WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavior fifteen experience-sampling

  1. Metacognitive Strategies and Test Performance: An Experience Sampling Analysis of Students' Learning Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike E. Nett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore students’ learning-related cognitions prior to an in-class achievement test, with a focus on metacognitive strategy use. A sample of 70 students in grade 11 (58.6% female, Mage=17.09 years completed a series of structured, state-based measures over a two-week period via the experience sampling method until the day before a class test. Results illustrated students’ self-regulatory ability to preserve their motivational and cognitive resources, with test-related cognitions evidenced significantly more often in learning-related as opposed leisure settings. Metacognitive strategy use was also found to significantly increase as the test date approached underscoring the goal-oriented nature of situated learning behaviors. Higher intercepts and increases in frequency of test-related cognitions over time positively corresponded to test performance. Of the three metacognitive strategies assessed, monitoring was found to positively correspond with test performance. Implications for future practice as well as implications for future research employing the experience sampling method are discussed.

  2. Characterization of helium diffusion behavior from continuous heating experiments: Sample screening and identification of multiple 4He components

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannell, K. T.; Idleman, B. D.; Zeitler, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Old, slowly cooled apatites often yield overdispersed helium ages due to factors such as parent zonation, He implantation, radiation damage, crystal defects, and fluid inclusions. Careful mineral selection and many replicate analyses can mitigate the impact of some of these effects. However, this approach adds unnecessary costs in time and resources when dating well-behaved apatites and is generally ineffective at identifying the root cause of age dispersion and providing suitable age corrections for poorly behaved samples. We assess a new technique utilizing static-gas measurement during continuous heating as a means to rapidly screen apatite samples. In about the time required for a conventional total-gas analysis, this method can discriminate between samples showing the volume-diffusion behavior expected for apatite and those showing anomalous release patterns, inconsistent with their use in thermochronologic applications. This method may also have the potential to quantify and discriminate between the radiogenic and extraneous 4He fractions released by a sample. Continuously heated samples that outgas by volume diffusion during a linear heating schedule should produce a characteristic sigmoidal 4He fractional loss profile, with the exact shape and position of these profiles (in loss vs. heating time space) controlled by sample kinetics, grain size, and heating rate. Secondary factors such as sample zoning and alpha-loss distribution have a relatively minor impact on such profiles. Well-behaved examples such as the Durango standard and other apatites with good age reproducibility show the expected smooth, sigmoidal gas release with complete exhaustion by temperatures predicted for volume diffusion using typical apatite kinetics (e.g., by ~900˚C for linear heating at 20˚C/minute). In contrast, "bad actor" samples that do not replicate well show significant degrees of helium release deferred to higher temperatures. We report on screening results for a range of

  3. Fifteen tips for success in injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, Daniel G

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen tips for success in injury prevention include the following: (1) make a plan; (2) understand injury epidemiology; (3) read, learn, and get educated; (4) show me the data; (5) select prevention strategies thoughtfully; (6) define risk factors and understand risk taking; (7) evaluate; (8) schedule a lunch meeting; (9) use principles of health behavior change, adult education theory, and communication theory; (10) be friends with the marketing and public affairs people; (11) recognize the fact that people are more emotional about injury in children than in adults; (12) understand cost-benefits and payoffs; (13) get stuff; (14) report your results; and (15) be patient. Several useful tables for basic references to resources in injury prevention are included. PMID:20029280

  4. Appearance Investment and Everyday Interpersonal Functioning: An Experience Sampling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forand, Nicholas R.; Gunthert, Kathleen C.; German, Ramaris E.; Wenze, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have shown that body satisfaction affects interpersonal functioning. However, few have studied the specific interpersonal correlates of another important body image dimension, appearance investment--that is, the importance a woman places on appearance. We used an experience sampling design with PDA (personal digital assistant)…

  5. 短串联重复序列基因座与冲动暴力行为的关联研究%Association study of the genetic polymorphism of fifteen short tandem repeats loci and aggressive violent behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春; 巴华杰; 高志勤; 赵汉清; 余海鹰; 施建安; 过伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨冲动暴力行为与相关短串联重复序列基因座的关联情况.方法 运用AmpFISTR IdentifilerTM荧光标记复合扩增体系,对203例冲动暴力行为罪犯(研究组)与207名非暴力行为健康个体(对照组)样本进行聚合酶链反应复合扩增,然后应用ABI3100型基因分析系统对扩增产物进行电泳和基因检测,观察2组15个STR基因座等位基因及基因型频率的差异.结果 15个STR基因座均符合遗传平衡定律(Hardy-Weinberg定律);研究组与对照组THO1和TPOX基因座的等位基因频率分布的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);研究组和对照组THO1-10频率分别为0.0172和0.0580,差异有统计学意义(P=0.002,OR=0.29,95% CI:0.12 ~0.67);研究组和对照组TPOX-11频率分别为0.3621和0.2391,差异有统计学意义(P=0.000,OR=1.81,95% CI:1.33 ~ 2.45);其他STR基因座等位基因频率及所有基因型频率2组差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 THO1和TPOX基因座多态性与冲动暴力行为可能存在关联,等位基因THO1-10、TPOX-11与冲动暴力行为的发生可能有一定关系.%Objective To investigate the association of aggressive violent behavior and related short tandem repeats (STRs) loci by the analysis of 15 STRs loci genetic polymorphism.Methods The biological samples of 203 persons with aggressive violent behaviors and 207 healthy persons without violent behavior were collected.Then the DNA sample was amplified by AmpFISTR IdentifilerTM system and separated by electrophoresis to compare the genotypes and alleles of 15 STRs gene frequencies in the two groups.Results All the 15 STRs loci in people with aggressive violent behavior and healthy people were found to coincide with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium ( P > 0.05 ).There was a significant difference in distributing of allele frequency of THO1 and TPOX between people with aggressive violent behaviors and healthy people ( P < 0.05 ).The frequency of allele 10 of THO1

  6. Experience-Sampling Methodology with a Mobile Device in Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castilla Diana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the usability studies conducted in the development of an experience-sampling methodology (ESM system running in a mobile device. The goal of the system is to improve the accuracy and ecology in gathering daily self-report data in individuals suffering a chronic pain condition, fibromyalgia. The usability studies showed that the developed software to conduct ESM with mobile devices (smartphones, cell phones can be successfully used by individuals with fibromyalgia of different ages and with low level of expertise in the use of information and communication technologies. 100% of users completed the tasks successfully, although some have completely illiterate. Also there seems to be a clear difference in the way of interaction obtained in the two studies carried out.

  7. Operational foreshock forecasting: Fifteen years after

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We are concerned with operational forecasting of the probability that events are foreshocks of a forthcoming earthquake that is significantly larger (mainshock). Specifically, we define foreshocks as the preshocks substantially smaller than the mainshock by a magnitude gap of 0.5 or larger. The probability gain of foreshock forecast is extremely high compare to long-term forecast by renewal processes or various alarm-based intermediate-term forecasts because of a large event’s low occurrence rate in a short period and a narrow target region. Thus, it is desired to establish operational foreshock probability forecasting as seismologists have done for aftershocks. When a series of earthquakes occurs in a region, we attempt to discriminate foreshocks from a swarm or mainshock-aftershock sequence. Namely, after real time identification of an earthquake cluster using methods such as the single-link algorithm, the probability is calculated by applying statistical features that discriminate foreshocks from other types of clusters, by considering the events' stronger proximity in time and space and tendency towards chronologically increasing magnitudes. These features were modeled for probability forecasting and the coefficients of the model were estimated in Ogata et al. (1996) for the JMA hypocenter data (M≧4, 1926-1993). Currently, fifteen years has passed since the publication of the above-stated work so that we are able to present the performance and validation of the forecasts (1994-2009) by using the same model. Taking isolated events into consideration, the probability of the first events in a potential cluster being a foreshock vary in a range between 0+% and 10+% depending on their locations. This conditional forecasting performs significantly better than the unconditional (average) foreshock probability of 3.7% throughout Japan region. Furthermore, when we have the additional events in a cluster, the forecast probabilities range more widely from nearly 0% to

  8. Childhood negative emotionality predicts biobehavioral dysregulation fifteen years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Melissa J; Luecken, Linda J; Modecki, Kathryn L; Sandler, Irwin N; Wolchik, Sharlene A

    2016-09-01

    The temperamental trait of negative emotionality (NE) plays an important role in maladaptation among adults experiencing significant life stress. However, the prospective relation between childhood NE and subsequent interrelated behavioral, emotional, and biological dysregulation in later life has not yet been established among children who experience early adversity. Using a longitudinal sample of youth who experienced parental divorce during childhood (N = 160; 53% male; 83% White), we tested the hypothesis that childhood NE would predict physiological, emotional, and behavioral dysregulation 15 years later. NE was assessed by maternal report when youth were between 9 and 12 years old. Fifteen years later, young adults (mean age = 25.55 years) participated in a psychosocial stress task to assess cortisol reactivity and reported on internalizing symptoms and problematic alcohol use. Structural equation modeling revealed that higher childhood NE predicted significantly greater alcohol use, internalizing symptoms, and total cortisol output during a stress task 15 years later. Importantly, these findings held after adjusting for childhood internalizing symptoms. In addition, problematic alcohol use was associated with greater cortisol reactivity and internalizing symptoms. Findings suggest that childhood NE is a critical risk marker for interrelated forms of dysregulation in young adulthood among at-risk youth. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100364

  9. Coping with boredom in school : an experience sampling perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Ulrike; Götz, Thomas; Hall, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored students' use of boredom-related coping strategies at trait and state levels. Two trait-based dimensions of coping relevant to boredom were considered, namely approach – versus avoidance-oriented and cognitively – versus behaviorally-oriented coping strategies. The two dimensions were assessed in a self-report questionnaire administered to 537 grade 11 students (55.3% female, Mage = 17.15 years). Additionally, 79 of these participants completed state-based boredom-r...

  10. Coping with Boredom in School : An Experience Sampling Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Ulrike; Götz, Thomas; Hall, Nathan C.

    2010-01-01

    The present study explored students’ use of boredom-related coping strategies at trait and state levels. Two trait-based dimensions of coping relevant to boredom were considered, namely approach – versus avoidance-oriented and cognitively – versus behaviorally-oriented coping strategies. The two dimensions were assessed in a self-report questionnaire administered to 537 grade 11 students (55.3% female, Mage = 17.15 years). Additionally, 79 of these participants completed state-based boredom-r...

  11. Reciprocal Markov Modeling of Feedback Mechanisms Between Emotion and Dietary Choice Using Experience-Sampling Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ji; Pan, Junhao; Zhang, Qiang; Dubé, Laurette; Ip, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    With intensively collected longitudinal data, recent advances in the experience-sampling method (ESM) benefit social science empirical research, but also pose important methodological challenges. As traditional statistical models are not generally well equipped to analyze a system of variables that contain feedback loops, this paper proposes the utility of an extended hidden Markov model to model reciprocal the relationship between momentary emotion and eating behavior. This paper revisited an ESM data set (Lu, Huet, & Dube, 2011) that observed 160 participants' food consumption and momentary emotions 6 times per day in 10 days. Focusing on the analyses on feedback loop between mood and meal-healthiness decision, the proposed reciprocal Markov model (RMM) can accommodate both hidden ("general" emotional states: positive vs. negative state) and observed states (meal: healthier, same or less healthy than usual) without presuming independence between observations and smooth trajectories of mood or behavior changes. The results of RMM analyses illustrated the reciprocal chains of meal consumption and mood as well as the effect of contextual factors that moderate the interrelationship between eating and emotion. A simulation experiment that generated data consistent with the empirical study further demonstrated that the procedure is promising in terms of recovering the parameters.

  12. Reciprocal Markov Modeling of Feedback Mechanisms Between Emotion and Dietary Choice Using Experience-Sampling Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ji; Pan, Junhao; Zhang, Qiang; Dubé, Laurette; Ip, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    With intensively collected longitudinal data, recent advances in the experience-sampling method (ESM) benefit social science empirical research, but also pose important methodological challenges. As traditional statistical models are not generally well equipped to analyze a system of variables that contain feedback loops, this paper proposes the utility of an extended hidden Markov model to model reciprocal the relationship between momentary emotion and eating behavior. This paper revisited an ESM data set (Lu, Huet, & Dube, 2011) that observed 160 participants' food consumption and momentary emotions 6 times per day in 10 days. Focusing on the analyses on feedback loop between mood and meal-healthiness decision, the proposed reciprocal Markov model (RMM) can accommodate both hidden ("general" emotional states: positive vs. negative state) and observed states (meal: healthier, same or less healthy than usual) without presuming independence between observations and smooth trajectories of mood or behavior changes. The results of RMM analyses illustrated the reciprocal chains of meal consumption and mood as well as the effect of contextual factors that moderate the interrelationship between eating and emotion. A simulation experiment that generated data consistent with the empirical study further demonstrated that the procedure is promising in terms of recovering the parameters. PMID:26717120

  13. Fifteen: Combining Magic Squares and Tic-Tac-Toe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Joseph B. W.

    2012-01-01

    Most students love to play games. Ernest (1986) believed that games could be used to teach mathematics effectively in four areas: motivation, concept development, reinforcement of skills, and practice of problem-solving strategies. Fifteen is an interesting and thought-provoking game that helps students learn mathematics at the same time. Playing…

  14. Entrepreneurial Training: A Comparative Study across Fifteen European Countries

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    Matricano, Diego

    2014-01-01

    This paper arises from the contents of the Lisbon Strategy, a set of cooperation policies stressing the role of education and training. The findings from a comparative study of the influence that entrepreneurial training--classified as formal or informal--can have on start-up expectations are analysed. The study covers fifteen European countries…

  15. Emotional experience improves with age : Evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carstensen, L.L.; Turan, B.; Scheibe, S.; Ram, N.; Ersner-Hershfield, H.; Samanez-Larkin, G.R.; Brooks, K.P.; Nesselroade, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N =

  16. Anxiety in High-Functioning Autism: A Pilot Study of Experience Sampling Using a Mobile Platform

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    Hare, Dougal Julian; Gracey, Carolyn; Wood, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and stress are everyday issues for many people with high-functioning autism, and while cognitive-behavioural therapy is the treatment of choice for the management of anxiety, there are challenges in using it with people with high-functioning autism. This study used modified experience sampling techniques to examine everyday anxiety and…

  17. Mood disorders in everyday life : A systematic review of experience sampling and ecological momentary assessment studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan het Rot, M.; Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, the study of mood disorder patients using experience sampling methods (ESM) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has yielded important findings. In patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), the dynamics of their everyday mood have been associated with various aspec

  18. Brain Embolism Secondary to Cardiac Myxoma in Fifteen Chinese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youming Long

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Heart myxoma-related embolisms commonly involve the central nervous system, but data are lacking in Chinese patients. Methods. 27 patients diagnosed with myxoma were reviewed retrospectively. Results. Among 27 patients, fourteen (51.9% patients were women. Fifteen (55.6% patients had brain embolisms. Rarely, patients were misdiagnosed with central nervous system vasculitis (n = 2, moyamoya disease (n = 1, and neuromyelitis optica (n = 1. We found positive associations between mRS (>3 and female gender (r = 0.873, P10 × 109/L (r = 0.722, P = 0.002, tumour size (r = 0.866, P0.05. Conclusions. Neurologic manifestations in Chinese patients with cardiac myxoma-related stroke were complicated and multifarious. Female gender, infection, other severe complications, low SBP, tumour size, bilateral brain lesions, TACI, and high WBC counts could be associated with a poor prognosis.

  19. How does self-injury feel? Examining automatic positive reinforcement in adolescent self-injurers with experience sampling.

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    Selby, Edward A; Nock, Matthew K; Kranzler, Amy

    2014-02-28

    One of the most frequently reported, yet understudied, motivations for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) involves automatic positive reinforcement (APR), wherein sensations arising from NSSI reinforce and promote the behavior. The current study used experience sampling methodology with a clinical sample of self-injuring adolescents (N=30) over a 2-week period during which the adolescents reported NSSI behaviors, and rated if an APR motivation was present, and if so whether that motivation pertained to feeling "pain," "stimulation," or "satisfaction." Over 50% of the sample reported at least one instance of NSSI for APR reasons. No significant differences were found on demographic factors or psychiatric comorbidity for those with and without an APR motivation. However, those with an APR motivation reported elevated NSSI thoughts, longer duration of those thoughts, and more NSSI behaviors. They also reported more alcohol use thoughts, alcohol use, impulsive spending, and binge eating. The most commonly reported sensation following NSSI for APR was "satisfaction." However those endorsing feeling pain reported the most NSSI behaviors. These findings provide new information about the APR motivations for NSSI and shed light on the different sensations felt.

  20. Emotional Experience Improves With Age: Evidence Based on Over 10 Years of Experience Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Carstensen, Laura L.; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Brooks, Kathryn P.; Nesselroade, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was r...

  1. The Relationship between Bipolar Disorder and Cannabis Use in Daily Life: An Experience Sampling Study

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Tyler; Steven Jones; Nancy Black; Lesley-Anne Carter; Christine Barrowclough

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although cannabis use is common in bipolar disorder and may contribute to worse clinical outcomes, little is understood about the relationship between this drug and bipolar disorder over the course of daily life. The aim of study was to examine the effect of cannabis on affect and bipolar symptoms in a group of individuals with bipolar disorder. Methods Twenty-four participants with bipolar disorder type I or type II completed diaries for 6 days using Experience Sampling Methodolog...

  2. Fifteen years of science and space weather studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosenvinge, Tycho T.; Christian, Eric R.

    2012-10-01

    Fifteen years ago, on 25 August 1997, NASA launched the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. In operation for more than a solar cycle, ACE has provided numerous important scientific results while at the same time becoming a key component of the space weather-monitoring system and a cornerstone of the fleet of distributed spacecraft that make up the Heliophysics Great Observatory. ACE is located on the sunward side of Earth about 1.5 million kilometers away, or 4 times as far from Earth as is the Moon. This puts ACE well outside the Earth's magnetosphere and in an ideal position to monitor the solar wind environment “upwind” of Earth. ACE has six high-resolution spectrometers that measure the elemental, isotopic, and ionic charge-state composition of ions from hydrogen to iron; it also includes three particle and field monitors. One of the nine instruments has now failed (Solar Energetic Particle Ionic Charge Analyzer (SEPICA)), and two others are partially degraded (Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) and Solar Wind Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM)); however, the other six are working well. Instrument descriptions are available on the ACE Web site at http://www.srl.caltech.edu/ACE/.

  3. Radial Star Formation Histories in Fifteen Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dale, Daniel A; Egan, Arika A; Hatlestad, Alan J; Herzog, Laura J; Leung, Andrew S; McLane, Jacob N; Phenicie, Christopher; Roberts, Jareth S; Barnes, Kate L; Boquien, Mederic; Calzetti, Daniela; Cook, David O; Kobulnicky, Henry A; Staudaher, Shawn M; van Zee, Liese

    2015-01-01

    New deep optical and near-infrared imaging is combined with archival ultraviolet and infrared data for fifteen nearby galaxies mapped in the Spitzer Extended Disk Galaxy Exploration Science survey. These images are particularly deep and thus excellent for studying the low surface brightness outskirts of these disk-dominated galaxies with stellar masses ranging between 10^8 and 10^11 Msun. The spectral energy distributions derived from this dataset are modeled to investigate the radial variations in the galaxy colors and star formation histories. Taken as a whole, the sample shows bluer and younger stars for larger radii until reversing near the optical radius, whereafter the trend is for redder and older stars for larger galacto-centric distances. These results are consistent with an inside-out disk formation scenario coupled with an old stellar outer disk population formed through radial migration and/or the cumulative history of minor mergers and accretions of satellite dwarf galaxies. However, these trends...

