIV-related care within 6 months of diagnosis. We evaluated a linkage to care and engagement in care initiative for HIV-positive adolescents in 15 U.S.-based clinics. Structural and client-level factors (e.g. demographic and behavioral characteristics, clinic staff and location) were evaluated as predictors of successful linkage and engagement. Within 32 months, 1,172/1,679 (69.8 %) of adolescents were linked to care of which 1,043/1,172 (89 %) were engaged in care. Only 62.1 % (1,043/1,679) of adolescents were linked and engaged in care. Linkage to care failure was attributed to adolescent, provider, and clinic-specific factors. Many adolescents provided incomplete data during the linkage process or failed to attend appointments, both associated with failure to linkage to care. Additional improvements in HIV care will require creative approaches to coordinated data sharing, as well as continued outreach services to support newly diagnosed adolescents.

  5. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O’Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.


    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of ID

  6. Behavioral economics. (United States)

    Camerer, Colin F


    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms.

  7. Behaviorally inadequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua


    According to situationism in psychology, behavior is primarily influenced by external situational factors rather than internal traits or motivations such as virtues. Environmental ethicists wish to promote pro-environmental behaviors capable of providing adequate protection for the environment......, but situationist critiques suggest that character traits, and environmental virtues, are not as behaviorally robust as is typically supposed. Their views present a dilemma. Because ethicists cannot rely on virtues to produce pro-environmental behaviors, the only real way of salvaging environmental virtue theory...... positive results. However, because endorsing behaviorally ineffective virtues, for whatever reason, entails that environmental ethicists are abandoning the goal of helping and protecting the environment, environmental ethicists should consider looking elsewhere than virtues and focus instead on the role...

  8. Feeding behavior of dairy cows in feedlot and fed on crude glycerin levels in the diet


    Meneses,Murilo de Almeida; Silva,Fabiano Ferreira da; Schio, Alex Resende; Silva,Robério Rodrigues; Souza,Dicastro Dias de; Porto Junior,Antônio Ferraz


    Current experiment evaluated the inclusion effect of crude glycerin levels in the diet on the feeding behavior of confined dairy cows. Fifteen crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were used, divided into three 5 x 5 Latin squares, with treatments: control (no addition of glycerin) and inclusion of 50, 100, 150 and 200 g crude glycerin per kg of dry matter (DM) in the diet. The animals were subjected to five visual assessments of feeding behavior for 24 hours in each period. Linear increase on feedi...

  9. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  10. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Belter


    Full Text Available Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape—cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996—is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period.

  11. Behavioral epigenetics


    Lester, Barry M.; Tronick, Edward; Nestler, Eric; Abel, Ted; Kosofsky, Barry; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Marsit, Carmen J; Maze, Ian; Meaney, Michael J.; Monteggia, Lisa M.; Reul, Johannes M. H. M.; Skuse, David H.; Sweatt, J. David; Wood, Marcelo A.


    Sponsored by the New York Academy of Sciences, the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and the University of Massachusetts Boston, “Behavioral Epigenetics” was held on October 29–30, 2010 at the University of Massachusetts Boston Campus Center, Boston, Massachusetts. This meeting featured speakers and panel discussions exploring the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics, from basic biochemical and cellular mechanisms to the epigenetic modulation of normative development, devel...

  12. 近十五年核心期刊散打摔法文献述评%A Review of the Literature on Sanda Wrestling in the Core Journals in the Last Fifteen Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶威武; 雷学会


    This paper, using the methods of literature, mathematical statistics and logical analysis, takes published academic papers of Sanda wrestling in Chinese sports core journals in the recent fifteen years as the research object, from the vies of Sanda wrestling in his time and the number of journals, species distribution, research methods, research cooperation, research field, department of scientific research fund distribution, does the analysis from the seven aspects in detail, illustrates the basic situation in recent fifteen years in Sanda wrestling research in China, and the problems and shortcomings of objective evaluation, and then puts forward the corresponding suggestions to China's Sanda wrestling theory strong support and practical reference for further research.%文章采用文献资料法、数理统计法与逻辑分析法,以近十五年来我国体育核心期刊关于散打摔法公开发表的学术论文为研究对象,从散打摔法在发表时间与数量、期刊种类分布、研究方法的运用、科研合作方面、研究领域、科研作者单位分布、基金情况分析等七个方面进行深入阐述,阐明了我国近十五年来散打摔法研究的基本情况,并对其中存在的问题和不足进行了客观的述评,进而提出了相应的建议,旨在为我国散打摔法进一步研究提供强有力的理论支撑和实践参考。

  13. Guidelines for cognitive behavioral training within doctoral psychology programs in the United States: report of the Inter-organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education. (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K; Ronan, George F; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D; Belar, Cynthia D; Berry, Sharon L; Christofff, Karen A; Craighead, Linda W; Dougher, Michael J; Dowd, E Thomas; Herbert, James D; McFarr, Lynn M; Rizvi, Shireen L; Sauer, Eric M; Strauman, Timothy J


    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a year-long series of conferences, and developed a consensus on optimal doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology. The recommendations assume solid foundational training that is typical within applied psychology areas such as clinical and counseling psychology programs located in the United States. This article details the background, assumptions, and resulting recommendations specific to doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology, including competencies expected in the areas of ethics, research, and practice.

  14. Can "good" stressors spark "bad" behaviors? The mediating role of emotions in links of challenge and hindrance stressors with citizenship and counterproductive behaviors. (United States)

    Rodell, Jessica B; Judge, Timothy A


    The authors combined affective events theory (H. M. Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) and the transactional stress model (R. S. Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) to build and test a model specifying the dynamic, emotion-based relationships among challenge and hindrance stressors and citizenship and counterproductive behaviors. The study employed an experience sampling methodology. Results showed that challenge stressors had offsetting indirect links with citizenship behaviors through attentiveness and anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety. Hindrance stressors had a negative indirect effect on citizenship behaviors through anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety and anger. Finally, multilevel moderating effects showed that the relationship between hindrance stressors and anger varied according to employees' levels of neuroticism.

  15. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  16. Discounting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten


    We re-evaluate the theory, experimental design and econometrics behind claims that individuals exhibit non-constant discounting behavior. Theory points to the importance of controlling for the non-linearity of the utility function of individuals, since the discount rate is defined over time......-dated utility flows and not flows of money. It also points to a menagerie of functional forms to characterize different types of non-constant discounting behavior. The implied experimental design calls for individuals to undertake several tasks to allow us to identify these models, and to several treatments...

  17. Behavior Modification (United States)

    Boardman, Randolph M.


    In a perfect world, students would never talk back to school staff and never argue or fight with each other. They would complete all their assigned tasks, and disciplinary actions never would be needed. Unfortunately, people don't live in a perfect world. Student behavior is a daily concern. Teachers continue to refer students to the office as a…

  18. Behavior subtraction (United States)

    Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Saligrama, Venkatesh; Konrad, Janusz


    Network video cameras, invented in the last decade or so, permit today pervasive, wide-area visual surveillance. However, due to the vast amounts of visual data that such cameras produce human-operator monitoring is not possible and automatic algorithms are needed. One monitoring task of particular interest is the detection of suspicious behavior, i.e., identification of individuals or objects whose behavior differs from behavior usually observed. Many methods based on object path analysis have been developed to date (motion detection followed by tracking and inferencing) but they are sensitive to motion detection and tracking errors and are also computationally complex. We propose a new surveillance method capable of abnormal behavior detection without explicit estimation of object paths. Our method is based on a simple model of video dynamics. We propose one practical implementation of this general model via temporal aggregation of motion detection labels. Our method requires little processing power and memory, is robust to motion segmentation errors, and general enough to monitor humans, cars or any other moving objects in uncluttered as well as highly-cluttered scenes. Furthermore, on account of its simplicity, our method can provide performance guarantees. It is also robust in harsh environments (jittery cameras, rain/snow/fog).

  19. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features. (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez


    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  20. Fifteen years experience: Egyptian metabolic lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram M. Fateen


    Conclusion: This study illustrates the experience of the reference metabolic lab in Egypt over 15 years. The lab began metabolic disorder screening by using simple diagnostic techniques like thin layer chromatography and colored tests in urine which by time updated and upgraded the methods to diagnose a wide range of disorders. This study shows the most common diagnosed inherited inborn errors of metabolism among the Egyptian population.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakhshi


    Full Text Available Totally implantable venous access devices (TIVAD or implantable catheter ports are devices which can be implanted subcutaneously. They enable prolonged and repeated access to the vascular system, into the peritoneal cavity or intravertebral space. This device is particularly useful for repeated medical injection, for blood sampling or transfusion of blood and blood derivatives and for total parenteral nutrition (TPN. Although many patients benefit from the insertion of TIVAD without any secondary effects, any surgical implantation can nevertheless lead to complications. ‎In this study, we investigated the advantages and disadvantages of TIVAD catheter in pediatric age group. A total of 94 cases, 2 to 14 years old, were included in our study. We implanted TIVAD in these patients for chemotherapy in 83 cases (88.29%, for prolonged TPN in 6 cases (6.38%, for corticosteroid and antibiotic therapy after ‎Kasai operation in 2 cases (2.12%, for intermittent IV therapy in 2 cases (2.12% and for need to partial parenteral nutrition in 1 case (1.06%. Out of 94 cases, 14 cases (15% had some kind of complications and 80 cases (85% had no complication. There was no mortality. Most patients and their parents (82 cases, 87.23% were satisfied from TIVAD. ‎It seems that TIVAD can be a useful device for many chronic patients who need an IV access for multiple injections.

  2. Fifteen years of international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, B.; Celebi, T.


    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrated its 15th birthday in October 2013. The ISS is the largest spaceship ever built by humans and very important for research, to understand life and physics. However, the ISS is very expensive to maintain and therefore some people argue that the ISS progr

  3. Behavioral factors. (United States)

    Zero, D T; Lussi, A


    During and after an erosive challenge, behavioral factors play a role in modifying the extent of erosive tooth wear. The manner that dietary acids are introduced into the mouth (gulping, sipping, use of a straw) will affect how long the teeth are in contact with the erosive challenge. The frequency and duration of exposure to an erosive agent is of paramount importance. Night-time exposure (e.g. baby bottle-feeding) to erosive agents may be particularly destructive because of the absence of salivary flow. Health-conscious individuals tend to ingest acidic drinks and juices more frequently and tend to have higher than average oral hygiene. While good oral hygiene is of proven value in the prevention of periodontal disease and dental caries, frequent toothbrushing with abrasive oral hygiene products may enhance erosive tooth wear. Unhealthy lifestyles such as consumption of designer drugs, alcopops and alcohol abuse are other important behavioral factors.



    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA


    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  5. OPEC behavior (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    This thesis aims to contribute to a further understanding of the real dynamics of OPEC production behavior and its impacts on the world oil market. A literature review in this area shows that the existing studies on OPEC still have some major deficiencies in theoretical interpretation and empirical estimation technique. After a brief background review in chapter 1, chapter 2 tests Griffin's market-sharing cartel model on the post-Griffin time horizon with a simultaneous system of equations, and an innovative hypothesis of OPEC's behavior (Saudi Arabia in particular) is then proposed based on the estimation results. Chapter 3 first provides a conceptual analysis of OPEC behavior under the framework of non-cooperative collusion with imperfect information. An empirical model is then constructed and estimated. The results of the empirical studies in this thesis strongly support the hypothesis that OPEC has operated as a market-sharing cartel since the early 1980s. In addition, the results also provide some support of the theory of non-cooperative collusion under imperfect information. OPEC members collude under normal circumstances and behave competitively at times in response to imperfect market signals of cartel compliance and some internal attributes. Periodic joint competition conduct plays an important role in sustaining the collusion in the long run. Saudi Arabia acts as the leader of the cartel, accommodating intermediate unfavorable market development and punishing others with a tit-for-tat strategy in extreme circumstances.

  6. Toxicity of fifteen strains of Beauveria bassiana against Aphis glycines%球孢白僵菌对大豆蚜毒力的室内生物学测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴磊; 张正坤; 徐文静; 刘影; 王金刚; 李启云


    The toxicity of fifteen strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana ( Bals. ) Vuill. To Aphis glycines Matsumura was determined. All tested strains were toxic to A. Glycines and obvious differences in the mortality rates achieved by the different strains were positively correlated with spore concentration and treatment time. Strain S14 - X - 1 had the highest amount of toxic isolates.%对来源于吉林省不同地区的15株球孢白僵菌Beauveria bassiana( Bals.) Vuill.菌种对大豆蚜Aphisglycines Matsumura毒力进行了室内生物学测定.所有供试菌株对大豆蚜虫均有一定的致病性,杀虫效率差异明显,杀虫效率与孢子浓度和作用时间均呈正相关.通过对大豆蚜毒力室内生物学测定结果的综合分析,菌株S14-X-1为毒力较高菌株,具有进一步研究应用价值.

  7. Logical Behaviorism


    Malcolm, Norman; Altuner, Ilyas


    The paper deals exclusively with the doctrine called ‘Logical Behaviorism’. Although this position does not vogue it enjoyed in the 1930s and 1940s, it will always possess a compelling attraction for anyone who is perplexed by the psychological concepts, who has become aware of worthlessness of an appeal to introspection as an account of how we learn those concepts, and he has no inclination to identify mind with brain. There, of course, are other forms of behaviorism, and of reductionism, wh...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA


    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  9. Analysis of sexual behavior in adolescents. (United States)

    Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, M Paz; Ramiro, Maria T; Ramiro-Sanchez, Tamara


    The aim of this study was to describe some characteristics of vaginal, anal and oral sexual behavior in Spanish adolescents. It was a cross-sectional descriptive population study conducted using a probabilistic sample survey. The sample was composed of 4,612 male and female adolescents, of whom 1,686 reported having penetrative sexual experience. Sample size was established with a 97% confidence level and a 3% estimation error. Data collection took place in secondary education schools. Mean age of vaginal sex initiation was 15 years. Compared to females, males reported an earlier age of anal and oral sex initiation and a larger number of vaginal and anal sexual partners. Males also reported a higher frequency of penetrative sexual relations under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. A higher percentage of females than males reported not using a condom in their first anal sexual experience. This study provides a current overview of the sexual behavior of adolescents that can be useful for the design of future programs aimed at preventing HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

  10. Behavior subtraction. (United States)

    Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Saligrama, Venkatesh; Konrad, Janusz


    Background subtraction has been a driving engine for many computer vision and video analytics tasks. Although its many variants exist, they all share the underlying assumption that photometric scene properties are either static or exhibit temporal stationarity. While this works in many applications, the model fails when one is interested in discovering changes in scene dynamics instead of changes in scene's photometric properties; the detection of unusual pedestrian or motor traffic patterns are but two examples. We propose a new model and computational framework that assume the dynamics of a scene, not its photometry, to be stationary, i.e., a dynamic background serves as the reference for the dynamics of an observed scene. Central to our approach is the concept of an event, which we define as short-term scene dynamics captured over a time window at a specific spatial location in the camera field of view. Unlike in our earlier work, we compute events by time-aggregating vector object descriptors that can combine multiple features, such as object size, direction of movement, speed, etc. We characterize events probabilistically, but use low-memory, low-complexity surrogates in a practical implementation. Using these surrogates amounts to behavior subtraction, a new algorithm for effective and efficient temporal anomaly detection and localization. Behavior subtraction is resilient to spurious background motion, such as due to camera jitter, and is content-blind, i.e., it works equally well on humans, cars, animals, and other objects in both uncluttered and highly cluttered scenes. Clearly, treating video as a collection of events rather than colored pixels opens new possibilities for video analytics.

  11. The Influence of Ergonomics Training on Employee Behavior at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, Leslie Guthrie [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)


    A survey of employee behavior was conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of ergonomic behavior that decreased the chance of having a work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) among employees. The null hypothesis was tested to determine if there was a significant difference in ergonomic behavior between trained and untrained employees. The LANL employees were stratified by job series and then randomly selected to participate. The data were gathered using an electronic self-administered behavior questionnaire. The study population was composed of 6931 employees, and the response rate was 48%. The null hypothesis was rejected for twelve out of fifteen questions on the questionnaire. Logistic regression results indicate that the trained participants were more likely to report the risk-avoiding behavior, which supported the rejection of the null hypothesis for 60% of the questions. There was a higher frequency that the beneficial or risk-avoiding behavior was reported by the uninjured participants. Job series analysis revealed that ergonomics is an important issue among participants from all the job series. It also identified the occupational specialist classification (an administrative job), as the job series with the most occurrences of undesired ergonomic behaviors. In conclusion, there was a significant difference between the trained and untrained participants of the beneficial ergonomic behavior in the reported risk reducing behaviors.

  12. Cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD and somatization: an open trial. (United States)

    Pérez Benítez, Carlos I; Zlotnick, Caron; Gomez, Judelysse; Rendón, Maria J; Swanson, Amelia


    No treatment, to date, has been developed to improve both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS), despite mounting evidence of high comorbidity between PTSD and MUPS. This study assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcomes of an adapted cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD and abridged somatization in a sample of eight participants. Fifteen percent of completers did not meet PTSD criteria after treatment completion and 62.5% improved their somatic symptoms. There was a significant difference between pre- and post-treatment depression symptoms, as well as in psychological and physical functioning measures. Results indicated a small to moderate effect size (d = 0.27-0.78) in PTSD severity scores, and moderate to large effect size in depression symptoms and psychosocial and physical functioning variables (d = 0.39-1.12). Preliminary evidence of acceptability indicates that the current CBT intervention may be suitable for Latinos individuals with PTSD and MUPS.

  13. Fostering employee service creativity: Joint effects of customer empowering behaviors and supervisory empowering leadership. (United States)

    Dong, Yuntao; Liao, Hui; Chuang, Aichia; Zhou, Jing; Campbell, Elizabeth M


    Integrating insights from the literature on customers' central role in service and the literature on employee creativity, we offer theoretical and empirical account of how and when customer empowering behaviors can motivate employee creativity during service encounters and, subsequently, influence customer satisfaction with service experience. Using multilevel, multisource, experience sampling data from 380 hairstylists matched with 3550 customers in 118 hair salons, we found that customer empowering behaviors were positively related to employee creativity and subsequent customer satisfaction via employee state promotion focus. Results also showed that empowering behaviors from different agents function synergistically in shaping employee creativity: supervisory empowering leadership strengthened the indirect effect of customer empowering behaviors on employee creativity via state promotion focus.

  14. The independent effects of personality and situations on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion. (United States)

    Sherman, Ryne A; Rauthmann, John F; Brown, Nicolas A; Serfass, David G; Jones, Ashley Bell


    The joint influence of persons and situations on behavior has long been posited by personality and social psychological theory (Funder, 2006; Lewin, 1951). However, a lack of tools for real-time behavioral and situation assessment has left direct investigations of this sort immobilized. This study combines recent advances in situation assessment and experience sampling methodology to examine the simultaneous effects of personality traits and situation characteristics on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion in N = 210 participants. The results support an additive model such that both personality traits and situation characteristics independently predict real-time expressions of behavior and emotion. These results have implications for several prominent theoretical perspectives in personality, including both trait and cognitive theories.

  15. Feeding behavior of dairy cows in feedlot and fed on crude glycerin levels in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo de Almeida Meneses


    Full Text Available Current experiment evaluated the inclusion effect of crude glycerin levels in the diet on the feeding behavior of confined dairy cows. Fifteen crossbred Holsteinx Zebu cows were used, divided into three 5 x 5 Latin squares, with treatments: control (no addition of glycerin and inclusion of 50, 100, 150 and 200 gcrude glycerin per kg of dry matter (DM in the diet. The animals were subjected to five visual assessments of feeding behavior for 24 hours in each period. Linear increase on feeding time and rumination and on decrease of idle time with the inclusion of crude glycerin levels (p 0.05. Crude glycerin did not drastically affect the feeding behavior of dairy cows.

  16. Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior


    Salzinger, Kurt


    Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis.

  17. Hanseníase em menores de quinze anos no município de Paracatu, MG (1994 a 2001 Leprosy in patients under fifteen years of age in the city of Paracatu-MG (1994 to 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaias Nery Ferreira


    actions due to the high rates of detection and prevalence of the condition, especially among children under fifteen years of age. In 1998 and 1999, an information program was implemented in order to provide explanations on the signs and symptoms of the disease to a population of 8,000 students, in order to improve the detection rate of the disease in children under fifteen years of age, given Paracatu was classified as a hyper-endemic city between 1997 and 2001. A descriptive study was carried out comprising forty-five patients diagnosed and treated in Paracatu between 1994 and 2001. Fifty-three percent of diagnoses were in male children, 75.5% of the cases being between ten and fourteen years of age; individuals had less years of schooling than what would be expected for their ages; 84% of the population lived in the urban area. All patients included (100% were new cases, of which 56% were multibacillary forms, mainly the Dimorph clinical form (potentially infectious, followed by the Undetermined (30.8% and Tuberculoid (13.2% forms. All were treated according to standard procedures, with a 100% cure rate. During treatment 24% of patients presented reactions, and 9% did after being discharged. Twenty-two percent of patients were diagnosed with some degree of disability, and 13% presented some degree of disability upon discharge (a rate considered high. Sixty-two percent of patients had contact with other Hansen's disease bearers, and only 15.5% of these contacts had two BCG vaccine scars. Leprosy is a serious public health problem in the city studied, and the work accomplished with students was primary to increase case detection.

  18. From Behaviorism to Selectionism. (United States)

    Vargas, Ernest A.


    Discusses behaviorism and the gradual shift to a theory of selectionism. Highlights include the development of behaviorism as a part of psychology, including Skinner's theories; varieties of behaviorism, including behavioral analysis; behaviorology in other disciplinary settings; effects of contingencies upon behavior; and the prospects for…

  19. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.


    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  20. Development and Validation of the Behavioral Tendencies Questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas T Van Dam

    Full Text Available At a fundamental level, taxonomy of behavior and behavioral tendencies can be described in terms of approach, avoid, or equivocate (i.e., neither approach nor avoid. While there are numerous theories of personality, temperament, and character, few seem to take advantage of parsimonious taxonomy. The present study sought to implement this taxonomy by creating a questionnaire based on a categorization of behavioral temperaments/tendencies first identified in Buddhist accounts over fifteen hundred years ago. Items were developed using historical and contemporary texts of the behavioral temperaments, described as "Greedy/Faithful", "Aversive/Discerning", and "Deluded/Speculative". To both maintain this categorical typology and benefit from the advantageous properties of forced-choice response format (e.g., reduction of response biases, binary pairwise preferences for items were modeled using Latent Class Analysis (LCA. One sample (n1 = 394 was used to estimate the item parameters, and the second sample (n2 = 504 was used to classify the participants using the established parameters and cross-validate the classification against multiple other measures. The cross-validated measure exhibited good nomothetic span (construct-consistent relationships with related measures that seemed to corroborate the ideas present in the original Buddhist source documents. The final 13-block questionnaire created from the best performing items (the Behavioral Tendencies Questionnaire or BTQ is a psychometrically valid questionnaire that is historically consistent, based in behavioral tendencies, and promises practical and clinical utility particularly in settings that teach and study meditation practices such as Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR.

  1. The Psyche as Behavior

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    Full Text Available Behaviorism has argued that behavior is the Psyche and the subject matter of psychology. Although, some scientists had done empirical work with objective methods before 1913, the year in which John B. Watson published his manifesto, he was the first one to attempt a systematization of behavior as the Psyche, that is, as psychology’s subject matter. In this text, I outline Watson’s notion of behavior to compare it with two other forms of behaviorism: Skinner’s radical behaviorism and molar behaviorism. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate how the concept of behavior has been and is changing.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王原; 苏珊·E·埃文斯


    The past fifteen years have witnessed an acceleration in the study of Chinese fossil amphibians and squamates. Sixteen ( 15 new) amphibian and twenty-two ( 11 new) squamate species have been reported across China, including the oldest Chinese tetrapod Sinostega pani from the Late Devonian of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the large stereospondyl amphibian Yuanansuchus laticeps from the Middle Triassic of Hubei Province, Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous lissamphibians ( e. G. , the anurans Callobatrachus sanyanensis and Mesophryne beipiaoensis, the caudates Jeholotriton paradoxus and Laccotriton subsolanus) from Northeast China, Paleogene lizards (e. G., Brevidensilacerta xichuanensis and Tinosaurus yuanquensis) from North China, and numerous lizards from the Late Cretaceous of Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia) Autonomous Region. Some previously described taxa have been revised, especially those of the Jehol Biota (e. G. , Yabeinosaurus tenuis, long considered a small gracile lizard, but shown to be a large robust genus with all previous specimens juvenile). New important paleoherpetological localities have been discovered, such as Sihetun, Lujiatun of Beipiao City and Shuikouzi of Huludao City in Liaoning Province, Paozhanggou of Fengning County in Hebei Province, and Daohugou of Ningcheng County and Bayan Mandahu of Urad Houqi in Nei Mongol Autonomous Region. Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous amphibians and lizards from China have provided important information on the origin and early evolution of relevant groups, but phylogenetic studies on these taxa are at a preliminary stage.%过去15年中,我国的化石两栖类和有鳞类研究取得了加速进展.共报道了16种两栖类和22种有鳞类,其中15种两栖类和11种有鳞类为新种,包括我国最古老的四足动物宁夏晚泥盆世的潘氏中国螈,湖北中三叠世的大型全椎两栖类宽头远安鲵,东北晚侏罗世/早白垩世的多种滑体两栖类(如无尾类三燕丽蟾和北票中蟾,有

  3. Process of Land Use Conflict Research in China During the Past Fifteen Years%近15年来中国土地利用冲突研究进展与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德; 徐建春; 王莉


    This paper summarizes the research process on land use conflict in China during the past fifteen years. The method of documentation was employed based on the three Chinese database, including China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI), VIP Journal Integration Platform(VJIP)and Wanfang Databases. The results shows that the study on land use conflict is a key and hot topic in land resources science, which includes the evolution of concept, conflict type, region distribution, assessment and management. The conclusions of this study on land use conflict conclude five themes that will be focused on in the future that 1)the theoretical basis and analysis framework, 2)comprehensive assessment index system and quantitative model, 3)multi-scale (micro-medium-macro) comprehensive analysis, 4) scenario simulation of regional land use conflict, and 5)study on combining land use conflict theory with its practice.%研究目的:总结和梳理中国近15年来土地利用冲突研究文献,分析土地利用冲突的研究现状,展望未来的研究方向和重点。研究方法:基于中国知网、中文科技期刊数据库及万方数据知识服务平台学术文献数据库,采用文献调研法。研究结果:当前中国土地利用冲突研究具有很多共同的关注点,主要集中在土地利用冲突概念演变、类型与区域分布、原因及机制、评价与管理等4个方面。研究结论:在全面评析土地利用冲突研究成果的基础上,认为未来应当重点关注5个方面的研究:(1)理论基础和整体分析框架研究;(2)评价指标体系和定量模型研究;(3)多尺度(微观—中观—宏观)综合研究;(4)区域土地利用冲突情景模拟研究;(5)理论与实践相结合研究。

  4. Leptospirosis en personas de riesgo de quince explotaciones porcinas y de la central de sacrificio de Manizales, Colombia Leptospirosis in high risk groups of workers from fifteen piggeries and the central abbatoir in Manizales, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available La leptospirosis es una enfermedad infecciosa, transmisible de alta prevalencia en bovinos y porcinos, por lo cual se presume que la prevalencia de la infección por leptospira, en personas de riesgo, es también alta. Este trabajo se realizó con trabajadores de 15 granjas porcinas y de una planta de sacrificio de bovinos y porcinos. Los trabajadores fueron sangrados tres veces, con dos meses de intervalo, para obtener la prevalencia puntual a leptospirosis, por el MAT 1/50 y por la Inhibición de Crecimiento (IC 1/25. Se tomaron además muestras de orina, para Visualización Directa (VD en campo oscuro y cultivo. Las prevalencias obtenidas por el MAT fueron muy bajas en ambos grupos, siendo más altas por la IC, y más altas aún por la VD y por el cultivo. Este último es la técnica más confiable para el diagnóstico, en tanto que el MAT detecta infecciones agudas, pero no es adecuado para la detección de infecciones crónicas. El serovar más prevalente en los dos grupos estudiados fue hardjopratjino, en tanto que los trabajadores del matadero fueron positivos además, a pomona, grippotyphosa, bratislava y hardjobovis, y los de granjas porcinas a canicola e icterohaemorragiae, esta última no detectada en trabajadores del matadero. La leptospirosis en humanos, en particular en personas de riesgo, puede ser un problema de salud que merece atención de las autoridades sanitarias, y de las aseguradoras de riesgos profesionalesLeptospirosis is a transmissible infectious disease of high prevalence in the bovine and porcine species, reason why it is assumed that prevalence of leptospire infection in risk people is also high. This work was carried out with workers from fifteen piggeries, and from a bovines and porcines abbatoir. The workers were bled thrice with two months intervals, to get leptospirosis point prevalence by the Microagglutination test (MAT 1:50, and growth inhibition test ((GIT 1:25. Additionally, urine samples were taken for

  5. Risk Factors of Acute Behavioral Regression in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents with Autism (United States)

    Périsse, Didier; Amiet, Claire; Consoli, Angèle; Thorel, Marie-Vincente; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Bodeau, Nicolas; Guinchat, Vincent; Barthélémy, Catherine; Cohen, David


    Aim: During adolescence, some individuals with autism engage in severe disruptive behaviors, such as violence, agitation, tantrums, or self-injurious behaviors. We aimed to assess risk factors associated with very acute states and regression in adolescents with autism in an inpatient population. Method: Between 2001 and 2005, we reviewed the charts of all adolescents with autism (N=29, mean age=14.8 years, 79% male) hospitalized for severe disruptive behaviors in a psychiatric intensive care unit. We systematically collected data describing socio-demographic characteristics, clinical variables (severity, presence of language, cognitive level), associated organic conditions, etiologic diagnosis of the episode, and treatments. Results: All patients exhibited severe autistic symptoms and intellectual disability, and two-thirds had no functional verbal language. Fifteen subjects exhibited epilepsy, including three cases in which epilepsy was unknown before the acute episode. For six (21%) of the subjects, uncontrolled seizures were considered the main cause of the disruptive behaviors. Other suspected risk factors associated with disruptive behavior disorders included adjustment disorder (N=7), lack of adequate therapeutic or educational management (N=6), depression (N=2), catatonia (N=2), and painful comorbid organic conditions (N=3). Conclusion: Disruptive behaviors among adolescents with autism may stem from diverse risk factors, including environmental problems, comorbid acute psychiatric conditions, or somatic diseases such as epilepsy. The management of these behavioral changes requires a multidisciplinary functional approach. PMID:20467546

  6. Chemicals and chemoreceptors: ecologically relevant signals driving behavior in Drosophila.

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    Ana eDepetris-Chauvin


    Full Text Available Insects encounter a vast repertoire of chemicals in their natural environment, which can signal positive stimuli like the presence of a food source, a potential mate, or a suitable oviposition site as well as negative stimuli such as competitors, predators, or toxic substances reflecting danger. The presence of specialized chemoreceptors like taste and olfactory receptors allow animals to detect chemicals at short and long distances and accordingly, trigger proper behaviors towards these stimuli. Since the first description of olfactory and taste receptors in Drosophila fifteen years ago, our knowledge on the identity, properties, and function of specific chemoreceptors has increased exponentially. In the last years, multidisciplinary approaches combining genetic tools with electrophysiological techniques, behavioral recording, evolutionary analysis, and chemical ecology studies are shedding light on our understanding on the ecological relevance of specific chemoreceptors for the survival of Drosophila in their natural environment. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on chemoreceptors of both the olfactory and taste systems of the fruitfly. We focus on the relevance of particular receptors for the detection of ecologically relevant cues such as pheromones, food sources, and toxic compounds, and we comment on the behavioral changes that the detection of these chemicals induce in the fly. In particular, we give an updated outlook of the chemical communication displayed during one of the most important behaviors for fly survival, the courtship behavior. Finally, the ecological relevance of specific chemicals can vary depending on the niche occupied by the individual. In that regard, in this review we also highlight the contrast between adult and larval systems and we propose that these differences could reflect distinctive requirements depending on the change of ecological niche occupied by Drosophila along its life cycle.

