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Sample records for behavior fifteen experience-sampling

  1. The Implications of Big-Five Standing for the Distribution of Trait Manifestation in Behavior: Fifteen Experience-Sampling Studies and a Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeson, William; Gallagher, M. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    One of the fundamental questions in personality psychology is whether and how strongly trait standing relates to the traits that people actually manifest in their behavior, when faced with real pressures and real consequences of their actions. One reason this question is fundamental is the common belief that traits do not predict how individuals behave, which leads to the reasonable conclusion that traits are not important to study. However, this conclusion is surprising given that there is almost no data on the ability of traits to predict distributions of naturally occurring, representative behaviors of individuals (and that there are many studies showing that traits do indeed predict specific behaviors). This paper describes a meta-analysis of 15 experience-sampling studies, conducted over the course of eight years, amassing over 20,000 reports of trait manifestation in behavior. Participants reported traits on typical self-report questionnaires, then described their current behavior multiple times per day for several days, as the behavior was occurring. Results showed that traits, contrary to expectations, were strongly predictive of individual differences in trait manifestation in behavior, predicting average levels with correlations between .42 and .56 (approaching .60 for stringently restricted studies). Several other ways of summarizing trait manifestation in behavior were also predicted from traits. These studies provide evidence that traits are powerful predictors of actual manifestation of traits in behavior. PMID:19968421

  2. Theoretical Antecedents of Standing at Work: An Experience Sampling Approach Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. Renée Umstattd; Wu, Cindy; Walsh, Shana M.

    2016-01-01

    Time spent sitting has been associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cancer, obesity, and mental health impairments. However, 75% of Americans spend most of their days sitting, with work-sitting accounting for 63% of total daily sitting time. Little research examining theory-based antecedents of standing or sitting has been conducted. This lack of solid groundwork makes it difficult to design effective intervention strategies to decrease sitting behaviors. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as our theoretical lens to better understand factors related with beneficial standing behaviors already being practiced, we examined relationships between TPB constructs and time spent standing at work among “positive deviants” (those successful in behavior change). Experience sampling methodology (ESM), 4 times a day (midmorning, before lunch, afternoon, and before leaving work) for 5 consecutive workdays (Monday to Friday), was used to assess employees' standing time. TPB scales assessing attitude (α = 0.81–0.84), norms (α = 0.83), perceived behavioral control (α = 0.77), and intention (α = 0.78) were developed using recommended methods and collected once on the Friday before the ESM surveys started. ESM data are hierarchically nested, therefore we tested our hypotheses using multilevel structural equation modeling with Mplus. Hourly full-time university employees (n = 50; 70.6% female, 84.3% white, mean age = 44 (SD = 11), 88.2% in full-time staff positions) with sedentary occupation types (time at desk while working ≥6 hours/day) participated. A total of 871 daily surveys were completed. Only perceived behavioral control (β = 0.45, p deviance approach to enhance perceived behavioral control, in addition to implementing environmental changes like installing standing desks. PMID:29546189

  3. Theoretical Antecedents of Standing at Work: An Experience Sampling Approach Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Renée Umstattd Meyer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Time spent sitting has been associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cancer, obesity, and mental health impairments. However, 75% of Americans spend most of their days sitting, with work-sitting accounting for 63% of total daily sitting time. Little research examining theory-based antecedents of standing or sitting has been conducted. This lack of solid groundwork makes it difficult to design effective intervention strategies to decrease sitting behaviors. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB as our theoretical lens to better understand factors related with beneficial standing behaviors already being practiced, we examined relationships between TPB constructs and time spent standing at work among “positive deviants” (those successful in behavior change. Experience sampling methodology (ESM, 4 times a day (midmorning, before lunch, afternoon, and before leaving work for 5 consecutive workdays (Monday to Friday, was used to assess employees’ standing time. TPB scales assessing attitude (α = 0.81–0.84, norms (α = 0.83, perceived behavioral control (α = 0.77, and intention (α = 0.78 were developed using recommended methods and collected once on the Friday before the ESM surveys started. ESM data are hierarchically nested, therefore we tested our hypotheses using multilevel structural equation modeling with Mplus. Hourly full-time university employees (n = 50; 70.6% female, 84.3% white, mean age = 44 (SD = 11, 88.2%in full-time staff positions with sedentary occupation types (time at desk while working ≥6 hours/day participated. A total of 871 daily surveys were completed. Only perceived behavioral control (β = 0.45, p < 0.05 was related with work-standing at the event-level (model fit: just fit; mediation through intention was not supported. This is the first study to examine theoretical antecedents of real-time work-standing in a naturalistic field setting among positive deviants. These relationships should be further

  4. Momentary affect and risky behavior correlates of prescription drug misuse among young adult dating couples: An experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M; Blumenstock, Shari M

    2016-02-01

    Although published research based on retrospective survey designs has established prescription drug misuse as a serious health issue for individuals and society, misuse behavior has not been investigated as it occurs in daily life and important relationships. To address this gap, young adult romantic couples were recruited from the community to participate in an experience sampling study. Participants were identified through phone screen procedures as having engaged in recent prescription drug misuse behavior. Participants (n=46 couples) completed electronic diary reports throughout the day for 10days, tapping momentary affect, sexual experiences, prescription drug misuse, and alcohol and other drug use. Dyadic multilevel modeling revealed a more consistent pattern of associations between prescription drug misuse and problematic affective and behavioral outcomes for female partners than male partners. Specifically, during epochs of females' prescription drug misuse, they experienced relatively higher levels of negative affect and sexual regret. Also, females who misused prescriptions more during the study period evidenced lower levels of sexual enjoyment and engaged in more unprotected sex, alcohol use, and heavy alcohol use in daily life. Males' in-the-moment prescription drug misuse was not associated with their concurrent outcomes, though males with relatively more misuse across the reporting period were more likely to engage in heavy drinking. Couples' time together emerged as a moderator of prescription drug misuse in daily life: Females who spent relatively more time with their partner across the study were less likely to engage in misuse, and proportion of time spent together moderated several of the momentary misuse-outcome linkages. This study supports the use of ecologically-valid sampling methods for characterizing young adults' prescription drug misuse in daily life and relationship contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using the Experience Sampling Method in the Context of Contingency Management for Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husky, Mathilde M.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Barry, Danielle; Petry, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments have been shown to be effective in reducing substance use. This manuscript illustrates how the experience sampling method (ESM) can depict behavior and behavior change and can be used to explore CM treatment mechanisms. ESM characterizes idiosyncratic patterns of behavior and offers the potential to determine…

  6. Who Were the Fifteen Saudis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    social type, who would spend time with his friends playing guitar, singing at bonfires, and smoking apple tobacco from a water pipe. His behavior as a......captured on a video shot in a hotel in Malaysia , along with a group of men known to be part of the al-Qa’ida network. One of these men was Fahad al

  7. Experience Sampling of Positive Affect in Adolescents with Autism: Feasibility and Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Megan; Mosner, Maya; Miller, Stephanie; Hanna, Eleanor K; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2016-01-01

    Experience sampling is a powerful method for obtaining ecologically valid data from research participants in real-world contexts. Given the urgent need for innovative and sensitive outcome measures in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research, the present study sought to examine the feasibility of using experience sampling of positive affect and behavior in adolescents with ASD. Nineteen high functioning adolescents with ASD and 20 sex and age matched controls completed smartphone- and Qualtrics® -based experience sampling of positive affect and behavior six times over four days. Adherence was excellent: adolescents with ASD completed 85% of the assessments, compared to 93% in controls, and response rates were not impacted by age or IQ. Groups did not differ in positive affect overall or as a function of activities, nor did groups differ in the proportion of assessments completed during social or nonsocial activities. However, groups did differ in the proportion of assessments completed during preferred activities. Results suggest that smartphone- and Qualtrics® -based experience sampling with high functioning adolescents with ASD is feasible and captures real-world behaviors that would not be possible using laboratory-based measures.

  8. Appearance Investment and Everyday Interpersonal Functioning: An Experience Sampling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forand, Nicholas R.; Gunthert, Kathleen C.; German, Ramaris E.; Wenze, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have shown that body satisfaction affects interpersonal functioning. However, few have studied the specific interpersonal correlates of another important body image dimension, appearance investment--that is, the importance a woman places on appearance. We used an experience sampling design with PDA (personal digital assistant)…

  9. Kudzu eradication trials testing fifteen herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller

    1986-01-01

    Two studies examined herbicide treatments for controlling kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi]. In one study, fifteen herbicides were tested at 1 or 2 rates at 5 locations. Treatments and re-treatments occurred over a 2-yr period. The most effective herbicides were picloram pellets (4.7 and 5.8 lb ai/a), tebuthiuron pellets (6 lb ai/a), and picloram...

  10. Reciprocal Markov modeling of feedback mechanisms between emotion and dietary choice using experience sampling data

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Ji; Pan, Junhao; Zhang, Qiang; Dubé, Laurette; Ip, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    With intensively collected longitudinal data, recent advances in Experience Sampling Method (ESM) benefit social science empirical research, but also pose important methodological challenges. As traditional statistical models are not generally well-equipped to analyze a system of variables that contain feedback loops, this paper proposes the utility of an extended hidden Markov model to model reciprocal relationship between momentary emotion and eating behavior. This paper revisited an ESM da...

  11. Experience-Sampling Methodology with a Mobile Device in Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castilla Diana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the usability studies conducted in the development of an experience-sampling methodology (ESM system running in a mobile device. The goal of the system is to improve the accuracy and ecology in gathering daily self-report data in individuals suffering a chronic pain condition, fibromyalgia. The usability studies showed that the developed software to conduct ESM with mobile devices (smartphones, cell phones can be successfully used by individuals with fibromyalgia of different ages and with low level of expertise in the use of information and communication technologies. 100% of users completed the tasks successfully, although some have completely illiterate. Also there seems to be a clear difference in the way of interaction obtained in the two studies carried out.

  12. [Cushing's syndrome: clinical study of fifteen cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Romero, J M; Morales Pérez, F; Alvarez Barreiro, J A; Diaz Pérez de Madrid, J

    1998-05-01

    To study the epidemiological and clinical features and diagnostic tests of Cushing's syndrome (CS) of non-iatrogenic etiology, because of there are few similar studies in the last ten years. Fifteen cases of CS were diagnosed from 1992 to 1997 at our hospital. We describe the epidemiological, clinical, biochemical, radiologic, therapeutic and evolutive characteristics. Both diabetes mellitus and hypertension were observed in 40% of patients. The frequency of etiologies was: Cushing's disease, 66.6%; ectopic ACTH syndrome, 13.3%; adrenal adenoma, 6.6%; adrenal carcinoma, 6.6%; and undiagnosed, 6.6%. The 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC) and the overnight 1 mg oral dexamethasone suppression test yielded 93.3 and 100% diagnostic sensitivity for CS, respectively. The overnight 8 mg oral dexamethasone suppression test, the metyrapone test and the 7 mg intravenous dexmethasone test had 75, 50 and 60% diagnostic sensitivity for Cushing's disease, respectively. Ketoconazole treatment had success in to normalize the 24-hour UFC in all patients, except for the case of adrenal carcinoma. The Cushing's disease was the most common form of CS. The 24-hour UFC and overnight 1 mg oral dexamethasone suppression test were good screening studies. Ketoconazole was successful in normalizing the adrenal cortex function.

  13. Repetitive thought impairs sleep quality: an experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Shinji; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research has suggested that presleep negative cognitive activities are associated with poor sleep quality, there is little evidence regarding the association between negative thoughts and sleep in real-life settings. The present study used experience sampling and long-term sleep monitoring with actigraphy to investigate the relationships among negative repetitive thought, mood, and sleep problems. During a 1-week sampling period, 43 undergraduate students recorded their thought content and mood eight times a day at semirandom intervals. In addition to these subjective reports, participants wore actigraphs on their wrists in order to measure sleep parameters. Analyses using multilevel modeling showed that repetitive thought in the evening was significantly associated with longer sleep-onset latency, decreased sleep efficiency, and reduced total sleep time. Furthermore, impaired sleep quality was significantly associated with reduced positive affect the next morning, and decreased positive affect was indirectly associated with increased repetitive thought in the evening. These findings suggest the existence of a self-reinforcing cycle involving repetitive thought, mood, and impaired sleep quality, highlighting the importance of cognitive and emotional factors in enhancement and maintenance of good-quality sleep. © 2013.

  14. Everyday temptations: an experience sampling study of desire, conflict, and self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Baumeister, Roy F; Förster, Georg; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2012-06-01

    How often and how strongly do people experience desires, to what extent do their desires conflict with other goals, and how often and successfully do people exercise self-control to resist their desires? To investigate desire and attempts to control desire in everyday life, we conducted a large-scale experience sampling study based on a conceptual framework integrating desire strength, conflict, resistance (use of self-control), and behavior enactment. A sample of 205 adults wore beepers for a week. They furnished 7,827 reports of desire episodes and completed personality measures of behavioral inhibition system/behavior activation system (BIS/BAS) sensitivity, trait self-control, perfectionism, and narcissistic entitlement. Results suggest that desires are frequent, variable in intensity, and largely unproblematic. Those urges that do conflict with other goals tend to elicit resistance, with uneven success. Desire strength, conflict, resistance, and self-regulatory success were moderated in multiple ways by personality variables as well as by situational and interpersonal factors such as alcohol consumption, the mere presence of others, and the presence of others who already had enacted the desire in question. Whereas personality generally had a stronger impact on the dimensions of desire that emerged early in its course (desire strength and conflict), situational factors showed relatively more influence on components later in the process (resistance and behavior enactment). In total, these findings offer a novel and detailed perspective on the nature of everyday desires and associated self-regulatory successes and failures. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Adult herpes simplex encephalitis: fifteen years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera-Mestre, Antoni; Gubieras, Laura; Martínez-Yelamos, Sergio; Cabellos, Carmen; Fernández-Viladrich, Pedro

    2009-03-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most frequent cause of sporadic necrotizing encephalitis in adults. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of HSE and the factors influencing its outcome. Retrospective study of patients diagnosed with HSE in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a 15-year period. Diagnosis was based on a consistent clinical profile for HSE, plus either a PCR-positive CSF HSV study or consistent brain neuroimaging findings. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the modified Rankin Scale: good outcome (Grades =3). Thirty-five patients were included. Mean age was 53.9 years. More than half presented febricula or fever, headache, disorientation, behavioral changes, decreased level of consciousness, or neurological deficit. CSF glucose concentration was normal in all patients and WBC count was normal in 8 (23%). PCR for HSV was positive in 92% and cranial MRI was suggestive of HSE in 100% of patients. Mortality was 8.6%. In relation to outcome, age (OR=1.079; 95% CI, 1.023-1.138) and serum albumin level at admission (OR=0.87; 95% CI, 0.794-0.954) were independent prognostic factors at discharge. At 6 months, days of fever after initiation of acyclovir therapy (OR=1.219; 95% CI, 1.046-1.422) and serum albumin level at admission (OR=0.917; 95% CI, 0.87-0.967) were independent prognostic factors. Normal brain MRI or detection of low CSF glucose concentration requires consideration of diagnoses other than HSE. Age, serum albumin level at admission, and days of fever after initiation of acyclovir therapy were independent prognostic factors of the disease.

  16. Reciprocal Markov Modeling of Feedback Mechanisms Between Emotion and Dietary Choice Using Experience-Sampling Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ji; Pan, Junhao; Zhang, Qiang; Dubé, Laurette; Ip, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    With intensively collected longitudinal data, recent advances in the experience-sampling method (ESM) benefit social science empirical research, but also pose important methodological challenges. As traditional statistical models are not generally well equipped to analyze a system of variables that contain feedback loops, this paper proposes the utility of an extended hidden Markov model to model reciprocal the relationship between momentary emotion and eating behavior. This paper revisited an ESM data set (Lu, Huet, & Dube, 2011) that observed 160 participants' food consumption and momentary emotions 6 times per day in 10 days. Focusing on the analyses on feedback loop between mood and meal-healthiness decision, the proposed reciprocal Markov model (RMM) can accommodate both hidden ("general" emotional states: positive vs. negative state) and observed states (meal: healthier, same or less healthy than usual) without presuming independence between observations and smooth trajectories of mood or behavior changes. The results of RMM analyses illustrated the reciprocal chains of meal consumption and mood as well as the effect of contextual factors that moderate the interrelationship between eating and emotion. A simulation experiment that generated data consistent with the empirical study further demonstrated that the procedure is promising in terms of recovering the parameters.

  17. Fifteen: Combining Magic Squares and Tic-Tac-Toe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Joseph B. W.

    2012-01-01

    Most students love to play games. Ernest (1986) believed that games could be used to teach mathematics effectively in four areas: motivation, concept development, reinforcement of skills, and practice of problem-solving strategies. Fifteen is an interesting and thought-provoking game that helps students learn mathematics at the same time. Playing…

  18. Morocco's Job Market Policy Over the Last Fifteen Years: Graduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper's aim is to discuss Morocco's last fifteen years' job market policy and youth recruitment in the public sector. It is a know fact that there are youths who struggled before being recruited in the public sector, this paper will attend to the effects of three successive governments' policies on the Moroccan labour market.

  19. Fifteen Years of Democracy, 1999-2014: Reflections on Nigeria's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined fifteen years of Nigerian democracy and its reflection on national integration, which is one of the basic dividends expected of any democratic system. The paper aims to bring to the fore why and how Nigerian democracy since 1999 to date is yet to put in place integrative mechanism for its divergent but ...

  20. ExperienceSampler: An Open-Source Scaffold for Building Smartphone Apps for Experience Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Sabrina; Page-Gould, Elizabeth

    2017-06-15

    Experience sampling methods allow researchers to examine phenomena in daily life and provide various advantages that complement traditional laboratory methods. However, existing experience sampling methods may be costly, require constant Internet connectivity, may not be designed specifically for experience sampling studies, or require a custom solution from a computer programming consultant. In this article, we present ExperienceSampler, an open-source scaffold for creating experience-sampling smartphone apps designed for Android and iOS devices. We designed ExperienceSampler to address the common barriers to using experience sampling methods. First, there is no cost to the user. Second, ExperienceSampler apps make use of local notifications to let participants know when to complete surveys and store the data locally until Internet connection is available. Third, our app scaffold was designed with experience sampling methodological issues in mind. We also demonstrate how researchers can easily customize ExperienceSampler even if they have no programming skills. Furthermore, we evaluate the utility of ExperienceSampler apps with results from one social psychological study conducted using ExperienceSampler (N = 168). Mean response rates averaged 84%, and the median response latency was 9 minutes. Taken together, ExperienceSampler creates cost-effective smartphone apps that can be easily customized by researchers to examine experiences in daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Experience sampling and ecological momentary assessment studies in psychopharmacology : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Fionneke M.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Rot, Marije Aan Het

    2015-01-01

    Experience sampling methods (ESM) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) offer insight into daily life experiences, including symptoms of mental disorders. The application of ESM/EMA in psychopharmacology can be a valuable addition to more traditional measures such as retrospective self-report

  2. The Expression of Adult ADHD Symptoms in Daily Life: An Application of Experience Sampling Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Laura E.; Mitchell, John T.; Brown, Leslie H.; Silvia, Paul J.; Kane, Michael J.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To use experience sampling method (ESM) to examine the impact of inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms on emotional well-being, activities and distress, cognitive impairment, and social functioning assessed in the daily lives of young adults. The impact of subjective appraisals on their experiences is also examined.…

  3. Emotional experience improves with age : Evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carstensen, L.L.; Turan, B.; Scheibe, S.; Ram, N.; Ersner-Hershfield, H.; Samanez-Larkin, G.R.; Brooks, K.P.; Nesselroade, J.R.

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N =

  4. Bright environmental light ameliorates deficient subjective liking in insomnia : an experience sampling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Te Lindert, Bart H W; Itzhacki, Jacob; van der Meijden, Wisse P; Kringelbach, Morten L; Mendoza, Jorge; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2018-01-01

    Study Objectives: Altered comfort sensing and reduced gray matter volume in the orbitofrontal cortex of the brain in people suffering from Insomnia Disorder (ID) suggest compromised processes of motivation and hedonia. The Experience Sampling (ES) method was used to evaluate whether, in naturalistic

  5. Mood disorders in everyday life : A systematic review of experience sampling and ecological momentary assessment studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan het Rot, M.; Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, R.A.

    In the past two decades, the study of mood disorder patients using experience sampling methods (ESM) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has yielded important findings. In patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), the dynamics of their everyday mood have been associated with various

  6. Anxiety in High-Functioning Autism: A Pilot Study of Experience Sampling Using a Mobile Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Gracey, Carolyn; Wood, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and stress are everyday issues for many people with high-functioning autism, and while cognitive-behavioural therapy is the treatment of choice for the management of anxiety, there are challenges in using it with people with high-functioning autism. This study used modified experience sampling techniques to examine everyday anxiety and…

  7. Brain Embolism Secondary to Cardiac Myxoma in Fifteen Chinese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Youming; Gao, Cong

    2014-01-01

    Background. Heart myxoma-related embolisms commonly involve the central nervous system, but data are lacking in Chinese patients. Methods. 27 patients diagnosed with myxoma were reviewed retrospectively. Results. Among 27 patients, fourteen (51.9%) patients were women. Fifteen (55.6%) patients had brain embolisms. Rarely, patients were misdiagnosed with central nervous system vasculitis (n = 2), moyamoya disease (n = 1), and neuromyelitis optica (n = 1). We found positive associations between mRS (>3) and female gender (r = 0.873, P 10 × 109/L (r = 0.722, P = 0.002), tumour size (r = 0.866, P 0.05). Conclusions. Neurologic manifestations in Chinese patients with cardiac myxoma-related stroke were complicated and multifarious. Female gender, infection, other severe complications, low SBP, tumour size, bilateral brain lesions, TACI, and high WBC counts could be associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:24737987

  8. Brain Embolism Secondary to Cardiac Myxoma in Fifteen Chinese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youming Long

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Heart myxoma-related embolisms commonly involve the central nervous system, but data are lacking in Chinese patients. Methods. 27 patients diagnosed with myxoma were reviewed retrospectively. Results. Among 27 patients, fourteen (51.9% patients were women. Fifteen (55.6% patients had brain embolisms. Rarely, patients were misdiagnosed with central nervous system vasculitis (n = 2, moyamoya disease (n = 1, and neuromyelitis optica (n = 1. We found positive associations between mRS (>3 and female gender (r = 0.873, P10 × 109/L (r = 0.722, P = 0.002, tumour size (r = 0.866, P0.05. Conclusions. Neurologic manifestations in Chinese patients with cardiac myxoma-related stroke were complicated and multifarious. Female gender, infection, other severe complications, low SBP, tumour size, bilateral brain lesions, TACI, and high WBC counts could be associated with a poor prognosis.

  9. Activity patterns in response to symptoms in patients being treated for chronic fatigue syndrome: An experience sampling methodology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Rebecca; Barrowclough, Christine; Caldwell, Kim; Emsley, Richard; Wearden, Alison

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive-behavioral models of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) propose that patients respond to symptoms with 2 predominant activity patterns-activity limitation and all-or-nothing behaviors-both of which may contribute to illness persistence. The current study investigated whether activity patterns occurred at the same time as, or followed on from, patient symptom experience and affect. Twenty-three adults with CFS were recruited from U.K. CFS services. Experience sampling methodology (ESM) was used to assess fluctuations in patient symptom experience, affect, and activity management patterns over 10 assessments per day for a total of 6 days. Assessments were conducted within patients' daily life and were delivered through an app on touchscreen Android mobile phones. Multilevel model analyses were conducted to examine the role of self-reported patient fatigue, pain, and affect as predictors of change in activity patterns at the same and subsequent assessment. Current experience of fatigue-related symptoms and pain predicted higher patient activity limitation at the current and subsequent assessments whereas subjective wellness predicted higher all-or-nothing behavior at both times. Current pain predicted less all-or-nothing behavior at the subsequent assessment. In contrast to hypotheses, current positive affect was predictive of current activity limitation whereas current negative affect was predictive of current all-or-nothing behavior. Both activity patterns varied at the momentary level. Patient symptom experiences appear to be driving patient activity management patterns in line with the cognitive-behavioral model of CFS. ESM offers a useful method for examining multiple interacting variables within the context of patients' daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Fifteen years of radioactive waste management at Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, T.J.; Rao, P.K.M.

    1985-01-01

    Ontario Hydro is a large Canadian utility producing 84% (7394 MWe) of the Nuclear Electricity generated in Canada. The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes generated by the Ontario Hydro program are currently being managed at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development with various volume reduction, packaging and interim storage systems. Ontario Hydro also owns and operates a radioactive waste transportation system. Studies are in progress for final disposal of these wastes in a suitable geology in Ontario. Since its inception in 1971, Ontario Hydro's radioactive waste management program has evolved into providing a full fledged radioactive waste management capability to the utility's two nuclear generation centres at Pickering and Bruce, and later in the decade, to Darlington. This paper summarizes the various developments in this program; highlights the major facilities both in-service and planned to be built; reviews the experiences gained over fifteen years of in-house waste management; and discusses the proposed reorientation towards ultimate disposal of these wastes. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  11. Collective dose scenario at MAPS - a fifteen year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, V.; Viswambharam, K.R.; Mohandas, P.G.; Chudalayandi, K.; Krishnamoorthy, S.

    1999-01-01

    Madras Atomic Power Station - a two unit PHWR- has provided a large data based on occupational exposure since 1983. ICRP-1990 recommendations have forced ALARA practices to be implemented seriously at MAPS to put a check on collective dose. In this paper, an analysis of collective dose has been made with fifteen years of experience in background (1983-97). The distribution of collective dose among different groups shows definite trend over the years. Focus has been made to identify the critical work group, critical jobs, critical work areas, critical radionuclides and the critical systems vis-a-vis the collective dose. Distribution of dose is off-centered, resulting in selective groups (casual workers, mechanical and operation) getting more than sixty percent of station dose and therefore these groups require special focus on dose reduction strategies. There is a reduction in collective dose by a factor of 2 to 5 in different jobs due to refining work procedures and other ALARA efforts. (author)

  12. Relations among questionnaire and experience sampling measures of inner speech: A smartphone app study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eAlderson-Day

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inner speech is often reported to be a common and central part of inner experience, but its true prevalence is unclear. Many questionnaire-based measures appear to lack convergent validity and it has been claimed that they overestimate inner speech in comparison to experience sampling methods (which involve collecting data at random timepoints. The present study compared self-reporting of inner speech collected via a general questionnaire and experience sampling, using data from a custom-made smartphone app (Inner Life. Fifty-one university students completed a generalized self-report measure of inner speech (the Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire, or VISQ and responded to at least 7 random alerts to report on incidences of inner speech over a 2-week period. Correlations and pairwise comparisons were used to compare generalized endorsements and randomly-sampled scores for each VISQ subscale. Significant correlations were observed between general and randomly sampled measures for only 2 of the 4 VISQ subscales, and endorsements of inner speech with evaluative or motivational characteristics did not correlate at all across different measures. Endorsement of inner speech items was significantly lower for random sampling compared to generalized self-report, for all VISQ subscales. Exploratory analysis indicated that specific inner speech characteristics were also related to anxiety and future-oriented thinking.

  13. Experience sampling and ecological momentary assessment for studying the daily lives of patients with anxiety disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Laura C; Nauta, Maaike H; Aan Het Rot, Marije

    2014-12-01

    Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent. Symptoms may occur unpredictably (e.g., panic attacks) or predictably in specific situations (e.g., social phobia). Consequently, it may be difficult to assess anxiety and related constructs realistically in the laboratory or by traditional retrospective questionnaires. Experience sampling methods (ESM) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) can deepen the understanding of the course of anxiety disorders by frequently assessing symptoms and other variables in the natural environment. We review 34 ESM/EMA studies on adult panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, as well as anxiety disorders in youth. Benefits of ESM/EMA for the study of anxiety disorders include generating insight into the temporal variability of symptoms and into the associations among daily affect, behaviors, and situational cues. Further, ESM/EMA has been successfully combined with ambulatory assessment of physiological variables and with treatment evaluations. We provide suggestions for future research, as well as for clinical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fifteen Years of Slow Slip and Tremor Observations at the Northern Costa Rica Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, S. Y.; Dixon, T. H.; Protti, M.; González, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    Coordinated long-term geophysical observations at the northern Costa Rica seismogenic zone, facilitated by NSF's MARGINS program, have greatly expanded our understanding of its megathrust behavior. Here we review fifteen years of seismic, geodetic, ocean bottom fluid flow and pressure sensor data collected on or near the Nicoya Peninsula, above the shallow thrust interface that document a variety of slow slip behaviors. These include relatively deep (~30-40 km), large slow slip events that occur about every 2 years, smaller events that locate at more intermediate depth (10-15 km) and occur more frequently (~1 per year), and very shallow events at the toe of the margin wedge that produce no discernible GPS signal on land but are detected on seafloor pressure sensors. Most of these slow slip events at the toe are accompanied by seismic tremor. Short-term, GPS only observations might have detected a few of these slow slip events; however, the longer more diverse instrument deployment was necessary to reveal their greater complexity. This demonstrates the need for a sustained, multi-instrument deployment and off-shore instrumentation at several different subduction zones, like that proposed for the Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO), to significantly advance our understanding of slow slip at convergent boundaries. Similar instrumentation to what exists in Nicoya is presently being established in the Osa-Burica region of southern Costa Rica to capture earthquake cycle deformation there. These two installations can provide a good nucleus for a larger circum-Pacific SZO effort.

  15. Supporting Opportunities for Context-Aware Social Matching: An Experience Sampling Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Julia; Barkhuus, Louise; Hiltz, Starr Roxanne

    2016-01-01

    opportunities to map out the design space of opportunistic social matching systems. We contribute insights gained from a study combining Experience Sampling Method (ESM) with 85 students of a U.S. university and interviews with 15 of these participants. A generalized linear mixed model analysis (n=1704) showed......Mobile social matching systems aim to bring people together in the physical world by recommending people nearby to each other. Going beyond simple similarity and proximity matching mechanisms, we explore a proposed framework of relational, social and personal context as predictors of match...... that personal context (mood and busyness) as well as sociability of others nearby are the strongest predictors of contextual match interest. Participant interviews suggest operationalizing relational context using social network rarity and discoverable rarity, and incorporating skill level and learning...

  16. Mind Wandering in Chinese Daily Lives – An Experience Sampling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaolan; Wang, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Mind wandering has recently received extensive research because it reveals an important characteristic of our consciousness: conscious experience can arise internally and involuntarily. As the first attempt to examine mind wandering in a non-western population, the present study used experience-sampling method to collect the daily momentary mind wandering episodes in a Chinese sample. The results showed that mind wandering was also a ubiquitous experience among the Chinese population, and, instead of emerging out of nowhere, it was often elicited by external or internal cues. Furthermore, most of the mind wandering episodes involved prospective thinking and were closely related to one’s personal life. Finally, the frequency of mind wandering was influenced by some contextual factors. These results taken together suggest that mind wandering plays an important role in helping people to maintain a continuous feeling of “self” and to prepare them to cope with the upcoming events. PMID:22957071

  17. Mind wandering in Chinese daily lives--an experience sampling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Song

    Full Text Available Mind wandering has recently received extensive research because it reveals an important characteristic of our consciousness: conscious experience can arise internally and involuntarily. As the first attempt to examine mind wandering in a non-western population, the present study used experience-sampling method to collect the daily momentary mind wandering episodes in a Chinese sample. The results showed that mind wandering was also a ubiquitous experience among the Chinese population, and, instead of emerging out of nowhere, it was often elicited by external or internal cues. Furthermore, most of the mind wandering episodes involved prospective thinking and were closely related to one's personal life. Finally, the frequency of mind wandering was influenced by some contextual factors. These results taken together suggest that mind wandering plays an important role in helping people to maintain a continuous feeling of "self" and to prepare them to cope with the upcoming events.

  18. Decentering in the process of cultivating mindfulness: An experience-sampling study in time and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Adi; Goldstein, Pavel; Oren, Ravit; Spivak, David; Bernstein, Amit

    2017-02-01

    Through intensive experience sampling, we studied the practice and development of mindfulness as a dynamic process in time and context. We focused on role(s) and salutary function(s) of mindfulness and decentering for emotional experience over the course of mindfulness practice and development. Eighty-two meditation-naive adults from the general community, 52% women, M age (SD) = 25.05 (3.26) years, participated in a 1-month, 6-session, Mahasi-based mindfulness-training intervention (Mahasi, 1978). We collected 52 digital experience samples of mindfulness, decentering, and emotional experience, in the context of daily living and meditative states, over the course of the program. Data were analyzed via time-varying effects models (TVEMs) and mixed-linear models (MLMs) within a single-subject, multiple-baseline experimental design. First, over the course of the intervention, participants grew more mindful and decentered in daily living and meditative states. Second, the association between mindfulness and decentering was significant in daily living, although the magnitude of this association was stronger in meditative states. Third, we observed the same contextualized pattern of relations between mindfulness and emotional valence (happy > sad) as well as arousal (calm > nervous). Finally, whereas decentering mediated the effect of mindfulness on reduced emotional arousal in meditative states, it did not similarly mediate the effect of mindfulness on positive emotional valence. The present findings illustrate the insights that may be gained about mindfulness mechanisms broadly and decentering specifically through the study of mindfulness as a dynamic, contextualized developmental process over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Emotional experience improves with age: evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Laura L; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Brooks, Kathryn P; Nesselroade, John R

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Does body satisfaction influence self-esteem in adolescents' daily lives? An experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Skouteris, Helen; Richardson, Ben; Nihill, Kristy; Watson, Brittany; Solomon, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    This study examined, within the context of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model, state-based associations between self-esteem and body satisfaction using the experience sampling method. One hundred and forty-four adolescent girls (mean age = 14.28 years) completed up to 6 assessments per day for one week using Palm Digital Assistants, in addition to baseline measures of trait body satisfaction and self-esteem. Results showed considerable variation in both state-based constructs within days, and evidence of effects of body satisfaction on self-esteem, but not vice versa. Although these state-based associations were small in size and weakened as the time lag between assessments increased for the sample as a whole, individual differences in the magnitude of these effects were observed and predicted by trait self-esteem and body satisfaction. Collectively, these findings offer support for key tenets of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Procrastination, Flow, and Academic Performance in Real Time Using the Experience Sampling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya, Isabel C; Darling, Emily

    2018-01-01

    The authors' aim was to first provide an alternative methodology in the assessment of procrastination and flow that would not reply on retrospective or prospective self-reports. Using real-time assessment of both procrastination and flow, the authors investigated how these factors impact academic performance by using the Experience Sampling Method. They assessed flow by measuring student self-reported skill versus challenge, and procrastination by measuring the days to completion of an assignment. Procrastination and flow were measured for six days before a writing assignment due date while students (n = 14) were enrolled in a research methods course. Regardless of status of flow, both the nonflow and flow groups showed high levels of procrastination. Students who experienced flow as they worked on their paper, in real time, earned significantly higher grades (M = 3.05 ± 0.30: an average grade of B) as compared with the nonflow group (M = 1.16 ± 0.33: an average grade of D; p = .007). Additionally, students experiencing flow were more accurate in predicting their grade (difference scores, flow M = 0.12 ± 0.33 vs. nonflow M = 1.39 ± 0.29; p = .015). Students in the nonflow group were nearly a grade and a half off in their prediction of their grade on the paper. To the authors' knowledge, the study is the first to provide experimental evidence showing differences in academic performance between students experiencing flow and nonflow students.

  2. Is psychotic disorder associated with increased levels of craving for cannabis? An Experience Sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuepper, R; Oorschot, M; Myin-Germeys, I; Smits, M; van Os, J; Henquet, C

    2013-12-01

    Although cannabis use among individuals with psychotic disorder is considerable, little is known about patterns of use and factors contributing to continuation of use. Therefore, we investigated craving in relation to cannabis use in patients with psychotic disorder and healthy controls. The study included 58 patients with non-affective psychotic disorder and 63 healthy controls; all were frequent cannabis users. Craving was assessed with the Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale (OCDUS) for cannabis, as well as in daily life using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). Patients scored higher on the OCDUS (B = 1.18, P = 0.022), but did not differ from controls in ESM indices of craving (all P > 0.05). In daily life, ESM craving predicted cannabis use and this was stronger in controls (χ(2) = 4.5, P = 0.033; Bcontrols = 0.08, P cannabis-using moments (B = 0.03, P = 0.002). The temporal dynamics of craving as well as craving intensity in daily life appear to be similar in patients and controls. Further research is needed to elucidate the inconsistencies between cross-sectional and daily-life measures of craving in psychosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Well-being in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a pilot experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Ruben G L; Dickhaus, Thorsten; Ludolph, Albert; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to identify predictors of instantaneous well-being in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Based on flow theory well-being was expected to be highest when perceived demands and perceived control were in balance, and that thinking about the past would be a risk factor for rumination which would in turn reduce well-being. Using the experience sampling method, data on current activities, associated aspects of perceived demands, control, and well-being were collected from 10 patients with ALS three times a day for two weeks. RESULTS show that perceived control was uniformly and positively associated with well-being, but that demands were only positively associated with well-being when they were perceived as controllable. Mediation analysis confirmed thinking about the past, but not thinking about the future, to be a risk factor for rumination and reduced well-being. Findings extend our knowledge of factors contributing to well-being in ALS as not only perceived control but also perceived demands can contribute to well-being. They further show that a focus on present experiences might contribute to increased well-being.

  4. Well-being in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: a pilot Experience Sampling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Gustav Leonhardt Real

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of this longitudinal study was to identify predictors of instantaneous well-being in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Based on flow theory well-being was expected to be highest when perceived demands and perceived control were in balance, and that thinking about the past would be a risk factor for rumination which would in turn reduce well-being.MethodsUsing the experience sampling method, data on current activities, associated aspects of perceived demands, control, and well-being were collected from 10 patients with ALS three times a day for two weeks.ResultsResults show that perceived control was uniformly and positively associated with well-being, but that demands were only positively associated with well-being when they were perceived as controllable. Mediation analysis confirmed thinking about the past, but not thinking about the future, to be a risk factor for rumination and reduced well-being. DiscussionFindings extend our knowledge of factors contributing to well-being in ALS as not only perceived control but also perceived demands can contribute to well-being. They further show that a focus on present experiences might contribute to increased well-being.

  5. The relationship between bipolar disorder and cannabis use in daily life: an experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Elizabeth; Jones, Steven; Black, Nancy; Carter, Lesley-Anne; Barrowclough, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Although cannabis use is common in bipolar disorder and may contribute to worse clinical outcomes, little is understood about the relationship between this drug and bipolar disorder over the course of daily life. The aim of study was to examine the effect of cannabis on affect and bipolar symptoms in a group of individuals with bipolar disorder. Twenty-four participants with bipolar disorder type I or type II completed diaries for 6 days using Experience Sampling Methodology to investigate the temporal associations between cannabis, affect and bipolar disorder symptoms. The results indicated that higher levels of positive affect increase the odds of using cannabis (OR:1.25 ,CI:1.06-1.47, P=0.008). However, neither negative affect, manic nor depressive symptoms predicted the use of cannabis. Cannabis use was associated with subsequent increases in positive affect (β=0.35, CI:0.20-0.51, P=0.000), manic symptoms (β=0.20,CI:0.05-0.34, P=0.009) and depressive symptoms (β= 0.17,CI:0.04-0.29, P=0.008). The findings indicate that cannabis use is associated with a number of subsequent psychological effects. However there was no evidence that individuals with BD were using cannabis to self-medicate minor fluctuations in negative affect or bipolar disorder symptoms over the course of daily life. The findings in relation to existing literature and clinical implications are discussed.

  6. Bright environmental light ameliorates deficient subjective liking in insomnia: an experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Lindert, Bart H W; Itzhacki, Jacob; van der Meijden, Wisse P; Kringelbach, Morten L; Mendoza, Jorge; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2018-02-07

    Altered comfort sensing and reduced gray matter volume in the orbitofrontal cortex of the brain in people suffering from Insomnia Disorder (ID) suggest compromised processes of motivation and hedonia. The Experience Sampling (ES) method was used to evaluate whether, in naturalistic conditions, people with ID differ from those without sleep complaints with respect to subjective wanting and liking, two major dimensions of the reward system. Since light affects brain circuits involved in affect and reward, ES was combined with ambulatory monitoring of light intensity fluctuations to evaluate their effect on subjective wanting and liking. Participants with ID (n=17, 12 females, 56.8 ± 6.5 mean ± standard deviation years of age) and matched controls without sleep complaints (n=18, 12 females, 57.0 ± 8.6 years of age) were probed by a smartphone alarm to log their subjective wanting, liking and mood nine times a day for seven days. Using an ambulatory light recorder, light intensity exposure was sampled simultaneously and averaged over the intervals between subsequent ES alarms. Mixed effect models were used to evaluate how ID and varying light intensity affected subjective assessments. The results indicated significantly lower subjective Liking and Wanting in people suffering from ID, particularly at low environmental light intensity. Wanting and liking, rather than more commonly used mood adjectives, showed an increased sensitivity to detect deficient hedonic and reward processing in insomnia during everyday life. Deficient liking may in part be rescued by exposure to bright environmental light. © Sleep Research Society 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Discrete- vs. Continuous-Time Modeling of Unequally Spaced Experience Sampling Method Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Haan-Rietdijk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Experience Sampling Method is a common approach in psychological research for collecting intensive longitudinal data with high ecological validity. One characteristic of ESM data is that it is often unequally spaced, because the measurement intervals within a day are deliberately varied, and measurement continues over several days. This poses a problem for discrete-time (DT modeling approaches, which are based on the assumption that all measurements are equally spaced. Nevertheless, DT approaches such as (vector autoregressive modeling are often used to analyze ESM data, for instance in the context of affective dynamics research. There are equivalent continuous-time (CT models, but they are more difficult to implement. In this paper we take a pragmatic approach and evaluate the practical relevance of the violated model assumption in DT AR(1 and VAR(1 models, for the N = 1 case. We use simulated data under an ESM measurement design to investigate the bias in the parameters of interest under four different model implementations, ranging from the true CT model that accounts for all the exact measurement times, to the crudest possible DT model implementation, where even the nighttime is treated as a regular interval. An analysis of empirical affect data illustrates how the differences between DT and CT modeling can play out in practice. We find that the size and the direction of the bias in DT (VAR models for unequally spaced ESM data depend quite strongly on the true parameter in addition to data characteristics. Our recommendation is to use CT modeling whenever possible, especially now that new software implementations have become available.

  8. DMPD: NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16723122 NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. Gloi...svg) (.html) (.csml) Show NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. PubmedID 167...23122 Title NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later.

  9. The Role of Experience Sampling and Graphical Displays on One's Investment Risk Appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Kaufmann; Martin Weber; Emily Haisley

    2013-01-01

    Financial professionals have a great deal of discretion concerning how to relay information about the risk of financial products to their clients. This paper introduces a new risk tool to communicate the risk of investment products, and it examines how different risk-presentation modes influence risk-taking behavior and investors' recall ability of the risk-return profile of financial products. We analyze four different ways of communicating risk: (i) numerical descriptions, (ii) experience s...

  10. Assessing the Relationship between Family Mealtime Communication and Adolescent Emotional Well-Being Using the Experience Sampling Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offer, Shira

    2013-01-01

    While most prior research has focused on the frequency of family meals the issue of which elements of family mealtime are most salient for adolescents' well-being has remained overlooked. The current study used the experience sampling method, a unique form of time diary, and survey data drawn from the 500 Family Study (N = 237 adolescents with…

  11. Daily Stressful Experiences Precede But Do Not Succeed Depressive Symptoms : Results from a Longitudinal Experience Sampling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brose, Annette; Wichers, Marieke; Kuppens, Peter

    This study investigates the proposition that micro-level experiences in the realm of stress (e.g., daily stress exposure) are among the building blocks of maladjustment, in particular, depression. Data were collected with experience sampling methods and in the lab. A sample of 202 students who had

  12. Loneliness in the Daily Lives of Adolescents: An Experience Sampling Study Examining the Effects of Social Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine state levels of loneliness in adolescence. Both concurrent associations and temporal dynamics between social contexts and state levels of loneliness were examined. Data were collected from 286 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14.19 years, 59% girls) by using the Experience Sampling Method. Results…

  13. Temporal focus, temporal distance, and mind-wandering valence: Results from an experience sampling and an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spronken, M.; Holland, R.W.; Figner, B.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    When mind-wandering, people may think about events that happened in the past, or events that may happen in the future. Using experience sampling, we first aimed to replicate the finding that future-oriented thoughts show a greater positivity bias than past-oriented thoughts. Furthermore, we

  14. Dealing with daily challenges in dementia (deal-id study): effectiveness of the experience sampling method intervention ?Partner in Sight? for spousal caregivers of people with dementia: design of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    van Knippenberg, Rosalia J. M.; de Vugt, Marjolein E.; Ponds, Rudolf W.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Verhey, Frans R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for psychosocial interventions that effectively support dementia caregivers in daily life. The Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM) offers the possibility to provide a more dynamic view of caregiver functioning. ESM-derived feedback may help to redirect caregivers? behavior towards situations that elicit positive emotions and to increase their feelings of competence in the caretaking process. This paper presents the design of a study that evaluates the proc...