  4. [New Brunswick Power] Fifteen year load forecast, 1990-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fifteen-year forecast of the electric requirements of the in-province customers of New Brunswick Power Commission is prepared each year based on a cause and effect analysis of past loads, combined with data gathered through customer surveys and an assessment of economic, demographic, technological and other factors which affect the utilization of electrical energy. In addition to the forecast requirements of each sales classification and total energy supply by month, a forecast of the monthly peak hour demand is also presented. The forecast results are used in overall short and long term planning, particularly the financial and facilities planning. Since variations from the forecast can significantly affect the future financial and facilities requirements, a forecast range is included which indicates the sensitivity of the forecast to various input parameters and their resulting impact on the final results. Total power demand is forecast to increase from 13,183 GWh to 19,703 GWh or 2.8%/y over the 15-year period; in the same period, the maximum peak demand is forecast to increase from 2637 MW to 3818 MW. These results are generally the same as in the previous year's forecast. Nevertheless, the latest forecast shows a trend toward lower energy consumption, a phenomenon which responds to the short term economic situation. By end-use sector, power demand is forecast to grow from 4316 GWh to 6240 GWh in the residential sector, from 2169 GWh to 3454 GWh in the general sector, and from 5247 GWh to 8319 GWh in the industrial sector. 15 figs., 18 tabs

  5. Fifteen Years of Slow Slip and Tremor Observations at the Northern Costa Rica Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, S. Y.; Dixon, T. H.; Protti, M.; González, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    Coordinated long-term geophysical observations at the northern Costa Rica seismogenic zone, facilitated by NSF's MARGINS program, have greatly expanded our understanding of its megathrust behavior. Here we review fifteen years of seismic, geodetic, ocean bottom fluid flow and pressure sensor data collected on or near the Nicoya Peninsula, above the shallow thrust interface that document a variety of slow slip behaviors. These include relatively deep (~30-40 km), large slow slip events that occur about every 2 years, smaller events that locate at more intermediate depth (10-15 km) and occur more frequently (~1 per year), and very shallow events at the toe of the margin wedge that produce no discernible GPS signal on land but are detected on seafloor pressure sensors. Most of these slow slip events at the toe are accompanied by seismic tremor. Short-term, GPS only observations might have detected a few of these slow slip events; however, the longer more diverse instrument deployment was necessary to reveal their greater complexity. This demonstrates the need for a sustained, multi-instrument deployment and off-shore instrumentation at several different subduction zones, like that proposed for the Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO), to significantly advance our understanding of slow slip at convergent boundaries. Similar instrumentation to what exists in Nicoya is presently being established in the Osa-Burica region of southern Costa Rica to capture earthquake cycle deformation there. These two installations can provide a good nucleus for a larger circum-Pacific SZO effort.

  6. Relations among questionnaire and experience sampling measures of inner speech: a smartphone app study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Inner speech is often reported to be a common and central part of inner experience, but its true prevalence is unclear. Many questionnaire-based measures appear to lack convergent validity and it has been claimed that they overestimate inner speech in comparison to experience sampling methods (which involve collecting data at random timepoints). The present study compared self-reporting of inner speech collected via a general questionnaire and experience sampling, using data from a custom-made smartphone app (Inner Life). Fifty-one university students completed a generalized self-report measure of inner speech (the Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire, VISQ) and responded to at least seven random alerts to report on incidences of inner speech over a 2-week period. Correlations and pairwise comparisons were used to compare generalized endorsements and randomly sampled scores for each VISQ subscale. Significant correlations were observed between general and randomly sampled measures for only two of the four VISQ subscales, and endorsements of inner speech with evaluative or motivational characteristics did not correlate at all across different measures. Endorsement of inner speech items was significantly lower for random sampling compared to generalized self-report, for all VISQ subscales. Exploratory analysis indicated that specific inner speech characteristics were also related to anxiety and future-oriented thinking. PMID:25964773

  7. Unaware yet reliant on attention: Experience sampling reveals that mind-wandering impedes implicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Michael S; Smallwood, Jonathan; Zedelius, Claire M; Broadway, James M; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2016-02-01

    Although implicit learning has been widely studied, controversy remains regarding its reliance on attentional resources. A central issue in this controversy is the question of how best to manipulate attention. The usual approach of comparing implicit learning in a serial reaction time (SRT) task under single- versus dual-task conditions is known to be problematic, because the secondary task may not only divert attention away from the primary task, but also interfere with the implicit-learning process itself. To address this confound, in the present study we used an experience-sampling instead of a dual-task approach. We assessed lapses of attention (mind-wandering) with experience-sampling thought probes during a standard implicit-learning SRT task. The results revealed a significant negative correlation between mind-wandering and implicit learning. Thus, greater task focus was associated with improved implicit sequence learning. This result suggests that, at least in the context of this SRT task, optimal implicit learning relies on attention.

  8. Does body satisfaction influence self-esteem in adolescents' daily lives? An experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Skouteris, Helen; Richardson, Ben; Nihill, Kristy; Watson, Brittany; Solomon, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    This study examined, within the context of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model, state-based associations between self-esteem and body satisfaction using the experience sampling method. One hundred and forty-four adolescent girls (mean age = 14.28 years) completed up to 6 assessments per day for one week using Palm Digital Assistants, in addition to baseline measures of trait body satisfaction and self-esteem. Results showed considerable variation in both state-based constructs within days, and evidence of effects of body satisfaction on self-esteem, but not vice versa. Although these state-based associations were small in size and weakened as the time lag between assessments increased for the sample as a whole, individual differences in the magnitude of these effects were observed and predicted by trait self-esteem and body satisfaction. Collectively, these findings offer support for key tenets of the Contingencies of Self-Worth model.

  9. National and international interlocking directorates within Europe : Corporate networks within and among fifteen European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, K.; Kratzer, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the structural aspects of interlocking directorate networks within and among fifteen European countries. The results show large quantitative differences in network densities within countries. These differences are strongly and significantly related to the 'variety of capitali

  10. Well-being in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: a pilot Experience Sampling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Gustav Leonhardt Real

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of this longitudinal study was to identify predictors of instantaneous well-being in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Based on flow theory well-being was expected to be highest when perceived demands and perceived control were in balance, and that thinking about the past would be a risk factor for rumination which would in turn reduce well-being.MethodsUsing the experience sampling method, data on current activities, associated aspects of perceived demands, control, and well-being were collected from 10 patients with ALS three times a day for two weeks.ResultsResults show that perceived control was uniformly and positively associated with well-being, but that demands were only positively associated with well-being when they were perceived as controllable. Mediation analysis confirmed thinking about the past, but not thinking about the future, to be a risk factor for rumination and reduced well-being. DiscussionFindings extend our knowledge of factors contributing to well-being in ALS as not only perceived control but also perceived demands can contribute to well-being. They further show that a focus on present experiences might contribute to increased well-being.

  11. Use of the experience sampling method in the context of clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Simone J W; Hasmi, Laila; Drukker, Marjan; van Os, J; Delespaul, Philippe A E G

    2016-01-01

    Objective The experience sampling method (ESM) is a structured diary technique to appraise subjective experiences in daily life. It is applied in psychiatric patients, as well as in patients with somatic illness. Despite the potential of ESM assessment, the improved logistics and its increased administration in research, its use in clinical trials remains limited. This paper introduces ESM for clinical trials in psychiatry and beyond. Methods ESM is an ecologically valid method that yields a comprehensive view of an individual's daily life. It allows the assessment of various constructs (eg, quality of life, psychopathology) and psychological mechanisms (eg, stress-sensitivity, coping). These constructs are difficult to assess using cross-sectional questionnaires. ESM can be applied in treatment monitoring, as an ecological momentary intervention, in clinical trials, or in single case clinical trials. Technological advances (eg, smartphone applications) make its implementation easier. Results Advantages of ESM are highlighted and disadvantages are discussed. Furthermore, the ecological nature of ESM data and its consequences are explored, including the potential pitfalls of ambiguously formulated research questions and the specificities of ESM in statistical analyses. The last section focuses on ESM in relation to clinical trials and discusses its future use in optimising clinical decision-making. Conclusions ESM can be a valuable asset in clinical trial research and should be used more often to study the benefits of treatment in psychiatry and somatic health. PMID:27443678

  12. Emotional experience improves with age: evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Laura L; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Brooks, Kathryn P; Nesselroade, John R

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory.

  13. An experience sampling study of emotional reactions to music: listener, music, and situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juslin, Patrik N; Liljeström, Simon; Västfjäll, Daniel; Barradas, Gonçalo; Silva, Ana

    2008-10-01

    The Experience Sampling Method was used to explore emotions to music as they naturally occurred in everyday life, with a focus on the prevalence of different musical emotions and how such emotions are related to various factors in the listener, the music, and the situation. Thirty-two college students, 20 to 31 years old, carried a palmtop that emitted a sound signal seven times per day at random intervals for 2 weeks. When signaled, participants were required to complete a questionnaire on the palmtop. Results showed that music occurred in 37% of the episodes, and in 64% of the music episodes, the participants reported that the music affected how they felt. Comparisons showed that happiness-elation and nostalgia-longing were more frequent in episodes with musical emotions, whereas anger-irritation, boredom-indifference, and anxiety-fear were more frequent in episodes with nonmusical emotions. The prevalence of specific musical emotions correlated with personality measures and also varied depending on the situation (e.g., current activity, other people present), thus highlighting the need to use representative samples of situations to obtain valid estimates of prevalence. PMID:18837617

  14. Emotional experience improves with age: evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Laura L; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Brooks, Kathryn P; Nesselroade, John R

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:20973600

  15. Anxiety in high-functioning autism: A pilot study of experience sampling using a mobile platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Gracey, Carolyn; Wood, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Anxiety and stress are everyday issues for many people with high-functioning autism, and while cognitive-behavioural therapy is the treatment of choice for the management of anxiety, there are challenges in using it with people with high-functioning autism. This study used modified experience sampling techniques to examine everyday anxiety and stress in adults with high-functioning autism and to explore the feasibility of delivering real-time stress management techniques using a mobile platform. High levels of anxiety were found to be characterised by worry, confusing thoughts and being alone but was not associated with internal focus, imagery or rumination. Participants reported improved mood and less worry and anxious thinking in the active phase of the study. These results support previous studies indicating that people with high-functioning autism differ in their experience of anxiety and provided preliminary data on the feasibility of real-time stress management. The limitations of this approach are discussed together with considerations for future work in the area of developing clinical interventions on mobile platforms. PMID:26514793

  16. The relationship between bipolar disorder and cannabis use in daily life: an experience sampling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Tyler

    Full Text Available Although cannabis use is common in bipolar disorder and may contribute to worse clinical outcomes, little is understood about the relationship between this drug and bipolar disorder over the course of daily life. The aim of study was to examine the effect of cannabis on affect and bipolar symptoms in a group of individuals with bipolar disorder.Twenty-four participants with bipolar disorder type I or type II completed diaries for 6 days using Experience Sampling Methodology to investigate the temporal associations between cannabis, affect and bipolar disorder symptoms.The results indicated that higher levels of positive affect increase the odds of using cannabis (OR:1.25 ,CI:1.06-1.47, P=0.008. However, neither negative affect, manic nor depressive symptoms predicted the use of cannabis. Cannabis use was associated with subsequent increases in positive affect (β=0.35, CI:0.20-0.51, P=0.000, manic symptoms (β=0.20,CI:0.05-0.34, P=0.009 and depressive symptoms (β= 0.17,CI:0.04-0.29, P=0.008.The findings indicate that cannabis use is associated with a number of subsequent psychological effects. However there was no evidence that individuals with BD were using cannabis to self-medicate minor fluctuations in negative affect or bipolar disorder symptoms over the course of daily life. The findings in relation to existing literature and clinical implications are discussed.

  17. DMPD: NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16723122 NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. Gloi...svg) (.html) (.csml) Show NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later. PubmedID 167...23122 Title NF-kappaB activation by reactive oxygen species: fifteen years later.

  18. Emotions, self-esteem, and paranoid episodes: an experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewissen, Viviane; Bentall, Richard P; Oorschot, Margreet; A Campo, Joost; van Lierop, Thom; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2011-06-01

    OBJECTIVES. The evidence to date for a causal role of emotions in the generation of paranoid symptoms is scarce, mainly because of a lack of studies investigating the longitudinal association between emotional processes and paranoia. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether momentary emotional experiences (anxiety, depression, anger/irritability) and self-esteem predicted the onset and duration of a paranoid episode. We also studied whether levels of emotional experiences and self-esteem were respectively higher and lower during a paranoid episode. DESIGN. A 1-week, prospective momentary assessment study. METHODS. Data were collected using the experience sampling method, a structured self-assessment diary technique. The sample consisted of 158 individuals who ranged across the paranoia continuum. Participants with a psychotic disorder were recruited from in-patient and out-patient mental health services. Participants without psychotic disorder were sampled from the general population. RESULTS. Specific aspects of emotional experience were implicated in the onset and persistence of paranoid episodes. Both an increase in anxiety and a decrease in self-esteem predicted the onset of paranoid episodes. Cross-sectionally, paranoid episodes were associated with high levels of all negative emotions and low level of self-esteem. Initial intensity of paranoia and depression was associated with longer, and anger/irritability with shorter duration of paranoid episodes. CONCLUSIONS. Paranoid delusionality is driven by negative emotions and reductions in self-esteem, rather than serving an immediate defensive function against these emotions and low self-esteem. Clinicians need to be aware of the central role of emotion-related processes and especially self-esteem in paranoid thinking.

  19. Loneliness in the Daily Lives of Adolescents: An Experience Sampling Study Examining the Effects of Social Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine state levels of loneliness in adolescence. Both concurrent associations and temporal dynamics between social contexts and state levels of loneliness were examined. Data were collected from 286 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14.19 years, 59% girls) by using the Experience Sampling Method. Results…

  20. Psychotic reactivity to daily life stress and the dopamine system: a study combining experience sampling and [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernaus, Dennis; Collip, Dina; Lataster, Johan; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Myin, Erik; Ceccarini, Jenny; Van Laere, Koen; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2015-02-01

    Stressful life events increase the risk for psychosis, and the subjective experience of stress related to daily life activities drives moment-to-moment variation in psychotic intensity. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies suggest that dopaminergic (DAergic) activity mediates the behavioral response to an experimental stressor. However, it is not known how alterations in this DAergic stress response relate to the subjective experience of stress in real life situations assessed in momentary assessment studies. This study combined [18F]fallypride PET with an Experience Sampling ambulatory assessment approach to examine the association between the prefrontal DAergic response to experimentally induced stress and real life psychotic reactivity to the subjective experience of stress in daily life. Healthy first-degree relatives of individuals with a psychotic disorder (N = 14) and healthy controls (N = 11) participated in (a) a psychosocial [18F]fallypride PET stress paradigm and (b) an experience sampling study, using a structured diary approach. Mixed multilevel random intercept models revealed that stress-induced [18F]fallypride displacement, indicative of DAergic activity, in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) was associated with psychotic reactivity to daily life stress in the entire sample. Lower levels of [18F]fallypride displacement to stress predicted increased psychotic reactivity to daily life stress. This study combined PET neuroimaging with real life behavioral assessments in the investigation of psychotic symptoms; we showed decreased [18F]fallypride displacement to stress in VMPFC to be associated with increased psychotic reactivity to daily life stress. The preliminary evidence in this study demonstrates that it is possible to acquire a grasp on how brain function is associated with contextualized experience, which has relevance for neuroimaging studies in general.

  1. The Influence of Chronic Ego Depletion on Goal Adherence: An Experience Sampling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligang Wang

    Full Text Available Although ego depletion effects have been widely observed in experiments in which participants perform consecutive self-control tasks, the process of ego depletion remains poorly understood. Using the strength model of self-control, we hypothesized that chronic ego depletion adversely affects goal adherence and that mental effort and motivation are involved in the process of ego depletion. In this study, 203 students reported their daily performance, mental effort, and motivation with respect to goal directed behavior across a 3-week time period. People with high levels of chronic ego depletion were less successful in goal adherence than those with less chronic ego depletion. Although daily effort devoted to goal adherence increased with chronic ego depletion, motivation to adhere to goals was not affected. Participants with high levels of chronic ego depletion showed a stronger positive association between mental effort and performance, but chronic ego depletion did not play a regulatory role in the effect of motivation on performance. Chronic ego depletion increased the likelihood of behavior regulation failure, suggesting that it is difficult for people in an ego-depletion state to adhere to goals. We integrate our results with the findings of previous studies and discuss possible theoretical implications.

  2. Motivational and neural correlates of self-control of eating: A combined neuroimaging and experience sampling study in dieting female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Richard B; Milyavskaya, Marina; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Heatherton, Todd F

    2016-08-01

    Self-regulation is a critical ability for maintaining a wide range of health behaviors, especially in preventing overeating and weight gain. Previous work has identified various threats to self-control in the eating domain, chief among which are desire strength and negative affect. In the present study, we examined individual differences in college-aged dieters' experiences of these threats as they encountered temptations to eat in their daily lives, and tested whether these differences characterized sub-groups of dieters with divergent self-control outcomes. Specifically, 75 dieting females (age range: 18-23) participated in a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and experience sampling study. Participants passively viewed food cues during a fMRI session, and then reported their daily eating behaviors for one week via ecological momentary assessment. We examined the characteristics of dieters who exhibited the most favorable combination of the aforementioned factors (i.e., low desire strength and positive mood) and who were thus most successful at regulating their eating. These dieters endorsed more autonomous reasons for their self-regulatory goals, and during the food cue reactivity task more readily recruited the inferior frontal gyrus, a brain region associated with inhibitory control. We suggest that these motivational and neural correlates may also be implicated in self-regulation of other important health behaviors.

  3. Motivational and neural correlates of self-control of eating: A combined neuroimaging and experience sampling study in dieting female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Richard B; Milyavskaya, Marina; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Heatherton, Todd F

    2016-08-01

    Self-regulation is a critical ability for maintaining a wide range of health behaviors, especially in preventing overeating and weight gain. Previous work has identified various threats to self-control in the eating domain, chief among which are desire strength and negative affect. In the present study, we examined individual differences in college-aged dieters' experiences of these threats as they encountered temptations to eat in their daily lives, and tested whether these differences characterized sub-groups of dieters with divergent self-control outcomes. Specifically, 75 dieting females (age range: 18-23) participated in a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and experience sampling study. Participants passively viewed food cues during a fMRI session, and then reported their daily eating behaviors for one week via ecological momentary assessment. We examined the characteristics of dieters who exhibited the most favorable combination of the aforementioned factors (i.e., low desire strength and positive mood) and who were thus most successful at regulating their eating. These dieters endorsed more autonomous reasons for their self-regulatory goals, and during the food cue reactivity task more readily recruited the inferior frontal gyrus, a brain region associated with inhibitory control. We suggest that these motivational and neural correlates may also be implicated in self-regulation of other important health behaviors. PMID:27058281

  4. Teachers’ emotional experiences and exhaustion as predictors of emotional labor in the classroom: An Experience Sampling study

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Melanie M.; Mei-Lin eChang; Eva S Becker; Thomas eGoetz; Frenzel, Anne C.