  7. Computational Analysis of Behavior. (United States)

    Egnor, S E Roian; Branson, Kristin


    In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior. To enable biologists to design experiments to obtain better behavioral measurements, and computer scientists to pinpoint fruitful directions for algorithm improvement, we review known effects of artificial manipulation of the animal on behavior. We also review machine vision and learning techniques for tracking, feature extraction, automated behavior classification, and automated behavior discovery, the assumptions they make, and the types of data they work best with.

  8. Behavior Management: Examining the Functions of Behavior (United States)

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Alstot, Crystal D.


    Appropriate student behavior is essential for the success of a physical education lesson. Despite using effective proactive management strategies, teachers may need to also use reactive techniques to reduce problem behaviors by applying suitable consequences. For these consequences to be effective, they must be aligned with the function, or cause,…

  9. Modeling of Agent Behavior Using Behavioral Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Treur, J.


    The behavioral dynamics of a cognitive agent can be considered both from an external and an internal perspective. From the external perspective, behavior is described by specifying (temporal) correlations between input and output states of the agent. From the internal perspective the agent’s dynamic

  10. Behaviorism and Cognitivism in Behavior Therapy. (United States)

    Levis, Donald J.

    The movement within behavior therapy to introduce cognitive terms, constructs, and techniques reflects and involves an extension of the pervasive cognitive movement within the experimental field and the long-standing cognitive approach of many clinicians. Modern day attacks on behaviorism by cognitivists have been almost exclusively geared to the…

  11. Behavior Modification in Coaching. (United States)

    Lynch, Annette Rutt; Stillman, Stephen M.


    An example of behavior modification used in athletic coaching is presented. The case study involves a member of a women's basketball team and details the use of behavior modification for both weight reduction and skill improvement. (JMF)

  12. Humanism vs. Behaviorism (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline


    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  13. Behaviorism and Neuroscience. (United States)

    Thompson, Richard F.


    The influence of behaviorism's methods and theories on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of John B. Watson's 1913 essay. An attempt is made to reconcile classical behaviorism and modern cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (SLD)

  14. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism. (United States)

    Chu, Lily


    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  15. Behaviorism and Society


    Krapfl, Jon E.


    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and...

  16. What determines our behavior


    Marko Radovan


    In article Ajzen-Fishbein's attitude-behavior model called 'Theory of reasoned action' and Albert Bandura's Model of reciprocal determinism are presented. Both models are a part of social-cognitive paradigm which characterizes behavior with evaluation of different goals. Ajzen and Fishbein (1973; 1980) proposed that specific behavior are predictable from specific behavioral intentions. These intentions are a function of two components: the attitude toward the act in question a...

  17. Behavioral Economics and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.


    Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve...

  18. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros


    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  19. Behavioral Strategies: Building Systems. (United States)

    Sandoz, Charles J.

    Using a construction building analogy, this guide provides a plan for building a system of behavior strategies. These strategies are designed to assist behavior analysts of contracted provider agencies in the construction and maintenance of procedures which will help monitor and reduce the frequency of problematic behaviors in individuals with…

  20. Inhibitory action of halothane on rat masculine sexual behavior and sperm motility. (United States)

    Oropeza-Hernández, Luis F; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Albores, Arnulfo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso


    Adult male rats were exposed to inhale halothane in the following regime: 15 ppm/4 h/5 days/week/9 weeks. Sexual behavior observations and sperm motility test were made before halothane exposure (0 days) and at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of exposure. Fifteen days after halothane exposure, this anesthetic inhibited the proportion of animals displaying ejaculation. In those animals ejaculating, halothane produced an inhibition of masculine sexual behavior reflected as an increase in the intromission latency, number of mounts and postejaculatory interval. At 30 days after exposure, only an increase in the intromission latency was observed. At 45 and 60 days, the inhibitory effect of halothane on sexual behavior disappeared. Similarly, at 15 and 30 days, but not at 45 or 60 days of halothane exposure, a reduced sperm motility was observed. Such transient effects of halothane suggest the development of tolerance to the inhibitory actions of this anesthetic on sexual behavior and sperm motility. These halothane effects are in line with an inhibition of masculine sexual behavior after stimulation of the GABAergic system.

  1. Relationship Between Sexting and Sexual Risk Behavior and Some Psychosocial Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Vrselja


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to explore whether there are significant differences between those who have never engaged in sexting behavior and those who have for at least once in any number of variables: sexual risk behavior, anger, depression, anxiety, self-efficacy and association with deviant peers. Also, the goal was to explore whether anger and unpleasant emotions of depression and anxiety are significant predictors of sexting and whether self-efficacy and association with deviant peers express moderator role in the relationship between enlisted predictors and sexting. Analyzed data were collected in 2012 from 311 students (149 boys, 162 girls, aged between fifteen and seventeen years. The results of series of independent t-tests showed significant differences between the two groups in sexual risk behavior and deviant peers association, whereby those who have engaged in sexting behavior at least once, compared to those who have never sexted, engaged more frequently in sexual risk behaviors and have more deviant friends. The results of hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis showed that sexting was not significantly predicted by anger, depression and anxiety and that self-efficacy and association with deviant peers do not change the relationship between anger and sexting, as well as the relationship between unpleasant emotions of depression or anxiety and sexting. The results are discussed in terms of findings of previous research and in the context of the relationship between the variables specified in the context of Agnew's (1992 general strain theory.

  2. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft


    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior....... Employee characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work condition are included in the extended model. A survey was handed out to 654 employees in Chinese factories. This research contributes by demonstrating how employee- characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work...... condition influence their sustainable work behavior. A new definition of sustainable work behavior is proposed....

  3. Behaviorism and Society. (United States)

    Krapfl, Jon E


    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work.

  4. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lefèvre


    Full Text Available Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied.

  5. Analysis of Autopilot Behavior (United States)

    Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Feay, Mike; Palmer, Everett; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)


    Aviation and cognitive science researchers have identified situations in which the pilot's expectations for behavior of autopilot avionics are not matched by the actual behavior of the avionics. These "automation surprises" have been attributed to differences between the pilot's model of the behavior of the avionics and the actual behavior encoded in the avionics software. A formal technique is described for the analysis and measurement of the behavior of the cruise pitch modes of a modern Autopilot. The analysis characterizes the behavior of the Autopilot as situation-action rules. The behavior of the cruise pitch mode logic for a contemporary modern Autopilot was found to include 177 rules, including Level Change (23), Vertical Speed (16), Altitude Capture (50), and Altitude Hold (88). These rules are determined based on the values of 62 inputs. Analysis of the rule-based model also shed light on the factors cited in the literature as contributors to "automation surprises."

  6. Personality and Prosocial Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Glöckner, Andreas; Zettler, Ingo


    Concerning the dispositional determinants of prosocial behavior and cooperation, work based on the classic 5 personality factors, and especially Agreeableness, has turned out somewhat inconsistent. A clearer picture has emerged from consideration of the HEXACO model of personality-though supported...... entirely by hypothetical behavior as criterion, so far. Thus, in 2 studies and a reanalysis, we investigated "actual behavior" in the form of individually and socially consequential distribution decisions. As expected, HEXACO Honesty-Humility consistently predicted prosocial behavior, including a theory......-consistent pattern on the facet level. Importantly, this pattern might explain why five-factor Agreeableness has only sometimes been found to account for prosocial behavior. Indeed, further results indicate that five-factor Agreeableness comprises some aspects that are predictive of prosocial behavior-aspects well...

  7. [Addictive behavior disorders]. (United States)

    Masaki, Daiki; Tsuchida, Hideto; Kitabayashi, Yurinosuke; Tani, Naosuke; Fukui, Kenji


    "Addiction" used to remind anyone of the use or abuse of chemical substances. In recent years, however, researchers and clinicians have begun to classify other excessive behaviors including gambling, eating shopping and self-injury into the addictive behavior. Above all, pathological gambling and bulimia nervosa patients often make trouble for psychiatrists and psychologists, not only for their family. On the other hand, the neural substrata underlying substance dependence have been revealed. Especially, it is implicated that the mesolimbic neuron plays a crucial role on the reward system. The recent studies suggest that reduced activation of the reward system might be related to the addictive behaviors such as pathological gambling, binge eating and sexual behavior. Further biological researches about the addictive behavior would help our deeper understanding of its disorders. As to the pharmacotherapy, many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in treating the addictive behaviors.

  8. About Teleological Behaviorism. (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard


    Misconceptions abound about teleological behaviorism (TB). Because very few people other than the author publicly call themselves teleological behaviorists, the fault must be mine. The present article is an attempt to clear up those misconceptions. First I will try to indicate what teleological behaviorism is not. Then, in the form of six fables (loosely connected stories, allegories, analogies, fairy tales, and arguments), I will try to give the reader an understanding of what teleological behaviorism actually is.

  9. Behavioral Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth


    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-level perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing on insights from psychology on the behavior of individuals and groups. The authors discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw...... theories. As such, behavioral public administration complements traditional public administration. Furthermore, it could be a two-way street for psychologists who want to test the external validity of their theories in a political-administrative setting. Finally, four principles are proposed to narrow...

  10. Green Consumption Behavior Antecedents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagiaslis, Anastasios; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios


    The present study adds to the evolving literature on green consumer behavior by examining through statistically robust methods the effect and interrelationships of the key constructs of environmental concern, consumer environmental knowledge, beliefs about biofuels, and behavioral intention (i...... for the environment has a positive and direct impact on environmental knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intention. Also, demographics determine levels of concern for the environment and environmental knowledge. All constructs associate positively with one another delineating that the interdependencies between them...... are important when accounting for environmental behavior. Future research should validate present results with the use of cross-cultural samples and investigate whether environmental concern increases due to social desirability response bias....

  11. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab supports cognitive research using rodent models. Capabilities for behavioral assessments include: Morris water maze and Barnes maze (spatial memory) elevate...

  12. Male rat sexual behavior. (United States)

    Agmo, A


    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The study of behavioral finance combines the investigation and expertise from research and practice into smart portfolios of individual investors’ portfolios. Understanding cognitive errors and misleading emotions drive investors to their long-term goals of financial prosperity and capital preservation. 10 years ago, Behavioral Finance was still considered an incipient, adolescent science. First Nobel Prize in Economics awarded to the study of Behavioral Economics in 2002 established the field as a new, respected study of economics. 2013 Nobel Prize was awarded to three economists, one of them considered the one of the founders of the Behavioral Finance. As such, by now we are entering the coming of age of behavioral finance. It is now recognized as a science of understanding investors behaviors and their biased patterns. It applies quantitative finance and provides practical models grounded on robust understanding of investors behavior toward financial risk. Financial Personality influences investment decisions. Behavioral portfolio construction methods combine classic finance with rigorously quantified psychological metrics and improves models for financial advice to enhance investors chances in reaching their lifetime financial goals. Behavioral finance helps understanding psychological profile dissimilarities of individuals and how these differences manifest in investment decision process. This new science has become now a must topic in modern finance.

  14. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab supports cognitive research using rodent models. Capabilities for behavioral assessments include:Morris water maze and Barnes maze (spatial memory)elevate...

  15. Analysis of Curative Effect of Treating Acute Cholecystitis With Fifteen Kinds of Bucket Purcell Pill by Combination With Cefmetazole and Gatifloxacin%十五味赛尔斗丸结合头孢美唑、加替沙星治疗急性胆囊炎的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective Analyze the effect of fifteen kinds of bucket purcell pill in the treatment of acute cholecystitis by combination of cefmetazole and gatifloxacin. Methods 96 patients were two groups for the control group and the observation group, while the control group adopted conventional bed resting, fasting, rehydration nursing method, using the combination of intravenous cefmetazole, gatifloxacin treatment method. The observation group in the control group, with fifteen kinds of purcell bucket pill. Results The treatment effect of the observation group is more significant, the body temperature, nausea and vomiting in patients with significantly lower probability of occurrence. The probability of comparing the two groups of body temperature,pain, fever, vomiting, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with acute cholecystitis by fifteen kinds of purcell bucket pill combined with cefmetazole, reducing the incidence of adverse reactions in patients, improve the quality of life of patients.%目的:分析十五味赛尔斗丸结合头孢美唑、加替沙星治疗急性胆囊炎的疗效。方法96例患者随机分为对照组与观察组,对照组采取常规的卧床休息、禁食、补液和解痉止痛护理方法,加上静脉结合头孢美唑、加替沙星的治疗方法。观察组在对照组的基础上,加十五味赛尔斗丸。结果观察组的治疗效果更为显著,患者的体温、恶心呕吐发生概率更低。比较两组患者的体温、腹痛、发热等不良反应的发生概率,差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论对急性胆囊炎患者采用十五味赛尔斗丸结合头孢美唑、加替沙星治疗,降低了患者不良反应的发生率,提高了患者的生活质量。

  16. Clarifying Behavior Management Terminology. (United States)

    Justen, Joseph E., III; Howerton, D. Lynn


    Eight behavioral management terms/concepts commonly encountered in the special education literature are defined and discussed in terms of commonly occurring confusions. They are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, extinction, differential reinforcement of other behavior, timeout, response cost, and overcorrection. (DB)

  17. Disruptive Behavior Disorders (United States)

    ... ODD or CD, and well-planned classroom behavioral techniques in his mainstream classroom have been ineffective, this may lead to a decision to place him in a special classroom at school that is set up for more intensive behavior management. However, schools are mandated to educate your child ...

  18. Competence Enhancement Behavior Management (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Goforth, Jennifer B.; Hives, Jacqueline; Aaron, Annie; Jackson, Frances; Sgammato, Adrienne


    Competence Enhancement Behavior Management is presented as a framework for supporting students with challenging behaviors in general education classrooms. This approach emphasizes classroom management and discipline strategies that (a) help to build positive relations with students, (b) communicate to students that they are important, and (c)…

  19. Zen and Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Bass, Roger


    Zen's challenge for behavior analysis is to explain a repertoire that renders analysis itself meaningless--a result following not from scientific or philosophical arguments but rather from a unique verbal history generated by Zen's methods. Untying Zen's verbal knots suggests how meditation's and koans' effects on verbal behavior contribute to…

  20. Behaviorism and neuroscience. (United States)

    Thompson, R F


    The influence of the methods and theories of behaviorism on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of Watson's (1913) original call-to-arms. Behaviorist approaches to animal behavior, particularly in the study of processes of learning and memory, have had a profound and continual influence in the area of neuroscience concerned with animal studies of brain substrates of behavior. Similarly, contemporary behaviorists have not been opposed to the study of neurobiological substrates of behavior. On the other hand, classical behaviorist views of thinking, that is, as reflex chains, have been largely discounted by developments in neuroscience. Classical behaviorism is viewed by many as being most at odds with the modern fields of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience, particularly regarding "mind" and "consciousness." A modest attempt at reconciliation is offered.

  1. What determines our behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Radovan


    Full Text Available In article Ajzen-Fishbein's attitude-behavior model called 'Theory of reasoned action' and Albert Bandura's Model of reciprocal determinism are presented. Both models are a part of social-cognitive paradigm which characterizes behavior with evaluation of different goals. Ajzen and Fishbein (1973; 1980 proposed that specific behavior are predictable from specific behavioral intentions. These intentions are a function of two components: the attitude toward the act in question and percieved normative expectations of reference group. On the other hand Bandura (1986; 1997 claims that person's motivation for a specific behavior and direction toward a specific social object respectively, reflects perception of his or hers self-efficacy beliefs. Some of the findings concerning the synthesis of the two models are also reviewed.

  2. An uncommon case of random fire-setting behavior associated with Todd paralysis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanehisa Masayuki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between fire-setting behavior and psychiatric or medical disorders remains poorly understood. Although a link between fire-setting behavior and various organic brain disorders has been established, associations between fire setting and focal brain lesions have not yet been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old first time arsonist who suffered Todd’s paralysis prior to the onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior. Case presentation A case of a 24-year-old man with a sudden onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior is reported. The man, who had been arrested on felony arson charges, complained of difficulties concentrating and of recent memory disturbances with leg weakness. A video-EEG recording demonstrated a close relationship between the focal motor impairment and a clear-cut epileptic ictal discharge involving the bilateral motor cortical areas. The SPECT result was statistically analyzed by comparing with standard SPECT images obtained from our institute (easy Z-score imaging system; eZIS. eZIS revealed hypoperfusion in cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and hyperperfusion in frontal cortex,. A neuropsychological test battery revealed lower than normal scores for executive function, attention, and memory, consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction. Conclusion The fire-setting behavior and Todd’s paralysis, together with an unremarkable performance on tests measuring executive function fifteen months prior, suggested a causal relationship between this organic brain lesion and the fire-setting behavior. The case describes a rare and as yet unreported association between random, impulse-driven fire-setting behavior and damage to the brain and suggests a disconnection of frontal lobe structures as a possible pathogenic mechanism.

  3. Cornelia de Lange syndrome: Correlation of brain MRI findings with behavioral assessment. (United States)

    Roshan Lal, Tamanna R; Kliewer, Mark A; Lopes, Thelma; Rebsamen, Susan L; O'Connor, Julia; Grados, Marco A; Kimball, Amy; Clemens, Julia; Kline, Antonie D


    Neurobehavioral and developmental issues with a broad range of deficits are prominent features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a disorder due to disruption of the cohesin protein complex. The etiologic relationship of these clinical findings to anatomic abnormalities on neuro-imaging studies has not, however, been established. Anatomic abnormalities in the brain and central nervous system specific to CdLS have been observed, including changes in the white matter, brainstem, and cerebellum. We hypothesize that location and severity of brain abnormalities correlate with clinical phenotype in CdLS, as seen in other developmental disorders. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated brain MRI studies of 15 individuals with CdLS and compared these findings to behavior at the time of the scan. Behavior was assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), a validated behavioral assessment tool with several clinical features. Ten of fifteen (67%) of CdLS patients had abnormal findings on brain MRI, including cerebral atrophy, white matter changes, cerebellar hypoplasia, and enlarged ventricles. Other findings included pituitary tumors or cysts, Chiari I malformation and gliosis. Abnormal behavioral scores in more than one behavioral area were seen in all but one patient. All 5 of the 15 (33%) patients with normal structural MRI studies had abnormal ABC scores. All normal ABC scores were noted in only one patient and this was correlated with moderately abnormal MRI changes. Although our cohort is small, our results suggest that abnormal behaviors can exist in individuals with CdLS in the setting of relatively normal structural brain findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.


    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  5. [A retrospective on behaviorism]. (United States)

    Köpcke-Duttler, A


    This essay regards the behaviorism as a component of the industrial civilization and the formation of science according to it. The power of the objectivistic "Aussenweg" (Husserl) and man's exteriorization are discovered in Skinner's analysis of human behaviour, in the thought of a psychologist who denies human freedom and follows a perspective of external controls. The behaviorism, the instrumentalization of men and of the human reason are connected with the philosophy of Descartes and Carnap. Finally the deficient truth of the behaviorism becomes distinct in the thoughts of a phenomenological "Selbstvertiefung" and a creative "Phänopraxie".

  6. Clustering Game Behavior Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet


    Recent years have seen a deluge of behavioral data from players hitting the game industry. Reasons for this data surge are many and include the introduction of new business models, technical innovations, the popularity of online games, and the increasing persistence of games. Irrespective...... of the causes, the proliferation of behavioral data poses the problem of how to derive insights therefrom. Behavioral data sets can be large, time-dependent and high-dimensional. Clustering offers a way to explore such data and to discover patterns that can reduce the overall complexity of the data. Clustering...... scientists and present a review and tutorial focusing on the application of clustering techniques to mine behavioral game data. Several algorithms are reviewed and examples of their application shown. Key topics such as feature normalization are discussed and open problems in the context of game analytics...

  7. Emotions and Behavior (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Emotions & Behavior Is it just a phase or a ... whether it's toddler tantrums or teenage depression. Feelings & Emotions "Am I Pretty?": What Moms, Daughters Really Think ...

  8. Child Behavior Disorders (United States)

    ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening themselves, other people or pets Damaging or destroying property Lying or stealing Not ...

  9. Network-behavior dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, René; Dijkstra, Jan; Steglich, Christian; Van Zalk, Maarten H. W.


    Researchers have become increasingly interested in disentangling selection and influence processes. This literature review provides context for the special issue on network-behavior dynamics. It brings together important conceptual, methodological, and empirical contributions focusing on longitudina

  10. Toddlers and Sexual Behavior (United States)

    ... abuse. What kind of sexual behaviors are okay? Masturbation in toddlers is usually nothing to worry about. ... feels good. If your child is preoccupied with masturbation (cannot be distracted from doing it), it could ...

  11. Food Coloring and Behavior


    J Gordon Millichap


    The association between the ingestion of tartrazine synthetic food coloring and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of hyperactivity was investigated at the Royal Children’s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  12. Behavior analysis in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cláudio Todorov


    Full Text Available The history of behavior analysis in Brazil began with the visit of Fred S. Keller as a FulbrightScholar to the University of São Paulo in 1961. Keller introduced Skinner works to the Brazilianpsychologists. His first assistant was Carolina Martuscelli Bori, then a social psychologistinfluenced by the work of Kurt Lewin. Initially guided by Keller, Carolina Bori was the majorforce in the diffusion of Behavior Analysis in Brazil, beginning with the psychology course ofthe University of Brasília, where the first course on Experimental Analysis of Behavior beganin August of 1964. Most of behavior analysts in Brazil today were students, directly or indirectly,of Carolina Bori. Several graduate programs throughout the country offer courses in behavioranalysis.

  13. Experiments in Animal Behavior (United States)

    Polt, James M.


    Describes experiments in conditioning, sensory processes, social behavior, imprinting, innate preferences for color and form, and discrimination learning suitable for secondary school students. Mealworms, crickets, and chicks are used as subjects. (AL)

  14. Probability and radical behaviorism (United States)

    Espinosa, James M.


    The concept of probability appears to be very important in the radical behaviorism of Skinner. Yet, it seems that this probability has not been accurately defined and is still ambiguous. I give a strict, relative frequency interpretation of probability and its applicability to the data from the science of behavior as supplied by cumulative records. Two examples of stochastic processes are given that may model the data from cumulative records that result under conditions of continuous reinforcement and extinction, respectively. PMID:22478114

  15. Probability and radical behaviorism


    Espinosa, James M.


    The concept of probability appears to be very important in the radical behaviorism of Skinner. Yet, it seems that this probability has not been accurately defined and is still ambiguous. I give a strict, relative frequency interpretation of probability and its applicability to the data from the science of behavior as supplied by cumulative records. Two examples of stochastic processes are given that may model the data from cumulative records that result under conditions of continuous reinforc...

  16. About Teleological Behaviorism


    Rachlin, Howard


    Misconceptions abound about teleological behaviorism (TB). Because very few people other than the author publicly call themselves teleological behaviorists, the fault must be mine. The present article is an attempt to clear up those misconceptions. First I will try to indicate what teleological behaviorism is not. Then, in the form of six fables (loosely connected stories, allegories, analogies, fairy tales, and arguments), I will try to give the reader an understanding of what teleological b...

  17. Behavioral genetics and taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmanov Alexander A


    Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on behavioral genetic studies of sweet, umami, bitter and salt taste responses in mammals. Studies involving mouse inbred strain comparisons and genetic analyses, and their impact on elucidation of taste receptors and transduction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the effect of genetic variation in taste responsiveness on complex traits such as drug intake is considered. Recent advances in development of genomic resources make behavioral genetics a powerful approach for understanding mechanisms of taste.

  18. Behavioral Treatment of Obesity


    Butryn, Meghan L.; Webb, Victoria; Thomas A. Wadden


    Behavioral treatment should be the first line of intervention for overweight and obese individuals. This paper provides an overview of the structure and principles of behavioral weight loss treatment. The short- and long-term effectiveness of this approach is reviewed. Strategies for improving weight loss maintenance are described, including prolonging contact between patients and providers (either in the clinic or via Internet or telephone), facilitating high amounts of physical activity, an...

  19. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology. (United States)

    MacDonald, Paul S


    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior.

  20. Behavioral Law & Economics


    Tomasz Nieborak


    Issues concerning the regulation aspects of financial markets are not simple. One of the reasons for this is that a great number of detailed factors have an effect, for example, the trust of the consumers of financial services or their behavior. The paper analyses the most important of them, and issues related to them, from a legal point of view, with the main objective of presenting the basic assumptions of the behavioral Law & Economics theorem. Dynamic development of financial markets and ...