  15. Motivational and neural correlates of self-control of eating: A combined neuroimaging and experience sampling study in dieting female college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Richard B.; Milyavskaya, Marina; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation is a critical ability for maintaining a wide range of health behaviors, especially in preventing overeating and weight gain. Previous work has identified various threats to self-control in the eating domain, chief among which are desire strength and negative affect. In the present study, we examined individual differences in college-aged dieters’ experiences of these threats as they encountered temptations to eat in their daily lives, and tested whether these differences characterized sub-groups of dieters with divergent self-control outcomes. Specifically, 75 dieting females (age range: 18-23) participated in a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and experience sampling study. Participants passively viewed food cues during an fMRI session, and then reported their daily eating behaviors for one week via ecological momentary assessment. We examined the characteristics of dieters who exhibited the most favorable combination of the aforementioned factors (i.e., low desire strength and positive mood) and who were thus most successful at regulating their eating. These dieters endorsed more autonomous reasons for their self-regulatory goals, and during the food cue reactivity task more readily recruited the inferior frontal gyrus, a brain region associated with inhibitory control. We suggest that these motivational and neural correlates may also be implicated in self-regulation of other important health behaviors. PMID:27058281

  16. Teachers’ emotional experiences and exhaustion as predictors of emotional labor in the classroom: An Experience Sampling study

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie M. Keller; Mei-Lin eChang; Eva S. Becker; Thomas eGoetz; Anne C. Frenzel

    2014-01-01

    Emotional exhaustion is the core component in the study of teacher burnout, with significant impact on teachers’ professional lives. Yet, its relation to teachers’ emotional experiences and emotional labor during instruction remains unclear. Thirty-nine German secondary teachers were surveyed about their emotional exhaustion (trait), and via the Experience Sampling Method on their momentary (state; N = 794) emotional experiences (enjoyment, anxiety, anger) and momentary emotional labor (suppr...

  17. 2017 | Hope and emotional well-being in daily life: an Experience Sampling approach (conference poster, 2017)

    OpenAIRE

    Lataster, Johan; Peeters, Sanne; Wijk, Bert van; Janssens, Mayke; Reijnders, Jennifer; Jacobs, Nele

    2018-01-01

    Background Hope is viewed as an important resilience factor in coping with life’s inevitable adversities, and achieving and maintaining a high quality of life. However, although retrospective reports have identified hope as an important predictor of well-being in a number of domains and samples, little is known about the dynamics of hope in daily life, and how they are connected to aspects of well-being. Methods Using the Experience Sampling Method (a structured se...

  18. A Fifteen-Year Retrospective Study Of The Prevalence Of Rabies In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Records of rabies cases from the 20 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Bauchi State for fifteen years (1987-2001) were analyzed for trend of exposure. A total of 44 cases of rabies were recorded. Sixty two animals from various species were involved in clinical form of rabies. Out of these, 58 (93.6%) were dogs, 3 (4.8%) ...

  19. Physical activity levels and patterns of thirteen to fifteen year old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is worldwide concern over the decline in physical activity (PA) levels among school children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the (PA) levels and PA patterns of thirteen to fifteen year old boys from different race groups in the North- West Province and to determine to what degree this physical activity profile ...

  20. Vigour and behaviour of fifteen citrus varieties against tristeza in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... Fifteen varieties or combinations of citrus (lime, grapefruit, lemons, oranges, mandarin and hybrids) were characterized in the forest ... Satsuma mandarin, Lisbon lemon, Eureka lemon and in some aspects Tahiti lime showed a ... are abnormally gorged with water (Aubert, 1982). The notation scale includes ...

  1. Historical and contemporary environmental context for the Saline-Fifteen site (3BR119)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Hope A. Bragg

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the historical environmental context of the Saline-Fifteen site (3BR119) in Bradley County, Arkansas, developed from the General Land Office (GLO) public land surveys, other old documents, and an examination of current forest inventories and modern research to approximate past environmental attributes for this locality. While an imperfect source...

  2. The Lost Art of Regulated tolerance? Fifteen Years of Regulating Vices in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, W.; Nelen, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, Brants explored the idiosyncrasies of Dutch policy with regard to prostitution, focusing on the situation in the Dutch capital. Amsterdam was on the brink of the enactment of new policies and legislation regarding the legalization of prostitution and the crackdown on organized

  3. Fifteen-Month-Old Infants Match Vocal Cues to Intentional Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoicka, Elena; Wang, Su-hua

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen-month-old infants detected a violation when an actor performed an action that did not match her preceding vocal cue: The infants looked reliably longer when the actor expressed a humorous vocal cue followed by a sweet action or expressed a sweet vocal cue followed by a humorous action, than when the vocal cue was followed by a matching…

  4. Vigour and behaviour of fifteen citrus varieties against tristeza in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen varieties or combinations of citrus (lime, grapefruit, lemons, oranges, mandarin and hybrids) were characterized in the forest zone of Cameroon. Characterization was carried out based on the behaviour of these citrus varieties against citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Foliar and cortical symptoms were evaluated. Six years ...

  5. Dimensional synthesis of six-bar Stephenson II linkage for fifteen precision points path generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Nafees

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the dimensional synthesis of a planar six-bar Stephenson II linkage having single degree of freedom with rotational constraints. The objective of the synthesis is to determine all the link lengths with their orientations of the linkage that is capable to follow the path specified by fifteen precision points. The analytical loop closure equations are formed using dyad and triad technique by means of complex number mathematics for path generation. These equations are solved simultaneously for fifteen displacement positions of coupler tracing point to determine various link lengths with their corresponding orientations. The displacement vector and coupler link motion are the prescribed parameters. The effectiveness of mechanism synthesis has been demonstrated on a numerical example. The solution of loop closure equations has been obtained using a MATLAB code. Finally, the determined link lengths with their orientations have been verified using SAM software.

  6. Development and use of a fifteen year-old equivalent mathematical phantom for internal dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.; Poston, J.W.; Hwang, J.L.; Jones, T.D.; Warner, G.G.

    1976-06-01

    The existence of a phantom based on anatomical data for the average fifteen-year-old provides for a proficient means of obtaining estimates of absorbed dose for children of that age. Dimensions representative of an average fifteen-year-old human, obtained from various biological and medical research, were transformed into a mathematical construct of idealized shapes of the exterior, skeletal system, and internal organs of a human. The idealization for an average adult presently in use by the International Commission on Radiological Protection was used as a basis for design. The mathematical equations describing the phantom were developed to be readily adaptable to present-day methods of dose estimation. Typical exposure situations in nuclear medicine have previously been modeled for existing phantoms. With no further development of the exposure model necessary, adaptation to the fifteen-year-old phantom demonstrated the utility of the design. Estimates of absorbed dose were obtained for the administration of two radiopharmaceuticals, /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA

  7. Temporal focus, temporal distance, and mind-wandering valence: Results from an experience sampling and an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronken, Maitta; Holland, Rob W; Figner, Bernd; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2016-04-01

    When mind-wandering, people may think about events that happened in the past, or events that may happen in the future. Using experience sampling, we first aimed to replicate the finding that future-oriented thoughts show a greater positivity bias than past-oriented thoughts. Furthermore, we investigated whether there is a relation between the temporal distance of past- and future-oriented thoughts and the frequency of positive thoughts, a factor that has received little attention in previous work. Second, we experimentally investigated the relation between temporal focus, temporal distance, and thought valence. Both studies showed that future-oriented thoughts were more positive compared to past-oriented thoughts. Regarding temporal distance, thoughts about the distant past and future were more positive than thoughts about the near past and future in the experiment. However, the experience sampling study did not provide clear insight into this relation. Potential theoretical and methodological explanations for these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  9. Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.

    2014-01-01

    Health behaviors are people’s actions, some purposefully deployed to promote or protect health; some thoughtlessly undertaken without concern for their potential risk to health; some consciously, even defiantly, deployed regardless of consequences to health. Risk behaviors are specific forms of

  10. Dealing with daily challenges in dementia (deal-id study): process evaluation of the experience sampling method intervention 'Partner in Sight' for spousal caregivers of people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Knippenberg, Rosalia J M; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Smeets, Claudia M J; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Verhey, Frans R J; Ponds, Rudolf W

    2017-07-17

    This study describes the process evaluation of the experience sampling method (ESM) intervention 'Partner in Sight' for spousal caregivers of people with dementia. The aim was to determine internal and external validity of the intervention and provide information for future implementation in clinical practice. Qualitative and quantitative data on sampling quality (recruitment and randomization, reach) and intervention quality (relevance and feasibility, adherence to protocol) were evaluated using descriptive statistics and conventional content analysis. The participation rate included 31.4%. Due to recruitment difficulties and time constraints the original goal to include 90 caregivers was not met. The intervention was largely performed according to protocol and well received by the participants. Overall, the ESM-derived feedback was considered supportive and increased participants' awareness of their feelings and behavior. A large variance was found in the extent to which caregivers applied the feedback into their daily lives. The importance of the personal coach to provide face-to-face feedback and stimulate caregivers to implement new insights into their daily lives was emphasized. Suggestions for improvement were to reduce the time intensity of the program, to better tailor the program content to one's personal situation, and to improve the ESM device. Although recruitment barriers were encountered, results indicate that future implementation of the ESM intervention 'Partner in Sight' is likely to be feasible in regular health care. If the intervention turns out to be (cost-) effective, a fine-tuned version of the program could be a valuable addition to the current health care system.

  11. Using negative emotions to trace the experience of borderline personality pathology: Interconnected relationships revealed in an experience sampling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R. Michael

    2015-01-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after three hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology. PMID:25710731

  12. Using Negative Emotions to Trace the Experience of Borderline Personality Pathology: Interconnected Relationships Revealed in an Experience Sampling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R Michael

    2016-02-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after 3 hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology.

  13. Psychological processes underlying the association between childhood trauma and psychosis in daily life: an experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininghaus, U; Gayer-Anderson, C; Valmaggia, L; Kempton, M J; Calem, M; Onyejiaka, A; Hubbard, K; Dazzan, P; Beards, S; Fisher, H L; Mills, J G; McGuire, P; Craig, T K J; Garety, P; van Os, J; Murray, R M; Wykes, T; Myin-Germeys, I; Morgan, C

    2016-10-01

    Evidence has accumulated that implicates childhood trauma in the aetiology of psychosis, but our understanding of the putative psychological processes and mechanisms through which childhood trauma impacts on individuals and contributes to the development of psychosis remains limited. We aimed to investigate whether stress sensitivity and threat anticipation underlie the association between childhood abuse and psychosis. We used the Experience Sampling Method to measure stress, threat anticipation, negative affect, and psychotic experiences in 50 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, 44 At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) participants, and 52 controls. Childhood abuse was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations of minor socio-environmental stress in daily life with negative affect and psychotic experiences were modified by sexual abuse and group (all p FWE childhood sexual abuse and psychosis.

  14. Can smartphones measure momentary quality of life and participation? A proof of concept using experience sampling surveys with university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Jacki; Wishink, Anna; Springfield, Liz; Gustafsson, Louise; Ireland, David; Silburn, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Understanding quality of life and participation is a key aspect of occupational therapy research. The use of smartphones to deliver experience-sampling surveys may provide an accessible way to monitor these outcomes. This study used smartphone-based experience sampling methods (ESM) to investigate factors influencing momentary quality of life (mQOL) of university students. A convenience sample of students at an Australian university participated. Using a custom smartphone application, ESM surveys were sent six to eight times, every second day, over a week. Participants indicated their mQOL, occupational participation, occupational enjoyment, social context and location via surveys and provided demographic and health information in a single self-report questionnaire. The relationship between mQOL and variables was analysed at the survey level using logistic regression. Forty students completed 391 surveys. Higher mQOL was significantly related to participation in productive occupations (z = 3.48; P = 0.001), moderate (z = 4.00; P < 0.001) or high occupational enjoyment (z = 7.06; P < 0.001), being with someone (z = 2.15, P = 0.031), being at home (z = 2.49; P = 0.013) and an excellent self-rated health status (z = 2.35; P = 0.019). The magnitude of differences in mQOL was small. This study suggests that mQOL amongst university students relates to personal, environmental and occupational factors. The use of smartphone-based ESM appears to be a practical approach for investigating participation and QOL. Further research utilising a more diverse sample, analysing at the individual level, and using ESM in conjunction with other methodologies is recommended. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  15. Co-occurrence of Marfan syndrome and bipolar disorder: A fifteen year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Vijendra Nath; Kumar, Manoj; Tarwani, Jatin

    2016-12-01

    Marfan syndrome, a chromosomal disorder, has been commonly associated with schizophrenia but no association with Bipolar affective disorder has been reported in the scientific literature. This case depicts the occurrence of Bipolar affective disorder in a previously undiagnosed case of Marfan syndrome. In this case patient had all manic episodes without any depressive or schizophrenia-like episodes, suggesting a diagnostic stability over a long period of over fifteen years. Studies and research are needed in this regard to look for any possible potential association between the two illnesses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Developmental profiles on the basis of the FTF (Five to Fifteen) questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Sommer, Søren

    2004-01-01

    The Five to Fifteen parent questionnaire (FTF) was developed to offer a neuropsychological dimension to the assessment of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and other child psychiatric disorders. The domains included in the FTF were motor skills, executive functions, perception......, memory, language, social skills and learning, in addition to a domain for emotional and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to test the clinical validity and utility of the FTF with a main focus on discriminant and criterion validity. The clinical sample consisted of 155 clinically...

  17. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  18. The Nordic Five to Fifteen questionnaire could provide the basis for a common neurological disability variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illum, Niels Ove; Gradel, Kim Oren

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Assessing disabilities in children is essential and Danish parents provide increasingly important feedback on how their child's disability affects daily living. The Nordic Five to Fifteen (FTF) parent questionnaire is widely used in Nordic countries to detect atypical or delayed development...... with children with neurological disabilities, and the Rasch scale analysis results indicate that it could form the analytical basis for developing a common disability variable....... in children. Our study evaluated its internal validity and whether it could be used to generate a common disability variable across childhood neurological disorders and severities. METHODS: The 28-statement FTF questionnaire was completed by the parents of children with spina bifida, muscular disorders...

  19. MEASURING THE IMPACT OF CHILD MARRIAGE ON TOTAL FERTILITY: A STUDY FOR FIFTEEN COUNTRIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onagoruwa, Adenike; Wodon, Quentin

    2017-11-20

    Child marriage has significant negative impacts, not only for girls, but also for a range of development outcomes. This study aimed to assess, in a more detailed way than done so far, the magnitude of the relationship between child marriage and total fertility in multiple countries representing diverse settings. Data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys in the fifteen countries of interest were used. Analysis was restricted to a subsample of women aged 35-49 years in order to capture completed fertility. Poisson regression was conducted to estimate the impact of each additional year of early marriage on the total number of births women have, controlling for selected sociodemographic characteristics. Counterfactual analyses were carried out to estimate the reduction in the number of children that women would have over their lifetime in the absence of child marriage. Controlling for socioeconomic and other characteristics, girls who marry as children have more children over their lifetime than women marrying after the age of 18. Nationally, across fifteen countries, the reduction in total fertility from ending child marriage ranges from 0.24 to 1.06 children per woman. The simulated change in total fertility that would result from ending child marriage tends to be higher in countries that have a higher incidence of child marriage.

  20. Banking concentration in the European Union during the last fifteen years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santillán-Salgado Roberto J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the concentration of the banking industry across European Union countries during the last fifteen years can be explained in terms of: a global factors, like the comprehensive adoption of technological innovations, the intensification of competition that has resulted from the deregulation of the financial sector and, more recently, as a consequence of the government interventions and forced acquisitions prompted by the 2007-2009 financial crisis; and, b factors that have been specific to the E.U., in particular, the structural changes that took place in the region as a result of the creation of the Single Financial Market (1993 and the introduction of the euro (1999. This work analyzes the concentration process of the banking industry in the E.U. during the last fifteen years giving preeminence to the strategic choices made by the region’s commercial banks. It also reports the most visible E.U. banks’ M&As and government interventions that resulted from the 2007-2009 financial crisis, make a preliminary evaluation of the outcomes, and suggests possible future trends for the banking industry in the region.

  1. Social daydreaming and adjustment: An experience-sampling study of socio-emotional adaptation during a life transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Lara Poerio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimates suggest that up to half of waking life is spent daydreaming; that is, engaged in thought that is independent of, and unrelated to, one’s current task. Emerging research indicates that daydreams are predominately social suggesting that daydreams may serve socio-emotional functions. Here we explore the functional role of social daydreaming for socio-emotional adjustment during an important and stressful life transition (the transition to university using experience-sampling with 103 participants over 28 days. Over time, social daydreams increased in their positive characteristics and positive emotional outcomes; specifically, participants reported that their daydreams made them feel more socially connected and less lonely, and that the content of their daydreams became less fanciful and involved higher quality relationships. These characteristics then predicted less loneliness at the end of the study, which, in turn was associated with greater social adaptation to university. Feelings of connection resulting from social daydreams were also associated with less emotional inertia in participants who reported being less socially adapted to university. Findings indicate that social daydreaming is functional for promoting socio-emotional adjustment to an important life event. We highlight the need to consider the social content of stimulus-independent cognitions, their characteristics, and patterns of change, to specify how social thoughts enable socio-emotional adaptation.

  2. Teachers’ emotional experiences and exhaustion as predictors of emotional labor in the classroom: An Experience Sampling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie M. Keller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotional exhaustion is the core component in the study of teacher burnout, with significant impact on teachers’ professional lives. Yet, its relation to teachers’ emotional experiences and emotional labor during instruction remains unclear. Thirty-nine German secondary teachers were surveyed about their emotional exhaustion (trait, and via the Experience Sampling Method on their momentary (state; N = 794 emotional experiences (enjoyment, anxiety, anger and momentary emotional labor (suppression, faking. Teachers reported that in 99% and 39% of all lessons, they experienced enjoyment and anger, respectively, whereas they experienced anxiety less frequently. Teachers reported suppressing or faking their emotions during roughly a third of all lessons. Furthermore, emotional exhaustion was reflected in teachers’ decreased experiences of enjoyment and increased experiences of anger. On an intra-individual level, all three emotions predict emotional labor, whereas on an inter-individual level, only anger evokes emotional labor. Explained variances in emotional labor (within: 39%, between: 67% stress the relevance of emotions in teaching and within the context of teacher burnout. Beyond implying the importance of reducing anger, our findings suggest the potential of enjoyment lessening emotional labor and thereby reducing teacher burnout.

  3. Teachers' emotional experiences and exhaustion as predictors of emotional labor in the classroom: an experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Melanie M; Chang, Mei-Lin; Becker, Eva S; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C

    2014-01-01

    Emotional exhaustion (EE) is the core component in the study of teacher burnout, with significant impact on teachers' professional lives. Yet, its relation to teachers' emotional experiences and emotional labor (EL) during instruction remains unclear. Thirty-nine German secondary teachers were surveyed about their EE (trait), and via the experience sampling method on their momentary (state; N = 794) emotional experiences (enjoyment, anxiety, anger) and momentary EL (suppression, faking). Teachers reported that in 99 and 39% of all lessons, they experienced enjoyment and anger, respectively, whereas they experienced anxiety less frequently. Teachers reported suppressing or faking their emotions during roughly a third of all lessons. Furthermore, EE was reflected in teachers' decreased experiences of enjoyment and increased experiences of anger. On an intra-individual level, all three emotions predict EL, whereas on an inter-individual level, only anger evokes EL. Explained variances in EL (within: 39%, between: 67%) stress the relevance of emotions in teaching and within the context of teacher burnout. Beyond implying the importance of reducing anger, our findings suggest the potential of enjoyment lessening EL and thereby reducing teacher burnout.

  4. Teachers’ emotional experiences and exhaustion as predictors of emotional labor in the classroom: an experience sampling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Melanie M.; Chang, Mei-Lin; Becker, Eva S.; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.

    2014-01-01

    Emotional exhaustion (EE) is the core component in the study of teacher burnout, with significant impact on teachers’ professional lives. Yet, its relation to teachers’ emotional experiences and emotional labor (EL) during instruction remains unclear. Thirty-nine German secondary teachers were surveyed about their EE (trait), and via the experience sampling method on their momentary (state; N = 794) emotional experiences (enjoyment, anxiety, anger) and momentary EL (suppression, faking). Teachers reported that in 99 and 39% of all lessons, they experienced enjoyment and anger, respectively, whereas they experienced anxiety less frequently. Teachers reported suppressing or faking their emotions during roughly a third of all lessons. Furthermore, EE was reflected in teachers’ decreased experiences of enjoyment and increased experiences of anger. On an intra-individual level, all three emotions predict EL, whereas on an inter-individual level, only anger evokes EL. Explained variances in EL (within: 39%, between: 67%) stress the relevance of emotions in teaching and within the context of teacher burnout. Beyond implying the importance of reducing anger, our findings suggest the potential of enjoyment lessening EL and thereby reducing teacher burnout. PMID:25566124

  5. Quality of experience during horticultural activities: an experience sampling pilot study among older adults living in a nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Marta; Rassiga, Cecilia; Fumagalli, Natalia; Senes, Giulio

    2018-02-12

    Horticulture was shown to represent a well-being source for older adults, encompassing the physical, mental and social domains. Aim of this pilot study was to contribute to extant literature through the investigation of the quality of experience associated with horticultural versus occupational activities. A group of 11 older residents of a nursing home were involved in a crossover study with a baseline measure. Participants attended weekly horticultural and occupational sessions for two six-week cycles. Experience Sampling Method was administered before the program and after each session, to assess participants' levels of happiness, concentration, sociability, involvement, challenges and stakes, and self-satisfaction. Altogether, 332 self-report questionnaires were collected. Findings showed that participants' levels of the cognitive and motivational variables increased during both activities, but horticulture was also perceived as providing higher challenges and stakes, and improving self-satisfaction. Results can have practical implications for well-being promotion among older adults through meaningful activity engagement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dealing with daily challenges in dementia (deal-id study): an experience sampling study to assess caregiver functioning in the flow of daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Knippenberg, R J M; de Vugt, M E; Ponds, R W; Myin-Germeys, I; van Twillert, B; Verhey, F R J

    2017-09-01

    Accurate assessment of caregiver functioning is of great importance to gain better insight into daily caregiver functioning and to prevent high levels of burden. The experience sampling methodology (ESM) is an innovative approach to assess subjective experiences and behavior within daily life. In this study, the feasibility of the ESM in spousal caregivers of people with dementia was examined, and the usability of ESM data for clinical and scientific practice was demonstrated. Thirty-one caregivers collected ESM data for six consecutive days using an electronic ESM device that generated ten random alerts per day. After each alert, short reports of the caregiver's current mood state and context were collected. Feasibility was assessed by examining compliance and subjective experiences with the ESM. Usability was described using group and individual ESM data. Participants on average completed 78.8% of the reports. One participant completed less than 33% of the reports and was excluded from data analyses. Participants considered the ESM device to be a user-friendly device in which they could accurately describe their feelings and experiences. The ESM was not experienced as too burdensome. Zooming in on the ESM data, personalized patterns of mood and contextual factors were revealed. The ESM is a feasible method to assess caregiver functioning. In addition to standard retrospective measurements, it offers new opportunities to gain more insight into the daily lives of people with dementia and their caregivers. It also provides new possibilities to tailor caregiver support interventions to the specific needs of the caregiver. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The experience sampling method as an mHealth tool to support self-monitoring, self-insight, and personalized health care in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Jim; Verhagen, Simone; Marsman, Anne; Peeters, Frenk; Bak, Maarten; Marcelis, Machteld; Drukker, Marjan; Reininghaus, Ulrich; Jacobs, Nele; Lataster, Tineke; Simons, Claudia; Lousberg, Richel; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Leue, Carsten; Groot, Peter C; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Delespaul, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    The experience sampling method (ESM) builds an intensive time series of experiences and contexts in the flow of daily life, typically consisting of around 70 reports, collected at 8-10 random time points per day over a period of up to 10 days. With the advent of widespread smartphone use, ESM can be used in routine clinical practice. Multiple examples of ESM data collections across different patient groups and settings are shown and discussed, varying from an ESM evaluation of a 6-week randomized trial of mindfulness, to a twin study on emotion dynamics in daily life. Research shows that ESM-based self-monitoring and feedback can enhance resilience by strengthening the capacity to use natural rewards. Personalized trajectories of starting or stopping medication can be more easily initiated and predicted if sensitive feedback data are available in real time. In addition, personalized trajectories of symptoms, cognitive abilities, symptoms impacting on other symptoms, the capacity of the dynamic system of mental health to "bounce back" from disturbance, and patterns of environmental reactivity yield uniquely personal data to support shared decision making and prediction in clinical practice. Finally, ESM makes it possible to develop insight into previous implicit patterns of thought, experience, and behavior, particularly if rapid personalized feedback is available. ESM enhances clinical practice and research. It is empowering, providing co-ownership of the process of diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and routine outcome measurement. Blended care, based on a mix of face-to-face and ESM-based outside-the-office treatment, may reduce costs and improve outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A historical perspective on fifteen years of laser damage thresholds at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, F.; De Marco, F.P.; Staggs, M.C.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Atherton, L.J.; Sheehan, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    We have completed a fifteen year, referenced and documented compilation of more than 15,000 measurements of laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDT) conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These measurements cover the spectrum from 248 to 1064 nm with pulse durations ranging from < 1 ns to 65 ns and at pulse-repetition frequencies (PRF) from single shots to 6.3 kHz. We emphasize the changes in LIDTs during the past two years since we last summarized our database. We relate these results to earlier data concentrating on improvements in processing methods, materials, and conditioning techniques. In particular, we highlight the current status of anti-reflective (AR) coatings, high reflectors (HR), polarizers, and frequency-conversion crystals used primarily at 355 nm and 1064 nm

  9. Dissociative chemisorption of methane on Ni(111) using a chemically accurate fifteen dimensional potential energy surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xueyao; Nattino, Francesco; Zhang, Yaolong; Chen, Jun; Kroes, Geert-Jan; Guo, Hua; Jiang, Bin

    2017-11-22

    A fifteen-dimensional global potential energy surface for the dissociative chemisorption of methane on the rigid Ni(111) surface is developed by a high fidelity fit of ∼200 000 DFT energy points computed using a specific reaction parameter density functional designed to reproduce experimental data. The permutation symmetry and surface periodicity are rigorously enforced using the permutation invariant polynomial-neural network approach. The fitting accuracy of the potential energy surface is thoroughly investigated by examining both static and dynamical attributes of CHD 3 dissociation on the frozen surface. This potential energy surface is expected to be chemically accurate as after correction for surface temperature effects it reproduces the measured initial sticking probabilities of CHD 3 on Ni(111) for various incidence conditions.

  10. Beijing fifteen years on: the persistence of barriers to gender mainstreaming in health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, fifteen years after the Beijing declaration on women's rights, the UN Commission on the Status of Women met to review progress in gender mainstreaming. Reports on gender equality by member states revealed differences in the degree of change achieved in this period, while highlighting common barriers to gender mainstreaming. The same barriers have long been identified by academics and activists, but prove remarkably resistant to strategies to address gender inequalities. This paper reviews approaches to gender mainstreaming in the context of health policy, and suggests that a model of the obstacles to gender mainstreaming, which identifies barriers as essentially pragmatic, conceptual, or political in origin, might enable a more explicit discussion of the factors underlying this resistance and the ways in which they might be challenged.

  11. Assessment of the dining environment on and near the campuses of fifteen post-secondary institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, Tanya M; Erdman, Maria B; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Carey, Gale; Colby, Sarah M; Greene, Geoffrey W; Guo, Wen; Kattelmann, Kendra K; Olfert, Melissa; Walsh, Jennifer; White, Adrienne B

    2013-07-01

    The present study evaluated the restaurant and dining venues on and near post-secondary campuses varying in institution size. The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Restaurants (NEMS-R) was modified to evaluate restaurants as fast food, sit down and fast casual; and campus dining venues as dining halls, student unions and snack bar/cafe´s. ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s B and T tests were used to distinguish differences between dining venues and associated institutions by size. The study was conducted at fifteen US post-secondary institutions, 2009–2011. Data presented are from a sample of 175 restaurants and sixty-eight on-campus dining venues. There were minimal differences in dining halls by institution size, although medium-sized institutions as compared with small-sized institutions offered significantly more healthful side dish/salad bar items. Dining halls scored significantly higher than student unions or snack bar/cafe´s on healthful entre´es, side dish/salad bar and beverages offerings, but they also had the most barriers to healthful dietary habits (i.e. all-you-can-eat). No differences were found by restaurant type for NEMS-R scores for total restaurant dining environment or healthful entre´es and barriers. Snack bars had more healthful side dishes (P50?002) and fast-food restaurants had the highest level of facilitators (i.e. nutrition information; P50?002). Based on this evaluation in fifteen institutions, the full campus dining environment provides limited support for healthy eating and obesity prevention. The quality of campus dining environments can be improved via healthful offerings, providing nutrition information and other supports to facilitate healthy eating and prevent unwanted weight gain.

  12. Demonstrating the reliability of transdiagnostic mHealth Routine Outcome Monitoring in mental health services using experience sampling technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone J W Verhagen

    Full Text Available Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM should provide a dynamic, within-treatment forward feedback loop to guide individual treatment decisions across diagnostic categories. It has been suggested that the Experience Sampling Method (ESM, capturing the film of daily life adaptive processes, offers a flexible, personalised and transdiagnostic feedback system for monitoring and adapting treatment strategies. This is the first study that uses an ESM application (the PsyMate™ as a routine mobile-ROM (mROM tool in an ambulatory mental health setting.To demonstrate adequate psychometric properties of the PsyMate™ app assessing both symptom severity levels as well as daily life functioning.In a transdiagnostic sample of 64 outpatients, an mROM protocol (ESM for 6 days, at 10 semi-random moments a day and a standard ROM instrument (HADS were administered at baseline and at three-month follow-up. We measured positive affect (PA, negative affect (NA, quality of sleep, positive social interaction, activity-related stress, tiredness, and feeling unwell.Subjects completed 53% of the measurements at baseline (N = 64 and 48% at follow-up (N = 29. Factor analysis and subsequent reliability analysis of PA and NA confirmed the two constructs. Significant and meaningful correlations were found between PA, NA and HADS scores (ranging from r = .4 to r = .7. Multilevel analyses yielded significant change scores for all measures.The ESM-based, transdiagnostic mROM tool can be used reliably in clinical settings: it shows adequate psychometric properties, as well as concurrent validity and sensitivity to change over time with respect to relevant ROM constructs. Person-tailored items can be added. In addition, mROM offers added value over standard symptom-based ROM, as it provides information on adaptive functioning in the daily environment of patients.

  13. Using the experience-sampling method to examine the psychological mechanisms by which participatory art improves wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nicola J

    2018-01-01

    To measure the immediate impact of art-making in everyday life on diverse indices of wellbeing ('in the moment' and longer term) in order to improve understanding of the psychological mechanisms by which art may improve mental health. Using the experience-sampling method, 41 artists were prompted (with a 'beep' on a handheld computer) at random intervals (10 times a day, for one week) to answer a short questionnaire. The questionnaire tracked art-making and enquired about mood, cognition and state of consciousness. This resulted in 2,495 sampled experiences, with a high response rate in which 89% of questionnaires were completed. Multi-level modelling was used to evaluate the impact of art-making on experience, with 2,495 'experiences' (experiential-level) nested within 41 participants (person-level). Recent art-making was significantly associated with experiential shifts: improvement in hedonic tone, vivid internal imagery and the flow state. Furthermore, the frequency of art-making across the week was associated with person-level measures of wellbeing: eudemonic happiness and self-regulation. Cross-level interactions, between experiential and person-level variables, suggested that hedonic tone improved more for those scoring low on eudemonic happiness, and further that, those high in eudemonic happiness were more likely to experience phenomenological features of the flow state and to experience inner dialogue while art-making. Art-making has both immediate and long-term associations with wellbeing. At the experiential level, art-making affects multiple dimensions of conscious experience: affective, cognitive and state factors. This suggests that there are multiple routes to wellbeing (improving hedonic tone, making meaning through inner dialogue and experiencing the flow state). Recommendations are made to consider these factors when both developing and evaluating public health interventions that involve participatory art.

  14. Further discoveries in the ever-expanding genus Begonia (Begoniaceae: fifteen new species from Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hughes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen new species of Begonia L. from Sumatra are described and illustrated, in Begonia sect. Bracteibegonia (B. beludruvenea M.Hughes sp. nov. and B. jackiana M.Hughes sp. nov., B. sect. Petermannia (B. harauensis Girm. sp. nov., B. sect. Platycentrum (B. leuserensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. sect. Reichenheimia (B. fluvialis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. halabanensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. karangputihensis Girm. sp. nov., B. kemumuensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. korthalsiana Miq. ex M.Hughes sp. nov., B. kudoensis Girm. sp. nov., B. lilliputana M.Hughes sp. nov., B. olivacea Ardi sp. nov., B. raoensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. simolapensis Ardi sp. nov. and B. sect. Sphenanthera (B. pseudoscottii Girm. sp. nov.. Using the International Union for the Conservation of Nature criteria, 6 are considered to be Least Concern, 5 Vulnerable and 4 Data Deficient. A key to 58 of the 63 currently accepted Begonia species in Sumatra is provided.

  15. Atypical presentation of Legionella pneumonia among patients with underlying cancer: A fifteen-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Castillo, Maria; Lucca, Anabella; Plodkowski, Andrew; Huang, Yao-Ting; Kaplan, Janice; Gilhuley, Kathleen; Babady, N Esther; Seo, Susan K; Kamboj, Mini

    2016-01-01

    Immunocompromised patients, especially those receiving treatment with corticosteroids and cytotoxic chemotherapy are at increased risk for developing Legionella pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine clinical and radiographic characteristics of pulmonary infection due to Legionella in persons undergoing treatment for cancer and stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients. Retrospective review of Legionella cases at MSKCC over a fifteen-year study period from January 1999 and December 2013. Cases were identified by review of microbiology records. During the study period, 40 cases of Legionella infection were identified; nine among these were due to non-pneumophila species. Most cases occurred during the summer. The majority [8/9, (89%)] of patients with non-pneumophila infection had underlying hematologic malignancy, compared to 18/31 (58%) with Legionella pneumophila infections. Radiographic findings were varied-nodular infiltrates mimicking invasive fungal infection were seen only among patients with hematologic malignancy and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients and were frequently associated with non-pneumophila infections (50% vs 16%; P = 0.0594). All cases of nodular Legionella pneumonia were found incidentally or had an indolent clinical course. Legionella should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nodular lung lesions in immunocompromised patients, especially those with hematologic malignancy and SCT recipients. Most cases of nodular disease due to Legionella are associated with non-pneumophila infections. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Designing for Safety: Implications of a Fifteen Year Review of Swallowed and Aspirated Dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Samuel J W; Mackie, James; Macfarlane, Tatiana V

    2016-01-01

    Dentures are worn by around 20% of the population, yet if they become displaced they may enter the gastrointestinal or respiratory system, sometimes with grave consequences. The aim of this study was to review recent published literature in order to identify the epidemiology of patients and characteristics of swallowed and aspirated dental prostheses, and propose strategies to minimise these risks. A fifteen year retrospective of published case series and case reports was carried out. Photographs, radiographs and descriptions of the dental prostheses were gathered, as well as the patient's presenting complaint, the anatomical site where the denture was caught and the procedure required to remove the denture. Ninety one separate events of swallowed or aspirated dentures were identified from 83 case reports and series from 28 countries. Average age was 55 years, and these were 74% male. Photographs were retrieved for 49 of these dentures. Clasps were present in 25 of the dentures. There was no significant difference between clasped and unclasped dentures for perforation rates, need for open surgery and spontaneously passed dentures. We discuss the implications of this study regarding denture designs, specifically the importance of using a radiopaque acrylic, using clasps when required even if there is a risk of aspiration, advising patients to return if a denture is loose or damaged, and finally that all patients who wear a denture are at risk of aspiration and swallowing events, and associated morbidity and mortality.

  17. Designing for Safety: Implications of a Fifteen Year Review of Swallowed and Aspirated Dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. W. Kent

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dentures are worn by around 20% of the population, yet if they become displaced they may enter the gastrointestinal or respiratory system, sometimes with grave consequences. The aim of this study was to review recent published literature in order to identify the epidemiology of patients and characteristics of swallowed and aspirated dental prostheses, and propose strategies to minimise these risks. Material and Methods: A fifteen year retrospective of published case series and case reports was carried out. Photographs, radiographs and descriptions of the dental prostheses were gathered, as well as the patient’s presenting complaint, the anatomical site where the denture was caught and the procedure required to remove the denture. Results: Ninety one separate events of swallowed or aspirated dentures were identified from 83 case reports and series from 28 countries. Average age was 55 years, and these were 74% male. Photographs were retrieved for 49 of these dentures. Clasps were present in 25 of the dentures. There was no significant difference between clasped and unclasped dentures for perforation rates, need for open surgery and spontaneously passed dentures. Conclusions: We discuss the implications of this study regarding denture designs, specifically the importance of using a radiopaque acrylic, using clasps when required even if there is a risk of aspiration, advising patients to return if a denture is loose or damaged, and finally that all patients who wear a denture are at risk of aspiration and swallowing events, and associated morbidity and mortality.

  18. Purity, Victimhood and Agency: Fifteen years of the UN Trafficking Protocol

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    Marjan Wijers

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When the women’s movement reverted back to the nineteenth-century Victorian concept of ‘trafficking in women’ to address abuses of migrant women in the sex industry, it unwittingly adopted not only a highly morally biased concept—dividing women into innocent victims in need of rescue and guilty ones who can be abused with impunity—but also one with racist and nationalistic overtones. Despite efforts to counter these flaws, this inheritance continues to define the debate on trafficking today, exemplified by the distinction made by the United Nations Trafficking Protocol between so-called ‘sexual exploitation’ and ‘labour exploitation’ and its focus on the aspects of recruitment and movement. As a result, its implementation in the last fifteen years has led to a range of oppressive measures against sex workers and migrants in the name of combating trafficking. The focus on the purity and victimhood of women, coupled with the protection of national borders, not only impedes any serious effort to address the exploitation of human beings under forced labour and slavery-like conditions, but actually causes harm. The call of the anti-trafficking movement for a human rights-based approach does not necessarily solve these fundamental problems, as it tends to restrict itself to protecting the rights of trafficked persons, while neglecting or even denying the human rights of sex workers and migrants.

  19. A Cross-Cultural Exploration of the Everyday Social Participation of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Australia and Taiwan: An Experience Sampling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Bundy, Anita C.; Cordier, Reinie; Chien, Yi-Ling; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder commonly have limited social participation. This study aimed to examine the similarities and differences of everyday participation among males and females with autism spectrum disorder in Australia and Taiwan, using an experience sampling methodology. A total of 14 Australians (4 males, aged 16-43…

  20. Cumulative Index to the First Fifteen Semiannual Reports of the Commission to the Congress. January 1947 - 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1954-01-31

    The first fifteen semiannual reports of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress cover the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January 1947 through December 1953. This cumulative name and subject index provides a guide to the information published in these reports.

  1. In vitro antihelmintic effect of fifteen tropical plant extracts on excysted flukes of Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Mercado, José Manuel; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Ángel; Vera-Montenegro, Yolanda; Avila-Acevedo, José Guillermo; García-Bores, Ana María

    2015-02-27

    Fasciolosis due to Fasciola hepatica is the most important hepatic disease in veterinary medicine. Its relevance is important because of the major economical losses to the cattle industry such as: reduction in milk, meat and wool production; miscarriages, anemia, liver condemnation and occasionally deaths, are estimated in billons of dollars. The emergence of fluke resistance due to over or under dosing of fasciolides as well as environmental damage produced by the chemicals eliminated in field have stimulated the need for alternative methods to control Fasciola hepatica. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic effect of fifteen tropical plant extracts used in tradicional Mexican medicine, on newly excysted flukes of Fasciola hepatica. The flukes were exposed in triplicate at 500, 250 and 125 mg/L to each extract. The efficacy was assessed as the mortality rate based on the number of live and dead flukes after 24, 48 and 72 h post-exposure. The plants with anthelmintic effect were evaluated once again with a concentration of 375 mg/L in order to confirm the results and to calculate lethal concentrations at 50%, 90% and 99% (LC(50), LC(90), and LC(99)). Plant extracts of Lantana camara, Bocconia frutescens, Piper auritum, Artemisia mexicana and Cajanus cajan had an in vitro anthelmintic effect (P <0.05). The LC(50), LC(90) and LC(99) to A. mexicana, C. cajan and B. frutescens were 92.85, 210.44 and 410.04 mg/L, 382.73, 570.09 and 788.9 mg/L and 369.96, 529.94 and 710.34 mg/L, respectively. It is concluded that five tropical plant extracts had promising anthelmintic effects against F. hepatica. Further studies on toxicity and in vivo biological evaluation in ruminant models might help to determine the anthelmintic potential of these plant extracts.

  2. Environmentalism in the Periphery: Institutional Embeddedness and Deforestation among Fifteen Palm Oil Producers, 1990 – 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Henderson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sociologists highlight the exploitative nature of the global capitalist economy where resource extraction from nations in the periphery tends to disproportionately benefit those of the core. From the Brazilian Amazon to mineral-rich Sub-Saharan Africa, the practice of “unequal ecological exchange” persists. Simultaneously, a “global environmental regime” has coalesced as a prominent feature of the contemporary world system. In the post-World War II era, legitimate nation-states must take steps to protect the natural environment and prevent its degradation even at their own economic expense. Stronger national ties to global institutions, particularly international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs consistently yield more positive environmental outcomes. However, previous work suggests that normative expectations for improved environmental practice will be weak or nonexistent in the periphery. We use the case of palm oil production and its relationship to deforestation to provide a more nuanced analysis of the relationship between material and institutional forces in the periphery. Using unbalanced panels of fifteen palm oil producing countries from 1990 to 2012, we find that stronger national ties to world society via citizen memberships in INGOs result in greater primary forest area among palm oil producers. However, this effect is strongest where production is lowest and weakens as production increases. Even in the cases of Indonesia and Malaysia, where palm oil production is substantially higher than any other producer, ties to global institutions are significantly related to reduced forest loss. These results indicate the variable importance of national embeddedness into global institutions within the periphery of the world system.

  3. Fifteen years of GH replacement improves body composition and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbornsson, Mariam; Götherström, Galina; Bosæus, Ingvar; Bengtsson, Bengt-Åke; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Svensson, Johan

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have determined the effects of more than 5-10 years of GH replacement in adults on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors. In this prospective, single-center, open-label study, the effects of 15 years of GH replacement on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors were determined in 156 hypopituitary adults (93 men) with adult-onset GH deficiency (GHD). Mean age was 50.5 (range 22-74) years at study start. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean initial GH dose of 0.55 (S.E.M. 0.03) mg/day was gradually lowered to 0.40 (0.01) mg/day after 15 years. The mean serum IGF1 SDS increased from -1.53 (0.10) at baseline to 0.74 (0.13) at study end (Plevel at study end (Pbody fat (BF) started to increase and had returned to the baseline level after 15 years. Serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol decreased and serum HDL-cholesterol level increased. Fasting plasma glucose increased from 4.4 (0.1) at baseline to 4.8 (0.1) mmol/l at study end (P<0.001). However, blood HbA1c decreased from 5.0 (0.1) to 4.6 (0.1) % (P<0.001). Fifteen-year GH replacement in GHD adults induced a transient decrease in BF and sustained improvements of LST and serum lipid profile. Fasting plasma glucose increased whereas blood HbA1c was reduced.

  4. Fifteen year phenological plant species and meteorological trends in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, F.; Bonofiglio, T.; Ruga, L.; Romano, B.; Fornaciari, M.