    2014-01-01

    Emotional exhaustion is the core component in the study of teacher burnout, with significant impact on teachers’ professional lives. Yet, its relation to teachers’ emotional experiences and emotional labor during instruction remains unclear. Thirty-nine German secondary teachers were surveyed about their emotional exhaustion (trait), and via the Experience Sampling Method on their momentary (state; N = 794) emotional experiences (enjoyment, anxiety, anger) and momentary emotional labor (suppr...

  5. Teachers’ emotional experiences and exhaustion as predictors of emotional labor in the classroom: an experience sampling study

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Melanie M.; Chang, Mei-Lin; Eva S Becker; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.

    2014-01-01

    Emotional exhaustion (EE) is the core component in the study of teacher burnout, with significant impact on teachers’ professional lives. Yet, its relation to teachers’ emotional experiences and emotional labor (EL) during instruction remains unclear. Thirty-nine German secondary teachers were surveyed about their EE (trait), and via the experience sampling method on their momentary (state; N = 794) emotional experiences (enjoyment, anxiety, anger) and momentary EL (suppression, faking). Teac...

  6. Using negative emotions to trace the experience of borderline personality pathology: Interconnected relationships revealed in an experience sampling study

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R. Michael

    2015-01-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a B...

  7. Everyday forms of collective action in Bangladesh: Learning from Fifteen Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Peter

    2009-01-01

    "This paper examines fifteen cases of collective action in six villages in rural Bangladesh. Collective action was defined broadly and identified from significant episodes in previous life-history research in the same villages. The types of collective action identified were catalyzed by marriage; dowry and domestic violence; disputes over land; illness, injury and death in accidents; and theft and cheating. The role of development NGOs was less significant than would be expected considering t...

  8. Transsternal approach to closure of bronchopleural fistulas after pneumonectomy. A fifteen cases report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrami, V; Angelici, A; Bertagni, A; Bezzi, M; Ciulli, A; Forte, A; Gallinaro, L; Illuminati, G; Montesano, G; Prece, V

    2000-07-01

    A treatment method for main bronchus fistula after pneumonectomy via median sternotomy was described by P. Abruzzini in 1961. This operation is performed in an area not involved with infection. Fifteen patients underwent the procedure in our surgical department; one of them died of myocardial infarction while all the others survived for different periods of time, closely associated with the original disease; seven were long-term survivors. The transmediastinal approach seems an effective means of managing such a difficult complication. PMID:10880846

  9. A comprehensive analysis of fifteen genes of steviol glycosides biosynthesis pathway in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hitesh; Kaul, Kiran; Bajpai-Gupta, Suphla; Kaul, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay

    2012-01-15

    Stevia [Stevia rebuaidana (Bertoni); family: Asteraceae] is known to yield diterpenoid steviol glycosides (SGs), which are about 300 times sweeter than sugar. The present work analyzed the expression of various genes of the SGs biosynthesis pathway in different organs of the plant in relation to the SGs content. Of the various genes of the pathway, SrDXS, SrDXR, SrCPPS, SrKS, SrKO and three glucosyltransferases namely SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1 were reported from stevia. Here, we report cloning of seven additional full-length cDNA sequences namely, SrMCT, SrCMK, SrMDS, SrHDS, SrHDR, SrIDI and SrGGDPS followed by expression analysis of all the fifteen genes vis-à-vis SGs content analysis. SGs content was highest in the leaf at 3rd node position (node position with reference to the apical leaf as the first leaf) as compared to the leaves at other node positions. Except for SrDXR and SrKO, gene expression was maximum in leaf at 1st node and minimum in leaf at 5th node. The expression of SrKO was highest in leaf at 3rd node while in case of SrDXR expression showed an increase up to 3rd leaf and decrease thereafter. SGs accumulated maximum in leaf tissue followed by stem and root, and similar was the pattern of expression of all the fifteen genes. The genes responded to the modulators of the terpenopids biosynthesis. Gibberellin (GA(3)) treatment up-regulated the expression of SrMCT, SrCMK, SrMDS and SrUGT74G1, whereas methyl jasmonate and kinetin treatment down-regulated the expression of all the fifteen genes of the pathway. PMID:22037480

  10. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  11. Expertise and politics crisis: lessons learned from fifteen years of negotiations on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes some analyses and comments about the relationships between experts who have been involved in various conferences and meetings (from Rio de Janeiro in 1992 to Marrakech in 2002) on climate change. He presents the different groups of experts and comments the issues which have been a matter of debate between them for the past fifteen years. For each of these issues, he gives an overview of the expertise status, highlights consensus as well as dissensus. He compares this expertise with the content of political discourses, and then shows which mechanisms led to The Hague failure and to the incomplete Marrakech's compromise

  12. Comparison of the ability of fifteen onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars to accumulate nitrates

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Wojciechowska; Anna Kołton

    2014-01-01

    The aim of a two-year study was to characterise selected Allium cepa L. genotypes with regard to their ability to accumulate nitrates in bulbs as well as to search for a possible relation between NO3- concentration and dry matter content. Fifteen cultivars of edible onion, mostly of long-day genotype with different growing periods, bulb size and skin colour, were taken for the experiment. Seeds of particular cultivars were obtained from the following seed companies: Spójnia Nochowo (‘Labrador...

  13. Fifteen Years of Cold Matter on the Atom Chip: Promise, Realizations, and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, Mark; Zhou, Shuyu; Groswasser, David; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Here we review the field of atom chips in the context of Bose-Einstein Condensates (BEC) as well as cold matter in general. Twenty years after the first realization of the BEC and fifteen years after the realization of the atom chip, the latter has been found to enable extraordinary feats: from producing BECs at a rate of several per second, through the realization of matter-wave interferometry, and all the way to novel probing of surfaces and new forces. In addition, technological applications are also being intensively pursued. This review will describe these developments and more, including new ideas which have not yet been realized.

  14. Using Negative Emotions to Trace the Experience of Borderline Personality Pathology: Interconnected Relationships Revealed in an Experience Sampling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R Michael

    2016-02-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after 3 hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology.

  15. Understanding the relationships between self-esteem, experiential avoidance, and paranoia: structural equation modelling and experience sampling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udachina, Alisa; Thewissen, Viviane; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Fitzpatrick, Sam; O'kane, Aisling; Bentall, Richard P

    2009-09-01

    Hypothesized relationships between experiential avoidance (EA), self-esteem, and paranoia were tested using structural equation modeling in a sample of student participants (N = 427). EA in everyday life was also investigated using the Experience Sampling Method in a subsample of students scoring high (N = 17) and low (N = 15) on paranoia. Results showed that paranoid students had lower self-esteem and reported higher levels of EA than nonparanoid participants. The interactive influence of EA and stress predicted negative self-esteem: EA was particularly damaging at high levels of stress. Greater EA and higher social stress independently predicted lower positive self-esteem. Low positive self-esteem predicted engagement in EA. A direct association between EA and paranoia was also found. These results suggest that similar mechanisms may underlie EA and thought suppression. Although people may employ EA to regulate self-esteem, this strategy is maladaptive as it damages self-esteem, incurs cognitive costs, and fosters paranoid thinking.

  16. Using Negative Emotions to Trace the Experience of Borderline Personality Pathology: Interconnected Relationships Revealed in an Experience Sampling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R Michael

    2016-02-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after 3 hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology. PMID:25710731

  17. Banking concentration in the European Union during the last fifteen years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santillán-Salgado Roberto J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the concentration of the banking industry across European Union countries during the last fifteen years can be explained in terms of: a global factors, like the comprehensive adoption of technological innovations, the intensification of competition that has resulted from the deregulation of the financial sector and, more recently, as a consequence of the government interventions and forced acquisitions prompted by the 2007-2009 financial crisis; and, b factors that have been specific to the E.U., in particular, the structural changes that took place in the region as a result of the creation of the Single Financial Market (1993 and the introduction of the euro (1999. This work analyzes the concentration process of the banking industry in the E.U. during the last fifteen years giving preeminence to the strategic choices made by the region’s commercial banks. It also reports the most visible E.U. banks’ M&As and government interventions that resulted from the 2007-2009 financial crisis, make a preliminary evaluation of the outcomes, and suggests possible future trends for the banking industry in the region.

  18. Beijing fifteen years on: the persistence of barriers to gender mainstreaming in health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, fifteen years after the Beijing declaration on women's rights, the UN Commission on the Status of Women met to review progress in gender mainstreaming. Reports on gender equality by member states revealed differences in the degree of change achieved in this period, while highlighting common barriers to gender mainstreaming. The same barriers have long been identified by academics and activists, but prove remarkably resistant to strategies to address gender inequalities. This paper reviews approaches to gender mainstreaming in the context of health policy, and suggests that a model of the obstacles to gender mainstreaming, which identifies barriers as essentially pragmatic, conceptual, or political in origin, might enable a more explicit discussion of the factors underlying this resistance and the ways in which they might be challenged. PMID:22292172

  19. The modification and generalization of voice loudness in a fifteen-year-old retarded girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D A; Wallace, R F

    1974-01-01

    A fifteen-year-old severely disturbed girl was treated for aphonia. Because of the extent of her withdrawal, the subject was conditioned in a laboratory setting and received tokens for speaking loudly enough to operate a voice-operated relay. Conditioning at first consisted of saying 100 monosyllabic words, with the possibility of reinforcement on each word. Later, the subject was required to say a polysyllabic word, and finally, five or six words per token. The subject was shaped to speak with normal loudness in the laboratory, and generalization to a reading situation in the laboratory was measured and observed to occur, at first for a few minutes, and later for a longer period. Generalization to a reading situation in the classroom did not occur, but the subject's voice loudness also increased in the classroom when several new reinforcement contingencies were put into effect there. PMID:4465381

  20. Beijing fifteen years on: the persistence of barriers to gender mainstreaming in health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, fifteen years after the Beijing declaration on women's rights, the UN Commission on the Status of Women met to review progress in gender mainstreaming. Reports on gender equality by member states revealed differences in the degree of change achieved in this period, while highlighting common barriers to gender mainstreaming. The same barriers have long been identified by academics and activists, but prove remarkably resistant to strategies to address gender inequalities. This paper reviews approaches to gender mainstreaming in the context of health policy, and suggests that a model of the obstacles to gender mainstreaming, which identifies barriers as essentially pragmatic, conceptual, or political in origin, might enable a more explicit discussion of the factors underlying this resistance and the ways in which they might be challenged.

  1. Social Daydreaming and Adjustment: An Experience-Sampling Study of Socio-Emotional Adaptation During a Life Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerio, Giulia L; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Estimates suggest that up to half of waking life is spent daydreaming; that is, engaged in thought that is independent of, and unrelated to, one's current task. Emerging research indicates that daydreams are predominately social suggesting that daydreams may serve socio-emotional functions. Here we explore the functional role of social daydreaming for socio-emotional adjustment during an important and stressful life transition (the transition to university) using experience-sampling with 103 participants over 28 days. Over time, social daydreams increased in their positive characteristics and positive emotional outcomes; specifically, participants reported that their daydreams made them feel more socially connected and less lonely, and that the content of their daydreams became less fanciful and involved higher quality relationships. These characteristics then predicted less loneliness at the end of the study, which, in turn was associated with greater social adaptation to university. Feelings of connection resulting from social daydreams were also associated with less emotional inertia in participants who reported being less socially adapted to university. Findings indicate that social daydreaming is functional for promoting socio-emotional adjustment to an important life event. We highlight the need to consider the social content of stimulus-independent cognitions, their characteristics, and patterns of change, to specify how social thoughts enable socio-emotional adaptation.

  2. Real-world emotion? An experience-sampling approach to emotion experience and regulation in bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, June; Kogan, Aleksandr; Mennin, Douglas; Murray, Greg

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that bipolar disorder is characterized by emotion dysregulation, yet emotion disturbance has not been systematically described using more ecologically valid methods. Using an experience-sampling approach, we therefore sought to investigate positive and negative emotionality, emotion regulation strategies, and functioning among remitted individuals with bipolar I disorder (BD; n = 31) compared with both healthy controls (CTL; n = 32) and remitted individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 21). Hierarchical linear modeling analyses of self-report data spanning a 6-day consecutive period revealed that the BD group aligned with the CTL group in reporting greater positive emotionality than the MDD group, but aligned with the MDD group in reporting greater negative emotionality than the CTL group. Furthermore, the BD and MDD groups reported greater general use of emotion regulation strategies than the CTL group. These findings suggest that BD is characterized by amplified emotionality as well as increased efforts to regulate emotions in everyday life. Discussion focuses on implications for BD, as well as identification of unique (disorder-specific) and shared (transdiagnostic) features of emotion disturbance.

  3. Teachers’ emotional experiences and exhaustion as predictors of emotional labor in the classroom: An Experience Sampling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie M. Keller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotional exhaustion is the core component in the study of teacher burnout, with significant impact on teachers’ professional lives. Yet, its relation to teachers’ emotional experiences and emotional labor during instruction remains unclear. Thirty-nine German secondary teachers were surveyed about their emotional exhaustion (trait, and via the Experience Sampling Method on their momentary (state; N = 794 emotional experiences (enjoyment, anxiety, anger and momentary emotional labor (suppression, faking. Teachers reported that in 99% and 39% of all lessons, they experienced enjoyment and anger, respectively, whereas they experienced anxiety less frequently. Teachers reported suppressing or faking their emotions during roughly a third of all lessons. Furthermore, emotional exhaustion was reflected in teachers’ decreased experiences of enjoyment and increased experiences of anger. On an intra-individual level, all three emotions predict emotional labor, whereas on an inter-individual level, only anger evokes emotional labor. Explained variances in emotional labor (within: 39%, between: 67% stress the relevance of emotions in teaching and within the context of teacher burnout. Beyond implying the importance of reducing anger, our findings suggest the potential of enjoyment lessening emotional labor and thereby reducing teacher burnout.

  4. Teachers’ emotional experiences and exhaustion as predictors of emotional labor in the classroom: an experience sampling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Melanie M.; Chang, Mei-Lin; Becker, Eva S.; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.

    2014-01-01

    Emotional exhaustion (EE) is the core component in the study of teacher burnout, with significant impact on teachers’ professional lives. Yet, its relation to teachers’ emotional experiences and emotional labor (EL) during instruction remains unclear. Thirty-nine German secondary teachers were surveyed about their EE (trait), and via the experience sampling method on their momentary (state; N = 794) emotional experiences (enjoyment, anxiety, anger) and momentary EL (suppression, faking). Teachers reported that in 99 and 39% of all lessons, they experienced enjoyment and anger, respectively, whereas they experienced anxiety less frequently. Teachers reported suppressing or faking their emotions during roughly a third of all lessons. Furthermore, EE was reflected in teachers’ decreased experiences of enjoyment and increased experiences of anger. On an intra-individual level, all three emotions predict EL, whereas on an inter-individual level, only anger evokes EL. Explained variances in EL (within: 39%, between: 67%) stress the relevance of emotions in teaching and within the context of teacher burnout. Beyond implying the importance of reducing anger, our findings suggest the potential of enjoyment lessening EL and thereby reducing teacher burnout. PMID:25566124

  5. Understanding the relationships between self-esteem, experiential avoidance, and paranoia: structural equation modelling and experience sampling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udachina, Alisa; Thewissen, Viviane; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Fitzpatrick, Sam; O'kane, Aisling; Bentall, Richard P

    2009-09-01

    Hypothesized relationships between experiential avoidance (EA), self-esteem, and paranoia were tested using structural equation modeling in a sample of student participants (N = 427). EA in everyday life was also investigated using the Experience Sampling Method in a subsample of students scoring high (N = 17) and low (N = 15) on paranoia. Results showed that paranoid students had lower self-esteem and reported higher levels of EA than nonparanoid participants. The interactive influence of EA and stress predicted negative self-esteem: EA was particularly damaging at high levels of stress. Greater EA and higher social stress independently predicted lower positive self-esteem. Low positive self-esteem predicted engagement in EA. A direct association between EA and paranoia was also found. These results suggest that similar mechanisms may underlie EA and thought suppression. Although people may employ EA to regulate self-esteem, this strategy is maladaptive as it damages self-esteem, incurs cognitive costs, and fosters paranoid thinking. PMID:19752645

  6. Flow situations during everyday practice in a medical hospital ward. Results from a study based on experience sampling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejlertsson Göran

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing is a constant balance between strain and stimulation and work and health research with a positive reference point has been recommended. A health-promoting circumstance for subjective experience is flow, which is a psychological state, when individuals concurrently experience happiness, motivation and cognitive efficiency. Flow situations can be identified through individuals' estimates of perceived challenge and skills. There is, to the best of our knowledge, no published study of flow among health care staff. The aim of this study was to identify flow-situations and study work-related activities and individual factors associated with flow situations, during everyday practice at a medical emergency ward in Sweden, in order to increase the knowledge on salutogenic health-promoting factors. Methods The respondents consisted of 17 assistant nurses and 14 registered nurses, who randomly and repeatedly answered a small questionnaire, through an experience sampling method, during everyday nursing practice. The study resulted in 497 observations. Flow situations were defined as an exact match between a high challenge and skill estimation and logistic regression models were used to study different variables association to flow situations. Results The health care staff spent most of its working time in individual nursing care and administrative and communicative duties. The assistant nurses were more often occupied in individual nursing care, while the registered nurses were more involved in medical care and administrative and communicative duties. The study resulted in 11.5% observations of flow situations but the relative number of flow situations varied between none to 55% among the participants. Flow situations were positively related to medical care activities and individual cognitive resources. Taking a break was also positively associated with flow situations among the assistant nurses. Conclusions The result showed

  7. Halides with Fifteen Aliphatic C–H···Anion Interaction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Genggongwo; Aliakbar Tehrani, Zahra; Kim, Dongwook; Cho, Woo Jong; Youn, Il-Seung; Lee, Han Myoung; Yousuf, Muhammad; Ahmed, Nisar; Shirinfar, Bahareh; Teator, Aaron J.; Lastovickova, Dominika N.; Rasheed, Lubna; Lah, Myoung Soo; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Kim, Kwang S.

    2016-07-01

    Since the aliphatic C–H···anion interaction is relatively weak, anion binding using hydrophobic aliphatic C–H (Cali–H) groups has generally been considered not possible without the presence of additional binding sites that contain stronger interactions to the anion. Herein, we report X-ray structures of organic crystals that feature a chloride anion bound exclusively by hydrophobic Cali–H groups. An X-ray structure of imidazolium-based scaffolds using Cali–H···A‑ interactions (A‑ = anion) shows that a halide anion is directly interacting with fifteen Cali–H groups (involving eleven hydrogen bonds, two bidentate hydrogen-bond-type binding interactions and two weakly hydrogen-bonding-like binding interactions). Additional supporting interactions and/or other binding sites are not observed. We note that such types of complexes may not be rare since such high numbers of binding sites for an anion are also found in analogous tetraalkylammonium complexes. The Cali–H···A‑ interactions are driven by the formation of a near-spherical dipole layer shell structure around the anion. The alternating layers of electrostatic charge around the anion arise because the repulsions between weakly positively charged H atoms are reduced by the presence of the weakly negatively charged C atoms connected to H atoms.