  1. Biblical behavior modification. (United States)

    Lasure, L C; Mikulas, W L


    Although we may have formalized and systematized the field of behavior modification in the last few decades, people around the world have been using behavioral change strategies throughout history. Premack's (1965) theory of reinforcement is often called "Grandma's rule" because grandmothers have long been using it (e.g. You must finish your vegetables before you may go out and play). Franks (1969, p. 4), in one of the first behavioral texts, gave historical examples from China, Turkey, France, and Italy. Knapp and Shodahl (1974) showed how Benjamin Franklin used behavior modification. And de Silva (1984, 1985) gave examples of behavior modification by the Buddha and other early Buddhists. Conspicuously absent from our literature are examples from the Judeo-Christian tradition. In this paper, we provide a number of behavior modification examples from the Bible (New International Version). Footnotes provide references for many more examples. In the discussion, we explore implications for education and therapy. Examples are grouped by the following categories: operant conditioning, respondent conditioning, modeling, and cognitive interventions. However, the Biblical examples, like contemporary case studies, do not always fall neatly into discrete categories. They often are a combination, particularly operant and respondent conditioning interweaving.

  2. Information-Seeking Behaviors of Dental Practitioners in Three Practice-Based Research Networks (United States)

    Botello-Harbaum, Maria T.; Demko, Catherine A.; Curro, Frederick A.; Rindal, D. Brad; Collie, Damon; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Hilton, Thomas J.; Craig, Ronald G.; Wu, Juliann; Funkhouser, Ellen; Lehman, Maryann; McBride, Ruth; Thompson, Van; Lindblad, Anne


    Research on the information-seeking behaviors of dental practitioners is scarce. Knowledge of dentists’ information-seeking behaviors should advance the translational gap between clinical dental research and dental practice. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the self-reported information-seeking behaviors of dentists in three dental practice-based research networks (PBRNs). A total of 950 dentists (65 percent response rate) completed the survey. Dental journals and continuing dental education (CDE) sources used and their influence on practice guidance were assessed. PBRN participation level and years since dental degree were measured. Full-participant dentists reported reading the Journal of the American Dental Association and General Dentistry more frequently than did their reference counterparts. Printed journals were preferred by most dentists. A lower proportion of full participants obtained their CDE credits at dental meetings compared to partial participants. Experienced dentists read other dental information sources more frequently than did less experienced dentists. Practitioners involved in a PBRN differed in their approaches to accessing information sources. Peer-reviewed sources were more frequently used by full participants and dentists with fifteen years of experience or more. Dental PBRNs potentially play a significant role in the dissemination of evidence-based information. This study found that specific educational sources might increase and disseminate knowledge among dentists. PMID:23382524

  3. Computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy for children with epilepsy and anxiety: a pilot study. (United States)

    Blocher, Jacquelyn B; Fujikawa, Mayu; Sung, Connie; Jackson, Daren C; Jones, Jana E


    Anxiety disorders are prevalent in children with epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, adaptability, and feasibility of a manual-based, computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for anxiety disorders in children with epilepsy. Fifteen anxious youth (aged 8-13 years) with epilepsy completed 12 weeks of manualized computer-assisted CBT. The children and parents completed a semi-structured interview at baseline, and questionnaires assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and behavior problems were completed prior to treatment, at treatment midpoint, after treatment completion, and at three months posttreatment. There were significant reductions in the symptoms of anxiety and depression reported by the children at completion of the intervention and at the three-month follow-up. Similarly, the parents reported fewer symptoms of anxiety and a reduction in behavior problems. No adverse events were reported. This CBT intervention for children with epilepsy and anxiety disorders appears to be safe, effective, and feasible and should be incorporated into future intervention studies.

  4. Human Rights and Behavior Modification (United States)

    Roos, Philip


    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  5. The neural components of empathy: predicting daily prosocial behavior. (United States)

    Morelli, Sylvia A; Rameson, Lian T; Lieberman, Matthew D


    Previous neuroimaging studies on empathy have not clearly identified neural systems that support the three components of empathy: affective congruence, perspective-taking, and prosocial motivation. These limitations stem from a focus on a single emotion per study, minimal variation in amount of social context provided, and lack of prosocial motivation assessment. In the current investigation, 32 participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session assessing empathic responses to individuals experiencing painful, anxious, and happy events that varied in valence and amount of social context provided. They also completed a 14-day experience sampling survey that assessed real-world helping behaviors. The results demonstrate that empathy for positive and negative emotions selectively activates regions associated with positive and negative affect, respectively. In addition, the mirror system was more active during empathy for context-independent events (pain), whereas the mentalizing system was more active during empathy for context-dependent events (anxiety, happiness). Finally, the septal area, previously linked to prosocial motivation, was the only region that was commonly activated across empathy for pain, anxiety, and happiness. Septal activity during each of these empathic experiences was predictive of daily helping. These findings suggest that empathy has multiple input pathways, produces affect-congruent activations, and results in septally mediated prosocial motivation.

  6. Behavioral Indicators and Behaviors Related to Sexting among Undergraduate Students (United States)

    Hudson, Heather K.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Ogletree, Roberta


    Background: Empirical studies on sexting are limited, and many sexting studies only assessed sexting behaviors. Few studies have assessed attitudes, subjective norms, or behavioral intentions related to sexting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral intentions, and behaviors related to sexting…

  7. Chernobyl, fifteen years after; Tchernobyl, 15 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This work has been constituted around four questions: the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor, and the sarcophagus around it; the health consequences of the accident on the persons that have worked on the damaged reactor and on the population in the countries the most exposed to fallout,; the situation of contaminated territories around the power plant and their management today; the last question concerns especially the France with the consequences of the radioactive cloud and what we know about the health risks induced by this event. (N.C.)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Willem Wamsteker


    We discuss the results of the extensive efforts done over the past decade on the near environment of the central engines in Active Galactic Nuclei. The observational material is mainly based on the observations from Ground based observatories in the optical, infrared and radio bands, and of space missions like GINGA, IUE, HST, CGRO, ISO, BeppoSAX and RXTE. The availability of this instrumentation with sufficient sensitivity for the study of these objects in the γ-rays, X-rays, EUV, UV as well as Optical, IR and radio domain has opened a complete new insight. Although the results have not yet lead to a complete and full understanding, they have demonstrated with a high degree of probability that the central engines of these objects are associated with massive blackholes. A strong effort will be required from the theoretical side to make certain that we can actually use the results to distinguish between the different model parameters and place the AGN's in their proper place, not only as individual objects of interest,but also to clarify their place in the general scheme of the evolution in the Universe.The results obtained so far have not solved all the early questions, but with the promise of the new instruments a very exciting outlook exists for the future of the study of the physics of accretion in massive Black Holes.

  9. Implementing CBM: SQL-Tutor after Fifteen Years (United States)

    Mitrovic, Antonija; Ohlsson, Stellan


    SQL-Tutor is the first constraint-based tutor. The initial conference papers about the system were published in 1998 (Mitrovic 1998a, 1998b, 1998c), with an "IJAIED" paper published in 1999 (Mitrovic and Ohlsson, "International Journal Artificial Intelligence in Education," 10(3-4), 238-256, 1999). We published another…

  10. Fifteen years of forest tree biosafety research in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoenicka H


    Full Text Available Since beginning of 1990, several projects on biosafety research were initiated in Germany with genetically modified plants. Germany was also one of the first countries active on biosafety research with genetically modified trees (GMTs. An EU-funded project coordinated by the Institute of Forest Genetics (Johann Heinrich von Thuenen Institute, Grosshansdorf, from 1994 to 1997, was the first project of this kind in Germany. In the frame of this project, transgene stability was studied under greenhouse conditions in different transgenic aspen clones. A high degree of transgene expression stability was found in transgenic lines, however, gene silencing was detected in some transgenic plants. In Germany, the jump of the GMTs from the greenhouse to the field was initiated in 1996 by the Institute of Forest Genetics (Grosshansdorf, when the first field trial with genetically modified (GM poplar was approved for five years. In the year 2000 and in cooperation with the University of Tuebingen, the same institute established a second field trial with GM poplar to study possible horizontal gene transfer (HGT from the transgenic poplar into mycorrhizal fungi. No HGT was detected in those studies. Two further national funded projects on phytoremediation and status of mycorrhizal fungi in GMTs under field conditions were run by the University of Freiburg on 2002 - 2004 and 2003 - 2005. Topics of national funded biosafety research projects on GMTs released to the field but as well on greenhouse grown plants were transgene stability, genetic containment, transgene influence on mycorrhizal and phytopathogenic fungi, generative and vegetative propagation capacity, and horizontal gene transfer.

  11. [Fifteen years' experience in scorpion envenomation control in Algeria]. (United States)

    Benguedda, A C; Laraba-Djébari, F; Ouahdi, M; Hellal, H; Griene, L; Guerenik, M; Laid, Y


    In Algeria, scorpion envenomation is real public health problem. Since the creation of the National Committee of Control of Scorpion envenomations (CNLES), several steps have been taken to deal with this problem. After a brief historical introduction, we present the main elements of the action carried out both in terms of treatment and of prevention of scorpion proliferation. The epidemiological situation is presented by stressing the difficulties involved in collecting reliable data. We also address the question of citizen and stakeholder awareness since public participation is crucial in all prevention programmes. Training for healthcare providers is also one of the principal axes of the Committee's programme which includes national, regional, and even local seminars. We describe the improvement of production and research on venoms carried out by the Institute Pasteur of Algeria. We conclude by discussing the action plan for 2001 and prospects for an enhanced strategy in the fight against the scorpion envenomation.

  12. Fifteen Years of ASTER Data on NASA's Terra Platform (United States)

    Abrams, M.; Tsu, H.


    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five instruments operating on NASA's Terra platform. Launched in 1999, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and US NASA. Data processing and distribution are done by both organizations; a joint science team helps to define mission priorities. ASTER acquires ~550 images per day, with a 60 km swath width. A daytime acquisition is three visible bands and a backward-looking stereo band with 15 m resolution, six SWIR bands with 30 m resolution, and 5 TIR bands with 90 m resolution. Nighttime TIR-only data are routinely collected. The stereo capability has allowed the ASTER project to produce a global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) data set, covering the earth's land surfaces from 83 degrees north to 83 degrees south, with 30 m data postings. This is the only (near-) global DEM available to all users at no charge; to date, over 28 million 1-by-1 degree DEM tiles have been distributed. As a general-purpose imaging instrument, ASTER-acquired data are used in numerous scientific disciplines, including: land use/land cover, urban monitoring, urban heat island studies, wetlands studies, agriculture monitoring, forestry, etc. Of particular emphasis has been the acquisition and analysis of data for natural hazard and disaster applications. We have been systematically acquiring images for 15,000 valley glaciers through the USGS Global Land Ice Monitoring from Space Project. The recently published Randolph Glacier Inventory, and the GLIMS book, both relied heavily on ASTER data as the basis for glaciological and climatological studies. The ASTER Volcano Archive is a unique on-line archive of thousands of daytime and nighttime ASTER images of ~1500 active glaciers, along with a growing archive of Landsat images. ASTER was scheduled to target active volcanoes at least 4 times per year, and more frequently for select volcanoes (like Mt. Etna and Hawaii). A separate processing and distribution system is operational in the US to allow rapid scheduling, acquisition, and distribution of ASTER data for natural hazards and disasters, such as forest fires, tornadoes, tsunamis, earthquakes, and floods. We work closely with other government agencies to provide this service.

  13. Fifteen years of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Catherine E; Ford, Peter G; Plucinsky, Paul P


    As the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on the Chandra X-ray Observatory enters its fifteenth year of operation on orbit, it continues to perform well and produce spectacular scientific results. The response of ACIS has evolved over the lifetime of the observatory due to radiation damage, molecular contamination and aging of the spacecraft in general. Here we present highlights from the instrument team's monitoring program and our expectations for the future of ACIS. The ACIS calibration source produces multiple line energies and fully illuminates the entire focal plane which has greatly facilitated the measurement of charge transfer inefficiency and absorption from contamination. While the radioactive decay of the source has decreased its utility, it continues to provide valuable data on the health of the instrument. Performance changes on ACIS continue to be manageable, and do not indicate any limitations on ACIS lifetime.

  14. Review fifteen years of search for strong nucleosomes. (United States)

    Trifonov, Edward N; Nibhani, Reshma


    Don Crothers, Mikael Kubista, Jon Widom, and their teams have been first to look for strong nucleosomes, in a bid to reveal the nucleosome positioning pattern(s) carried by the nucleosome DNA sequences. They were first to demonstrate that the nucleosome stability correlates with 10-11 base sequence periodicity, and that the strong nucleosomes localize preferentially in centromeres. This review describes these findings and their connection to recent discovery of the strong nucleosomes (SNs) with visibly periodic nucleosome DNA sequences.

  15. Fifteen Dimensions of Health among Community-Dwelling Older Singaporeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetna Malhotra


    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a broad perspective of health of older Singaporeans spanning 15 health dimensions and study the association between self-rated health (SRH and other health dimensions. Using data from a survey of 5000 Singaporeans (≥60 years, SRH and health in 14 other dimensions were assessed. Generalized logit model was used to assess contribution of these 14 dimensions to positive and negative SRH, compared to average SRH. About 86% reported their health to be average or higher. Prevalence of positive SRH and “health” in most other dimensions was lower in older age groups. Positive and negative SRH were associated with mobility, hearing, vision, major physical illness, pain, personal mastery, depressive symptoms, and perceived financial adequacy. The findings show that a majority of older Singaporeans report themselves as healthy overall and in a wide range of health dimensions.

  16. Fifteen Years of Reform in China’s Countryside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



  17. Moral Education in Hungary Fifteen Years After the Transition (United States)

    Kozma, Tamas


    The Hungarian transition of 1989-1990 had economic, political and cultural dimensions. The cultural dimension may be defined as (a) a temporary loss of norms and controls, and (b) as an emphatic experience of the "kairos". As an outcome of this unusual experience, new political forces stepped into the educational policy arena, and they…

  18. Fifteen Years of Research on Business Model Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Saebi, Tina


    Over the last 15 years, business model innovation (BMI) has gained an increasing amount of attention in management research and among practitioners. The emerging BMI literature addresses an important phenomenon but lacks theoretical underpinning, and empirical inquiry is not cumulative. Thus......, a concerted research effort seems warranted. Accordingly, we take stock of the extant literature on BMI. We identify and analyze 150 peer-reviewed scholarly articles on BMI published between 2000 and 2015. We provide the first comprehensive systematic review of the BMI literature, include a critical...

  19. Fifteen Years of Change: Mathematics in School 1960-75 (United States)

    Cornelius, M. L.


    The transition to modern mathematics in the schools is described, and future changes are predicted. Problems which could develop with the current trends toward use of computers, calculators, multiple choice examinations, and new teaching materials are noted. (SD)

  20. Fifteen years of solar eclipses - 1986-2000 (United States)

    Espenak, Fred


    The dates of occurrence and the paths of observability of the three total eclipses and 30 partial eclipses of the sun which will occur over the period 1986-2000 AD are identified. Data are provided for the times and duration of local maxima, the extent of coverage of the solar disk, and the breadth of the footprint of the eclipses on the earth's surface.

  1. Cervical Collagen Concentration within Fifteen Months after Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundtoft, Iben; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sommer, Steffe


    OBJECTIVE: Cervical collagen concentration decreases during pregnancy. The increased risk of preterm birth following a short interpregnancy interval may be explained by an incomplete remodeling of the cervix. The objective of this study was to describe the changes in cervical collagen concentration...... was statistically significant until month 9, but not between months 9 and 12. CONCLUSIONS: Low collagen concentrations in the uterine cervix may contribute to the association between a short interpregnancy interval and preterm birth....

  2. Complicated eclampsia: fifteen years' experience in a referral medical center. (United States)

    Lopez-Llera, M


    The statistical study of a large number of eclamptic patients (n = 704), divided into five successive 3-year periods, was undertaken at the Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia No. 2 del Centro Médico Nacional in Mexico City in orders to detect significant changes in therapeutic results and/or in the basic character of the disease, as it occurs in a large referral medical complex. The following variables were studied: maternal and perinatal deaths, obstetric profile, main clinical data of the eclamptic episode, frequency of cesarean operation, timing of delivery after admission, main therapeutic changes, frequency of complications in survivors of ante- and intrapartum eclampsia, and cause of death with associated complications. The study showed (1) a continuous increment in the number of cases from the first to the last period, (2) averages for maternal age (24.9 +/- 0.45 years) and for previous parity (1.7 +/- 0.19) unlike those commonly accepted, (3) a significant progression in the severity of the disease in recent years, (4) a frequency of 22.9% of important complications in survivors of ante- and intrapartum eclampsia, and (5) a very limited overall influence of some therapeutic changes on the final outcome of complicated eclampsia, and (6) the impossibility of improving morbidity figures significantly during the 15 years of the study. It was concluded that prevention, early diagnosis, and timely simple medical care offer the only perspective for true medical progress in this particular problem.

  3. Fifteen years of econophysics: worries, hopes and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Roehner, Bertrand M


    This anniversary paper is an occasion to recall some of the events that shaped institutional econophysics. But in these thoughts about the evolution of econophysics in the last 15 years we also express some concerns. Our main worry concerns the relinquishment of the simplicity requirement. Ever since the groundbreaking experiments of Galileo some three centuries ago, the great successes of physicists were largely due to the fact that they were able to decompose complex phenomena into simpler ones. Remember that the first observation of the effects of an electrical current was made by Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) on the leg of a frog! Clearly, to make sense this observation had to be broken down into several separate effects. Nowadays, with computers being able to handle huge amounts of data and to simulate any stochastic process no matter how complicated, there is no longer any real need for such a search for simplicity. Why should one spend time and effort trying to break up complicated phenomena when it is ...

  4. [Dyspnea and behavioral control]. (United States)

    Chonan, T


    Respiration is automatically regulated via chemo- and mechanoreceptors existing in and outside the lungs, but it is also controlled voluntarily by behavioral factors. Voluntary increase in ventilation accentuates dyspnea and the sensory intensity at a given ventilation does not differ from that of exercise-induced hyperventilation, but it is significantly smaller than that during hypercapnia or hypoxia. Voluntary constraint of ventilation augments dyspnea in proportion to the degree of constraint even under isocapnic hyperoxia, and the respiratory sensation during constrained breathing is qualitatively more discomfortable than that during hyperventilation. Changes in the level and pattern of breathing under constant levels of chemical stimuli increase respiratory sensations and the intensity of dyspnea is minimal near the spontaneous levels, which supports the hypothesis that breathing is behaviorally regulated in part to minimize dyspnea. The system of behavioral control of breathing appears to be involved in the maintenance of body homeostasis by modifying the respiratory output through respiratory sensations.

  5. Deliberate Self Harm Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Gul Helvaci Celik


    Full Text Available The deliberate self-harm behaviour which defined as attempting to own body resulting in tisue damage without conscious desire of peolple to die, is a major public health problem worldwide. The causes of deliberate self- harm, risk factors, the relationship between mental disorders and treatment strategies are not fully known. Deliberate self- harm can be observed together with psychiatric disorders such as borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, eating disorders and mood disorders. Also, deliberate self-harm must be distinguished from suicidal behavior. Psychologi-cal trauma has been suggested as a risk factor for deliberate self- harm behavior. Trauma and traumatic events have long been associated with deliberate self- harm behavior. The aim of this review article is to investigate the etiology and epidemiology of deliberate self-harm behaviour and relationship between psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 209-226

  6. Behavioral Economics of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt


    During the last decade knowledge about human behavior from psychology and sociology has enhanced the field of economics of education. By now research recognizes cognitive skills (as measured by achivement tests) as equally important drivers of later economic outcomes, and skills are seen as multi......-dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how...... approaches from behavioral economics help our understanding of the complexity of educational investments and outcomes, and we discuss what insights can be gained from such concepts in the context of education....

  7. Prevalence of hypersexual behavior in Parkinson’s disease patients: Not restricted to males and dopamine agonist use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A Cooper


    Full Text Available Christine A Cooper, Armon Jadidian, Michelle Paggi, Janet Romrell, Michael S Okun, et alDepartment of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: This study investigates the prevalence and demographic characteristics of hypersexuality in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Impulse control disorders in PD patients have been associated with dopamine agonist therapy. Moreover, hypersexuality and pathological gambling have been associated with males, while females may be inherently thought to be more likely to participate in compulsive shopping and binge-eating behaviors. In this study, a screening mail-in survey was sent to all PD patients at a single Movement Disorders Center. One  hundred forty one of 400 (35.3% research packets were returned completed. Fifteen of 141 patients met initial screening criteria for hypersexual behavior. After detailed interview, only 6/141 (4.3% of PD patients met criteria for pathologic hypersexual behavior. These behaviors included: compulsive masturbation, prostitution, and paraphilias. Patients with a younger age of PD onset were more likely to exhibit hypersexual behavior. Unlike previous report, no significant association was found between hypersexuality and gender or dopamine agonist use. Rather, this study suggests that physicians should be vigilant for hypersexual behavior in all PD patients, regardless of gender and PD medication regimen. Ultimately, given the innate sensitivity of the topic and survey limitations, it is very likely that hypersexual behavior in our cohort, as it is in the general PD population, has been under-reported.Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, hypersexuality, impulsive behavior, dopamine agonists


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftime Dragoș Adrian


    Full Text Available Without any doubt, sport has become a major consumer market, either we discuss about practicing any kind of sport at professional or amateur level, or we are just interested by a competition, sport organization or an athlete as a regular consumer. From this last perspective, we can distinguish between two types of behaviors, respectively the spectator and the supporter or fan. Each of these two typologies has its own characteristics which define, in a significant manner, the consumer behavior. A correct understanding and management of this phenomenon, of the factors that influence the attitudes and the decisions taken by the respective consumer, of the display manner for the consumer behavior have a major importance from the management and marketing point of view. This paper focuses on the football consumer and describes, first of all, the main characteristics of each of the typologies mentioned above from this perspective, presenting also the reasons for their transition from passive supporter to fan. Another issue we approach in the current paper refers to the changes appeared in the consumer behavior when the market segment is represented by those supporters whose teams are either relegated or liquidated, which is a global phenomenon in the football area. Having in mind this aspect and taking into consideration the influence of media (TV, press, Internet, social media etc, some individual benchmarks that influence those consumer’s behavior are identified within the context of the general typologies previously mentioned. These influences help the consumer to obtain benefits or satisfaction similar to those already lost. The findings may be used in further research focused on that particular market segment and could provide the necessary support data for further development of proper techniques and tools for reshaping and changing the respective consumer behavior.

  9. Rationality and social behavior. (United States)

    Tullberg, Jan


    This article penetrates the relationship between social behavior and rationality. A critical analysis is made of efforts to classify some behaviors as altruistic, as they simultaneously meet criteria of rationality by not truly being self-destructive. Newcomb's paradox is one attempt to create a hybrid behavior that is both irrational and still meets some criterion of rationality. Such dubious rationality is often seen as a source of altruistic behavior. Group selection is a controversial topic. Sober and Wilson (Unto Others--The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1998) suggest that a very wide concept of group selection might be used to explain altruism. This concept also includes kin selection and reciprocity, which blurs its focus. The latter mechanisms hardly need further arguments to prove their existence. This article suggests that it is group selection in a strict sense that should be investigated to limit semantic neologism and confusion. In evaluation, the effort to muster a mechanism for altruism out of group selection has not been successful. However, this is not the end to group selection, but rather a good reason to investigate more promising possibilities. There is little reason to burden group selection with the instability of altruism caused by altruistic members of a group having lower fitness than egoistic members. Group selection is much more likely to develop in combination with group egoism. A common project is supported by incitement against free riding, where conformist members joined in solidarity achieve a higher fitness than members pursuing more individualistic options. Group egoism is in no conflict with rationality, and the effects of group selection will be supported rather than threatened by individual selection. Empirical evidence indicates a high level of traits such as conformism and out-group antagonism in line with group egoism. These traits are also likely candidates for

  10. Behavior Disorders in the Classroom (United States)

    Quay, Herbert C.


    The research findings of most studies on student behavior problems have shown that these behaviors can be reduced to four major clusters of interrelated characteristics--conduct disorder, personality disorder, inadequacy-immaturity and socialized delinquency. Discusses these behaviors and some research on behavior change. (Author/RK)

  11. Teaching Behavioral Awareness in Groups. (United States)

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.


    Describes a model for behavioral change which synthesizes behavioral awareness with empirically identified target behaviors. Stages of the model are presented and cautions for implementation are given. Suggests the model can help students gain an understanding of the consequences of behavioral problems. (BL)

  12. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    that recent years have seen a social media-facilitated move from opinion-centric eWOM (e.g. reviews) to behavior-centric (e.g. information about friends’ music consumption on Spotify). A review of the concepts of WOM and eWOM and a netnographic study reveal that the current definitions and understandings...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  13. Schizophrenia and violent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the case of a woman who killed a child. After a forensic psychiatric appraisal to evaluate penal responsibility, she was considered not guilty by reason of insanity and mandatorily committed to the central forensic psychiatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patient received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, based on DSM-IV-TR. She was not in psychiatric treatment and showed psychotic symptoms before the violent behavior became manifest. The study of motivational factors in homicidal behavior may provide further knowledge for understanding, preventing and treating it in such cases.

  14. Behavioral Economics of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt


    -dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how......During the last decade knowledge about human behavior from psychology and sociology has enhanced the field of economics of education. By now research recognizes cognitive skills (as measured by achivement tests) as equally important drivers of later economic outcomes, and skills are seen as multi...

  15. Evaluation of physiological and behavioral measures in relation to dental anxiety during sequential dental visits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayen R


    Full Text Available Anxiety is a special variety of fear, experienced in anticipation of threatening stimuli. While some research workers have said that the response of a child improves with the number of visits, many have felt otherwise. The present study is yet another effort to find the patterns of anxiety in children during sequential dental visits. The main aim was to determine the physiological and behavioral variations during sequential dental visits and its impact on age and sex. The study was conducted at the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and preventive dentistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai to evaluate the physiological and behavioural measures of stress and anxiety in children. One hundred and fifteen children, between four and eleven years of age who reported for dental treatment were selected for the study.

  16. From mechanistic to functional behaviorism. (United States)

    Moxley, R A


    A shift from mechanistic behaviorism to functional behaviorism is presented against the background of two historical traditions, one with an emphasis on form, the other with an emphasis on function. Skinner's work, which made more contributions to a functional behaviorism than to a mechanistic behaviorism, exemplifies this shift. The two traditions and an account of Skinner's development of functional relations are presented in order to show Skinner's contributions to aligning modern behavior analysis with the functional tradition.

  17. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents: laboratory behavioral assessments. (United States)

    Reynolds, Brady; Penfold, Robert B; Patak, Michele


    Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that defines a range of maladaptive behavioral styles. The present research aimed to identify different dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents from a battery of laboratory behavioral assessments. In one analysis, correlations were examined between two self report and seven laboratory behavioral measures of impulsivity. The correlation between the two self report measures was high compared to correlations between the self report and laboratory behavioral measures. In a second analysis, a principal components analysis was performed with just the laboratory behavioral measures. Three behavioral dimensions were identified -- "impulsive decision-making", "impulsive inattention", and "impulsive disinhibition". These dimensions were further evaluated using the same sample with a confirmatory factor analysis, which did support the hypothesis that these are significant and independent dimensions of impulsivity. This research indicates there are at least three separate subtypes of impulsive behavior when using laboratory behavioral assessments with adolescent participants.

  18. Rule-governed behavior: Unifying radical and paradigmatic behaviorism (United States)

    Burns, G. Leonard; Staats, Arthur W.