    2012-04-01

    The present study was carried out in a phenological garden located near Perugia, central Italy, which contains vegetative clones of plant species, common to several international phenological gardens such as: Cornus sanguinea L.; Corylus avellana L.; Ligustrum vulgare L.; Robinia pseudoacacia L.; Salix acutifolia Willd.; Sambucus nigra L. The vegetative plant growth monitoring was realized week by week using common international keys: V3) bud break and leaf unfolding; V5) young unfolded leaf; V7) adult leaves; V8) beginning of leaf colouring. The phenological dates thus obtained provide a model of development for the different species in relationship to the fifteen-year period of observation (1997-2011). By a meteorological point of view the principal temperature and rain trends were studied showing as the highest anomalies during the study period were those recorded during the first months of the year (January and February). The phenological data evidenced a double trend behaviour considering the two central phases (V5-V7) in comparison to the other ones (V3-V8). In general, a quite invariance in the manifestation of the open bud phase and a contemporary advance of the young open leaves phase particularly from 2006 was recorded, with a shortening of the leaf opening period probably due to more rapid spring temperature increase in the last years. The delay tendency of V7 phase in particular evidenced the presence of growing leaves till summer weeks monitoring young leaves for a long time On the contrary, the V8 (autumn leaf colouring) phase tend to remain constant, with the exception of some species such as Corylus and Cornus which showed variations of this phase, showing as the signal for leaf colouring in fall is quite ambiguous and less evident. The lowest correlations between annual vegetative phases and temperature variations were manifested above all by two species (Sambucus nigra L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L.) for which the first leaf development phases

  5. Fifteen fatal fallacies of financial fundamentalism Quince falacias funestas del fundamentalismo financiero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickrey William

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, Professor Vickrey shows that current economic policy is based on incomplete analyses, counterfactual assumptions, and false analogies. The article examines in detail fifteen fallacies which, taken together, lead to policies which at best generate economic lethargy with unemployment rates close to 5 or 6 percent. For Professor Vickrey, this situation is harmful in that it reduces potential production between 10 and 15 percent even if the loss is distributed in an equitable way among the population; but when it turns into unemployment of 10, 20, and up to 40 percent for the less favored groups, the additional harm in terms of poverty, family breakup, school absence and dropout, illegitimacy,
    drug use, and crime becomes very serious. Thus these policies are like a 'premeditated homicidal fire' and, even worse, when they are carried to their ultimate consequences, in search of 'budgetary equilibrium', they can lead to a deep depression.En este articulo, el profesor Vickrey muestra que la politica economica actual se basa en analisis incompletos, supuestos contrafactuales y analogias falsas. El articulo examina en detalle quince falacias que, en conjunto, llevan a politicas que, en el mejor de los casos, generan un letargo economico con tasas de desempleo cercanas al 5 o 6 por ciento. Para el profesor Vickrey, esta situacion es perjudicial por cuanto reduce la produccion potencial entre un 10 y un 15 por ciento aun asi la perdida de se reparte de forma equitativa entre toda la poblacion; pero cuando se traduce un desempleo de 10, 20 o hasta 40 por ciento para los grupos desfavorecidos, los perjuicios adicionales en terminos de pobreza, ruptura familiar, ausencia y desercion escolar, ilegitimidad, uso de drogas y crimenes llegan a ser muy graves. De modo que estas politicas se asemejan a un "incendio homicida premeditado" y, aun peor, cuando se llevan hasta sus ultimas concecuencias, en busca de un 'presupuesto equilibrado

  6. Comparison of the ability of fifteen onion (Allium cepa L. cultivars to accumulate nitrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wojciechowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of a two-year study was to characterise selected Allium cepa L. genotypes with regard to their ability to accumulate nitrates in bulbs as well as to search for a possible relation between NO3- concentration and dry matter content. Fifteen cultivars of edible onion, mostly of long-day genotype with different growing periods, bulb size and skin colour, were taken for the experiment. Seeds of particular cultivars were obtained from the following seed companies: Spójnia Nochowo (‘Labrador’, ‘Takstar F1’,‘Tęcza’, ‘Warna’, ‘Zorza’, Polan (‘Polanowska’, ‘Topolska’, PlantiCo Gołębiew (‘Alibaba’, ‘Efekt’, ‘Kristine’, ‘Niagara F1’,and PlantiCo Zielonki (‘Bila’, ‘Irka’, ‘Wenta’, ‘Zeta’. Plants produced from seedlings were grown in the experimental field of the University of Agriculture in Kraków. After crop harvesting and additional drying, nitrate and dry matter content in bulbs of all cultivars were measured. The following cultivars: ‘Efekt’, ‘Labrador’ and red-skinned ‘Wenta’, were characterized by the lowest ability to accumulate NO3- in bulbs. The highest nitrate content was noted in bulbs of ‘Takstar F1’ (a very early-season cultivar, followed by ‘Bila’ and ‘Tęcza’. A weak, yet statistically significant negative correlation between nitrate and dry matter content was observed. The highest dry matter content was determined in bulbs of white-skinned ‘Alibaba’, while the lowest – in brown-skinned ‘Labrador’.

  7. Targeted scan of fifteen regions for nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate in Filipino families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R E; Cooper, M E; Daack-Hirsch, S; Shi, M; Nepomucena, B; Graf, K A; O'Brien, E K; O'Brien, S E; Marazita, M L; Murray, J C

    2004-02-15

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a congenital anomaly with variable birth prevalence based on geographic origins, with the highest rates commonly found in Asian populations. About 70% of cases are nonsyndromic (NS), in which the affected individual has no other abnormalities. NS CL/P is a complex disorder with genetic and environmental effects and no specific genetic loci yet confirmed. Fifteen candidate regions were examined for linkage to NS CL/P. Regions were chosen based on previous suggestive linkage and/or association in human families, or suggestive animal model data. Polymorphic markers in these regions were genotyped for analysis on 36 Filipino families comprised of 126 affected and 218 unaffected individuals. An additional 70 families with 149 affecteds were used for replication of suggestive results. Parametric (LOD score) and nonparametric (SIMIBD) linkage analyses were performed as well as transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis. Five markers yielded suggestive results from the 36 families. The parametric LOD scores for the MSX1-CA and D4S1629 were >1.0 and the SIMIBD P values for D6S1029 and RFC1 are suggestive (value of 0.01 for TGFA was significant. Since the Msx1 mouse knockout has cleft palate and MSX1 mutations have been found in rare cases of syndromic CL/P, this locus is especially plausible for linkage. Previous studies have also found linkage of NS CL/P to 4q31 and 6p23. These regions contain several candidate genes, including AP2 at 6p23 and FGF2, BMPR1B, and MADH1 at 4q31. TGFA has both linkage and linkage disequilibrium data supporting it as a candidate gene for NS CL/P. While no region was definitively confirmed for linkage to NS CL/P, the data do support further investigation using larger sample sizes and candidate gene studies at 2p13.2, 4p16.2, 4q31, 6p23, and 16q22-24. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Characterising fifteen years of continuous atmospheric radon activity observations at Cape Point (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, R.; Labuschagne, C.; Williams, A. G.; Bosman, G.; Brunke, E.-G.; Rossouw, A.; Lindsay, R.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes and discusses fifteen years (1999-2013) of continuous hourly atmospheric radon (222Rn) monitoring at the coastal low-altitude Southern Hemisphere Cape Point Station in South Africa. A strong seasonal cycle is evident in the observed radon concentrations, with maxima during the winter months, when air masses arriving at the Cape Point station from over the African continental surface are more frequently observed, and minima during the summer months, when an oceanic fetch is predominant. An atmospheric mean radon activity concentration of 676 ± 2 mBq/m3 is found over the 15-year record, having a strongly skewed distribution that exhibits a large number of events falling into a compact range of low values (corresponding to oceanic air masses), and a smaller number of events with high radon values spread over a wide range (corresponding to continental air masses). The mean radon concentration from continental air masses (1 004 ± 6 mBq/m3) is about two times higher compared to oceanic air masses (479 ± 3 mBq/m3). The number of atmospheric radon events observed is strongly dependent on the wind direction. A power spectral Fast Fourier Transform analysis of the 15-year radon time series reveals prominent peaks at semi-diurnal, diurnal and annual timescales. Two inter-annual radon periodicities have been established, the diurnal 0.98 ± 0.04 day-1 and half-diurnal 2.07 ± 0.15 day-1. The annual peak reflects major seasonal changes in the patterns of offshore versus onshore flow associated with regional/hemispheric circulation patterns, whereas the diurnal and semi-diurnal peaks together reflect the influence of local nocturnal radon build-up over land, and the interplay between mesoscale sea/land breezes. The winter-time diurnal radon concentration had a significant decrease of about 200 mBq/m3 (17%) while the summer-time diurnal radon concentration revealed nearly no changes. A slow decline in the higher radon percentiles (75th and 95th) for the

  9. THE EFFECTS OF THE TRAINING IN THE PREPARATION PERIOD ON THE DRIBBLING SPEED WITH FIFTEEN YEARS OLD FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Gardašević

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main aim of the research was to identify a level of quantitative changes of the dribbling speed with fifteen years old football players under the influence of the programmed football training of a six weeks preparation period. Methods: According to the time orientation this was a longitudinal study with the aim to define in a two timely different points a quantitative changes of the dribbling speed under the influence of the programmed football training with fifteen years old football players under the influence of the programmed training process, which involved a summer preparation period and lasted forty-two days. The training programme covered forty-four training units. The research was made on a sample of 120 fifteen years old football players of cadet rank. For the assessment of ball handling the three tests were used: horizontal ball rebounding from a wall 20s, dribbling speed of the ball in slalom and juggling alternating with both feet in a square space of 1x1m. In the area of comparative statistics, we used discriminant parametric procedure t-test for big paired samples. Results: Based on the numerical values of the t-test it can be concluded that there are no statistically significant differences in all three variables to estimate the dribbling speed. This confirmed the hypothesis that the expected significant positive quantitative changes of situational-motor abilities influenced by the proposed model of training in preparation period with fifteen years old football players. Discussion: In this research the authors were guided by the fact that this kind of training program in preparation period, where dominates the situational model training is very effective in terms of raising the dribbling speed with fifteen years old, because the model that is used in this training period abounds in exercises in which dominates dribbling speed, in stright line and with changes in direction. The obtained results can be directed

  10. Survalytics: An Open-Source Cloud-Integrated Experience Sampling, Survey, and Analytics and Metadata Collection Module for Android Operating System Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly-Shah, Vikas; Mackey, Sean

    2016-06-03

    We describe here Survalytics, a software module designed to address two broad areas of need. The first area is in the domain of surveys and app analytics: developers of mobile apps in both academic and commercial environments require information about their users, as well as how the apps are being used, to understand who their users are and how to optimally approach app development. The second area of need is in the field of ecological momentary assessment, also referred to as experience sampling: researchers in a wide variety of fields, spanning from the social sciences to psychology to clinical medicine, would like to be able to capture daily or even more frequent data from research subjects while in their natural environment. Survalytics is an open-source solution for the collection of survey responses as well as arbitrary analytic metadata from users of Android operating system apps. Surveys may be administered in any combination of one-time questions and ongoing questions. The module may be deployed as a stand-alone app for experience sampling purposes or as an add-on to existing apps. The module takes advantage of free-tier NoSQL cloud database management offered by the Amazon Web Services DynamoDB platform to package a secure, flexible, extensible data collection module. DynamoDB is capable of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant storage of personal health information. The provided example app may be used without modification for a basic experience sampling project, and we provide example questions for daily collection of blood glucose data from study subjects. The module will help researchers in a wide variety of fields rapidly develop tailor-made Android apps for a variety of data collection purposes.

  11. The contents of fifteen essential, trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their aqueous extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.N.; Kazi, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The content of fifteen elements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined in Green Tea samples imported from different countries such as India, China, Kenya and Bangladesh in packets and without packets were purchased from authorized tea dealers in Peshawar. Wet ashing procedures were employed for decomposing the organic matter in the tea samples. Aqueous extract of each green tea sample was also prepared by heating with de-ionized water at 80 /sup o/C on electric heating plates. (author)

  12. The so-called unresolved Osgood-Schlatter lesion: a concept based on fifteen surgically treated lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, M A; Matza, R A; Cohen, J

    1980-07-01

    Of 118 patients with 151 knees treated for Osgood-Schlatter disease, fourteen patients (fifteen knees) had a distinct and separate ossicle at the proximal aspect of the tibial tubercle. This ossicle appeared after the child was first seen in all but three of the fifteen knees. When the ossicle failed to unite with the tubercle, the non-union was associated with local discomfort during activity and when direct pressure was applied on the tubercle. The symptoms did not respond to conservative treatment for an average of 3.8 years. Resection of the ossicle along with the adjacent bursa was followed by prompt relief of symptoms. Histological studies showed no evidence of avascularity. All ossicles were attached to the distal part of the undersurface of the ligamentum patellae and were separated from the tubercle by a bursa or scar tissue. The findings strongly support the concept that avulsion of the proximal cartilaginous part of the tibial tubercle is the cause of Osgood-Schlatter disease and they also suggest that once a separate ossicle is formed and becomes symptomatic, surgical excision is necessary to relieve the symptoms.

  13. Fifteen years of the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ): an update and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, M

    2014-04-01

    The Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ) is a 32-item self-report instrument designed to assess the eating and activity habits of family members as well as obesogenic factors in the overall home environment (stimulus and behaviour patterns) related to weight. Originally, this questionnaire, which was developed in Israel, was designed for use in family-based weight-management interventions that emphasized changes in the environment, and in parents' knowledge, behaviours and modelling. It was developed for use with children aged 6-11 years and designed for co-completion by parents or caretakers and their children. Over the years, it has been administered in research and clinical settings in Israel, England, Australia and other countries. Its 15-year anniversary calls for an update in the literature regarding adjustments made to improve its use in different settings and with different ethnic populations and the psychometric properties of the revised version. The goal of this paper is threefold: (i) to describe the history and development of the FEAHQ; (ii) to present new data supporting the psychometric properties of the subscales of the Revised FEAHQ (FEAHQ-R) for ages 6-12 years and (iii) to review the clinical and research literature reporting on FEAHQ subscales. The psychometric properties of the revised questionnaire were evaluated in a randomized control trial and in a naturalistic, community-based study to promote healthy lifestyle among families with children 6-12 years of age from different ethnic populations. The tool demonstrated good test-retest reliability when completed by caretakers and very good internal consistency. The questionnaire scores discriminated between obese and normal-weight children and predicted the weight classification of 66% of the participants. The FEAHQ-R is a useful clinical tool for identifying target behaviors for treatment and monitoring treatment progress that centers on overweight prevention and weight

  14. Pupils' Activities in a Multimaterial Learning Environment in Craft subject A Pilot Study using an Experience Sampling Method based on a Mobile Application in Classroom Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Jaatinen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates holistic craft processes in craft education with an instrument for data-collection and self-assessment. Teaching in a study context is based on co-teaching and a design process, highlighted by the Finnish Basic Education Core Curriculum 2014. The school architecture and web-based learning environment is combined. Division for textiles and technical work is no longer supported in this multimaterial learning environment. The aim of the study is to 1 make pupils’ holistic craft processes visible in everyday classroom practices with information collected by a mobile-application and 2 point out the curriculum topics that are covered during everyday classroom practices as defined by the teachers. The data is collected using an Experience Sampling Method with a gamified learning analytics instrument. Teachers’ classroom activities were used as the backbone for the thematic mapping of the craft curriculum. Preliminary measurements were carried out in a Finnish primary school in grades 5–6 (age 10–12, n = 125 during a four-week period in October-November 2016. The list of classroom activities was updated after the four weeks’ experiment and was tested in March-May 2017 with all the pupils of the pilot school (N = 353. The key findings were that a for pupils the self-assessment was easy as a technical process but there were several factors in the everyday classroom settings that made the process challenging and b it was relatively difficult for teachers to describe the classroom activities in terms of the new curriculum; however, after four weeks they could not only described the activities in more details but had also developed new activities that supported the ideas of the new curriculum better.Keywords: multi-material craft, learning environment, holistic craft process, experience sampling method

  15. Brain Injury and Severe Eating Difficulties at Admission—Patient Perspective Nine to Fifteen Months after Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Annette; Kristensen, Hanne Kaae

    2017-01-01

    interviewed via qualitative semi-structured interviews. An explorative study was conducted to study eating difficulties. Qualitative content analysis was used. Four main themes emerged from the analysis: personal values related to eating, swallowing difficulties, eating and drinking, meals and social life....... Three predominating experiences were: fed by tube, "relearning" to eat, and eating meals together. The preliminary results regarding the four participants suggest that the meaning of food and being able to eat and take part in meals may be nearly the same as before the injury; however, having......The purpose of this pilot study was to explore and interpret the way that individuals with acquired brain injury, admitted to inpatient neurorehabilitation with severe eating difficulties, experienced eating nine to fifteen months after discharge. Four individuals with acquired brain injury were...

  16. The reliability of suicide rates: an analysis of railway suicides from two sources in fifteen European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Alexandre; Scheerder, Gert; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2011-06-01

    National suicide data are an underestimation of the actual number of suicides but are often assumed to be reliable and useful for scientific research. The aim of this study is to contribute to the discussion of the reliability of suicide mortality data by comparing railway suicides from two data sources. Data for the railway suicides and the concurrent causes of death of fifteen European countries were collected from the European Detailed Mortality Database and the European Railway Agency (ERA). Suicide rates, odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated. The suicide data from the ERA were significantly higher than the national data for six out of fifteen countries. In three countries, the ERA registered significantly more railway suicides compared to the sum of the national suicides and undetermined deaths. In Italy and France, the ERA statistics recorded significantly more railway related fatalities than the national statistical offices. In total the ERA statistics registered 34% more suicides and 9% more railway fatalities compared with the national statistics. The findings of this study concern railway suicides and they cannot be extrapolated to all types of suicides. Further, the national suicide statistics and the ERA data are not perfectly comparable, due to the different categorisations of the causes of death. Based on the data for railway suicides, it seems that the underestimation of suicide rates is significant for some countries, and that the degree of underestimation differs substantially among countries. Caution is needed when comparing national suicide rates. There is a need for standardisation of national death registration procedures at the European level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chernobyl, fifteen years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This work has been constituted around four questions: the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor, and the sarcophagus around it; the health consequences of the accident on the persons that have worked on the damaged reactor and on the population in the countries the most exposed to fallout,; the situation of contaminated territories around the power plant and their management today; the last question concerns especially the France with the consequences of the radioactive cloud and what we know about the health risks induced by this event. (N.C.)

  18. Can smartphones be used to bring computer-based tasks from the lab to the field? A mobile experience-sampling method study about the pace of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan; Lewetz, David; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2017-12-06

    Researchers are increasingly using smartphones to collect scientific data. To date, most smartphone studies have collected questionnaire data or data from the built-in sensors. So far, few studies have analyzed whether smartphones can also be used to conduct computer-based tasks (CBTs). Using a mobile experience-sampling method study and a computer-based tapping task as examples (N = 246; twice a day for three weeks, 6,000+ measurements), we analyzed how well smartphones can be used to conduct a CBT. We assessed methodological aspects such as potential technologically induced problems, dropout, task noncompliance, and the accuracy of millisecond measurements. Overall, we found few problems: Dropout rate was low, and the time measurements were very accurate. Nevertheless, particularly at the beginning of the study, some participants did not comply with the task instructions, probably because they did not read the instructions before beginning the task. To summarize, the results suggest that smartphones can be used to transfer CBTs from the lab to the field, and that real-world variations across device manufacturers, OS types, and CPU load conditions did not substantially distort the results.

  19. The inter-relationship between mood, self-esteem and response styles in adolescent offspring of bipolar parents: an experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlickova, Hana; Turnbull, Oliver H; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Bentall, Richard P

    2015-02-28

    The response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) proposes three main strategies individuals employ in response to low mood: rumination, active coping (distraction and problem-solving) and risk taking. Although recent research has suggested this theory has utility in understanding the symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD), the role of these processes in conferring vulnerability to the condition is poorly understood. Twenty-three adolescent children of patients with BD and 25 offspring of well parents completed the Experience Sampling Method (ESM; Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 1987) diary for six days. Longitudinal analyses were carried out to examine inter-relationships between mood, self-esteem and response styles. Increased negative as well as positive mood resulted in greater rumination in both groups. Low self-esteem triggered greater risk-taking at the subsequent time point in the at-risk group, while negative affect instigated increased active coping in the control group. In both groups, engagement in risk-taking improved mood at the subsequent time point, whilst rumination dampened self-esteem. Differential longitudinal associations between mood, self-esteem and response styles between at-risk and control children suggest early psychological vulnerability in the offspring of BD parents, with important indications for early intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Piloting the use of experience sampling method to investigate the everyday social experiences of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Brown, Nicole; Chen, Yu-Wei; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study explored the nature and quality of social experiences of children with Asperger Syndrome/High Functioning Autism (AS/HFA) through experience sampling method (ESM) while participating in everyday activities. ESM was used to identify the contexts and content of daily life experiences. Six children with AS/HFA (aged 8-12) wore an iPod Touch on seven consecutive days, while being signalled to complete a short survey. Participants were in the company of others 88.3% of their waking time, spent 69.0% of their time with family and 3.8% with friends, but only conversed with others 26.8% of the time. Participants had more positive experiences and emotions when they were with friends compared with other company. Participating in leisure activities was associated with enjoyment, interest in the occasion, and having positive emotions. ESM was found to be helpful in identifying the nature and quality of social experiences of children with AS/HFA from their perspective.

  1. Tracking the train of thought from the laboratory into everyday life: An experience-sampling study of mind wandering across controlled and ecological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    In an experience-sampling study that bridged laboratory, ecological, and individual-differences approaches to mind-wandering research, 72 subjects completed an executive-control task with periodic thought probes (reported by McVay & Kane, 2009) and then carried PDAs for a week that signaled them 8 times daily to report immediately whether their thoughts were off-task. Subjects who reported more mind wandering during the laboratory task endorsed more mind-wandering experiences during everyday life (and were more likely to report worries as off-task thought content). We also conceptually replicated laboratory findings that mind wandering predicts task performance: subjects rated their daily-life performance to be impaired when they reported off-task thoughts, with greatest impairment when subjects’ mind wandering lacked meta-consciousness. The propensity to mind-wander appears to be a stable cognitive characteristic and seems to predict performance difficulties in daily life, just as it does in the laboratory. PMID:19815789

  2. Do people with schizophrenia experience more negative emotion and less positive emotion in their daily lives? A meta-analysis of experience sampling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyein; Gonzalez, Rachel; Lavaysse, Lindsey M; Pence, Sunny; Fulford, Daniel; Gard, David E

    2017-05-01

    Research on emotion experience in response to valenced stimuli has consistently shown that people with schizophrenia have the capacity to experience emotion. Specifically, people with schizophrenia report similar experiences to both positive and negative emotion-eliciting stimuli as individuals without the disorder. However, it is less clear if people with schizophrenia experience similar levels of positive emotion and negative emotion outside of standardized laboratory contexts, as in their daily lives. One reliable method for assessing emotion experience in schizophrenia has been the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), or Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). Using the PRISMA guidelines for meta-analysis, we reviewed the literature for all studies that included people with and without schizophrenia, and that included a positive or negative emotion assessment during participants' daily lives. The current study is a meta-analysis of 12 EMA studies of emotion experience, which included a total of 619 people with schizophrenia and 730 healthy controls. Results indicate that people with schizophrenia consistently report more negative and less positive emotion than healthy control participants. These findings differ from laboratory-based studies, which may be due to several factors, including environmental differences, effects of the disorder that appear more clearly in daily life, or additional concerns, such as depression, which has been shown to be related to negative emotion in schizophrenia. Importantly, these findings are in line with questionnaire-based measures of emotion experience, lending some support for their use in research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Daily fluctuation of emotions and memories thereof: Design and methods of an experience sampling study of major depression, social phobia, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Andrew T; Miché, Marcel; Wersebe, Hanna; Mikoteit, Thorsten; Hoyer, Jürgen; Imboden, Christian; Bader, Klaus; Meyer, Andrea H; Hatzinger, Martin; Lieb, Roselind

    2017-09-01

    Symptom fluctuations and the dynamic contexts provoking these are poorly understood. This deficit is compounded by people's limited ability to accurately report about such dimensions in retrospect. Utilizing the advantages of experience sampling methodology (ESM), this study rigorously describes and tests proximal environmental, neurobiological and psychological factors associated with symptoms and mood states. Participants were assigned to three diagnostic groups: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD; n = 118), Social Phobia (SP; n = 47), or a Control Group without SP or MDD (CG; n = 119). Laboratory assessments included cognitive abilities, memory, constructs, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). ESM lasted seven days, with six assessments per day covering symptoms, affect, daily events, social interactions, post-event processing, well-being, etc. Morning cortisol and actigraphy were also assessed during ESM. Thereafter, participants provided subjective retrospective recall estimates of the emotions they reported during ESM. The multi-level data of >10,000 observations will allow for thorough examination of fluctuations of psychopathology and well-being in two highly prevalent disorders. Using two clinical groups and a non-affected control group, the clinical specificity versus generalizability of processes can be directly tested, thus providing stimulating information about the overlap and differences between anxiety and affective disorders. This research informs about the development, fluctuation, and maintaining factors of emotions and symptoms and examines the accuracy with which participants recall these dimensions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Dealing with daily challenges in dementia (deal-id study): effectiveness of the experience sampling method intervention 'Partner in Sight' for spousal caregivers of people with dementia: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Knippenberg, Rosalia J M; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Ponds, Rudolf W; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Verhey, Frans R J

    2016-05-11

    There is an urgent need for psychosocial interventions that effectively support dementia caregivers in daily life. The Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM) offers the possibility to provide a more dynamic view of caregiver functioning. ESM-derived feedback may help to redirect caregivers' behavior towards situations that elicit positive emotions and to increase their feelings of competence in the caretaking process. This paper presents the design of a study that evaluates the process characteristics and effects of the ESM-based intervention 'Partner in Sight'. A randomized controlled trial with 90 spousal caregivers of people with dementia will be conducted. Participants will be randomly assigned to the experimental (6-week ESM intervention including feedback), pseudo-experimental (6-week ESM intervention without feedback), or control group (care as usual). Assessments will be performed pre- and post-intervention and at 2-, and 6-month follow-up. Main outcomes will be sense of competence, perceived control, momentary positive affect, and psychological complaints (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, anxiety, momentary negative affect). In addition to the effect evaluation, a process and economic evaluation will be conducted to investigate the credibility and generalizability of the intervention, and its cost-effectiveness. The potential effects of the ESM intervention may help caregivers to endure their care responsibilities and prevent them from becoming overburdened. This is the first ESM intervention for caregivers of people with dementia. The results of this study, therefore, provide a valuable contribution to the growing knowledge on m-health interventions for dementia caregivers. Dutch Trial Register NTR4847 ; date registered Oct 9, 2014.

  5. Ethical Behaviors and Wealth: Generation Y's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorsky, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates if ethical behaviors and personal finances are related using a large scale U.S. random survey called the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). Fifteen indicators covering both ethical and unethical behaviors are compared to net worth for people in their 20s and 30s, who are called Generation Y. Breaking…

  6. Gram stain microbiological pattern of upper extremities suppuration at Baptist Medical Centre, Ogbomoso Nigeria: a fifteen month review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, A J; Olaolorun, D A; Meier, D E; Tarpley, J L

    2011-06-01

    Sixty-eight (68) patients with serious upper extremity suppurative infections, presenting within a period of fifteen (15) months, were prospectively studied clinically, Gram stain of aspirates/pus were performed, specimen cultured, planted, and where indicated glucose levels and haemoglobin genotype determined. Half of the patients had hand infections. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from thirty-nine (39) patients. Gram Negative bacilli, including Salmonella were more isolated from patients with diabetes mellitus or Hgb SS or SC. The Gram stain results correlated with the culture result 90%. When Gram Positive cocci were demonstrated in the primary microscopic examination, cultures were not mandatory. When no organism was demonstrated on primary Gram stain or the patient was diabetic or a sickler, cultures of the specimens were done. The Gram stain, well performed, remains a useful, inexpensive, technologically appropriate laboratory test for abetting decision making in patients with upper extremity suppurative infections. Organisms encountered in this study included: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Coliforms.

  7. Sexual Violence Against Children under Fifteen Years in the Case Lubanga: Critical Analysis and a Proposed Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Alberto Dias

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most controversial issues that the Pre-Trial Chamber I of the International Criminal Court had to decide in their judgment against Thomas Lubanga Dyilo was the legal treatment of the acts of sexual violence committed during the armed conflict of Ituri. This was a challenging aspect because the Prosecutor had previously decided not to present charges based on sex crimes. On the contrary, he mostly focused his prosecutorial strategy on the war crimes of conscripting, enlisting children under the age of fifteen years or using them to participate actively in hostilities. Facing that situation, the majority of the Trial Chamber I decided not to analyse the issue, while judge Elizabeth Odio Benito took up this point and considered that acts of sexual violence constitute an active participation in hostilities. In this essay I will critically analyse both opinions with the aim of offering an alternative explanation. The latter could be read as follows: despite the fact that acts of sexual violence were not included in the charges, they are covered by the conducts of conscripting or enlisting.

  8. The 22q11.2 microdeletion: fifteen years of insights into the genetic and neural complexity of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Liam J; Crabtree, Gregg W; Markx, Sander; Stark, Kimberly L; Chaverneff, Florence; Xu, Bin; Mukai, Jun; Fenelon, Karine; Hsu, Pei-Ken; Gogos, Joseph A; Karayiorgou, Maria

    2011-05-01

    Over the last fifteen years it has become established that 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a true genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. Carriers of deletions in chromosome 22q11.2 develop schizophrenia at rate of 25-30% and such deletions account for as many as 1-2% of cases of sporadic schizophrenia in the general population. Access to a relatively homogeneous population of individuals that suffer from schizophrenia as the result of a shared etiological factor and the potential to generate etiologically valid mouse models provides an immense opportunity to better understand the pathobiology of this disease. In this review we survey the clinical literature associated with the 22q11.2 microdeletions with a focus on neuroanatomical changes. Then, we highlight results from work modeling this structural mutation in animals. The key biological pathways disrupted by the mutation are discussed and how these changes impact the structure and function of neural circuits is described. Copyright © 2010 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The First Fifteen Years of Steroid Receptor Research in Zebrafish; Characterization and Functional Analysis of the Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel J. M. Schaaf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones regulate a wide range of processes in our body, and their effects are mediated by steroid receptors. In addition to their physiological role, these receptors mediate the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs and are widely used targets for dugs involved in the treatment of numerous diseases, ranging from cancer to inflammatory disorders. Over the last fifteen years, the zebrafish has increasingly been used as an animal model in steroid receptor research. Orthologues of all human steroid receptor genes appear to be present in zebrafish. All zebrafish steroid receptors have been characterized in detail, and their expression patterns have been analyzed. Functional studies have been performed using morpholino knockdown of receptor expression and zebrafish lines carrying mutations in one of their steroid receptor genes. To investigate the activity of the receptors in vivo, specific zebrafish reporter lines have been developed, and transcriptomic studies have been carried out to identify biomarkers for steroid receptor action. In this review, an overview of research on steroid receptors in zebrafish is presented, and it is concluded that further exploitation of the possibilities of the zebrafish model system will contribute significantly to the advancement of steroid receptor research in the next decade.

  10. Ancient earthquakes in the Roman city of Baelo Claudia (Cadiz, South of Spain): Fifteen years of archaeosimology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.G.; Giner-Robles, J.L.; Reicherter, K.; Rodriguez-Pascua, J.L.; Gruetzner, C.; Garcia-Jimenez, I.; Carrasco Garcia, P.; Bardaji, T.; Santos, G.; Roquero, E.; Roez, J.; Perucha, M.A.; Perez-Lopez, R.; Fernandez Macarro, B.; Martinez-Grana, A.; Goy, J.L.; Zazo, C.

    2016-07-01

    This work illustrates the state of the art on archaeoseismology of the ancient Roman city of Baelo Claudia (Tarifa, Cádiz) after nearly fifteen years of research. This ancient Roman site was affected by two earthquakes in the years AD 40–60 and AD 260–290 which promoted important urban and architectural changes and eventually the destruction and further abandonment of the city in AD 365–390. Earthquake Archaeoseismological Effects (EAEs) are catalogued, described and mapped in the entire monumental sector of the city mainly witnessing the last earthquake which occurred in AD 260–290. Mapping of oriented EAEs illustrate damage distribution all over the lower sector of the city, as well as the occurrence of suspect coseismic landslide and tsunami events. The structural analysis of oriented EAEs throughout the entire mapped sector suggests that the intervening ground motion was preferentially oriented in a SW to NE direction. The geoarchaeological analysis and some relevant archaeological anomalies, strongly suggest the occurrence of coeval tsunami events during both ancient earthquakes, pointing to the occurrence of an offshore seismic source SSW of the city. Several N-S normal faults have been identified around the Bolonia Bay area and some of them continue offshore SSW of Baelo Claudia. These faults with clear Quaternary activity can be considered as the more probable seismic sources for the events affecting the ancient Roman site and they are consistent with the mapped damage orientation displayed by the structural analysis of EAEs within the old Roman city. (Author)

  11. For a responsible energetic future. Energy: let us rejoice, France is waking up. Fifteen tales on energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2014-01-01

    In a first article, the author discusses the possible content of a law on energy transition which is supposed to be voted by the Parliament during the autumn 2014, and which will probably decide the shutting down of some French nuclear plants. The author outlines the social, economical and energy-related consequences of such a policy. In a second article he rejoices over the publication of two reports (one on the Energy Climate Package by the Cour des Comptes, and one by the General Commissioner for Strategy and Prospective) which consider that the objectives of development of renewable energies (notably wind and photovoltaic) are too ambitious and even unrealistic, and outline the bad management of investments and the inefficiency of action by the ADEME and the Ministry of Ecology. In the third article he denounces fifteen 'tales' about the German energy model, the uselessness of seven German nuclear plants which have been stopped, the low cost of energy transition, the environmental benefit of renewable energies, the high potential of energy savings, the new electricity storage means, the electric car as a new mean of storage of electric current, the sun which does not send any bill, wind energy (when a wind farm is said to be able to supply energy to so many thousands households), geothermal energy production, technological leap, the benefit of decentralization, the miracle of job creation by renewable energies, the ecologic electricity, nuclear wastes we do not know what to do with

  12. Weatherization Beyond the Numbers: Case Studies of Fifteen High-performing Weatherization Agencies - Conducted May 2011 through July 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Beth A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The report presents fifteen individual case studies of high-performing and unique local weatherization agencies. This research was one component of the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. The agencies were chosen to represent a range of contexts and approaches to weatherization. For example, the set of agencies includes a mix of urban and rural agencies, those that mainly use in-house crews to weatherize homes versus those that use contractor crews, and a mix of locations, from very cold climates to moderate to hot humid and dry climates. The case studies were mainly based on site visits to the agencies that encompassed interviews with program directors, weatherization crews, and recipients of weatherization. This information was supplemented by secondary materials. The cases document the diversity of contexts and challenges faced by the agencies and how they operate on a day-by-day basis. The cases also high common themes found throughout the agencies, such as their focus on mission and respect for their clients.

  13. The contents of fifteen essential trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.G.; Kazi, G.H.; Jakharani, M.A.; Shar, Q.G.; Shaikh, S.

    2005-01-01

    The content of fifteen elements i.e. Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined for 30 sample from three types of green tea samples using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The samples were purchased from authentic tea dealer in Peshawar imported from India, China and Kenya. However, some samples were taken which were locally produced in Pakistan with branded packing and without package. The NBS tea leaves. The wet digestion and infusion procedure reference material was also analyzed simultaneously with tea samples. The wet digestion and infusion procedures were employed for determination of total elements and aqueous extracted elements respectively. It was found that, considerable amount of essential and trace elements are present in total in tea infusion. The levels of toxic metals are low but level of aluminum is high in both forms. The results obtained from this analysis have shown good accuracy and reproducibility. The relative error and relative standard deviation were less than 10% for most of the elements analyzed. (author)

  14. An experience sampling study of physical activity and positive affect: investigating the role of situational motivation and perceived intensity across time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the association between physical activity and positive affect is complex, prompting experts to recommend continued examination of moderating variables. The main purpose of this 2-week field study was to examine the influence of situational motivational regulations from self-determination theory (SDT on changes in positive affect from pre- to post- to 3-hours post-physical activity. Another purpose was to clarify the relationship between physical activity intensity [i.e., Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE] and positive affect at the stated time points. This study employed an experience sampling design using electronic questionnaires. Sixty-six healthy and active, multiple-role women provided recurrent assessments of their physical activity, situational motivation, and positive affect in their everyday lives over a 14-day period. Specifically, measures were obtained at the three time points of interest (i.e., pre-, post-, 3-hours post-physical activity. The data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results showed that intrinsic motivation was related to post-physical activity positive affect while the influence of identified regulation appeared 3-hours post-physical activity. In addition, RPE, which was significantly predicted by levels of introjection, was more strongly associated with an increase in positive affect post-physical activity than three hours later. The theoretical implications of these findings vis-à vis SDT, namely in regards to a viable motivational sequence predicting the influence of physical activity on affective states, are discussed. The findings regarding the differential influences of RPE and motivational regulations carries applications for facilitating women’s well-being.

  15. Determination of fifteen priority phenolic compounds in environmental samples from Andalusia (Spain) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Vidal, J.L.; Belmonte Vega, A.; Garrido Frenich, A.; Egea Gonzalez, F.J.; Arrebola Liebanas, F.J. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2004-05-01

    This work describes the optimisation of a method to determinate fifteen phenolic compounds in waters, sediments and biota (green marine algae) by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) in the negative mode. The LC separations of the studied compounds and their MS parameters were optimised in order to improve selectivity and sensitivity. Separation was carried out with a C{sub 18} column using methanol and 0.005% acid acetic as mobile phase in gradient mode. The molecular ion was selected for the quantitation in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was applied in order to preconcentrate the target analytes from water samples. However, extraction of the compounds from sediment and biota samples was carried out by liquid-solid extraction with methanol/water after studying the influence of other organic solvents. In addition, a clean-up step by SPE with HLB Oasis cartridges was necessary for sediments and biota. The proposed analytical methodology was validated in the target environmental matrices by the analysis of spiked blank matrix samples. Detection limits were 10-50 ng L{sup -1} for water, 1-5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for sediments and 2.5-5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for biota samples. Good recoveries and precision values were obtained for all matrices. This methodology has been successfully applied to the analysis of incurred water, sediment and biota samples from Andalusia (Spain). (orig.)

  16. Significant other behavioural responses and patient chronic fatigue syndrome symptom fluctuations in the context of daily life: An experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Rebecca; Barrowclough, Christine; Emsley, Richard; Machin, Matthew; Wearden, Alison J

    2016-09-01

    Significant other responses to patients' symptoms are important for patient illness outcomes in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS/ME); negative responses have been associated with increased patient depression, whilst increased disability and fatigue have been associated with solicitous significant other responses. The current study aimed to examine the relationship between significant other responses and patient outcomes within the context of daily life. Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM). Twenty-three patients with CFS/ME and their significant others were recruited from specialist CFS/ME services. Sixty momentary assessments, delivered using individual San Francisco Android Smartphones, were conducted over a period of 6 days. All participants reported on affect, dyadic contact, and significant other responses to the patient. Patients reported on symptom severity, disability, and activity management strategies. Negative significant other responses were associated with increased patient symptom severity and distress reported at the same momentary assessment; there was evidence of a potentially mediating role of concurrent distress on symptom severity. Patient-perceived solicitous responses were associated with reduced patient activity and disability reported at the same momentary assessment. Lagged analyses indicate that momentary associations between significant other responses and patient outcomes are largely transitory; significant other responses were not associated with any of the patient outcomes at the subsequent assessment. The results indicate that significant other responses are important influences on the day-to-day experience of CFS/ME. Further research examining patient outcomes in association with specific significant other behavioural responses is warranted and future interventions that target such significant other behaviours may be beneficial. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? The existing literature has identified

  17. Network Approach to Understanding Emotion Dynamics in Relation to Childhood Trauma and Genetic Liability to Psychopathology: Replication of a Prospective Experience Sampling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasmi, Laila; Drukker, Marjan; Guloksuz, Sinan; Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Decoster, Jeroen; van Winkel, Ruud; Collip, Dina; Delespaul, Philippe; De Hert, Marc; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Jacobs, Nele; Rutten, Bart P F; Wichers, Marieke; van Os, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Background: The network analysis of intensive time series data collected using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) may provide vital information in gaining insight into the link between emotion regulation and vulnerability to psychopathology. The aim of this study was to apply the network approach to investigate whether genetic liability (GL) to psychopathology and childhood trauma (CT) are associated with the network structure of the emotions "cheerful," "insecure," "relaxed," "anxious," "irritated," and "down"-collected using the ESM method. Methods: Using data from a population-based sample of twin pairs and siblings (704 individuals), we examined whether momentary emotion network structures differed across strata of CT and GL. GL was determined empirically using the level of psychopathology in monozygotic and dizygotic co-twins. Network models were generated using multilevel time-lagged regression analysis and were compared across three strata (low, medium, and high) of CT and GL, respectively. Permutations were utilized to calculate p values and compare regressions coefficients, density, and centrality indices. Regression coefficients were presented as connections, while variables represented the nodes in the network. Results: In comparison to the low GL stratum, the high GL stratum had significantly denser overall ( p = 0.018) and negative affect network density ( p < 0.001). The medium GL stratum also showed a directionally similar (in-between high and low GL strata) but statistically inconclusive association with network density. In contrast to GL, the results of the CT analysis were less conclusive, with increased positive affect density ( p = 0.021) and overall density ( p = 0.042) in the high CT stratum compared to the medium CT stratum but not to the low CT stratum. The individual node comparisons across strata of GL and CT yielded only very few significant results, after adjusting for multiple testing. Conclusions: The present findings demonstrate

  18. Australia's Ongoing Legacy of Asbestos: Significant Challenges Remain Even after the Complete Banning of Asbestos Almost Fifteen Years Ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeberg, Matthew; Vallance, Deborah A; Keena, Victoria; Takahashi, Ken; Leigh, James

    2018-02-23

    The most effective way of reducing the global burden of asbestos-related diseases is through the implementation of asbestos bans and minimising occupational and non-occupational exposure to respirable asbestos fibres. Australia's asbestos consumption peaked in the 1970s with Australia widely thought to have had among the highest per-capita asbestos consumption level of any country. Australia's discontinuation of all forms of asbestos and asbestos-containing products and materials did not occur at a single point of time. Crocidolite consumption ceased in the late 1960s, followed by amosite consumption stopping in the mid 1980s. Despite significant government reports being published in 1990 and 1999, it was not until the end of 2003 that a complete ban on all forms of asbestos (crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile) was introduced in Australia. The sustained efforts of trade unions and non-governmental organisations were essential in forcing the Australian government to finally implement the 2003 asbestos ban. Trade unions and non-government organisations continue to play a key role today in monitoring the government's response to Australian asbestos-related disease epidemic. There are significant challenges that remain in Australia, despite a complete asbestos ban being implemented almost fifteen years ago. The Australian epidemic of asbestos-related disease has only now reached its peak. A total of 16,679 people were newly diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma between 1982 and 2016, with 84% of cases occurring in men. There has been a stabilisation of the age-standardised malignant mesothelioma incidence rate in the last 10 years. In 2016, the incidence rate per 100,000 was 2.5 using the Australian standard population and 1.3 using the Segi world standard population. Despite Australia's complete asbestos ban being in place since 2003, public health efforts must continue to focus on preventing the devastating effects of avoidable asbestos-related diseases, including

  19. Geological Constraints on Ocean-Floor Detachment Faulting (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Fifteen-Twenty Fracture Zone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, C. J.; Escartin, J.

    2001-12-01

    During RRS James Clark Ross cruise JR63 we made a detailed geological investigation of a number of corrugated massifs adjoining the Mid-Atlantic Ridge axis north of the Fifteen-Twenty fracture zone. This area is known to be one at which magma supply is low and where peridotite exposures are widespread in the axial valley. Spreading parallel striations are evident on our swath bathymetry, TOBI sidescan sonar images and seabed photographs over an area of some 300 sq. km. Wavelengths of the corrugations range from km down to mm in scale. We sampled the striated surfaces using the BRIDGE wireline rock drill, an electrically powered rotary coring device that can take azimuthally orientated metre-length cores from hard-rock seafloor. Core was retrieved at 65 sites out of 73 attempted at water depths of up to 4520m and on slopes of up to 44 degrees. Dredging (29 sites) was also carried out in order to sample the steeper flanks of the corrugated massifs. Drill cores commonly contain highly deformed schistose serpentinite with sub-horizontal fabrics. This is the first direct evidence that the corrugated surfaces indeed represent low angle detachment-type fault planes, and shows that they are lubricated by serpentinite. A cupola of gabbro underlies the shallowest of the corrugated massifs. It is more than 100 sq. km in area and has very irregular form. At its sides it intrudes undeformed serpentinised mantle peridotite, and its upper surface passes into a very extensive swarm of chilled dolerite dykes, locally sheeted, that intrude the deformed serpentinite. Deformation and magmatism were clearly synchronous: some dykes cut deformed serpentinite; others are deformed and incorporated into a sheared serpentinite mélange. Many dolerites and gabbros are cataclastically deformed and contain greenschist facies alteration assemblages. No evidence for high-temperature ductile deformation is observed. These relationships place important constraints on the geometry and deformation

  20. A multicenter questionnaire investigation of attitudes toward hand hygiene, assessed by the staff in fifteen hospitals in Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimakoff, J; Kjelsberg, A B; Larsen, S O

    1992-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out anonymously among 2557 health care workers in Denmark and Norway to identify and quantify factors that affect the handwashing behavior of physicians, nurses, and other staff groups who perform direct patient care. For number of daily patient contacts physici...

  1. Development and use of a fifteen year-old equivalent mathematical phantom for internal dose calculations. [Radiation dose distributions from /sup 99m/Tc-labeled compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.M.; Poston, J.W.; Hwang, J.L.; Jones, T.D.; Warner, G.G.

    1976-06-01

    The existence of a phantom based on anatomical data for the average fifteen-year-old provides for a proficient means of obtaining estimates of absorbed dose for children of that age. Dimensions representative of an average fifteen-year-old human, obtained from various biological and medical research, were transformed into a mathematical construct of idealized shapes of the exterior, skeletal system, and internal organs of a human. The idealization for an average adult presently in use by the International Commission on Radiological Protection was used as a basis for design. The mathematical equations describing the phantom were developed to be readily adaptable to present-day methods of dose estimation. Typical exposure situations in nuclear medicine have previously been modeled for existing phantoms. With no further development of the exposure model necessary, adaptation to the fifteen-year-old phantom demonstrated the utility of the design. Estimates of absorbed dose were obtained for the administration of two radiopharmaceuticals, /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA. (auth)

  2. Guidelines for Cognitive Behavioral Training within Doctoral Psychology Programs in the United States: Report of the Inter-Organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K.; Ronan, George F.; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D.; Belar, Cynthia D.; Berry, Sharon L.; Christofff, Karen A.; Craighead, Linda W.; Dougher, Michael J.; Dowd, E. Thomas; Herbert, James D.; McFarr, Lynn M.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Sauer, Eric M.; Strauman, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a yearlong series of…

  3. One the way to European Union: changes in the Czech education system during the last fifteen years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milada Rubusicová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to describe the changes in the educationalsystem in the Czech Republic that have taken place from the beginning of the 1990’s up to the present. The first part includes a brief characterisation of the initial situation typical of the socialist model of education and a specification ofthose areas that were viewed sceptically or critically after the „velvet revolution»in 1989, and that have been identified as areas where a change is desirable. Next part of the paper describes the course of changes and reforms of education in subsequent years. Periodisation of reforms is carried out on the basisof a general model that has been created, as one of possible approaches, for postsocialist countries in transformation. Each part of the model, i.e. the correctivereforms, modernization reforms, structural reforms and system reforms, containsan outline of the respective individual changes that took place in the Czech Republic in the course of the last, almost fifteen years, and the changes arecritically evaluated.There are some documents (e.g. the Czech «White Paper» that are of essential importance to the recent and current situation in the Czech educational systembecause they create basic visions and orientation but also a strategy of future changes. The documents are treated in the next section of the present text. It isfollowed by a brief analysis of the current situation of the Czech educational system, namely as regards the educational opportunities and participation in education, structure and network of schools, financing of the Czech educational system, and finally the school leavers’ prospects at the labour market.The last part of the paper deals with the outlooks of further development of the Czech educational system in connection with the entry into the European Union,and a conclusion is drawn that it involves mutual convergence of problems caused by global economic and social forces that also leads to

  4. The evaluation of fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. for fresh fruit production in the Pretoria region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Wessels

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica were evaluated for three successive seasons at the University of Pretoria Research Farm. Yields were recorded and external and internal fruit quality factors were identified and considered. Following this investigation, minimum standards were suggested and the cultivars under review were compared. The cultivars Morado, Algerian, Fusicaulis van Heerden, Fresno, Mexican and Nudosa met all or most of the standards set. It is concluded that for fresh fruit production these cultivars are best suited for planting in the Pretoria region and in areas with similar climatic conditions.