  8. Halides with Fifteen Aliphatic C-H···Anion Interaction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Genggongwo; Aliakbar Tehrani, Zahra; Kim, Dongwook; Cho, Woo Jong; Youn, Il-Seung; Lee, Han Myoung; Yousuf, Muhammad; Ahmed, Nisar; Shirinfar, Bahareh; Teator, Aaron J; Lastovickova, Dominika N; Rasheed, Lubna; Lah, Myoung Soo; Bielawski, Christopher W; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-01-01

    Since the aliphatic C-H···anion interaction is relatively weak, anion binding using hydrophobic aliphatic C-H (Cali-H) groups has generally been considered not possible without the presence of additional binding sites that contain stronger interactions to the anion. Herein, we report X-ray structures of organic crystals that feature a chloride anion bound exclusively by hydrophobic Cali-H groups. An X-ray structure of imidazolium-based scaffolds using Cali-H···A(-) interactions (A(-) = anion) shows that a halide anion is directly interacting with fifteen Cali-H groups (involving eleven hydrogen bonds, two bidentate hydrogen-bond-type binding interactions and two weakly hydrogen-bonding-like binding interactions). Additional supporting interactions and/or other binding sites are not observed. We note that such types of complexes may not be rare since such high numbers of binding sites for an anion are also found in analogous tetraalkylammonium complexes. The Cali-H···A(-) interactions are driven by the formation of a near-spherical dipole layer shell structure around the anion. The alternating layers of electrostatic charge around the anion arise because the repulsions between weakly positively charged H atoms are reduced by the presence of the weakly negatively charged C atoms connected to H atoms. PMID:27444513

  9. In vitro anti-hepatoma activity of fifteen natural medicines from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Liu, Li-Teh; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2002-08-01

    Fifteen crude drugs, Stellaria media Cyrill. (Caryophyllaceae), Calendula officinalis L. (Compositae), Achillea millefolium L. (Compositae), Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae), Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae), Satureja hortensis L. (Labiatae), Coptis groenlandica Salisb. (Ranunculaceae), Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Leguminosae), Origanum majorana L. (Labiatae), Centella asiatica L. (Umbelliferae), Caulophyllum thalictroides Mich. (Berberidaceae), Picea rubens Sargent. (Pinaceae), Rhamnus purshiana D.C. (Rhamnaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), which have been used as folk medicine in Canada, were evaluated for their anti-hepatoma activity on five human liver-cancer cell lines, i.e. HepG2/C3A, SK-HEP-1, HA22T/VGH, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5. The samples were examined by in vitro evaluation for their cytotoxicity. The results showed that the effects of crude drugs on hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines were different from those against non hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines. C. groenlandica was observed to be the most effective against the growth of all five cell lines and its chemotherapeutic values will be of interest for further studies.

  10. Further discoveries in the ever-expanding genus Begonia (Begoniaceae: fifteen new species from Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hughes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen new species of Begonia L. from Sumatra are described and illustrated, in Begonia sect. Bracteibegonia (B. beludruvenea M.Hughes sp. nov. and B. jackiana M.Hughes sp. nov., B. sect. Petermannia (B. harauensis Girm. sp. nov., B. sect. Platycentrum (B. leuserensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. sect. Reichenheimia (B. fluvialis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. halabanensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. karangputihensis Girm. sp. nov., B. kemumuensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. korthalsiana Miq. ex M.Hughes sp. nov., B. kudoensis Girm. sp. nov., B. lilliputana M.Hughes sp. nov., B. olivacea Ardi sp. nov., B. raoensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. simolapensis Ardi sp. nov. and B. sect. Sphenanthera (B. pseudoscottii Girm. sp. nov.. Using the International Union for the Conservation of Nature criteria, 6 are considered to be Least Concern, 5 Vulnerable and 4 Data Deficient. A key to 58 of the 63 currently accepted Begonia species in Sumatra is provided.

  11. In vitro anti-hepatoma activity of fifteen natural medicines from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Liu, Li-Teh; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2002-08-01

    Fifteen crude drugs, Stellaria media Cyrill. (Caryophyllaceae), Calendula officinalis L. (Compositae), Achillea millefolium L. (Compositae), Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae), Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae), Satureja hortensis L. (Labiatae), Coptis groenlandica Salisb. (Ranunculaceae), Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Leguminosae), Origanum majorana L. (Labiatae), Centella asiatica L. (Umbelliferae), Caulophyllum thalictroides Mich. (Berberidaceae), Picea rubens Sargent. (Pinaceae), Rhamnus purshiana D.C. (Rhamnaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), which have been used as folk medicine in Canada, were evaluated for their anti-hepatoma activity on five human liver-cancer cell lines, i.e. HepG2/C3A, SK-HEP-1, HA22T/VGH, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5. The samples were examined by in vitro evaluation for their cytotoxicity. The results showed that the effects of crude drugs on hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines were different from those against non hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines. C. groenlandica was observed to be the most effective against the growth of all five cell lines and its chemotherapeutic values will be of interest for further studies. PMID:12203264

  12. Construction of somatic athletes who train in WTF Taekwondo MUKS "Fifteen" in Bydgoszcz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieslicka Miroslawa.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The sports training process consists of two phenomena, on the one hand is the level of motor skills, on the other player's body to adapt to certain types and sizes of exercise, what the result is the formation of body specific to the sport. Objective. The objective was to measure the somatic features on school students practicing taekwondo and comparison with regional research Kujawsko-Pomorskie conducted by Marek Napierala. Materials and methods. The research was done on secondary school students (aged 14.5 - 16.5 years taekwondo training in Student Interschool Sports Club " Fifteen " in Bydgoszcz. We analyzed somatic features (height, weight, and BMI. There have been a correlation analysis between pairs of traits studied to investigate the relationships between the parameters of body and compared with regional research Kujawsko-Pomorskie conducted by Marek Napierala. Results and conclusions. In the case of boys outside the body of the youngest age category (14.5 years, greater than their peers from the regional research. In the group of girls higher average body height of girls exhibit regional research. Taekwondo trains are characterized by low BMI, which in most places in the range of normal. In all three age categories were characterized by higher body weight in girls with regional research. In this age the boys of regional research are on average 6.08 kg heavier than their peers who train taekwondo.

  13. Atypical presentation of Legionella pneumonia among patients with underlying cancer: A fifteen-year review☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Castillo, Maria; Lucca, Anabella; Plodkowski, Andrew; Huang, Yao-Ting; Kaplan, Janice; Gilhuley, Kathleen; Babady, N. Esther; Seo, Susan K.; Kamboj, Mini

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Immunocompromised patients, especially those receiving treatment with corticosteroids and cytotoxic chemotherapy are at increased risk for developing Legionella pneumonia. Objective The aim of this study was to determine clinical and radiographic characteristics of pulmonary infection due to Legionella in persons undergoing treatment for cancer and stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients. Methods Retrospective review of Legionella cases at MSKCC over a fifteen-year study period from January 1999 and December 2013. Cases were identified by review of microbiology records. Results During the study period, 40 cases of Legionella infection were identified; nine among these were due to non-pneumophila species. Most cases occurred during the summer. The majority [8/9, (89%)] of patients with non-pneumophila infection had underlying hematologic malignancy, compared to 18/31 (58%) with Legionella pneumophila infections. Radiographic findings were varied-nodular infiltrates mimicking invasive fungal infection were seen only among patients with hematologic malignancy and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients and were frequently associated with non-pneumophila infections (50% vs 16%; P = 0.0594). All cases of nodular Legionella pneumonia were found incidentally or had an indolent clinical course. Conclusions Legionella should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nodular lung lesions in immunocompromised patients, especially those with hematologic malignancy and SCT recipients. Most cases of nodular disease due to Legionella are associated with non-pneumophila infections. PMID:26496794

  14. Fifteen new T dwarfs discovered in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Pinfield, D J; Tamura, M; Leggett, S K; Lodieu, N; Lucas, P W; Mortlock, D J; Warren, S J; Homeier, D; Ishi, M; Deacon, N R; McMahon, R G; Hewett, P C; Osorio, M R Zapatero; Martín, E L; Jones, H R A; Venemans, B P; Day-Jones, A; Dobbie, P D; Folkes, S L; Dye, S; Allard, F; Baraffe, I; Navascues, D Barrado y; Casewell, S L; Chiu, K; Chabrier, G; Clarke, F; Hodgkin, S T; Magazzù, A; McCaughrean, M J; Moraux, E; Nakajima, T; Pavlenko, Y; Tinney, C G

    2008-01-01

    We present the discovery of fifteen new T2.5-T7.5 dwarfs (with estimated distances between ~24-93pc, identified in the first three main data releases of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey. This brings the total number of T dwarfs discovered in the Large Area Survey (to date) to 28. These discoveries are confirmed by near infrared spectroscopy, from which we derive spectral types on the unified scheme of Burgasser et al. (2006). Seven of the new T dwarfs have spectral types of T2.5-T4.5, five have spectral types of T5-T5.5, one is a T6.5p, and two are T7-7.5. We assess spectral morphology and colours to identify T dwarfs in our sample that may have non-typical physical properties (by comparison to solar neighbourhood populations). The colours of the full sample of LAS T dwarfs show a possible trend to bluer Y-J with decreasing effective temperature beyond T8. By accounting for the main sources of incompleteness (selection, follow-up and spatial) as well as the effects of unresolved binarity and Malmquist bias,...

  15. Motivation towards career choice of Brazilian freshman students in a fifteen-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Jordao, Lidia Moraes Ribeiro; de Paula Ferreira, Naiara; de Fatima Nunes, Maria; Queiroz, Maria Goretti; Leles, Claudio Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Examining dental students' profiles and perspectives contributes to discussions concerning dental education and practice. This study aimed, first, to investigate Brazilian dental students' reasons for pursuing dentistry as an occupation and, secondly, to consider the professional expectations of freshman students at a Brazilian public university over a fifteen-year period. A cross-sectional study was performed using data from a self-administered questionnaire to all first-year students enrolled in the 1993-95 and 2006-08 periods at the Federal University of Goias, Brazil (n=376). A total of 296 students responded (response rate=78.7 percent). Frequency analysis and chi-square tests were used to compare frequencies between the two time periods. Job conception was cited as the primary reason for pursuing dentistry, and the students considered oral health promotion and oral disease prevention as the primary purposes of dentistry. Most students intended to serve both high and low socioeconomic populations and both private and public practices after graduation. The majority cited an interest in specializing in clinical fields, orthodontics being the most frequent option. Significant trends included a greater interest in health promotion and public services and specializing in aesthetic dentistry and implantology in the 2006-08 period. This study revealed significant differences in the freshman students' motivations and professional perspectives over time. Personal views and concepts about profession are major influencing factors for choosing dentistry as a career. PMID:21205736

  16. ADHD and language impairment: A study of the parent questionnaire FTF (Five to Fifteen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Barbro; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2006-02-01

    The parental questionnaire FTF (Five to Fifteen) was given to parents of 76 children (mean age 11 years) diagnosed with ADHD. About half of the children had at least once been referred to a speech- and language pathologist. Most of them had not received any intervention or follow-up. A factor analysis identified six problem areas, which explain close to 75% of the total variation: Cognitive Skills, Motor/Perception, Emotion/Socialisation/Behaviour, Attention, Literacy Skills and Activity Control. The majority of the children had pragmatic problems, which are associated with some of the core aspects of the ADHD symptoms, especially inattention and impulsiveness. Communication and language comprehension caused these children many more problems than expressive language. Problems of reading and writing were very frequent. IQ-score was associated with maths and reading/writing. Additional items reflecting language skills, in particular language comprehension and pragmatics, were also found in other domains in the FTF, mainly in Executive functions, Learning and Social skills. Problems with language and pragmatics thus seem to be associated with the typical problems with learning and social skills in children with ADHD.

  17. Methane dissociation on Ni(111): A fifteen-dimensional potential energy surface using neural network method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangjian; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhaojun; Shao, Kejie; Zhang, Dong H.

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, we develop a highly accurate, fifteen-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) of CH4 interacting on a rigid flat Ni(111) surface with the methodology of neural network (NN) fit to a database consisted of about 194 208 ab initio density functional theory (DFT) energy points. Some careful tests of the accuracy of the fitting PES are given through the descriptions of the fitting quality, vibrational spectrum of CH4 in vacuum, transition state (TS) geometries as well as the activation barriers. Using a 25-60-60-1 NN structure, we obtain one of the best PESs with the least root mean square errors: 10.11 meV for the entrance region and 17.00 meV for the interaction and product regions. Our PES can reproduce the DFT results very well in particular for the important TS structures. Furthermore, we present the sticking probability S0 of ground state CH4 at the experimental surface temperature using some sudden approximations by Jackson's group. An in-depth explanation is given for the underestimated sticking probability.

  18. Association between fifteen risk factors and progressing ischemic stroke in the Han population of northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shan-shan; TENG Da; YOU Ding-yun; SU Zhi-qiang; LI Fang; ZHAO Ji-yang

    2010-01-01

    Background The mortality and disability associated with progressing ischemic stroke are much higher than general ischemic stroke. This study was conducted to determine the risk factors for progressing ischemic stroke in the Han population of northeast China.Methods A total of 2511 patients with ischemic stroke within 24 hours admitted to Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University were studied, from November 2007 to May 2009. All of the patients were classified into the progressing or non-progressing group according to the scores of the Scandinavian Neurological Stroke Scale. Fifteen putative risk factors were evaluated. The influence of risk factors for progressing ischemic stroke was analyzed with the simple Logistic analysis, the multiple Logistic analysis, and the stepwise Logistic regression model. All the statistical analysis was performed by SAS 9.1.Results Totally 359 (14.3%) patients met the criteria for progressing ischemic stroke. The Logistic analysis showed that age, family stroke history, smoking history, hypertension on admission, a drop in blood pressure after admission to the hospital, high serum glucose on admission, and fever were related to progressing ischemic stroke in the Han population of northeast China.Conclusion People of the ischemic stroke with these factors are more likely to develop progressing ischemic stroke.

  19. An empirical investigation on different methods of economic growth rate forecast and its behavior from fifteen countries across five continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yip Chee; Hock-Eam, Lim

    2012-09-01

    Our empirical results show that we can predict GDP growth rate more accurately in continent with fewer large economies, compared to smaller economies like Malaysia. This difficulty is very likely positively correlated with subsidy or social security policies. The stage of economic development and level of competiveness also appears to have interactive effects on this forecast stability. These results are generally independent of the forecasting procedures. Countries with high stability in their economic growth, forecasting by model selection is better than model averaging. Overall forecast weight averaging (FWA) is a better forecasting procedure in most countries. FWA also outperforms simple model averaging (SMA) and has the same forecasting ability as Bayesian model averaging (BMA) in almost all countries.

  20. A gold immunochromatographic assay for the rapid and simultaneous detection of fifteen β-lactams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanni; Wang, Yongwei; Liu, Liqiang; Wu, Xiaoling; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Li, Aike; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-10-01

    A novel gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA) based on anti-β-lactam receptors was innovatively developed that successfully allowed rapid and simultaneous detection of fifteen β-lactams in milk samples in 5-10 minutes. By replacing the antibodies used in traditional GICA with anti-β-lactam receptors, the difficulty in producing broad specific antibodies against β-lactams was overcome. Conjugates of ampicillin with BSA and goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (IgG) were immobilized onto the test and control lines on the nitrocellulose membrane, respectively. Since goat anti-mouse IgG does not combine with receptors, negative serum from mice labelled with gold nanoparticles (GNP) was mixed with GNP-labelled receptors. Results were obtained within 20 min using a paper-based sensor. The utility of the assay was confirmed by the analysis of milk samples. The limits of detection (LOD) for amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, cefaclor, ceftezole, cefotaxime, ceftiofur, cefoperazone, cefathiamidine, and cefepime were 0.25, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5, 1, 5, 5, 10, 25, 10, 100, 10, 5, 5, and 2 ng mL-1, respectively, which satisfies the maximum residue limits (MRL) set by the European Union (EU). In conclusion, our newly developed GICA-based anti-β-lactam receptor assay provides a rapid and effective method for one-site detection of multiple β-lactams in milk samples.A novel gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA) based on anti-β-lactam receptors was innovatively developed that successfully allowed rapid and simultaneous detection of fifteen β-lactams in milk samples in 5-10 minutes. By replacing the antibodies used in traditional GICA with anti-β-lactam receptors, the difficulty in producing broad specific antibodies against β-lactams was overcome. Conjugates of ampicillin with BSA and goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (IgG) were immobilized onto the test and control lines on the nitrocellulose membrane, respectively

  1. Comparison of the ability of fifteen onion (Allium cepa L. cultivars to accumulate nitrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wojciechowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of a two-year study was to characterise selected Allium cepa L. genotypes with regard to their ability to accumulate nitrates in bulbs as well as to search for a possible relation between NO3- concentration and dry matter content. Fifteen cultivars of edible onion, mostly of long-day genotype with different growing periods, bulb size and skin colour, were taken for the experiment. Seeds of particular cultivars were obtained from the following seed companies: Spójnia Nochowo (‘Labrador’, ‘Takstar F1’,‘Tęcza’, ‘Warna’, ‘Zorza’, Polan (‘Polanowska’, ‘Topolska’, PlantiCo Gołębiew (‘Alibaba’, ‘Efekt’, ‘Kristine’, ‘Niagara F1’,and PlantiCo Zielonki (‘Bila’, ‘Irka’, ‘Wenta’, ‘Zeta’. Plants produced from seedlings were grown in the experimental field of the University of Agriculture in Kraków. After crop harvesting and additional drying, nitrate and dry matter content in bulbs of all cultivars were measured. The following cultivars: ‘Efekt’, ‘Labrador’ and red-skinned ‘Wenta’, were characterized by the lowest ability to accumulate NO3- in bulbs. The highest nitrate content was noted in bulbs of ‘Takstar F1’ (a very early-season cultivar, followed by ‘Bila’ and ‘Tęcza’. A weak, yet statistically significant negative correlation between nitrate and dry matter content was observed. The highest dry matter content was determined in bulbs of white-skinned ‘Alibaba’, while the lowest – in brown-skinned ‘Labrador’.