    Commonalities and differences between Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior and the paradigmatic behaviorism (PB) approach are described as a means of introducing the latter to behavior analysis. The focus is on treating the topic of rule-governed behavior—a topic of current interest in behavior analysis in addressing the challenge of cognitive psychology—within the PB framework. Dealing behaviorally with traditional psychology interests is considered important in PB, and this article aims to advance toward that goal. PB has presented a framework that deals with not only the behavioral description of language but also with language function as well as language acquisition. This includes a treatment of the manner in which verbal stimuli generally can control motor behavior. This framework includes analyses in addition to those present in the behavior analytic framework, along with empirical developments, and these can be used to enhance a behavioral understanding of important parts of verbal behavior and the effects of verbal stimuli on behavior, including rule-governed phenomena. Our purpose is to use the particular topic of rule-governed behavior to argue that a more explicit interaction between radical and paradigmatic behaviorism would advance behaviorism and also enable it to have a stronger impact upon psychology and the scientific community. PMID:22477636

  19. Clinical Study of Fifteen Cases with Functional Fecal Incontinence Treated by Biofeedback and Wheat Grain Moxibustion%生物反馈配合麦粒灸疗法治疗功能性便失禁15例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 丁曙晴


    目的:观察生物反馈配合麦粒灸疗法治疗功能性便禁的临床疗效.方法:选择符合功能性便失禁症状患者15例,运用生物反馈配合麦粒灸疗法方法治疗,所有病例1周治疗5次,共治疗2~4周.结果:运用生物反馈配合麦粒灸疗法治疗后患者便失禁评分明显减低,均较治疗前有明显改善.结论:生物反馈配合麦粒灸疗法治疗功能性便失禁有较好的临床疗效.%Objective:To study the clinical effect of biofeedback and wheat grain moxibustion for treatment of functional fecal incontinence. Methods : To treat Fifteen Cases of functional fecal incontinence by biofeedback and wheat grain moxibustion. For treatment five times a week , about two-four weeks. Result: The score of fecal incontinence was obviously reduced after treatment by biofeedback and wheat grain moxibustion . All the cases were obviously improved than before treatment. Conclusion : The clinical effect of functional fecal incontinence is good by biofeedback and wheat grain moxibustion .

  20. Does Measurement Influence Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus


    not access in their memory or that they otherwise would not form. Second, higher relative accessibility of intentions, compared with other inputs for purchase decisions may make subsequent purchase behavior more consistent with prior intentions. A couple of studies provide support of the self...

  1. Markups and Exporting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick


    estimates of plant- level markups without specifying how firms compete in the product market. We rely on our method to explore the relationship be- tween markups and export behavior. We find that markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity; that exporters charge...

  2. Behavioral Econometrics for Psychologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    for a wide range of behavioral models of choice under uncertainty. We explain the components of this methodology, and illustrate with applications to major models from psychology. The goal is to build, and traverse, a constructive bridge between the modeling insights of psychology and the statistical tools...

  3. Factorization of Behavioral Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ximeng; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis


    We develop a bisimulation-based nonintereference property that describes the allowed dependencies between communication behaviors of different integrity levels. The property is able to capture all possible combinations of integrity levels for the “presence” and “content” of actual communications...

  4. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome...

  5. Analysis of Malware behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirscoveanu, Radu-Stefan; Hansen, Steven Strandlund; Larsen, Thor Mark Tampus


    and automatized manner. We have developed a distributed malware testing environment by extending Cuckoo Sandbox that was used to test an extensive number of malware samples and trace their behavioral data. The extracted data was used for the development of a novel type classification approach based on supervised...

  6. Fetal behavioral teratology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Gerard H. A.; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Ververs, F. F. Tessa


    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct - in vivo - insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quanti

  7. Evaluating meeting behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Boogaard, S.A.A. van den


    Many attempts are underway for developing meeting support tools, but less attention is paid to the evaluation of meetingware. This paper describes the development of an instrument for evaluating meeting behavior. An explorative research is done using a rating scale, questionnaires and information fl

  8. Cosmetic Behavior Therapy. (United States)

    Jones, W. Paul


    Discusses the theoretical and practical applications of cosmetic behavior therapy in a private practice. Enhancement of physical appearance will frequently result in an enhancement of self-concept, and the client's attainment of physical attractiveness contributes to the probability of success in current culture. (Author/JAC)

  9. Irrational Human Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Şener


    Full Text Available Neo Classical economists used to posit that, since consumers are rational, they make decisions to maximize their pleasure (utility. Opposing to Neo Classical understanding, Behavioral Economists argue that, consumers are infect not rational, but prone to all sort of biases and habits that pull them being rational. For instance, there are too many irrational choices made by the Turkish consumers like; expensive wedding parties given by low income families; although riding bicycle is healthy and cheap, but people buy expensive cars; it is cheaper staying at a hotel or a timeshare, however people buy expensive summer houses, where they stayed only few weeks a year. These type of irrational behaviors adversely affect the decisions on savings, investments and economic growth. On the consumers irrationality, Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics, wrote Prospect Theory. They developed a cognitive psychological model to explain divergences from neoclassical economics. They claimed that people take decisions under psychological, social, emotional and economic factors that affect market prices and resource allocation. In order to explain the irrational behaviors of Turkish consumers, I utilized some concepts such as conspicuous consumption (or keeping up with Johns, Veblen Effect, Bandwagon Effect, bounded rationality, 20 to 80 Law and ethical considerations developed by Behavioral Economists and Heterodox Economics. Thus, I came to conclusion that why the free market economic understanding fails in Turkey by giving some examples and economic reasons stated in the last section of this paper.

  10. On Storekeepers' Pricing Behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bode (Ben); J. Koerts (Johan); A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractThis research note deals with a quantitative analysis of differences in percentage gross margin between individual stores in the retail trade. A number of hypotheses on pricing behavior of storekeepers are tested using Dutch survey data from nine different types of retail stores. We defi

  11. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior. (United States)

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term…

  12. Mathematics as verbal behavior. (United States)

    Marr, M Jackson


    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk.

  13. Driver Behavior and Motivation. (United States)

    Thomas, Patricia

    School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…

  14. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel


    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial planni

  15. Behavioral approach to leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Piccolo; C. Buengeler


    After several decades of leadership research that attempted to identify the specific and unique traits characteristic of those in supervisory positions, academic research shifted to pursue the patterns of behavior exhibited by those who were influential in and around positions of formal leadership.

  16. Quantifying biopsychosocial aspects in everyday contexts: an integrative methodological approach from the behavioral sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portell M


    commitment to prioritizing ecological validity in behavioral research seeking to quantify biopsychosocial aspects. Keywords: experience sampling method, ecological momentary assessment, ambulatory assessment, observational methodology, naturalistic observation

  17. Scratch behaviors in polymers (United States)

    Xiang, Chen


    As part of a large effort toward the fundamental understanding of scratch behaviors in polymeric materials, studies were carried out on a broad range of polymers, with an emphasis on automotive thermoplastic olefins (TPOs). Two types of scratch tests were performed in this research, i.e., Ford constant load and instrumented progressive load scratch tests. A scratch model proposed by Hamilton and Goodman was applied to understand the fundamental mechanics of the scratch process. Several characterization techniques were used to investigate the scratch damage mechanisms in polymers. Both testing results and the scratch model analysis indicate that certain rigidity in polymers is essential to give good scratch resistance. Fundamental understanding of the scratching process in terms of basic material characteristics such as Young's modulus, yield stress, tensile strength, friction coefficient, scratch hardness, penetration recovery and fracture toughness are discussed. Scratch damage investigation, on both surface and subsurface, shows that shear yielding is the main cause of the plastics flow scratch pattern, while tensile tear on the surface and shear induced fracture on the subsurface are the main damage mechanisms in the fracture scratch pattern. This study explains why automotive TPOs are susceptible to scratch under the current scratch test practiced in automotive industry. Shear deformation and fracture behavior in model TPOs are also studied using the Iosipescu shear test. Iosipescu shear deformation in terms of shear stress-strain curves of model TPOs is obtained experimentally. Shear fracture process and damage mechanisms in TPOs are also demonstrated and revealed. Further studies on the scratch damage in TPOs based on the roles of additives and fillers in the scratch behavior are addressed. The effects of phase morphology and toughening mechanisms on scratch behavior in TPOs are also discussed. This research has resulted in an increased understanding of the

  18. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  19. Clinical science and human behavior. (United States)

    Plaud, J J


    The debate between mentalism/cognitivism and behaviorism is analyzed, and it is concluded that behaviorism is the philosophy more closely associated with psychology as a behavioral science, the cognitive approach being more closely aligned with biological science. Specific objections to mentalistic interpretations of behavioral phenomena are detailed, and examples from clinical psychology are used to show the importance of behavioral approaches in applied domains. It is argued that the relation between behavior theory and clinical psychology is critical to the continued advancement of applied psychology. Behavior analysis is offered as a direct, applied extension of behavior theory as well as a highly practical and effective approach for understanding, explaining, and modifying the factors that contribute to and maintain maladaptive behaviors.

  20. Behaviorism, private events, and the molar view of behavior. (United States)

    Baum, William M


    Viewing the science of behavior (behavior analysis) to be a natural science, radical behaviorism rejects any form of dualism, including subjective-objective or inner-outer dualism. Yet radical behaviorists often claim that treating private events as covert behavior and internal stimuli is necessary and important to behavior analysis. To the contrary, this paper argues that, compared with the rejection of dualism, private events constitute a trivial idea and are irrelevant to accounts of behavior. Viewed in the framework of evolutionary theory or for any practical purpose, behavior is commerce with the environment. By its very nature, behavior is extended in time. The temptation to posit private events arises when an activity is viewed in too small a time frame, obscuring what the activity does. When activities are viewed in an appropriately extended time frame, private events become irrelevant to the account. This insight provides the answer to many philosophical questions about thinking, sensing, and feeling. Confusion about private events arises in large part from failure to appreciate fully the radical implications of replacing mentalistic ideas about language with the concept of verbal behavior. Like other operant behavior, verbal behavior involves no agent and no hidden causes; like all natural events, it is caused by other natural events. In a science of behavior grounded in evolutionary theory, the same set of principles applies to verbal and nonverbal behavior and to human and nonhuman organisms.

  1. Meiotic behavior of several Brazilian soybean varieties


    Bione Nilton Cesar Pires; Pagliarini Maria Suely; Toledo José Francisco Ferraz de


    Despite the importance of soybeans little cytogenetic work has traditionally been done, due to the small size and apparent similarity of the chromosomes. Fifteen soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] varieties adapted for cultivation in two distinct regions of Brazil were analyzed cytogenetically. A low frequency of meiotic abnormalities was noted in all varieties, although they were not equally affected. Irregular chromosome segregation, chromosome stickiness, cytoplasmic connections between ce...

  2. "Reinforcement" in behavior theory. (United States)

    Schoenfeld, W N


    In its Pavlovian context, "reinforcement" was actually a descriptive term for the functional relation between an unconditional and a conditional stimulus. When it was adopted into operant conditioning, "reinforcement" became the central concept and the key operation, but with new qualifications, new referents, and new expectations. Some behavior theorists believed that "reinforcers" comprise a special and limited class of stimuli or events, and they speculated about what the essential "nature of reinforcement" might be. It is now known that any stimulus can serve a reinforcing function, with due recognition of such parameters as subject species characteristics, stimulus intensity, sensory modality, and schedule of application. This paper comments on these developments from the standpoint of reflex behavior theory.

  3. Religious thought and behavior. (United States)

    Lawson, Ernest Thomas


    While earlier approaches to religious thought and practice searched for 'magic bullet' approaches to explain religious thought and behavior, seeing it as an example of irrationality, illusion, integrative force, symbolism, or false explanations of origins, cognitive scientific approaches have suggested that we see it rather as an aggregate of the products of various cognitive mechanisms. Studies in the cognitive science of religion, informed by experimental work, have converged on a standard model of explaining religious thought and behavior by focussing on the role of minimally counter-intuitive concepts, agent and animacy detection, ritual representations, notions of contagion and contamination avoidance, theory of mind, coalitions, and moral intuitions. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1189 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  4. Behavioral cusps: a developmental and pragmatic concept for behavior analysis.


    Rosales-Ruiz, J; Baer, D M


    Most concepts of development explain certain behavior changes as products or markers of the invariable succession of emerging periods, stages, refinements, or achievements that define and order much of an individual's life. A different but comparable concept can be derived from the most basic mechanisms of behavior analysis, which are its environmental contingencies, and from its most basic strategy, which is to study behavior as its subject matter. From a behavior-analytic perspective, the m...

  5. Portable digital video instruction in predoctoral education of child behavior management. (United States)

    Boynton, James R; Johnson, Lynn A; Nainar, S M Hashim; Hu, Jan C C


    The goals of this exploratory study were to determine students' assessment of portable digital video instruction (using the Apple iPod) and to compare examination performance among groups of predoctoral dental students who did and did not utilize portable digital video instruction as a supplement to a conventional pediatric behavior management lecture. Dental students received a one-hour lecture on communication with the parent and child patient as part of their regular sophomore pediatric dentistry curriculum. Digital audio and digital video versions of this lecture were made available to all 113 students in the class. Eleven student volunteers were loaned portable digital video players (the iPod) containing the lecture for a two-week period. Upon completion of the study period, the entire class participated in an anonymous fifteen-minute post-intervention written assessment including a thirteen-item examination covering lecture material. Students who had used the iPod to review the digital video lecture material favored this medium as a pedagogical instrument and as a group performed significantly better on the examination than those who had not reviewed the digital material (p=0.034). In conclusion, portable digital instructional videos may be a useful educational methodology to help predoctoral dental students acquire knowledge in pediatric behavior management.

  6. Behavioral responses of California sea lions to mid-frequency (3250-3450 Hz) sonar signals. (United States)

    Houser, Dorian S; Martin, Stephen W; Finneran, James J


    Military sonar has the potential to negatively impact marine mammals. To investigate factors affecting behavioral disruption in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), fifteen sea lions participated in a controlled exposure study using a simulated tactical sonar signal (1 s duration, 3250-3450 Hz) as a stimulus. Subjects were placed into groups of three and each group received a stimulus exposure of 125, 140, 155, 170, or 185 dB re: 1 μPa (rms). Each subject was trained to swim across an enclosure, touch a paddle, and return to the start location. Sound exposures occurred at the mid-point of the enclosure. Control and exposure sessions were run consecutively and each consisted of ten, 30-s trials. The occurrence and severity of behavioral responses were used to create acoustic dose-response and dose-severity functions. Age of the subject significantly affected the dose-response relationship, but not the dose-severity relationship. Repetitive exposures did not affect the dose-response relationship.

  7. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: Empirical review and clinical recommendations. (United States)

    Franklin, Martin E; Kratz, Hilary E; Freeman, Jennifer B; Ivarsson, Tord; Heyman, Isobel; Sookman, Debbie; McKay, Dean; Storch, Eric A; March, John


    The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been the subject of much study over the past fifteen years. Building on a foundation of case studies and open clinical trials, the literature now contains many methodologically sound studies that have compared full CBT protocols to waitlist controls, pill placebo, psychosocial comparison conditions, active medication, combined treatments, and brief CBT. This review is part of a series commissioned by The Canadian Institute for Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (CIOCD) in an effort to publish in one place what is known about the efficacy of treatments for OCD. A total of fourteen studies were identified; collectively their findings support the efficacy of CBT for youth with OCD. CBT protocols that emphasized either strictly behavioral or cognitive conceptualizations have each been found efficacious relative to waitlist controls. Efforts to enhance CBT׳s efficacy and reach have been undertaken. These trials provide guidance regarding next steps to be taken to maximize efficacy and treatment availability. Findings from studies in community clinics suggest that significant treatment benefits can be realized and are not reported only from within academic contexts. These findings bode well for broader dissemination efforts. Recommendations for future research directions are provided.

  8. Unanticipated Partial Behavioral Reflection


    Roethlisberger, David; Denker, Marcus; Tanter, Éric


    International audience; Dynamic, unanticipated adaptation of running systems is of interest in a variety of situations, ranging from functional upgrades to on-the-fly debugging or monitoring of critical applications. In this paper we study a particular form of computational reflection, called unanticipated partial behavioral reflection, which is particularly well-suited for unanticipated adaptation of real-world systems. Our proposal combines the dynamicity of unanticipated reflection, i.e., ...

  9. Fracture Behavior under Impact. (United States)


    discussed for the different loading rates ob- tai ned . 1. Introduction In static fracture mechanics crack tip stress intensity factors can easi- - ly...deviation to the left or to the right hand side of the original crack path was observed. Herrmann [151 speculated that this behavior results from stress...Materials’ Draft 2c, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, .. ,-- 1980. 15. Herrmann , G., "Dynamic Fracture of Beams in Bending

  10. Behavioral Modeling of Memcapacitor


    D. Biolek; Z. Biolek; V. Biolkova


    Two behavioral models of memcapacitor are developed and implemented in SPICE-compatible simulators. Both models are related to the charge-controlled memcapacitor, the capacitance of which is controlled by the amount of electric charge conveyed through it. The first model starts from the state description of memcapacitor whereas the second one uses the memcapacitor constitutive relation as the only input data. Results of transient analyses clearly show the basic fingerprints of the memcapacitor.

  11. Behavioral Modeling of Memcapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Biolek


    Full Text Available Two behavioral models of memcapacitor are developed and implemented in SPICE-compatible simulators. Both models are related to the charge-controlled memcapacitor, the capacitance of which is controlled by the amount of electric charge conveyed through it. The first model starts from the state description of memcapacitor whereas the second one uses the memcapacitor constitutive relation as the only input data. Results of transient analyses clearly show the basic fingerprints of the memcapacitor.

  12. Taking behavioralism seriously: some evidence of market manipulation. (United States)

    Hanson, J D; Kysar, D A


    Over the last ten to fifteen years, economists and legal scholars have become increasingly interested in and sensitive to behavioralist insights. In a companion article, Jon Hanson and Douglas Kysar argued that those scholars have nevertheless given short shrift to what is, at least for policymaking purposes, perhaps the most important lesson of the behavioralist research: individuals' perceptions and preferences are highly manipulable. According to Hanson and Kysar, one theoretical implication of that insight for products liability law is that manufacturers and marketers will manipulate the risk perceptions of consumers. Indeed, to survive in a competitive market, manufacturers and marketers must do so. In this Article, Hanson and Kysar present empirical evidence of market manipulation--a previously unrecognized source of market failure. The Article begins by surveying the extensive qualitative and quantitative marketing research and consumer behavioral studies that discern and influence consumer perceptions. It then provides evidence of market manipulation by reviewing common practices in everyday market settings, such as gas stations and supermarkets, and by examining familiar marketing approaches, such as environmentally oriented and fear-based advertising. Although consumers may be well-aware of those practices and approaches, they appear to be generally unaware of the extent to which those tactics are manipulative. The Article then focuses on the industry that has most depended upon market manipulation: the cigarette industry. Through decades of sophisticated marketing and public relations efforts, cigarette manufacturers have heightened consumer demand and lowered consumer risk perceptions. Because consumers are aware that smoking may pose significant health risks, the tobacco industry's success in manipulating risk perceptions constitutes especially strong evidence of the power of market manipulation. The Article concludes by arguing that the evidence of

  13. The Impact of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" on Organizational Behavior Management (United States)

    Fox, Eric J.; VanStelle, Sarah E.


    In the book "Verbal Behavior," Skinner provided a comprehensive, behavioral account of language. While the impact of Skinner's analysis on empirical research has been examined broadly, this review of the literature focused on studies relevant to organizational behavior management (OBM). Both empirical and nonempirical journal articles in OBM were…

  14. Behavioral Genetic Analyses of Prosocial Behavior in Adolescents (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Light-Hausermann, Jade H.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.


    Prosocial behavior is an important aspect of normal social and psychological development. Adult and child twin studies typically estimate the heritability of prosocial behavior to be between 30 and 50%, although relatively little is known about genetic and environmental influences upon prosocial behavior in adolescence. We therefore examined…

  15. Brain and Behavior Research Foundation. (United States)

    ... Stress Disorder View All > Donate DONATE TODAY! > The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation is committed to alleviating the suffering caused ... and breakthroughs in scientific research. Copyright © 2016 the brain & behavior research foundation Privacy Policy Legal Notices and Disclaimers

  16. Attachment and coercive sexual behavior. (United States)

    Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R


    This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.



    Liset Ivascu


    The European manager‘s behavior must be flexible and adaptable to the behaviors of various employees of the enterprise. Its flexibility enables the manager to act efficiently in the current, so mobile environment

  18. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (United States)

    ... Evaluation FAQs Additional Evaluation Resources Health & Academics Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the ...

  19. Caseworker Behavior and Clients' Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; Markwardt, Kristoffer

    empirically looked at the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ employability. A very rich survey dataset on caseworker behavior combined with informative panel data on the caseworker’s client—the unemployed—makes it possible to study the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ job possibilities....... Results show that there is a relationship between caseworker behavior and employment among the unemployed. Especially the employability among the insured unemployed is related to the concepts of coping, and professional distance....

  20. Emergent behaviors of classifier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, S.; Miller, J.H.


    This paper discusses some examples of emergent behavior in classifier systems, describes some recently developed methods for studying them based on dynamical systems theory, and presents some initial results produced by the methodology. The goal of this work is to find techniques for noticing when interesting emergent behaviors of classifier systems emerge, to study how such behaviors might emerge over time, and make suggestions for designing classifier systems that exhibit preferred behaviors. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior


    LI J


    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.

  2. Creativity and the Behavioral Sciences. (United States)

    Gordon, Ronald D.

    Ways in which behavioral scientists can use both vertical (logical) and lateral (creative-intuitive) thinking to improve their research are discussed. Creativity in the selection of research questions would require that behavioral scientists ask questions whose answers could make a difference to societal and world well-being. Behavioral scientists…

  3. Behavior Plan, Does It Work? (United States)

    Gonzalez, Blanca M.; Brown, D.


    As educators, we are responsible for teaching academic skills. However, some students not only need to learn academic skills but they need behavior support, due to problematic behaviors that are happening in the school setting. In this article, we will learn more of what are the implications, requirements and best strategies for a behavior plan.…

  4. Risky Behavior, Ecstasy, and Education (United States)

    Callier, Heather H.


    Ecstasy is a risky behavior that continues to be a concern in the education system today. The review of the Ecstasy literature focused on the definition of risky behavior, prevalence, and other basis aspects of Ecstasy; discovering life events that are associated with Ecstasy use, the function of this behavior, interventions for substance abuse,…

  5. Behavior Analysis: A Student's Guide. (United States)

    Frankenberger, William

    This paper provides students with a brief outline of behavioral principles and behavior change techniques, and describes various means of behavior change including operant conditioning. Methods discussed include reinforcement, extinction, punishment, response cost, time-out, overcorrection, training, and data collection for taking a baseline.…

  6. Nonverbal Behavior in Tutoring Interactions. (United States)

    Feldman, Robert S.

    This document reports on a series of studies carried out concerning nonverbal behavior in peer tutoring interactions. The first study examined the encoding (enactment) of nonverbal behavior in a tutoring situation. Results clearly indicated that the tutor's nonverbal behavior was affected by the performance of the tutee. The question of whether or…

  7. The Present State of Behaviorism (United States)

    Mowrer, O. Hobart


    Assesses the present status of behaviorism by dividing this study into an evaluation of Behaviorism 1, based explicitly on Pavlov's conception of conditioned-response learning, and Behaviorism 11, single-handedly launched and almost completely dominanted by Professor B. F. Skinner. (Author/RK)

  8. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.


    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus g

  9. Theories of information behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Erdelez, Sandra; McKechnie, Lynne


    This unique book presents authoritative overviews of more than 70 conceptual frameworks for understanding how people seek, manage, share, and use information in different contexts. A practical and readable reference to both well-established and newly proposed theories of information behavior, the book includes contributions from 85 scholars from 10 countries. Each theory description covers origins, propositions, methodological implications, usage, links to related conceptual frameworks, and listings of authoritative primary and secondary references. The introductory chapters explain key concepts, theory–method connections, and the process of theory development.

  10. [Cognitive behavior therapy]. (United States)

    Munezawa, Takeshi


    Insomnia is one of the most frequently encountered disorders in general clinical practices. At present, the most commonly used therapy for insomnia is pharmacotherapy. There are some problems in pharmacotherapy such as side effects. Therefore nonpharmacological therapy for insomnia is needed. The cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is a nonpharmacological therapy attracting attention most. CBT-I not only alleviates insomnia symptoms in patients but also enables them to reduce/discontinue the use of hypnotics. I reviewed a study about the effectiveness of CBT-I and commented the future directions of CBT-I.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available By this study has been taken into account understanding roles of personality and values in determining behaviors that work, it is subsequently explain the process of perception and the way in which this affects the work behaviors and identify the work attitudes affecting the work behavior. To understand how much better intellectual asset management has been taken into account definition of the concept of person, organization, the form and the manner in which they affect behaviors. At the end key list shall be bounded on the set of behaviors that counts for organizational performance, more exactly every person to be able to develop your skills and positive attitude

  12. Epigenetics: Behavioral Influences on Gene Function, Part I: Maternal Behavior Permanently Affects Adult Behavior in Offspring (United States)

    Ogren, Marilee P.; Lombroso, Paul J.


    The article highlights the field of epigenetics and its relevance in determining the effects of maternal nurturing on behavioral patterns in offsprings. Results concluded that maternal behavior influences the offspring's behavior to stress in adulthood and the effects are transgenerational through epigenetic mechanisms.

  13. A possible brain network for representation of cooperative behavior and its implications for the psychopathology of schizophrenia. (United States)

    Leube, Dirk; Straube, Benjamin; Green, Antonia; Blümel, Isabelle; Prinz, Susanne; Schlotterbeck, Peter; Kircher, Tilo


    It has been shown that social deficits contribute to psychopathology in schizophrenia, such as the bleulerian autism. A possible dysfunction in the mirror neuron system may be the reason for these deficits in the disorder. We wanted to better characterize the neural networks involved in the perception of social behavior. Fifteen healthy participants were presented with video clips of 8 seconds' duration depicting either (1) one actor manipulating an object, (2) two actors with only one manipulating an object or (3) two actors cooperating in manipulating an object and 2 other control conditions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired during watching these videos. We found the perception of social cooperation is supported by a neural network comprising the precuneus, the temporoparietal junction (supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, BA 39/40), the middle temporal gyrus (including superior temporal sulcus) and frontal regions (medial frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus). These areas form a complex network also being activated during theory of mind and cooperative behavior tasks. Its nodes overlap with those of the mirror neuron system. Consequently, both theory of mind abilities and mirror mechanisms are relevant in the perception and understanding of social cooperative behavior. We outline the consequences of these results for a further understanding of schizophrenic psychopathology with respect to social deficits and ego disturbances.

  14. Self Injurious Behavior in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe


    Full Text Available Self injury is a kind of behavior which begins in early adolescence and difficult to determine because remains suppressed. Most often forms are to cut and hit own. To be exposed to sexual abuse and stressfully life events are known as risk factors for self injurious behavior. High anxiety, depression and hostility levels, decrease of self esteem, suicidal attempts and thoughts are usually together with self injurious behavior and it may be mediating to emotional regulation. To explain the functions of self injurious behavior automatic and social support theories and social learning theories have suggested. The relation between suicidality and self injurious behavior is complex for adolescents. There is no enough knowledge if self injurious behavior aggravates the risk of completed suicide. Although it’s a frequent behavior there are limited randomized controlled studies which examine specific treatment approaches. Dialectic behavior treatment is the type of treatment which shown as most effective for adults. To determine the needs to stop the behavior, to manage emotional senses and urges and to learn more healthy ways for needs to youth are necessary in treatment of self injurious behavior. Treatment also includes determining suicidal risk and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In self injurious behavior medical treatment is useful for comorbid psychiatric disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 201-210

  15. Prosocial behavior on the Net. (United States)

    Sproull, Lee


    Volunteers and charitable organizations contribute significantly to community welfare through their prosocial behavior: that is, discretionary behavior such as assisting, comforting, sharing, and cooperating intended to help worthy beneficiaries. This essay focuses on prosocial behavior on the Internet. It describes how offline charitable organizations are using the Net to become more efficient and effective. It also considers entirely new models of Net-based volunteer behavior directed at creating socially beneficial information goods and services. After exploring the scope and diversity of online prosocial behavior, the essay focuses on ways to encourage this kind of behavior through appropriate task and social structures, motivational signals, and trust indicators. It concludes by asking how local offline communities ultimately could be diminished or strengthened as prosocial behavior increases online.