  5. Impact of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Perceived Stress and Special Health Self-Efficacy in Seven to Fifteen-Year-Old Children With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzezi, Mousa; Ataie Moghanloo, Vahid; Ataie Moghanloo, Roghayeh; Pishvaei, Malihe

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) imposes restrictions on physical, emotional and social functioning of children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on perceived stress and special health self-efficacy in seven to fifteen-year-old children with DM. The present study was a clinical trial with a pretest-posttest control group design. The study population included all seven to fifteen-year-old patients who had referred to the Diabetes Mellitus Association of Tabriz, Iran, of whom 40 participants were selected using convenient sampling. They were randomly allocated to two matched groups (experimental and control). The experimental group participated in therapy sessions, while the control group did not receive any interventions. The research instruments were perceived stress and special health self-efficacy scales. The multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) results showed that the treatment was effective on variables of perceived stress and special health self-efficacy (P self-efficacy in children with DM.

  6. A novel and cost-effective method for the determination of fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in low volume rainwater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Amado, M; Prieto-Blanco, M C; López-Mahía, P; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2016-08-01

    A novel single-step method was developed for the determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at ultratrace levels in rainwater by on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-fluorescence detection. This paper is focused on a study of the IT-SPME coupling and optimization, its application to rainwater and other environmental waters and the stability of PAH rainwater solutions. In order to solve the different extractive behavior of PAHs, several IT-SPME parameters were optimized, with the type and percentage of organic modifier playing a decisive role. In the kinetic study on stability of PAH solutions, the organic modifier has proven to be effective as a preservative, avoiding the loss of the higher-molecular weight PAHs. The proposed method presents a wide interval of linearity (10-1500ngL(-1)) and a good relative standard deviation between 3.4% and 14.6% for the PAHs analyzed. Detection and quantification limits between 2.3 and 28ngL(-1) and 5.7 and 65ngL(-1) were obtained respectively, taking into account the values of the procedure blanks. Recoveries for different kinds of real water samples were within the range of 72-110%. Low and medium-molecular weight PAHs predominate in daily and monthly rainwater samples analyzed. In comparison with other methods reported, the proposed method achieves a significant reduction of the sample volume, the organic solvent consumption and time of sample treatment, allowing a cost-effective analysis of environmental waters. The method is especially suitable for samples from the precipitation events of low intensity or short duration for which sample volume is limiting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fifteen papers on functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Allakhverdiev, B P; Fainshtein, A S; Khelemskii, AYa; Klenina, LI

    1984-01-01

    The papers in this volume cover topics on functional analysis. They have been selected, translated, and edited from publications not otherwise translated into English under the auspices of the AMS-ASL-IMS Committee on Translations from Russian and Other Foreign Languages.

  8. Guando arrives at its fifteen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Diego Hernan

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the strategies carried out in the execution of this oil project, keeping in mind that Guando is the biggest field of petroleum in Colombia after the oil field of the oriental plains

  9. Patterns of Interactions and Behaviors: Physical Education in Korean Elementary, Middle, and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Jwa K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the differences between elementary, middle, and high school physical education classes in Korea based on teacher and student behavior and teacher-student interaction patterns. The subjects who participated in this study were fifteen certified full-time physical education teachers at selected…

  10. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals…

  11. Correlation Between Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from Fifteen Eucalyptus Species Growing in the Korbous and Jbel Abderrahman Arboreta (North East Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of fifteen Eucalyptus species harvested from the Jbel Abderrahman and Korbous arboreta (North East Tunisia were screened for their antibacterial activities by the agar disc diffusion method. Eighteen major components as identified by GC/FID and GC/MS were selected for a study of the chemical and biological activity variability. The main one was 1,8-cineole, followed by spathulenol, trans-pinocarveol, α-pinene, p-cymene, globulol, cryptone, β-phellandrene, viridiflorol, borneol, limonene and isospathulenol. The chemical principal component analysis identified five species groups and subgroups, where each group constituted a chemotype, however that of the values of zone diameter of the inhibition (zdi identified six groups of Eucalyptus oils, characterized by their antibacterial inhibition ability. The strongest activity was shown by E. platypus oil against Enterococcus faecalis and by E. lamannii oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A correlation between the levels of some major components and the antibacterial activities was observed.

  12. The online Prescriptive Index platform for the assessment of managerial competencies and coaching needs: development and initial validation of the experience sampling Mood Wheel and the Manager-Rational and Irrational Beliefs Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David, O.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Prescriptive Index platform is dedicated to the appraisal and development of managerial competencies, and it is comprised of such measures as the multi-rater Freeman-Gavita Prescriptive Executive Coaching (PEC Assessment for assessing core managerial skills, and the multi-rater Managerial Coaching Assessment System (MCAS for the evaluation of coaching competencies in managers. The aim of this research was to present the development and psychometric properties of new tools, part of the Prescriptive Index platform, for the assessment of managerial emotional competencies: the web and mobile based Mood Wheel measure using experience sampling procedures, for the assessment of current/previous distress and positive emotions; and the self-report Manager Rational and Irrational Beliefs Scale (M-RIBS for the assessment of managerial attitudes involved in emotion-regulation processes. Results obtained show that both instruments integrated in the Prescriptive Index platform have adequate initial psychometric support and predictive validity. Practical implications of our findings are discussed in the light of the importance of enabling organizations to accurately identify managerial competencies and coaching needs.

  13. An experience sampling study on the ecological validity of the SWN-20: Indication that subjective well-being is associated with momentary affective states above and beyond psychosis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pos, Karin; de Wit, Iris E; van Dijk, Floor A; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Bruggeman, Richard; Meijer, Carin J; de Haan, Lieuwe; Alizadeh, Berhooz Z; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Van Beveren, Nico J; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Delespaul, Phillipe; Meijer, Carin J; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kahn, Rene S; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Simons, Claudia J P; van Haren, Neeltje E; van Os, Jim; van Winkel, Ruud

    2017-12-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) is associated with treatment adherence and symptom outcome in people with psychotic disorders. Also, it is associated with psychosis susceptibility and it is partly hereditable. The SWN-20 is a widely used tool to assess subjective well-being in patients; it was also found to be suitable for assessing SWB in healthy populations. Yet it is unclear how this retrospectively measured construct may be associated with momentary affective state, which is the proposed underlying mechanism of subjective well-being. This study therefore investigated the ecological validity of the SWN-20 in people at different risk for psychosis. In 63 patients with a psychotic disorder and 61 siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder we assessed whether subjective well-being as measured with the SWN-20, was associated with momentary positive affect, negative affect, reward experience and stress-sensitivity as measured by the experience sample method (ESM). Higher subjective well-being was associated with higher momentary positive affect and lower negative affect, and this association was not conditional on psychosis vulnerability. Subjective well-being was not associated with stress-sensitivity or reward-experience. SWN-20 is an easy-to-use and ecologically valid tool to measure subjective well-being in people with different vulnerability for psychosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Proximal femoral allografts for reconstruction of bone stock in revision arthroplasty of the hip. A nine to fifteen-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackley, H R; Davis, A M; Hutchison, C R; Gross, A E

    2001-03-01

    Revision of a femoral component in a patient who has severe bone loss is a complex problem that is likely to increase with the increasing numbers of patients who have multiple revision hip arthroplasties. A valuable option in such a situation is use of a long-stem prosthesis that is cemented to a proximal femoral allograft but not to the host bone. Between April 1984 and December 1989, sixty-three total hip arthroplasties in sixty consecutive patients were revised with a proximal femoral allograft-prosthesis construct. The average length of the allograft was 15 cm. The average age of the patients at the time of the revision was 62.5 years. All patients had undergone at least one previous total hip arthroplasty, and an average of 3.8 previous total hip arthroplasties had been performed in the series. Each patient was assigned a modified Harris hip score. Radiographs were examined for trochanteric union, allograft-host union, endosteal and periosteal resorption, component loosening, and fracture. At an average of eleven years (range, nine years and four months to fifteen years) after the revision, forty-five patients were alive, fourteen patients had died, and one patient had been lost to follow-up. The patients who had died or had been lost to follow-up had had a total of fifteen allografts (24%) and had been followed for an average of five years and seven months (range, two years and four months to eight years). The average preoperative Harris hip score for the sixty-three hips was 30 points (range, 6 to 65 points). At the latest follow-up evaluation, the average score for the hips with the original graft in situ was 71 points (range, 47 to 95 points). Five hips failed because of infection, and four of them were successfully revised. Three hips failed because of aseptic loosening, at an average of ten years and three months; two were successfully revised, and the third was awaiting revision at the time of writing. An additional operation was performed in three hips

  15. Atmospheric pressure gas chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of fifteen organochlorine pesticides in soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhipeng; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Xiaohu; Chen, Zenglong; Pan, Xinglu; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-02-26

    In this study, the application of atmospheric pressure gas chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APGC-QTOF-MS) has been investigated for simultaneous determination of fifteen organochlorine pesticides in soil and water. Soft ionization of atmospheric pressure gas chromatography was evaluated by comparing with traditional more energetic electron impact ionization (EI). APGC-QTOF-MS showed a sensitivity enhancement by approximately 7-305 times. The QuEChERs (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method was used to pretreat the soil samples and solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup was used for water samples. Precision, accuracy and stability experiments were undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of the method. The results showed that the mean recoveries for all the pesticides from the soil samples were 70.3-118.9% with 0.4-18.3% intra-day relative standard deviations (RSD) and 1.0-15.6% inter-day RSD at 10, 50 and 500 μg/L levels, while the mean recoveries of water samples were 70.0-118.0% with 1.1-17.8% intra-day RSD and 0.5-12.2% inter-day RSD at 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 μg/L levels. Excellent linearity (0.9931 ≦ r(2)≤ 0.9999) was obtained for each pesticides in the soil and water matrix calibration curves within the range of 0.01-1.0mg/L. The limits of detection (LOD) for each of the 15 pesticides was less than 3.00 μg/L, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) was less than 9.99 μg/L in soil and water. Furthermore, the developed method was successfully applied to monitor the targeted pesticides in real soil and water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A third generation tomography system with fifteen detectors and a gamma-ray source in fan beam geometry simulated by Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velo, A.F.; Alvarez, A.G.; Carvalho, D.V.S.; Fernandez, V.; Somessari, S.; Sprenger, F.F.; Hamada, M.M.; Mesquita, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the Monte Carlo simulation, using MCNP4C, of a multichannel third generation tomography system containing a two radioactive sources, 192 Ir (316.5 - 468 KeV) and 137 Cs (662 KeV), and a set of fifteen NaI(Tl) detectors, with dimensions of 1 inch diameter and 2 inches thick, in fan beam geometry, positioned diametrically opposite. Each detector moves 10 steps of 0,24 deg , totalizing 150 virtual detectors per projection, and then the system rotate 2 degrees. The Monte Carlo simulation was performed to evaluate the viability of this configuration. For this, a multiphase phantom containing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA ((ρ ≅ 1.19 g/cm 3 )), iron (ρ ≅ 7.874 g/cm 3 ), aluminum (ρ ≅ 2.6989 g/cm 3 ) and air (ρ ≅ 1.20479E-03 g/cm 3 ) was simulated. The simulated number of histories was 1.1E+09 per projection and the tally used were the F8, which gives the pulse height of each detector. The data obtained by the simulation was used to reconstruct the simulated phantom using the statistical iterative Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method Technique (ML-EM) algorithm. Each detector provides a gamma spectrum of the sources, and a pulse height analyzer (PHA) of 10% on the 316.5 KeV and 662 KeV photopeaks was performed. This technique provides two reconstructed images of the simulated phantom. The reconstructed images provided high spatial resolution, and it is supposed that the temporal resolution (spending time for one complete revolution) is about 2.5 hours. (author)

  17. A third generation tomography system with fifteen detectors and a gamma-ray source in fan beam geometry simulated by Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velo, A.F.; Alvarez, A.G.; Carvalho, D.V.S.; Fernandez, V.; Somessari, S.; Sprenger, F.F.; Hamada, M.M.; Mesquita, C.H., E-mail: chmesqui@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the Monte Carlo simulation, using MCNP4C, of a multichannel third generation tomography system containing a two radioactive sources, {sup 192}Ir (316.5 - 468 KeV) and {sup 137}Cs (662 KeV), and a set of fifteen NaI(Tl) detectors, with dimensions of 1 inch diameter and 2 inches thick, in fan beam geometry, positioned diametrically opposite. Each detector moves 10 steps of 0,24 deg , totalizing 150 virtual detectors per projection, and then the system rotate 2 degrees. The Monte Carlo simulation was performed to evaluate the viability of this configuration. For this, a multiphase phantom containing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA ((ρ ≅ 1.19 g/cm{sup 3})), iron (ρ ≅ 7.874 g/cm{sup 3}), aluminum (ρ ≅ 2.6989 g/cm{sup 3}) and air (ρ ≅ 1.20479E-03 g/cm{sup 3}) was simulated. The simulated number of histories was 1.1E+09 per projection and the tally used were the F8, which gives the pulse height of each detector. The data obtained by the simulation was used to reconstruct the simulated phantom using the statistical iterative Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method Technique (ML-EM) algorithm. Each detector provides a gamma spectrum of the sources, and a pulse height analyzer (PHA) of 10% on the 316.5 KeV and 662 KeV photopeaks was performed. This technique provides two reconstructed images of the simulated phantom. The reconstructed images provided high spatial resolution, and it is supposed that the temporal resolution (spending time for one complete revolution) is about 2.5 hours. (author)

  18. Matrix solid-phase dispersion combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of fifteen halogenated flame retardants in mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde-de-Sáa, Eugenia; Valls-Cantenys, Carme; Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael

    2013-07-26

    This study presents the development and validation of a new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of fifteen analytes classified as halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) - nine brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) and six novel HFRs - in different kinds of mollusks using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS). The proposed method is the first one developed for such a broad range of HFRs in aquatic biota, featuring several advantages, including low solvent and sample intake, simplicity of operation, reduced cost and integration of extraction and clean-up into a single step. Under optimal conditions, 0.5g of freeze-dried sample, 0.5g of a primary-secondary amine (PSA) as solid support, a sorbent combination of 1.75g of florisil (deactivated with 5% Milli-Q water), 1.75g of acidified silica (10% (w/w) H2SO4) and 0.5g of silica, and 10mL dichloromethane as elution solvent were used. Standard addition over the extract was required however for the correct quantification due to matrix effects in the GC system, particularly for novel HFRs, that could not be compensated with the internal standards. The method afforded LODs in the range of 0.003-0.07ngg(-1) dry weight (0.0006-0.014ngg(-1) on a wet weight basis, assuming an 80% sample water content), except for decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) (0.6ngg(-1) dry weight, 0.12ngg(-1) wet weight). The accuracy of the method was evaluated with three different types of spiked mollusk species using surrogate standards and standard addition over the extract for quantification and the recoveries were in the 70-120% range, except for bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (DEHTBP) in clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) samples (46% recovery). Moreover, the method was successfully validated with standard reference materials (SRMs) of salmon and mussel tissues for BDEs. Finally, the method was applied to the determination of HFRs

  19. Australia’s Ongoing Legacy of Asbestos: Significant Challenges Remain Even after the Complete Banning of Asbestos Almost Fifteen Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeberg, Matthew; Vallance, Deborah A.; Keena, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    The most effective way of reducing the global burden of asbestos-related diseases is through the implementation of asbestos bans and minimising occupational and non-occupational exposure to respirable asbestos fibres. Australia’s asbestos consumption peaked in the 1970s with Australia widely thought to have had among the highest per-capita asbestos consumption level of any country. Australia’s discontinuation of all forms of asbestos and asbestos-containing products and materials did not occur at a single point of time. Crocidolite consumption ceased in the late 1960s, followed by amosite consumption stopping in the mid 1980s. Despite significant government reports being published in 1990 and 1999, it was not until the end of 2003 that a complete ban on all forms of asbestos (crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile) was introduced in Australia. The sustained efforts of trade unions and non-governmental organisations were essential in forcing the Australian government to finally implement the 2003 asbestos ban. Trade unions and non-government organisations continue to play a key role today in monitoring the government’s response to Australian asbestos-related disease epidemic. There are significant challenges that remain in Australia, despite a complete asbestos ban being implemented almost fifteen years ago. The Australian epidemic of asbestos-related disease has only now reached its peak. A total of 16,679 people were newly diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma between 1982 and 2016, with 84% of cases occurring in men. There has been a stabilisation of the age-standardised malignant mesothelioma incidence rate in the last 10 years. In 2016, the incidence rate per 100,000 was 2.5 using the Australian standard population and 1.3 using the Segi world standard population. Despite Australia’s complete asbestos ban being in place since 2003, public health efforts must continue to focus on preventing the devastating effects of avoidable asbestos-related diseases

  20. Long term monitoring at Solfatara of Pozzuoli (Campi Flegrei, Italy): 1998-2014, fifteen years of soil CO2 flux measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Rosiello, Angelo; Bagnato, Emanuela; Avino, Rosario; Frondini, Francesco; Donnini, Marco; Caliro, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    With a flux of deeply derived fluids of ~5000 t/d and an energetic release of ~100 MW Solfatara of Pozzuoli is one of the largest studied volcanic-hydrothermal system of the world. Since 1998, soil CO2 flux surveys where performed using the accumulation chamber method over a large area (1.45 km2), including the volcanic apparatus and its surroundings. The statistical elaboration of CO2 flux, also coupled with the investigation of the CO2 efflux isotopic composition, allowed to characterize both the CO2 flux connected to by biological activity in the soil and that feed to the degassing of the hydrothermal system. A geostatistical elaboration of CO2 fluxes based on sequential Gaussian simulations, allowed to define the spatial structure of the degassing area, pointing out the presence of a well defined diffuse degassing structure interested by the release of deeply derived CO2 (Solfatara DDS). Solfatara DDS results well correlated to volcanic and tectonic structures interesting the crater area and the eastern area of Pisciarelli. With the same approach the total amount of CO2 release was estimated to range between 754 t/d and 1530 t/d in the last fifteen year (with an error in the estimate varying between 9 and 15 %). Also the extension of the DDS experienced relevant variations varying between 4.5x105 m2 to 12.3 x105 m2. In particular two major changes occurred in the extension of the DDS, the first consisted in its doubling in 2003-2004 and the second in further enlargement of ~ 30% in 2011-2012, the last occurring after period of decreasing trend which interrupted 4-5 years of relative stability. These variations mainly occurred external to the crater area in correspondence of a NE-SW fault system where fluxes increased from background to values typical of the endogenous source. The first event was previously correlated with the occurrence in 2000 of a relatively deep seismic swarm, which was interpreted as the indicator of the opening of an easy-ascent pathway

  1. A questão racial na política brasileira (os últimos quinze anos The racial question in Brazilian politics (the past fifteen years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sérgio Alfredo Guimarães

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analiso o modo como a questão racial tem marcado a política brasileira nos últimos quinze anos. Começo expondo o que significou a idéia de democracia racial no processo de construção da nacionalidade brasileira, para depois, com a brevidade que o espaço exige, resenhar os estudos sobre o comportamento eleitoral dos negros brasileiros e tratar da emergência de movimentos sociais negros e de sua incorporação ao sistema político. Meu entendimento é que devemos ver na "democracia racial" um compromisso político e social do moderno estado republicano brasileiro, que vigeu, alternando força e convencimento, do Estado Novo de Vargas até o final da ditadura militar. Tal compromisso, hoje em crise, consistiu na incorporação da população negra brasileira ao mercado de trabalho, na ampliação da educação formal, enfim na criação das condições infra-estruturais de uma sociedade de classes que desfizesse os estigmas criados pela escravidão. A imagem do negro enquanto povo comum e o banimento, no pensamento social brasileiro, do conceito de "raça", substituído pelos de "cultura" e "classe social", são as expressões maiores desse compromisso.In this article, I analyze how the racial question has marked Brazilian politics in the past fifteen years. I start by showing what the idea of racial democracy meant to the process of reconstruction of the Brazilian nationality, and go on to review the studies on the voting behaviour of the Brazilian Black population and discuss the emergence of Black social movements and their incorporation into the political system. I understand that we must see "racial democracy" as a political and social compromise of the Brazilian modern republican state, which was in power from the Vargas' New State until the end of the military dictatorship. This compromise which at present is in crisis, consisted of the incorporation of the Brazilian Black population into the work market, of the

  2. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone reduces sexual motivation but not lordosis behavior in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piekarski, David J; Zhao, Sheng; Jennings, Kimberly J

    2013-01-01

    these neuropeptides serve as neuromodulators to coordinate female sexual behavior with the limited window of fertility has not been thoroughly explored. In the present study, either intact or ovariectomized, hormone-treated female hamsters were implanted for fifteen days with chronic release osmotic pumps filled...

  3. Combined Home and School Obesity Prevention Interventions for Children: What Behavior Change Strategies and Intervention Characteristics Are Associated with Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly A.; Brindal, Emily; Corsini, Nadia; Gardner, Claire; Baird, Danielle; Golley, Rebecca K.

    2012-01-01

    This review identifies studies describing interventions delivered across both the home and school/community setting, which target obesity and weight-related nutrition and physical activity behaviors in children. Fifteen studies, published between 1998 and 2010, were included and evaluated for effectiveness, study quality, nutrition/activity…

  4. Behavioral Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niileksela, Christopher R.; Kaplan, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research is provided. PMID:25729506

  5. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  6. PERIODIC BEHAVIORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napp, Diego; Put, Marius van der; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R(n). These properties-in particular the

  7. Behaviorally Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Elias H.; Dutton, Darell W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles focusing on (1) a modern behavioral model that takes cues from Hippocrates' Four Temperaments and (2) use of a behavioral approach to improve the effectiveness of meetings. Lists positive and negative behaviors within the meeting context. (CH)

  8. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  9. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  10. Teleological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, H

    1992-11-01

    A psychological science of efficient causes, using internal mechanisms to explain overt behavior, is distinguished from another psychological science, based on Aristotelian final causes, using external objects and goals to explain overt behavior. Efficient-cause psychology is designed to answer the question of how a particular act is emitted; final-cause psychology is designed to answer the question of why a particular act is emitted. Physiological psychology, modern cognitive psychology, and some parts of behaviorism including Skinnerian behaviorism are efficient-cause psychologies; final-cause psychology, a development of Skinnerian behaviorism, is here called teleological behaviorism. Each of these two conceptions of causality in psychology implies a different view of the mind, hence a different meaning of mental terms.

  11. The good and bad of being fair: effects of procedural and interpersonal justice behaviors on regulatory resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Russell E; Lanaj, Klodiana; Barnes, Christopher M

    2014-07-01

    The justice literature has paid considerable attention to the beneficial effects of fair behaviors for recipients of such behaviors. It is possible, however, that exhibiting fair behaviors may come at a cost for actors. In this article, we integrate ego depletion theory with organizational justice research in order to examine the consequences of justice behaviors for actors. We used an experience-sampling method in a sample of managerial employees to examine the relations of performing procedural justice and interpersonal justice behaviors with subsequent changes in actors' regulatory resources. Our results indicate that procedural justice behaviors are draining, whereas interpersonal justice behaviors are replenishing for actors. Depletion, in turn, adversely affected the performance of citizenship behavior, and depletion mediated relations of justice behavior with citizenship. Furthermore, 2 traits that impact self-regulatory skills--extraversion and neuroticism--moderated the replenishing effects of engaging in interpersonal justice behaviors. We conclude by discussing implications and avenues for future research.

  12. Benefits of transformational behaviors for leaders: A daily investigation of leader behaviors and need fulfillment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaj, Klodiana; Johnson, Russell E; Lee, Stephanie M

    2016-02-01

    Although a large body of work has examined the benefits of transformational leadership, this work has predominantly focused on recipients of such behaviors. Recent research and theory, however, suggest that there are also benefits for those performing behaviors reflective of transformational leadership. Across 2 experience-sampling studies, we investigate the effects of such behaviors on actors' daily affective states. Drawing from affective events theory and self-determination theory we hypothesize and find that engaging in behaviors reflective of transformational leadership is associated with improvement in actors' daily affect, more so than engaging in behaviors reflective of transactional, consideration, initiating structure, and participative leadership. Behaviors reflective of transformational leadership improved actors' affect in part by fulfilling their daily needs. Furthermore, extraversion and neuroticism moderated these effects such that extraverts benefitted less whereas neurotics benefitted more from these behaviors in terms of affective changes. We consider the theoretical and practical implications of these findings and offer directions for future research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in cha...

  14. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Singh, N.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of

  15. Behaviorally inadequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to situationism in psychology, behavior is primarily influenced by external situational factors rather than internal traits or motivations such as virtues. Environmental ethicists wish to promote pro-environmental behaviors capable of providing adequate protection for the environment......, but situationist critiques suggest that character traits, and environmental virtues, are not as behaviorally robust as is typically supposed. Their views present a dilemma. Because ethicists cannot rely on virtues to produce pro-environmental behaviors, the only real way of salvaging environmental virtue theory...... positive results. However, because endorsing behaviorally ineffective virtues, for whatever reason, entails that environmental ethicists are abandoning the goal of helping and protecting the environment, environmental ethicists should consider looking elsewhere than virtues and focus instead on the role...

  16. Fifteen years in the high-energy life of the solar-type star HD 81809. XMM-Newton observations of a stellar activity cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, S.; Favata, F.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Maggio, A.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Robrade, J.; Mittag, M.

    2017-09-01

    Context. The modulation of the activity level of solar-like stars is commonly revealed by cyclic variations in their chromospheric indicators, such as the Ca II H&K S-index, similarly to what is observed in our Sun. However, while the variation of solar activity is also reflected in the cyclical modulation of its coronal X-ray emission, similar behavior has only been discovered in a few stars other than the Sun. Aims: The data set of the long-term XMM-Newton monitoring program of HD 81809 is analyzed to study its X-ray cycle, investigate if the latter is related to the chromospheric cycle, infer the structure of the corona of HD 81809, and explore if the coronal activity of HD 81809 can be ascribed to phenomena similar to solar activity and, therefore, considered an extension of the solar case. Methods: We analyzed the observations of HD 81809 performed with XMM-Newton with a regular cadence of six months from 2001 to 2016, which represents one of the longest available observational baseline ( 15 yr) for a solar-like star with a well-studied chromospheric cycle (with a period of 8 yr). We investigated the modulation of coronal luminosity and temperature and its relation with the chromospheric cycle. We interpreted the data in terms of a mixture of solar-like coronal regions, adopting a method originally proposed to study the Sun as an X-ray star. Results: The observations show a well-defined regular cyclic modulation of the X-ray luminosity that reflects the activity level of HD 81809. The data covers approximately two cycles of coronal activity; the modulation has an amplitude of a factor of 5 (excluding evident flares, as in the June 2002 observation) and a period of 7.3 ± 1.5 yr, which is consistent with that of the chromospheric cycle. We demonstrate that the corona of HD 81809 can be interpreted as an extension of the solar case and can be modeled with a mixture of solar-like coronal regions along the whole cycle. The activity level is mainly determined by

  17. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  18. Behavioral epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M; Tronick, Edward; Nestler, Eric; Abel, Ted; Kosofsky, Barry; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Marsit, Carmen J; Maze, Ian; Meaney, Michael J; Monteggia, Lisa M; Reul, Johannes M H M; Skuse, David H; Sweatt, J David; Wood, Marcelo A

    2011-05-01

    Sponsored by the New York Academy of Sciences, the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and the University of Massachusetts Boston, "Behavioral Epigenetics" was held on October 29-30, 2010 at the University of Massachusetts Boston Campus Center, Boston, Massachusetts. This meeting featured speakers and panel discussions exploring the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics, from basic biochemical and cellular mechanisms to the epigenetic modulation of normative development, developmental disorders, and psychopathology. This report provides an overview of the research presented by leading scientists and lively discussion about the future of investigation at the behavioral epigenetic level. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. [Behavioral addictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillou-Landréat, Morgane; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Vénisse, Jean-Luc

    2012-12-01

    Each addictive disorder has specific characteristics. It is essential to consider them in order to improve the treatment. However, the combination of behavioral addictions and substance use disorders is valid, as showed by the next version of the DSM. During the treatment, it is important to evaluate cross, but also longitudinal, considering the current problematic behavior, but also the problematic behaviors that occurred in the past and that may occur in the future. There is indeed a significant risk of switching addiction. The relapse prevention must consider this risk and be inclusive. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Behavioral finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapor Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss some general principles of behavioral finance Behavioral finance is the dynamic and promising field of research that mergers concepts from financial economics and cognitive psychology in attempt to better understand systematic biases in decision-making process of financial agents. While the standard academic finance emphasizes theories such as modern portfolio theory and the efficient market hypothesis, the behavioral finance investigates the psychological and sociological issues that impact the decision-making process of individuals, groups and organizations. Most of the research behind behavioral finance has been empirical in nature, concentrating on what people do and why. The research has shown that people do not always act rationally, nor they fully utilise all information available to them.

  1. Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with children with ADHD. Behavior therapy recognizes the limits that having ADHD puts on a child. It ... be tiring and trying. It can test the limits of even the best parents. Parent training and ...

  2. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape—cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996—is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period. PMID:26784233

  3. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Anke

    2016-01-16

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape-cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996-is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period.

  4. Discounting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluate the theory, experimental design and econometrics behind claims that individuals exhibit non-constant discounting behavior. Theory points to the importance of controlling for the non-linearity of the utility function of individuals, since the discount rate is defined over time......-dated utility flows and not flows of money. It also points to a menagerie of functional forms to characterize different types of non-constant discounting behavior. The implied experimental design calls for individuals to undertake several tasks to allow us to identify these models, and to several treatments...

  5. Can "good" stressors spark "bad" behaviors? The mediating role of emotions in links of challenge and hindrance stressors with citizenship and counterproductive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Jessica B; Judge, Timothy A

    2009-11-01

    The authors combined affective events theory (H. M. Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) and the transactional stress model (R. S. Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) to build and test a model specifying the dynamic, emotion-based relationships among challenge and hindrance stressors and citizenship and counterproductive behaviors. The study employed an experience sampling methodology. Results showed that challenge stressors had offsetting indirect links with citizenship behaviors through attentiveness and anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety. Hindrance stressors had a negative indirect effect on citizenship behaviors through anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety and anger. Finally, multilevel moderating effects showed that the relationship between hindrance stressors and anger varied according to employees' levels of neuroticism.

  6. Temporal patterns analysis of rat behavior in hole-board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, Maurizio; Sorbera, Filippina; Magnusson, Magnus; Crescimanno, Giuseppe

    2010-03-17

    The aim of present research was to analyze the temporal structure of rodent's anxiety-related behavior in hole-board apparatus (HB). Fifteen male Wistar rats were tested for 10 min. Video files, collected for each subject, were coded by means of a software coder and event log files generated for each subject. To assess temporal relationships among behavioral events, log files were processed by means of a t-pattern analysis. 14 two-element t-patterns, four t-patterns encompassing 3 events and 2 t-patterns encompassing 4 and 5 events respectively were revealed. It was demonstrated that rat behavior in HB was mainly structured on the basis of the temporal patterning among exploratory events; these ones were the most structured t-patterns detected and appeared mainly during the first 5 min of exploration, while grooming t-patterns were present prevalently after the fifth minute. Specific t-pattern parameters, such as overall occurrences and mean duration of each given t-pattern in each subject, were also studied. Present research: (a) reports for the first time that some behavioral events occur sequentially and with significant constraints on the interval lengths separating them; (b) presents the temporal flows of some behavioral elements through multimodal behavioral vectors; (c) could also be used to improve HB test reliability and its ability to detect even small induced behavioral changes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavioral variability as avoidance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca Júnior, Amilcar Rodrigues; Leite Hunziker, Maria Helena

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether variable patterns of responses can be acquired and maintained by negative reinforcement under an avoidance contingency. Six male Wistar rats were exposed to sessions in which behavioral variability was reinforced according to a Lag contingency: Sequences of three responses on two levers had to differ from one, two or three previous sequences for shocks to be avoided (Lag 1, Lag 2 and Lag 3, respectively). Performance under the Lag conditions was compared with performance on a Yoke condition in which the animals received the same reinforcement frequency and distribution as in the Lag condition but behavioral variability was not required. The results showed that most of the subjects varied their sequences under the Lag contingencies, avoiding shocks with relatively high probability (≥ 0.7). Under the Yoke procedure, responding continued to occur with high probability, but the behavioral variability decreased. These results suggest that behavioral variability can be negatively reinforced. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Behavior subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Saligrama, Venkatesh; Konrad, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    Network video cameras, invented in the last decade or so, permit today pervasive, wide-area visual surveillance. However, due to the vast amounts of visual data that such cameras produce human-operator monitoring is not possible and automatic algorithms are needed. One monitoring task of particular interest is the detection of suspicious behavior, i.e., identification of individuals or objects whose behavior differs from behavior usually observed. Many methods based on object path analysis have been developed to date (motion detection followed by tracking and inferencing) but they are sensitive to motion detection and tracking errors and are also computationally complex. We propose a new surveillance method capable of abnormal behavior detection without explicit estimation of object paths. Our method is based on a simple model of video dynamics. We propose one practical implementation of this general model via temporal aggregation of motion detection labels. Our method requires little processing power and memory, is robust to motion segmentation errors, and general enough to monitor humans, cars or any other moving objects in uncluttered as well as highly-cluttered scenes. Furthermore, on account of its simplicity, our method can provide performance guarantees. It is also robust in harsh environments (jittery cameras, rain/snow/fog).

  9. Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Randolph M.

    2010-01-01

    In a perfect world, students would never talk back to school staff and never argue or fight with each other. They would complete all their assigned tasks, and disciplinary actions never would be needed. Unfortunately, people don't live in a perfect world. Student behavior is a daily concern. Teachers continue to refer students to the office as a…

  10. Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, W.D.; MacInnis, D.J.; Pieters, R.

    2013-01-01

    CONSUMER BEHAVIOR combines a foundation in key concepts from marketing, psychology, sociology, and anthropology with a highly practical focus on real-world applications for today's business environment. The new edition of this popular, pioneering text incorporates the latest cutting-edge research

  11. Isolation and characterization of fifteen polymorphic microsatellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    amplification in two other mealybug species. J. Genet. 91, e75–e78. Online only: http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/OnlineResources/91/e75.pdf]. Introduction. The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) is a cos- mopolitan and polyphagous insect pest mainly of subtrop- ical fruit trees under Mediterranean climate conditions and.

  12. Fifteen years experience: Egyptian metabolic lab

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekram M. Fateen

    2014-08-20

    Aug 20, 2014 ... Abstract Background: Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are single gene disorders responsible for abnormalities in ... of inherited metabolic disorders in Egypt was very limited and diagnosed mainly on clinical suspi- cion. In 1995 ..... tomatic in newborns, but if left untreated it affects liver, kid- ney, bone, and ...

  13. Swimming Three Ice Miles within Fifteen Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjepanovic, Mirko; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Knechtle, Beat

    2017-08-31

    Ice Mile swimming (1608 m in water of below 5 °Celsius) is becoming increasingly popular. This case study aimed to identify body core temperature and selected haematological and biochemical parameters before and after repeated Ice Miles. An experienced ice swimmer completed three consecutive Ice Miles within 15 h. Swim times, body core temperatures, and selected urinary and haematological parameters were recorded. Body core temperature reached its maximum between 5, 8 and 15 min after immersion (37.7°C, 38.1°C, and 38.0°C, respectively). The swimmer suffered hypothermia during the first Ice Mile (35.4°C) and body core temperature dropped furthermore to 34.5°C during recovery after the first Ice Mile. He developed a metabolic acidosis in both the first and the last Ice Mile (pH 7.31 and pH 7.34, respectively). We observed hyperkalaemia ([K⁺] > 5.5 mM) after the second Ice Mile (6.9 mM). This was followed by a drop in [K⁺] to3.7 mM after the third Ice Mile. Anticipatory thermogenesis (i.e. an initial increase of body core temperature after immersion in ice cold water) seems to be a physiological response in a trained athlete. The results suggest that swimming in ice-cold water leads to a metabolic acidosis, which the swimmer compensates with hyperventilation (i.e. leading to respiratory alkalosis). The shift of serum [K⁺] could increase the risk of a cardiac arrhythmia. Further studies addressing the physiology and potential risks of Ice Mile swimming are required to substantiate this finding.

  14. Isolation and characterization of fifteen polymorphic microsatellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004). The cryptic behaviour of mealybug, its typical waxy body cover, and clumped spa- ... Recently, behavioural experiments showed that mealybug females can mate several times, both on the same ..... Z. 2004 Management strategies of mealybug pests of citrus in. Mediterranean countries. Phytoparasitica 32, 507–522.

  15. Guidelines for cognitive behavioral training within doctoral psychology programs in the United States: report of the Inter-organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K; Ronan, George F; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D; Belar, Cynthia D; Berry, Sharon L; Christofff, Karen A; Craighead, Linda W; Dougher, Michael J; Dowd, E Thomas; Herbert, James D; McFarr, Lynn M; Rizvi, Shireen L; Sauer, Eric M; Strauman, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a year-long series of conferences, and developed a consensus on optimal doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology. The recommendations assume solid foundational training that is typical within applied psychology areas such as clinical and counseling psychology programs located in the United States. This article details the background, assumptions, and resulting recommendations specific to doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology, including competencies expected in the areas of ethics, research, and practice. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Crisis behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinspoon, L.

    1984-04-01

    The Department of Defense has rules and procedures to minimize the opportunity for error and improper behavior among those with access to strategic weapons, but no psychiatric screening system can predict with assurance who will or will not behave rationally during a crisis. Personal problems and institutional decision-making pressures may destroy nuclear deterrence. Certain features of military life, including drug and alcohol abuse, heavy responsibility, tension, and group decision making, can destreoy rationality. 12 references.

  17. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Richard H. Thaler

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  18. OPEC behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    This thesis aims to contribute to a further understanding of the real dynamics of OPEC production behavior and its impacts on the world oil market. A literature review in this area shows that the existing studies on OPEC still have some major deficiencies in theoretical interpretation and empirical estimation technique. After a brief background review in chapter 1, chapter 2 tests Griffin's market-sharing cartel model on the post-Griffin time horizon with a simultaneous system of equations, and an innovative hypothesis of OPEC's behavior (Saudi Arabia in particular) is then proposed based on the estimation results. Chapter 3 first provides a conceptual analysis of OPEC behavior under the framework of non-cooperative collusion with imperfect information. An empirical model is then constructed and estimated. The results of the empirical studies in this thesis strongly support the hypothesis that OPEC has operated as a market-sharing cartel since the early 1980s. In addition, the results also provide some support of the theory of non-cooperative collusion under imperfect information. OPEC members collude under normal circumstances and behave competitively at times in response to imperfect market signals of cartel compliance and some internal attributes. Periodic joint competition conduct plays an important role in sustaining the collusion in the long run. Saudi Arabia acts as the leader of the cartel, accommodating intermediate unfavorable market development and punishing others with a tit-for-tat strategy in extreme circumstances.

  19. Behavioral epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David S

    2017-01-01

    Why do we grow up to have the traits we do? Most 20th century scientists answered this question by referring only to our genes and our environments. But recent discoveries in the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics have revealed factors at the interface between genes and environments that also play crucial roles in development. These factors affect how genes work; scientists now know that what matters as much as which genes you have (and what environments you encounter) is how your genes are affected by their contexts. The discovery that what our genes do depends in part on our experiences has shed light on how Nature and Nurture interact at the molecular level inside of our bodies. Data emerging from the world's behavioral epigenetics laboratories support the idea that a person's genes alone cannot determine if, for example, he or she will end up shy, suffering from cardiovascular disease, or extremely smart. Among the environmental factors that can influence genetic activity are parenting styles, diets, and social statuses. In addition to influencing how doctors treat diseases, discoveries about behavioral epigenetics are likely to alter how biologists think about evolution, because some epigenetic effects of experience appear to be transmissible from generation to generation. This domain of research will likely change how we think about the origins of human nature. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2017, 9:e1333. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1333 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, S L

    1986-12-01

    Problems related to feeding behavior in horses fall into three main categories: underconsumption, overconsumption, and abnormal consumption. Anorexia may be caused by a variety of diseases and overcome by removing the underlying causes (pain, fever), and physical or chemical stimulation of appetite. "Hypophagia" may be caused by poor dentition, disease, or stress. Again, removal of the cause or stimulation by physical or chemical means may improve intakes. Acute and chronic overconsumption of feeds are reflections of the normal controls (or lack thereof) of feeding in the horse. The only reliable prevention is to limit access to feeds. Abnormal eating behaviors such as pica or coprophagy are usually caused by a dietary imbalance or boredom. Coprophagey, however, is a normal behavior in young foals. Drinking disorders are rare, the only common one being the avoidance of "strange" water. Masking water at home with specific flavors such as peppermint or vinegar may encourage the horse to drink water from other sources to which the "home" flavor has been added.

  1. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  2. Logical Behaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Norman; Altuner, Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals exclusively with the doctrine called ‘Logical Behaviorism’. Although this position does not vogue it enjoyed in the 1930s and 1940s, it will always possess a compelling attraction for anyone who is perplexed by the psychological concepts, who has become aware of worthlessness of an appeal to introspection as an account of how we learn those concepts, and he has no inclination to identify mind with brain. There, of course, are other forms of behaviorism, and of reductionism, wh...

  3. Behavioral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantalone, David W; Czajkowski, Stephanie E; Taylor, S Wade

    In this chapter, we will describe the state of the literature on behavioral health, which includes mental health and substance use problems, and the available treatment interventions to ameliorate these problems, for older adults living with HIV (OALH). The scientific literature on the behavioral health of OALH is highly underdeveloped, especially in terms of the creation of empirically supported interventions to alleviate psychological distress. From the literature that does exist, there are a number of salient factors that emerge, including stereotypes (i.e., older adults are not sexually active), stigmatization (of those who are HIV-positive), social isolation, unique psychosocial needs for newly-infected OALH, and elevated rates of emotional distress and concomitant disorders - especially, depression. These factors persist alongside findings that OALH have fewer sources of social or institutional support, fewer surviving peers, and a lack of family to care for them. Additionally, many OALH report problems with substance use, both as a function of their 'baby-boomer' generational status (i.e., people born between 1946 and 1964) and in terms of the life experiences associated with their HIV-positive status. Overall, it is unclear how mental health and substance use problems affect combination antiretroviral therapy adherence, multimorbidity, polypharmacy, or treatment outcomes in this population, and further study is needed. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Global alteration of the drug-binding pocket of human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) by substitution of fifteen conserved residues reveals a negative correlation between substrate size and transport efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Shahrooz; Chufan, Eduardo E; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2017-11-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependent efflux pump, is linked to the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. However, the drug-binding sites and translocation pathways of this transporter are not yet well-characterized. We recently demonstrated the important role of tyrosine residues in regulating P-gp ATP hydrolysis via hydrogen bond formations with high affinity modulators. Since tyrosine is both a hydrogen bond donor and acceptor, and non-covalent interactions are key in drug transport, in this study we investigated the global effect of enrichment of tyrosine residues in the drug-binding pocket on the drug binding and transport function of P-gp. By employing computational analysis, 15 conserved residues in the drug-binding pocket of human P-gp that interact with substrates were identified and then substituted with tyrosine, including 11 phenylalanine (F72, F303, F314, F336, F732, F759, F770, F938, F942, F983, F994), two leucine (L339, L975), one isoleucine (I306), and one methionine (M949). Characterization of the tyrosine-rich P-gp mutant in HeLa cells demonstrated that this major alteration in the drug-binding pocket by introducing fifteen additional tyrosine residues is well tolerated and has no measurable effect on total or cell surface expression of this mutant. Although the tyrosine-enriched mutant P-gp could transport small to moderate size (transport large (>1000 Daltons) substrates such as NBD-cyclosporine A, Bodipy-paclitaxel and Bodipy-vinblastine was significantly decreased. This was further supported by the physico-chemical characterization of seventeen tested substrates, which revealed a negative correlation between drug transport and molecular size for the tyrosine-enriched P-gp mutant. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Changes in educational inequalities in Poland. Comments on Zbigniew Sawiński’s article “Education reform and inequality: fifteen years of new lower secondary schools in Poland”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHAŁ SITEK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In his text published in Edukacja, 141(2, 2017 („Education reform and inequality: fifteen years of new lower secondary schools in Poland”, Zbigniew Sawiński analyses data from the 2000 to 2012 editions of the OECD PISA study and argues that lower secondary school reform has not reduced educational inequalities in Poland. The importance of students’ social origin remained at the same level as before the reform, the impact of social origin on the choice of type of secondary school remained the same, and an increasing differentiation of lower secondary schools did not lead to an increase in educational inequalities. I present methodological arguments and the results of a re-analysis of PISA data, indicating changes in wider educational inequalities. Between 2000 and 2012: (a the strength of association in the performance of 15-year-olds with the socio-economic status of students’ families did not change, but (b the variation of results decreased, which was mainly due to the improved performance of the lowest performing students, (c the differences between students of high and low socio-economic status decreased, (d the influence of social origin on the choice of the type of upper secondary school decreased. The effects of socio-economic status on upper secondary school choice is largely direct: it is not mediated by the educational achievements of students. The commentary also highlights the complexity of lower secondary school reform, which was not limited to the introduction of such schools. I indicate the role of factors that make it difficult to interpret the results of the reform in causal terms – particularly the role of unobserved variables related to the changes in the learning environments of subsequent cohorts of students.