  2. Fifteen fatal fallacies of financial fundamentalism Quince falacias funestas del fundamentalismo financiero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickrey William

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, Professor Vickrey shows that current economic policy is based on incomplete analyses, counterfactual assumptions, and false analogies. The article examines in detail fifteen fallacies which, taken together, lead to policies which at best generate economic lethargy with unemployment rates close to 5 or 6 percent. For Professor Vickrey, this situation is harmful in that it reduces potential production between 10 and 15 percent even if the loss is distributed in an equitable way among the population; but when it turns into unemployment of 10, 20, and up to 40 percent for the less favored groups, the additional harm in terms of poverty, family breakup, school absence and dropout, illegitimacy,
    drug use, and crime becomes very serious. Thus these policies are like a 'premeditated homicidal fire' and, even worse, when they are carried to their ultimate consequences, in search of 'budgetary equilibrium', they can lead to a deep depression.En este articulo, el profesor Vickrey muestra que la politica economica actual se basa en analisis incompletos, supuestos contrafactuales y analogias falsas. El articulo examina en detalle quince falacias que, en conjunto, llevan a politicas que, en el mejor de los casos, generan un letargo economico con tasas de desempleo cercanas al 5 o 6 por ciento. Para el profesor Vickrey, esta situacion es perjudicial por cuanto reduce la produccion potencial entre un 10 y un 15 por ciento aun asi la perdida de se reparte de forma equitativa entre toda la poblacion; pero cuando se traduce un desempleo de 10, 20 o hasta 40 por ciento para los grupos desfavorecidos, los perjuicios adicionales en terminos de pobreza, ruptura familiar, ausencia y desercion escolar, ilegitimidad, uso de drogas y crimenes llegan a ser muy graves. De modo que estas politicas se asemejan a un "incendio homicida premeditado" y, aun peor, cuando se llevan hasta sus ultimas concecuencias, en busca de un 'presupuesto equilibrado

  3. Deletions in the genomes of fifteen inbred mouse lines and their possible implications for fat accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) are pieces of genomic DNA of 1000 base pairs or longer which occur in a given genome at a different frequency than in a reference genome. Their importance as a source for phenotypic variability has been recognized only in the last couple of years. Chromosomal deletions can be seen as a special case of CNVs where stretches of DNA are missing in certain lines when compared to the reference genome of the mouse line C57BL/6, for example. Based upon more than 8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fifteen inbred mouse lines which were determined in a whole genome chip based resequencing project by Perlegen Sciences, we detected 20166 such long chromosomal deletions. They cover altogether between 4.4 million and 8.8 million base pairs, depending on the mouse line. Thus, their extent is comparable to that of SNPs. The chromosomal deletions were found by searching for clusters of missing values in the genotyping data by applying bioinformatics and biostatistical methods. In contrast to isolated missing values, clusters are likely the consequence of missing DNA probe rather than of a failed hybridization or deficient oligos. We analyzed these deletion sites in various ways. Twenty-two percent of these deletion sites overlap with exons; they could therefore affect a gene's functioning. The corresponding genes seem to exist in alternative forms, a phenomenon that reminds of the altemative forms of mRNA generated during gene splicing. We furthermore detected statistically significant association between hundreds of deletion sites and fat weight at the age of eight weeks.

  4. X-Rays from the Explosion Site: Fifteen Years of Light Curves of SN 1993J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Poonam; Dwarkadas, Vikram V.; Ray, Alak; Immler, Stefan; Pooley, David

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the X-ray light curves of SN 1993J in a nearby galaxy M81. This is the only supernova other than SN 1987A, which is so extensively followed in the X-ray bands. Here we report on SN 1993J observations with the Chandra in the year 2005 and 2008, and Swift observations in 2005, 2006 and 2008. We combined these observations with all available archival data of SN 1993J, which includes ROSAT, ASCA, Chandra, and XMM-Newton, observations from 1993 April to 2006 August. In this paper we report the X-ray light curves of SN 1993J, extending up to fifteen years, in the soft (0.3-2.4 keV), hard (2-8 keV) and combined (0.3-8 keV) bands. The hard and soft-band fluxes decline at different rates initially, but after about 5 years they both undergo a t(sup -1) decline. The soft X-rays, which are initially low, start dominating after a few hundred days. We interpret that most of the emission below 8 keV is coming from the reverse shock which is radiative initially for around first 1000-2000 days and then turn into adiabatic shock. Our hydrodynamic simulation also confirms the reverse shock origin of the observed light curves. We also compare the Ha line luminosity of SN 1993J with its X-ray light curve and note that the Ha line luminosity has a fairly high fraction of the X-ray emission, indicating presence of clumps in the emitting plasma.

  5. A Fifteen Year Record of Global Natural Gas Flaring Derived from Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Zhizhin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We have produced annual estimates of national and global gas flaring and gas flaring efficiency from 1994 through 2008 using low light imaging data acquired by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP. Gas flaring is a widely used practice for the disposal of associated gas in oil production and processing facilities where there is insufficient infrastructure for utilization of the gas (primarily methane. Improved utilization of the gas is key to reducing global carbon emissions to the atmosphere. The DMSP estimates of flared gas volume are based on a calibration developed with a pooled set of reported national gas flaring volumes and data from individual flares. Flaring efficiency was calculated as the volume of flared gas per barrel of crude oil produced. Global gas flaring has remained largely stable over the past fifteen years, in the range of 140 to 170 billion cubic meters (BCM. Global flaring efficiency was in the seven to eight cubic meters per barrel from 1994 to 2005 and declined to 5.6 m3 per barrel by 2008. The 2008 gas flaring estimate of 139 BCM represents 21% of the natural gas consumption of the USA with a potential retail market value of $68 billion. The 2008 flaring added more than 278 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e into the atmosphere. The DMSP estimated gas flaring volumes indicate that global gas flaring has declined by 19% since 2005, led by gas flaring reductions in Russia and Nigeria, the two countries with the highest gas flaring levels. The flaring efficiency of both Russia and Nigeria improved from 2005 to 2008, suggesting that the reductions in gas flaring are likely the result of either improved utilization of the gas, reinjection, or direct venting of gas into the atmosphere, although the effect of uncertainties in the satellite data cannot be ruled out. It is anticipated that the capability to estimate gas flaring volumes based on satellite data will spur improved utilization of

  6. The Inhibitory Effect of Oridonin on the Growth of Fifteen Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhui Chen; Shaobin Wang; Dongyang Chen; Guisheng Chang; Qingfeng Xin; Shoujun Yuan; Zhongying Shen

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the inhibitory effect of oridonin on the growth of cancer cells.METHODS Fifteen human cancer cell lines were subjected to various concentrations of oridonin in culture medium.The inhibitory rate of cell growth was measured by the MTT assay.and compared with a negative control and 5-Fu-positive control.RESULTS The 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) and maximal inhibi tion (Imax) of oridonin shown by studying the growth of the cancer cell lines were as follows:leukemias (HL60 cells:3.9 μg/ml and 73.8%.K562 cells:4.3 μg/ml and 76.2%):esophageal cancers (SHEEC cells:15.4 μg/ml and 99.2%,Eca109 cells:15.1 μg/ml and 84.6%,TE1 cells:4.0 μg/ml and 70.2%):gastric cancers (BGC823 cells:7.6 μg/ml and 98.7%,SGC7901 cells:12.3 μg/ml and 85.7%):colon cancers (HT29 cells:13.6 μg/ml and 97.2%,HCT cells:14.5 μg/ml and 96.5%):liver cancers (Bel7402 cells:15.2 μg/ml and 89.2%,HepG2 cells:7.1 μg/ml and 88.3%):pancreatic cancer (PC3 cells:11.3 μg/ml and 68.4%):lung cancer (A549 cells:18.6 μg/ml and 98.0%):breast cancer (MCF7 cells:18.4 μg/ml and 84.7%):uterine cervix cancer (Hela cells:13.7μg/ml and 98.5%).CONCLUSION Oridonin had a relatively wide anti-tumor spectrum,and a relatively strong inhibitory effect on the growth of the 15 human cancer cells.Inhibitory effects were concentration dependent.

  7. Tracking the train of thought from the laboratory into everyday life: An experience-sampling study of mind wandering across controlled and ecological contexts

    OpenAIRE

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    In an experience-sampling study that bridged laboratory, ecological, and individual-differences approaches to mind-wandering research, 72 subjects completed an executive-control task with periodic thought probes (reported by McVay & Kane, 2009) and then carried PDAs for a week that signaled them 8 times daily to report immediately whether their thoughts were off-task. Subjects who reported more mind wandering during the laboratory task endorsed more mind-wandering experiences during everyday ...

  8. The contents of fifteen essential, trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their aqueous extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of fifteen elements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined in Green Tea samples imported from different countries such as India, China, Kenya and Bangladesh in packets and without packets were purchased from authorized tea dealers in Peshawar. Wet ashing procedures were employed for decomposing the organic matter in the tea samples. Aqueous extract of each green tea sample was also prepared by heating with de-ionized water at 80 /sup o/C on electric heating plates. (author)

  9. Chernobyl, fifteen years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has been constituted around four questions: the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor, and the sarcophagus around it; the health consequences of the accident on the persons that have worked on the damaged reactor and on the population in the countries the most exposed to fallout,; the situation of contaminated territories around the power plant and their management today; the last question concerns especially the France with the consequences of the radioactive cloud and what we know about the health risks induced by this event. (N.C.)

  10. The inter-relationship between mood, self-esteem and response styles in adolescent offspring of bipolar parents: an experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlickova, Hana; Turnbull, Oliver H; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Bentall, Richard P

    2015-02-28

    The response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) proposes three main strategies individuals employ in response to low mood: rumination, active coping (distraction and problem-solving) and risk taking. Although recent research has suggested this theory has utility in understanding the symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD), the role of these processes in conferring vulnerability to the condition is poorly understood. Twenty-three adolescent children of patients with BD and 25 offspring of well parents completed the Experience Sampling Method (ESM; Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 1987) diary for six days. Longitudinal analyses were carried out to examine inter-relationships between mood, self-esteem and response styles. Increased negative as well as positive mood resulted in greater rumination in both groups. Low self-esteem triggered greater risk-taking at the subsequent time point in the at-risk group, while negative affect instigated increased active coping in the control group. In both groups, engagement in risk-taking improved mood at the subsequent time point, whilst rumination dampened self-esteem. Differential longitudinal associations between mood, self-esteem and response styles between at-risk and control children suggest early psychological vulnerability in the offspring of BD parents, with important indications for early intervention.

  11. The Association between Television-Viewing Behaviors and Adolescent Dating Role Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra, Rocio; Lebo, Melanie J.

    2008-01-01

    Two hundred and fifteen ninth grade students were surveyed to examine the relationship between television use and gender role attitudes and behavior in dating situations. Findings indicate the existence of a relationship between watching "romantic" television programming and having more traditional gender role attitudes in dating situations.…

  12. Sexual Violence Against Children under Fifteen Years in the Case Lubanga: Critical Analysis and a Proposed Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Alberto Dias

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most controversial issues that the Pre-Trial Chamber I of the International Criminal Court had to decide in their judgment against Thomas Lubanga Dyilo was the legal treatment of the acts of sexual violence committed during the armed conflict of Ituri. This was a challenging aspect because the Prosecutor had previously decided not to present charges based on sex crimes. On the contrary, he mostly focused his prosecutorial strategy on the war crimes of conscripting, enlisting children under the age of fifteen years or using them to participate actively in hostilities. Facing that situation, the majority of the Trial Chamber I decided not to analyse the issue, while judge Elizabeth Odio Benito took up this point and considered that acts of sexual violence constitute an active participation in hostilities. In this essay I will critically analyse both opinions with the aim of offering an alternative explanation. The latter could be read as follows: despite the fact that acts of sexual violence were not included in the charges, they are covered by the conducts of conscripting or enlisting.

  13. The contents of fifteen essential trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of fifteen elements i.e. Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined for 30 sample from three types of green tea samples using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The samples were purchased from authentic tea dealer in Peshawar imported from India, China and Kenya. However, some samples were taken which were locally produced in Pakistan with branded packing and without package. The NBS tea leaves. The wet digestion and infusion procedure reference material was also analyzed simultaneously with tea samples. The wet digestion and infusion procedures were employed for determination of total elements and aqueous extracted elements respectively. It was found that, considerable amount of essential and trace elements are present in total in tea infusion. The levels of toxic metals are low but level of aluminum is high in both forms. The results obtained from this analysis have shown good accuracy and reproducibility. The relative error and relative standard deviation were less than 10% for most of the elements analyzed. (author)

  14. For a responsible energetic future. Energy: let us rejoice, France is waking up. Fifteen tales on energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a first article, the author discusses the possible content of a law on energy transition which is supposed to be voted by the Parliament during the autumn 2014, and which will probably decide the shutting down of some French nuclear plants. The author outlines the social, economical and energy-related consequences of such a policy. In a second article he rejoices over the publication of two reports (one on the Energy Climate Package by the Cour des Comptes, and one by the General Commissioner for Strategy and Prospective) which consider that the objectives of development of renewable energies (notably wind and photovoltaic) are too ambitious and even unrealistic, and outline the bad management of investments and the inefficiency of action by the ADEME and the Ministry of Ecology. In the third article he denounces fifteen 'tales' about the German energy model, the uselessness of seven German nuclear plants which have been stopped, the low cost of energy transition, the environmental benefit of renewable energies, the high potential of energy savings, the new electricity storage means, the electric car as a new mean of storage of electric current, the sun which does not send any bill, wind energy (when a wind farm is said to be able to supply energy to so many thousands households), geothermal energy production, technological leap, the benefit of decentralization, the miracle of job creation by renewable energies, the ecologic electricity, nuclear wastes we do not know what to do with

  15. Weatherization Beyond the Numbers: Case Studies of Fifteen High-performing Weatherization Agencies - Conducted May 2011 through July 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Beth A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The report presents fifteen individual case studies of high-performing and unique local weatherization agencies. This research was one component of the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. The agencies were chosen to represent a range of contexts and approaches to weatherization. For example, the set of agencies includes a mix of urban and rural agencies, those that mainly use in-house crews to weatherize homes versus those that use contractor crews, and a mix of locations, from very cold climates to moderate to hot humid and dry climates. The case studies were mainly based on site visits to the agencies that encompassed interviews with program directors, weatherization crews, and recipients of weatherization. This information was supplemented by secondary materials. The cases document the diversity of contexts and challenges faced by the agencies and how they operate on a day-by-day basis. The cases also high common themes found throughout the agencies, such as their focus on mission and respect for their clients.

  16. Guidelines for Cognitive Behavioral Training within Doctoral Psychology Programs in the United States: Report of the Inter-Organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K.; Ronan, George F.; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D.; Belar, Cynthia D.; Berry, Sharon L.; Christofff, Karen A.; Craighead, Linda W.; Dougher, Michael J.; Dowd, E. Thomas; Herbert, James D.; McFarr, Lynn M.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Sauer, Eric M.; Strauman, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a yearlong series of…

  17. The evaluation of fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) for fresh fruit production in the Pretoria region

    OpenAIRE

    Wessels, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica) were evaluated for three successive seasons at the University of Pretoria Research Farm. Yields were recorded and external and internal fruit quality factors were identified and considered. Following this investigation, minimum standards were suggested and the cultivars under review were compared. The cultivars Morado, Algerian, Fusicaulis van Heerden, Fresno, Mexican and Nudosa met all or most of the standards set. It is con...

  18. One the way to European Union: changes in the Czech education system during the last fifteen years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milada Rubusicová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to describe the changes in the educationalsystem in the Czech Republic that have taken place from the beginning of the 1990’s up to the present. The first part includes a brief characterisation of the initial situation typical of the socialist model of education and a specification ofthose areas that were viewed sceptically or critically after the „velvet revolution»in 1989, and that have been identified as areas where a change is desirable. Next part of the paper describes the course of changes and reforms of education in subsequent years. Periodisation of reforms is carried out on the basisof a general model that has been created, as one of possible approaches, for postsocialist countries in transformation. Each part of the model, i.e. the correctivereforms, modernization reforms, structural reforms and system reforms, containsan outline of the respective individual changes that took place in the Czech Republic in the course of the last, almost fifteen years, and the changes arecritically evaluated.There are some documents (e.g. the Czech «White Paper» that are of essential importance to the recent and current situation in the Czech educational systembecause they create basic visions and orientation but also a strategy of future changes. The documents are treated in the next section of the present text. It isfollowed by a brief analysis of the current situation of the Czech educational system, namely as regards the educational opportunities and participation in education, structure and network of schools, financing of the Czech educational system, and finally the school leavers’ prospects at the labour market.The last part of the paper deals with the outlooks of further development of the Czech educational system in connection with the entry into the European Union,and a conclusion is drawn that it involves mutual convergence of problems caused by global economic and social forces that also leads to

  19. A Rewarding Fifteen Years: From SLG to SCR/SP11%值得的十五年——从SLG到SCR/SP11

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔海洋; 赖钊; 薛勇彪

    2001-01-01

    Self_incompatibility (SI) is a major genetic mechanism to prevent self_fertilization in flowering plants and, in most cases, controlled by a single multiallelic locus, known as the S locus. In Brassica, the genes mediating both stylar (SRK, S receptor kinase) and pollen (SCR/SP11, S locus cystein rich protein/S locus protein 11) expression of self_incompatible reaction have been characterized though the first S locus_encoded gene, SLG (S locus glycoprotein), was isolated nearly fifteen years ago. These findings have finally unveiled the molecular partners in pollen recognition during self_incompatible reaction in Brassica.

  20. A STUDY OF CRYPTOLECHIA ZELLER (LEPIDOPTERA :OECOPHORIDAE) IN CHINA (I), WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF FIFTEEN NEW SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-XiaWang

    2003-01-01

    The present paper reports thirty-three species of the genus Cryptolechia in China. Fifteen speciesare described as new to science: C. deflecta sp. nov. , C. kangxianensis sp. nov. , C. microbyrsa sp. nov. ,C.falsivespertina sp. nov., C.cornutivalvata sp. nov., C .fasciruptasp. nov., C. neargometra sp. nov., C.paranthaedeaga sp. nov., C.sp. nov., C. stictifascia sp. nov., C.jigongshanica sp. nov., C. mirabilis sp. nov., C. anthaedeaga sp. nov., C. gei sp. nov. and C. varifascirupta sp. nov. The genital structures of the new species are illustrated.

  1. The evaluation of fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. for fresh fruit production in the Pretoria region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Wessels

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica were evaluated for three successive seasons at the University of Pretoria Research Farm. Yields were recorded and external and internal fruit quality factors were identified and considered. Following this investigation, minimum standards were suggested and the cultivars under review were compared. The cultivars Morado, Algerian, Fusicaulis van Heerden, Fresno, Mexican and Nudosa met all or most of the standards set. It is concluded that for fresh fruit production these cultivars are best suited for planting in the Pretoria region and in areas with similar climatic conditions.

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Fifteen Constituents of Jitai Tablet Using Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Triple Quadrupole Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of fifteen constituents in Jitai tablet (JTT, a complex Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription (TCMP used in treating opiate addiction. Benefitting from a small particle size (1.8 µm C18 column, accelerated analysis with satisfactory resolution, sensitivity and selectivity were achieved in a single run within 7 min with linear gradient elution of acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v formic acid in water. The analytical signal was obtained by multiple reaction monitoring transitions via electrospray ionization source operating in both positive and negative ionization mode. The approach was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability, stability and recovery. All analytes showed good linearity over a wide concentration range (r > 0.99. The method limits ranged from 0.03 ng/mL to 19.35 ng/mL which are sensitive enough for quality control studies. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of fifteen constituents in JTT. In conclusion, our experimental results demonstrate that UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS is a useful approach for the overall quality assessment of complex TCMPs.

  3. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Marks; Kayla de la Haye; Barnett, Lisa M.; Steven Allender

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA), sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents. Methods Participants were 310 students, aged 11–13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate). PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and s...