  16. Behavioral endpoints for radiation injury (United States)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Hunt, W. A.; Dalton, T. B.; Kandasamy, S. B.; Harris, A. H.; Ludewig, B.


    The relative behavioral effectiveness of heavy particles was evaluated. Using the taste aversion paradigm in rats, the behavioral toxicity of most types of radiation (including 20Ne and 40Ar) was similar to that of 60Co photons. Only 56Fe and 93Nb particles and fission neutrons were significantly more effective. Using emesis in ferrets as the behavioral endpoint, 56Fe particles and neutrons were again the most effective; however, 60Co photons were significantly more effective than 18 MeV electrons. These results suggest that LET does not completely predict behavioral effectiveness. Additionally, exposing rats to 10 cGy of 56Fe particles attenuated amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning. This behavior is one of a broad class of behaviors which depends on the integrity of the dopaminergic system and suggests the possibility of alterations in these behaviors following exposure to heavy particles in a space radiation environment.

  17. [Challenging behavior: behavioral phenotypes of some genetic syndromes]. (United States)


    Challenging behavior in individuals with mental retardation (MR) is relatively frequent, and represents a significant obstacle to adaptive skills. The frequency of specific forms and manifestations of challenging behavior can depend on a variety of personal and environmental factors. There are several prominent theoretical models regarding the etiology of challenging behavior and psychopathology in persons with MR: behavioral, developmental, socio-cultural and biological.The biological model emphasizes the physiological, biochemical and genetic factors as the potential source of challenging behavior. The progress in the field of genetics and neuroscience has opened the opportunity to study and discover the neurobiological basis of phenotypic characteristics. Genetic syndromes associated with MR can be followed by a specific set of problems and disorders which constitutes their behavioral phenotype. The aim of this paper was to present challenging behaviors that manifest in the most frequently studied syndromes: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Williams syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome. The concept of behavioral phenotype implies a higher probability of manifesting specific developmental characteristics and specific behaviors in individuals with a certain genetic syndrome. Although the specific set of (possible) problems and disorders is distinctive for the described genetic syndromes, the connection between genetics and behavior should be viewed through probabilistic dimension. The probabilistic concept takes into consideration the possibility of intra-syndrome variability in the occurrence, intensity and time onset of behavioral characteristics, at which the higher variability the lower is the specificity of the genetic syndrome. Identifying the specific pattern of behavior can be most important for the process of early diagnosis and prognosis. In addition, having knowledge about behavioral phenotype can be a landmark in the creation of

  18. Simulating systematic errors in X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments: Sample and beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curis, Emmanuel [Laboratoire de Biomathematiques, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Rene, Descartes (Paris V)-4, Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France)]. E-mail:; Osan, Janos [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (AEKI)-P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Falkenberg, Gerald [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor (HASYLAB), Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)-Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Benazeth, Simone [Laboratoire de Biomathematiques, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Rene, Descartes (Paris V)-4, Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE)-Ba-hat timent 209D, Campus d' Orsay, 91406 Orsay (France); Toeroek, Szabina [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (AEKI)-P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)


    The article presents an analytical model to simulate experimental imperfections in the realization of an X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiment, performed in transmission or fluorescence mode. Distinction is made between sources of systematic errors on a time-scale basis, to select the more appropriate model for their handling. For short time-scale, statistical models are the most suited. For large time-scale, the model is developed for sample and beam imperfections: mainly sample inhomogeneity, sample self-absorption, beam achromaticity. The ability of this model to reproduce the effects of these imperfections is exemplified, and the model is validated on real samples. Various potential application fields of the model are then presented.

  19. Concurrent and prospective relations between attention to emotion and affect intensity: an experience sampling study. (United States)

    Thompson, Renee J; Mata, Jutta; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H


    Theorists contend that emotional awareness is vital to being able to use emotional information adaptively. The extent to which individuals attend to and value their feelings, or attention to emotion, is a facet of emotional awareness. Little research, however, has examined whether attention to emotion affects the magnitude or intensity of emotional experiences. In the present study we examined the relations between attention to emotion and levels of affect in 53 healthy adults. Participants carried hand-held electronic devices for approximately 7 days and were randomly prompted eight times per day to answer a series of questions. At each prompt, participants reported attention to emotion, current negative affect (NA), and positive affect (PA). All findings presented were computed using multilevel modeling. Replicating findings obtained using trait-level measures, we found that attention to emotion was associated concurrently with higher levels of both NA and PA. We also found prospectively that attention to emotion at one prompt predicted a decrease in levels of NA, but no change in levels of PA, at the subsequent prompt. These findings suggest that emotional processes serve different functions over time and highlight the role of attention to emotion in affect regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Investigation of basic notions of positive psychology with an aid of Experience Sampling Method (ESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levit L.Z.


    Full Text Available The article deals with two investigations of the main concepts of the contemporary positive psychology (eudaimonia, hedonism, the flow, happiness and unhappiness with the help of ESM. The studies were built upon Person-Oriented Conception of Happiness (POCH elaborated by the author. The results indicate that the flow can be accompanied by the rise of the other «components of happiness» belonging to other theories. The study of the situations, that were associated with «unhappiness», showed that most of them belong to maintenance activities of the individual.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind


    Full Text Available Existing research into schizophrenia has remained highly fragmented, much like the clinical presentation of the disease itself. Differing theories as to the cause and progression of schizophrenia, as well as the heterogeneity of clinical symptoms, have made it difficult to develop a coherent framework suitable for animal modeling. However, a few animal models have been developed to explore various causative theories and to test specific mechanistic hypotheses. Historically, these models have been based on the manipulation of neurotransmitter systems believed to be involved in schizophrenia. In recent years, the emphasis has shifted to targeting relevant brain regions in an attempt to explore potential etiologic hypotheses. In the present review article, we have described in detail various behavioral models available in literature for screening of antipsychotic agents. In the next article, we propose to focus on chemical induced psychosis (Pharmacological models. We have highlighted the principle, end point, brief procedures, merits and demerit of all the behavioral models in the foregoing pages Emphasis is placed on the critical evaluation of currently available models because these models help to shape the direction of future research.

  2. On our best behavior: optimality models in human behavioral ecology. (United States)

    Driscoll, Catherine


    This paper discusses problems associated with the use of optimality models in human behavioral ecology. Optimality models are used in both human and non-human animal behavioral ecology to test hypotheses about the conditions generating and maintaining behavioral strategies in populations via natural selection. The way optimality models are currently used in behavioral ecology faces significant problems, which are exacerbated by employing the so-called 'phenotypic gambit': that is, the bet that the psychological and inheritance mechanisms responsible for behavioral strategies will be straightforward. I argue that each of several different possible ways we might interpret how optimality models are being used for humans face similar and additional problems. I suggest some ways in which human behavioral ecologists might adjust how they employ optimality models; in particular, I urge the abandonment of the phenotypic gambit in the human case.

  3. Effect of the good behavior game on disruptive library behavior


    Fishbein, Jill E.; Wasik, Barbara H.


    A modification of the good behavior game was used to reduce disruptive behaviors during a weekly library period of children in a fourth-grade class. Modifications included student input in designing rules, attempts to state rules in positive terms, observation of class behavior in the experimental (library) setting as well as in a comparison (classroom) setting, and librarian involvement in instituting the game coupled with teacher involvement in delivering reinforcers. Reinforcers consisted ...

  4. Cognition, behavior, and the experimental analysis of behavior


    Shimp, Charles P.


    A case history illustrates how one research program in the experimental analysis of behavior evolved somewhat differently from the modal research program represented in this journal. A chief issue that seems to be responsible for this difference is the role attributed to theory in behavioral research: Skinner's views on the nature and function of theory and on the nature of observation combine to produce a certain kind of picture of behavior. The classic conception of reinforcement contingenc...

  5. Behavior computing modeling, analysis, mining and decision

    CERN Document Server


    Includes six case studies on behavior applications Presents new techniques for capturing behavior characteristics in social media First dedicated source of references for the theory and applications of behavior informatics and behavior computing

  6. Anticipated regret and precautionary sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Richard; N.K. de Vries; J. van der Pligt


    This study investigated the impact of anticipated regret on precautionary sexual behavior. 317 female and 134 male 18-48 yr old college students completed questionnaires assessing behavioral expectations regarding casual sexual behavior, anticipated regret, perceived behavioral control, attitudes, s

  7. Cognitive behavioral therapy for suicidal behaviors: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mewton L


    Full Text Available Louise Mewton,1 Gavin Andrews2 1National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Research Excellence in Mental Health and Substance Use, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, 2Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression (CRUfAD, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in reducing suicidal cognitions and behavior in the adult population. We identified 15 randomized controlled trials of CBT for adults (aged 18 years and older that included suicide-related cognitions or behaviors as an outcome measure. The studies were identified from PsycINFO searches, reference lists, and a publicly available database of psychosocial interventions for suicidal behaviors. This review identified some evidence of the use of CBT in the reduction of both suicidal cognitions and behaviors. There was not enough evidence from clinical trials to suggest that CBT focusing on mental illness reduces suicidal cognitions and behaviors. On the other hand, CBT focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors was found to be effective. Given the current evidence, clinicians should be trained in CBT techniques focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors that are independent of the treatment of mental illness. Keywords: suicidal behaviors, suicidal cognitions, CBT

  8. Skinner and the rise of behavior modification and behavior therapy. (United States)

    Labrador, Francisco Javier


    Skinner is, without a doubt, one of the most predominant figures in the development of Behavior Modification and Behavior Therapy. Skinners' work is essential to the development of Behavior Modification and Behavior Therapy. Beginning with the social need for efficient psychotherapy, and after having generated a solid theoretical body of behavioral laws, Skinner indicated and also developed the appropriate path towards efficient interventions for unadaptive behavior. He developed a new theory regarding abnormal behavior (psychopathology), as well as a procedural model for evaluation (diagnosis) and intervention: "The functional analysis of behavior". His applications for this kind of work are pioneering and at the same time, he is the agglutinant figure of what we today call "Behavior Modification and/or Therapy". It is remarkable that a scientist could change the theories and practices of a discipline as radically as Skinner and his work did. His work, however, still has its limitations. The best way to acknowledge and pay tribute to Skinners' work is to overcome these limitations.

  9. Interoceptive processes in anorexia nervosa in the time course of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Fischer


    Full Text Available Objective: Previous studies report reduced interoceptive abilities in anorexia nervosa (AN using various methods. Recent research suggests that different levels of interoceptive processes aiming at different subdomains of interoceptive abilities must be further distinguished as these levels can be differentially affected. Two important levels refer to interoceptive accuracy (IA derived from objective performance tasks such as the heartbeat detection task, and interoceptive sensibility (IS as assessed by self-report. There is a lack of studies investigating both IA and IS in AN, and examining them in the time course of therapy. Aim of the pilot study was to evaluate the different interoceptive processes – especially IA and IS – in the time course of therapy.Methods: Fifteen patients with AN (restricting type from the Psychosomatic Clinic in Windach were investigated three times (T1, T2, T3 during a standardized cognitive-behavioral therapy and compared to fifteen matched healthy controls assessed at Ulm University in a comparable design. All participants performed the heartbeat detection task examining IA and completed standard psychological assessments including an assessment of IS. Results: Patients with AN showed a significantly decreased weight, higher levels of depression and both reduced IA and IS compared to healthy controls at T1. Following therapy, patients recovered in terms of weight and depression symptomatology. A descriptive trend for recovering from IA and IS was observed. Discussion: Our findings suggest that interoceptive deficits are present in recovered patients. Therefore, further investigations are needed with more patients, differentiating between relapsed and recovered patients, and more specific training methods to improve interoceptive processes.

  10. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    During the last 15 years there has been an explosion in human behavioral data caused by the emergence of cheap electronics and online platforms. This has spawned a whole new research field called computational social science, which has a quantitative approach to the study of human behavior. Most...... studies have considered data sets with just one behavioral variable such as email communication. The Social Fabric interdisciplinary research project is an attempt to collect a more complete data set on human behavior by providing 1000 smartphones with pre-installed data collection software to students...... data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived...

  11. Behavioral approaches to promoting play. (United States)

    Stahmer, Aubyn C; Ingersoll, Brooke; Carter, Cynthia


    A variety of techniques grounded in behavioral psychology, and more specifically in applied behavior analysis, have been established to increase and improve play skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders. This article introduces a set of efficacious methods, which range from highly structured techniques to more naturalistic strategies. It focuses on object play as other authors in the issue discuss social play in greater depth. Behavioral techniques that are reviewed include: discrete trial training, use of stereotyped behaviors to increase play skills, pivotal response training, reciprocal imitation training, differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior, in vivo modeling and play scripts, and video modeling. A discussion of expanding behavior techniques to teach more complex play as well as training in varied environments is also presented. References are provided to allow the reader to obtain more in-depth information about each technique.

  12. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard


    This thesis presents a method for behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits, which aims at providing a synthesis flow which uses and tranfers methods from synchronous circuits to asynchronous circuits. We move the synchronous behavioral synthesis abstraction into the asynchronous handshake...... is idle. This reduces unnecessary switching activity in the individual functional units and therefore the energy consumption of the entire circuit. A collection of behavioral synthesis algorithms have been developed allowing the designer to perform time and power constrained design space exploration...

  13. Behavioral intervention reduces unhealthy eating behaviors in preschool children via a behavior card approach. (United States)

    Lin, Ming; Pan, Li-Ping; Han, Juan; Li, Li; Jiang, Jing-Xiong; Jin, Run-Ming


    Many eating behaviors form in childhood, and some unhealthy behaviors may persist into adulthood and have potential impacts on people's health. This study evaluated the effectiveness of behavioral intervention in reducing consumption of Western fast food, sweetened beverages, fried food in preschool children, and changing parents' rewarding behaviors that encourage the consumption of the unhealthy foods. The research was a cluster randomized trial of seven kindergartens, involving 1138 children aged 3-6 years and their parents in Beijing, China. Parents and children allocated to the intervention group received two lectures and printed resources, including behavior cards, educational sheets. Children's behavior cards, applied with behavior-changing techniques, were used to intervene, and monitor behavior changes over time. Children in the control group just followed their usual health education curriculum in kindergartens. Intervention effects on food consumption behaviors were assessed by examining pre- and post-questionnaires. Of the 1138 children screened at baseline, 880 (77.3%) were measured at the end of the intervention period. The intervention lasted from March to June in 2010. The results showed that consumption of Western fast food, sweetened beverages, and fried food was decreased among the intervention group (Pchildren were decreased (P=0.002). From March to June 2010, the frequency of each target behavior in children tended to decrease over the intervention period (Pchildren and reduces the parents' practice of using unhealthy foods as reward.

  14. Sexual behavior of clinic attendees in a tertiary care hospital in Pondicherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nidhi


    Full Text Available The recent years have witnessed a renewed interest in human sexual behavior, partly because of the growing AIDS pandemic. We undertook a study of the pattern of sexual behavior among outpatients attending our dermatology clinic. Sexually active patients attending the dermatology clinic for non-STD complaints from March 2007 to June 2007 were randomly selected and interviewed about their sexual behavior using a questionnaire. The study included 500 respondents (240 women, 260 men. The mean ages of the women and men were 37.9 years and 38.9 years, respectively. Forty-two of the unmarried men (54.5% were sexually active, while 55 of the married men (30% admitted to having had premarital sex. A total of 81 men (38.8% admitted to premarital sex, compared to only 2.9% of women. With regard to extramarital contact, 62 of the married men (33.8% were affirmative in their response, while the corresponding figure for married women was 12 (5.5%. Nine men had a history of bisexual contact and, of these, one man admitted to having had exclusively homosexual contact. Fifteen men had indulged in anal sex; 48.3% men with pre/extramarital contact had more than one partner, and 43 (30.1% had visited commercial sex workers (CSWs. Most of the respondents (141; 87% with pre/extramarital contact had had unsafe sex. Among the women with pre/extramarital sexual contact, most (17; 89.5% had only one partner; all were heterosexual and the majority had had sexual contact with relatives (73.7%. To summarize, men had overwhelmingly more pre/extramarital sexual contact as compared to women.

  15. Bosonic behavior of entangled fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Tichy, Malte; Alexander Bouvrie, Peter; Mølmer, Klaus


    Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi-composite-boson st......Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi...

  16. Homo Oeconomicus and Behavioral Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Brzezicka


    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in behavioral trends in both economic theory and practical applications. As a science with vast potential for explaining complex market behaviors, behavioral economics is drifting away from the classical model of homo oeconomicus deployed by mainstream economics. This paper discusses the significance and role of the homo oeconomicus model in light of behavioral economics. It analyzes the direction of changes affecting homo oeconomicus, examines the definition of anomalies within the context of behavioral economics and discusses the anomalous status of homo oeconomicus. The paper proposes a hypothesis that the attitude characterizing homo oeconomicus is unique and incidental. The presented interdisciplinary analysis relies on economics, behavioral economics, economic psychology, behavioral finance and the methodology of science to discuss the homo oeconomicus model. The paper reviews change trends in economics, which are largely propelled by advancements in behavioral economics. The key methodological tools deployed in this paper are theoretical analysis and a compilation of extensive research findings. The results were used to formulate new theories advocating the development of a modern approach to the homo oeconomicus model, recognizing its significance and the growing importance of behavioral economics.

  17. Effective strategies for behavior change. (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H


    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations.

  18. Contexts for Behavior in Television Programs and Children's Subsequent Behavior. (United States)

    Leifer, Aimee Dorr

    Aggression is examined in this discussion of the role of television in the development of young children's social behaviors. The way aggression is interpreted by children watching television and program influences on the children's own aggressive behavior are among topics considered. Some suggestions are made in regard to context of aggression…

  19. Parent Behavior Importance and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaires: Psychometric Characteristics (United States)

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Sanders, Michelle


    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire (PBIQ) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire (PBFQ). Both research questionnaires are based on the parent development theory (PDT) and offer parent as well as non-parent respondents the opportunity to rate 38 parenting…

  20. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.


    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  1. The Attitude-Behavior Linkage in Behavioral Cascades (United States)

    Friedkin, Noah E.


    The assumption that individual behavior has an antecedent evaluative foundation is an important component of theories in sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. In its simplest form, the antecedent evaluation is a positive or negative attitude toward an object that may affect an individual's object-related behavior. This attitude…

  2. Use of a Behavioral Graphic Organizer to Reduce Disruptive Behavior (United States)

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Flower, Andrea


    Students with challenging behavior spend substantial amounts of time away from instruction due to behavioral problems. Time away from instruction reduces their opportunities for learning, which are critical as these students typically demonstrate academic performance below their same-age peers. After removal from instruction due to behavioral…

  3. 云南汉族15个短串联重复序列基因座遗传多态性特征及分析%Analysis on characteristics of fifteen short tandem repeat genetic polymorphisms in Yunnan Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳婵婵; 贺静; 王蕾; 陈鹏; 杨继青; 李秀玲; 苏洁; 朱宝生


    目的::调查云南地区汉族的D8S1179、D21S11、D7S820、CSF1PO、D3S1358、TH01、D13S317、D16S539、D2S1338、D19S433、VWA、TPOX、D18S51、D5S818、FGA 15个短串联重复序列( Short tandem repeat,STR)基因座的遗传多态性。方法:收集云南汉族313名无关个体血样,提取DNA,PCR复合扩增并利用ABI-3130型基因分析仪进行毛细管电泳检测每个样本各基因座的等位基因大小,分别统计每个STR基因座各基因型的频率,并进行Hardy-Weinberg遗传平衡检验。结果:云南汉族这15个STR基因座各基因型频率分布符合Hardy-Weinberg平衡(P>0.05),杂合度在0.636~0.901,匹配概率在0.034~0.220,单一STR位点的个体识别率在0.780~0.966、非父排除率在0.336~0.797、多态性信息总量在0.555~0.860,联合使用这15个位点所产生的累积个体识别率大于0.99999999,累积非父排除率等于0.999998408。与中国其他地区汉族群体这15个STR基因座等位基因频率分布相比有较高的相似性,但也有轻微的地区差异。结论:云南汉族的D8S1179、D21S11、D7S820、CSF1PO、D3S1358、TH01、D13S317、D16S539、D2S1338、D19S433、VWA、TPOX、D18S51、D5S818、FGA这15个STR基因座具有高度的多态性,与中国其他地区汉族群体有较高的相似性,在法医学中的亲子鉴定和个人识别方面具有较高应用价值。%Objective:To research on the genetic polymorphism distributions of fifteen short tandem repeat ( STR ) loci (D8S1179,D21S11,D7S820,CSF1PO,D3S1358,TH01,D13S317,D16S539,D2S1338,D19S433,VWA,TPOX,D18S51,D5S818, FGA) in Han race of Yunnan. Methods:A total of 313 specimens were collected from the unrelated individuals in Yunnan Han popu-lation. Genome DNA was extracted and amplified by multiplex PCR technique,the PCR products were analyzed by ABI-3130 genetic analyzer capillary electrophoresis detection, collected statistics of each STR loci genotypic frequency, and carried out the Hardy-Weinberg Genetic balance


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang


    Full Text Available Behavior finance introduces psychology, sociology and other research methods into the study of investment behavior to explain how investors handle the information and take actions. This paper presents the literatures as theoretical solutions to the market anomalies of the traditional market theories. The behavioral psychology is examined through the study on the questionnaire of Chinese security investors. The results show that the investors are not always adopt rational behaviors as traditional finance theory assumed, but make a lot of irrational decisions based on individual cognitive and prejudices, even institutional investors often show the characteristic of irrational. In the guidance of the behavioral finance theory, the research will be closer to the reality and give more significant insight to the selection of investment strategy and psychology characteristic used to explain market anomalies.

  5. [Practice of Behavioral Activation in Cognitive-behavioral Therapy]. (United States)

    Kitagawa, Nobuki


    An approach focusing on behavioral activation (BA) was adopted in the cognitive therapy of A. T. Beck, and it came to be considered that BA can play an important role in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Therefore, in recent years, BA based on clinical behavior analysis has been developed as a new treatment (Martell, et al.). The core characteristics are as follows: 1) focusing attention on context in daily life to promote the behavior control of patients and avoidance of a hatred experience ; 2) breaking the vicious circle; 3) promoting the behavior according to the purpose that the patients originally expect; 4) recognizing a relationship between behavior and the situation (contingency), thereby recovering self-efficacy tied to the long-term results that one originally expects. This does not increase pleasant activity at random when the patient is inactive, or give a sense of accomplishment. We know that depression is maintained by conducting functional analysis of detailed life behavior, and encourage the patients to have healthy behavior according to individual values. We help them to complete schedules regardless of mood and reflect on the results patiently. It is considered that those processes are important. BA may be easy to apply in clinical practice and effective for the chronic cases, or the patients in a convalescent stage. Also, in principle in the CBT for major depression, it may be effective that behavioral activation is provided in an early stage, and cognitive reconstruction in a latter stage. However, an approach to carry out functional analysis by small steps with careful activity monitoring is essential when the symptoms are severe. Furthermore, it should be considered that the way of psychoeducation requires caution because we encourage rest in the treatment of depression in our country. In particular, we must be careful not to take an attitude that an inactive behavior pattern is unproductive only based model cases.

  6. Stress and eating behaviors. (United States)

    Yau, Y H C; Potenza, M N


    Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsive behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases.

  7. Heat pipe dynamic behavior (United States)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.


    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  8. Multiple sclerosis and behavior. (United States)

    Pinkston, James B; Kablinger, Anita; Alekseeva, Nadejda


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most frequently seen neurological causes of progressive disability in early to middle adulthood. The disease is variable in its presentation and course, affects roughly 100-300 per 100,000 persons within the United States alone, and is slightly more common among females than males. MS places substantial burdens on patients, families, and caregivers. It negatively affects cognitive abilities and psychiatric functioning, and can add a notably deleterious effect on a patient's quality of life. This chapter reviews the recent literature on the behavioral manifestations of MS. Cognitive domains discussed include executive functioning, processing speed, attention, learning and memory, language functioning, and visual spatial processing. Some attention will also be paid to differential diagnosis and the cognitive effects of treatment. Psychiatric manifestations are also discussed, including symptoms of depression, bipolar disorder, euphoria, pathological laughter and crying, and psychosis, as well as maladaptive personality traits. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of the effects of MS on quality of life including such areas as fatigue, sexual dysfunction, pain, employment, and cognitive functioning.

  9. Neuroscientific Measures of Covert Behavior (United States)

    Ortu, Daniele


    In radical behaviorism, the difference between overt and covert responses does not depend on properties of the behavior but on the sensitivity of the measurement tools employed by the experimenter. Current neuroscientific research utilizes technologies that allow measurement of variables that are undetected by the tools typically used by behavior…

  10. Building and Defining Behavioral Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heukelom, F.


    George Loewenstein, a prominent behavioral economist, recalls thatIn 1994, when Thaler, Camerer, Rabin, Prelec and I spent the year at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, we had a meeting to make a kind of final decision about what to call what we were doing. Remarkably, at tha

  11. Common Issues in Professional Behavior (United States)

    Janosik, Steven M.


    Most conversations about ethics and professional behavior involve case studies and hypothetical situations. This study identifies and examines the most common concerns in professional behavior as reported by 303 student affairs practitioners in the field. Differences by gender, years of experience, organizational level, institutional type, and…

  12. Jogging Can Modify Disruptive Behaviors. (United States)

    Allen, Jill I.


    Jogging was used to modify disruptive behavior as part of the classroom routine for 12 learning disabled elementary-grade boys. The number of incidents of each of five negative behaviors were reduced by half following the 10-minute jogging routine. (SBH)

  13. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior. (United States)

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.

    During the spring of 1972 training workshops for 88 elementary and secondary teachers of the Great Neck Public Schools held to examine four hypotheses: 1) workshops in training teachers to observe classroom behavior would significantly increase these same teachers' positive classroom interactive behaviors consisting of teacher, pupil-pupil,…

  14. Analyzing and modeling heterogeneous behavior (United States)

    Lin, Zhiting; Wu, Xiaoqing; He, Dongyue; Zhu, Qiang; Ni, Jixiang


    Recently, it was pointed out that the non-Poisson statistics with heavy tail existed in many scenarios of human behaviors. But most of these studies claimed that power-law characterized diverse aspects of human mobility patterns. In this paper, we suggest that human behavior may not be driven by identical mechanisms and can be modeled as a Semi-Markov Modulated Process. To verify our suggestion and model, we analyzed a total of 1,619,934 records of library visitations (including undergraduate and graduate students). It is found that the distribution of visitation intervals is well fitted with three sections of lines instead of the traditional power law distribution in log-log scale. The results confirm that some human behaviors cannot be simply expressed as power law or any other simple functions. At the same time, we divided the data into groups and extracted period bursty events. Through careful analysis in different groups, we drew a conclusion that aggregate behavior might be composed of heterogeneous behaviors, and even the behaviors of the same type tended to be different in different period. The aggregate behavior is supposed to be formed by "heterogeneous groups". We performed a series of experiments. Simulation results showed that we just needed to set up two states Semi-Markov Modulated Process to construct proper representation of heterogeneous behavior.

  15. Handbook of Applied Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W., Ed.; Piazza, Cathleen C., Ed.; Roane, Henry S., Ed.


    Describing the state of the science of ABA, this comprehensive handbook provides detailed information about theory, research, and intervention. The contributors are leading ABA authorities who present current best practices in behavioral assessment and demonstrate evidence-based strategies for supporting positive behaviors and reducing problem…

  16. Substance abuse and criminal behavior. (United States)

    Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Motayne, G G


    As forensic psychiatry develops as a clinical subspecialty, clinical skill in understanding, treating, and predicting violent behavior will become more important. This article addresses the importance of understanding the relationship between substance abuse and violent behavior. This article also discusses morbidity and mortality in substance abuse, the demographics of substance abuse and criminality, and the clinical aspects of the forensic psychiatric evaluation.

  17. Perceptions of Teacher Brinkmanship Behaviors. (United States)

    Melancon, Jan G.; Thompson, Bruce

    Brinkmanship behaviors are challenges to authority expressed in such a mannner that expected negative sanctions are typically avoided. They are usually extemporaneous, involve satire or sarcasm, and take place in front of an audience. This study investigated 43 principals' and 137 teachers' perceptions of teacher brinkmanship behaviors and sought…

  18. Littering Behavior in Public Places (United States)

    Robinson, Stuart N.