  6. Gas exchange and leaf specific mass of different foliar cohorts of the wintergreen shrub Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. stuntz (Eleocarpaceae fifteen days before the flowering and the fall of the old cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique B. A. Prado

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In the beginning of the spring Aristotelia chilensis sheds the old cohort, forms a new one and flowers. Fifteen days before the flowering and the fall we measured net photosynthesis (A, transpiration (E, water use efficiency (WUE, specific leaf mass (SLM and area and mass of leaves per branch in old and new cohorts. Under low irradiance the old cohort exhibited higher mean values of A and WUE on area bases (PNo início da primavera Aristotelia chilensis perde as folhas da cohort mais velha, forma uma nova cohort e floresce. Quinze dias antes da floração e perda da cohort velha medimos: fotossíntese líquida (A, transpiração (E, eficiência do uso da água (EUA, massa específica da folha (MEF e área e massa das folhas por ramo nas cohorts nova e velha. Sob baixa radiação a cohort velha apresentou valores médios maiores de A e EUA expressos em área (P<0.05. Sob alta radiação A e EUA expressos em massa foram maiores na cohort mais nova devido à sua baixa MEF (42.10 gm-2 comparada à cohort mais velha (79.53 gm-2. A cohort mais velha exibiu 3.7 vezes mais massa seca por ramo, compensando sua baixa performance expressa em massa. Concluímos que a cohort mais velha é uma importante fonte de carbono durante processos que representam fortes drenos na primavera: a construção de novas folhas e a floração.

  7. How consistent are associations between stunting and child development? Evidence from a meta-analysis of associations between stunting and multidimensional child development in fifteen low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann C; Murray, Megan B; Thomson, Dana R; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2016-06-01

    Despite documented associations between stunting and cognitive development, few population-level studies have measured both indicators in individual children or assessed stunting's associations with other developmental domains. Meta-analysis using publicly available data from fifteen Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS-4) to assess the association between stunting and development, controlling for maternal education, family wealth, books in the home, developmentally supportive parenting and sex of the child, stratified by country prevalence of breast-feeding ('low BF'middle-income countries. Publically available data from 58 513 children aged 36-59 months. Severe stunting (height-for-age Z-score <-3) was negatively associated with on-track development (OR=0·75; 95 % CI 0·67, 0·83). Any stunting (Z-score <-2) was negatively associated with on-track development in countries with high BF prevalence (OR=0·82; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·89). Severe and any stunting were negatively associated with physical development (OR=0·77; 95 % CI 0·66, 0·89 and OR=0·82; 95 % CI 0·74, 0·91, respectively) and literacy/numeracy development in high BF countries (OR=0·45; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·53 and OR=0·59, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·68, respectively), but not low BF countries (OR=0·93; 95 % CI 0·70, 1·23 and OR=0·95, 95 % CI 0·79, 1·12, respectively). Any stunting was negatively associated with learning (OR=0·79; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·88). There was no clear association between stunting and socio-emotional development. Stunting is associated with many but not all developmental domains across a diversity of countries and cultures. However, associations varied by country breast-feeding prevalence and developmental domain.

  8. Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Salzinger, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis.

  9. Fostering employee service creativity: Joint effects of customer empowering behaviors and supervisory empowering leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuntao; Liao, Hui; Chuang, Aichia; Zhou, Jing; Campbell, Elizabeth M

    2015-09-01

    Integrating insights from the literature on customers' central role in service and the literature on employee creativity, we offer theoretical and empirical account of how and when customer empowering behaviors can motivate employee creativity during service encounters and, subsequently, influence customer satisfaction with service experience. Using multilevel, multisource, experience sampling data from 380 hairstylists matched with 3550 customers in 118 hair salons, we found that customer empowering behaviors were positively related to employee creativity and subsequent customer satisfaction via employee state promotion focus. Results also showed that empowering behaviors from different agents function synergistically in shaping employee creativity: supervisory empowering leadership strengthened the indirect effect of customer empowering behaviors on employee creativity via state promotion focus. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Behavioral Landscapes and Earth Mover's Distance: A New Approach for Studying Individual Differences in Density Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Nilam; Benson, Lizbeth; Brick, Timothy R; Conroy, David E; Pincus, Aaron L

    2017-08-01

    Contemporary views of personality highlight intraindividual variability. We forward a general method for quantifying individual differences in behavioral tendencies based on Earth Mover's Distance. Using data from 150 individuals who reported on their and others' interpersonal behavior in 64,112 social interactions, we illustrate how this new approach can advance notions of personality as density distributions. Results provide independent confirmation and establish validity of existing representations of individual differences in interpersonal behavior, and identify new dimensions and profiles of personality and well-being. Benefits of the EMD method include freedom from assumptions about the shape and form of density distributions, generality of application to n-dimensional behavior captured in experience sampling studies, and natural integration of personality structure and dynamics.

  11. The independent effects of personality and situations on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Ryne A; Rauthmann, John F; Brown, Nicolas A; Serfass, David G; Jones, Ashley Bell

    2015-11-01

    The joint influence of persons and situations on behavior has long been posited by personality and social psychological theory (Funder, 2006; Lewin, 1951). However, a lack of tools for real-time behavioral and situation assessment has left direct investigations of this sort immobilized. This study combines recent advances in situation assessment and experience sampling methodology to examine the simultaneous effects of personality traits and situation characteristics on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion in N = 210 participants. The results support an additive model such that both personality traits and situation characteristics independently predict real-time expressions of behavior and emotion. These results have implications for several prominent theoretical perspectives in personality, including both trait and cognitive theories. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2009-01-01

    It is human nature to overestimate how rational we are, both in general and even when we are trying to be. Such irrationality is not random, and the search for and explanation of patterns of fuzzy thinking is the basis for a new academic discipline known as behavioral economics. Examples are given of some of the best understood of our foibles, including prospect theory, framing, anchoring, salience, confirmation bias, superstition, and ownership. Humans have two cognitive systems: one conscious, deliberate, slow, and rational; the other fast, pattern-based, emotionally tinged, and intuitive. Each is subject to its own kind of error. In the case of rational thought, we tend to exaggerate our capacity; for intuition, we fail to train it or recognize contexts where it is inappropriate. Humans are especially poor at estimating probabilities, or even understanding what they are. It is a common human failing to reason backwards from random outcomes that are favorable to beliefs about our power to predict the future. Five suggestions are offered for thinking within our means.

  13. The Influence of Ergonomics Training on Employee Behavior at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, Leslie Guthrie [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2001-01-01

    A survey of employee behavior was conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of ergonomic behavior that decreased the chance of having a work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) among employees. The null hypothesis was tested to determine if there was a significant difference in ergonomic behavior between trained and untrained employees. The LANL employees were stratified by job series and then randomly selected to participate. The data were gathered using an electronic self-administered behavior questionnaire. The study population was composed of 6931 employees, and the response rate was 48%. The null hypothesis was rejected for twelve out of fifteen questions on the questionnaire. Logistic regression results indicate that the trained participants were more likely to report the risk-avoiding behavior, which supported the rejection of the null hypothesis for 60% of the questions. There was a higher frequency that the beneficial or risk-avoiding behavior was reported by the uninjured participants. Job series analysis revealed that ergonomics is an important issue among participants from all the job series. It also identified the occupational specialist classification (an administrative job), as the job series with the most occurrences of undesired ergonomic behaviors. In conclusion, there was a significant difference between the trained and untrained participants of the beneficial ergonomic behavior in the reported risk reducing behaviors.

  14. Cognitive behavior therapy for treatment-refractory panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, M H; Otto, M W; Kaspi, S P; Hammerness, P G; Rosenbaum, J F

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to assess the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of patients with panic disorder who experience an incomplete response to a trial of pharmacotherapy. Fifteen consecutive patients with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of panic disorder referred for further treatment because of an incomplete response to pharmacotherapy were treated with 12-weeks of group cognitive behavior therapy. Patients were evaluated at baseline, endpoint, and at a mean of 2-months' follow-up to assess changes in panic attack frequency and global outcome. Eight of the 15 patients were deemed to have received an inadequate prior trial of medication at baseline, mainly because of a desire to control their symptoms without medication or fear of withdrawal and/or addiction. Seven of the patients were symptomatic at baseline despite an adequate prior trial of medication. Overall, patients experienced a significant improvement in global function at the end of the cognitive behavior therapy intervention, as well as a decrease in panic attack frequency. Improvement was maintained at follow-up. This study is consistent with a growing body of evidence that many patients with panic disorder remain symptomatic over time and are receiving inadequate pharmacotherapeutic treatment. Further, we observed that patients with panic disorder who are incompletely responsive or resistant to pharmacotherapeutic management may benefit from the addition of cognitive behavior therapy.

  15. Mazindol: anorectic and behavioral effects in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, R; Carlini, E A

    1995-01-01

    The anorectic and behavioral effects of mazindol (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) were determined. The experiments comprized acute and chronic administration to female rats, and the effects were compared with those produced by 2.5 mg/kg of methamphetamine. The following evaluation parameters were considered: food intake, body weight, motor activity, and stereotyped behavior. Acute administration of the three doses of mazindol, as well as of the methamphetamine dose, decreased food intake. Administered chronically to female rats, mazindol (5 and 10 mg/kg) and methamphetamine induced loss of body weight during the first fifteen days. However, weight was subsequently regained by the animals, indicating development of tolerance. Mazindol (10 mg/kg) and methamphetamine produced an increase in motor activity. This increase was, however, not observed after chronic treatment, suggesting development of tolerance. Additionally, mazindol induced noticeable dose-dependent effects, involving stereotyped behavior (sniffing, continuous licking, false bites), similar to those produced by methamphetamine. Verticalization, however, was only observed after administration of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of mazindol, and was absent after administration of the higher dose of mazindol as well as of methamphetamine. Finally, it should be stressed that features of stereotyped behavior induced by both drugs, such as licking, false bites, sniffing and verticalization, were very similar.

  16. Will the next fifteen years of high energy physics match the last fifteen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1985-09-01

    A brief retrospective of advances in high energy physics made during the last 15 years, both theortical and experimental, is given, followed by predictions for future work, which is said to include testing the standard model and exploring the Higgs sector. The theoretical methods available for understanding the Higgs sector are briefly discussed, as well as available experimental tools

  17. Will the next fifteen years of high energy physics match the last fifteen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1985-09-01

    A brief retrospective of advances in high energy physics made during the last 15 years, both theortical and experimental, is given, followed by predictions for future work, which is said to include testing the standard model and exploring the Higgs sector. The theoretical methods available for understanding the Higgs sector are briefly discussed, as well as available experimental tools. (LEW)

  18. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior...... condition influence their sustainable work behavior. A new definition of sustainable work behavior is proposed....

  19. From Behaviorism to Selectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Ernest A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses behaviorism and the gradual shift to a theory of selectionism. Highlights include the development of behaviorism as a part of psychology, including Skinner's theories; varieties of behaviorism, including behavioral analysis; behaviorology in other disciplinary settings; effects of contingencies upon behavior; and the prospects for…

  20. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  1. The Necessity of "Behaviorism."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, William N.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the theory of behaviorism from a psychological perspective. Three issues are addressed: (1) the datum, including human verbal behavior; (2) the behavior stream; and (3) reduction, including a scientific viewpoint. (Contains two references.) (LRW)

  2. The Psyche as Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTURO CLAVIJO A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorism has argued that behavior is the Psyche and the subject matter of psychology. Although, some scientists had done empirical work with objective methods before 1913, the year in which John B. Watson published his manifesto, he was the first one to attempt a systematization of behavior as the Psyche, that is, as psychology’s subject matter. In this text, I outline Watson’s notion of behavior to compare it with two other forms of behaviorism: Skinner’s radical behaviorism and molar behaviorism. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate how the concept of behavior has been and is changing.

  3. Effects of atmospheric VPD, plant canopies, and low-water years on leaf stomatal conductance and photosynthetic water use efficiency in fifteen potential crop species for use in arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, A.; Jasoni, R. L.; Arnone, J.

    2011-12-01

    When evaluating the potential for growing alternative crop species in arid environments, high vapor pressure deficits (VPDs) that could potentially inhibit crop productivity by limiting stomatal conductance and CO2 uptake must be considered. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of VPD and irrigation levels on leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE) for a range of alternative crop species for aridland agriculture. We evaluated fifteen alternative crops in a field trial in the northern Nevada Walker River Basin. Plots of each species were subjected to two irrigation treatments, 4 and 2 acre-feet per growing season, to simulate normal-year and dry-year irrigation levels. We quantified gs and photosynthesis (A) under decreasing relative humidity (RH) (increasing VPDs) in 10% increments, from about 75% to 2%. About seventeen leaves per species were measured throughout the 2010 growing season over eleven days of samplings. Canopy air temperature and RH were logged in experimental plots to calculate diel and seasonal patterns in canopy VPD. Volumetric water content was also collected to quantify the effects of irrigation treatments on soil moisture and leaf gas exchange. Species varied in their gs and PWUE responses to increasing VPD. Stomatal conductance (gs) of leaves of all species generally increased initially as RH was lowered but then decreased at differing rates as RH dropped further. Average gs (across all measurement VPDs), maximum gs, maximum PWUE, and corresponding VPDs differed among species and between irrigation treatments. Some species (Medicago sativa, Leymus racemosus) showed higher gs across the range of measurement VPDs than other species (Bothrichloa ischaemum, Sorghastrum nutans), while some species exhibited maximum gs and maximum PWUE at higher VPDs (Erograstis tef, Calamovilfa longifolia) than other species (Leymus cinereus, Sorghastrum nutans). These results suggest that some species may

  4. Toward a behavioral ecology of rescue behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Karen L; Nowbahari, Elise

    2013-07-18

    Although the study of helping behavior has revolutionized the field of behavioral ecology, scientific examination of rescue behavior remains extremely rare, except perhaps in ants, having been described as early as 1874. Nonetheless, recent work in our laboratories has revealed several new patterns of rescue behavior that appear to be much more complex than previously studied forms. This precisely-directed rescue behavior bears a remarkable resemblance to what has been labeled empathy in rats, and thus raises numerous philosophical and theoretical questions: How should rescue behavior (or empathy) be defined? What distinguishes rescue from other forms of altruism? In what ways is rescue behavior in ants different from, and similar to, rescue in other non-human animals? What selection pressures dictate its appearance? In this paper, we review our own experimental studies of rescue in both laboratory and field, which, taken together, begin to reveal some of the behavioral ecological conditions that likely have given rise to rescue behavior in ants. Against this background, we also address important theoretical questions involving rescue, including those outlined above. In this way, we hope not only to encourage further experimental analysis of rescue behavior, but also to highlight important similarities and differences in very distant taxa.

  5. Development and Validation of the Behavioral Tendencies Questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas T Van Dam

    Full Text Available At a fundamental level, taxonomy of behavior and behavioral tendencies can be described in terms of approach, avoid, or equivocate (i.e., neither approach nor avoid. While there are numerous theories of personality, temperament, and character, few seem to take advantage of parsimonious taxonomy. The present study sought to implement this taxonomy by creating a questionnaire based on a categorization of behavioral temperaments/tendencies first identified in Buddhist accounts over fifteen hundred years ago. Items were developed using historical and contemporary texts of the behavioral temperaments, described as "Greedy/Faithful", "Aversive/Discerning", and "Deluded/Speculative". To both maintain this categorical typology and benefit from the advantageous properties of forced-choice response format (e.g., reduction of response biases, binary pairwise preferences for items were modeled using Latent Class Analysis (LCA. One sample (n1 = 394 was used to estimate the item parameters, and the second sample (n2 = 504 was used to classify the participants using the established parameters and cross-validate the classification against multiple other measures. The cross-validated measure exhibited good nomothetic span (construct-consistent relationships with related measures that seemed to corroborate the ideas present in the original Buddhist source documents. The final 13-block questionnaire created from the best performing items (the Behavioral Tendencies Questionnaire or BTQ is a psychometrically valid questionnaire that is historically consistent, based in behavioral tendencies, and promises practical and clinical utility particularly in settings that teach and study meditation practices such as Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR.

  6. Verbal Behavior and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    This book illustrates how and why knowledge of verbal behavior is important to an understanding of politics by analyzing and describing verbal behavior studies pertaining to politics. Chapters in the first part of the book discuss the various characteristics of verbal behavior: the importance of verbal behavior in politics, construction of…

  7. Development and Validation of the Cognitive Behavioral Physical Activity Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembre, Susan M; Durand, Casey P; Blissmer, Bryan J; Greene, Geoffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Develop and demonstrate preliminary validation of a brief questionnaire aimed at assessing social cognitive determinants of physical activity (PA) in a college population. Quantitative and observational. A midsized northeastern university. Convenience sample of 827 male and female college students age 18 to 24 years. International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a PA stage-of-change algorithm. A sequential process of survey development, including item generation and data reduction analyses by factor analysis, was followed with the goal of creating a parsimonious questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used for confirmatory factor analysis and construct validation was confirmed against self-reported PA and stage of change. Validation analyses were replicated in a second, independent sample of 1032 college students. Fifteen items reflecting PA self-regulation, outcome expectations, and personal barriers explained 65% of the questionnaire data and explained 28.6% and 39.5% of the variance in total PA and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA, respectively. Scale scores were distinguishable across the stages of change. Findings were similar when the Cognitive Behavioral Physical Activity Questionnaire (CBPAQ) was tested in a similar and independent sample of college students (40%; R (2) moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA = .40; p behavior in a college population, warranting its incorporation into future studies aiming at understanding and improving on PA behavior in college students.

  8. Prevalence of hypersexual behavior in Parkinson's disease patients: Not restricted to males and dopamine agonist use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christine A; Jadidian, Armon; Paggi, Michelle; Romrell, Janet; Okun, Michael S; Rodriguez, Ramon L; Fernandez, Hubert H

    2009-07-30

    This study investigates the prevalence and demographic characteristics of hypersexuality in Parkinson's disease (PD). Impulse control disorders in PD patients have been associated with dopamine agonist therapy. Moreover, hypersexuality and pathological gambling have been associated with males, while females may be inherently thought to be more likely to participate in compulsive shopping and binge-eating behaviors. In this study, a screening mail-in survey was sent to all PD patients at a single Movement Disorders Center. One hundred forty one of 400 (35.3%) research packets were returned completed. Fifteen of 141 patients met initial screening criteria for hypersexual behavior. After detailed interview, only 6/141 (4.3%) of PD patients met criteria for pathologic hypersexual behavior. These behaviors included: compulsive masturbation, prostitution, and paraphilias. Patients with a younger age of PD onset were more likely to exhibit hypersexual behavior. Unlike previous report, no significant association was found between hypersexuality and gender or dopamine agonist use. Rather, this study suggests that physicians should be vigilant for hypersexual behavior in all PD patients, regardless of gender and PD medication regimen. Ultimately, given the innate sensitivity of the topic and survey limitations, it is very likely that hypersexual behavior in our cohort, as it is in the general PD population, has been under-reported.

  9. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  10. Correlates of Healthy Lifestyle Beliefs and Behaviors in Parents of Overweight or Obese Preschool Children Before and After a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Intervention With Text Messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Lisa K; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Hekler, Eric; Small, Leigh; Jacobson, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Significant gaps exist in the published literature regarding the treatment of overweight/obesity in preschool-aged children, especially in primary care settings. Parental influence plays an important factor in the development of healthy behaviors in children, yet there is no consensus about why some behavior change intervention strategies for parents of young children are more influential and effective than others. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to assess correlations among the study variables (healthy lifestyle beliefs, perceived difficulty, and healthy lifestyle behaviors) in parents of overweight/obese preschool children. A second aim explored if the parent's level of cognitive beliefs and perceived difficulty of engaging in healthy lifestyle behaviors correlated with text messaging cognitive behavioral support. Fifteen preschool-parent dyads from primary care clinics completed a 7-week cognitive behavioral skills building intervention. Beck's Cognitive Theory guided the intervention content, and Fogg's Behavior Model guided the implementation. The intervention was delivered using a combination of face-to-face clinic visits and ecological momentary interventions using text messaging. Supported are the interconnected relationships among the study variables, that is, parental healthy lifestyle beliefs, thoughts, and behaviors. At baseline, parental healthy lifestyle belief scores significantly correlated with perceived difficulty (rs = 0.598, p healthy lifestyle behaviors (rs = 0.545, p healthy lifestyle beliefs increased and perceived difficulty lessened, their response rate and subsequent feedback lessened to the static text messaging support. Findings from this study support the interconnections between parents' thoughts, feelings, and actions toward healthy lifestyles. As parental beliefs became stronger through cognitive behavioral skills building and tailored text messaging, the need for general support via text messaging lessened

  11. Decreased sleep spindle density in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and patients with Parkinson’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine whether sleep spindles (SS) are potentially a biomarker for Parkinson’s disease (PD). MethodsFifteen PD patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (PD+RBD), 15 PD patients without RBD (PD−RBD), 15 idiopathic RBD (iRBD) patients and 15 age-matched controls underwent...... polysomnography (PSG). SS were scored in an extract of data from control subjects. An automatic SS detector using a Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) was developed and applied to the PSG recordings. The SS densities in N1, N2, N3, all NREM combined and REM sleep were obtained...

  12. The Relevance of Big Five Trait Content in Behavior to Subjective Authenticity: Do High Levels of Within-Person Behavioral Variability Undermine or Enable Authenticity Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeson, William; Wilt, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Individuals vary their behavior from moment to moment a great deal, often acting “out of character” for their traits. This article investigates the consequences for authenticity. We compared two hypotheses—trait consistency: individuals feel most authentic when acting in a way consistent with their traits; and state-content significance: some ways of acting feel more authentic because of their content and consequences, regardless of the actor’s corresponding traits. Three studies using experience-sampling methodology in laboratory and natural settings, with participants aged 18–51, strongly supported the state-content significance hypothesis and did not support the trait-consistency hypothesis. Authenticity was consistently associated with acting highly extraverted, agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, and intellectual, regardless of the actor’s traits. Discussion focuses on possible implications for within-person variability in behavior and for the nature of the self-concept. PMID:20545814

  13. Neural plasticity and behavior - sixty years of conceptual advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweatt, J David

    2016-10-01

    acquisition of behavioral change was an influential discovery in the neurochemistry of behavioral modification. Higher order cognitive functions such as decision making and spatial and language learning were also discovered to hinge on neural plasticity mechanisms. The role of disruption of these processes in intellectual disabilities, memory disorders, and drug addiction has recently been clarified based on modern genetic techniques, including in the human. The area of neural plasticity and behavior has seen tremendous advances over the last six decades, with many of those advances being specifically in the neurochemistry domain. This review provides an overview of the progress in the area of neuroplasticity and behavior over the life-span of the Journal of Neurochemistry. To organize the broad literature base, the review collates progress into fifteen broad categories identified as 'conceptual advances', as viewed by the author. The fifteen areas are delineated in the figure above. This article is part of the 60th Anniversary special issue. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Computational Analysis of Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnor, S E Roian; Branson, Kristin

    2016-07-08

    In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior. To enable biologists to design experiments to obtain better behavioral measurements, and computer scientists to pinpoint fruitful directions for algorithm improvement, we review known effects of artificial manipulation of the animal on behavior. We also review machine vision and learning techniques for tracking, feature extraction, automated behavior classification, and automated behavior discovery, the assumptions they make, and the types of data they work best with.

  15. Behavior Management: Examining the Functions of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate student behavior is essential for the success of a physical education lesson. Despite using effective proactive management strategies, teachers may need to also use reactive techniques to reduce problem behaviors by applying suitable consequences. For these consequences to be effective, they must be aligned with the function, or cause,…

  16. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA), sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents. Participants were 310 students, aged 11-13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate). PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and self-report questionnaire, and anthropometric measures via trained researchers. Participants nominated up to fifteen friends, and described the frequency of interaction and perceived activity intensity of these friends. Personal network predictors were examined using regression modelling for PA and sedentary/screen behavior. Perceived activity levels of friends, and friendships with very frequent interaction were associated with outside-of-school PA and/or sedentary/screen time. Differences according to sex were also observed in the association between network characteristics and PA and sedentary time. A higher number of friends and greater proportion of same sex friends were associated with boys engaging in more moderate-to-vigorous PA outside of school hours. PA intensity during school-day breaks was positively associated with having a greater proportion of friends who played sports for girls, and a greater proportion of male friends for boys. Friendship network characteristics are associated with PA and sedentary/screen time in late childhood/early adolescence, and these associations differ by sex. The positive influence of very active peers may be a promising avenue to strengthen traditional interventions for the promotion of PA and reduction in screen time.

  17. The influence of self-esteem, parental smoking, and living in a tobacco production region on adolescent smoking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, N T; Price, C J

    1988-12-01

    Selected antecedents of smoking initiation among 1,513 eighth grade students in an urban tobacco producing county of North Carolina were studied using the Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Fifteen percent of students reported currently smoking, and 17.2% indicated an intention to smoke upon graduation from high school. Self-esteem and parental smoking behavior related significantly to adolescents' smoking behavior and future intention to smoke. Significantly more females intended to smoke and had lower self-esteem than males. Family involvement in the tobacco industry related significantly to adolescents' intention to smoke but not their smoking behavior. Overall, low self-esteem and parental smoking models may be important to developing the smoking habit among young adolescents. Prevention of smoking initiation should involve promotion of children's self-esteem and avoidance of parental smoking modeling prior to the eighth grade.

  18. Moving Forward: Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…

  19. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  20. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  1. Behaviorism and Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of behaviorism's methods and theories on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of John B. Watson's 1913 essay. An attempt is made to reconcile classical behaviorism and modern cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (SLD)

  2. Approach behavior as information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uijen, Sophie L.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives Anxious individuals infer danger from information about physiological responses, anxiety responses, and safety behaviors. This study investigated whether anxious individuals also infer safety from approach behavior. Methods 325 students rated the danger they perceived in

  3. Countercontrol in behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delprato, Dennis J

    2002-01-01

    Countercontrol is a functional class of behavior that is part of Skinner's analysis of social behavior. Countercontrol refers to behavioral episodes comprised of socially mediated aversive controlling conditions and escape or avoidance responses that do not reinforce, and perhaps even punish, controllers' responses. This paper suggests that neglect of countercontrol in modern behavior analysis is unfortunate because the concept applies to interpersonal and social relations the fundamental operant principle that human behavior is both controlled and controlling-humans are not passive and inflexible. Countercontrol is addressed here in terms of conceptual status, contemporary developments in behavior analysis, its importance in a behavior-analytic approach to freedom and cultural design, applications, and research. The main conclusion is that Skinner's formulation of counter-control is scientifically supported and worthy of increased prominence in behavior analysis.

  4. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth ... family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. They involve a pattern ...

  5. Behavior Modification in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Annette Rutt; Stillman, Stephen M.

    1979-01-01

    An example of behavior modification used in athletic coaching is presented. The case study involves a member of a women's basketball team and details the use of behavior modification for both weight reduction and skill improvement. (JMF)

  6. Countercontrol in behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Delprato, Dennis J.

    2002-01-01

    Countercontrol is a functional class of behavior that is part of Skinner's analysis of social behavior. Countercontrol refers to behavioral episodes comprised of socially mediated aversive controlling conditions and escape or avoidance responses that do not reinforce, and perhaps even punish, controllers' responses. This paper suggests that neglect of countercontrol in modern behavior analysis is unfortunate because the concept applies to interpersonal and social relations the fundamental ope...

  7. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  8. Behavioral Economics and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve ind...... individuals' decisions about health, wealth, and happiness....

  9. Consumer financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer financial behavior is a domain between micro-economics, behavioral finance, and marketing. It is based on insights and behavioral theories from cognitive, economic, and social psychology (biases, heuristics, social influences), in the context of and sometimes in conflict with micro-economic

  10. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  11. Behavioral Economics and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve...

  12. Bad Behavior: Improving Reproducibility in Behavior Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Anne M; Cheng, Xinyi; Altieri, Stefanie C; Yang, Hongyan

    2018-01-24

    Systems neuroscience research is increasingly possible through the use of integrated molecular and circuit-level analyses. These studies depend on the use of animal models and, in many cases, molecular and circuit-level analyses. Associated with genetic, pharmacologic, epigenetic, and other types of environmental manipulations. We illustrate typical pitfalls resulting from poor validation of behavior tests. We describe experimental designs and enumerate controls needed to improve reproducibility in investigating and reporting of behavioral phenotypes.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and noise exposure of baristas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursley, Alyssa J; Saunders, Gabrielle H

    2016-01-01

    To examine the daily noise exposure of baristas working in cafés, and to measure their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding hearing conservation and perceptions of noise in their work environment. Fifteen baristas from six cafés in Portland completed the Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors questionnaire, a sound disturbance survey, and a structured interview to document perceptions of noise in the work environment. To measure daily noise exposure, a subset of eight participants wore a personal dosimeter for three different work shifts. A total of 11 females and four males, aged between 19 and 36 years old (mean: 26.3, SD: 4.6) recruited from independently owned cafés in the Portland metro area. Dosimetry measurements revealed Leq measurements between 71 and 83 dBA, with noise doses ranging from 4% to 74%, indicating that baristas are not exposed to sound levels above the regulatory criterion. Questionnaire results indicated that baristas have low awareness about the hazards of noise, are not opposed to hearing conservation, and rarely use hearing protection when engaged in noisy activities. Baristas here lacked the pertinent education and motivation to commit to invaluable hearing conservation practices.

  14. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior....... Employee characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work condition are included in the extended model. A survey was handed out to 654 employees in Chinese factories. This research contributes by demonstrating how employee- characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work...... condition influence their sustainable work behavior. A new definition of sustainable work behavior is proposed....

  15. Service workers' chain reactions to daily customer mistreatment: Behavioral linkages, mechanisms, and boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Nai-Wen; Yang, Jixia; Lin, Chia-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on the stressor-emotion model, we examine how customer mistreatment can evoke service workers' passive forms of deviant behaviors (i.e., work withdrawal behavior [WWB]) and negative impacts on their home life (i.e., work-family conflict [WFC]), and whether individuals' core self-evaluations and customer service training can buffer the negative effects of customer mistreatment. Using the experience sampling method, we collect daily data from 77 customer service employees for 10 consecutive working days, yielding 546 valid daily responses. The results show that daily customer mistreatment increases service workers' daily WWB and WFC through negative emotions. Furthermore, employees with high core self-evaluations and employees who received customer service training are less likely to experience negative emotions when faced with customer mistreatment, and thus are less likely to engage in WWB or provoke WFC. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Preparing for community violence: mood and behavioral correlates of the second Rodney King verdicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendsen, J D; Norman, S

    1998-01-01

    This prospective investigation applied the Experience Sampling Method to examine the mood and behavioral responses of individuals facing the risk of community violence (in anticipation of the second Rodney King verdicts). Threatened participants experienced more negative affect and were less stable in behavioral involvement than individuals not under threat. Threatened participants also avoided social contact except for well-known individuals, and were more likely to be traveling than nonthreatened participants. Social contact with family or close friends and being at home (one's own home or the home of familiar individuals) were associated with large reductions in negative affect for those at risk for urban violence. The findings are discussed in terms of risk factors for trauma following community-wide stressors.

  17. Behaviorism and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work.

  18. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lefèvre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied.

  19. Early Signs and Early Behavioral Intervention of Challenging Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Meer, L. van der; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.; Hastings, R.; Rojahn, J.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarizes research on the emergence of challenging behavior and early behavioral intervention for the treatment of challenging behavior in young children with Intellectual Disability (ID). Biological and learning theories related to the emergence of challenging behavior and risk

  20. The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

  1. Approach behavior as information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uijen, Sophie L; van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M

    2017-12-01

    Anxious individuals infer danger from information about physiological responses, anxiety responses, and safety behaviors. This study investigated whether anxious individuals also infer safety from approach behavior. 325 students rated the danger they perceived in general and spider-relevant scenarios in which information about objective safety versus objective danger, and approach behavior versus no approach behavior, was varied. A high and low spider fearful group was created with a median split on spider fear. Participants with a high fear of spiders, compared to participants with low spider fear, rated spider scenarios with approach behavior as safer than spider scenarios without approach behavior. This effect was similar for objectively dangerous and safe spider scenarios. No behavior as information effects were found for general scenarios. The data were collected in a non-clinical student sample. Spider fearful individuals infer safety from approach behavior in spider-relevant scenarios. For spider fearful individuals, approach behavior may add to the beneficial effects of exposure therapy. Future research is needed to investigate whether patients with anxiety disorders also show a tendency to infer safety from approach behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Introduction to behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Weinstein, Aviv; Gorelick, David A

    2010-09-01

    Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender persistent behavior, despite knowledge of adverse consequences, i.e., diminished control over the behavior. These disorders have historically been conceptualized in several ways. One view posits these disorders as lying along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum, with some classified as impulse control disorders. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, conceptualization considers the disorders as non-substance or "behavioral" addictions. Inform the discussion on the relationship between psychoactive substance and behavioral addictions. We review data illustrating similarities and differences between impulse control disorders or behavioral addictions and substance addictions. This topic is particularly relevant to the optimal classification of these disorders in the forthcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including natural history, phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment, supporting the DSM-V Task Force proposed new category of Addiction and Related Disorders encompassing both substance use disorders and non-substance addictions. Current data suggest that this combined category may be appropriate for pathological gambling and a few other better studied behavioral addictions, e.g., Internet addiction. There is currently insufficient data to justify any classification of other proposed behavioral addictions. Proper categorization of behavioral addictions or impulse control disorders has substantial implications for the development of improved prevention and treatment strategies.

  3. Sleep Characteristics and Behavioral Problems Among Children of Alcoholics and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Maria M; Brower, Kirk J; Conroy, Deirdre A; Lachance, Kathryn A; Craun, Elizabeth A

    2018-03-01

    Past research has indicated that both sleep difficulties and a parental history of alcoholism increase the risk of behavioral problems. But it is not known whether sleep difficulties differentially increase the risk of problem behaviors among children of alcoholics (COAs) and controls. We compared multiple measures of sleep and the relationships between sleep and behavioral problems in these 2 groups of children. One hundred and fifteen children aged 8 to 12 (67% COAs; 56% girls; M age  = 10.85, SD age  = 1.51) participated in this study. Data presented here were taken from Time 1 of a larger prospective study designed to understand the relationship between sleep and alcohol use. All participants were naïve to alcohol and other illicit drugs. Participants were asked to wear an actigraph watch on their nondominant wrist for 1 week. Parents completed the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist. Parents of COAs were more likely to rate their children as overtired compared with parents of non-COAs. Structural equation modeling analyses focusing on overall internalizing and externalizing problems did not reveal any group differences on the relationships between sleep measures and behavioral problems. Regression analyses focusing on specific behavioral problems showed that longer total sleep time, parental ratings of "sleep more" and "sleep less" than other children interacted with COA status to predict specific behavioral problems. Sleep difficulties and duration appear to be a general risk factor for behavioral problems in both COAs and non-COAs, yet the relationships between specific sleep parameters and behavioral problems appear to be different between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Criminal behavior and victimization among homeless individuals with severe mental illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Laurence; Crocker, Anne G; Nicholls, Tonia L; Latimer, Eric A; Ayllon, Andrea Reyes

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of the systematic review were to estimate the prevalence and correlates of criminal behavior, contacts with the criminal justice system, and victimization among homeless adults with severe mental illness. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Web of Science were searched for published empirical investigations of prevalence and correlates of criminal behavior, contacts with the justice system, and episodes of victimization in the target population. The search yielded 21 studies. Fifteen examined prevalence of contacts with the criminal justice system; lifetime arrest rates ranged between 62.9% and 90.0%, lifetime conviction rates ranged between 28.1% and 80.0%, and lifetime incarceration rates ranged between 48.0% and 67.0%. Four studies examined self-reported criminal behavior, with 12-month rates ranging from 17.0% to 32.0%. Six studies examined the prevalence of victimization, with lifetime rates ranging between 73.7% and 87.0%. Significant correlates of criminal behavior and contacts with the justice system included criminal history, high perceived need for medical services, high intensity of mental health service use, young age, male gender, substance use, protracted homelessness, type of homelessness (street or shelter), and history of conduct disorder. Significant correlates of victimization included female gender, history of child abuse, and depression. Rates of criminal behavior, contacts with the criminal justice system, and victimization among homeless adults with severe mental illness are higher than among housed adults with severe mental illness.

  5. Relationship Between Sexting and Sexual Risk Behavior and Some Psychosocial Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Vrselja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to explore whether there are significant differences between those who have never engaged in sexting behavior and those who have for at least once in any number of variables: sexual risk behavior, anger, depression, anxiety, self-efficacy and association with deviant peers. Also, the goal was to explore whether anger and unpleasant emotions of depression and anxiety are significant predictors of sexting and whether self-efficacy and association with deviant peers express moderator role in the relationship between enlisted predictors and sexting. Analyzed data were collected in 2012 from 311 students (149 boys, 162 girls, aged between fifteen and seventeen years. The results of series of independent t-tests showed significant differences between the two groups in sexual risk behavior and deviant peers association, whereby those who have engaged in sexting behavior at least once, compared to those who have never sexted, engaged more frequently in sexual risk behaviors and have more deviant friends. The results of hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis showed that sexting was not significantly predicted by anger, depression and anxiety and that self-efficacy and association with deviant peers do not change the relationship between anger and sexting, as well as the relationship between unpleasant emotions of depression or anxiety and sexting. The results are discussed in terms of findings of previous research and in the context of the relationship between the variables specified in the context of Agnew's (1992 general strain theory.

  6. Complexity and behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, J Barkley; Rosser, Marina V

    2015-04-01

    This paper will consider the relationship between complexity economics and behavioral economics. A crucial key to this is to understand that Herbert Simon was both the founder of explicitly modern behavioral economics as well as one of the early developers of complexity theory. Bounded rationality was essentially derived from Simon's view of the impossibility of full rationality on the part of economic agents. Modern complexity theory through such approaches as agent-based modeling offers an approach to understanding behavioral economics by allowing for specific behavioral responses to be assigned to agents who interact within this context, even without full rationality. Other parts of modern complexity theory are considered in terms of their relationships with behavioral economics. Fundamentally, complexity provides an ultimate foundation for bounded rationality and hence the need to use behavioral economics in a broader array of contexts than most economists have thought appropriate.

  7. Sociopathic behavior and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Borin, Gemma; Vedovello, Marcella; Di Fiorino, Andrea; Nuti, Angelo

    2013-06-01

    The maintenance of appropriate social behavior is a very complex process with many contributing factors. Social and moral judgments rely on the proper functioning of neural circuits concerned with complex cognitive and emotional processes. Damage to these systems may lead to distinct social behavior abnormalities. When patients present with dysmoral behavior for the first time, as a change from a prior pervasive pattern of behavior, clinicians need to consider a possible, causative brain disorder. The aim is to explore sociopathy as a manifestation of dementia. We searched electronic databases and key journals for original research and review articles on sociopathy in demented patients using the search terms "sociopathy, acquired sociopathy, sociopathic behavior, dementia, and personality". In conclusion, dementia onset may be heralded by changes in personality including alteration in social interpersonal behavior, personal regulation, and empathy. The sociopathy of dementia differs from antisocial/psychopathic personality disorders.

  8. About Teleological Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Misconceptions abound about teleological behaviorism (TB). Because very few people other than the author publicly call themselves teleological behaviorists, the fault must be mine. The present article is an attempt to clear up those misconceptions. First I will try to indicate what teleological behaviorism is not. Then, in the form of six fables (loosely connected stories, allegories, analogies, fairy tales, and arguments), I will try to give the reader an understanding of what teleological behaviorism actually is.

  9. Glia in Drosophila behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarts, L; Van Eijs, F; Callaerts, P

    2015-09-01

    Glial cells constitute about 10 % of the Drosophila nervous system. The development of genetic and molecular tools has helped greatly in defining different types of glia. Furthermore, considerable progress has been made in unraveling the mechanisms that control the development and differentiation of Drosophila glia. By contrast, the role of glia in adult Drosophila behavior is not well understood. We here summarize recent work describing the role of glia in normal behavior and in Drosophila models for neurological and behavioral disorders.

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hong; He, Ri-Hui; Zheng, Yun-Rong; Tao, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the main method of psychotherapy generally accepted in the field of substance addiction and non-substance addiction. This chapter mainly introduces the methods and technology of cognitive-behavior therapy of substance addiction, especially in order to prevent relapse. In the cognitive-behavior treatment of non-substance addiction, this chapter mainly introduces gambling addiction and food addiction.

  11. Physink: sketching physical behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Randall; Scott, Jeremy Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Describing device behavior is a common task that is currently not well supported by general animation or CAD software. We present PhysInk, a system that enables users to demonstrate 2D behavior by sketching and directly manipulating objects on a physics-enabled stage. Unlike previous tools that simply capture the user's animation, PhysInk captures an understanding of the behavior in a timeline. This enables useful capabilities such as causality-aware editing and finding physically-correct equ...

  12. About Teleological Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Misconceptions abound about teleological behaviorism (TB). Because very few people other than the author publicly call themselves teleological behaviorists, the fault must be mine. The present article is an attempt to clear up those misconceptions. First I will try to indicate what teleological behaviorism is not. Then, in the form of six fables (loosely connected stories, allegories, analogies, fairy tales, and arguments), I will try to give the reader an understanding of what teleological behaviorism actually is. PMID:28018032

  13. Prevalence of hypersexual behavior in Parkinson’s disease patients: Not restricted to males and dopamine agonist use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christine A; Jadidian, Armon; Paggi, Michelle; Romrell, Janet; Okun, Michael S; Rodriguez, Ramon L; Fernandez, Hubert H

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence and demographic characteristics of hypersexuality in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Impulse control disorders in PD patients have been associated with dopamine agonist therapy. Moreover, hypersexuality and pathological gambling have been associated with males, while females may be inherently thought to be more likely to participate in compulsive shopping and binge-eating behaviors. In this study, a screening mail-in survey was sent to all PD patients at a single Movement Disorders Center. One hundred forty one of 400 (35.3%) research packets were returned completed. Fifteen of 141 patients met initial screening criteria for hypersexual behavior. After detailed interview, only 6/141 (4.3%) of PD patients met criteria for pathologic hypersexual behavior. These behaviors included: compulsive masturbation, prostitution, and paraphilias. Patients with a younger age of PD onset were more likely to exhibit hypersexual behavior. Unlike previous report, no significant association was found between hypersexuality and gender or dopamine agonist use. Rather, this study suggests that physicians should be vigilant for hypersexual behavior in all PD patients, regardless of gender and PD medication regimen. Ultimately, given the innate sensitivity of the topic and survey limitations, it is very likely that hypersexual behavior in our cohort, as it is in the general PD population, has been under-reported. PMID:20360887

  14. Green Consumption Behavior Antecedents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagiaslis, Anastasios; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    The present study adds to the evolving literature on green consumer behavior by examining through statistically robust methods the effect and interrelationships of the key constructs of environmental concern, consumer environmental knowledge, beliefs about biofuels, and behavioral intention (i...... for the environment has a positive and direct impact on environmental knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intention. Also, demographics determine levels of concern for the environment and environmental knowledge. All constructs associate positively with one another delineating that the interdependencies between them...... are important when accounting for environmental behavior. Future research should validate present results with the use of cross-cultural samples and investigate whether environmental concern increases due to social desirability response bias....

  15. Behavioral Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-level perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing on insights from psychology on the behavior of individuals and groups. The authors discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw...... theories. As such, behavioral public administration complements traditional public administration. Furthermore, it could be a two-way street for psychologists who want to test the external validity of their theories in a political-administrative setting. Finally, four principles are proposed to narrow...