  4. Cementless total hip arthroplasty with the rectangular titanium Zweymuller stem. A concise follow-up, at a minimum of fifteen years, of a previous report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübl, Alexander; Chiari, Catharina; Giurea, Alexander; Gruber, Martin; Kaider, Alexandra; Marker, Martina; Zehetgruber, Harald; Gottsauner-Wolf, Florian

    2006-10-01

    Between October 1986 and November 1987, 208 total hip arthroplasties were performed with use of the cementless Zweymüller stem and a threaded cup in 200 consecutive patients. Of 102 patients (108 hips) who were available for follow-up at a minimum of 180 months postoperatively, eighty-three (eighty-nine hips) had the primary joint replacement still intact. No stem had been revised because of aseptic loosening, but we found various degrees of osteolysis around sixteen (18%) of the implants. The probability of survival of the stem at fifteen years was 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.00). The probability of survival of the cup was 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 0.91). PMID:17015598

  5. Fifteen-Year Biochemical Relapse-Free Survival, Cause-Specific Survival, and Overall Survival Following I125 Prostate Brachytherapy in Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: Seattle Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report 15-year biochemical relapse-free survival (BRFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) outcomes of patients treated with I125 brachytherapy monotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer early in the Seattle experience. Methods and Materials: Two hundred fifteen patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were consecutively treated from 1988 to 1992 with I125 monotherapy. They were prospectively followed as a tight cohort. They were evaluated for BRFS, CSS, and OS. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate outcomes by pretreatment clinical prognostic factors. BRFS was analyzed by the Phoenix (nadir + 2 ng/mL) definition. CSS and OS were evaluated by chart review, death certificates, and referring physician follow-up notes. Gleason scoring was performed by general pathologists at a community hospital in Seattle. Time to biochemical failure (BF) was calculated and compared by Kaplan-Meier plots. Results: Fifteen-year BRFS for the entire cohort was 80.4%. BRFS by D'Amico risk group classification cohort analysis was 85.9%, 79.9%, and 62.2% for low, intermediate, and high-risk patients, respectively. Follow-up ranged from 3.6 to 18.4 years; median follow-up was 15.4 years for biochemically free of disease patients. Overall median follow-up was 11.7 years. The median time to BF in those who failed was 5.1 years. CSS was 84%. OS was 37.1%. Average age at time of treatment was 70 years. There was no significant difference in BRFS between low and intermediate risk groups. Conclusion: I125 monotherapy results in excellent 15-year BRFS and CSS, especially when taking into account the era of treatment effect.

  6. Benefits of transformational behaviors for leaders: A daily investigation of leader behaviors and need fulfillment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaj, Klodiana; Johnson, Russell E; Lee, Stephanie M

    2016-02-01

    Although a large body of work has examined the benefits of transformational leadership, this work has predominantly focused on recipients of such behaviors. Recent research and theory, however, suggest that there are also benefits for those performing behaviors reflective of transformational leadership. Across 2 experience-sampling studies, we investigate the effects of such behaviors on actors' daily affective states. Drawing from affective events theory and self-determination theory we hypothesize and find that engaging in behaviors reflective of transformational leadership is associated with improvement in actors' daily affect, more so than engaging in behaviors reflective of transactional, consideration, initiating structure, and participative leadership. Behaviors reflective of transformational leadership improved actors' affect in part by fulfilling their daily needs. Furthermore, extraversion and neuroticism moderated these effects such that extraverts benefitted less whereas neurotics benefitted more from these behaviors in terms of affective changes. We consider the theoretical and practical implications of these findings and offer directions for future research. PMID:26348475

  7. Volatile Exsolution Experiments: Sampling Exsolved Magmatic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattitch, B.; Blundy, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    In magmatic arcs the conditions of volatile exsolution exert a direct control on the composition of exsolved magmatic volatiles phases (MVPs), as well as on their parental magmas. The ability to accurately assess the exchange of major and trace elements between MVPs and magmas is key to understanding the evolution of arc magmas. The trace element signatures measured in arc volcanoes, fumaroles, and hydrothermal ore deposits are greatly influenced by the role of MVPs. In order to investigate the interplay and evolution of melts and MVPs we need experimental methods to simulate MVP exsolution that impose minimal external constraints on their equilibration. Previous experiments have focused on evaluating the exchange of elements between aqueous fluids and silicate melts under equilibrium conditions[1,2]. However, the large mass proportion of fluid to melt in these experiment designs is unrealistic. As a result, the idealized compositions of the aqueous fluids may exert a strong control on melt compositions for which they are out of equilibrium, especially at low melt fractions. In contrast, other experiments have focused on the melt during crystallization but must calculate MVP compositions by mass balance[3]. In order to investigate MVPs and magmas during this critical period of MVP exsolution, we present a new two-stage fluid-melt experimental design. Stage one experiments generate super-liquidus hydrous melts using Laguna del Maule rhyolites and dactites, as analogues for ascending arc magmas. Stage two experiments allow aliquots of stage one melt/glass to crystallize and exsolve MVPs. The design then uses pressure cycling to promote infiltration of in-situ fractured quartz[4] and traps the MVPs as synthetic fluid inclusions. We present results from trial stage 2 experiments, which produced synthetic fluid inclusions consistent with literature values of fluid-melt Cl partitioning[5] and of sufficient size for LA-ICPMS analysis. Trace element partitioning for Li, Na, K, Cu, Mo, and Au will also be presented. [1] Candela P.A. and Holland H.D. (1984) GCA 48, 373-380 [2] Simon et al. (2006) GCA 70, 5583-5600. [3] Clemente B., Scaillet B., Pichavant M. (2004) Jour. Pet. 45, 2171-2196 [4] Sterner S.M. and Bodnar R.J. (1991) Am. J. Sci. 291, 1-54. [5] Webster J.D. and Holloway J.R. (1988) GCA 52, 2091-2105.

  8. A Pilot Study of Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Hispanics with Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interian, Alejandro; Allen, Lesley A.; Gara, Michael A.; Escobar, Javier I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for major depression among Hispanics in primary care. Cultural adaptations were applied based on a range of cultural considerations described in the literature. Fifteen Hispanic primary care patients with major depression were enrolled. All…

  9. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals significant…

  10. Fifteen new species of Penicillium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, C M; Renaud, J B; Burgess, K M N; Malloch, D W; Clark, D; Ketch, L; Urb, M; Louis-Seize, G; Assabgui, R; Sumarah, M W; Seifert, K A

    2016-06-01

    We introduce 15 new species of Penicillium isolated from a diverse range of locations, including Canada, Costa Rica, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Tanzania, USA and the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, from a variety of habitats, including leaf surfaces in tropical rain forests, soil eaten by chimpanzees, infrabuccal pockets of carpenter ants, intestinal contents of caterpillars and soil. The new species are classified in sections Aspergilloides (1), Canescentia (2), Charlesia (1), Exilicaulis (3), Lanata-Divaricata (7) and Stolkia (1). Each is characterised and described using classical morphology, LC-MS based extrolite analyses and multigene phylogenies based on ITS, BenA and CaM. Significant extrolites detected include andrastin, pulvilloric acid, penitrem A and citrinin amongst many others. PMID:27616792

  11. Fifteen minute stories about training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Catherine; Wiener, Jan; Tserashchuk, Alena; Tsivinsky, Vladimir; Volodina, Elena; Alexandrova, Natalia L

    2011-11-01

    This panel presentation at the Journal's conference in St Petersburg responded to the conference theme of 'Ancestors in Personal, Professional and Social History' by relating it to the experience of training and being trained on the IAAP 'router' programme in Russia. The two organizers of the programme (JW and CC) have worked in Russia for over 12 years, bringing analysts from Britain to Moscow and St Petersburg on a 'shuttle' basis as supervisors and personal analysts. A few months after handing over the router programme in December 2010 to the Russian colleagues they had trained, they invited four analysts, three Russian and one Belarusian, to tell a short personal story about their training, linking it to the theme of 'the Ancestors'. The resulting four stories are very different but complement each other, using imagery to illustrate issues concerning both value and ambivalence. JW and CC jointly wrote their story about the programme in response to the four stories, reflecting on some of their themes and from them, giving consideration to the flexibility and limits of such a model of cross-cultural training. Themes in the stories included the possibility of mutual adaptation to another culture without losing tradition and identity; moving on from doctrinaire Soviet attitudes in education to embrace 'not knowing'; both organizers and routers learning from mistakes and from joint experience without guilt or shame; the need to protect reflective space amidst the constraints of time and geography. All Russian and UK contributors could finally acknowledge their shared luck to find themselves in the right place at the right time to respond to the collective revival of psychoanalytic practice in Russia. PMID:22039945

  12. Fifteen new species of Penicillium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, C M; Renaud, J B; Burgess, K M N; Malloch, D W; Clark, D; Ketch, L; Urb, M; Louis-Seize, G; Assabgui, R; Sumarah, M W; Seifert, K A

    2016-06-01

    We introduce 15 new species of Penicillium isolated from a diverse range of locations, including Canada, Costa Rica, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Tanzania, USA and the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, from a variety of habitats, including leaf surfaces in tropical rain forests, soil eaten by chimpanzees, infrabuccal pockets of carpenter ants, intestinal contents of caterpillars and soil. The new species are classified in sections Aspergilloides (1), Canescentia (2), Charlesia (1), Exilicaulis (3), Lanata-Divaricata (7) and Stolkia (1). Each is characterised and described using classical morphology, LC-MS based extrolite analyses and multigene phylogenies based on ITS, BenA and CaM. Significant extrolites detected include andrastin, pulvilloric acid, penitrem A and citrinin amongst many others.

  13. Fifteen new species of Penicillium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visagie, C.M.; Renaud, J.B.; Burgess, K.M.N.; Malloch, D.W.; Clark, D.; Ketch, L.; Urb, M.; Louis-Seize, G.; Assabgui, R.; Sumarah, M.W.; Seifert, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce 15 new species of Penicillium isolated from a diverse range of locations, including Canada, Costa Rica, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Tanzania, USA and the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, from a variety of habitats, including leaf surfaces in tropical rain forests, soil eaten by chimpanzees,

  14. Deformities due to Leprosy in Children under Fifteen Years Old as an Indicator of Quality of the Leprosy Control Programme in Brazilian Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Félix Lana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at analysing the degree of deformity in leprosy cases diagnosed in children under 15 years old and its relationship with operational and epidemiological factors. This epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out at municipalities of three microregions in a Brazilian hyperendemic area. Data between 1998 and 2010 was collected from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases database. The average coefficient of detection was 32.96/100.000 inhabitants; 7.61% of new cases were diagnosed in children under 15 years old; 5% in this age group were grade 2 deformity at diagnosis. Prevalence of leprosy cases in children under 15 years old with deformity was higher in males ( CI 95%: 1.09–6.45 and in multibacillary patients ( CI 95%: 3.54–60.87 and lower when the detection mode was passive ( CI 95%: 0.31–1.73. Such context suggests high transmissibility and early exposure to Mycobacterium leprae since a lot of cases were diagnosed in children under fifteen years old and the incubation period of the leprosy bacillus varies from 02 to 07 years. This situation contributes to maintaining the chain of disease transmission in the area and indicates that health care services should intensify leprosy control.

  15. Volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution and its uncertainty to be used for nuclear materials accountancy proved by demonstration over fifteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution stored in an accountability tank with dip-tubes has been developed and demonstrated over fifteen years at the Plutonium Conversion Development Facility of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. As a result of calibrations during the demonstration, it was proved that measurement uncertainty practically achieved and maintained was less than 0.1% (systematic character) and 0.15% (random) as one sigma which was half of the current target uncertainty admitted internationally. It was also proved that discrepancy between measured density and analytically determined density was less than 0.002 g·cm-3 as one sigma. These uncertainties include effects by long term use of the accountability tank where cumulative plutonium throughput is six tons. The system consists of high precision differential pressure transducers and a dead-weight tester, sequentially controlled valves for periodical zero adjustment, dampers to reduce pressure oscillation and a procedure to correct measurement biases. The sequence was also useful to carry out maintenances safely without contamination. Longevity of the transducer was longer than 15 years. Principles and essentials to determine solution volume and weight of plutonium, measurement biases and corrections, accurate pressure measurement system, maintenances and diagnostics, operational experiences, evaluation of measurement uncertainty are described. (author)

  16. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 5, Fifteen-year-old male and adult female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for a fifteen-year-old male or an adult female (55 to 58 kg). These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods of Snyder et al. at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior among Iranian nurses: a multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Taghinezhad, Fakhredin; Safavi, Mahboobe; Raiesifar, Afsaneh; Yahyavi, Sayed Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) improves efficiency and employees’ participation and generally provides a good ambiance. This study was conducted to determine the role of job satisfaction (JS), organizational commitment (OC) and procedural justice (PJ) in explaining OCB among nurses working in fifteen educational-treatment centers in Tehran-Iran, to provide guidelines for health care managers’ further understanding of how to encourage citizenship behavior among nurses. Me...

  18. 体验取样法在情绪研究中的应用优势%The Application of Experience Sampling Method and its Advantages in Emotion Regulation Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓欣媚; 丁雪辰; 桑标

    2015-01-01

    The present review aims to introduce the role and implication of Experience Sampling Method ( ESM) in the studies of emotion regulation. Dynamic nature of emotion and emotion development,naturalis-tic emotion-evoked situation,and various contributions of emotion development require researchers to make further methodological considerations when conducting emotion and emotion development studies. ESM takes advantages in emotion regulation research for several reasons: firstly,continuous and repeated assessment of momentary emotional events and relevant variables at regular frequent intervals throughout a relatively long pe-riod make it less susceptible to memory bias and implicit emotional attitude; secondly,experience sampling method puts emotional events in real social settings,thus improving the ecological validity of the study; third-ly,researchers could conduct multilevel and multivariate statistical analysis of massive sampling data and fruitful information by using ESM. In conclusion,ESM will be used more and more with further studies of e-motion and emotion regulation.%情绪研究的难题在于其具有动态变化性、情境依存性和个体差异性三大特征,这亟需研究者在对情绪及其相关变量测查时做特别的考量,而传统的情绪研究方法在这些方面存在欠缺。在这种情况下,体验取样法在情绪研究中具有得天独厚的优势:首先,它可以在一定时间跨度内对情绪事件进行即时、连续、重复地测量,降低了潜在记忆偏差和个人偏好的影响;其次,它把情绪事件置于真实的社会环境中,增强了研究的生态效度;另外,它丰富庞大的数据采集量能够从多水平、多角度、多变量分析个体情绪的整个变化过程。随着情绪研究的不断深入,体验取样法将会得到越来越多的运用。

  19. Atmospheric pressure gas chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of fifteen organochlorine pesticides in soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhipeng; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Xiaohu; Chen, Zenglong; Pan, Xinglu; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-02-26

    In this study, the application of atmospheric pressure gas chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APGC-QTOF-MS) has been investigated for simultaneous determination of fifteen organochlorine pesticides in soil and water. Soft ionization of atmospheric pressure gas chromatography was evaluated by comparing with traditional more energetic electron impact ionization (EI). APGC-QTOF-MS showed a sensitivity enhancement by approximately 7-305 times. The QuEChERs (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method was used to pretreat the soil samples and solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup was used for water samples. Precision, accuracy and stability experiments were undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of the method. The results showed that the mean recoveries for all the pesticides from the soil samples were 70.3-118.9% with 0.4-18.3% intra-day relative standard deviations (RSD) and 1.0-15.6% inter-day RSD at 10, 50 and 500 μg/L levels, while the mean recoveries of water samples were 70.0-118.0% with 1.1-17.8% intra-day RSD and 0.5-12.2% inter-day RSD at 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 μg/L levels. Excellent linearity (0.9931 ≦ r(2)≤ 0.9999) was obtained for each pesticides in the soil and water matrix calibration curves within the range of 0.01-1.0mg/L. The limits of detection (LOD) for each of the 15 pesticides was less than 3.00 μg/L, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) was less than 9.99 μg/L in soil and water. Furthermore, the developed method was successfully applied to monitor the targeted pesticides in real soil and water samples.

  20. A preliminary factor analytic investigation into the firstorder factor structure of the Fifteen Factor Plus (15FQ+ on a sample of Black South African managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seretse Moyo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The Fifteen Factor Questionnaire Plus (15FQ+ is a prominent personality questionnaire that organisations frequently use in personnel selection in South Africa.Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to undertake a factor analytic investigation of the first-order factor structure of the 15FQ+.Motivation for the study: The construct validity of the 15FQ+, as a measure of personality, is necessary even though it is insufficient to justify its use in personnel selection.Research design, approach and method: The researchers evaluated the fit of the measurement model, which the structure and scoring key of the 15FQ+ implies, in a quantitative study that used an ex post facto correlation design through structural equation modelling. They conducted a secondary data analysis. They selected a sample of 241 Black South African managers from a large 15FQ+ database.Main findings: The researchers found good measurement model fit. The measurement model parameter estimates were worrying. The magnitude of the estimated model parameters suggests that the items generally do not reflect the latent personality dimensions the designers intended them to with a great degree of precision. The items are reasonably noisy measures of the latent variables they represent.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should use the 15FQ+ carefully on Black South African managers until further local research evidence becomes available.Contribution/value-add: The study is a catalyst to trigger the necessary additional research we need to establish convincingly the psychometric credentials of the 15FQ+ as a valuable assessment tool in South Africa.