    This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning littering behavior. Available studies are categorized according to the variables that influence littering--individual and environmental. Theoretical issues of attitude-behavior consistency and incentive effectiveness are analyzed with respect to littering and litter control. Results…

  19. Tax evasion under behavioral structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Pantoja


    Full Text Available We study the strategic interactions between the fiscal authority and the taxpayer regarding tax evasion and auditing. We fit this interaction into a Bayesian game and introduce the concept of behavioral consistency, which helps reducing the number of available strategies and models the stylized fact according to which the choice to evade is subject to behavioral patterns.

  20. Governing Individual Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben


    The emerging Knowledge Governance Approach asserts the need to build microfoundations grounded in individual action. Toward this goal, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we aim to explain individual knowledge sharing behavior as being determined by the intention to share knowledge and its...

  1. Eating Behavior of Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulina Handayani


    Full Text Available Association between autism and eating problem has been discussed in US and European countries recently, but there are only a few studies about that matter in Asian countries. Objective: This study provides information about eating behavior in autistic children in comparison with Typically Developing (TD children in two different countries, which are Japan and Indonesia. Method: Participants of this study were 39 Japanese and 13 Indonesian parents with autistic children and 197 Japanese and 144 Indonesian parents of TD. Ages of subjects were between 3 to 6 years old. Eating behavior was evaluated by using Brief Autism Mealtime Inventory (BAMBI completed by parents. Result showed that commonly children in both countries had eating behavior problems and children with autistic showed more problems than TD children. It is estimated that autistic children have a delay in eating development that may influence their eating behaviors. It is also reported that cultural background can be considered as another influencing factor in the difference of eating behavior in each country. Conclusion: Our study provided information that Autism children have problem in eating behavior. It needs to be noticed continually by clinicians and parents, although problem in eating behavior is not a core feature of autism; it can be an associate feature in autism. Key words: Autism, Eating behavior, Children

  2. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet


    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2 ex

  3. Information Recovery In Behavioral Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego; Judge, George


    In the context of agent based modeling and network theory, we focus on the problem of recovering micro behavior-related choice information from aggregate origin-destination data. As a basis for predicting agents' choices we emphasize the connection between adaptive intelligent behavior, causal entropy maximization and self-organized, equilibrium-seeking behavior in a dynamic system. We cast this problem in the form of a binary network and suggest information theoretic, entropy-driven methods to recover estimates of the unknown parameters connecting the behavioral data. Our objective is to recover the unknown behavioral binary parameters analytically, without explicitly sampling the configuration space. In order to do so, we enlarge the set of estimators commonly employed to make optimal use of the available information. More specifically, we consider the Cressie-Read family of entropic functionals and focus on three cases of particular interest. We then apply this information theoretic method to the analysis ...

  4. Respiratory psychophysiology and behavior modification. (United States)

    Ley, R


    This article was written as an introduction to a special issue of Behavior Modification dedicated to studies in the field of respiratory psychophysiology. Although the invited articles that constitute this special issue cover a fairly broad range of topics, priority was given to articles that focus on the role of respiration in panic disorder. Attention is directed to the fundamental role of breathing in applied psychophysiology and to the encouragement of research in the modification of breathing behavior. The connection between respiratory psychophysiology and behavior modification is explained by reference to (a) a recent article on Pavlovian and operant control of breathing behavior and (b) four published volumes of selected articles dedicated exclusively to the field of respiratory psychophysiology. The present special issue of Behavior Modification marks the fifth volume.

  5. Videos Influence Behavior Change Measures for Voice and Speech in Individuals with Parkinson's Disease. (United States)

    Kopf, Lisa M; Graetzer, Simone; Huh, Jina


    The majority of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience voice and speech difficulties at some point over the course of the disease. Voice therapy has been found to help improve voice and speech in individuals with PD, but the majority of these individuals do not enroll in voice therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether watching short videos about voice symptoms and treatment in Parkinson's disease influences readiness to change, stages of change, and self-efficacy in individuals with PD. Eight individuals with PD participated in the study. Fifteen videos were chosen, three representing each of the five stages of change. We chose videos from YouTube that represented variety in speakers, content, and genre. We found that readiness to change significantly increased after watching videos, suggesting that watching videos helped these individuals move closer to actively improving their voice and speech. In addition, five of the eight participants showed forward movement in stages of change. Finally, self-efficacy demonstrated a positive trend following video watching. Overall, our results demonstrate that watching videos available on the internet can influence individuals with Parkinson's disease in changing vocal behavior. Implications for future wireless health applications are described.

  6. Pollen processing behavior of Heliconius butterflies: a derived grooming behavior. (United States)

    Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Krenn, Harald W


    Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with proboscis grooming behavior in various nymphalid butterflies using video analysis. The proboscis movements of pollen processing behavior consisted of a lengthy series of repeated coiling and uncoiling movements in a loosely coiled proboscis position combined with up and down movements and the release of saliva. The proboscis-grooming behavior was triggered by contamination of the proboscis in both pollen feeding and non-pollen feeding nymphalid butterflies. Proboscis grooming movements included interrupted series of coiling and uncoiling movements, characteristic sideways movements, proboscis lifting, and occasionally full extension of the proboscis. Discharge of saliva was more pronounced in pollen feeding species than in non-pollen feeding butterfly species. We conclude that the pollen processing behavior of Heliconius and Laparus is a modified proboscis grooming behavior that originally served to clean the proboscis after contamination with particles.

  7. Rattlesnake strike behavior: kinematics (United States)

    Kardong; v


    The predatory behavior of rattlesnakes includes many distinctive preparatory phases leading to an extremely rapid strike, during which venom is injected. The rodent prey is then rapidly released, removing the snake's head from retaliation by the prey. The quick action of the venom makes possible the recovery of the dispatched prey during the ensuing poststrike period. The strike is usually completed in less than 0.5 s, placing a premium on an accurate strike that produces no significant errors in fang placement that could result in poor envenomation and subsequent loss of the prey. To clarify the basis for effective strike performance, we examined the basic kinematics of the rapid strike using high-speed film analysis. We scored numerous strike variables. Four major results were obtained. (1) Neurosensory control of the strike is based primarily upon sensory inputs via the eyes and facial pits to launch the strike, and upon tactile stimuli after contact. Correction for errors in targeting occurs not by a change in strike trajectory, but by fang repositioning after the jaws have made contact with the prey. (2) The rattlesnake strike is based upon great versatility and variation in recruitment of body segments and body postures. (3) Forces generated during acceleration of the head are transferred to posterior body sections to decelerate the head before contact with the prey, thereby reducing impact forces upon the snake's jaws. (4) Body acceleration is based on two patterns of body displacement, one in which acute sections of the body open like a gate, the other in which body segments flow around postural curves similar to movements seen during locomotion. There is one major implication of these results: recruitment of body segments, launch postures and kinematic features of the strike may be quite varied from strike to strike, but the overall predatory success of each strike by a rattlesnake is very consistent.

  8. Hanseníase em menores de 15 anos no Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, Brasil Lepra en menores de 15 años en el Vale del Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, Bra Hansen's Disease in children under fifteen years-old in Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Félix Lana


    Full Text Available A hanseníase é uma doença de evolução lenta que acomete principalmente a população adulta. A detecção de casos em crianças indica a manutenção da endemia e a precocidade da exposição da população ao bacilo. Este é um estudo ecológico cujo objetivo é analisar a ocorrência da hanseníase em menores de 15 anos no Vale do Jequitinhonha através de indicadores epidemiológicos e operacionais. Os resultados apontam para a manutenção da endemia na região, evidenciando uma passividade dos serviços de saúde e a necessidade de implementação de medidas de prevenção e controle específicas para essa faixa etária, a fim de diminuir a transmissão da doença e os eventuais prejuízos que ela pode acarretar à vida do indivíduo, principalmente, ao acometê-lo na infância.La Lepra es una enfermedad de evolución lenta que acomete principalmente a la población adulta. La detección de casos en niños indica el mantenimiento de la endemia y la precocidad de la exposición de la población al bacilo. Éste es un estudio ecológico cuyo objetivo es analizar la ocurrencia de lepra en menores de 15 años en el Valle del Jequitinhonha a través de indicadores epidemiológicos y operacionales. Los resultados apuntan para el mantenimiento de la endemia en la región, evidenciando una pasividad de los servicios de salud y la necesidad de implementación de medidas de prevención y control específicas para esafaja etaria , a fin de disminuir la transmisión de la enfermedad y los eventuales perjuicios que ella puede acarrearle a la vida del individuo, principalmente, al acometerlo en la infancia.Hansen's disease has a slow evolution, which mostly affects the adult population. Detecting cases in children shows that the endemic continues and there is early exposure of the population to the bacillus. This is an ecological study with the objective of analyzing the occurrence of Hansen's disease in children under fifteen in the Jequitinhonha

  9. Methylene blue for vasoplegic syndrome treatment in heart surgery: fifteen years of questions, answers, doubts and certainties Azul de metileno no tratamento da síndrome vasoplégica em cirurgia cardíaca: quinze anos de perguntas, respostas, dúvidas e certezas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is strong evidence that methylene blue (MB, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, is an excellent therapeutic option for vasoplegic syndrome (VS treatment in heart surgery. The aim of this article is to review the MB's therapeutic function in the vasoplegic syndrome treatment. METHODS: Fifteen years of literature review. RESULTS: 1 Heparin and ACE inhibitors are risk factors; 2 In the recommended doses it is safe (the lethal dose is 40 mg/kg; 3 The use of MB does not cause endothelial dysfunction; 4 The MB effect appears in cases of nitric oxide (NO up-regulation; 5 MB is not a vasoconstrictor, by blocking of the GMPc system it releases the AMPc system, facilitating the norepinephrine vasoconstrictor effect; 6 The most used dosage is 2 mg/kg as IV bolus followed by the same continuous infusion because plasmatic concentrations strongly decays in the first 40 minutes; 7 There is a possible "window of opportunity" for the MB's effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Although there are no definitive multicentric studies, the MB used to treat heart surgery VS, at the present time, is the best, safest and cheapest option, being a Brazilian contribution for the heart surgeryOBJETIVO: Existem fortes evidências de que o azul de metileno (AM, um inibidor da guanilato ciclase, é uma excelente opção terapêutica para o tratamento da síndrome vasoplégica (SV em cirurgia cardíaca. O objetivo deste artigo é rever o papel terapêutico do AM no tratamento da SV. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura em período de 15 anos. RESULTADOS: 1 A heparina e inibidores da ECA são fatores de risco; 2 Nas doses preconizadas é droga segura (a dose letal é de 40 mg/kg; 3 O AM não causa disfunção endotelial; 4 O efeito do AM só aparece em caso de supra-regulação de óxido nítrico (NO; 5 O AM não é um vasoconstritor, pelo bloqueio do sistema GMPc ele "libera" o sistema AMPc, facilitando o efeito vasoconstritor da noradrenalina; 6 A dosagem mais utilizada é 2

  10. The behavioral economics of violence. (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard


    From the viewpoint of teleological behaviorism the first question to ask in attempting to understand any behavior, including violent behavior, is: What are its contingencies of reward and punishment? Or, to put the question in economic terms: What are the short-term and long-term costs and benefits that such behavior entails? Let us therefore consider the costs and benefits of youth violence. Among the short-term costs of violent behavior are the physical effort of the act, the possibility of immediate physical retaliation, immediate social disapproval, and the opportunity cost of other social acts that the violent behavior takes the place of (you can't be affectionate and violent at the same time, for instance). Among the immediate benefits of violent behavior are the intrinsic satisfaction of the violent act itself and any extrinsic benefit; if A violently appropriates B's new sneakers then obtaining the sneakers reinforces A's violence. These immediate benefits may well outweigh the costs in many contexts. Among the long-term costs of violent behavior are delayed retaliation, possible social disapproval and loss of social support, rejection from a social group, job loss, and health risks associated with a violent lifestyle. Among the long-term benefits are long-term intimidation of others (your neighbor is less likely to build a fence on your property if you have a reputation for violence), and a possibly exciting lifestyle. These long-term benefits may well be outweighed by the long-term costs. Opposition of long-term net costs to short-term net benefits, where it exists, creates a personal self-control trap: Overall satisfaction may decrease monotonically with rate of the target behavior but, regardless of its rate, the immediate satisfaction of doing it is always higher than that of not doing it. In the case of violent behavior, this trap is exacerbated by the fact that as a person's violence increases, net immediate reinforcement also increases (due to

  11. Behavioral dimensions of food security. (United States)

    Timmer, C Peter


    The empirical regularities of behavioral economics, especially loss aversion, time inconsistency, other-regarding preferences, herd behavior, and framing of decisions, present significant challenges to traditional approaches to food security. The formation of price expectations, hoarding behavior, and welfare losses from highly unstable food prices all depends on these behavioral regularities. At least when they are driven by speculative bubbles, market prices for food staples (and especially for rice, the staple food of over 2 billion people) often lose their efficiency properties and the normative implications assigned by trade theory. Theoretical objections to government efforts to stabilize food prices, thus, have reduced saliency, although operational, financing, and implementation problems remain important, even critical. The experience of many Asian governments in stabilizing their rice prices over the past half century is drawn on in this paper to illuminate both the political mandates stemming from behavioral responses of citizens and operational problems facing efforts to stabilize food prices. Despite the theoretical problems with free markets, the institutional role of markets in economic development remains. All policy instruments must operate compatibly with prices in markets. During policy design, especially for policies designed to alter market prices, incentive structures need to be compatible with respect to both government capacity (bureaucratic and budgetary) and empirical behavior on the part of market participants who will respond to planned policy changes. A new theoretical underpinning to political economy analysis is needed that incorporates this behavioral perspective, with psychology, sociology, and anthropology all likely to make significant contributions.

  12. Behavior genetics: past, present, future. (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R; Price, Thomas S; Reyes, Teresa M


    The disciplines of developmental psychopathology and behavior genetics are concerned with many of the same questions about the etiology and course of normal and abnormal behavior and about the factors that promote typical development despite the presence of risk. The goal of this paper is to summarize how research in behavior genetics has shed light on questions that are central to developmental psychopathology. We briefly review the origins of behavior genetics, summarize the findings that have been gleaned from several decades of quantitative and molecular genetics research, and describe future directions for research that will delineate gene function as well as pathways from genes to brain to behavior. The importance of environmental contributions, at both genetic and epigenetic levels, will be discussed. We conclude that behavior genetics has made significant contributions to developmental psychopathology by documenting the interplay among risk and protective factors at multiple levels of the organism, by clarifying the causal status of risk exposures, and by identifying factors that account for change and stability in psychopathology. As the tools to identify gene function become increasingly sophisticated, and as behavioral geneticists become increasingly interdisciplinary in their scope, the field is poised to make ever greater contributions to our understanding of typical and atypical development.

  13. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana


    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB. PMID:27378999

  14. Behavior analysis and the growth of behavioral pharmacology. (United States)

    Laties, Victor G


    Psychologists, particularly those influenced by the work of B. F. Skinner, played a major part in the development of behavioral pharmacology in the 1950s and 1960s. Revolutionary changes in pharmacology and psychiatry, including the discovery of powerful therapeutic agents such as chlorpromazine and reserpine, had produced a surge of interest in drug research. Pharmaceutical companies began hiring psychologists with operant conditioning backgrounds so as to compete successfully in the search for new drugs. Psychologists, most of whom were skilled in the behavior-analytic approach, started to assume prominent positions as authors and editors for the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics as its emphasis on behavior increased. This also proved true with the other publications founded to deal with the popularity of behavioral pharmacology. Especially important were contributions by B. F. Skinner, Peter B. Dews, and Joseph V. Brady.

  15. Offering Behavioral Assistance to Latino Students Demonstrating Challenging Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Moreno


    Full Text Available Challenging behaviors can significantly alter the learning environment of any classroom. Traditionally, schools have implemented practices that remove the offending student from the classroom, deliver punitive disciplinary actions, or refer the student to special education evaluation. Unfortunately, such practices have demonstrated little longitudinal effectiveness, with detrimental outcomes for the referred student, particularly students from Latino backgrounds. With enrollment projections indicating Latinos will become the majority in U.S. schools, educators are presented with the opportunity to shift away from past practices and implement evidence-based practices that concurrently assist students while addressing challenging behaviors. In this paper, the authors discuss past disciplinary practices, the adverse effects on Latino students, and offer recommendations on implementing functional behavioral assessment as a means to better meet the needs of Latino students demonstrating challenging behaviors.

  16. Circadian Insights into Motivated Behavior. (United States)

    Antle, Michael C; Silver, Rae


    For an organism to be successful in an evolutionary sense, it and its offspring must survive. Such survival depends on satisfying a number of needs that are driven by motivated behaviors, such as eating, sleeping, and mating. An individual can usually only pursue one motivated behavior at a time. The circadian system provides temporal structure to the organism's 24 hour day, partitioning specific behaviors to particular times of the day. The circadian system also allows anticipation of opportunities to engage in motivated behaviors that occur at predictable times of the day. Such anticipation enhances fitness by ensuring that the organism is physiologically ready to make use of a time-limited resource as soon as it becomes available. This could include activation of the sympathetic nervous system to transition from sleep to wake, or to engage in mating, or to activate of the parasympathetic nervous system to facilitate transitions to sleep, or to prepare the body to digest a meal. In addition to enabling temporal partitioning of motivated behaviors, the circadian system may also regulate the amplitude of the drive state motivating the behavior. For example, the circadian clock modulates not only when it is time to eat, but also how hungry we are. In this chapter we explore the physiology of our circadian clock and its involvement in a number of motivated behaviors such as sleeping, eating, exercise, sexual behavior, and maternal behavior. We also examine ways in which dysfunction of circadian timing can contribute to disease states, particularly in psychiatric conditions that include adherent motivational states.

  17. Analogue Assessment of the Replacement Behavior (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio


    The use of experimental analyses in determining behavioral function for problems behaviors is well established. Such analyses lead to functional treatment prescriptions for the target problem behavior. However, data indicative of the strength of the replacement behavior are often not collected during a functional behavioral assessment. I examine…

  18. Brain and Behavior: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Urbina, Guadalupe N.


    Full Text Available The contribution of many scientific disciplines allows us to know surprising aspects of the relationship between the brain and its functions. Current technology and the convergence of these disciplines are essential to understand the complex brain mechanisms underlying behavior. In this paper will be described some scientific disciplines whose studies help to understand the biological substrates of normal and altered behavior. We will describe some pathologies or neuropsychological disorders and, in addition, we will review some of the known neurobiological mechanisms that control our brain functions. This allows us to conclude that the behavior and brain functions depend on complex biological mechanisms, many of which are still to be elucidated.

  19. Research on Container Behaviors Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With the development of middleware technology, there are some new features to be adopted on demand in middleware platform based on container component. Aiming at the adaptation of middleware platform, from the nature of component container, this paper begins with behaviors features of EJB (Enterprise Java Bean) container, extracts general behaviors protocol of container, and defines its formal behaviors specification. In the end, the interactive relationship of components is described by WRIGHT language, and the configuration of whole system is shown. The method proposed in this paper mines the hidden features of framework of component container, and applies to refactor middleware platform in reflection and aspect-oriented programming technology.

  20. [Behavior therapy in older adults]. (United States)

    Junkers, G


    Behavior therapy has up to now, only been applied to a limited degree to elderly people. Operant learning paradigma receive special meaning within the framework of intervention as well as theoretical explanation. Publications will be presented for the areas of social behavior, self care, motoric ability etc. according to their different techniques. It is remarkable that interest has only focused institutionalized elderly people with a high degree of incapacitation. In the following discussion the necessity for stronger consideration of the newer behavioral approach as well the latest developments in gerontology will be made clear.

  1. Patterns of Individual Shopping Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Krumme, Coco; Pentland, Alex


    Much of economic theory is built on observations of aggregate, rather than individual, behavior. Here, we present novel findings on human shopping patterns at the resolution of a single purchase. Our results suggest that much of our seemingly elective activity is actually driven by simple routines. While the interleaving of shopping events creates randomness at the small scale, on the whole consumer behavior is largely predictable. We also examine income-dependent differences in how people shop, and find that wealthy individuals are more likely to bundle shopping trips. These results validate previous work on mobility from cell phone data, while describing the unpredictability of behavior at higher resolution.

  2. Terrorism and the behavioral sciences. (United States)

    Schouten, Ronald


    Terrorism has existed for millennia and is a phenomenon well-known to many parts of the world. Americans were forced to recognize this phenomenon, and our vulnerability to it, by two sets of events in 2001: the attacks on New York City and Washington, DC, and the anthrax mailings that followed shortly thereafter. Psychiatry, psychology, and other behavioral and social sciences have been looked to for assistance in collecting and analyzing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. In addition to reviewing areas in which the behavioral sciences have made contributions in addressing this problem, this article discusses the developing roles for behavioral scientists in this field.

  3. Behavioral variability in an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics. (United States)

    Popa, Andrei; McDowell, J J


    McDowell's evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics (McDowell, 2004) instantiates populations of behaviors (abstractly represented by integers) that evolve under the selection pressure of the environment in the form of positive reinforcement. Each generation gives rise to the next via low-level Darwinian processes of selection, recombination, and mutation. The emergent patterns can be analyzed and compared to those produced by biological organisms. The purpose of this project was to explore the effects of high mutation rates on behavioral variability in environments that arranged different reinforcer rates and magnitudes. Behavioral variability increased with the rate of mutation. High reinforcer rates and magnitudes reduced these effects; low reinforcer rates and magnitudes augmented them. These results are in agreement with live-organism research on behavioral variability. Various combinations of mutation rates, reinforcer rates, and reinforcer magnitudes produced similar high-level outcomes (equifinality). These findings suggest that the independent variables that describe an experimental condition interact; that is, they do not influence behavior independently. These conclusions have implications for the interpretation of high levels of variability, mathematical undermatching, and the matching theory. The last part of the discussion centers on a potential biological counterpart for the rate of mutation, namely spontaneous fluctuations in the brain's default mode network.

  4. Disordered Money Behaviors: Development of the Klontz Money Behavior Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Klontz


    Full Text Available Much of the existing literature on financial behavior focuses on basic money management tasks (e.g., balancing a checkbook. However, it can be equally important to identify problematic financial behaviors that can sabotage one’s financial health. The purpose of this study was to create an assessment tool that can be used by mental health and financial professionals to identify disordered money behaviors that may impede on progress towards one’s financial goals. This study asked 422 respondents to indicate their agreement with disordered money behaviors, including compulsive buying, pathological gambling, compulsive hoarding, workaholism, financial enabling, financial dependence, financial denial, and financial enmeshment, which were correlated with demographic characteristics and financial outcomes. The results identified eight subscales derived from 68 disordered money behavior items. All eight subscales were found to have high reliability in measuring disordered behaviors, and six were associated with negative financial health indicators (e.g. less net worth, less income, and/or more revolving credit.

  5. Infant behaviors influence mothers' provision of responsive and directive behaviors. (United States)

    Lloyd, Carrie A; Masur, Elise Frank


    Mother-infant interactions are important to infant development because they are predictive of infants' social, cognitive, and language development (Lamb, Bornstein, & Teti, 2002; Tamis-LeMonda, Bornstein, & Baumwell, 2001). Because maternal responsive and directive behaviors are associated with differential infant outcomes, it is important to investigate influences on mothers' provision of responsive and directive behaviors. Yet, the dyadic interaction literature is predominantly unidirectional from maternal behavior to infant outcomes. Therefore, the current study examined infant initiating behaviors and consequent maternal responses in a sample of 26 13-month-old infants and their mothers, videotaped during 5 min of free-play. Findings revealed that infants produced a variety of initiatives, and that these different infant initiatives prompted differential patterns of maternal responsive versus directive behaviors. Further, results of analyses of divergent types of maternal directive behaviors - Responsive Directives, ReDirectives, and Intrusive Directives - also may help clarify major discrepancies in the current literature regarding the positive and negative effects of maternal directiveness.

  6. The role of teacher behavior management in the development of disruptive behaviors: an intervention study with the good behavior game. (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A C; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde


    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and children's on-task and off-task classroom behavior and peer reports of hyperactive and oppositional behavior were available. Results showed that the reduced use of negative remarks of intervention teachers predicted children's increase in on-task behavior and decrease in talking-out behavior. These improved children's classroom behaviors in turn mediated the impact of the intervention on the development of hyperactive and oppositional behavior over the studied period. These results were similar for girls and boys. The results underscore the role of teachers' classroom management strategies in improving children's classroom behavior, which, in turn is an important component in the reduction of disruptive behavior development.

  7. Effect of cognitive enrichment on behavior, mucosal immunity and upper respiratory disease of shelter cats rated as frustrated on arrival. (United States)

    Gourkow, Nadine; Phillips, Clive J C


    Acquisition of resources and opportunity to engage in natural behaviors has been shown to reduce frustration-related behaviors and enhance health in nondomestic felids kept in zoos, but little is known about whether there are similar effects in domestic cats living in confinement in animal shelters. Fifteen cats rated as Frustrated during the first hour of confinement to a cage at an animal shelter were assigned to either a Treatment (n=7) or Control (n=8) group. Treatment cats were taken from their cages to a separate room four times daily for 10min each time over a 10 d period, where they took part in training sessions to learn a novel behavior (paw-hand contact with a researcher). Changes in emotional states and mucosal immune response were evaluated over 10days. Infectious status was determined upon admission and incidence of upper respiratory was determined up to day 40 based on clinical signs. Treated cats were more likely to be rated as Content than Control cats and had greater concentrations of S-IgA (537μg/g) in feces than Control cats (101μg/g). Within the Treatment group, cats that responded positively had greater concentrations of S-IgA (925μg/g) than those that responded negatively (399μg/g). Control cats were more likely to develop respiratory disease over time compared to cats that received treatment (Hazard Ratio: 2.37, Confidence Interval: 1.35-4.15). It is concluded that there is prima facie evidence that cognitive enrichment of cats exhibiting frustration-related behaviors can elicit positive affect (contentment), stimulate secretion of IgA and reduce incidence of respiratory disease, which is worthy of further study.

  8. Behavior of Columns During Earthquakes (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The behavior of columns during earthquakes is very important since column failures may lead to additional structural failures and result in total building collapses....

  9. Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool (United States)

    Mollicone, Daniel


    Behavioral health risks during long-duration space exploration missions are among the most difficult to predict, detect, and mitigate. Given the anticipated extended duration of future missions and their isolated, extreme, and confined environments, there is the possibility that behavior conditions and mental disorders will develop among astronaut crew. Pulsar Informatics, Inc., has developed a health monitoring tool that provides a means to detect and address behavioral disorders and mental conditions at an early stage. The tool integrates all available behavioral measures collected during a mission to identify possible health indicator warning signs within the context of quantitatively tracked mission stressors. It is unobtrusive and requires minimal crew time and effort to train and utilize. The monitoring tool can be deployed in space analog environments for validation testing and ultimate deployment in long-duration space exploration missions.

  10. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior (United States)

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.


    The question examined in this study was as follows: do teachers increase their positive classroom interactive behaviors as a result of training in systematic classroom observation techniques? (Authors/JA)

  11. Behavioral Interactions under Noxious Environments. (United States)


    between positive and negative reinforcement . Under many circumstances organisms terminate noxious environmental events and associated stimuli. This...behavior has typically been classified as escape and the process termed negative reinforcement (Skinner, 1953). The process of negative reinforce- ment

  12. Roles, Occupations, Behaviors, and Attributions (United States)

    Messick, David M.; Reeder, Glenn D.


    Our theoretical position affirms that in-role behaviors are less informative and less trustworthy than out-of-role with positive motivation with the reverse holding for a negatively motivated stimulus person (SP). (Author/RK)

  13. Metabolic Cause of Hyperkinetic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available An 8-year-old female child with congenital ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD who presented with a hyperkinetic behavior disorder at 3 years is reported from the Medical School Hanover, Germany.