  16. Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Matthew K.; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Cha, Christine B.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lee, Sing

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Information about the epidemiology of such behavior is important for policy-making and prevention. The authors reviewed government data on suicide and suicidal behavior and conducted a systematic review of studies on the epidemiology of suicide published from 1997 to 2007. The authors' aims were to examine the prevalence of, trends in, and risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in the United States and cross-nationally. The data revealed significant cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behavior but consistency in age of onset, transition probabilities, and key risk factors. Suicide is more prevalent among men, whereas nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more prevalent among women and persons who are young, are unmarried, or have a psychiatric disorder. Despite an increase in the treatment of suicidal persons over the past decade, incidence rates of suicidal behavior have remained largely unchanged. Most epidemiologic research on suicidal behavior has focused on patterns and correlates of prevalence. The next generation of studies must examine synergistic effects among modifiable risk and protective factors. New studies must incorporate recent advances in survey methods and clinical assessment. Results should be used in ongoing efforts to decrease the significant loss of life caused by suicidal behavior. PMID:18653727

  17. POST BEHAVIORAL FINANCE ADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN MITROI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of behavioral finance combines the investigation and expertise from research and practice into smart portfolios of individual investors’ portfolios. Understanding cognitive errors and misleading emotions drive investors to their long-term goals of financial prosperity and capital preservation. 10 years ago, Behavioral Finance was still considered an incipient, adolescent science. First Nobel Prize in Economics awarded to the study of Behavioral Economics in 2002 established the field as a new, respected study of economics. 2013 Nobel Prize was awarded to three economists, one of them considered the one of the founders of the Behavioral Finance. As such, by now we are entering the coming of age of behavioral finance. It is now recognized as a science of understanding investors behaviors and their biased patterns. It applies quantitative finance and provides practical models grounded on robust understanding of investors behavior toward financial risk. Financial Personality influences investment decisions. Behavioral portfolio construction methods combine classic finance with rigorously quantified psychological metrics and improves models for financial advice to enhance investors chances in reaching their lifetime financial goals. Behavioral finance helps understanding psychological profile dissimilarities of individuals and how these differences manifest in investment decision process. This new science has become now a must topic in modern finance.

  18. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab supports cognitive research using rodent models. Capabilities for behavioral assessments include:Morris water maze and Barnes maze (spatial memory)elevate...

  19. Behavior Modification: Education's Watergate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrison, Muriel Paskin

    Several of the theoretical and experimental assumptions relating to behavior modification are examined and criticized: (1) the human mind can only be understood by observing and measuring the functional behavior it causes, (2) performance can be equated with learning, (3) reward systems and token economies improve intrinsic learning, and (4) all…

  20. [Fibromyalgia: behavioral medicine interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, F; Holtz, M C; van der Meer, B; Krohn-Grimberghe, B

    2007-10-01

    The etiology of fibromyalgia as a chronic disease is still unexplained. This article gives an overview of the newest treatment methods of behavioral medicine of the fibromyalgia syndrome with regard to the state of research of etiology and diagnosis of this disease. Methods such as operant conditioning, cognitive-behavioral approaches, patient education and relaxation methods are discussed.

  1. Personality and Prosocial Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Glöckner, Andreas; Zettler, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    -Humility (and certain aspects of five-factor Agreeableness) account for prosocial behavior-thus explaining previous inconsistencies and providing a more nuanced understanding of the links between basic personality and prosocial or cooperative behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)....

  2. Stress and eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Achim; Langemann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    How stress, the stress response, and the adaptation of the stress response influence our eating behavior is a central question in brain research and medicine. In this report, we highlight recent advances showing the close links between eating behavior, the stress system, and neurometabolism.

  3. Safety Behaviors and Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robyn; Helgadottir, Fjola; Menzies, Ross; Heard, Rob; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Those who are socially anxious may use safety behaviors during feared social interactions to prevent negative outcomes. Safety behaviors are associated with anxiety maintenance and poorer treatment outcomes because they prevent fear extinction. Social anxiety disorder is often comorbid with stuttering. Speech pathologists reported in a…

  4. Clarifying Behavior Management Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justen, Joseph E., III; Howerton, D. Lynn

    1993-01-01

    Eight behavioral management terms/concepts commonly encountered in the special education literature are defined and discussed in terms of commonly occurring confusions. They are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, extinction, differential reinforcement of other behavior, timeout, response cost, and overcorrection. (DB)

  5. Behavior Analysis for Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Kröse, B.J.A.; Cook, D.J.; Salah, A.A.; Kröse, B.J.A.; Cook, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing, new sensor technologies, and increasingly available and accessible algorithms for pattern recognition and machine learning enable automatic analysis and modeling of human behavior in many novel ways. In this introductory paper of the 6th International Workshop on Human Behavior

  6. Zen and Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Zen's challenge for behavior analysis is to explain a repertoire that renders analysis itself meaningless--a result following not from scientific or philosophical arguments but rather from a unique verbal history generated by Zen's methods. Untying Zen's verbal knots suggests how meditation's and koans' effects on verbal behavior contribute to…

  7. Nascent Leadership Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, Dennis L.; Libertella, Anthony F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a compendium of leadership behaviors that emerging or aspirant leaders could choose to enhance their management and leadership skills. These behaviors were drawn directly from the experience of the authors, both of whom have held senior leadership and management positions in business, law, and higher education. This paper is an…

  8. Reporting unethical research behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, N S; Korenman, S G; Berk, R; Liu, H

    1999-10-01

    Scientists, as professionals, have a responsibility to self-regulate. However, whistleblowing is rare. We investigated scientists' infrequent disclosure of unethical behavior by studying their responses to scenarios describing unethical research acts and compared their responses to those of research administrators. A cross-sectional survey was administered to National Science Foundation-funded principal investigators and their institutions' representatives (IRs) to the Office of Research Integrity. Both scientists and IRs proposed to respond to nearly all research behaviors that they rated as unethical. Scientists more often proposed responses limited to the research team (58% vs. 25% of cases, p unethical behavior were not. Scientists appear to perceive that they uphold their responsibility to respond to unethical behavior by disclosures within the research team, whereas administrators propose to report to externally accountable individuals, raising the question of whether scientists' behavior constitutes professional self-regulation or cover up.

  9. Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Peighambari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes 12 years of recent scholarly research on consumer behavior published in the five leading international journals in this field. Analyzing academic contributions to a specific area of research provides valuable insights into how it has evolved over a defined period. The approach was to briefly discuss content analysis and its application in scholarly literature review studies. The methodology used here involves the classification of topics to evaluate key trends in consumer behavior literature. It includes a ranking of topics published, typology of the published articles, the research classification in terms of methodologies, and analysis techniques. The most cited articles in the field and within each journal are also examined. The comprehensive literature review of consumer behavior research undertaken in this article could advance the discipline of consumer behavior research by elucidating the evolution of consumer behavior literature in the studied period.

  10. What determines our behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Radovan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In article Ajzen-Fishbein's attitude-behavior model called 'Theory of reasoned action' and Albert Bandura's Model of reciprocal determinism are presented. Both models are a part of social-cognitive paradigm which characterizes behavior with evaluation of different goals. Ajzen and Fishbein (1973; 1980 proposed that specific behavior are predictable from specific behavioral intentions. These intentions are a function of two components: the attitude toward the act in question and percieved normative expectations of reference group. On the other hand Bandura (1986; 1997 claims that person's motivation for a specific behavior and direction toward a specific social object respectively, reflects perception of his or hers self-efficacy beliefs. Some of the findings concerning the synthesis of the two models are also reviewed.

  11. Towards Behavioral Reflexion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Christopher; Lindvall, Mikael; Cleaveland, Rance

    2009-01-01

    Software architecture has become essential in the struggle to manage today s increasingly large and complex systems. Software architecture views are created to capture important system characteristics on an abstract and, thus, comprehensible level. As the system is implemented and later maintained, it often deviates from the original design specification. Such deviations can have implication for the quality of the system, such as reliability, security, and maintainability. Software architecture compliance checking approaches, such as the reflexion model technique, have been proposed to address this issue by comparing the implementation to a model of the systems architecture design. However, architecture compliance checking approaches focus solely on structural characteristics and ignore behavioral conformance. This is especially an issue in Systems-of- Systems. Systems-of-Systems (SoS) are decompositions of large systems, into smaller systems for the sake of flexibility. Deviations of the implementation to its behavioral design often reduce the reliability of the entire SoS. An approach is needed that supports the reasoning about behavioral conformance on architecture level. In order to address this issue, we have developed an approach for comparing the implementation of a SoS to an architecture model of its behavioral design. The approach follows the idea of reflexion models and adopts it to support the compliance checking of behaviors. In this paper, we focus on sequencing properties as they play an important role in many SoS. Sequencing deviations potentially have a severe impact on the SoS correctness and qualities. The desired behavioral specification is defined in UML sequence diagram notation and behaviors are extracted from the SoS implementation. The behaviors are then mapped to the model of the desired behavior and the two are compared. Finally, a reflexion model is constructed that shows the deviations between behavioral design and implementation. This

  12. The Impact of Foster Parent Training on Parenting Skills and Child Disruptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David T; Niec, Larissa N; Schoonover, Ciera E

    2017-02-01

    Children in foster care are at risk for behavioral and emotional problems that require higher levels of care than other children. To meet these needs and reduce placement disruptions, foster parents require effective parenting skills. Although a number of training models have been evaluated, the findings on the efficacy of foster parent training (FPT) are mixed. We conducted a meta-analysis of the FPT outcome research from 1984 to 2014 to develop a clearer understanding of the impact of such trainings. Fifteen samples (16 studies) were identified that investigated the impact of FPT on self-reported parenting skills and knowledge and child problem behaviors. The mean effect size for child disruptive behavior using a random effects model was small but significant at -.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] = [-.39, -.01], Z = 2.05, p foster parents who were involved in the trainings reported fewer child behavior problems than parents who did not receive the training. The mean effect size for parenting was moderate and significant at .52 (95% CI = [.22, .82], Z = 3.38, p < .05), indicating that, on average, parents in the treatment groups reported higher levels of skills and knowledge following training than did those in the control group. While these results are promising, more research is necessary to investigate the inconsistency in effect sizes across studies.

  13. Socio demographic and Psychological Correlates of Sun Protection Behaviors among Outdoor Workers: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, V. K.; Ford, M. A.; Bass, M. A.; Vice, M. A.; Hallam, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor workers are at a higher risk for developing skin cancer due to their increased sun exposure. The primary objective of this review was to synthesize the current research literature that addresses socio demographic and psychological factors related to sun protection behaviors in outdoor workers. Two additional purposes were to provide an overview of sun exposure and describe sun protection behaviors of outdoor workers. To identify the studies for this review, a methodical search was performed in the Pub Med, Psycinfo, Medline, and Eric databases. Fifteen studies met the review criteria. Despite regular and prolonged sun exposure, many outdoor workers fail to engage in sufficient sun protection behaviors. Correlates of outdoor workers sun protection behaviors include being female, older age, being white, personal skin cancer history, time (hours/years) spent at work, sun safety training, perceived prioritization of sun protection, concern about sun exposure, workplace support, families expectations, and familial information giving. However, limited attention is given to designing theoretically grounded studies to identify factors to inform future research. There is a need to conduct research based on solid theoretical foundations that explains the relationships among the factors in this domain.

  14. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  15. Mechanisms of behavior modification in clinical behavioral medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyin; Su, Zhonghua; Ji, Feng; Zhu, Min; Bai, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Behavior modification, as the core of clinical behavioral medicine, is often used in clinical settings. We seek to summarize behavior modification techniques that are commonly used in clinical practice of behavioral medicine in China and discuss possible biobehavioral mechanisms. We reviewed common behavior modification techniques in clinical settings in China, and we reviewed studies that explored possible biobehavioral mechanisms. Commonly used clinical approaches of behavior modification in China include behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, health education, behavior management, behavioral relaxation training, stress management intervention, desensitization therapy, biofeedback therapy, and music therapy. These techniques have been applied in the clinical treatment of a variety of diseases, such as chronic diseases, psychosomatic diseases, and psychological disorders. The biobehavioral mechanisms of these techniques involve the autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine system, neurobiochemistry, and neuroplasticity. Behavior modification techniques are commonly used in the treatment of a variety of somatic and psychological disorders in China. Multiple biobehavioral mechanisms are involved in successful behavior modification.

  16. Cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD and somatization: an open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Benítez, Carlos I; Zlotnick, Caron; Gomez, Judelysse; Rendón, Maria J; Swanson, Amelia

    2013-06-01

    No treatment, to date, has been developed to improve both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS), despite mounting evidence of high comorbidity between PTSD and MUPS. This study assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcomes of an adapted cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD and abridged somatization in a sample of eight participants. Fifteen percent of completers did not meet PTSD criteria after treatment completion and 62.5% improved their somatic symptoms. There was a significant difference between pre- and post-treatment depression symptoms, as well as in psychological and physical functioning measures. Results indicated a small to moderate effect size (d = 0.27-0.78) in PTSD severity scores, and moderate to large effect size in depression symptoms and psychosocial and physical functioning variables (d = 0.39-1.12). Preliminary evidence of acceptability indicates that the current CBT intervention may be suitable for Latinos individuals with PTSD and MUPS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cornelia de Lange syndrome: Correlation of brain MRI findings with behavioral assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan Lal, Tamanna R; Kliewer, Mark A; Lopes, Thelma; Rebsamen, Susan L; O'Connor, Julia; Grados, Marco A; Kimball, Amy; Clemens, Julia; Kline, Antonie D

    2016-06-01

    Neurobehavioral and developmental issues with a broad range of deficits are prominent features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a disorder due to disruption of the cohesin protein complex. The etiologic relationship of these clinical findings to anatomic abnormalities on neuro-imaging studies has not, however, been established. Anatomic abnormalities in the brain and central nervous system specific to CdLS have been observed, including changes in the white matter, brainstem, and cerebellum. We hypothesize that location and severity of brain abnormalities correlate with clinical phenotype in CdLS, as seen in other developmental disorders. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated brain MRI studies of 15 individuals with CdLS and compared these findings to behavior at the time of the scan. Behavior was assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), a validated behavioral assessment tool with several clinical features. Ten of fifteen (67%) of CdLS patients had abnormal findings on brain MRI, including cerebral atrophy, white matter changes, cerebellar hypoplasia, and enlarged ventricles. Other findings included pituitary tumors or cysts, Chiari I malformation and gliosis. Abnormal behavioral scores in more than one behavioral area were seen in all but one patient. All 5 of the 15 (33%) patients with normal structural MRI studies had abnormal ABC scores. All normal ABC scores were noted in only one patient and this was correlated with moderately abnormal MRI changes. Although our cohort is small, our results suggest that abnormal behaviors can exist in individuals with CdLS in the setting of relatively normal structural brain findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. An uncommon case of random fire-setting behavior associated with Todd paralysis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehisa, Masayuki; Morinaga, Katsuhiko; Kohno, Hisae; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Ninomiya, Taiga; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Yoshikawa, Tomoya; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2012-08-31

    The association between fire-setting behavior and psychiatric or medical disorders remains poorly understood. Although a link between fire-setting behavior and various organic brain disorders has been established, associations between fire setting and focal brain lesions have not yet been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old first time arsonist who suffered Todd's paralysis prior to the onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior. A case of a 24-year-old man with a sudden onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior is reported. The man, who had been arrested on felony arson charges, complained of difficulties concentrating and of recent memory disturbances with leg weakness. A video-EEG recording demonstrated a close relationship between the focal motor impairment and a clear-cut epileptic ictal discharge involving the bilateral motor cortical areas. The SPECT result was statistically analyzed by comparing with standard SPECT images obtained from our institute (easy Z-score imaging system; eZIS). eZIS revealed hypoperfusion in cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and hyperperfusion in frontal cortex,. A neuropsychological test battery revealed lower than normal scores for executive function, attention, and memory, consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction. The fire-setting behavior and Todd's paralysis, together with an unremarkable performance on tests measuring executive function fifteen months prior, suggested a causal relationship between this organic brain lesion and the fire-setting behavior. The case describes a rare and as yet unreported association between random, impulse-driven fire-setting behavior and damage to the brain and suggests a disconnection of frontal lobe structures as a possible pathogenic mechanism.

  19. An uncommon case of random fire-setting behavior associated with Todd paralysis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanehisa Masayuki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between fire-setting behavior and psychiatric or medical disorders remains poorly understood. Although a link between fire-setting behavior and various organic brain disorders has been established, associations between fire setting and focal brain lesions have not yet been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old first time arsonist who suffered Todd’s paralysis prior to the onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior. Case presentation A case of a 24-year-old man with a sudden onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior is reported. The man, who had been arrested on felony arson charges, complained of difficulties concentrating and of recent memory disturbances with leg weakness. A video-EEG recording demonstrated a close relationship between the focal motor impairment and a clear-cut epileptic ictal discharge involving the bilateral motor cortical areas. The SPECT result was statistically analyzed by comparing with standard SPECT images obtained from our institute (easy Z-score imaging system; eZIS. eZIS revealed hypoperfusion in cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and hyperperfusion in frontal cortex,. A neuropsychological test battery revealed lower than normal scores for executive function, attention, and memory, consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction. Conclusion The fire-setting behavior and Todd’s paralysis, together with an unremarkable performance on tests measuring executive function fifteen months prior, suggested a causal relationship between this organic brain lesion and the fire-setting behavior. The case describes a rare and as yet unreported association between random, impulse-driven fire-setting behavior and damage to the brain and suggests a disconnection of frontal lobe structures as a possible pathogenic mechanism.

  20. Clustering Game Behavior Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen a deluge of behavioral data from players hitting the game industry. Reasons for this data surge are many and include the introduction of new business models, technical innovations, the popularity of online games, and the increasing persistence of games. Irrespective...... of the causes, the proliferation of behavioral data poses the problem of how to derive insights therefrom. Behavioral data sets can be large, time-dependent and high-dimensional. Clustering offers a way to explore such data and to discover patterns that can reduce the overall complexity of the data. Clustering...... scientists and present a review and tutorial focusing on the application of clustering techniques to mine behavioral game data. Several algorithms are reviewed and examples of their application shown. Key topics such as feature normalization are discussed and open problems in the context of game analytics...

  1. Food Coloring and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1994-01-01

    The association between the ingestion of tartrazine synthetic food coloring and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of hyperactivity was investigated at the Royal Children’s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  2. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  3. Behavior analysis in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cláudio Todorov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of behavior analysis in Brazil began with the visit of Fred S. Keller as a FulbrightScholar to the University of São Paulo in 1961. Keller introduced Skinner works to the Brazilianpsychologists. His first assistant was Carolina Martuscelli Bori, then a social psychologistinfluenced by the work of Kurt Lewin. Initially guided by Keller, Carolina Bori was the majorforce in the diffusion of Behavior Analysis in Brazil, beginning with the psychology course ofthe University of Brasília, where the first course on Experimental Analysis of Behavior beganin August of 1964. Most of behavior analysts in Brazil today were students, directly or indirectly,of Carolina Bori. Several graduate programs throughout the country offer courses in behavioranalysis.

  4. Child Development & Behavior Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Topics Commentaries Featured Links Contact Us Child Development & Behavior Topics A B C D E F ... Seat Safety Carbon Monoxide Chewing Tobacco Child Care Child Development Milestones Child Development, What Do Grown-Ups Know ...

  5. Guide to Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Behavior Change Your Weight Is Important Over the past few ... focus on are the dietary and physical activity changes that will lead to long-term weight change. ...

  6. Behavioral based safety approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Michael Raj, I.

    2009-01-01

    Approach towards the establishment of positive safety culture at Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin includes the adoption of several important methodologies focused on human behavior and culminates with achievement of Total Safety Culture where Quality and Productivity are integrated with Safety

  7. Dealing with Oppositional Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Joe. Their listening without judging, their empathy without pity, make dealing with the behaviors all the more ... Talk: How FTD Changed Beth Malone’s Idea of Death (and Life) More in the newsroom Search Enter ...

  8. Experiments in Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polt, James M.

    1971-01-01

    Describes experiments in conditioning, sensory processes, social behavior, imprinting, innate preferences for color and form, and discrimination learning suitable for secondary school students. Mealworms, crickets, and chicks are used as subjects. (AL)

  9. Behavioral Neurophysiology of Ethanol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janak, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    .... Alcohol consumption by humans can be modeled in the rat using operant behavioral procedures in which an arbitrary response, such as a lever press, is reinforced by the presentation of small amounts...

  10. Compulsive Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include masturbation, cybersex, multiple sexual partners, use of pornography or paying for sex. When these sexual behaviors ... or engage in sexual activity or search internet pornography at work, risking your job Accumulate financial debts ...

  11. Youth Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    AAS 2011 Youth Suicidal Behavior Fact Sheet 4,822 youth age 15-24 died by suicide. i We want to change that. Su icid eRat ebyRace , age s 15-24, ... often the first to know their friend is suicidal, and we need to help them know where to ... 2011 Youth Risk and Behavior Survey found that in the previous 12 months ...

  12. Genes and Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Gene E.; Fernald, Russell D.; Clayton, David F.

    2008-01-01

    What specific genes and regulatory sequences contribute to the organization and functioning of brain circuits that support social behavior? How does social experience interact with information in the genome to modulate these brain circuits? Here we address these questions by highlighting progress that has been made in identifying and understanding two key “vectors of influence” that link genes, brain, and social behavior: 1) social information alters gene readout in the brain to influence beh...

  13. Changing the Mobility Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Steffensen, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Short Abstract: Carsharing is one option to change mobility behavior. It is successful in major cities. No research results are available for small and medium size cities. In the project, we analyzed the implementation of carsharing in such a smaller setting. Full Abstract: Traffic jams, noise, CO2-emissions or particulate pollution as well as lack of inner-city space ask for political action and a change of individual mobility behavior. The German discussion about electric cars and ...

  14. Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Andrew; Doss, Brian D.

    2017-01-01

    Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT) is based in part on traditional behavioral couple therapy but expands both the conceptualization of couple distress and of intervention. The efficacy of IBCT has been supported in three clinical trials, including one with five year follow-up. Additionally, the effectiveness of IBCT in the real world has been supported through a system-wide dissemination effort in the United States Department of Veteran’s Affairs. The reach of IBCT has also been ext...

  15. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Behavioral genetics and taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmanov Alexander A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on behavioral genetic studies of sweet, umami, bitter and salt taste responses in mammals. Studies involving mouse inbred strain comparisons and genetic analyses, and their impact on elucidation of taste receptors and transduction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the effect of genetic variation in taste responsiveness on complex traits such as drug intake is considered. Recent advances in development of genomic resources make behavioral genetics a powerful approach for understanding mechanisms of taste.

  17. Manipulation of choice behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Manzini, Paola; Mariotti, Marco; Tyson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce and study the problem of manipulation of choice behavior. In a class of two-stage models of decision making, with the agent's choices determined by three "psychological variables," we imagine that a subset of these variables can be selected by a "manipulator." To what extent does this confer control of the agent's behavior? Within the specified framework, which overlaps with two existing models of choice under cognitive constraints, we provide a complete answer to this question.

  18. Behavior Modification in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Mryon; Whitman, Joan

    1971-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical rationale for behavior modification, principally through its comparison with traditional psychotherapies, and suggests some behavior modification techniques for the classroom management of maladaptive behavior. (Author)

  19. Nonlinearities in Behavioral Macroeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Orlando

    2017-07-01

    This article undertakes a journey across the literature on behavioral macroeconomics, with attention concentrated on the nonlinearities that the behavioral approach typically suggests or implies. The emphasis is placed on thinking the macro economy as a living organism, composed of many interacting parts, each one having a will of its own, which is in sharp contrast with the mechanism of the orthodox view (well represented by the neoclassical or new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium - DSGE - model). The paper advocates that a thorough understanding of individual behavior in collective contexts is the only possible avenue to further explore macroeconomic phenomena and the often observed 'anomalies' that the benchmark DSGE macro framework is unable to explain or justify. After a reflection on the role of behavioral traits as a fundamental component of a new way of thinking the economy, the article proceeds with a debate on some of the most relevant frameworks in the literature that somehow link macro behavior and nonlinearities; covered subjects include macro models with disequilibrium rules, agent-based models that highlight interaction and complexity, evolutionary switching frameworks, and inattention based decision problems. These subjects have, as a fundamental point in common, the use of behavioral elements to transform existing interpretations of the economic reality, making it more evident how irregular fluctuations emerge and unfold on the aggregate.

  20. Jayapura Teenagers Smoking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, Lucky; Budiman, Johan Arief; Haryono, W; Mulyani, Wiwiek

    2017-02-01

    Smoking behavior is a threat for Indonesian teenagers, including in the city of Jayapura, Papua province. The purpose of this study was to access Jayapura teenagers smoking behavior and knowledge including parents and other family members. The study was conducted on 78 respondents (grade 7, aged 11-14 years old), using cluster random sampling for selecting the public and private junior high school in Jayapura. The data collected was smoking behavior of respondents, parents and other family members (using self-reported questionnaire), and respondents' knowledge about the dangers of smoking (using tests with Cronbach's alpha 0.701). Data were analyzed descriptively and analytically using Chi-square, 95 % level of significant. The results showed 29.3 % of teenagers, 69.23 % of parents and 25.6 % of other family members were smokers, their knowledge was low (an average score of 60.81 out of 100), there was no significant statistical relationship between knowledge and smoking behavior among respondents (p = 0.079), and there is no significant relationship between teenagers behavior with the behavior of the parents (p = 0.609) and other family members (p = 0.578), 87 % of teenagers became smokers because there were individuals who smoke at home.

  1. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  2. Behavioral Indicators and Behaviors Related to Sexting among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Heather K.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Ogletree, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Empirical studies on sexting are limited, and many sexting studies only assessed sexting behaviors. Few studies have assessed attitudes, subjective norms, or behavioral intentions related to sexting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral intentions, and behaviors related to sexting…

  3. A fifteen year experience of total thyroidectomy for the management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracheostomy was required in 35 (5.8%) patients but none was permanent. Conclusion: Total thyroidectomy is a relatively safe treatment option for patients who have simple multinodular goitre. It provides a permanent cure with a low postoperative morbidity risk. The burden of replacement l-thyroxine needs to be discussed ...

  4. Characterization of fifteen SNP markers by mining EST in sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    salmon (Hayes et al. 2007). However, in A. japonicus, only. 13 SNP have thus far been developed and characterized (Sun et al. 2010). Here we report 15 polymorphic SNP to enrich the list of currently available genetic makers of A. japonicus. ∗For correspondence. E-mail: zunchunz@hotmail.com. Materials and methods.

  5. Histology types of chest wall tumours: Fifteen year single center ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective study of chest wall tumours at our institution(NCTCE, UNTH, Enugu, Nigeria), for a period of 15 years, spanning October, 2001 to September, 2015.The pathologic reports were retrieved from the hospital pathology archives and correlated with patients' copies in the ...

  6. The distribution of inherent phosphorus in fifteen water treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this investigation was to characterise the chemical properties relevant to P-sorption/desorption processes of 15 South African WTR and to determine the inherent distribution of P within the WTR using a chemical fractionation procedure. The pH, exchangeable Ca and organic carbon content ranged from 4.77 to ...

  7. Fifteen years of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqin; Yang, Jingsui; Wang, Chengshan; An, Zhisheng; Li, Haibing; Wang, Qin; Su, Dechen

    2017-05-01

    Continental scientific drilling can be regarded as a telescope into the Earth's interior because it provides process insight and uncompromised samples of rocks, fluids, and even sampled from the deep biosphere from the Earth's surface to great depths. As one of the three founding members of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), ICDP China has made great achievements in many scientific drilling-related research fields. Based on the ICDP participation it attracted global attention of scientists and set up not only the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) Program in 2001 but also a growing number of ambitious drilling projects in the country. The 5158 m deep borehole of the CCSD project at Donghai County in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrain demonstrates that large amounts of crustal rocks of the South China Block have been subducted to at least 120 km, followed by rapid uplift. After successful completion of drilling at Donghai, several continental scientific drilling projects were conducted with funding of the Chinese government and partially with support of ICDP, resulting in a total drilling depth of more than 35 000 m. These projects encompass the Continental Environmental Scientific Drilling Program of China, the Scientific Drilling Project of Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Zone, the Continental Scientific Drilling Project of Cretaceous Songliao Basin, and the Program of Selected Continental Scientific Drilling and Experiments. On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the ICDP and the 15th anniversary of the CCSD Program, this paper reviews the history and major progress of the CCSD Program.

  8. CANDU fuel - fifteen years of power reactor experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanjoy, G.R.; Bain, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) fuel has operated in power reactors since 1962. Analyses of performance statistics, supplemented by examinations of fuel from power reactors and experimental loops have yielded: (a) A thorough understanding of the fundamental behaviour of CANDU fuel. (b) Data showing that the predicted high utilization of uranium has been achieved. Actual fuelling costs in 1976 at the Pickering Generating Station are 1.2 m$/kWh (1976 Canadian dollars) with the simple oncethrough natural-UO 2 fuel cycle. (c) Criteria for operation, which have led to the current very low defect rate of 0.03% of all assemblies and to ''CANLUB'' fuel, which has a graphite interlayer between the fuel and sheath to reduce defects on power increases. (d) Proof that the short length (500 mm), collapsible cladding features of the CANDU bundle are successful and that the fuel can operate at high-power output (current peak outer-element linear power is 58 +- 15% kW/m). Involvement by the utility in all stages of fuel development has resulted in efficient application of this fundamental knowledge to ensure proper fuel specifications, procurement, scheduling into the reactor and feedback to developers, designers and manufacturers. As of mid-1976 over 3 x 10 6 individual elements have been built in a well-estabilished commercially competitive fuel fabrication industry and over 2 x 10 6 elements have been irradiated. Only six defects have been attributed to faulty materials or fabrication, and the use of high-density UO 2 with low-moisture content precluded defects from hydrogen contamination and densification. Development work on UO 2 and other fuel cycles (plutonium and thorium) is continuing, and, because CANDU reactors use on-power fuelling, bundles can be inserted into power reactors for testing. Thus new fuel designs can be quickly adopted to ensure that the CANDU system continues to provide low-cost energy with high reliability

  9. Proteomics Standards Initiative: Fifteen Years of Progress and Future Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Eric W; Orchard, Sandra; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Bittremieux, Wout; Eisenacher, Martin; Hermjakob, Henning; Kawano, Shin; Lam, Henry; Mayer, Gerhard; Menschaert, Gerben; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Salek, Reza M; Tabb, David L; Tenzer, Stefan; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Walzer, Mathias; Jones, Andrew R

    2017-12-01

    The Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) of the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) has now been developing and promoting open community standards and software tools in the field of proteomics for 15 years. Under the guidance of the chair, cochairs, and other leadership positions, the PSI working groups are tasked with the development and maintenance of community standards via special workshops and ongoing work. Among the existing ratified standards, the PSI working groups continue to update PSI-MI XML, MITAB, mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, mzTab, and the MIAPE (Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment) guidelines with the advance of new technologies and techniques. Furthermore, new standards are currently either in the final stages of completion (proBed and proBAM for proteogenomics results as well as PEFF) or in early stages of design (a spectral library standard format, a universal spectrum identifier, the qcML quality control format, and the Protein Expression Interface (PROXI) web services Application Programming Interface). In this work we review the current status of all of these aspects of the PSI, describe synergies with other efforts such as the ProteomeXchange Consortium, the Human Proteome Project, and the metabolomics community, and provide a look at future directions of the PSI.

  10. Implementing CBM: SQL-Tutor after Fifteen Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Antonija; Ohlsson, Stellan

    2016-01-01

    SQL-Tutor is the first constraint-based tutor. The initial conference papers about the system were published in 1998 (Mitrovic 1998a, 1998b, 1998c), with an "IJAIED" paper published in 1999 (Mitrovic and Ohlsson, "International Journal Artificial Intelligence in Education," 10(3-4), 238-256, 1999). We published another…

  11. Fifteen years experience: Egyptian metabolic lab | Fateen | Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study shows the most common diagnosed inherited inborn errors of metabolism among the Egyptian population. ... In 1995, The Biochemical Genetics Unit at The National Research Centre has been established as a part of The Human Genetics Department and later on in 2003 it was developed into The Biochemical ...

  12. Cervical Collagen Concentration within Fifteen Months after Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundtoft, Iben; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sommer, Steffe

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cervical collagen concentration decreases during pregnancy. The increased risk of preterm birth following a short interpregnancy interval may be explained by an incomplete remodeling of the cervix. The objective of this study was to describe the changes in cervical collagen concentration...... over 15 months following delivery. METHODS: The collagen concentrations were determined in cervical biopsies obtained from 15 women at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months after delivery. RESULTS: The mean cervical collagen concentrations were 50, 59, 63, 65, and 65 % of dry weight (SD 4.2 – 6.5). This increase...... was statistically significant until month 9, but not between months 9 and 12. CONCLUSIONS: Low collagen concentrations in the uterine cervix may contribute to the association between a short interpregnancy interval and preterm birth....

  13. The history of Korean Institute Chemical Engineers for fifteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This book reports the history of Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers with commemorative message, three congratulatory address and photos for fifty years. Nest, it consists of five chapters, which deals with development this institute by chronological classification. It reports the development history by activity such as education, research, publishing branch, international activity, data, woman, and executive office. It records challenge of chemical engineering, remembrance for past presidents and appendixes on history and a list of members.

  14. CANDU fuel - fifteen years of power reactor experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanjoy, G.R.; Bain, A.S.

    1977-05-01

    Analyses of performance statistics, supplemented by examinations of fuel from power reactors and experimental loops have yielded: (a) a thorough understanding of the fundamental behaviour of CANDU fuel; (b) data showing that the predicted high utilization of uranium has been achieved; (c) criteria for operation, which have led to the current very low defect rate of 0.03% of all assemblies and to 'CANLUB' fuel, which has a graphite interlayer between the fuel and sheath to reduce defects on power increases; (d) proof that the short length (500 mm), collapsible cladding features of the CANDU bundle are successful and that the fuel can operate at high-power output (current peak outer-element linear power is 58 +- 15% kW/m). As of mid-1976 over 3 x 10 6 individual elements have been built and over 2 x 10 6 elements have been irradiated. Only six defects have been attributed to faulty materials or fabrication, and the use of high-density UO 2 with low-moisture content precluded defects from hydrogen contamination and densification

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva: analysis of fifteen cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.S.A.; Dareshani, S.; Ali, M.A.; Khan, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    To document various clinical presentations and management options of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients attending ophthalmic out patients department (OPD) of a tertiary care centre. This case series was carried out in the Department of Ophthalmology Civil Hospital and, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi and were reviewed from June 2004 to December 2007. Socio-demographic data and clinical features of patients with biopsy proven conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma were recorded and analysed. All patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination by a fellow ophthalmologist and clinical findings were recorded on a prescribed Performa. Data was analysed in terms of frequency, means and median by SPSS for windows V.15. Seventy-two percent of the patients were male and 28% were female, more than 80% of patients were in the age group of seventy years and above. Eighteen percent of patients developed intraocular invasion and the eyes had to be enucleated. CSCC occurs in sun damaged ocular surface usually at limbus, elderly men are more commonly involve, recurrence is a feature of disease and high risk in older individual. In our treatment we used various therapies, excision with clear margin, topical mitomycin C adjunctive cryotherapy and amniotic graft. (author)

  16. Fifteen-minute consultation: assessment, surveillance and management of hemihypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Catherine; Hart, Caroline; McCarthy, Anthony; Thompson, Andrew

    2017-08-26

    This article aims to provide a structured and concise guide for the general paediatrician managing a child with hemihypertrophy. Hemihypertrophy is a relatively uncommon condition. The significance is that a proportion of those affected are at risk of developing malignancies in childhood. For these children regular surveillance is required. We have outlined how one might assess and investigate a child presenting with hemihypertrophy. We have also formulated a practicable surveillance strategy which is in line with the current Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) guideline 'Wilms' tumour surveillance in at-risk children'. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Characterization of fifteen SNP markers by mining EST in sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular mark- ers are powerful tools for conservation and management of natural resources, and for marker-assisted selection in captive populations. In recent years, SNP have rapidly become the markers ... nonredundant (NR) database using BLASTX (http://blast. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi) (cut off E-value of 1.0 × 10.

  18. Fifteen-minute consultation: liver disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jake P; Gallagher, Kathy; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Dhawan, Anil

    2017-11-09

    Liver disease in children can present in many ways from the frequently encountered prolonged neonatal jaundice to the comparatively rare acute liver failure. In this article, we will discuss 'red flags' of liver disease, the initial investigations required and when to refer to a specialist liver centre. Across all presentations, the degree of elevation of alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase provides only little diagnostic information. Measurement of clotting is vital, and coagulopathy should be followed by a trial of intravenous vitamin K before being repeated. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Fifteen years medical information sciences: the Amsterdam curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Monique W.; Fockens, Paul; Ravesloot, Jan H.; Limburg, Martien; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To inform the medical informatics community on the rational, goals, evolution and present contents of the Medical Information Sciences program of the University of Amsterdam and our achievements. Methods: We elaborate on the history of our program, the philosophy, contents and

  20. Chernobyl, fifteen years after; Tchernobyl, 15 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This work has been constituted around four questions: the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor, and the sarcophagus around it; the health consequences of the accident on the persons that have worked on the damaged reactor and on the population in the countries the most exposed to fallout,; the situation of contaminated territories around the power plant and their management today; the last question concerns especially the France with the consequences of the radioactive cloud and what we know about the health risks induced by this event. (N.C.)

  1. Fifteen Years of Democracy, 1999-2014: Reflections on Nigeria's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    A lot of effort has been deployed in attracting foreign investments alongside the reduction of the role of the ..... goals of restructuring the federation and the formulae for passing out oil profits. The key issue of federalism has .... Corruption is still the stock-in-trade of Nigerian democracy, rooted in the centralized, clientelistic ...

  2. Fifteen Fine Years of School Construction Progress, 1950-1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI.

    A progress report reviews the Milwaukee School Board's continuous program of acquiring sites and building schools. An itemized listing of 140 completed construction projects is supplemented with pertinent facts and figures, including--(1) growth factors affecting school building needs, (2) resultant increases in the physical plant, staff and…

  3. Global Metabolic Responses to Salt Stress in Fifteen Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévin, Daniel C; Stählin, Jacqueline N; Pollak, Georg R; Kuehne, Andreas; Sauer, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Cells constantly adapt to unpredictably changing extracellular solute concentrations. A cornerstone of the cellular osmotic stress response is the metabolic supply of energy and building blocks to mount appropriate defenses. Yet, the extent to which osmotic stress impinges on the metabolic network remains largely unknown. Moreover, it is mostly unclear which, if any, of the metabolic responses to osmotic stress are conserved among diverse organisms or confined to particular groups of species. Here we investigate the global metabolic responses of twelve bacteria, two yeasts and two human cell lines exposed to sustained hyperosmotic salt stress by measuring semiquantitative levels of hundreds of cellular metabolites using nontargeted metabolomics. Beyond the accumulation of osmoprotectants, we observed significant changes of numerous metabolites in all species. Global metabolic responses were predominantly species-specific, yet individual metabolites were characteristically affected depending on species' taxonomy, natural habitat, envelope structure or salt tolerance. Exploiting the breadth of our dataset, the correlation of individual metabolite response magnitudes across all species implicated lower glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, branched-chain amino acid metabolism and heme biosynthesis to be generally important for salt tolerance. Thus, our findings place the global metabolic salt stress response into a phylogenetic context and provide insights into the cellular phenotype associated with salt tolerance.

  4. Performance and experience of DRP-SSD-fifteen year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odedra, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Radiotherapy plays a major role in the treatment of cancer and in developing countries like India, telecobalt units are widely used in rural radiotherapy centers. The measurement of output of these types of telecobalt unit using secondary standard dosimeter is an important duty of medical physicist. There are many sophisticated and costly imported dosimeters like farmer dosimeter and uni dose dosimeter available in the market for the calibration of teletherapy unit. But rural radiotherapy centres can't afford costly imported dosimeters and so output measurements are carried out using cheaper Indian made dosimeters like Control Dynamic Dosimeter (CD- High tech.) or DRP-SSD

  5. Fifteen Years Evaluation Of Haematocrit Values In Clients Accepting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study retrospectively evaluated the haematocrit values of clients accepting female sterilization over a 15year period in Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Between January 1985 and December 1999, 2986 female sterilizations, through minilaparotomy, were performed. The mean (± SD) age ...

  6. Fifteen years of Superfund at South Valley: Reengineering required

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, J.; Horak, F.

    1995-01-01

    It is no surprise to many of Superfund's practitioners that the law and its application are flawed. The South Valley Superfund Site in Albuquerque, New Mexico has not escaped Superfund's problems. The problems and issues arising out of the South Valley Superfund site have spurred the desire to seek a better way to administer and manage cleanup. This new method applies organizational and role changes that bring Superfund closer to an efficient business-like entity. This ''Reengineered'' Superfund strives for reorganization, contractor reduction, improved communication, reporting reduction, and teaming. In addition, modifications are made to the roles of regulators, potentially responsible parties (PRPs), and the public. Today the site encompasses roughly one square mile in area, includes six identified contaminant sources, and deals with solvent and petroleum by-product contamination

  7. Improving Learning and Reducing Costs: Fifteen Years of Course Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing that tuition increases can no longer be used as a safety valve to avoid dealing with the underlying issues of why costs increase so much, campuses have begun the hard work of cost containment. After sharpening priorities, sometimes making tough choices in light of those priorities, campuses are still groping for ways to wrestle costs…

  8. The neural components of empathy: Predicting daily prosocial behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameson, Lian T.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies on empathy have not clearly identified neural systems that support the three components of empathy: affective congruence, perspective-taking, and prosocial motivation. These limitations stem from a focus on a single emotion per study, minimal variation in amount of social context provided, and lack of prosocial motivation assessment. In the current investigation, 32 participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session assessing empathic responses to individuals experiencing painful, anxious, and happy events that varied in valence and amount of social context provided. They also completed a 14-day experience sampling survey that assessed real-world helping behaviors. The results demonstrate that empathy for positive and negative emotions selectively activates regions associated with positive and negative affect, respectively. In addition, the mirror system was more active during empathy for context-independent events (pain), whereas the mentalizing system was more active during empathy for context-dependent events (anxiety, happiness). Finally, the septal area, previously linked to prosocial motivation, was the only region that was commonly activated across empathy for pain, anxiety, and happiness. Septal activity during each of these empathic experiences was predictive of daily helping. These findings suggest that empathy has multiple input pathways, produces affect-congruent activations, and results in septally mediated prosocial motivation. PMID:22887480

  9. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine; Vatrapu, Ravi; Hussain, Abid

    2017-01-01

    In this research in progress-paper, we introduce the notion of ‘Electronic Word of Behavior’ (eWOB) to describe the phenomenon of consumers’ product-related behaviors increasingly made observable by online social environments. We employ Observational Learning theory to conceptualize the notion of e......WOB and generate hypotheses about how consumers influence each other by means of behavior in online social environments. We present a conceptual framework for categorizing eWOB, and propose a novel research design for a randomized controlled field experiment. Specifically, the ongoing experiment aims to analyze...... how the presence of individual-specific behavior-based social information in a movie streaming service affects potential users’ attitude towards and intentions to use the service....

  10. Deliberate Self Harm Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Gul Helvaci Celik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The deliberate self-harm behaviour which defined as attempting to own body resulting in tisue damage without conscious desire of peolple to die, is a major public health problem worldwide. The causes of deliberate self- harm, risk factors, the relationship between mental disorders and treatment strategies are not fully known. Deliberate self- harm can be observed together with psychiatric disorders such as borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, eating disorders and mood disorders. Also, deliberate self-harm must be distinguished from suicidal behavior. Psychologi-cal trauma has been suggested as a risk factor for deliberate self- harm behavior. Trauma and traumatic events have long been associated with deliberate self- harm behavior. The aim of this review article is to investigate the etiology and epidemiology of deliberate self-harm behaviour and relationship between psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 209-226

  11. Behavioral contagion in sibships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Jones, M B

    1992-04-01

    A behavior is "contagious" if one person is more likely to exhibit it when a relevant other person has already done so. In this sense, behavioral contagion is commonly thought to contribute to many social problems, such as drug abuse and teenage promiscuity. In this paper we focus on behavioral contagion in sibships. Borrowing a model from the theory of contagious diseases, we show that contagion will cause prevalence to increase with sibship size. This model also allows us to estimate the magnitude of the contagious factor relative to non-contagious factors. Finally, we develop two statistical tests for the presence of contagion. Results are presented for participation in a skill-development program and four child-psychiatric conditions: neurosis, hyperactivity, somatization, and conduct disorder. Evidence is presented that program participation is probably contagious and conduct disorder possibly so. The other three child-psychiatric conditions are shown not to be contagious. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  12. Behavioral Economics of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade knowledge about human behavior from psychology and sociology has enhanced the field of economics of education. By now research recognizes cognitive skills (as measured by achivement tests) as equally important drivers of later economic outcomes, and skills are seen as multi......-dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how...... approaches from behavioral economics help our understanding of the complexity of educational investments and outcomes, and we discuss what insights can be gained from such concepts in the context of education....