  1. Evaluation of fifteen local plants as larvicidal agents against an Indian strain of dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita eKumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures for the control of mosquito vectors have received wide public apprehension because of several problems like insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans and non-target organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and development of alternative strategies using eco-friendly, environmentally safe, bio-degradable plant products which are non-toxic to non target organisms too. In view of this, fifteen plants were collected from local areas in New Delhi, India. Different parts of these plants were separated, dried, mechanically grinded and sieved to get fine powder. The 200 g of each part was soaked in 1000 mL of different solvents separately and the crude extracts, thus formed, were concentrated using a vacuum evaporator at 45ºC under low pressure. Each extract was screened to explore its potential as a mosquito larvicidal agent against early fourth instars of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti using WHO protocol. The preliminary screening showed that only ten plants possessed larvicidal potential as they could result in 100% mortality at 1000 ppm. Further evaluation of the potential larvicidal extracts established the hexane leaf extracts of Lantana camara to be most effective extracts exhibiting a significant LC50 value of 30.71 ppm while the Phyllanthus emblica fruit extracts were found to be least effective with an LC50 value of 298.93 ppm. The extracts made from different parts of other five plants; Achyranthes aspera, Zingiber officinalis, Ricinus communis, Trachyspermun ammi and Cassia occidentalis also possessed significant larvicidal potential with LC¬50 values ranging from 55.0 to 74.67 ppm. Other three extracts showed moderate toxicity against Aedes aegypti larvae. Further investigations would be needed to isolate and identify the primary component responsible for the larvicidal efficiency of the

  2. A systematic approach to implementing and evaluating clinical guidelines: The results of fifteen years of Preventive Child Health Care guidelines in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuren, Margot A H; van Dommelen, Paula; Dunnink, Trudy

    2015-07-01

    Preventive Child Health Care (PCHC) services are delivered to all children in the Netherlands by approximately 5500 doctors, nurses and doctor's assistants. In 1996, The Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports asked for the development of evidence-based PCHC guidelines. Since 1998, twenty-five guidelines have been published. Levels of implementation affect outcomes and so implementation and evaluation of the actual use of guidelines are essential. At the outset, there was a national implementation plan with six main activities: a) determinant analysis before the implementation of a guideline, b) innovation strategies tailored to the determinants, c) dissemination to all professionals, d) ongoing evaluation of the awareness and use of the guidelines, e) trained implementation coordinator(s) in each PCHC organization and f) a national help desk. The awareness and use of the guidelines in random samples of doctors, nurses and doctor's assistants were surveyed using questionnaires. The respondents stated (on a 7-point scale) the proportion of all children they had exposed to given core elements in a guideline. The aim is for at least 90% of the professionals to be aware of the guideline and for 80% to perform the core elements for all (or nearly all) children. The six main activities, with the exception of ongoing evaluation, were gradually put into place, albeit only gradually, between 1998 and 2015 for all guidelines. In 2012, the use of individual core elements in all guidelines, dating from before 2012, varied from 28% to 100%. One guideline met both criteria of 90% awareness and 80% use, and three guidelines nearly met these criteria. Looking back on fifteen years of PCHC guidelines, we may conclude that the guidelines produced recently are implemented in accordance with the national implementation plan. Unfortunately, the evaluation of guideline use continues to be a difficulty. PMID:25982867

  3. Fifteen year outcome of the ceraver hermes posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty: safety of the procedure with experienced and inexperienced surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe; Manicom, Olivier; Flouzat-Lachaniete, Charles Henri; Roussignol, Xavier; Filippini, Paolo; Poignard, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    We wished to determine whether total knee replacement (TKA) performed by young surgeons increased rates of mortality and complications compared with TKA performed by senior surgeons using the same model of arthroplasty. There were no significant pre-operative differences between the groups in terms of age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, diagnosis, comorbidity and duration of follow-up, which was a mean of 15 years in both groups. Hence, we assessed the 15 year survival of the first 150 Ceraver Posterior-Stabilized total knee arthroplasties undertaken by young surgeons (aged of less than 30 years) in formation in a single university hospital setting (Group B). We used survival curve analysis, with strict definitions regarding end-points, and evaluated a number of different endpoint criteria to assess the outcome and to compare the results with those obtained by the two seniors (aged of more than 40 years) with their 50 first implantations (Group A). The clinical results and survival rate of implants at intermediate to long-term follow-up were similar in both Groups. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, with revision as the endpoint for failure, showed that the rate of survival at ten years was 96% (95% CI, 93 to 100) in both groups. At fifteen years the rate of survival was 91% (95% CI, 85 to 97) in group B, and 92% (95% CI, 90 to 94) in group A. The implant used in this series appears particularly safe since the usual complications observed with posterior stabilized arthroplasties were not observed even with young surgeons. PMID:19572035

  4. Fifteen novel mutations in the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, 2, 3, 4, 4L, 5 and 6 genes from Iranian patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Zahra; Didari, Elmira; Arastehkani, Ahoura; Ghodsinejad, Vadieh; Aryani, Omid; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Houshmand, Massoud

    2013-12-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an optic nerve dysfunction resulting from mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is transmitted in a maternal pattern of inheritance. It is caused by three primary point mutations: G11778A, G3460A and T14484C; in the mitochondrial genome. These mutations are sufficient to induce the disease, accounting for the majority of LHON cases, and affect genes that encode for the different subunits of mitochondrial complexes I and III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Other mutations are secondary mutations associated with the primary mutations. The purpose of this study was to determine MT-ND variations in Iranian patients with LHON. In order to determine the prevalence and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in the LHON patients, their DNA was studied using PCR and DNA sequencing analysis. Sequencing of MT-ND genes from 35 LHON patients revealed a total of 44 nucleotide variations, in which fifteen novel variations-A14020G, A13663G, C10399T, C4932A, C3893G, C10557A, C12012A, C13934T, G4596A, T12851A, T4539A, T4941A, T13255A, T14353C and del A 4513-were observed in 27 LHON patients. However, eight patients showed no variation in the ND genes. These mutations contribute to the current database of mtDNA polymorphisms in LHON patients and may facilitate the definition of disease-related mutations in human mtDNA. This research may help to understand the disease mechanism and open up new diagnostic opportunities for LHON.

  5. Qualitative suggestions about chemical weed control of poplar in the nursery and possible improvement on the basis of experimental trials over fifteen years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the results of over fifteen years of experimentation are summarized, concerning the possibility of use of herbicides included in several chemical classes and with various mechanisms of action on poplar clones of different species, European and North American. The active ingredients were tested mainly singly or in commercial mixtures as well, applied before emergence (interpreted here as sprout of poplar cuttings not yet occurred and before weed infestation or after emergence (interpreted here as cuttings with sprouts 20-25 cm long and after weed colonisation. Almost 50% of the 43 tested formulations has proved to be unserviceable in poplar nursery because of the hard damage induced on plantlets, i.e. dicotyledonicides and those with a wide action range, especially applied after emergence. It was the case of acetolactate synthase inhibitors and synthetic auxins. About 25% of formulations has proved to be utilizable with limited risks and 20% without risk. After emergence, the lowest damage was caused by graminicide compounds included in the class of acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors (e.g. diclofop-methyl, cycloxydim; before emergence, very good applicative opportunities were showed by microtubule assembly inhibitors, especially propyzamide, and the cellulose synthesis inhibitor isoxaben. Among the herbicides utilizable with some risk after emergence, the photosynthesis inhibitors pyridate and phenmedipham (singly or in mixture were interesting since they are the only ones that allow the control of broad-leaved weeds in the presence of herbaceous poplar shoots. Before emergence, flufenacet and isoxaflutole were remarkable as well, the latter being active versus hardly limited weeds. In summary, besides the two aforesaid compounds, the graminicide cycloxydim and - more cautiously - clodinafop and propaquizafop may be hopefully introduced in poplar nurseries after emergence, in association with the wide action range mixture of

  6. The online Prescriptive Index platform for the assessment of managerial competencies and coaching needs: development and initial validation of the experience sampling Mood Wheel and the Manager-Rational and Irrational Beliefs Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David, O.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Prescriptive Index platform is dedicated to the appraisal and development of managerial competencies, and it is comprised of such measures as the multi-rater Freeman-Gavita Prescriptive Executive Coaching (PEC Assessment for assessing core managerial skills, and the multi-rater Managerial Coaching Assessment System (MCAS for the evaluation of coaching competencies in managers. The aim of this research was to present the development and psychometric properties of new tools, part of the Prescriptive Index platform, for the assessment of managerial emotional competencies: the web and mobile based Mood Wheel measure using experience sampling procedures, for the assessment of current/previous distress and positive emotions; and the self-report Manager Rational and Irrational Beliefs Scale (M-RIBS for the assessment of managerial attitudes involved in emotion-regulation processes. Results obtained show that both instruments integrated in the Prescriptive Index platform have adequate initial psychometric support and predictive validity. Practical implications of our findings are discussed in the light of the importance of enabling organizations to accurately identify managerial competencies and coaching needs.

  7. 骶骨脊索瘤的手术治疗(附15例报告)%Surgical Management of Sacral Chordoma(A Review of Fifteen Cases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅; 杨操; 杨述华; 邵增务; 郑启新

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the surgical treatment risks and effects of surgical treatment of sacral chordoma.Methods Fifteen patients with sacral chordoma were followed up. We reviewed the clinical data and analysis of the surgical methods,the causes and treatment measures of complications,and conduct the clinical and imageological evaluation preoperatively and postoperatively. Results The average follow-up time was 49 months. Five cases had died in 5 years postoperation,another one case had died in 2 hours postoperation. Six patients occurred recurrence in 3 years after operation.The dysfunction of bladder occurred in 4 patients whereas none has rectal injury.The symptom of 13 patients in 15 patients had been relieved or disappeared. Conclusion Primary sacral chordoma and recurrence with good general conditions are operative indications. Postoperative recurrenceis related to incomplete removal of tumor. As a whole,the surgical treatments are satisfied,they can prolong the lives of patients and improve the quality of life of patients,relieve pain and symptoms,and create conditions for other adjuvant treatments.%目的 评估骶骨脊索瘤的手术风险和效果.方法 回顾15例骶骨脊索瘤的临床资料,分析手术方式、引起并发症的原因及治疗措施,术前术后作临床及影像学评价.结果 平均随访49个月,术后5年内死亡共5例,另有1例术后2 h死亡.术后3年复发6例.术后发生膀胱功能异常4例,无直肠损伤病例.13例症状缓解或消失.结论 全身状况较好的原发骶骨脊索瘤及复发者均为手术适应证,术后复发与手术局部切除不彻底有关.手术治疗满意,可以延长患者的生命,改善生活质量,减轻痛苦和症状,并为其他辅助治疗创造条件.

  8. Long term monitoring at Solfatara of Pozzuoli (Campi Flegrei, Italy): 1998-2014, fifteen years of soil CO2 flux measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Rosiello, Angelo; Bagnato, Emanuela; Avino, Rosario; Frondini, Francesco; Donnini, Marco; Caliro, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    With a flux of deeply derived fluids of ~5000 t/d and an energetic release of ~100 MW Solfatara of Pozzuoli is one of the largest studied volcanic-hydrothermal system of the world. Since 1998, soil CO2 flux surveys where performed using the accumulation chamber method over a large area (1.45 km2), including the volcanic apparatus and its surroundings. The statistical elaboration of CO2 flux, also coupled with the investigation of the CO2 efflux isotopic composition, allowed to characterize both the CO2 flux connected to by biological activity in the soil and that feed to the degassing of the hydrothermal system. A geostatistical elaboration of CO2 fluxes based on sequential Gaussian simulations, allowed to define the spatial structure of the degassing area, pointing out the presence of a well defined diffuse degassing structure interested by the release of deeply derived CO2 (Solfatara DDS). Solfatara DDS results well correlated to volcanic and tectonic structures interesting the crater area and the eastern area of Pisciarelli. With the same approach the total amount of CO2 release was estimated to range between 754 t/d and 1530 t/d in the last fifteen year (with an error in the estimate varying between 9 and 15 %). Also the extension of the DDS experienced relevant variations varying between 4.5x105 m2 to 12.3 x105 m2. In particular two major changes occurred in the extension of the DDS, the first consisted in its doubling in 2003-2004 and the second in further enlargement of ~ 30% in 2011-2012, the last occurring after period of decreasing trend which interrupted 4-5 years of relative stability. These variations mainly occurred external to the crater area in correspondence of a NE-SW fault system where fluxes increased from background to values typical of the endogenous source. The first event was previously correlated with the occurrence in 2000 of a relatively deep seismic swarm, which was interpreted as the indicator of the opening of an easy-ascent pathway

  9. A questão racial na política brasileira (os últimos quinze anos The racial question in Brazilian politics (the past fifteen years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sérgio Alfredo Guimarães

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analiso o modo como a questão racial tem marcado a política brasileira nos últimos quinze anos. Começo expondo o que significou a idéia de democracia racial no processo de construção da nacionalidade brasileira, para depois, com a brevidade que o espaço exige, resenhar os estudos sobre o comportamento eleitoral dos negros brasileiros e tratar da emergência de movimentos sociais negros e de sua incorporação ao sistema político. Meu entendimento é que devemos ver na "democracia racial" um compromisso político e social do moderno estado republicano brasileiro, que vigeu, alternando força e convencimento, do Estado Novo de Vargas até o final da ditadura militar. Tal compromisso, hoje em crise, consistiu na incorporação da população negra brasileira ao mercado de trabalho, na ampliação da educação formal, enfim na criação das condições infra-estruturais de uma sociedade de classes que desfizesse os estigmas criados pela escravidão. A imagem do negro enquanto povo comum e o banimento, no pensamento social brasileiro, do conceito de "raça", substituído pelos de "cultura" e "classe social", são as expressões maiores desse compromisso.In this article, I analyze how the racial question has marked Brazilian politics in the past fifteen years. I start by showing what the idea of racial democracy meant to the process of reconstruction of the Brazilian nationality, and go on to review the studies on the voting behaviour of the Brazilian Black population and discuss the emergence of Black social movements and their incorporation into the political system. I understand that we must see "racial democracy" as a political and social compromise of the Brazilian modern republican state, which was in power from the Vargas' New State until the end of the military dictatorship. This compromise which at present is in crisis, consisted of the incorporation of the Brazilian Black population into the work market, of the

  10. Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes ... type of behavior? The best way to prevent aggressive behavior is to give your child a stable, secure ...

  11. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Nathan

    1984-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  12. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  13. Behavioral toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Needleman, H L

    1995-01-01

    The new fields of behavioral toxicology and behavioral teratology investigate the outcome of specific toxic exposures in humans and animals on learning, memory, and behavioral characteristics. Three important classes of behavioral neurotoxicants are metals, solvents, and pesticides. The clearest data on the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to toxicants comes from the study of two metals, lead and mercury, and from epidemiological investigations of the effects of alcohol taken during p...

  14. Behaviorally Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Elias H.; Dutton, Darell W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles focusing on (1) a modern behavioral model that takes cues from Hippocrates' Four Temperaments and (2) use of a behavioral approach to improve the effectiveness of meetings. Lists positive and negative behaviors within the meeting context. (CH)

  15. Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Carmit

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants and malleability of noncognitive skills. Using data on boys from the National Education Longitudinal Survey, I focus on youth behavior in the classroom as a measure of noncognitive skills. I find that student behavior during adolescence is persistent. The variation in behavior can be attributed to…

  16. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  17. Gender differences on the Five to Fifteen questionnaire in a non-referred sample with inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity and a clinic-referred sample with hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Kadesjö, Björn;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine gender differences in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity on the Five to Fifteen (FTF) parent questionnaire. First, non-referred girls (n = 43) and boys (n = 51) with problems of attention and hyperactivity-impulsivity and then cli......The aim of the present study was to examine gender differences in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity on the Five to Fifteen (FTF) parent questionnaire. First, non-referred girls (n = 43) and boys (n = 51) with problems of attention and hyperactivity...... questionnaire. Secondly, it was examined whether the application of gender mixed norms versus gender specific norms would result in varying proportions of clinic-referred children with HKD being identified as impaired on the subdomains of the FTF questionnaire. Based on results it was concluded that the use......-impulsivity and then clinic-referred girls (n = 35) and boys (n = 66) with hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) were compared on the FTF. Results suggested that non-referred boys were more hyperactive-impulsive than non-referred girls, whereas clinic-referred boys and girl with HKD were more similar than dissimilar on the FTF...

  18. The good and bad of being fair: effects of procedural and interpersonal justice behaviors on regulatory resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Russell E; Lanaj, Klodiana; Barnes, Christopher M

    2014-07-01

    The justice literature has paid considerable attention to the beneficial effects of fair behaviors for recipients of such behaviors. It is possible, however, that exhibiting fair behaviors may come at a cost for actors. In this article, we integrate ego depletion theory with organizational justice research in order to examine the consequences of justice behaviors for actors. We used an experience-sampling method in a sample of managerial employees to examine the relations of performing procedural justice and interpersonal justice behaviors with subsequent changes in actors' regulatory resources. Our results indicate that procedural justice behaviors are draining, whereas interpersonal justice behaviors are replenishing for actors. Depletion, in turn, adversely affected the performance of citizenship behavior, and depletion mediated relations of justice behavior with citizenship. Furthermore, 2 traits that impact self-regulatory skills--extraversion and neuroticism--moderated the replenishing effects of engaging in interpersonal justice behaviors. We conclude by discussing implications and avenues for future research.

  19. The good and bad of being fair: effects of procedural and interpersonal justice behaviors on regulatory resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Russell E; Lanaj, Klodiana; Barnes, Christopher M

    2014-07-01

    The justice literature has paid considerable attention to the beneficial effects of fair behaviors for recipients of such behaviors. It is possible, however, that exhibiting fair behaviors may come at a cost for actors. In this article, we integrate ego depletion theory with organizational justice research in order to examine the consequences of justice behaviors for actors. We used an experience-sampling method in a sample of managerial employees to examine the relations of performing procedural justice and interpersonal justice behaviors with subsequent changes in actors' regulatory resources. Our results indicate that procedural justice behaviors are draining, whereas interpersonal justice behaviors are replenishing for actors. Depletion, in turn, adversely affected the performance of citizenship behavior, and depletion mediated relations of justice behavior with citizenship. Furthermore, 2 traits that impact self-regulatory skills--extraversion and neuroticism--moderated the replenishing effects of engaging in interpersonal justice behaviors. We conclude by discussing implications and avenues for future research. PMID:24446913

  20. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in cha...

  1. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O’Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of ID

  2. 四川省地震局“十五”地震前兆数据库维护%Introduction of "Fifteen Five-Plan" Precursor Database of Earthquake Administration of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁燕妮; 卢婷; 张晓明; 韩蓉萍

    2011-01-01

    本文主要介绍了四川省地震局"十五"地震前兆Oracle数据库的特性与优点,为了更好地维护与管理前兆数据库,对Oracle数据库我们需要了解一些基本知识和日常维护,常用的Sql语句和Oracle管理工具的使用,以及Oracle数据库如何备份的指令。%This paper mainly introduces characteristics and advantages of the "Fifteen Five-Plan" Oracle database.In order to maintain and manage the precursory database of Earthquake Administration of Sichuan Province well,we need to understand the basic knowledge on the Oracle database,backup and routine of maintaining,which are commonly used in Sql statements and Oracle management tool.

  3. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape-cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996-is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period. PMID:26784233

  4. Guidelines for cognitive behavioral training within doctoral psychology programs in the United States: report of the Inter-organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K; Ronan, George F; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D; Belar, Cynthia D; Berry, Sharon L; Christofff, Karen A; Craighead, Linda W; Dougher, Michael J; Dowd, E Thomas; Herbert, James D; McFarr, Lynn M; Rizvi, Shireen L; Sauer, Eric M; Strauman, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a year-long series of conferences, and developed a consensus on optimal doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology. The recommendations assume solid foundational training that is typical within applied psychology areas such as clinical and counseling psychology programs located in the United States. This article details the background, assumptions, and resulting recommendations specific to doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology, including competencies expected in the areas of ethics, research, and practice.

  5. Can "good" stressors spark "bad" behaviors? The mediating role of emotions in links of challenge and hindrance stressors with citizenship and counterproductive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Jessica B; Judge, Timothy A

    2009-11-01

    The authors combined affective events theory (H. M. Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) and the transactional stress model (R. S. Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) to build and test a model specifying the dynamic, emotion-based relationships among challenge and hindrance stressors and citizenship and counterproductive behaviors. The study employed an experience sampling methodology. Results showed that challenge stressors had offsetting indirect links with citizenship behaviors through attentiveness and anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety. Hindrance stressors had a negative indirect effect on citizenship behaviors through anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety and anger. Finally, multilevel moderating effects showed that the relationship between hindrance stressors and anger varied according to employees' levels of neuroticism.

  6. Can "good" stressors spark "bad" behaviors? The mediating role of emotions in links of challenge and hindrance stressors with citizenship and counterproductive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Jessica B; Judge, Timothy A

    2009-11-01

    The authors combined affective events theory (H. M. Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) and the transactional stress model (R. S. Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) to build and test a model specifying the dynamic, emotion-based relationships among challenge and hindrance stressors and citizenship and counterproductive behaviors. The study employed an experience sampling methodology. Results showed that challenge stressors had offsetting indirect links with citizenship behaviors through attentiveness and anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety. Hindrance stressors had a negative indirect effect on citizenship behaviors through anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety and anger. Finally, multilevel moderating effects showed that the relationship between hindrance stressors and anger varied according to employees' levels of neuroticism. PMID:19916654

  7. Behaviorally inadequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2014-01-01

    is to reject or at least minimize the requirement that environmental ethics must provide protection and assistance to the environment. Virtue theory is often favored by environmentalists precisely because it does matter what one's reasons are for acting, even if one's actions are ineffective at producing......, but situationist critiques suggest that character traits, and environmental virtues, are not as behaviorally robust as is typically supposed. Their views present a dilemma. Because ethicists cannot rely on virtues to produce pro-environmental behaviors, the only real way of salvaging environmental virtue theory...... positive results. However, because endorsing behaviorally ineffective virtues, for whatever reason, entails that environmental ethicists are abandoning the goal of helping and protecting the environment, environmental ethicists should consider looking elsewhere than virtues and focus instead on the role...