  14. Information: theory, brain, and behavior. (United States)

    Jensen, Greg; Ward, Ryan D; Balsam, Peter D


    In the 65 years since its formal specification, information theory has become an established statistical paradigm, providing powerful tools for quantifying probabilistic relationships. Behavior analysis has begun to adopt these tools as a novel means of measuring the interrelations between behavior, stimuli, and contingent outcomes. This approach holds great promise for making more precise determinations about the causes of behavior and the forms in which conditioning may be encoded by organisms. In addition to providing an introduction to the basics of information theory, we review some of the ways that information theory has informed the studies of Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and behavioral neuroscience. In addition to enriching each of these empirical domains, information theory has the potential to act as a common statistical framework by which results from different domains may be integrated, compared, and ultimately unified.

  15. Obesity and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Oguz


    Full Text Available Today, obesity is a public health problem with significant negative effects on mortality and morbidity rates in developing countries, and impact on all levels of the society. In recent years cognitive behavioral therapy approach has been considered as an important part of the obesity treatment. Behavioral therapy for obesity includes sections like self-monitoring, stimulus control, food control, consolidation and reinforcement, cognitive restructuring, proper nutrition education, increase in physical activity, and behavior contracts. As part of the obesity treatment, combining cognitive-behavioral treatments with lifestyle changes such as increase in physical activity increases effectiveness of the treatment and ensures durability of the achieved weight loss. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 133-144


    Jensen, Greg; Ward, Ryan D.; Balsam, Peter D.


    In the 65 years since its formal specification, information theory has become an established statistical paradigm, providing powerful tools for quantifying probabilistic relationships. Behavior analysis has begun to adopt these tools as a novel means of measuring the interrelations between behavior, stimuli, and contingent outcomes. This approach holds great promise for making more precise determinations about the causes of behavior and the forms in which conditioning may be encoded by organisms. In addition to providing an introduction to the basics of information theory, we review some of the ways that information theory has informed the studies of Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and behavioral neuroscience. In addition to enriching each of these empirical domains, information theory has the potential to act as a common statistical framework by which results from different domains may be integrated, compared, and ultimately unified. PMID:24122456

  17. Risk factors for suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova A.A.


    Full Text Available


    The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.

  18. Dementia - behavior and sleep problems (United States)

    ... this page: // Dementia - behavior and sleep problems To use the sharing ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. People with dementia , often have certain problems when it gets dark ...

  19. Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Counterproductive Work Behavior: Cross-cultural comparisons between Turkey and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Cem-Ersoy (Nevra)


    textabstractThis research project explores cultural determinants that facilitate positive employee behavior. In the literature, this behavior is identified as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The dissertation also focuses on factors related to counterproductive work behavior (CWB). CWB is

  20. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jasińska


    Full Text Available Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI, may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women’s health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women’s health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH, preventive behaviors (PB, positive mental attitudes (PMA, and health practices (HP. Material and methods: The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI. Results: The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents. There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often. There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions : Older women attached greater

  1. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women (United States)

    Żułtak-Bączkowska, Katarzyna; Mroczek, Bożena; Kotwas, Artur; Kemicer-Chmielewska, Ewa; Karakiewicz, Beata; Starczewski, Andrzej


    Introduction Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women's health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study Aim of the study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women's health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH), preventive behaviors (PB), positive mental attitudes (PMA), and health practices (HP). Material and methods The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI). Results The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents). There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often). There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions Older women attached greater importance to positive mental

  2. Identity-based consumer behavior.


    Reed, Americus; Forehand, Mark; Puntoni, Stefano; Warlop, Luk


    Although the influence of identity on consumer behavior has been documented in many streams of literature, the absence of a consistent definition of identity and of generally accepted principles regarding the drivers of identity-based behavior complicates comparisons across these literatures. To resolve that problem, we propose a simple but inclusive definition of identity. Identity can be defined as any category label with which a consumer self-associates that is amenable to a clear picture ...

  3. Macroenvironmental factors affecting ethical behavior


    Önsel Ekici, Şule; Ekici, Ahmet


    The purpose of this study is to take a macroethical perspective and study the relationships between various structural factors and ethical behavior of firms. Using the data obtained from the Global Competitiveness Network of the World Economic Forum-WEF, and through the Bayesian Causal Map (BCM) methodology, we study how ethical behaviors of firms in a given country group are shaped by how managers perceive the political, legislative, and protective environment of business in these countries....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turcan Ciprian Sebastian


    Full Text Available The main thesis of this paper represents the importance and the effects that human behavior has over capital markets. It is important to see the link between the asset valuation and investor sentiment that motivate to pay for an asset a certain prices over/below the intrinsic value. The main behavioral aspects discussed are emotional factors such as: fear of regret, overconfidence, perseverance, loss aversion ,heuristic biases, misinformation and thinking errors, herding and their consequences.

  5. Behavior models for software architecture


    Auguston, Mikhail


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Monterey Phoenix (MP) is an approach to formal software system architecture specification based on behavior models. Architecture modeling focuses not only on the activities and interactions within the system, but also on the interactions between the system and its environment, providing an abstraction for interaction specification. The behavior of the system is defined as a set...

  6. Gas Turbine Engine Behavioral Modeling


    Meyer, Richard T; DeCarlo, Raymond A.; Pekarek, Steve; Doktorcik, Chris


    This paper develops and validates a power flow behavioral model of a gas tur- bine engine with a gas generator and free power turbine. “Simple” mathematical expressions to describe the engine’s power flow are derived from an understand- ing of basic thermodynamic and mechanical interactions taking place within the engine. The engine behavioral model presented is suitable for developing a supervisory level controller of an electrical power system that contains the en- gine connected to a gener...

  7. Behavioral assays in environmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.


    Environmental toxicology is too permeated by questions about how the whole organism functions to abandon intact animals as test systems. Behavior does not participate as a single entity or discipline. It ranges across the total spectrum of functional toxicity, from tenuous subjective complaints to subtle sensory and motor disturbances demanding advanced instrumentation for their evaluation. Three facets of behavioral toxicology that illustrate its breadth of interests and potential contributions are discussed.

  8. The vulnerability to suicidal behavior is associated with reduced connectivity strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn eBijttebier


    Full Text Available Suicidal behavior constitutes a major public health problem. Based on the stress–diathesis model, biological correlates of a diathesis might help to predict risk after stressor-exposure. Structural changes in cortical and subcortical areas and their connections have increasingly been linked with the diathesis. The current study identified structural network changes associated with a diathesis using a whole-brain approach by examining the structural connectivity between regions in euthymic suicide attempters. In addition, the association between connectivity measures, clinical and genetic characteristics was investigated. We hypothesized that suicide attempters showed lower connectivity strength, associated with an increased severity of general clinical characteristics and an elevated expression of short alleles in serotonin polymorphisms.Thirteen euthymic suicide attempters (SA were compared with fifteen euthymic non-attempters and seventeen healthy controls. Clinical characteristics and three serotonin-related genetic polymorphisms were assessed. Diffusion MRI together with anatomical scans were administered. Preprocessing was performed using Explore DTI. Whole brain tractography of the diffusion-weighted images was followed by a number of streamlines-weighted network analysis using NBS.The network analysis revealed decreased connectivity strength in SA in the connections between the left olfactory cortex and left anterior cingulate gyrus. Furthermore, SA had increased suicidal ideation, hopelessness and self-reported depression, but did not show any differences for the genetic polymorphisms. Finally, lower connectivity strength between the right calcarine fissure and the left middle occipital gyrus was associated with increased trait anxiety severity (rs=-0.78, p<0.01 and hopelessness (rs=-0.76, p<0.01.SA showed differences in white matter network connectivity strength associated with clinical characteristics. Together, these variables could

  9. Servant leadership behaviors of aerospace and defense project managers and their relation to project success (United States)

    Dominik, Michael T.

    The success of a project is dependent in part on the skills, knowledge, and behavior of its leader, the project manager. Despite advances in project manager certifications and professional development, the aerospace and defense industry has continued to see highly visible and expensive project failures partially attributable to failures in leadership. Servant leadership is an emerging leadership theory whose practitioners embrace empowerment, authenticity, humility, accountability, forgiveness, courage, standing back, and stewardship, but has not yet been fully examined in the context of the project manager as leader. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between servant leadership behaviors demonstrated by aerospace and defense project managers and the resulting success of their projects. Study participants were drawn from aerospace and defense oriented affinity groups from the LinkedInRTM social media web system. The participants rated their project managers using a 30-item servant leadership scale, and rated the success of their project using a 12-item project success scale. One hundred and fifteen valid responses were analyzed from 231 collected samples from persons who had worked for a project manager on an aerospace and defense project within the past year. The results of the study demonstrated statistically significant levels of positive correlation to project success for all eight servant leadership factors independently evaluated. Using multiple linear regression methods, the servant leadership factors of empowerment and authenticity were determined to be substantial and statistically significant predictors of project success. The study results established the potential application of servant leadership as a valid approach for improving outcomes of projects.

  10. Parents and early life environment affect behavioral development of laying hen chickens. (United States)

    de Haas, Elske N; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G G; Rodenburg, T Bas


    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings' SFP at one week and offsprings' anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng Zhang; Kefu Chen; Rendang Yang


    The flow behavior of paper coating is critical to the coating operation. In this work, the influence of the added agents on the flow behavior and the viscoelastic behavior is investigated using rheometer in steady and dynamic oscillatory modes.

  12. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort. (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta


    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  13. Behavioral Targeting—Consumer Tracking (United States)

    Srimani, P. K.; Srinivas, A.


    Behavioral targeting is an online marketing method that collects data on the browsing activities of consumers, in order to `target' more relevant online advertising. Behavioral targeting enables marketers to reach in-market consumers and increases the value of publisher inventory. At the heart of behavioral targeting is a learning-based investigation of consumer behaviors. It helps marketers understand consumers' purchase patterns over time, mapping out a customer's activities based not only on a single purchase but also on an annual or even lifetime basis. As marketers increasingly appreciate the importance of customer lifetime value, behavioral targeting can be a foundation for creating a continuous analytical study of consumer trends and patterns. But as behavioural-targeting systems become more sophisticated and invasive, it is vital that the companies behind them are open with users about what is going on, and give them control over their personal information. The aim of this paper is to explore the various tools and techniques of behavioral targeting and its benefits to online marketing. A multiple—case study approach was used for exploring the effectiveness and acceptance of online marketing in the area of the online marketing.

  14. Extinction, relapse, and behavioral momentum. (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Shahan, Timothy A


    Previous experiments on behavioral momentum have shown that relative resistance to extinction of operant behavior in the presence of a discriminative stimulus depends upon the baseline rate or magnitude of reinforcement associated with that stimulus (i.e., the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation). Recently, we have shown that relapse of operant behavior in reinstatement, resurgence, and context renewal preparations also is a function of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations. In this paper we present new data examining the role of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations on resistance to extinction and relapse using a variety of baseline training conditions and relapse operations. Furthermore, we evaluate the adequacy of a behavioral momentum based model in accounting for the results. The model suggests that relapse occurs as a result of a decrease in the disruptive impact of extinction precipitated by a change in circumstances associated with extinction, and that the degree of relapse is a function of the pre-extinction baseline Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation. Across experiments, relative resistance to extinction and relapse were greater in the presence of stimuli associated with more favorable conditions of reinforcement and were positively related to one another. In addition, the model did a good job in accounting for these effects. Thus, behavioral momentum theory may provide a useful quantitative approach for characterizing how differential reinforcement conditions contribute to relapse of operant behavior.

  15. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M.; Locatelli, Fernando F.


    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  16. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George William H


    Full Text Available Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010. Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change.

  17. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone


    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  18. An examination of the effects of children’s gender and behavioral problems on the quality of teacher – children relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Koca


    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to examine and provide exploratory findings regarding the effects of child gender, gender socialization perspective, and child behavioral problems (i.e., internalizing and externalizing on the quality of teacher-child relationship. Gender socialization perspective posits that girls tend to be more develop relationships characterized by emotional and physical closeness, whereas boys tend to be more focused on establishing conflictual or agressive and have more extensive, activity-based relationships with other boys. The study was conducted using data from one first grade classroom teacher and fifteen first grade students in Edgelea Elementary School in Lafayette School District. The teacher was asked to complete the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale and the Social Skills Rating System-Behavioral Problems subscale. The study has revealed that girls had a closer and less conflictual relationship with their teacher as compared to boys and there was a strong negative correlation between the quality of teacher-child interaction and child’s behavioral problems. Furthermore, the results of this study have partially supported the gender-socialization perspective.

  19. Understanding Behaviors in Videos through Behavior-Specific Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor


    Understanding behaviors is the core of video content analysis, which is highly related to two important applications: abnormal event detection and action recognition. Dictionary learning, as one of the mid-level representations, is an important step to process a video. It has achieved state...... scalability needs: A dictionary aimed at an abnormality detection purpose may misdetect normal behavior, which rarely happens in training datasets even though it may be very common in daily life. In contrast, a dictionary aimed at action recognition may misclassify a newcoming action category as an existing...... action. Therefore, our Behavior-Specific Dictionaries (BSDs) are constructed to solve these two applications through a unified framework. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first generalized dictionary algorithm that successfully handle with action recognition and abnormality detection...

  20. Understanding behaviors in videos through behavior-specific dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor


    Understanding behaviors is the core of video content analysis, which is highly related to two important applications: abnormal event detection and action recognition. Dictionary learning, as one of the mid-level representations, is an important step to process a video. It has achieved state...... scalability needs: A dictionary aimed at an abnormality detection purpose may misdetect normal behavior, which rarely happens in training datasets even though it may be very common in daily life. In contrast, a dictionary aimed at action recognition may misclassify a newcoming action category as an existing...... action. Therefore, our Behavior-Specific Dictionaries (BSDs) are constructed to solve these two applications through a unified framework. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first generalized dictionary algorithm that successfully handle with action recognition and abnormality detection...

  1. Behavioral Decision Research Intervention Reduces Risky Sexual Behavior. (United States)

    Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J


    Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial.

  2. Your browsing behavior for a Big Mac: Economics of Personal Information Online

    CERN Document Server

    Carrascal, Juan Pablo; Erramilli, Vijay; Cherubini, Mauro; de Oliveira, Rodrigo


    Most online services (Google, Facebook etc.) operate by providing a service to users for free, and in return they collect and monetize personal information (PI) of the users. This operational model is inherently economic, as the "good" being traded and monetized is PI. This model is coming under increased scrutiny as online services are moving to capture more PI of users, raising serious privacy concerns. However, little is known on how users valuate different types of PI while being online, as well as the perceptions of users with regards to exploitation of their PI by online service providers. In this paper, we study how users valuate different types of PI while being online, while capturing the context by relying on Experience Sampling. We were able to extract the monetary value that 168 participants put on different pieces of PI. We find that users value their PI related to their offline identities more (3 times) than their browsing behavior. Users also value information pertaining to financial transactio...

  3. Distribuição espacial de cobre, zinco e níquel em um Latossolo após quinze anos da aplicação de lodo de esgoto Soil spatial distribution of copper, zinc and nickel fifteen years after last application of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Centurion Maciel


    may be considered a rationale way to recycle this residue as source of plant nutrients and reduce its environmental impact. This work aimed to describe the spatial distribution of soil content of copper, zinc and nickel in a Typic Clayed Hapludox fifteen years after the last application of sewage sludge on it. From 1983 to 1987 the experimental plot was used in an assay with SS application at rates of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 t ha-1 and mineral fertilization with 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha-1 of N under maize cropping. After 1987 the area remained intact, covered with signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf vegetation, up to 2002 when soil and plant sampling were accomplished according to a spatial grid. Soil samples from 0-20 cm and at 20-40 cm depths, and aerial part of the grass were taken for chemical analysis. Soil and plant sampling were performed each 3 m in three parallel transects 15 m apart each other with an inclination of 45º in relation to the original baseline of the experimental area, completing fifty points of sampling. In order to assess the spatial variability of soil attributes and plant, geostatistics tools were used to determine the semivariograms and to draft the maps of isolines, as well as descriptive statistics for calculation of some parameters. Soil pH, soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity were not correlated with Cu, Zn and Ni for soil and plant. Both DTPA and Mehlich-3 were efficient to predict zinc availability. After 15 years of biosolid application Cu, Zn and Ni content at 0-20 cm depth, evaluated by DTPA and Mehlich-3, presented strong to moderate spatial dependency structure. Although, the degree of spatial dependency for Cu, Zn and Ni in plant tissues was different than the observed in the soil.

  4. The Role of Teacher Behavior Management in the Development of Disruptive Behaviors: An Intervention Study with the Good Behavior Game (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde


    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and…

  5. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome? (United States)

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.


    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…

  6. Valuable, but not maximal: it's time behavior therapy attend to its behaviorism. (United States)

    Staats, A W


    The field of behavior therapy is not in touch with itself in terms of its overarching behaviorism. Many erroneously consider its basic behaviorism to have been radical behaviorism and continue to look to develop behavior therapy (including behavior analysis and behavioral assessment) within that framework. But that approach turns out to be much less than maximal because there is a more advanced, better developed behaviorism within which to conduct and project the field. There is much that behavior therapy is not doing in practice and research because it is not making full use of that behaviorism foundation.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao; WANG Qiuju; SUN Wei


    The pathophysiology of tinnitus is poorly understood and treatments are often unsuccessful. A number of animal models have been developed in order to gain a better understanding of tinnitus. A great deal has been learned from these models re-garding the electrophysiological and neuroanatomical correlates of tinnitus following exposure to noise or ototoxic drugs. Re-liable behavioral data is important for determining whether such electrophysiological or neuroanatomical changes are indeed related to tinnitus. Of the many documented tinnitus animal behavioral paradigms, the acoustic startle reflex had been pro-posed as a simple method to identify the presence or absence of tinnitus. Several behavioral models based on conditioned re-sponse suppression paradigms have also been developed. In addition to determining the presence or absence of tinnitus, some of the behavioral paradigms have provided signs of the onset, frequency, and intensity of tinnitus in animals. Although none of these behavioral models have been proved to be a perfect model, these studies provide useful information on understanding the neural mechanisms underlying tinnitus.

  8. Maximization, learning, and economic behavior. (United States)

    Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E


    The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design.

  9. Towards Behaviorally Informed Public Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Olejniczak


    Full Text Available Purpose: This article informs readers about the theoretical and practical origins of the behaviorally informed interventions (BIPI, analyzes examples of the BIPI from different policy sectors and strategies they offer for policy and regulatory design, and discusses applications and implications of BIPI for public interventions Methodology: This paper is based on a review of literature, as well as an inspection of administrative practices in OECD countries. It encompasses a systematic analysis of scientific papers fromthe SCOPUS database and a query carried out at the library of George Washington University. Findings: The traditional approach to public policy research is based on rational choice theory. It offers limited support, because by assuming perfect rationality of policy decisions, it overlooks existence of systematic errors and biases of human decision-making. The authors argue that behaviorally informed public interventions (BIPI might contribute to improving the effectiveness of a number of public measures – regulation, projects, programs, and even entire policies. Practical implications: The behavioral approach allows decision-makers to better understand the decisions and behaviors of citizens, as well as to design more effective interventions with minimum effort by adapting the existing solutions to real decision mechanisms of citizens. Originality: By combining the concepts of traditional approach with the growing behavioral approach, the authors aim to propose a new theoretical framework (BIPI to be used as a tool for policy design, delivery and evaluation.

  10. Information recovery in behavioral networks. (United States)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; Garlaschelli, Diego; Judge, George


    In the context of agent based modeling and network theory, we focus on the problem of recovering behavior-related choice information from origin-destination type data, a topic also known under the name of network tomography. As a basis for predicting agents' choices we emphasize the connection between adaptive intelligent behavior, causal entropy maximization, and self-organized behavior in an open dynamic system. We cast this problem in the form of binary and weighted networks and suggest information theoretic entropy-driven methods to recover estimates of the unknown behavioral flow parameters. Our objective is to recover the unknown behavioral values across the ensemble analytically, without explicitly sampling the configuration space. In order to do so, we consider the Cressie-Read family of entropic functionals, enlarging the set of estimators commonly employed to make optimal use of the available information. More specifically, we explicitly work out two cases of particular interest: Shannon functional and the likelihood functional. We then employ them for the analysis of both univariate and bivariate data sets, comparing their accuracy in reproducing the observed trends.

  11. A review of different behavior modification strategies designed to reduce sedentary screen behaviors in children. (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A


    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1-12 years). Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50%) significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (-0.44 to -3.1 h/day) and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  12. Evolutionary consequences of behavioral diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B


    Iterated games provide a framework to describe social interactions among groups of individuals. Recent work stimulated by the discovery of "zero-determinant" strategies has rapidly expanded our ability to analyze such interactions. This body of work has primarily focused on games in which players face a simple binary choice, to "cooperate" or "defect". Real individuals, however, often exhibit behavioral diversity, varying their input to a social interaction both qualitatively and quantitatively. Here we explore how access to a greater diversity of behavioral choices impacts the evolution of social dynamics in finite populations. We show that, in public goods games, some two-choice strategies can nonetheless resist invasion by all possible multi-choice invaders, even while engaging in relatively little punishment. We also show that access to greater behavioral choice results in more "rugged " fitness landscapes, with populations able to stabilize cooperation at multiple levels of investment, such that choice f...

  13. Pavlov's position toward American behaviorism. (United States)

    Windholz, G


    Pavlov's development of the conditional reflex theory coincided with the rise of American behaviorism. Substituting an objective physiology for a subjective psychology, Pavlov saw in the rise of American behaviorism a clear confirmation of his method and theory. But in the early 1930s, Lashley attacked Pavlov's theory of specific cerebral localization of function, proposing instead the concept of an internal cerebral organization; Guthrie objected to Pavlov's centralist interpretation of conditioning, proposing instead a peripheralist interpretation; while Hull challenged Pavlov's theory of sleep and hypnosis as the manifestations of inhibition. Pavlov replied with critiques of Lashley's, Guthrie's, and Hull's views, and, convinced that Lashley and Guthrie misunderstood his position, repeated his method's and theory's basic propositions. Yet, Pavlov never gave up the expectation that American behaviorism would accept his conditional reflex theory and saw in Hunter's 1932 statements a support of his assumptions.

  14. Unveiling small sphere's scattering behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Tzarouchis, Dimitrios C; Sihvola, Ari


    A classical way for exploring the scattering behavior of a small sphere is to approximate Mie coefficients with a Taylor series expansion. This ansatz delivered a plethora of insightful results, mostly for small spheres supporting electric localized plasmonic resonances. However, many scattering aspects are still uncharted, especially for the case of magnetic resonances. Here, an alternative system ansatz is proposed based on the Pad\\'e approximants for the Mie coefficients. The extracted results reveal new aspects, such as the existence of a self-regulating radiative damping mechanism for the first magnetic resonance. Hence, a systematic way of exploring the scattering behavior is introduced, sharpening our understanding about sphere's scattering behavior and its emergent functionalities.

  15. Behavior Relativity of Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊; 王怀清; 廖少毅


    This paper presents a novel methodology for modelling and analyzing of behav-ior relations of concurrent systems. The set of all firing sequences of a Petri net is an importanttool for describing the dynamic behavior of concurrent systems. In this paper, the behaviorrelativity of two concurrent subsystems in their synchronous composition is presented. Such be-havior relativities, including Controlled Relativity, United Relativity, Interactive Relativity andExclusive Relativity, are defined respectively. The properties of the relativities are discussed indetail. The analysis method for these properties is based on minimum T-invariants, when twosubsystems are live bounded Petri nets. A well-known example has also been analyaed usingthe new methodology to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed methodology.

  16. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism. (United States)

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E


    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  17. International students’ information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden


    This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated...... in the study, including a questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The focus was on international students’ private and academic information needs and behavior ‘abroad’ in addition to their experiences of information seeking. Based on the analysis of survey data and participants’ descriptions of incidents...... and academic life and 5) social networks and support for cultural adjustment. Insights into the characteristics of international students’ information needs and behavior may help host institutions serve international students....

  18. Suboptimal choice behavior by pigeons. (United States)

    Stagner, Jessica P; Zentall, Thomas R


    Contrary to the law of effect and optimal foraging theory, pigeons show suboptimal choice behavior by choosing an alternative that provides 20% reinforcement over another that provides 50% reinforcement. They choose the 20% reinforcement alternative--in which 20% of the time, that choice results in a stimulus that always predicts reinforcement, and 80% of the time, it results in another stimulus that predicts its absence--rather than the 50% reinforcement alternative, which results in one of two stimuli, each of which predicts reinforcement 50% of the time. This choice behavior may be related to suboptimal human monetary gambling behavior, because in both cases, the organism overemphasizes the infrequent occurrence of the winning event and underemphasizes the more frequent occurrence of the losing event.

  19. Mechanical behavior of emerging materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Challapalli Suryanarayana


    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline and glassy materials, especially the bulk metallic glasses are of relatively recent origin and exhibit high strength, but lack sufficient plasticity. A clear understanding of the mechanical behavior of these novel materials is essential before these can be seriously considered for structural applications. A great deal of research has been conducted over the past couple of decades and a vast amount of data has been generated. Here, results on strength, ductility, and deformation behavior of these novel materials have been reviewed. Recent results have been highlighted and problems, wherever they exist, have been pointed out. New directions for enhancing the understanding of the mechanical behavior of these interesting materials have been suggested.

  20. Treatment of compulsive cybersex behavior. (United States)

    Southern, Stephen


    Compulsive cybersex has become a significant problem for many men and women who have fallen prey to the accessibility, affordability, and anonymity of online sexual behaviors. Some patients develop problems with compulsive cybersex due to predisposition or accidental conditioning experiences. Other compulsive users of cybersex present with underlying trauma, depression, or addiction. Three case studies highlighted obsession, compulsion, and consequence in the pathogenesis of compulsive cybersex. While men and women differ somewhat in their use of cybersex, both genders exhibit maladaptive coping, conditioned behavior, dissociative reenactment of life trauma, courtship disorder, intimacy dysfunction, and addictive behavior. Comprehensive treatment of compulsive cybersex would include the following components: relapse prevention, intimacy enhancement, lovemap reconstruction, dissociative states therapy, arousal reconditioning, and coping skills training. Thanks to recent treatment advances in several fields, help is available for those caught in the dark side of the net.

  1. Creativity, personality, and hoarding behavior. (United States)

    Hezel, Dianne M; Hooley, Jill M


    Compulsive hoarding is a debilitating illness that is characterized by excessive collection of and failure to discard items, irrespective of their uselessness or hazardousness. Anecdotal evidence suggests that individuals who hoard may be more creative than individuals without hoarding behavior; however, this hypothesis has never been tested empirically. In the present study, we examined the relationship between hoarding symptoms and performance on a series of creativity measures. We also explored the extent to which hoarding symptoms were associated with factors such as personality, impulsivity, distress tolerance, and attitudes about money and the environment. Our findings revealed no significant associations between hoarding behavior and any measure of creativity. Hoarding behavior was also unrelated to attitudes about money or concern about the environment. However, consistent with previous research, hoarding tendencies were correlated with higher levels of neuroticism and impulsivity, as well as with lower levels of conscientiousness and distress tolerance. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism (United States)

    O'Donohue, William T.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Ruckstuhl, L. E.