  13. Suicidal Behavior among Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino, Glorisa; Roberts, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the scientific literature related to suicidal behavior among Latino youth. Discusses the conceptualizations of culture, and how culture may influence behavior and psychopathology, in particular, suicidal behavior. Reviews the literature that discusses rates of suicidal behavior, risk, and protective factors associated with this behavior…

  14. Staff Definitions of Challenging Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgie, Sarah; Hastings, Richard P.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty staff working with adults with mental retardation rated potentially challenging behaviors in terms of: (1) whether they thought the behaviors were challenging, and (2) whether the behaviors should be the focus of intervention. Results found that staff were less likely to identify as challenging those behaviors having negative effects on…

  15. Information-Seeking Behaviors of Dental Practitioners in Three Practice-Based Research Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botello-Harbaum, Maria T.; Demko, Catherine A.; Curro, Frederick A.; Rindal, D. Brad; Collie, Damon; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Hilton, Thomas J.; Craig, Ronald G.; Wu, Juliann; Funkhouser, Ellen; Lehman, Maryann; McBride, Ruth; Thompson, Van; Lindblad, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research on the information-seeking behaviors of dental practitioners is scarce. Knowledge of dentists’ information-seeking behaviors should advance the translational gap between clinical dental research and dental practice. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the self-reported information-seeking behaviors of dentists in three dental practice-based research networks (PBRNs). A total of 950 dentists (65 percent response rate) completed the survey. Dental journals and continuing dental education (CDE) sources used and their influence on practice guidance were assessed. PBRN participation level and years since dental degree were measured. Full-participant dentists reported reading the Journal of the American Dental Association and General Dentistry more frequently than did their reference counterparts. Printed journals were preferred by most dentists. A lower proportion of full participants obtained their CDE credits at dental meetings compared to partial participants. Experienced dentists read other dental information sources more frequently than did less experienced dentists. Practitioners involved in a PBRN differed in their approaches to accessing information sources. Peer-reviewed sources were more frequently used by full participants and dentists with fifteen years of experience or more. Dental PBRNs potentially play a significant role in the dissemination of evidence-based information. This study found that specific educational sources might increase and disseminate knowledge among dentists. PMID:23382524

  16. The Effect of Multidimensional Motivation Interventions on Cognitive and Behavioral Components of Motivation: Testing Martin's Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh PooraghaRoodbarde

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed at examining the effect of multidimensional motivation interventions based on Martin's model on cognitive and behavioral components of motivation.Methods: The research design was prospective with pretest, posttest, and follow-up, and 2 experimental groups. In this study, 90 students (45 participants in the experimental group and 45 in the control group constituted the sample of the study, and they were selected by available sampling method. Motivation interventions were implemented for fifteen 60-minute sessions 3 times a week, which lasted for about 2 months. Data were analyzed using repeated measures multivariate variance analysis test.Results: The findings revealed that multidimensional motivation interventions resulted in a significant increase in the scores of cognitive components such as self-efficacy, mastery goal, test anxiety, and feeling of lack of control, and behavioral components such as task management. The results of one-month follow-up indicated the stability of the created changes in test anxiety and cognitive strategies; however, no significant difference was found between the 2 groups at the follow-up in self-efficacy, mastery goals, source of control, and motivation.Conclusions: The research evidence indicated that academic motivation is a multidimensional component and is affected by cognitive and behavioral factors; therefore, researchers, teachers, and other authorities should attend to these factors to increase academic motivation.

  17. The Effect of Multidimensional Motivation Interventions on Cognitive and Behavioral Components of Motivation: Testing Martin's Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooragha Roodbarde, Fatemeh; Talepasand, Siavash; Rahimian Boogar, Issac

    2017-04-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at examining the effect of multidimensional motivation interventions based on Martin's model on cognitive and behavioral components of motivation. Method: The research design was prospective with pretest, posttest, and follow-up, and 2 experimental groups. In this study, 90 students (45 participants in the experimental group and 45 in the control group) constituted the sample of the study, and they were selected by available sampling method. Motivation interventions were implemented for fifteen 60-minute sessions 3 times a week, which lasted for about 2 months. Data were analyzed using repeated measures multivariate variance analysis test. Results: The findings revealed that multidimensional motivation interventions resulted in a significant increase in the scores of cognitive components such as self-efficacy, mastery goal, test anxiety, and feeling of lack of control, and behavioral components such as task management. The results of one-month follow-up indicated the stability of the created changes in test anxiety and cognitive strategies; however, no significant difference was found between the 2 groups at the follow-up in self-efficacy, mastery goals, source of control, and motivation. Conclusion: The research evidence indicated that academic motivation is a multidimensional component and is affected by cognitive and behavioral factors; therefore, researchers, teachers, and other authorities should attend to these factors to increase academic motivation.

  18. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    that recent years have seen a social media-facilitated move from opinion-centric eWOM (e.g. reviews) to behavior-centric (e.g. information about friends’ music consumption on Spotify). A review of the concepts of WOM and eWOM and a netnographic study reveal that the current definitions and understandings...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  19. Behavioral Nutraceuticals and Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Jillian M

    2018-05-01

    Behavioral problems of companion animals are becoming more widely recognized. As a result, there are a growing number of behavioral nutraceuticals and diets on the market. These products may be useful for the treatment of mild conditions, for clients who are hesitant to give their pet a psychopharmacologic agent, or sometimes in conjunction with psychopharmacologic agents. Veterinarians should critically review the research associated with nutraceuticals and diets, and have an understanding of the functional ingredients and their mechanisms of action before prescribing treatment. This article provides an overview of nutraceuticals, their mechanisms of action, and relevant research regarding their use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Data Sources for Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-06

    D t S fa a ources or Human Behavior Elizabeth Mezzacappa, Ph.D. & Kenneth Short, Ph.D. Target Behavioral Response Laboratory/Stress and Motivated...to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Data Sources for Human Behavior Presented at the Focus 2010 Human Social Cultural Behavioral Conference...understanding human behavior for M&S efforts. This presentation falls under the presentation top are of "Socio-cultural data acquisition, extraction

  1. Epartners supporting behavior change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, W.; Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Keulen, H. van; Janssen, J.B.; Nunen, A. van

    2013-01-01

    The present report focuses on developing a comprehensive framework that guides the design of ePartners that support behavior change to promote health. An ePartner is an interactive, virtual or embodied computer assistant to which one can communicate and that assists persons through tailored advice,

  2. Behavioral approach to leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccolo, R.F.; Buengeler, C.; Griffin, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    After several decades of leadership research that attempted to identify the specific and unique traits characteristic of those in supervisory positions, academic research shifted to pursue the patterns of behavior exhibited by those who were influential in and around positions of formal leadership.

  3. Does Measurement Influence Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    not access in their memory or that they otherwise would not form. Second, higher relative accessibility of intentions, compared with other inputs for purchase decisions may make subsequent purchase behavior more consistent with prior intentions. A couple of studies provide support of the self...

  4. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome...

  5. Factorization of Behavioral Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ximeng; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2015-01-01

    We develop a bisimulation-based nonintereference property that describes the allowed dependencies between communication behaviors of different integrity levels. The property is able to capture all possible combinations of integrity levels for the “presence” and “content” of actual communications...

  6. Analysis of Malware behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirscoveanu, Radu-Stefan; Hansen, Steven Strandlund; Larsen, Thor Mark Tampus

    2015-01-01

    and automatized manner. We have developed a distributed malware testing environment by extending Cuckoo Sandbox that was used to test an extensive number of malware samples and trace their behavioral data. The extracted data was used for the development of a novel type classification approach based on supervised...

  7. Behavioral Econometrics for Psychologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    for a wide range of behavioral models of choice under uncertainty. We explain the components of this methodology, and illustrate with applications to major models from psychology. The goal is to build, and traverse, a constructive bridge between the modeling insights of psychology and the statistical tools...

  8. Socialization of prosocial behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kok, Rianne; Prinzie, Peter; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2018-01-01

    Evidence has been accumulating for the impact of normal variation in caregiving quality on brain morphology in children, but the question remains whether differences in brain volume related to early caregiving translate to behavioral implications. In this longitudinal population-based study (N = ...

  9. On Storekeepers' Pricing Behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bode (Ben); J. Koerts (Johan); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis research note deals with a quantitative analysis of differences in percentage gross margin between individual stores in the retail trade. A number of hypotheses on pricing behavior of storekeepers are tested using Dutch survey data from nine different types of retail stores. We

  10. Normal Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... times of illness (of a parent or a child) or stress (a move, for instance, or the birth of a new sibling). These kinds of behavior might include not doing chores, ... well-being of the child, the family members, and others. They may interfere ...

  11. Networks and Economic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew O. Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Recent analyses of social networks, both empirical and theoretical, are discussed, with a focus on how social networks influence economic behavior, as well as how social networks form. Some challenges of such research are discussed as are some of the important considerations for the future.

  12. Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5yrs Grade School 5-12yrs. Teen 12-18yrs. Young Adult 18-21yrs. Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living ... oppositional behaviors at times. Oppositional defiant disorder is defined in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical ...

  13. Prosocial behavior and gender

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Espinosa, M. P.; Kovářík, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, April/Article Number 88 (2015), s. 1-9 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22044S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : gender * prosocial behavior * treatment effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 3.392, year: 2015

  14. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  15. ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Amirullah

    2017-01-01

    Hasil penelitian yang telah dilakukan oleh para peneliti tentang organizational citizenship behavior menunjukkan bahwa perilaku sangat penting bagi efektifitas organisasi. Namun masih sedikit penjelasan teoritis tentang bagaimana perilaku tersebut memberikan kontribusi dalam meningkatkan fungsi organisasi. Nahapiet dan Ghoshal (1998) menyatakan bahwa social capital dari perusahaan merupakan sumber keunggulan organisasi yang sangat vital (organizational advantage). Berdasarkan hasil kajian me...

  16. Behavioral Screening for Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has been in use for decades; however, only in the past 20 years has this become a standard practice in toxicology. Current screening batteries, such as the functional observational battery (FOB), are derived from protocols use...

  17. Organic consumption behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Shuili; Bartels, Jos; Reinders, Machiel; Sen, Sankar

    2017-01-01

    Consumer demand for organic food and non-food products has been growing dramatically. This study examines organic consumption behavior from a social identification perspective. Focusing on the central role of organic consumer identification (OCI), or the extent to which individuals categorize

  18. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Irrational Human Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Şener

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neo Classical economists used to posit that, since consumers are rational, they make decisions to maximize their pleasure (utility. Opposing to Neo Classical understanding, Behavioral Economists argue that, consumers are infect not rational, but prone to all sort of biases and habits that pull them being rational. For instance, there are too many irrational choices made by the Turkish consumers like; expensive wedding parties given by low income families; although riding bicycle is healthy and cheap, but people buy expensive cars; it is cheaper staying at a hotel or a timeshare, however people buy expensive summer houses, where they stayed only few weeks a year. These type of irrational behaviors adversely affect the decisions on savings, investments and economic growth. On the consumers irrationality, Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics, wrote Prospect Theory. They developed a cognitive psychological model to explain divergences from neoclassical economics. They claimed that people take decisions under psychological, social, emotional and economic factors that affect market prices and resource allocation. In order to explain the irrational behaviors of Turkish consumers, I utilized some concepts such as conspicuous consumption (or keeping up with Johns, Veblen Effect, Bandwagon Effect, bounded rationality, 20 to 80 Law and ethical considerations developed by Behavioral Economists and Heterodox Economics. Thus, I came to conclusion that why the free market economic understanding fails in Turkey by giving some examples and economic reasons stated in the last section of this paper.

  20. Behavioral management of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The behavioral management of obesity is an approach designed to provide individuals with a set of skills that promote a healthier weight. A number of strategies are used to assist individuals in making gradual changes that can realistically be incorporated into their lives. Evidence is promising f...

  1. Synthesizing Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Steven

    The old argument of humanism versus behaviorism is slowly being replaced by a synthesis of these two foundations of thought. This slow professional recognition of synthesis is due to three basic shortcomings in the professional community rather than extreme differences in ideological thought. They are: (1) psychological terminology being equated…

  2. Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapacs, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Teaching strategies that work for typically developing children often do not work for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. However, teaching strategies that work for children with autism do work for typically developing children. In this article, the author explains how the principles and concepts of Applied Behavior Analysis can be…

  3. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome,...

  4. Testing abstract behavioral specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.Y.H. Wong; R. Bubel (Richard); F.S. de Boer (Frank); C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); M. Gómez-Zamalloa; R Haehnle; K. Meinke; M.A. Sindhu

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present a range of testing techniques for the Abstract Behavioral Specification (ABS) language and apply them to an industrial case study. ABS is a formal modeling language for highly variable, concurrent, component-based systems. The nature of these systems makes them susceptible to

  5. Behavioral learning equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Zhu, M.

    2014-01-01

    We propose behavioral learning equilibria, where boundedly rational agents learn to use a simple univariate linear forecasting rule with correctly specified unconditional mean and first-order autocorrelation. In the long run, agents learn the best univariate linear forecasting rule, without fully

  6. Markups and Exporting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2012-01-01

    estimates of plant- level markups without specifying how firms compete in the product market. We rely on our method to explore the relationship be- tween markups and export behavior. We find that markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity; that exporters charge......, on average, higher markups and that markups increase upon export entry....

  7. Improving Student Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Pamela; Gilbert, Janice T.

    This report describes a program for improving the behavior of seventh and eighth grade students with learning disabilities in a self-contained classroom setting. Analysis of probable causes revealed that students demonstrated a lack of problem-solving skills, showed a low frustration tolerance, and exhibited poor self-concepts. Two major…

  8. Prevalence of hypersexual behavior in Parkinson’s disease patients: Not restricted to males and dopamine agonist use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A Cooper

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Christine A Cooper, Armon Jadidian, Michelle Paggi, Janet Romrell, Michael S Okun, et alDepartment of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: This study investigates the prevalence and demographic characteristics of hypersexuality in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Impulse control disorders in PD patients have been associated with dopamine agonist therapy. Moreover, hypersexuality and pathological gambling have been associated with males, while females may be inherently thought to be more likely to participate in compulsive shopping and binge-eating behaviors. In this study, a screening mail-in survey was sent to all PD patients at a single Movement Disorders Center. One  hundred forty one of 400 (35.3% research packets were returned completed. Fifteen of 141 patients met initial screening criteria for hypersexual behavior. After detailed interview, only 6/141 (4.3% of PD patients met criteria for pathologic hypersexual behavior. These behaviors included: compulsive masturbation, prostitution, and paraphilias. Patients with a younger age of PD onset were more likely to exhibit hypersexual behavior. Unlike previous report, no significant association was found between hypersexuality and gender or dopamine agonist use. Rather, this study suggests that physicians should be vigilant for hypersexual behavior in all PD patients, regardless of gender and PD medication regimen. Ultimately, given the innate sensitivity of the topic and survey limitations, it is very likely that hypersexual behavior in our cohort, as it is in the general PD population, has been under-reported.Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, hypersexuality, impulsive behavior, dopamine agonists

  9. Multivariate temporal pattern analysis applied to the study of rat behavior in the elevated plus maze: methodological and conceptual highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, M; Magnusson, M S; Roy, V; Arabo, A; Sorbera, F; Santangelo, A; Faulisi, F; Crescimanno, G

    2014-08-30

    Aim of this article is to illustrate the application of a multivariate approach known as t-pattern analysis in the study of rat behavior in elevated plus maze. By means of this multivariate approach, significant relationships among behavioral events in the course of time can be described. Both quantitative and t-pattern analyses were utilized to analyze data obtained from fifteen male Wistar rats following a trial 1-trial 2 protocol. In trial 2, in comparison with the initial exposure, mean occurrences of behavioral elements performed in protected zones of the maze showed a significant increase counterbalanced by a significant decrease of mean occurrences of behavioral elements in unprotected zones. Multivariate t-pattern analysis, in trial 1, revealed the presence of 134 t-patterns of different composition. In trial 2, the temporal structure of behavior become more simple, being present only 32 different t-patterns. Behavioral strings and stripes (i.e. graphical representation of each t-pattern onset) of all t-patterns were presented both for trial 1 and trial 2 as well. Finally, percent distributions in the three zones of the maze show a clear-cut increase of t-patterns in closed arm and a significant reduction in the remaining zones. Results show that previous experience deeply modifies the temporal structure of rat behavior in the elevated plus maze. In addition, this article, by highlighting several conceptual, methodological and illustrative aspects on the utilization of t-pattern analysis, could represent a useful background to employ such a refined approach in the study of rat behavior in elevated plus maze. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards accurate emergency response behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T.O.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear reactor operator emergency response behavior has persisted as a training problem through lack of information. The industry needs an accurate definition of operator behavior in adverse stress conditions, and training methods which will produce the desired behavior. Newly assembled information from fifty years of research into human behavior in both high and low stress provides a more accurate definition of appropriate operator response, and supports training methods which will produce the needed control room behavior. The research indicates that operator response in emergencies is divided into two modes, conditioned behavior and knowledge based behavior. Methods which assure accurate conditioned behavior, and provide for the recovery of knowledge based behavior, are described in detail

  11. Behaviorism, private events, and the molar view of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2011-01-01

    Viewing the science of behavior (behavior analysis) to be a natural science, radical behaviorism rejects any form of dualism, including subjective-objective or inner-outer dualism. Yet radical behaviorists often claim that treating private events as covert behavior and internal stimuli is necessary and important to behavior analysis. To the contrary, this paper argues that, compared with the rejection of dualism, private events constitute a trivial idea and are irrelevant to accounts of behavior. Viewed in the framework of evolutionary theory or for any practical purpose, behavior is commerce with the environment. By its very nature, behavior is extended in time. The temptation to posit private events arises when an activity is viewed in too small a time frame, obscuring what the activity does. When activities are viewed in an appropriately extended time frame, private events become irrelevant to the account. This insight provides the answer to many philosophical questions about thinking, sensing, and feeling. Confusion about private events arises in large part from failure to appreciate fully the radical implications of replacing mentalistic ideas about language with the concept of verbal behavior. Like other operant behavior, verbal behavior involves no agent and no hidden causes; like all natural events, it is caused by other natural events. In a science of behavior grounded in evolutionary theory, the same set of principles applies to verbal and nonverbal behavior and to human and nonhuman organisms.

  12. Behaviorism, Private Events, and the Molar View of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2011-01-01

    Viewing the science of behavior (behavior analysis) to be a natural science, radical behaviorism rejects any form of dualism, including subjective–objective or inner–outer dualism. Yet radical behaviorists often claim that treating private events as covert behavior and internal stimuli is necessary and important to behavior analysis. To the contrary, this paper argues that, compared with the rejection of dualism, private events constitute a trivial idea and are irrelevant to accounts of behavior. Viewed in the framework of evolutionary theory or for any practical purpose, behavior is commerce with the environment. By its very nature, behavior is extended in time. The temptation to posit private events arises when an activity is viewed in too small a time frame, obscuring what the activity does. When activities are viewed in an appropriately extended time frame, private events become irrelevant to the account. This insight provides the answer to many philosophical questions about thinking, sensing, and feeling. Confusion about private events arises in large part from failure to appreciate fully the radical implications of replacing mentalistic ideas about language with the concept of verbal behavior. Like other operant behavior, verbal behavior involves no agent and no hidden causes; like all natural events, it is caused by other natural events. In a science of behavior grounded in evolutionary theory, the same set of principles applies to verbal and nonverbal behavior and to human and nonhuman organisms. PMID:22532740

  13. Sleep Duration, Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, and Quality of Life after Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeugwu, Victor E; Manns, Patricia J

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe accelerometer-derived sleep duration, sedentary behavior, physical activity, and quality of life and their association with demographic and clinical factors within the first month after inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Thirty people with stroke (mean ± standard deviation, age: 63.8 ± 12.3 years, time since stroke: 3.6 ± 1.1 months) wore an activPAL3 Micro accelerometer (PAL Technologies, Glasgow, Scotland) continuously for 7 days to measure whole-day activity behavior. The Stroke Impact Scale and the Functional Independence Measure were used to assess quality of life and function, respectively. Sleep duration ranged from 6.6 to 11.6 hours/day. Fifteen participants engaged in long sleep greater than 9 hours/day. Participants spent 74.8% of waking hours in sedentary behavior, 17.9% standing, and 7.3% stepping. Of stepping time, only a median of 1.1 (interquartile range: .3-5.8) minutes were spent walking at a moderate-to-vigorous intensity (≥100 steps/minute). The time spent sedentary, the stepping time, and the number of steps differed significantly by the hemiparetic side (P stroke. There were moderate to strong correlations between the stepping time and the number of steps with gait speed (Spearman r = .49 and .61 respectively, P stroke, and cognition were not significant. People with stroke sleep for longer than the normal duration, spend about three quarters of their waking hours in sedentary behaviors, and engage in minimal walking following stroke rehabilitation. Our findings provide a rationale for the development of behavior change strategies after stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andrew; Doss, Brian D

    2017-02-01

    Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT) is based in part on traditional behavioral couple therapy but expands both the conceptualization of couple distress and of intervention. The efficacy of IBCT has been supported in three clinical trials, including one with five year follow-up. Additionally, the effectiveness of IBCT in the real world has been supported through a system-wide dissemination effort in the United States Department of Veteran's Affairs. The reach of IBCT has also been extended through an online program, www.OurRelationship.com, based on IBCT. A nationwide clinical trial with a representative sample of the US population demonstrated the effectiveness of this program on both relationship and individual variables.

  15. Metacognition in addictive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Wells, Adrian

    2015-05-01

    Over the last twenty years metacognitive theory has provided a novel framework, in the form of the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model, for conceptualizing psychological distress (Wells & Matthews, 1994, 1996). The S-REF model proposes that psychological distress persists because of unhelpful coping styles (e.g. extended thinking and thought suppression) which are activated and maintained as a result of metacognitive beliefs. This paper describes the S-REF model and its application to addictive behaviors using a triphasic metacognitive formulation. Evidence on the components of the triphasic metacognitive formulation is reviewed and the clinical implications for applying metacognitive therapy to addictive behaviors outlined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Behavioral economics: a tutorial for behavior analysts in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Derek D; Niileksela, Christopher R; Kaplan, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research is provided.

  17. Heightened D3 Dopamine Receptor Levels in Cocaine Dependence and Contributions to the Addiction Behavioral Phenotype: A Positron Emission Tomography Study with [11C]-(+)-PHNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Doris E; Behzadi, Arian; Kish, Stephen J; Houle, Sylvain; Wilson, Alan A; Rusjan, Pablo M; Tong, Junchao; Selby, Peter; George, Tony P; McCluskey, Tina; Boileau, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine system is a primary treatment target for cocaine dependence (CD), but research on dopaminergic abnormalities (eg, D2 receptor system deficiencies) has so far failed to translate into effective treatment strategies. The D3 receptor system has recently attracted considerable clinical interest, and D3 antagonism is now under investigation as a novel avenue for addiction treatment. The objective here was to evaluate the status and behavioral relevance of the D3 receptor system in CD, using the positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer [11C]-(+)-PHNO. Fifteen CD subjects (many actively using, but all abstinent 7–240 days on scan day) and fifteen matched healthy control (HC) subjects completed two PET scans: one with [11C]-(+)-PHNO to assess D3 receptor binding (BPND; calculated regionally using the simplified reference tissue model), and for comparison, a second scan with [11C]raclopride to assess D2/3 binding. CD subjects also completed a behavioral battery to characterize the addiction behavioral phenotype. CD subjects showed higher [11C]-(+)-PHNO BPND than HC in the substantia nigra, which correlated with behavioral impulsiveness and risky decision making. In contrast, [11C]raclopride BPND was lower across the striatum in CD, consistent with previous literature in ⩾2 week abstinence. The data suggest that in contrast to a D2 deficiency, CD individuals may have heightened D3 receptor levels, which could contribute to addiction-relevant traits. D3 upregulation is emerging as a biomarker in preclinical models of addiction, and human PET studies of this receptor system can help guide novel pharmacological strategies for treatment. PMID:23921256

  18. Corruption and firm behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Sequeira; Simeon Djankov

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how corruption affects firrm behavior. Firms can engage in two types of corruption when seeking a public service: cost-reducing "collusive" corruption and cost increasing "coercive" corruption. Using an original and unusually rich dataset on bribe payments at ports matched to firrm-level data, we observe how firms respond to each type of corruption by adjusting their shipping and sourcing strategies. "Collusive" corruption is associated with higher usage of the corrupt...

  19. Organizational culture & employee behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tianya

    2015-01-01

    Organizations are among the key units of the society. During their establishment and development, a specific kind of organizational culture eventually appears. The purpose of organizational culture is to improve solidarity and cohesion, and to stimulate employees' enthusiasm and creativity to improve the organization’s economic efficiency. In addition, organizational culture greatly influences employee behavior. The aim of this study is to find out how organizational culture affects employ...

  20. Radiation behavior of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, R.M.; Raymond, E.L.

    1979-01-01

    High energy neutron irradiations have been performed on Nb 3 Sn superconductors to assess their behavior in a fusion reactor environment. Irradiations were performed at 4.2 K and property measurements were made without warming the samples. The critical current I/sub c/ increased with irradiation to a level about 50% above the unirradiated value at the highest fluences reached in our experiments. These results are compared with the results of other low temperature irradiations of Nb 3 Sn

  1. Behaviorism: Dead or Alive?

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKEL, Nazım

    2017-01-01

    Behaviorism, both as a psychological research program and a philosophical doctrine, was once a very popular and promising theory, the extension of which had a great impact on various fields such as socio-political theory and education. Both behaviorist movements actually shared something in common, which is to bring the downfall of the Cartesian metaphysics, in which the mental is understood as something essentially private and subjective. In this work, first I will briefly go over the genera...

  2. Behavioral Learning Equilibria

    OpenAIRE

    Hommes, Cars; Zhu, Mei

    2013-01-01

    This discussion paper led to an article in 'Journal of Economic Theory' (2014). Volume 150, pp. 778-814. We propose behavioral learning equilibria as a plausible explanation of coordination of individual expectations and aggregate phenomena such as excess volatility in stock prices and high persistence in inflation. Boundedly rational agents use a simple univariate linear forecasting rule and correctly forecast the unconditional sample mean and first-order sample autocorrelation. In the long ...

  3. Schizophrenia and violent behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Valença, Alexandre Martins; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Nascimento, Isabella; Moraes, Talvane de; Mendlowicz, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report the case of a woman who killed a child. After a forensic psychiatric appraisal to evaluate penal responsibility, she was considered not guilty by reason of insanity and mandatorily committed to the central forensic psychiatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patient received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, based on DSM-IV-TR. She was not in psychiatric treatment and showed psychotic symptoms before the violent behavior became mani...

  4. Effects of environmental enrichment and paradoxical sleep deprivation on open-field behavior of amphetamine-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushiro, Daniela Fukue; Calzavara, Mariana Bendlin; Trombin, Thaís Fernanda; Lopez, Giorgia Batlle; Abílio, Vanessa Costhek; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2007-11-23

    Environmental enrichment or paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) has been shown to modify some responses elicited by drugs of abuse. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of environmental enrichment and PSD, conducted separately or in association, on open-field behavior elicited by amphetamine (AMP) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to live in either an enriched environmental condition (EC) or a standard environmental condition (SC) for 12 months since weaning. Some of the EC and SC mice were sleep deprived for 48 h, while others were maintained in their home-cages. Immediately after PSD or home-cage stay, the animals received an ip injection of saline, 2.5 mg/kg AMP or 5.0 mg/kg AMP. Fifteen minutes later, their open-field behavior was quantified. Whereas PSD enhanced total and peripheral locomotor activity of acutely AMP-treated mice, environmental enrichment presented only a trend toward enhancement. When PSD and environmental enrichment were combined, an increase in the total and peripheral locomotion frequencies of AMP-treated animals, similar to that observed after PSD, was revealed. In addition, PSD, environmental enrichment or their combination did not modify the effects of AMP on the other open-field behavioral parameters that were analyzed. The present findings demonstrate that some (but not all) of the behavioral effects caused by AMP acute administration can be similarly and specifically enhanced by both environmental enrichment and PSD in C57BL/6 mice.

  5. Predictors of Health Behavior from a Behavior-Analytic Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkimer, John C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discovers a high correlation between positive emotional states, supportive self talk, and specific healthy behaviors in college students. The correlated health behaviors were vigorous exercise, mild exercise, seat belts, and avoidance of alcohol and junk food. Considers the impact of negative self talk on the avoidance of negative behavior. (MJP)

  6. Shady strategic behavior : Recognizing strategic behavior of Dark Triad followers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Birgit; Wisse, Barbara; Sanders, Stacey

    2018-01-01

    The importance of strategic behavior in organizations has long been recognized. However, so far the literature has primarily focused on leaders’ strategic behavior, largely ignoring followers’ strategic behavior. In the present paper, we take a follower trait perspective to strategic follower

  7. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis: A Familial Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Glen; Carr, Edward G.; Horner, Robert H.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schwartz, Ilene

    2008-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) emerged in the mid-1980s as an approach for understanding and addressing problem behaviors. PBS was derived primarily from applied behavior analysis (ABA). Over time, however, PBS research and practice has incorporated evaluative methods, assessment and intervention procedures, and conceptual perspectives associated…

  8. Electricity curtailment behaviors in Greek households: Different behaviors, different predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botetzagias, Iosif; Malesios, Chrisovaladis; Poulou, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the self-reported energy (electricity) curtailment behaviors of Greek households (N=285). • We find that the curtailment behaviors are distinct and should be studied/analyzed separately. • ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ are statistically significant predictors of most behaviors. • The demographic/structural and the psychological predictors contribute significantly explain the variance of the behaviors. • The cluster of moral predictors does not contribute statistically significantly to the explained variance. - Abstract: This paper argues that electricity ‘curtailment’ behaviors (i.e. frequent and/or low cost or free energy saving behaviors) in households are distinct from one another and they thus should be analyzed and promoted. We test this claim with data from telephone interviews with Greek households in the capital city of Athens (N=285), analyzing the impact of a number of demographical/structural, psychological (based on the Theory of Planned Behavior) and moral (based on norms’ activation) predictors though hierarchical binary logistic regression modeling. We find that that each electricity curtailment behavior depends on a different mix of predictors with ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ being statistically significant for most behaviors. Overall, the psychological and the demographical/structural clusters of variables substantially contribute to the explained variance of electricity curtailment behaviors. The moral cluster's contribution is not statistically significant since moral concerns are largely interwoven in the psychological constructs

  9. Analysis of Health Behavior Theories for Clustering of Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Duffy, Sonia A

    The objective of this article was to review the utility of established behavior theories, including the Health Belief Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Transtheoretical Model, and Health Promotion Model, for addressing multiple health behaviors among people who smoke. It is critical to design future interventions for multiple health behavior changes tailored to individuals who currently smoke, yet it has not been addressed. Five health behavior theories/models were analyzed and critically evaluated. A review of the literature included a search of PubMed and Google Scholar from 2010 to 2016. Two hundred sixty-seven articles (252 studies from the initial search and 15 studies from the references of initially identified studies) were included in the analysis. Most of the health behavior theories/models emphasize psychological and cognitive constructs that can be applied only to one specific behavior at a time, thus making them not suitable to address multiple health behaviors. However, the Health Promotion Model incorporates "related behavior factors" that can explain multiple health behaviors among persons who smoke. Future multiple behavior interventions guided by the Health Promotion Model are necessary to show the utility and applicability of the model to address multiple health behaviors.

  10. The Impact of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" on Organizational Behavior Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric J.; VanStelle, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    In the book "Verbal Behavior," Skinner provided a comprehensive, behavioral account of language. While the impact of Skinner's analysis on empirical research has been examined broadly, this review of the literature focused on studies relevant to organizational behavior management (OBM). Both empirical and nonempirical journal articles in OBM were…

  11. The effects of avoidance coping and coping self-efficacy on eating disorder attitudes and behaviors: a stress-diathesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macneil, Laura; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Mehlenbeck, Robyn; Weismoore, Julie

    2012-12-01

    The present study employed a series of stress-diathesis models to examine whether avoidance coping and poor coping self-efficacy contribute to disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in a sample of college students. The sample included one hundred fifteen undergraduate students (28.7% male; 71.3% female). Participants completed self-report measures to assess daily stressors, coping style, coping self-efficacy, and eating disorder attitudes and behaviors. As predicted, among students with an avoidance coping style, those who reported more daily stressors exhibited higher eating disorder attitudes and behaviors than those with less daily hassles. Contrary to study hypothesis, number of daily hassles did not moderate the association between coping self-efficacy and eating disorder attitudes and behaviors. However, there was a significant main effect for coping self-efficacy, suggesting that students who lack confidence in their coping abilities are more likely to have problematic eating attitudes and behaviors, regardless of their level of daily stress. Clinically, results suggest that students who enter college with an avoidance coping style and poor coping self-efficacy may be at risk for disordered eating, particularly with the onset of associated stress. Teaching students active problem-focused coping skills to deal with daily hassles associated with college life, and providing opportunities for repeated practice to bolster self-efficacy, may help prevent and/or reduce disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Applied Behavior Analysis in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John O.

    1982-01-01

    Applied behavioral analysis in education is expanding rapidly. This article describes the dimensions of applied behavior analysis and the contributions this technology offers teachers in the area of systematic applications, direct and daily measurement, and experimental methodology. (CJ)

  13. Attitude and behavior are correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrigley, Robert L.

    Science attitude scales can be expected to predict science-related behavior. But A-B correspondence can seldom be expected to approach the r value of 1.00. Attitude and behavior covary to the degree that valid measurement and mediating variables are considered: Individual differences of subjects (e.g., high versus low self-monitoring); the social situation (e.g., direct experience); cognitive factors (e.g., attitude accessibility in memory). Attitude and behavior are reciprocal; that is, attitude can follow behavior. Variables other than attitude, e.g., behavioral intention, previous behavior, and habit, may under some conditions better predict behavior. Also, a viable alternative to attitude testing may be direct appraisal of some science classroom behaviors through ethnomethodology.

  14. Challenges in human behavior understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.; Sebe, N.; Vinciarelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in pattern recognition has allowed computer scientists and psychologists to jointly address automatic analysis of of human behavior via computers. The Workshop on Human Behavior Understanding at the International Conference on Pattern Recognition explores a number of different

  15. Learning Channels and Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fan-Yu; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the basics of learning channels and how specification of stimuli can help enhance verbal behavior. This article will define learning channels and the role of the ability matrix in training verbal behavior.

  16. Attachment and coercive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.

  17. Caseworker Behavior and Clients' Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; Markwardt, Kristoffer

    empirically looked at the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ employability. A very rich survey dataset on caseworker behavior combined with informative panel data on the caseworker’s client—the unemployed—makes it possible to study the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ job possibilities....... Results show that there is a relationship between caseworker behavior and employment among the unemployed. Especially the employability among the insured unemployed is related to the concepts of coping, and professional distance....

  18. Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…

  19. The Present State of Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrer, O. Hobart

    1976-01-01

    Assesses the present status of behaviorism by dividing this study into an evaluation of Behaviorism 1, based explicitly on Pavlov's conception of conditioned-response learning, and Behaviorism 11, single-handedly launched and almost completely dominanted by Professor B. F. Skinner. (Author/RK)

  20. Counselors' Perceptions of Ethical Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukrug, Edward S.; Milliken, Tammi

    2011-01-01

    A random sample of American Counseling Association members was asked to respond to a 77-item survey of counselor behaviors and identify whether each behavior was ethical or unethical. Results are categorized by behaviors in which 90% of counselors agreed, 75% to 90% agreed, and 25% to 50% disagreed. Also, changes in ethics education were reviewed…

  1. Behavior Plan, Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Blanca M.; Brown, D.

    2015-01-01

    As educators, we are responsible for teaching academic skills. However, some students not only need to learn academic skills but they need behavior support, due to problematic behaviors that are happening in the school setting. In this article, we will learn more of what are the implications, requirements and best strategies for a behavior plan.…

  2. Behavior Management in Afterschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral management is one of the most challenging aspects of working in an afterschool setting, staff do not typically receive formal training in evidence-based approaches to handling children's behavior problems. Common approaches to behavioral management such as punishment or time-out are temporary solutions because they do not…

  3. Nurses' Spirituality Improves Caring Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Abu; Nursalam; Adriani, Merryana; Kusnanto; Qomariah, Siti Nur; Hidayati, Laily; Pratiwi, Ika Nur; Ni'mah, Lailatun

    2017-01-01

    Caring is a behavior of giving holistic assistance to individuals. In fact, this important behavior still has not routinely performed in current nursing practice. Personality and sipirituality are important factors in forming one's caring behavior. Spirituality is a passion or impulse to perform noble action. The objective of this study was to…

  4. Creativity and the Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ronald D.

    Ways in which behavioral scientists can use both vertical (logical) and lateral (creative-intuitive) thinking to improve their research are discussed. Creativity in the selection of research questions would require that behavioral scientists ask questions whose answers could make a difference to societal and world well-being. Behavioral scientists…

  5. Orthorexia nervosa behavior in a sample of Brazilian dietitians assessed by the Portuguese version of ORTO-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, M S; Martins, M C T; Sato, K S C J; Vargas, S V A; Philippi, S T; Scagliusi, F B

    2012-03-01

    Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is described as an obsessive pathological behavior characterized by a strong preoccupation with healthy eating and the avoidance of foods or ingredients considered unhealthy by the subject. Although it is still not officially recognized as an eating disorder, previous studies have discussed its frequency in some groups and a fifteen-question test (ORTO-15) was developed elsewhere to assess ON behavior. The present study aimed to evaluate ON behavior in a sample of Brazilian dietitians after testing the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of ORTO-15. A total of 392 dietitians answered an online version of the test. The answers were analyzed regarding ON tendency, according with the scoring grid proposed by its authors. Exploratory factor analysis was performed and internal consistency was assessed. It was found that three questions of the test presented loadings lower than 0.5. The 12 remaining question formed 3 factors with internal consistency of -0.51, 0.63 and 0.47. The answers of the participants to these questions revealed a tendency to orthorexic behavior, mainly regarding aspects such as: making food choices conditioned by worry about health status, evaluating food rather from nutritional quality than from its taste, believing that consuming healthy food may improve appearance, discrediting the influence of mood on eating behavior and banning food choices considered by them as eating transgressions. There is no evidence of the validity and reliability of the ORTO-15 with the initial psychometric evaluation performed. Further analyses are needed. Nevertheless, it was possible to observe a high frequency of orthorexic behavior among the studied Brazilian dietitians. However, additional studies are needed to completely understand dietitians behavior toward ON.

  6. Using the theory of planned behavior to predict gambling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart; Nelson, Sarah; Umstattd, M Renee; Laplante, Debi; Perko, Mike; Shaffer, Howard

    2010-03-01

    Gambling is an important public health concern. To better understand gambling behavior, we conducted a classroom-based survey that assessed the role of the theory of planned behavior (TPB; i.e., intentions, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and attitudes) in past-year gambling and gambling frequency among college students. Results from this research support the utility of the TPB to explain gambling behavior in this population. Specifically, in TPB models to predict gambling behavior, friend and family subjective norms and perceived behavioral control predicted past-year gambling, and friend and family subjective norms, attitudes, and perceived behavioral control predicted gambling frequency. Intention to gamble mediated these relationships. These findings suggest that college-based responsible gambling efforts should consider targeting misperceptions of approval regarding gambling behavior (i.e., subjective norms), personal approval of gambling behavior (i.e., attitudes), and perceived behavioral control to better manage gambling behavior in various situations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Entrepreneurial Behavior and Innovative Behavior: A Conceptual Clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taufiq Amir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents one effort to systematize the use of terminology of entrepreneurial behavior and innovative behavior and to clarify how they relate each other. A clearly stated set of relationship and dynamics on these two concepts is necessary for scientific understanding, explanation and prediction. An agreed-upon relationship between entrepreneurial behavior and innovative behavior makes it easier for investigators to build on each other’s work, and for practitioners to decide whether research finding are applicable to them. Author first reviews some of the existing definitions on entrepreneurial behavior and innovative behavior and illustrates how they are mutually explaining and overlapping. Various terms used to describe the phenomena of interest are clarified. Endorsing, refining, and shepherding entrepreneurial opportunities are more related to idea generation phase of innovative behavior. While the other behaviors, identifying, acquiring and deploying resources needed to pursue entrepreneurial opportunities are more related to idea implementation phase of innovative behavior. Using the theory of socio-cognitive approach, pattern recognition and regulatory focus, the study details the discussion and concludes the overlap between entrepreneurial behavior and the innovative behavior.

  8. Basing assessment and treatment of problem behavior on behavioral momentum theory: Analyses of behavioral persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Berg, Wendy K

    2017-08-01

    The connection, or bridge, between applied and basic behavior analysis has been long-established (Hake, 1982; Mace & Critchfield, 2010). In this article, we describe how clinical decisions can be based more directly on behavioral processes and how basing clinical procedures on behavioral processes can lead to improved clinical outcomes. As a case in point, we describe how applied behavior analyses of maintenance, and specifically the long-term maintenance of treatment effects related to problem behavior, can be adjusted and potentially enhanced by basing treatment on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We provide a brief review of the literature including descriptions of two translational studies that proposed changes in how differential reinforcement of alternative behavior treatments are conducted based on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We then describe current clinical examples of how these translations are continuing to impact the definitions, designs, analyses, and treatment procedures used in our clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Theories of information behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Erdelez, Sandra; McKechnie, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This unique book presents authoritative overviews of more than 70 conceptual frameworks for understanding how people seek, manage, share, and use information in different contexts. A practical and readable reference to both well-established and newly proposed theories of information behavior, the book includes contributions from 85 scholars from 10 countries. Each theory description covers origins, propositions, methodological implications, usage, links to related conceptual frameworks, and listings of authoritative primary and secondary references. The introductory chapters explain key concepts, theory–method connections, and the process of theory development.

  10. Behavior change communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggleton, P

    1997-04-01

    Appropriate and effective communication is central to the success of interventions to reduce the risk of HIV infection. This paper reviews what has been learned about the nature of communication in the behavior change process. It examines the contexts in which communication occurs, as well as the contribution of communication theory, social marketing theory, and structural intervention theory to intervention development. Guidance is offered on the most appropriate ways in which to communicate with different groups and audiences, and future priorities for research and intervention are identified.

  11. Health status and health behaviors among citizen endurance Nordic skiers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul J; Bovard, Ralph S; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Beebe, Timothy J; Wang, Zhen

    2017-07-24

    More than two-thirds of Americans are overweight or obese (69%) placing them at high risk for a wide array of chronic diseases. Physical activity anchors most approaches to obesity prevention and weight management, but physical activity levels remain low in the general US population. As a group, citizen athletes who compete in Nordic skiing events such as the American Birkebeiner participate in fitness cultures that promote physical activity. During October-November 2014, we emailed a 48 question online survey to 23,611 individuals who had participated in the American Birkebeiner ski event, the largest citizen ski race in North America. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. Binomial and student t test were used to compare binary and continuous outcomes to health behaviors of the US population. 5433 individuals responded. Obesity prevalence (BMI ≥30) was 3% and average BMI was 24. Skiers reported very good health (88%), higher fitness than peers (99%), freedom from depression (93%) low levels of smoking (3%), high consumption of fruits and vegetables, moderate alcohol use, and high levels of physical activity. Fifteen percent practiced all 4 healthy living characteristics known to reduce cardiovascular event risk. As a group, citizen endurance Nordic skiers enjoy low levels of obesity, below average BMI, and report lifestyle behaviors known to decrease obesity, promote health, and reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Future research should explore hypotheses that explain how the fitness cultures surrounding citizen athletic events support weight loss, cardiovascular fitness, and healthy lifestyle habits.

  12. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: Empirical review and clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Martin E; Kratz, Hilary E; Freeman, Jennifer B; Ivarsson, Tord; Heyman, Isobel; Sookman, Debbie; McKay, Dean; Storch, Eric A; March, John

    2015-05-30

    The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been the subject of much study over the past fifteen years. Building on a foundation of case studies and open clinical trials, the literature now contains many methodologically sound studies that have compared full CBT protocols to waitlist controls, pill placebo, psychosocial comparison conditions, active medication, combined treatments, and brief CBT. This review is part of a series commissioned by The Canadian Institute for Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (CIOCD) in an effort to publish in one place what is known about the efficacy of treatments for OCD. A total of fourteen studies were identified; collectively their findings support the efficacy of CBT for youth with OCD. CBT protocols that emphasized either strictly behavioral or cognitive conceptualizations have each been found efficacious relative to waitlist controls. Efforts to enhance CBT׳s efficacy and reach have been undertaken. These trials provide guidance regarding next steps to be taken to maximize efficacy and treatment availability. Findings from studies in community clinics suggest that significant treatment benefits can be realized and are not reported only from within academic contexts. These findings bode well for broader dissemination efforts. Recommendations for future research directions are provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Music therapy to promote prosocial behaviors in aggressive adolescent boys--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickson, Daphne J; Watkins, William G

    2003-01-01

    This pilot study was undertaken to investigate whether music therapy is effective in promoting prosocial behaviors in aggressive adolescent boys who have social, emotional, and learning difficulties. Fifteen subjects (aged 11-15 years), enrolled at a special residential school in New Zealand, were randomly assigned to music therapy treatment groups (n = 6, n = 5), and a waitlist control group (n = 4). Examination of demographic data identified differences between groups for diagnosis (p =.044), with Group 1 all having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and for age (p =.027), with Group 2 having a mean age 1.38 years older. Measures included parent and teacher versions of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC-P & DBC-T) (Einfeld & Tonge, 1994; Einfeld, Tonge, & Parmenter, 1998). While no definite treatment effects could be detected, results suggest that a music therapy program promoting autonomy and creativity may help adolescents to interact more appropriately with others in a residential villa setting, but might also lead to a temporary mild increase in disruptive behavior in the classroom. A more highly structured program and smaller group numbers may be advantageous for boys who have ADHD.

  14. Benefits in behavioral health carve-out plans of Fortune 500 firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, E L; Garnick, D W; Horgan, C M; Goldin, D; Hodgkin, D; Sciegaj, M

    2001-07-01

    This study examined the prevalence and nature of behavioral health carve-out contracts among Fortune 500 firms in 1997. A survey was conducted of 498 companies that were listed as Fortune 500 firms in 1994 or 1995. A total of 336 firms (68 percent) responded to the survey. Univariate analyses were used to analyze prevalence, types, and amounts of covered services, cost sharing, and benefit limits. A total of 132 firms reported contracting with managed behavioral health organizations; 124 firms answered benefits questions about covered services, cost-sharing levels, and annual and lifetime limits. Most of the plans covered a broad range of services. Cost sharing was typically required, and for inpatient care it was often substantial. Fifteen percent of the firms offered mental health benefits that were below the limits defined in this study as minimal benefit levels, and 34 percent offered substance abuse treatment benefits that fell below minimal levels. The most generous mental health benefits and substance abuse treatment benefits, defined as no limits or a lifetime limit only of $1 million or more, were offered by 31 percent and 20 percent of the firms, respectively. The carve-out contracts of the Fortune 500 firms in this study typically covered a wide range of services, and the benefits appeared generous relative to those reported for other integrated and carve-out plans. However, these benefits generally did not reach the level of parity with typical medical benefits, nor did they fully protect enrollees from the risk of catastrophic expenditures.