    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers. PMID:22478314


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Keihanidoust MD


    Full Text Available Objective :Behavioral disorders of children and adolescents have long been a subject of discussion among researchers of pedology,   psychology, medicine and psychiatry and are also a commonly encountered complaint of patients referring to the pediatric neurology out patient clinics. The main purpose of the present study is to survey some organic disorders, e.g. temporal lobe epilepsy (non convulsive seizures and to investigate the role of some trace element deficiencies, in particular iron deficiency on the development of behavioral disorders seen in children.Materials & Methods:In this study all patients referring to the Imam Khomeini pediatric neurology out patient clinic with the chief complaint of behavioral problems, between October 1996 and January 1998 were  enrolled; they were individually interviewed and underwent physical examinations, completing the relevant questionnaires.Results:Overall 139 patients (92boys and 47 girls were enrolled and the data were analyzed using SPSS and Harvard's graphic package. Analysis revealed that the most common behavioral disorders documented were: Sleep problems, in 38 patients (27.3%, Irritability in 37(26.6%, aggressiveness in 28 (20.1% staring in 27 (19.4%, altercation in 27(19.4%. Non psychiatric problem was seen in 77 patients (62.6%; neurological examinations in 36(25.9% revealed abnormal findings; 103 patients (74-8% had abnormal findings in other systems. 105 patients (76.6% had abnormal EEG and 72 of them (51.9% had abnormal findings in brain imaging. Iron deficiency was found in 88 (63.2% of the patients.Conclusion:According to these findings, treatment of organic disorders in patients with behavioral problems, can lead to partial or total control of their problems, which could otherwise result in major disturbances and disruptions in their own and in their family's lives.Key words:behavioral problems, EEG, Imaging, Iron deficiency

  4. Contextual behavior and neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inah eLee


    Full Text Available Animals including humans engage in goal-directed behavior flexibly in response to items and their background, which is called contextual behavior in this review. Although the concept of context has long been studied, there are differences among researchers in defining and experimenting with the concept. The current review aims to provide a categorical framework within which not only the neural mechanisms of contextual information processing but also the contextual behavior can be studied in more concrete ways. For this purpose, we categorize contextual behavior into three subcategories as follows by considering the types of interactions among context, item, and response: contextual response selection, contextual item selection, and contextual item-response selection. Contextual response selection refers to the animal emitting different types of responses to the same item depending on the context in the background. Contextual item selection occurs when there are multiple items that need to be chosen in a contextual manner. Finally, when multiple items and multiple contexts are involved, contextual item-response selection takes place whereby the animal either choose an item or inhibit such a response depending on item-context paired association. The literature suggests that the rhinal cortical regions and the hippocampal formation play key roles in mnemonically categorizing and recognizing contextual representations and the associated items. In addition, it appears that the fronto-striatal cortical loops in connection with the contextual information-processing areas critically control the flexible deployment of adaptive action sets and motor responses for maximizing goals. We suggest that contextual information processing should be investigated in experimental settings where contextual stimuli and resulting behaviors are clearly defined and measurable, considering the dynamic top-down and bottom-up interactions among the neural systems for

  5. Contextual behavior and neural circuits (United States)

    Lee, Inah; Lee, Choong-Hee


    Animals including humans engage in goal-directed behavior flexibly in response to items and their background, which is called contextual behavior in this review. Although the concept of context has long been studied, there are differences among researchers in defining and experimenting with the concept. The current review aims to provide a categorical framework within which not only the neural mechanisms of contextual information processing but also the contextual behavior can be studied in more concrete ways. For this purpose, we categorize contextual behavior into three subcategories as follows by considering the types of interactions among context, item, and response: contextual response selection, contextual item selection, and contextual item–response selection. Contextual response selection refers to the animal emitting different types of responses to the same item depending on the context in the background. Contextual item selection occurs when there are multiple items that need to be chosen in a contextual manner. Finally, when multiple items and multiple contexts are involved, contextual item–response selection takes place whereby the animal either chooses an item or inhibits such a response depending on item–context paired association. The literature suggests that the rhinal cortical regions and the hippocampal formation play key roles in mnemonically categorizing and recognizing contextual representations and the associated items. In addition, it appears that the fronto-striatal cortical loops in connection with the contextual information-processing areas critically control the flexible deployment of adaptive action sets and motor responses for maximizing goals. We suggest that contextual information processing should be investigated in experimental settings where contextual stimuli and resulting behaviors are clearly defined and measurable, considering the dynamic top-down and bottom-up interactions among the neural systems for contextual behavior

  6. Behaviorism: Are reports of its death exaggerated? (United States)

    Wyatt, W J; Hawkins, R P; Davis, P


    Despite reports that behaviorism is dead or dying, examination of the data indicates otherwise. The opinions of psychology historians, the number of professional associations devoted to behaviorism, and the increasing number of behavioral publications all support the conclusion that behaviorism is vital and growing.

  7. Theoretical behaviorism meets embodied cognition : Two theoretical analyses of behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, F.A.


    This paper aims to do three things: First, to provide a review of John Staddon's book Adaptive dynamics: The theoretical analysis of behavior. Second, to compare Staddon's behaviorist view with current ideas on embodied cognition. Third, to use this comparison to explicate some outlines for a theore

  8. Meiotic behavior of several Brazilian soybean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bione Nilton Cesar Pires


    Full Text Available Despite the importance of soybeans little cytogenetic work has traditionally been done, due to the small size and apparent similarity of the chromosomes. Fifteen soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] varieties adapted for cultivation in two distinct regions of Brazil were analyzed cytogenetically. A low frequency of meiotic abnormalities was noted in all varieties, although they were not equally affected. Irregular chromosome segregation, chromosome stickiness, cytoplasmic connections between cells, cytomixis and irregular spindles were the main abnormalities observed, none of which had been described previously in soybeans. All of these abnormalities can affect pollen fertility. Pollen fertility was high in most varieties and was correlated with meiotic abnormalities. Although soybean is not a model system for cytological studies, we found that it is possible to conduct cytogenetic studies on this species, though some modifications in the standard methods for meiotic studies were necessary to obtain satisfactory results.

  9. Creep behavior of microbiotic crust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The creep behavior of microbiotic crust at room temperature was revealed by the creep bending tests of cantilever beam under constant-load conditions.The variation in the deflection with time can be depicted well by a standard creep curve.Creep rupture is a fundamental failure mechanism of microbiotic crust due to creep.A simple theory was then applied to describe this new me-chanical behavior.The existence of creep phenomenon brings into question the validity of widely used methods for measuring the strength of microbiotic crust.

  10. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, James [Cadmus Group, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral social sciences to influence household energy use. Strategies may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy-efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5%.

  11. Digital behavioral and psychological principles

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Angela


    The chapters in this e-book lie firmly within Web 2.0 and deal with human aspects of interactions between consumers and between consumers and brands in digital space. The first chapter, Consumer Behavior in the Online Context, by Cummings, Peltier, Schibrowsky and Nill, provides an excellent introduction to this ebook by reviewing literature related to the consumer behavior and social network theory as they apply to the Internet, literature covering the period from 1993-2012, spanning over 900 articles across more than 85 marketing journals. The second chapter, by Kabadayi and Price, investiga

  12. Scaling Behaviors of Branched Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa


    We study the thermodynamic behavior of branched polymers. We first study random walks in order to clarify the thermodynamic relation between the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble. We then show that correlation functions for branched polymers are given by those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves. In particular, the two-point function behaves as $1/p^4$, not as $1/p^2$, in the scaling region. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  13. Critical behavior in topological ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Bulycheva, K; Nechaev, S


    We consider the relation between three physical problems: 2D directed lattice random walks in an external magnetic field, ensembles of torus knots, and 5d Abelian SUSY gauge theory with massless hypermultiplet in $\\Omega$ background. All these systems exhibit the critical behavior typical for the "area+length" statistics of grand ensembles of 2D directed paths. In particular, using the combinatorial description, we have found the new critical behavior in the ensembles of the torus knots and in the instanton ensemble in 5d gauge theory. The relation with the integrable model is discussed.

  14. Genetics and behavior: a guide for practitioners. (United States)

    Overall, Karen L; Tiira, Katriina; Broach, Desiree; Bryant, Deborah


    Phenotyping behavior is difficult, partly because behavior is almost always influenced by environment. Using objective terms/criteria to evaluate behaviors is best; the more objective the assessment, the more likely underlying genetic patterns will be identified. Behavioral pathologies, and highly desirable behavioral characteristics/traits, are likely complex, meaning that multiple genes are probably involved, and therefore simple genetic tests are less possible. Breeds can be improved using traditional quantitative genetic methods; unfortunately, this also creates the possibility of inadvertently selecting for covarying undesirable behaviors. Patterns of behaviors within families and breed lines are still the best guidelines for genetic counseling in dogs.

  15. Social memory, social stress, and economic behaviors


    Taiki Takahashi


    Social memory plays a pivotal role in social behaviors, from mating behaviors to cooperative behaviors based on reciprocal altruism. More specifically, social/person recognition memory is supposed, by behavioral-economic and game-theoretic analysis, to be required for tit- for-tat like cooperative behaviors to evolve under the N-person iterated prisoner fs dilemma game condition. Meanwhile, humans are known to show a social stress response during face-to-face social interactions, which might ...

  16. Human behavior representation of military teamwork


    Martin, Michael W.


    This work presents a conceptual structure for the behaviors of artificial intelligence agents, with emphasis on creating teamwork through individual behaviors. The goal is to set up a framework which enables teams of simulation agents to behave more realistically. Better team behavior can lend a higher fidelity of human behavior representation in a simulation, as well as provide opportunities to experiment with the factors that create teamwork. The framework divides agent behaviors into three...

  17. Student Nutrition, Learning and Behavior. (United States)

    Royster, Martha

    This discussion addresses several nutrition issues considered important to schools, students, and educators in the United States. Contents consist of a review of malnutrition and learning research and discussions of food additives and allergies, diet and hyperkinesia, the effects of caffeine and sugar on children's behavior, and the National…

  18. Critical behavior of collapsing surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper; Sourdis, C.


    We consider the mean curvature evolution of rotationally symmetric surfaces. Using numerical methods, we detect critical behavior at the threshold of singularity formation resembling that of gravitational collapse. In particular, the mean curvature simulation of a one-parameter family of initial...

  19. Unethical behavior in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Landini, Fabio; Piovesan, Marco


    What are the individual demographic characteristics that correlate with unethical behavior? To answer this question we randomly interviewed 541 passengers who used the bus in Reggio Emilia (Italy). Exploiting the high level of fare evasion (43% without a valid ticket) we find that young individuals...

  20. Behaviorism, Constructivism, and Socratic Pedagogy (United States)

    Boghossian, Peter


    This paper examines the relationship among behaviorism, constructivism and Socratic pedagogy. Specifically, it asks if a Socratic educator can be a constructivist or a behaviorist. In the first part of the paper, each learning theory, as it relates to the Socratic project, is explained. In the last section, the question of whether or not a…

  1. Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin

    the design of offshore wind turbine foundations. The work was divided into two main research efforts: geotechnical engineering experiments to gain insight into the behavior of offshore bucket foundations, and development of methods to improve the study of infiltration into unsaturated soils, an important...

  2. Should Virtuous Behavior Be Rewarded?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Shengxiang; Wu Ruowei; Fang Hua; Jin Zhen; Wan Xiaoyang; Wang Jie


    Traditionally Chinese people place much value in virtue, with a long-held belief that one should never appropriate valuable items lost by others. However, a recent regulation by the government of south China's Guangdong Province has provaked heated debate on whether such virtuaus behavior should be rewarded with money.

  3. Social Capital and Savings Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Khai, Luu Duc

    In this paper, we analyze household savings in rural Vietnam paying particular attention to the factors that determine the proportion of savings held as formal deposits. Our aim is to explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in promoting formal savings behavior. Social capital...

  4. Conceptual Frameworks in Information Behavior. (United States)

    Pettigrew, Karen E.; Fidel, Raya; Bruce, Harry


    Reviews advancements in the development of conceptual frameworks for studying information behavior. Concludes that a unifying theoretical body is emerging that, beyond its user-centered core, emphasizes the contextual interplay of cognitive, social, cultural, organizational, affective, and linguistic factors and asserts that information behavior…

  5. Behavioral Cues of Interpersonal Warmth (United States)

    Bayes, Marjorie A.


    The results of this study suggest, first, that interpersonal warmth does seem to be a personality dimension which can be reliably judged and, second, that it was possible to define and demonstrate the relevance of a number of behavioral cues for warmth. (Author)

  6. Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin

    reduce the risks and costsrelated to offshore geotechnics. The thesis examines: 1.Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations 2. Modeling of Water Flow through Porous Media The outcomes of each of the research contributions are summarized in four research articles, either directly or indirectly...

  7. Dopamine Agonists and Pathologic Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J. Kelley


    Full Text Available The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson’s disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobbying, and other circumscribed obsessive-compulsive disorders of impulse control in people having no history of such disorders. These behavioral changes typically remit following discontinuation of the medication, further demonstrating a causal relationship. Expression of the D3 receptor is particularly rich within the limbic system, where it plays an important role in modulating the physiologic and emotional experience of novelty, reward, and risk assessment. Converging neuroanatomical, physiological, and behavioral science data suggest the high D3 affinity of these medications as the basis for these behavioral changes. These observations suggest the D3 receptor as a therapeutic target for obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance abuse, and improved understanding of D3 receptor function may aid drug design of future atypical antipsychotics.

  8. Phase behavior of hard particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijneveldt, J.S. van; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.


    The phase behavior of hard particles and mixtures thereof is reviewed. Special attention is given to a lattice model consisting of hard hexagons and points on a triangular lattice. This model appears to have two disordered phases and an ordered phase.

  9. Transcending Behaviorism in Communication Education. (United States)

    Hartrick, Gwen


    Addresses limitations of a behavioral approach to communication. Explores the use of transformative learning theory in teaching communication. Outlines a learning map for nursing students: experiencing a disorienting dilemma, critically assessing internalized role assumptions, recognizing the social construction of practice, and exploring and…

  10. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yufeng


    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that e

  11. Supervisory Workbook on Behavior Modification. (United States)

    Arkin, Ronald; And Others

    This workbook is designed to be used with the trainer's manual in supervisory training sessions on behavior modification of employees. This is one of four manuals prepared to aid supervisors in training disadvantaged groups using social reinforcement techniques. Related documents are available as VT 018 031-VT 018 035 in this issue. (MF)

  12. Personality and Pupil Control Behavior. (United States)

    Helsel, A. Ray

    Pupil control behavior is conceptualized as a continuum ranging from custodialism, which views students as irresponsible and undisciplined and needing strictness and punishment, to humanism, which emphasizes a democratic atmosphere in which students are capable of self-discipline and are treated accordingly. The theoretical framework for this…

  13. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatošová Veronika


    Full Text Available Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the current trends. The article uses the basic terminology of this subject and current bibliography as well as other resources. Theoretical knowledge is based on historic directions of Maslow’s theory of motivation where it is possible to find the basis for a buyer behavior analysis. The article is also based on the formerly carried out questionnaire survey which examines the motives and experience of the respondents with online shopping. By means of the independence test it is verified whether there is a relation between the age of respondents and motivation for online shopping. Subsequently, the survey carried out in person is compared with other relevant research solutions.

  14. Teachers' Judgments of Problem Behaviors. (United States)

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.


    After viewing videotaped vignettes of classroom situations, 155 teachers rated severity, tolerance, manageability, and contagion factors related to a target child. Ratings indicated significant multivariate differences between regular/special education teachers and disruptive/nondisruptive behaviors, with regular educators being less tolerant and…

  15. Sexual Behavior of Drosophila suzukii. (United States)

    Revadi, Santosh; Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Anfora, Gianfranco; Dekker, Teun; Becher, Paul G


    A high reproductive potential is one reason for the rapid spread of Drosophila suzukii in Europe and in the United States. In order to identify mechanisms that mediate mating and reproduction in D. suzukii we studied the fly's reproductive behavior, diurnal mating activity and sexual maturation. Furthermore, we studied the change of female cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) with age and conducted a preliminary investigation on the role of female-derived chemical signals in male mating behavior. Sexual behavior in D. suzukii is characterized by distinct elements of male courtship leading to female acceptance for mating. Time of day and age modulate D. suzukii mating activity. As with other drosophilids, female sexual maturity is paralleled by a quantitative increase in CHCs. Neither female CHCs nor other olfactory signals were required to induce male courtship, however, presence of those signals significantly increased male sexual behavior. With this pilot study we hope to stimulate research on the reproductive biology of D. suzukii, which is relevant for the development of pest management tools.

  16. New Insights into Behavioral Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Baltussen (Guido)


    textabstractThis thesis applies insights from psychology and other behavioral sciences to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional finance approach (which assumes that agents and markets are rational) and improves our understanding of financial markets and its participants. More specific, this t

  17. Behavioral Expression of Teacher Attitudes. (United States)

    Good, Thomas; Brophy, Jere E.

    In a replication and extension of work by Silberman (1969), differential teacher behavior toward different students was studied in relation to the attitudes teachers held toward those students. Using data on dyadic teacher-child interactions collected with the Brophy-Good system, contrasting patterns were noted in the ways teachers interacted with…

  18. Viscoelastic behavior of rubbery materials

    CERN Document Server

    Roland, C M


    The gigantic size of polymer molecules makes them viscoelastic - their behavior changes depending on how fast and for how long the material is used. This book looks at the latest discoveries in the field from a fundamental molecular perspective, in order to guide the development of better and new applications for soft materials.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Olexandrivna Suprun


    Full Text Available The review of basic literary sources is made out of behavior of horse. On the basis of the field researches (visual supervisions after three different aged groups of mares it is built ethograms. An ethogram of behavioral forms among mares was developed. They represent the different forms of mares’ behavior in a dynamics. The reaction of mares of the different age-related and physiology groups on appearance of extraneous objects on a pasture, their activity, hierarchy, socialization is analyzed in groups. Several main studies on equines were reviewed in ethogram. Four objects were placed into the pasture with the mares and foals including a mat, cone, halter, and mounting block. Initial interest of mares in objects was high. Herd mentality highly evident. When one horse spooked at object the whole herd followed. After 5 minutes, majority of mares and foals lose interest in objects. The major general behavior categories observed include: locomotion, comfort, and harem social. Dominance was demonstrated while looking at the objects. Dominance was also demonstrated when a mare wanted to be in a specific place or play with a specific toy, she would pin her ears back, bite, or kick at the other mare. 

  20. Health Behavior in Ecological Context (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce


    Health is best understood within an ecological context. Accordingly, health promotion involves processes that foster supportive environments and healthful behavior. Thus, effective health promotion programs are typically multilevel, focusing not only on the population at risk but also on the environmental conditions that contribute so importantly…

  1. Behavior Modification in Marriage Counseling (United States)

    Baird, Emily; Redfering, David L.


    The spouses were counseled jointly with a cognitive approach and separately with behavior modification techniques for the husband's obesity and the wife's lack of affective verbalization. After eight weeks, the husband had lost thirty pounds and the wife's affective language had increased markedly. (Author)

  2. Problem behavior in Dutch preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Koot (Hans)


    textabstractThe present study was an attempt to contribute to the standardized assessment and the study of prevalence of problem behavior in children 2- to 3-years old by means of empirically derived rating scales. The basic questions were: 1. What are the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch v

  3. Professional Behavior: Crossing the Line (United States)

    McConnell, Tim J.; Rorrer, Andrea K.


    This case, which was inspired by actual events, describes the efforts of a district to create a culture of accountability for professional employee practice and behavior. In the midst of new district leaders and a shift in district priorities, numerous situations test the fortitude, organizational knowledge, ethical commitments, and political…

  4. Behavior Trees for Evolutionary Robotics. (United States)

    Scheper, Kirk Y W; Tijmons, Sjoerd; de Visser, Cornelis C; de Croon, Guido C H E


    Evolutionary Robotics allows robots with limited sensors and processing to tackle complex tasks by means of sensory-motor coordination. In this article we show the first application of the Behavior Tree framework on a real robotic platform using the evolutionary robotics methodology. This framework is used to improve the intelligibility of the emergent robotic behavior over that of the traditional neural network formulation. As a result, the behavior is easier to comprehend and manually adapt when crossing the reality gap from simulation to reality. This functionality is shown by performing real-world flight tests with the 20-g DelFly Explorer flapping wing micro air vehicle equipped with a 4-g onboard stereo vision system. The experiments show that the DelFly can fully autonomously search for and fly through a window with only its onboard sensors and processing. The success rate of the optimized behavior in simulation is 88%, and the corresponding real-world performance is 54% after user adaptation. Although this leaves room for improvement, it is higher than the 46% success rate from a tuned user-defined controller.

  5. Indoor Tanning and Problem Behavior (United States)

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Banerjee, Smita; Greene, Kathryn; Campo, Shelly


    Objective: The authors examined factors predicting college students' use of tanning beds. Participants and Methods: Undergraduate students (N = 745) at a large Northeastern university participated in the study by answering a survey measuring tanning behavior and other psychosocial variables, including sensation seeking, self-esteem, tanning image…

  6. Behavioral approach to list decoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Jan Willem; Kuijper, Margreta


    List decoding may be translated into a bivariate interpolation problem. The interpolation problem is to find a bivariate polynomial of minimal weighted degree that interpolates a given set of pairs taken from a finite field. We present a behavioral approach to this interpolation problem. With the da

  7. Behavior Modeling -- Foundations and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes revised selected papers from the six International Workshops on Behavior Modelling - Foundations and Applications, BM-FA, which took place annually between 2009 and 2014. The 9 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 58 papers...

  8. Liquidity regulation and bank behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, C.


    In response to the 2007-08 financial crisis, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision proposed two liquidity standards to reinforce banks’ resilience to liquidity risks. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the impact of liquidity regulation on bank behavior. The first of four main chapters an

  9. Behavior of dislocations in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumino, Koji [Nippon Steel Corp., Chiba Prefecture (Japan)


    A review is given of dynamic behavior of dislocations in silicon on the basis of works of the author`s group. Topics taken up are generation, motion and multiplication of dislocations as affected by oxygen impurities and immobilization of dislocations due to impurity reaction.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In this report an overview is given of the contribution of cognitive approaches to behavioral medicine. The (possible) contribution of cognitive therapy is reviewed in the area of coronary heart disease, obesity, bulimia nervosa, chronic pain, benign headache, cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndr

  11. Moral behavior in the marketplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dekker (Erwin)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The object of this paper is to understand how morality and the market are related. Morality is classically regarded as the study of how men ought to behave. This study has been inextricably linked with the way in which institutions shape behavior, or in which way ethica

  12. Verbal Behavior and Courtroom Success. (United States)

    Parkinson, Michael G.


    Identifies characteristics of successful courtroom speech for prosecuting attorneys, defense attorneys, and accuseds using computer-based content analysis and rater judgments of verbal behaviors. Demonstrates that verbal aggression is an important factor for successful prosecutors, equivocation is important to success for defense attorneys, and…


    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.


  14. Gene expression during zombie ant biting behavior reflects the complexity underlying fungal parasitic behavioral manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bekker, Charissa; Ohm, Robin A; Loreto, Raquel G; Sebastian, Aswathy; Albert, Istvan; Merrow, Martha; Brachmann, Andreas; Hughes, David P


    BACKGROUND: Adaptive manipulation of animal behavior by parasites functions to increase parasite transmission through changes in host behavior. These changes can range from slight alterations in existing behaviors of the host to the establishment of wholly novel behaviors. The biting behavior observ

  15. Cognitive Modeling of Social Behaviors (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Damer. Bruce; Brodsky, Boris


    The driving theme of cognitive modeling for many decades has been that knowledge affects how and which goals are accomplished by an intelligent being (Newell 1991). But when one examines groups of people living and working together, one is forced to recognize that whose knowledge is called into play, at a particular time and location, directly affects what the group accomplishes. Indeed, constraints on participation, including roles, procedures, and norms, affect whether an individual is able to act at all (Lave & Wenger 1991; Jordan 1992; Scribner & Sachs 1991). To understand both individual cognition and collective activity, perhaps the greatest opportunity today is to integrate the cognitive modeling approach (which stresses how beliefs are formed and drive behavior) with social studies (which stress how relationships and informal practices drive behavior). The crucial insight is that norms are conceptualized in the individual &nd as ways of carrying out activities (Clancey 1997a, 2002b). This requires for the psychologist a shift from only modeling goals and tasks - why people do what they do - to modeling behavioral patterns-what people do-as they are engaged in purposeful activities. Instead of a model that exclusively deduces actions from goals, behaviors are also, if not primarily, driven by broader patterns of chronological and located activities (akin to scripts). This analysis is particular inspired by activity theory (Leont ev 1979). While acknowledging that knowledge (relating goals and operations) is fundamental for intelligent behavior, activity theory claims that a broader driver is the person s motives and conceptualization of activities. Such understanding of human interaction is normative (i.e., viewed with respect to social standards), affecting how knowledge is called into play and applied in practice. Put another way, how problems are discovered and framed, what methods are chosen, and indeed who even cares or has the authority to act, are all

  16. Behavioral and Brain Functions. A new journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagvolden Terje


    Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral and Brain Functions (BBF is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal considering original research, review, and modeling articles in all aspects of neurobiology or behavior, favoring research that relates to both domains. Behavioral and Brain Functions is published by BioMed Central. The greatest challenge for empirical science is to understand human behavior; how human behavior arises from the myriad functions such as attention, language, memory and emotion; how these functions are reflected in brain structures and functions; and how the brain and behavior are altered in disease. Behavioral and Brain Functions covers the entire area of behavioral and cognitive neuroscience – an area where animal studies traditionally play a prominent role. Behavioral and Brain Functions is published online, allowing unlimited space for figures, extensive datasets to allow readers to study the data for themselves, and moving pictures, which are important qualities assisting communication in modern science.

  17. Behavior analysis and the growth of behavioral pharmacology


    Laties, Victor G.


    Psychologists, particularly those influenced by the work of B. F. Skinner, played a major part in the development of behavioral pharmacology in the 1950s and 1960s. Revolutionary changes in pharmacology and psychiatry, including the discovery of powerful therapeutic agents such as chlorpromazine and reserpine, had produced a surge of interest in drug research. Pharmaceutical companies began hiring psychologists with operant conditioning backgrounds so as to compete successfully in the search ...

  18. Immune Deficiency Influences Juvenile Social Behavior and Maternal Behavior (United States)

    Quinnies, Kayla M.; Cox, Kimberly H.; Rissman, Emilie F.


    Mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) lack functional T and B-lymphocytes, and have impaired cognitive abilities. Here, we assessed social behaviors in male SCID and C57BL/6 (B6) juvenile mice. In a social preference task, SCID mice spent more time than B6 mice investigating a novel adult male mouse. In a social recognition task, SCID mice habituated to a novel ovariectomized mouse, but failed to show dishabituation when presented with an unfamiliar individual. We hypothesized that partial immune restoration could normalize behaviors. SCID pups (postnatal day 7) received either saline or splenocytes from normal donors. Splenocyte-replaced SCID mice spent less time interacting with a novel mouse than saline-injected SCID or B6 control mice. Again, control SCID mice failed to dishabituate to a novel mouse, but splenocyte-replaced SCID mice showed dishabituation. In both of these studies B6 and SCID pairs were used to produce offspring that remained with their dams until weaning. There are no studies of maternal behavior in SCID dams; therefore to investigate the potential role for this factor we quantified maternal behavior in SCID and B6 dams; several significant differences were found. To control for differences in maternal care we mated heterozygous SCIDs to produce offspring. These homozygous SCID and WT offspring reared by dams of the same genotypes displayed similar responses to a novel mouse; however, in the social recognition task SCID males did not display dishabituation to a novel mouse. Taken together, our data indicate that gene by environment interactions influence social interactions in immune deficient mice. PMID:26030431

  19. Generalized behavioral framework for choice models of social influence: Behavioral and data concerns in travel behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maness, M.; Cirillo, C.; Dugundji, E.R.


    Over the past two decades, transportation has begun a shift from an individual focus to a social focus. Accordingly, discrete choice models have begun to integrate social context into its framework. Social influence, the process of having one’s behavior be affected by others, has been one approach t

  20. Effects of different protein concentrations on longevity and feeding behavior of two adult populations of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido-Silva, Maria do Carmo; Silva Neto, Alberto M. da; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral; Zucoloto, Fernando S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia


    The effects of protein intake on two adult male and female populations of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann were assessed. One population consisted of flies reared for twenty years in the laboratory (Lab-pop); the other population consisted both of flies reared in the laboratory for approximately fifteen years and of the periodically introduced wild flies (Hybrid-pop). Three diets were tested: a no-yeast diet and two diets containing yeast (protein source) at the concentrations 6.5 g or 1.5 g per 100 ml diet. The parameters analyzed were: adult longevity, diet intake with and without yeast, and discrimination threshold for yeast. Protein intake increased Lab-pop adult longevity and did not affect longevity of the Hybrid-pop. Longevity in each population was similar for males and females fed on the same diet. Food behavior were similar for male and female adults of both populations; all preferred diets containing protein (yeast). Males and females in both populations ingested similar amounts of each diet. The discrimination threshold for yeast was similar for all males (0.5 g yeast/100 ml diet); Lab-pop females were able to detect the presence of smaller quantities of yeast in their diet, thus having a higher discrimination capacity (0.4 g/100 ml diet) as compared to the Hybrid-pop females (0.6 g/ 100 ml diet). (author)