  15. Governing Individual Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The emerging Knowledge Governance Approach asserts the need to build microfoundations grounded in individual action. Toward this goal, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we aim to explain individual knowledge sharing behavior as being determined by the intention to share knowledge and its...... antecedents: attitude toward knowledge sharing, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. In addition, we consider managerial interventions (governance mechanisms) that managers can employ to influence the identified antecedents and thereby govern individual knowledge sharing behavior. We test...... a positive effect on subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, respectively....

  16. Self Injurious Behavior in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Self injury is a kind of behavior which begins in early adolescence and difficult to determine because remains suppressed. Most often forms are to cut and hit own. To be exposed to sexual abuse and stressfully life events are known as risk factors for self injurious behavior. High anxiety, depression and hostility levels, decrease of self esteem, suicidal attempts and thoughts are usually together with self injurious behavior and it may be mediating to emotional regulation. To explain the functions of self injurious behavior automatic and social support theories and social learning theories have suggested. The relation between suicidality and self injurious behavior is complex for adolescents. There is no enough knowledge if self injurious behavior aggravates the risk of completed suicide. Although it’s a frequent behavior there are limited randomized controlled studies which examine specific treatment approaches. Dialectic behavior treatment is the type of treatment which shown as most effective for adults. To determine the needs to stop the behavior, to manage emotional senses and urges and to learn more healthy ways for needs to youth are necessary in treatment of self injurious behavior. Treatment also includes determining suicidal risk and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In self injurious behavior medical treatment is useful for comorbid psychiatric disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 201-210

  17. Academic dishonesty and unprofessional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Laura; Simmons, Pamela; Graham-Webb, Diane

    2011-01-01

    To investigate differences in radiologic science student and faculty perceptions of academic dishonesty and unprofessional behavior. Radiologic science faculty and students were questioned about their perceptions of academic dishonesty and unprofessional behavior using ethical scenarios in an electronic survey format. Significant differences occurred between faculty and student values regarding the seriousness of cheating and unprofessional behaviors. Faculty viewed cheating and unprofessional behaviors as more serious than students. Faculty and student self-reports of cheating behavior demonstrated no significant differences; however, significant differences existed in self-reported incidences of unprofessional behavior. Faculty and students differed in their values and participation related to cheating and unprofessional behaviors. Efforts should be directed toward bridging the gap between faculty and student perceptions. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  18. Challenging behavior: Behavioral phenotypes of some genetic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buha Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenging behavior in individuals with mental retardation (MR is relatively frequent, and represents a significant obstacle to adaptive skills. The frequency of specific forms and manifestations of challenging behavior can depend on a variety of personal and environmental factors. There are several prominent theoretical models regarding the etiology of challenging behavior and psychopathology in persons with MR: behavioral, developmental, socio-cultural and biological. The biological model emphasizes the physiological, biochemical and genetic factors as the potential source of challenging behavior. The progress in the field of genetics and neuroscience has opened the opportunity to study and discover the neurobiological basis of phenotypic characteristics. Genetic syndromes associated with MR can be followed by a specific set of problems and disorders which constitutes their behavioral phenotype. The aim of this paper was to present challenging behaviors that manifest in the most frequently studied syndromes: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Williams syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome. The concept of behavioral phenotype implies a higher probability of manifesting specific developmental characteristics and specific behaviors in individuals with a certain genetic syndrome. Although the specific set of (possible problems and disorders is distinctive for the described genetic syndromes, the connection between genetics and behavior should be viewed through probabilistic dimension. The probabilistic concept takes into consideration the possibility of intra-syndrome variability in the occurrence, intensity and time onset of behavioral characteristics, at which the higher variability the lower is the specificity of the genetic syndrome. Identifying the specific pattern of behavior can be most important for the process of early diagnosis and prognosis. In addition, having knowledge about behavioral phenotype can be a landmark in

  19. Intraindividual relations between achievement goals and discrete achievement emotions: An experience sampling approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz T; Sticca F; Pekrun. R.; Murayama K.; Elliot A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Theories on the link between achievement goals and achievement emotions focus on their within person functional relationship (i.e. intraindividual relations). However empirical studies have failed to analyze these intraindividual relations and have instead examined between person covariation of the two constructs (i.e. interindividual relations). Aiming to better connect theory and empirical research the present study (N = 120 10th grade students) analyzed intraindividual relations by assessi...

  20. Dieting and the self-control of eating in everyday environments: An experience sampling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, W.; Adriaanse, Marieke; Vohs, K.D.; Baumeister, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The literature on dieting has sparked several debates over how restrained eaters differ from unrestrained eaters in their self-regulation of healthy and unhealthy food desires and what distinguishes successful from unsuccessful dieters. We addressed these debates using a four-component

  1. Evidence That a Psychopathology Interactome Has Diagnostic Value, Predicting Clinical Needs: An Experience Sampling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Jim; Lataster, Tineke; Delespaul, Philippe; Wichers, Marieke; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2014-01-01

    Background For the purpose of diagnosis, psychopathology can be represented as categories of mental disorder, symptom dimensions or symptom networks. Also, psychopathology can be assessed at different levels of temporal resolution (monthly episodes, daily fluctuating symptoms, momentary fluctuating mental states). We tested the diagnostic value, in terms of prediction of treatment needs, of the combination of symptom networks and momentary assessment level. Method Fifty-seven patients with a psychotic disorder participated in an ESM study, capturing psychotic experiences, emotions and circumstances at 10 semi-random moments in the flow of daily life over a period of 6 days. Symptoms were assessed by interview with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS); treatment needs were assessed using the Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN). Results Psychotic symptoms assessed with the PANSS (Clinical Psychotic Symptoms) were strongly associated with psychotic experiences assessed with ESM (Momentary Psychotic Experiences). However, the degree to which Momentary Psychotic Experiences manifested as Clinical Psychotic Symptoms was determined by level of momentary negative affect (higher levels increasing probability of Momentary Psychotic Experiences manifesting as Clinical Psychotic Symptoms), momentary positive affect (higher levels decreasing probability of Clinical Psychotic Symptoms), greater persistence of Momentary Psychotic Experiences (persistence predicting increased probability of Clinical Psychotic Symptoms) and momentary environmental stress associated with events and activities (higher levels increasing probability of Clinical Psychotic Symptoms). Similarly, the degree to which momentary visual or auditory hallucinations manifested as Clinical Psychotic Symptoms was strongly contingent on the level of accompanying momentary paranoid delusional ideation. Momentary Psychotic Experiences were associated with CAN unmet treatment needs, over and above PANSS measures of psychopathology, similarly moderated by momentary interactions with emotions and context. Conclusion The results suggest that psychopathology, represented as an interactome at the momentary level of temporal resolution, is informative in diagnosing clinical needs, over and above traditional symptom measures. PMID:24466189

  2. Teaching Methods and Their Impact on Students' Emotions in Mathematics: An Experience-Sampling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Sticca, Fabio; Brunner, Esther; Becker, Eva; Morger, Vinzenz; Hubbard, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Various theoretical approaches propose that emotions in the classroom are elicited by appraisal antecedents, with subjective experiences of control playing a crucial role in this context. Perceptions of control, in turn, are expected to be influenced by the classroom social environment, which can include the teaching methods being employed (e.g.,…

  3. [Terrorism and human behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S J

    2017-06-09

    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  5. Intellectual and behavioral impairment after chemotherapy and radiotherapy among children with cancer in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsay, Susan; Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza; Arabgol, Fariba; Kiomarcy, Azadeh

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that treatment modalities against cancer have psychosocial and serious medical side effects especially neurologic, learning, and intellectual disorders among children with cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral change specially the effect of chemotherapy and cranial radiotherapy on the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with cancer. The children diagnosed with cancer and referred to Mahak Hospital (a well funded charity organization helping children with cancer in Iran) participated in this study. To assess the post treatment behavior, the Conner's Rating Scales (CRS) questionnaire, which its reliability and validity has been well established was administrated by trained interviewer in a two hour sessions to mother or attending nurses of the cases. The relationship between attention deficits, hyperactivity disorder were assessed with different categories of treatment, socio-economic status, age at diagnosis, sex, as well as duration since treatment. During periods of six months, 30 subjects (16 male and 14 female) were studied and participated in the study. Fifteen cases had both radiotherapy as well as chemotherapy and 15 cases just had chemotherapy as their treatment regiment. The mean Conner's Rating Score (total score of ADHD) were higher among those who received both chemotherapy and radiotherapy compared with those who had just chemotherapy but it was not statistically significant (34.7∓12.6 for just chemotherapy and 39.3∓9.0 for chemo and radiotherapy together). The total Conner's Rating Score was higher among girls compared to boys (mean ∓ standard deviation was 39.8∓9.4 for girls and 33.7∓12 for boys). Duration since treatment, age diagnosis, and mother's level of education had effect in post treatment intellectual capacity and behavioral aspect of patients. In the light of dramatic improvement of survival among children with cancer the intellectual and

  6. Measuring Behavioral Individuality in the Acoustic Startle Behavior in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Carlos; Hoagland, Adam; Carroll, Elizabeth; Schoppik, David; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2017-04-05

    The objective of this protocol is to provide a detailed description for the construction and use of a behavioral apparatus, the zBox, for high-throughput behavioral measurements in larval zebrafish ( Danio rerio ). The zBox is used to measure behavior in multiple individuals simultaneously. Individual fish are housed in wells of multi-well plates and receive acoustic/vibration stimuli with simultaneous recording of behavior. Automated analysis of behavioral movies is performed with MATLAB scripts. This protocol was adapted from two of our previously published papers (Levitz et al. , 2013; Pantoja et al. , 2016). The zBox provides an easy to setup flexible platform for behavioral experiments in zebrafish larvae.

  7. Cognition, behavior, and the experimental analysis of behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shimp, Charles P.

    1984-01-01

    A case history illustrates how one research program in the experimental analysis of behavior evolved somewhat differently from the modal research program represented in this journal. A chief issue that seems to be responsible for this difference is the role attributed to theory in behavioral research: Skinner's views on the nature and function of theory and on the nature of observation combine to produce a certain kind of picture of behavior. The classic conception of reinforcement contingenc...

  8. Does Early Childhood Callous-Unemotional Behavior Uniquely Predict Behavior Problems or Callous-Unemotional Behavior in Late Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2016-01-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) behavior has been linked to behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether CU behavior in "early childhood" predicts behavior problems or CU behavior in "late childhood". This study examined whether indicators of CU behavior at ages 2-4 predicted aggression,…

  9. Does disaster education of teenagers translate into better survival knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codeanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Jacobs, Ian

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of people are affected worldwide by the effects of disasters, and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) has recognized the need for a radical paradigm shift in the preparedness and combat of the effects of disasters through the implementation of specific actions. At the governmental level, these actions translate into disaster and risk reduction education and activities at school. Fifteen years after the UNISDR declaration, there is a need to know if the current methods of disaster education of the teenage population enhance their knowledge, knowledge of skills in disasters, and whether there is a behavioral change which would improve their chances for survival post disaster. This multidisciplinary systematic literature review showed that the published evidence regarding enhancing the disaster-related knowledge of teenagers and the related problem solving skills and behavior is piecemeal in design, approach, and execution in spite of consensus on the detrimental effects on injury rates and survival. There is some evidence that isolated school-based intervention enhances the theoretical disaster knowledge which may also extend to practical skills; however, disaster behavioral change is not forthcoming. It seems that the best results are obtained by combining theoretical and practical activities in school, family, community, and self-education programs. There is a still a pressing need for a concerted educational drive to achieve disaster preparedness behavioral change. School leavers' lack of knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change are detrimental to their chances of survival.

  10. Physical characterization of drug:polymer dispersion behavior in polyethylene glycol 4000 solid dispersions using a suite of complementary analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasa, Dipy M; Dalal, Namita; Katz, Jeffrey M; Roopwani, Rahul; Nevrekar, Akshata; Patel, Harshil; Buckner, Ira S; Wildfong, Peter L D

    2014-09-01

    Fifteen model drugs were quenched from 3:1 (w/w) mixtures with polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG4000). The resulting solids were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), analysis of pair distribution function-transformed PXRD data (where appropriate), hot-stage polarized light microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Drug/polymer dispersion behavior was classified using the data from each technique, independent of the others, and limitations to single-method characterization of PEG-based systems are highlighted. The data from all characterization techniques were collectively used to classify dispersion behavior, which was compared with single-technique characterization. Of the 15 combinations, only six resulted in solids whose dispersion behavior was consistently described using each standalone technique. The other nine were misclassified using at least one standalone technique, mainly because the phase behavior was ambiguously interpreted when only the data from one technique were considered. The data indicated that a suite of complementary techniques provided better classifications of the phase behavior. Of all the quenched solids, only cimetidine was fully dispersed in PEG4000, suggesting that it solidified from a completely miscible mixture of molten drug and polymer that did not phase separate upon cooling. In contrast, ibuprofen and PEG4000 completely recrystallized during preparation, whereas the remaining 13 drugs were partially dispersed in PEG4000 at this composition. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  11. Cognitive behavioral therapy for suicidal behaviors: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mewton L

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Louise Mewton,1 Gavin Andrews2 1National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Research Excellence in Mental Health and Substance Use, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, 2Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression (CRUfAD, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in reducing suicidal cognitions and behavior in the adult population. We identified 15 randomized controlled trials of CBT for adults (aged 18 years and older that included suicide-related cognitions or behaviors as an outcome measure. The studies were identified from PsycINFO searches, reference lists, and a publicly available database of psychosocial interventions for suicidal behaviors. This review identified some evidence of the use of CBT in the reduction of both suicidal cognitions and behaviors. There was not enough evidence from clinical trials to suggest that CBT focusing on mental illness reduces suicidal cognitions and behaviors. On the other hand, CBT focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors was found to be effective. Given the current evidence, clinicians should be trained in CBT techniques focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors that are independent of the treatment of mental illness. Keywords: suicidal behaviors, suicidal cognitions, CBT

  12. Anticipated regret and precautionary sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, R.; de Vries, N.K.; van der Pligt, J.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of anticipated regret on precautionary sexual behavior. 317 female and 134 male 18-48 yr old college students completed questionnaires assessing behavioral expectations regarding casual sexual behavior, anticipated regret, perceived behavioral control, attitudes,

  13. Medication for Behavior Modification in Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines,

  14. Explaining Moral Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Magda; Wiegmann, Alex

    2017-03-01

    In this review we make a simple theoretical argument which is that for theory development, computational modeling, and general frameworks for understanding moral psychology researchers should build on domain-general principles from reasoning, judgment, and decision-making research. Our approach is radical with respect to typical models that exist in moral psychology that tend to propose complex innate moral grammars and even evolutionarily guided moral principles. In support of our argument we show that by using a simple value-based decision model we can capture a range of core moral behaviors. Crucially, the argument we propose is that moral situations per se do not require anything specialized or different from other situations in which we have to make decisions, inferences, and judgments in order to figure out how to act.

  15. Occupational medicine. Organizational behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, L F

    1989-01-01

    Work flow and the administrative processes by which it is controlled are fundamental in shaping the realities of the organization as a system of relationships. Organization is technology in the broadest sense: processes, procedures, policies, controls, formal authority structures, and techniques. Among groups or organizations, it is unusual for changes in sentiment to precede action or organizational rearrangements. Technology and structure must be changed first. This chapter has outlined organizational theory and structures. The components of each have been examined and potential causes of problems identified. Much space has been devoted to understanding group dynamics and behavior. In addition to understanding one's subordinates and peers, the effective manager understands the organizational forces that exist in the workplace. A willingness to listen, communicate, innovate and lead should result in both effectiveness and rewarding experiences for a manager.

  16. Intestinal Barrier and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio-Pieper, M; Bravo, J A

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal barrier function contributes to gut homeostasis by modulating absorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the lumen into the circulation while restricting the passage of noxious luminal substances and microorganisms. Chronic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and celiac disease are associated to intestinal barrier dysfunction. Here, the hypothesis is that a leaky intestinal wall allowing for indiscriminate passage of intraluminal compounds to the vascular compartment could in turn lead to systemic inflammation. An increasing number of studies are now investigating the association between gut permeability and CNS disorders, under the premise that translocation of intestinal luminal contents could affect CNS function, either directly or indirectly. Still, it is unknown whether disruption of intestinal barrier is a causative agent or a consequence in these situations. Here, we discuss the latest evidence pointing to an association between increased gut permeability and disrupted behavioral responses. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuropeptides, Microbiota, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, P

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota and the brain interact with each other through multiple bidirectional signaling pathways in which neuropeptides and neuroactive peptide messengers play potentially important mediator roles. Currently, six particular modes of a neuropeptide link are emerging. (i) Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters contribute to the mutual microbiota-host interaction. (ii) The synthesis of neuroactive peptides is influenced by microbial control of the availability of amino acids. (iii) The activity of neuropeptides is tempered by microbiota-dependent autoantibodies. (iv) Peptide signaling between periphery and brain is modified by a regulatory action of the gut microbiota on the blood-brain barrier. (v) Within the brain, gut hormones released under the influence of the gut microbiota turn into neuropeptides that regulate multiple aspects of brain activity. (vi) Cerebral neuropeptides participate in the molecular, behavioral, and autonomic alterations which the brain undergoes in response to signals from the gut microbiota. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual Behavior in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haversath, Julia; Gärttner, Kathrin M; Kliem, Sören; Vasterling, Ilka; Strauss, Bernhard; Kröger, Christoph

    2017-08-21

    There have not been any population-based surveys in Germany to date on the frequency of various types of sexual behavior. The topic is of interdisciplinary interest, particularly with respect to the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. Within the context of a survey that dealt with multiple topics, information was obtained from 2524 persons about their sexual orientation, sexual practices, sexual contacts outside relationships, and contraception. Most of the participating women (82%) and men (86%) described themselves as heterosexual. Most respondents (88%) said they had engaged in vaginal intercourse at least once, and approximately half said they had engaged in oral intercourse at least once (either actively or passively). 4% of the men and 17% of the women said they had been the receptive partner in anal intercourse at least once. 5% of the respondents said they had had unprotected sexual intercourse outside their primary partnership on a single occasion, and 8% said they had done so more than once; only 2% of these persons said they always used a condom during sexual intercourse with their primary partner. Among persons reporting unprotected intercourse outside their primary partnership, 25% said they had undergone a medical examination afterward because of concern about a possible sexually transmitted infection. Among some groups of persons, routine sexual-medicine examinations may help contain the spread of sexually transmitted infections. One component of such examinations should be sensitive questioning about the types of sexual behavior that are associated with a high risk of infection. Information should be provided about the potential modes of transmission, including unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse outside the primary partnership.

  19. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    During the last 15 years there has been an explosion in human behavioral data caused by the emergence of cheap electronics and online platforms. This has spawned a whole new research field called computational social science, which has a quantitative approach to the study of human behavior. Most...... studies have considered data sets with just one behavioral variable such as email communication. The Social Fabric interdisciplinary research project is an attempt to collect a more complete data set on human behavior by providing 1000 smartphones with pre-installed data collection software to students...... data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived...

  20. Behavior genetics: Bees as model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nates Parra, Guiomar

    2011-01-01

    The honeybee Apis mellifera (Apidae) is a model widely used in behavior because of its elaborate social life requiring coordinate actions among the members of the society. Within a colony, division of labor, the performance of tasks by different individuals, follows genetically determined physiological changes that go along with aging. Modern advances in tools of molecular biology and genomics, as well as the sequentiation of A. mellifera genome, have enabled a better understanding of honeybee behavior, in particular social behavior. Numerous studies show that aspects of worker behavior are genetically determined, including defensive, hygienic, reproductive and foraging behavior. For example, genetic diversity is associated with specialization to collect water, nectar and pollen. Also, control of worker reproduction is associated with genetic differences. In this paper, I review the methods and the main results from the study of the genetic and genomic basis of some behaviors in bees.

  1. [The psychopathology of the unawareness of cognitive impairments and behavioral limitations in traumatic brain-injured patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim-Gluckman, H; Fayol, P; de Collasson, P; Dumond, J J; Azouvi, P

    2003-02-01

    To explore the unawareness of cognitive impairments and behavioral limitations using a psychopathological approach. Fifteen patients with chronic severe TBI. Outpatient TBI rehabilitation programs in three different centers. Case reports. The data from semi-structured interviews with the patients and their families, at least six months after the accident, were compared with data supplied by the Patient Competency Rating Scale (PCRS) and the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale-Revised (NRS-R). Nine patients demonstrated unawareness of their limitations according to the PCRS (Group I), whereas six did not (Group II). Psychic phenomena specific to patients of group I were found. Some of these were specific to brain injury, such as the lack of representation of cognitive impairments and behavioral limitations or the difficulty to integrate the brain-injury into one's psychic space. Others were not specific to brain injury such as mourning process difficulties, personality characteristics, defense mechanisms. Several psychic phenomena coexisted in the same patient. This study shows the complexity of unawareness of cognitive impairments and behavioral limitations and makes future clinical and theoretical definition indispensable.

  2. A Qualitative Study of Migrant-related Stressors, Psychosocial Outcomes and HIV Risk Behavior among Truck Drivers in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Nomagugu; Simona, Simona J.; Kansankala, Brian; Sinkala, Emmanuel; Raidoo, Jasmin

    2017-01-01

    Truck drivers are part of mobile populations which have been noted as a key population at risk of HIV in Zambia. This study was aimed at 1) determining Potentially Traumatic Events (PTEs), labor migrant-related stressors, psychosocial problems and HIV risk behaviors among truck drivers in Zambia and 2) examining the relationship between PTEs, migrant-related stressors, psychosocial outcomes and HIV sexual risk behavior among truck drivers in Zambia. We conducted fifteen semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled male truck drivers at trucking companies in Lusaka, Zambia. Findings indicate that truck drivers experience multiple stressors and potentially traumatic incidences, including delays and long waiting hours at borders, exposure to crime and violence, poverty, stress related to resisting temptation of sexual interactions with sex workers or migrant women, and job-related safety concerns. Multiple psychosocial problems such as intimate partner violence, loneliness, anxiety and depression-like symptoms were noted. Transactional sex, coupled with inconsistent condom use were identified as HIV sexual risk behaviors. Findings suggest the critical need to develop HIV prevention interventions which account for mobility, potentially traumatic events, psychosocial problems, and the extreme fear of HIV testing among this key population. PMID:27681145

  3. Economic rationality and ethical behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Le Menestrel

    2001-01-01

    This paper argues that economic rationality and ethical behavior cannot be reduced one to the other, casting doubts on the validity of formulas like 'profit is ethical' or 'ethics pays'. In order to express ethical dilemmas as opposing economic interest with ethical concerns, we propose a model of rational behavior that combines these two irreducible dimensions in an open but not arbitrary manner. Behaviors that are neither ethical nor profitable are considered irrational (non-arbitrariness)....

  4. Consumer behavior in corporate banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation and the emergence of new forms of technology have created highly competitive market conditions which have had a critical impact upon consumer behavior in corporate banking. Bank providers must, therefore, attempt to better understand their corporate clients in an attempt not only to anticipate but also to influence and determine consumer buying behavior. The paper accordingly presents and develops a model which attempts to articulate and classify corporate consumer behavior in the purchasing of financial products and services.

  5. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a method for behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits, which aims at providing a synthesis flow which uses and tranfers methods from synchronous circuits to asynchronous circuits. We move the synchronous behavioral synthesis abstraction into the asynchronous handshake...... is idle. This reduces unnecessary switching activity in the individual functional units and therefore the energy consumption of the entire circuit. A collection of behavioral synthesis algorithms have been developed allowing the designer to perform time and power constrained design space exploration...

  6. Contraceptive Behavior in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    fourth category, the probability of reversing an unwanted pregnancy, was determined by the subjects’ knowledge of the abortion option. Luker found...Running Head: CONTRACEPTIVE BEHAVIOR DTIC C4UA.LITY Lritjiwkj CONTRACEPTIVE BEHAVIOR 2 CHAPTER 1 Introduction Teenage birth, abortion , and pregnancy rates...472,623 resulted in live births, 406,790 were aborted and the remainder were miscarriages or stillbirths. In 1988, teen CONTRACEPTIVE BEHAVIOR 3

  7. Behavioral satiety sequence: an experimental model for studying feeding behavior Sequência comportamental de saciedade: um modelo experimental para o estudo do comportamento alimentar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane dos Santos Oliveira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior is controlled by interactions between psychobiological and physiological systems. In rats, there is a sequence in the feeding behavior that is characterized by similar movements at the beginning and end of a meal, known as the behavioral satiety sequence. In the sequence, eating is followed by grooming and other activities, and ends with resting. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the use of the behavioral satiety sequence as an experimental model for the study of feeding behavior. A systematic search of the electronic databases MedLine, Lilacs, SciELO, Cochrane Library and PubMed was done from November 2007 to January 2008, using combinations of the keywords "behavioral," "satiety" and "sequence". Ninety articles were found and, of these, fifteen articles were selected for the review. The studies demonstrated the efficacy of using behavioral satiety sequence to evaluate the effects of some types of manipulations on feeding behavior. With this study method it was also possible to observe different factors that can interfere with feeding behavior, such as sedation, malaise or intake inhibition, by increasing satiety. Behavioral satiety sequence offers solid tools for gaining a better understanding of how treatment can influence feeding behavior.O comportamento alimentar é controlado por interações entre sistemas psicobiológicos e fisiológicos. Em ratos, existe uma sequência no comportamento alimentar que é caracterizada por movimentos similares no início e no término de uma refeição, conhecida como sequência comportamental de saciedade. Na sequência, o ato de comer é seguido pela limpeza e outra atividades, terminando com o descanso. O objetivo dessa revisão sistemática é avaliar o uso da sequência comportamental de saciedade como um modelo experimental para o estudo do comportamento alimentar. Uma busca sistemática das bases de dados MedLine, Lilacs, SciELO, Biblioteca Cochrane e PubMed foi

  8. Bosonic behavior of entangled fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Tichy, Malte; Alexander Bouvrie, Peter; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi-composite-boson st......Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi...

  9. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School, Whole Community, Whole Child Tools Health Education Curriculum Analysis Tool (HECAT) HECAT FAQs Health Education Teacher ... Button type="submit" value="Submit" /> Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance ...

  10. COMPROMISE EFFECT ON CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Surkamta Eric Santosa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The way consumers think about the products they will buy determines their buying behavior. The decision to buy a particular product is obviously in accordance with the buyer’s attitude. The buyers will also feel more comfortable if their behavior meets with the approval and expectations of the people close to them. While the development of a certain attitude has no effect on subjective judgment, the effect of compromise is likely to make a contribution to its development. Since it is still unclear, this study’s main purposed is to clarify this. In addition, while an attitude is theorized as being a predictor of behavior, through behavioral intention, the study’s secondary purpose is to boost the earlier findings. Likewise, in accordance with the theory of planned behavior, the study will also examine the other predictors of behavioral intention, in relation to the behavioral intention itself. A sample consisting of a 100 respondents was compiled by using the convenience and judgment technique. The data were analyzed using Amos 16.0 and SPSS 16.0. As expected, the compromise effect had a significant influence on whether the customers’ attitude or the subjective norm was the main determinant. Likewise, the customers’ attitude, the subjective norm and perceived behavioral control were confirmed as good predictors of customers’ behavioral intentions.

  11. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Behavior Game for the Reduction of Inappropriate Classroom Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerle, Dana R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A group-contingency behavior game significantly decreased disruptive classroom behavior after five weeks. The classroom observers gradually phased themselves out of the program, while training the teacher to continue the game unaided. Further analysis of the relative influences of peer pressure and competition v social reinforcement is needed. (CP)

  13. Adolescent substance use, aggressive behaviors, and peer context behavioral norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, R.; Stevens, G.W.J.M.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine behavioral norm effects in 2 peer contexts (classroom, school) on adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis) and aggressive behaviors (bullying, physical fighting). Participants were 5,642 adolescents (Mage = 14.29 years, SD = 1.26; 49% boys). There

  14. Adolescent Substance Use, Aggressive Behaviors, and Peer Context Behavioral Norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, R.; Stevens, G.W.J.M.; ter Bogt, T.F.M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine behavioral norm effects in 2 peer contexts (classroom, school) on adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis) and aggressive behaviors (bullying, physical fighting). Participants were 5,642 adolescents (Mage = 14.29 years, SD = 1.26; 49% boys). There

  15. The Attitude-Behavior Linkage in Behavioral Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedkin, Noah E.

    2010-01-01

    The assumption that individual behavior has an antecedent evaluative foundation is an important component of theories in sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. In its simplest form, the antecedent evaluation is a positive or negative attitude toward an object that may affect an individual's object-related behavior. This attitude…

  16. Use of a Behavioral Graphic Organizer to Reduce Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Flower, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Students with challenging behavior spend substantial amounts of time away from instruction due to behavioral problems. Time away from instruction reduces their opportunities for learning, which are critical as these students typically demonstrate academic performance below their same-age peers. After removal from instruction due to behavioral…

  17. [Practice of Behavioral Activation in Cognitive-behavioral Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Nobuki

    2015-01-01

    An approach focusing on behavioral activation (BA) was adopted in the cognitive therapy of A. T. Beck, and it came to be considered that BA can play an important role in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Therefore, in recent years, BA based on clinical behavior analysis has been developed as a new treatment (Martell, et al.). The core characteristics are as follows: 1) focusing attention on context in daily life to promote the behavior control of patients and avoidance of a hatred experience ; 2) breaking the vicious circle; 3) promoting the behavior according to the purpose that the patients originally expect; 4) recognizing a relationship between behavior and the situation (contingency), thereby recovering self-efficacy tied to the long-term results that one originally expects. This does not increase pleasant activity at random when the patient is inactive, or give a sense of accomplishment. We know that depression is maintained by conducting functional analysis of detailed life behavior, and encourage the patients to have healthy behavior according to individual values. We help them to complete schedules regardless of mood and reflect on the results patiently. It is considered that those processes are important. BA may be easy to apply in clinical practice and effective for the chronic cases, or the patients in a convalescent stage. Also, in principle in the CBT for major depression, it may be effective that behavioral activation is provided in an early stage, and cognitive reconstruction in a latter stage. However, an approach to carry out functional analysis by small steps with careful activity monitoring is essential when the symptoms are severe. Furthermore, it should be considered that the way of psychoeducation requires caution because we encourage rest in the treatment of depression in our country. In particular, we must be careful not to take an attitude that an inactive behavior pattern is unproductive only based model cases.

  18. Behavior of pharyngocutaneous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaldo Gonzalez, Maria de los Angeles; Trinchet Soler, Rafael; Perez Fernandez, Julia; Alvarez Borges, Francisco Emilio

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. The pharyngocutaneous fistula is clinically detected by appearance of saliva together with deglutition. It is more frequent in postoperative period of total laryngectomies and may to appear in a spontaneous way by dehiscence of pharyngeal suture provoked by deglutition movements of patient or to go with a infection or necrosis. METHODS. A descriptive and bilateral study was conducted on the behavior of pharyngocutaneous fistulas in Cervicofacial Oncology Surgery Service of ''Vladimir Ilich Lenin'' University Hospital in Holguin province. Study sample included all patients operated on by total laryngectomy from 2003 to 2008. There was a total 158 patients and all underwent a manual closure of hypofarynx. RESULTS. Fistulas were present in the 5,6% of cases. The 77,7% of patients had underwent radiotherapy before surgery and the 66,4% of them underwent tracheostomies at surgical operation. In all patients operated on by pharyngotome there was postsurgical sepsis and feeding was started at 10 and 12 days in the 88,4% of cases. CONCLUSIONS. The wide predominance of male patients is directly related to usual toxic habits in this sex. Presurgical tracheostomy is accepted by surgeons as a risk factor for development of fistula, but in present paper wasn't significant. Onset of oral feeding in patients presenting with layngectomies must to fluctuate between 10 and 14 days, never before, but there isn't a hypopharynx healing allowing the foods passage. Also, so it is possible to avoid the appearance of complications like the pharyngocutaneous fistulas. (author)

  19. [Environment and addictive behaviors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzeau, Didier; Raynal, Marie-Line

    2012-12-01

    Consumer society creates the emergence of addictive behaviors and environments of the subject "shape" the use of psychoactive substances. The family approach is to search out a guilt of members to understand family dynamics and enable young people to emancipate themselves from the family model. The social environment contributes to the marginalization of drug users "pathologizing" his conduct. Offer help without preconditions and a relationship based on a therapeutic alliance can contribute decisively to the recovery of an addict. The prison is a place of initiation of use and consumption of psychoactive substances despite the offer of specialized treatment. Measures of risk reduction of HCV/HIV infection and alternatives to incarceration should complete it. At workplace, consumption can be considered as a mean of doping to be more "efficient", but also as an attempt to withstand the stresses and changes in working conditions in the context of individualization and a loss of marks related to the new way of organizing work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Behavioral treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táki Athanássios Cordas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Great population studies do not confirm the hypothesis that atypical personality of obese would exist. Obeses in the generalpopulation do not present more psychological disturbs thanthe ones that are not obeses. Obeses adolescents and adultsare discriminated in their academic and professional lifes. Thissocial, cultural, economic and affective impoverishment seemsto be directly related to the gravity of their obesity, what means,higher the ICM (Index of Corporal Mass, bigger are thepsychological problems. This abandonment contributes to thebig risk of unchain psychiatric pictures as depression, anxyetdisturbs, drugs and alcoholic excessive consumption andalimentary disturbs. Obeses of the general population do notpresent more psychological or psychiatric symptoms than theclinical population of obeses (obeses under treatment, presentmore clinical and psychiatric problems, mainly compulsoryalimentary standards. Some studies indicate that there is alinear relation between the ICM and the highest frequency ofalimentary compulsory behavior or bulimic episode. Thepsychiatric patients negative body perception added to theirother negative perceptions about their performance in searchingsocial interaction increase the trend to the isolation. Thepsychiatric picture presence in the bariatric surgery preoperatoryin a III degree overweight pacient has not to be facedas absolute surgery counter indication since such procedurecan be the difference between giving a better life quality orwaiting for a potentially lethal complication. We cannot forgetthat the obesity itself, due to the common associatedcomorbidyties, loads a great lethality potential. The surgerycounter-indication could be relative, it depending on how muchthe psychiatric disturbs interfere on the treatment andconditioned to the rigorous psychiatric control in the anteriorand post surgical period.

  1. Suicidal Behavior in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Aslan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The size of the elderly population is expected to increase dramatically in the next decades worldwide, also in Turkey. In accordance with these demographic changes, psychiatric disorders in late life, including suicide becomes much important. Elderly suicide is a very serious public health problem. Suicide rates in both males and females generally increase with age. However, the pattern is different in every nation. Suicidal behaviour in old age exists as a spectrum ranging from death wishes to completed suicide. Risk factors for suicide in old age are male sex, lower socioeconomic status, social isolation, having personality traits like hopelessness and dependency on others etc., the presence of psychiatric and physical disorders and previous suicidal behaviour. The most common cause for elderly suicide, as for all suicides, is untreated depression. Thus, elderly depression needs to be recognized and treated. The treatment of depressive disorder and other psychiatric diorders in late life, counselling in crisis situations and prevention of social isolation in elderly people are the major points for the prevention of suicide in old age. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between elderly and suicidal behavior. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 294-309

  2. Effect of characteristics of fine iron ores on the granulation behavior of concentrate in sintering granulation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengli; Que, Zhigang; Zhai, Xiaobo; Li, Kailang

    2017-12-01

    Concentrates have advantages of high ferrous grade, less harmful impurities and lower price. However, the small size and poor granulation behavior of concentrates could deteriorate the permeability of the sinter bed and reduce sinter productivity, thus making it difficult to use concentrates effectively. Therefore, in order to strengthen the granulation behavior of concentrates, granulation experiments were carried out and experiment samples made with one kind of concentrates and five kinds of fine iron ores were produced in this paper. Then, the effects of water absorbility and wettability of fine iron ores on granulation behavior of concentrates were investigated. Furthermore, optimized ore blending recipes were proposed to strengthen the granulation behavior of concentrates by sinter pot tests. Results show that the granulation behavior of concentrates was improved for the samples exhibiting high maximum capillary water and small contact angle in fine iron ores. Compared with the scheme of blending ores containing 15 mass% concentrate, the growth index of quasi-particles increased by 20.62% in the case of iron ore BR-2 replacing half of iron ore BR-1, the vertical sintering speed went up from 26.32 to 29.26 mm min-1, the productivity increased from 1.95 to 2.20 t m-2 h-1. The growth index of the quasi-particles increased by 30% when using iron ore AR-2 to replace half of iron ore AR-1. The vertical sintering speed and the productivity of sinter improved to 29.82 mm min-1 and 2.24 t m-2 h-1, respectively. The results help to improve the granulation behavior of concentrates by optimizing the blending ore recipes, based on the characteristics of fine iron ores, and thus use these concentrates more efficiently in the sintering process.

  3. Behavioral Initiatives in Broad Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This booklet is a technical assistance sampler addressing the issues of student misbehavior, discipline problems, and behavioral initiatives. The term behavioral initiative is defined, disciplining children with disabilities is discussed, and a cautionary note concerning ignoring students' reasons for misbehavior is presented. A brief entitled…

  4. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2

  5. Behavioral methods in cannabinoid research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fride, Ester; Perchuk, Alex; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Onaivi, Emmanuel S

    2006-01-01

    In the absence of any specific behavioral assay for cannabinoids or endocannabinoids, a cannabinoid-induced profile in a series of four in vivo assays in mice is most commonly used to assess a specific cannabinoid activity at the behavioral level. Thus, when a given compound produces motor depression in an open field, catalepsy on an elevated ring, analgesia on a hot plate, as well as hypothermia, cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation is assumed, although exceptions are possible. The full cannabinoid profile, however, includes for example ataxia in dogs and discrimination learning in rats. In view of (1) the addictive/reward potential of cannabis and the cannabinoids and (2) the multiple roles of the endocannabinoid physiological control system (EPCS) in behavioral functions, including memory, emotionality, and feeding, a number of behavioral techniques have been used to assess the effects of cannabinoids in these functions. In this chapter we will describe the tetrad of cannabinoid-induced effects as well as a series of behavioral assays used in the behavioral pharmacology of marijuana-cannabinoid research. Since the EPCS plays an important role in the developing organism, methods used in the assessment of physical and behavioral development will also be discussed. The techniques include the tetrad, drug discrimination, self-stimulation and self-administration, conditioned place preference/aversion, the plus-maze, chronic mild stress (CMS), ultrasonic vocalizations, cognitive behaviors, and developmental assessment in mouse (and rat) pups.

  6. Building and Defining Behavioral Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heukelom, F.; Emmett, R.; Biddle, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    George Loewenstein, a prominent behavioral economist, recalls thatIn 1994, when Thaler, Camerer, Rabin, Prelec and I spent the year at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, we had a meeting to make a kind of final decision about what to call what we were doing. Remarkably, at

  7. Gap junctions and motor behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Tresch, Matthew C.

    2002-01-01

    The production of any motor behavior requires coordinated activity in motor neurons and premotor networks. In vertebrates, this coordination is often assumed to take place through chemical synapses. Here we review recent data suggesting that electrical gap-junction coupling plays an important role...... to the production of motor behavior in adult mammals....

  8. Neuroscientific Measures of Covert Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortu, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In radical behaviorism, the difference between overt and covert responses does not depend on properties of the behavior but on the sensitivity of the measurement tools employed by the experimenter. Current neuroscientific research utilizes technologies that allow measurement of variables that are undetected by the tools typically used by behavior…

  9. BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER COMPLAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrie Prasetyo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Complaining is one form of communication for consumers to express their dissatisfaction. Understanding the consumer complaint behavior is an important thing for businesses; however, it is not easy to do. The initial step in understanding this behavior of consumer complaints is to map consumers based on their behavior of complaints and analyze the factors that influence this. This study examines the complaint behavior of consumers in Cibubur who have experienced dissatisfaction with a product.  The objectives of this study are to map the consumer complaint behavior and identify its relationship with various factors such as consumer demographics, personality, attitude to businesses, attribution of the causes of dissatisfaction, and product attributes. A crosstab descriptive analysis method was used to map the consumers, while the Pearson correlation analysis methods was used to analyze consumer complaint behavioral relationships with various factors. The results of this study indicated that consumers in Cibubur based on their complaint behavior are classified into four groups: passive, voicers, irates and activist. The passive consumers dominate the category with a percentage of 49%.  The voicers, irates, and activist belong to the complaining type and are dominated by young women, with high levels of education and income. Keywords: consumer complaint behavior, product, crosstab, pearson correlation

  10. Jogging Can Modify Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jill I.

    1980-01-01

    Jogging was used to modify disruptive behavior as part of the classroom routine for 12 learning disabled elementary-grade boys. The number of incidents of each of five negative behaviors were reduced by half following the 10-minute jogging routine. (SBH)

  11. Genes, Environment, and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Mark V.; Cutter, Mary Ann; Davidson, Ronald; Dougherty, Michael J.; Drexler, Edward; Gelernter, Joel; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Vogler, George P.; Zola, John

    This curriculum module explores genes, environment, and human behavior. This book provides materials to teach about the nature and methods of studying human behavior, raise some of the ethical and public policy dilemmas emerging from the Human Genome Project, and provide professional development for teachers. An extensive Teacher Background…

  12. Behavior Subtraction applied to radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, W.L. van; Caro Cuenca, M.

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm developed for optical images has been applied to radar data. The algorithm, Behavior Subtraction, is based on capturing the dynamics of a scene and detecting anomalous behavior. The radar application is the detection of small surface targets at sea. The sea surface yields the expected

  13. Littering Behavior in Public Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stuart N.

    1976-01-01

    This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning littering behavior. Available studies are categorized according to the variables that influence littering--individual and environmental. Theoretical issues of attitude-behavior consistency and incentive effectiveness are analyzed with respect to littering and litter control. Results…

  14. Drug Use and Criminal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Ludwig; Hyatt, Murray P.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of addiction and crime is presented. Crimes of violence and sex crimes are contrasted with non-violent criminal behavior when drug-connected. It is suggested that alternative methods of dealing with drug abuse and criminal behavior be explored, and that several previously discarded methods be re-examined. (Author)

  15. Handbook of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W., Ed.; Piazza, Cathleen C., Ed.; Roane, Henry S., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Describing the state of the science of ABA, this comprehensive handbook provides detailed information about theory, research, and intervention. The contributors are leading ABA authorities who present current best practices in behavioral assessment and demonstrate evidence-based strategies for supporting positive behaviors and reducing problem…

  16. Environmental Attitude and Ecological Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Florian G.; And Others

    This paper establishes environmental attitude, a construct in environmental psychology, as a powerful predictor of ecological behavior. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, this study uses a unified concept of attitude and a probabilistic measurement approach. Questionnaire data from members of two ideologically different Swiss…

  17. Tax evasion under behavioral structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Pantoja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the strategic interactions between the fiscal authority and the taxpayer regarding tax evasion and auditing. We fit this interaction into a Bayesian game and introduce the concept of behavioral consistency, which helps reducing the number of available strategies and models the stylized fact according to which the choice to evade is subject to behavioral patterns.

  18. Behavior Assessment System for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Jonathan; Echandia, Adriana

    1994-01-01

    Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) is an integrated set of measures for the assessment and identification of school-age children with emotional disturbances and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the technical qualities of the BASC and critiques its usefulness for practicing school psychologists. Concludes BASC a desirable…

  19. Anticipated affect and behavioral choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, R.; van der Pligt, J.; de Vries, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    Most research on the impact of affect on attitudes and behavior emphasizes the effect of past and present affective reactions. In this article we focus on anticipated, postbehavioral, affective reactions. The influence of anticipated affective reactions on a number of behaviors was investigated in

  20. Interoceptive processes in anorexia nervosa in the time course of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Fischer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Previous studies report reduced interoceptive abilities in anorexia nervosa (AN using various methods. Recent research suggests that different levels of interoceptive processes aiming at different subdomains of interoceptive abilities must be further distinguished as these levels can be differentially affected. Two important levels refer to interoceptive accuracy (IA derived from objective performance tasks such as the heartbeat detection task, and interoceptive sensibility (IS as assessed by self-report. There is a lack of studies investigating both IA and IS in AN, and examining them in the time course of therapy. Aim of the pilot study was to evaluate the different interoceptive processes – especially IA and IS – in the time course of therapy.Methods: Fifteen patients with AN (restricting type from the Psychosomatic Clinic in Windach were investigated three times (T1, T2, T3 during a standardized cognitive-behavioral therapy and compared to fifteen matched healthy controls assessed at Ulm University in a comparable design. All participants performed the heartbeat detection task examining IA and completed standard psychological assessments including an assessment of IS. Results: Patients with AN showed a significantly decreased weight, higher levels of depression and both reduced IA and IS compared to healthy controls at T1. Following therapy, patients recovered in terms of weight and depression symptomatology. A descriptive trend for recovering from IA and IS was observed. Discussion: Our findings suggest that interoceptive deficits are present in recovered patients. Therefore, further investigations are needed with more patients, differentiating between relapsed and recovered patients, and more specific training methods to improve interoceptive processes.