  8. Fifteen Questions and Answers about Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of domestic violence or abuse • Mental illness, dependency, family dysfunction • Economic pressures, personal stress • Longstanding personality traits (bad temper, hypercritical, tendency to blame others ...

  9. AMEGAKARYOCYTIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA‎: A FIFTEEN YEAR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakhshi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Totally implantable venous access devices (TIVAD or implantable catheter ports are devices which can be implanted subcutaneously. They enable prolonged and repeated access to the vascular system, into the peritoneal cavity or intravertebral space. This device is particularly useful for repeated medical injection, for blood sampling or transfusion of blood and blood derivatives and for total parenteral nutrition (TPN. Although many patients benefit from the insertion of TIVAD without any secondary effects, any surgical implantation can nevertheless lead to complications. ‎In this study, we investigated the advantages and disadvantages of TIVAD catheter in pediatric age group. A total of 94 cases, 2 to 14 years old, were included in our study. We implanted TIVAD in these patients for chemotherapy in 83 cases (88.29%, for prolonged TPN in 6 cases (6.38%, for corticosteroid and antibiotic therapy after ‎Kasai operation in 2 cases (2.12%, for intermittent IV therapy in 2 cases (2.12% and for need to partial parenteral nutrition in 1 case (1.06%. Out of 94 cases, 14 cases (15% had some kind of complications and 80 cases (85% had no complication. There was no mortality. Most patients and their parents (82 cases, 87.23% were satisfied from TIVAD. ‎It seems that TIVAD can be a useful device for many chronic patients who need an IV access for multiple injections.

  10. Francoise, a Fifteen-Year Follow Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondal, J. A.; Elbouz, M.; Ylieff, M.; Docquier, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on a 15-year follow-up of the linguistic and cognitive profile of a woman with standard trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). The follow-up found recent rapid deterioration in receptive and productive language skills. However, basic phonological and morphosyntactic skills are preserved. Her changing profile mirrors that found in aging…

  11. Fifteen years experience: Egyptian metabolic lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram M. Fateen

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: This study illustrates the experience of the reference metabolic lab in Egypt over 15 years. The lab began metabolic disorder screening by using simple diagnostic techniques like thin layer chromatography and colored tests in urine which by time updated and upgraded the methods to diagnose a wide range of disorders. This study shows the most common diagnosed inherited inborn errors of metabolism among the Egyptian population.

  12. Fifteen years of international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, B.; Celebi, T.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrated its 15th birthday in October 2013. The ISS is the largest spaceship ever built by humans and very important for research, to understand life and physics. However, the ISS is very expensive to maintain and therefore some people argue that the ISS progr

  13. Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Randolph M.

    2010-01-01

    In a perfect world, students would never talk back to school staff and never argue or fight with each other. They would complete all their assigned tasks, and disciplinary actions never would be needed. Unfortunately, people don't live in a perfect world. Student behavior is a daily concern. Teachers continue to refer students to the office as a…

  14. Discounting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluate the theory, experimental design and econometrics behind claims that individuals exhibit non-constant discounting behavior. Theory points to the importance of controlling for the non-linearity of the utility function of individuals, since the discount rate is defined over time-dated...

  15. Resting State Brain Connectivity After Surgical and Behavioral Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepping, Rebecca J.; Bruce, Amanda S.; Francisco, Alex; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Martin, Laura E.; Powell, Joshua N.; Hancock, Laura; Patrician, Trisha M.; Breslin, Florence J.; Selim, Niazy; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Brooks, William M.; Savage, Cary R.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Bruce, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We previously reported changes in food-cue neural reactivity associated with behavioral and surgical weight loss interventions. Resting functional connectivity represents tonic neural activity that may contribute to weight loss success. Here we explore whether intervention type is associated with differences in functional connectivity after weight loss. METHODS Fifteen obese participants were recruited prior to adjustable gastric banding surgery. Thirteen demographically matched obese participants were selected from a separate behavioral diet intervention. Resting state fMRI was collected three months after surgery/behavioral intervention. ANOVA was used to examine post-weight loss differences between the two groups in connectivity to seed regions previously identified as showing differential cue-reactivity after weight loss. RESULTS Following weight loss, behavioral dieters exhibited increased connectivity between left precuneus/superior parietal lobule (SPL) and bilateral insula pre- to post-meal and bariatric patients exhibited decreased connectivity between these regions pre- to post-meal (pcorrected<.05). CONCLUSIONS Behavioral dieters showed increased connectivity pre- to post-meal between a region associated with processing of self-referent information (precuneus/SPL) and a region associated with interoception (insula) whereas bariatric patients showed decreased connectivity between these regions. This may reflect increased attention to hunger signals following surgical procedures, and increased attention to satiety signals following behavioral diet interventions. PMID:26053145

  16. Toxicity of fifteen strains of Beauveria bassiana against Aphis glycines%球孢白僵菌对大豆蚜毒力的室内生物学测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴磊; 张正坤; 徐文静; 刘影; 王金刚; 李启云

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of fifteen strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana ( Bals. ) Vuill. To Aphis glycines Matsumura was determined. All tested strains were toxic to A. Glycines and obvious differences in the mortality rates achieved by the different strains were positively correlated with spore concentration and treatment time. Strain S14 - X - 1 had the highest amount of toxic isolates.%对来源于吉林省不同地区的15株球孢白僵菌Beauveria bassiana( Bals.) Vuill.菌种对大豆蚜Aphisglycines Matsumura毒力进行了室内生物学测定.所有供试菌株对大豆蚜虫均有一定的致病性,杀虫效率差异明显,杀虫效率与孢子浓度和作用时间均呈正相关.通过对大豆蚜毒力室内生物学测定结果的综合分析,菌株S14-X-1为毒力较高菌株,具有进一步研究应用价值.

  17. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  18. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Thaler, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  19. OPEC behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    This thesis aims to contribute to a further understanding of the real dynamics of OPEC production behavior and its impacts on the world oil market. A literature review in this area shows that the existing studies on OPEC still have some major deficiencies in theoretical interpretation and empirical estimation technique. After a brief background review in chapter 1, chapter 2 tests Griffin's market-sharing cartel model on the post-Griffin time horizon with a simultaneous system of equations, and an innovative hypothesis of OPEC's behavior (Saudi Arabia in particular) is then proposed based on the estimation results. Chapter 3 first provides a conceptual analysis of OPEC behavior under the framework of non-cooperative collusion with imperfect information. An empirical model is then constructed and estimated. The results of the empirical studies in this thesis strongly support the hypothesis that OPEC has operated as a market-sharing cartel since the early 1980s. In addition, the results also provide some support of the theory of non-cooperative collusion under imperfect information. OPEC members collude under normal circumstances and behave competitively at times in response to imperfect market signals of cartel compliance and some internal attributes. Periodic joint competition conduct plays an important role in sustaining the collusion in the long run. Saudi Arabia acts as the leader of the cartel, accommodating intermediate unfavorable market development and punishing others with a tit-for-tat strategy in extreme circumstances.

  20. Capturing emotions : experience sampling at live music events

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Emma; Moss, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Using techniques developed mainly in subjective well-being and “happiness” studies, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the applicability of these and related methods for understanding and evaluating the emotional responses experienced within the live music event environment. Design/methodology/approach – The concept of “experience” is debated and set within the context of music events designed to create a specific type of emotional experience for the attendees. The ...

  1. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  2. Logical Behaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Norman; Altuner, Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals exclusively with the doctrine called ‘Logical Behaviorism’. Although this position does not vogue it enjoyed in the 1930s and 1940s, it will always possess a compelling attraction for anyone who is perplexed by the psychological concepts, who has become aware of worthlessness of an appeal to introspection as an account of how we learn those concepts, and he has no inclination to identify mind with brain. There, of course, are other forms of behaviorism, and of reductionism, wh...

  3. Behavior subtraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Saligrama, Venkatesh; Konrad, Janusz

    2012-09-01

    Background subtraction has been a driving engine for many computer vision and video analytics tasks. Although its many variants exist, they all share the underlying assumption that photometric scene properties are either static or exhibit temporal stationarity. While this works in many applications, the model fails when one is interested in discovering changes in scene dynamics instead of changes in scene's photometric properties; the detection of unusual pedestrian or motor traffic patterns are but two examples. We propose a new model and computational framework that assume the dynamics of a scene, not its photometry, to be stationary, i.e., a dynamic background serves as the reference for the dynamics of an observed scene. Central to our approach is the concept of an event, which we define as short-term scene dynamics captured over a time window at a specific spatial location in the camera field of view. Unlike in our earlier work, we compute events by time-aggregating vector object descriptors that can combine multiple features, such as object size, direction of movement, speed, etc. We characterize events probabilistically, but use low-memory, low-complexity surrogates in a practical implementation. Using these surrogates amounts to behavior subtraction, a new algorithm for effective and efficient temporal anomaly detection and localization. Behavior subtraction is resilient to spurious background motion, such as due to camera jitter, and is content-blind, i.e., it works equally well on humans, cars, animals, and other objects in both uncluttered and highly cluttered scenes. Clearly, treating video as a collection of events rather than colored pixels opens new possibilities for video analytics.

  4. The Influence of Ergonomics Training on Employee Behavior at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Guthrie Puckett

    2001-01-01

    A survey of employee behavior was conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of ergonomic behavior that decreased the chance of having a work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) among employees. The null hypothesis was tested to determine if there was a significant difference in ergonomic behavior between trained and untrained employees. The LANL employees were stratified by job series and then randomly selected to participate. The data were gathered using an electronic self-administered behavior questionnaire. The study population was composed of 6931 employees, and the response rate was 48%. The null hypothesis was rejected for twelve out of fifteen questions on the questionnaire. Logistic regression results indicate that the trained participants were more likely to report the risk-avoiding behavior, which supported the rejection of the null hypothesis for 60% of the questions. There was a higher frequency that the beneficial or risk-avoiding behavior was reported by the uninjured participants. Job series analysis revealed that ergonomics is an important issue among participants from all the job series. It also identified the occupational specialist classification (an administrative job), as the job series with the most occurrences of undesired ergonomic behaviors. In conclusion, there was a significant difference between the trained and untrained participants of the beneficial ergonomic behavior in the reported risk reducing behaviors.

  5. Fostering employee service creativity: Joint effects of customer empowering behaviors and supervisory empowering leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuntao; Liao, Hui; Chuang, Aichia; Zhou, Jing; Campbell, Elizabeth M

    2015-09-01

    Integrating insights from the literature on customers' central role in service and the literature on employee creativity, we offer theoretical and empirical account of how and when customer empowering behaviors can motivate employee creativity during service encounters and, subsequently, influence customer satisfaction with service experience. Using multilevel, multisource, experience sampling data from 380 hairstylists matched with 3550 customers in 118 hair salons, we found that customer empowering behaviors were positively related to employee creativity and subsequent customer satisfaction via employee state promotion focus. Results also showed that empowering behaviors from different agents function synergistically in shaping employee creativity: supervisory empowering leadership strengthened the indirect effect of customer empowering behaviors on employee creativity via state promotion focus. PMID:25774571

  6. The independent effects of personality and situations on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Ryne A; Rauthmann, John F; Brown, Nicolas A; Serfass, David G; Jones, Ashley Bell

    2015-11-01

    The joint influence of persons and situations on behavior has long been posited by personality and social psychological theory (Funder, 2006; Lewin, 1951). However, a lack of tools for real-time behavioral and situation assessment has left direct investigations of this sort immobilized. This study combines recent advances in situation assessment and experience sampling methodology to examine the simultaneous effects of personality traits and situation characteristics on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion in N = 210 participants. The results support an additive model such that both personality traits and situation characteristics independently predict real-time expressions of behavior and emotion. These results have implications for several prominent theoretical perspectives in personality, including both trait and cognitive theories.

  7. Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Salzinger, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis.

  8. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone reduces sexual motivation but not lordosis behavior in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piekarski, David J; Zhao, Sheng; Jennings, Kimberly J;

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive success is maximized when female sexual motivation and behavior coincide with the time of optimal fertility. Both processes depend upon coordinated hormonal events, beginning with signaling by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. Two neuropeptidergic systems tha...... and kisspeptin cell activation. Together, these data point to GnIH as an important modulator of female proceptive sexual behavior and motivation, independent of downstream alterations in sex steroid production.......Reproductive success is maximized when female sexual motivation and behavior coincide with the time of optimal fertility. Both processes depend upon coordinated hormonal events, beginning with signaling by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. Two neuropeptidergic systems...... these neuropeptides serve as neuromodulators to coordinate female sexual behavior with the limited window of fertility has not been thoroughly explored. In the present study, either intact or ovariectomized, hormone-treated female hamsters were implanted for fifteen days with chronic release osmotic pumps filled...

  9. Hanseníase em menores de quinze anos no município de Paracatu, MG (1994 a 2001 Leprosy in patients under fifteen years of age in the city of Paracatu-MG (1994 to 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaias Nery Ferreira

    2005-03-01

    actions due to the high rates of detection and prevalence of the condition, especially among children under fifteen years of age. In 1998 and 1999, an information program was implemented in order to provide explanations on the signs and symptoms of the disease to a population of 8,000 students, in order to improve the detection rate of the disease in children under fifteen years of age, given Paracatu was classified as a hyper-endemic city between 1997 and 2001. A descriptive study was carried out comprising forty-five patients diagnosed and treated in Paracatu between 1994 and 2001. Fifty-three percent of diagnoses were in male children, 75.5% of the cases being between ten and fourteen years of age; individuals had less years of schooling than what would be expected for their ages; 84% of the population lived in the urban area. All patients included (100% were new cases, of which 56% were multibacillary forms, mainly the Dimorph clinical form (potentially infectious, followed by the Undetermined (30.8% and Tuberculoid (13.2% forms. All were treated according to standard procedures, with a 100% cure rate. During treatment 24% of patients presented reactions, and 9% did after being discharged. Twenty-two percent of patients were diagnosed with some degree of disability, and 13% presented some degree of disability upon discharge (a rate considered high. Sixty-two percent of patients had contact with other Hansen's disease bearers, and only 15.5% of these contacts had two BCG vaccine scars. Leprosy is a serious public health problem in the city studied, and the work accomplished with students was primary to increase case detection.

  10. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  11. Process of Land Use Conflict Research in China During the Past Fifteen Years%近15年来中国土地利用冲突研究进展与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德; 徐建春; 王莉

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the research process on land use conflict in China during the past fifteen years. The method of documentation was employed based on the three Chinese database, including China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI), VIP Journal Integration Platform(VJIP)and Wanfang Databases. The results shows that the study on land use conflict is a key and hot topic in land resources science, which includes the evolution of concept, conflict type, region distribution, assessment and management. The conclusions of this study on land use conflict conclude five themes that will be focused on in the future that 1)the theoretical basis and analysis framework, 2)comprehensive assessment index system and quantitative model, 3)multi-scale (micro-medium-macro) comprehensive analysis, 4) scenario simulation of regional land use conflict, and 5)study on combining land use conflict theory with its practice.%研究目的:总结和梳理中国近15年来土地利用冲突研究文献,分析土地利用冲突的研究现状,展望未来的研究方向和重点。研究方法:基于中国知网、中文科技期刊数据库及万方数据知识服务平台学术文献数据库,采用文献调研法。研究结果:当前中国土地利用冲突研究具有很多共同的关注点,主要集中在土地利用冲突概念演变、类型与区域分布、原因及机制、评价与管理等4个方面。研究结论:在全面评析土地利用冲突研究成果的基础上,认为未来应当重点关注5个方面的研究:(1)理论基础和整体分析框架研究;(2)评价指标体系和定量模型研究;(3)多尺度(微观—中观—宏观)综合研究;(4)区域土地利用冲突情景模拟研究;(5)理论与实践相结合研究。

  12. Leptospirosis en personas de riesgo de quince explotaciones porcinas y de la central de sacrificio de Manizales, Colombia Leptospirosis in high risk groups of workers from fifteen piggeries and the central abbatoir in Manizales, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ORREGO URIBE

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La leptospirosis es una enfermedad infecciosa, transmisible de alta prevalencia en bovinos y porcinos, por lo cual se presume que la prevalencia de la infección por leptospira, en personas de riesgo, es también alta. Este trabajo se realizó con trabajadores de 15 granjas porcinas y de una planta de sacrificio de bovinos y porcinos. Los trabajadores fueron sangrados tres veces, con dos meses de intervalo, para obtener la prevalencia puntual a leptospirosis, por el MAT 1/50 y por la Inhibición de Crecimiento (IC 1/25. Se tomaron además muestras de orina, para Visualización Directa (VD en campo oscuro y cultivo. Las prevalencias obtenidas por el MAT fueron muy bajas en ambos grupos, siendo más altas por la IC, y más altas aún por la VD y por el cultivo. Este último es la técnica más confiable para el diagnóstico, en tanto que el MAT detecta infecciones agudas, pero no es adecuado para la detección de infecciones crónicas. El serovar más prevalente en los dos grupos estudiados fue hardjopratjino, en tanto que los trabajadores del matadero fueron positivos además, a pomona, grippotyphosa, bratislava y hardjobovis, y los de granjas porcinas a canicola e icterohaemorragiae, esta última no detectada en trabajadores del matadero. La leptospirosis en humanos, en particular en personas de riesgo, puede ser un problema de salud que merece atención de las autoridades sanitarias, y de las aseguradoras de riesgos profesionalesLeptospirosis is a transmissible infectious disease of high prevalence in the bovine and porcine species, reason why it is assumed that prevalence of leptospire infection in risk people is also high. This work was carried out with workers from fifteen piggeries, and from a bovines and porcines abbatoir. The workers were bled thrice with two months intervals, to get leptospirosis point prevalence by the Microagglutination test (MAT 1:50, and growth inhibition test ((GIT 1:25. Additionally, urine samples were taken for

  13. Development and Validation of the Behavioral Tendencies Questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas T Van Dam

    Full Text Available At a fundamental level, taxonomy of behavior and behavioral tendencies can be described in terms of approach, avoid, or equivocate (i.e., neither approach nor avoid. While there are numerous theories of personality, temperament, and character, few seem to take advantage of parsimonious taxonomy. The present study sought to implement this taxonomy by creating a questionnaire based on a categorization of behavioral temperaments/tendencies first identified in Buddhist accounts over fifteen hundred years ago. Items were developed using historical and contemporary texts of the behavioral temperaments, described as "Greedy/Faithful", "Aversive/Discerning", and "Deluded/Speculative". To both maintain this categorical typology and benefit from the advantageous properties of forced-choice response format (e.g., reduction of response biases, binary pairwise preferences for items were modeled using Latent Class Analysis (LCA. One sample (n1 = 394 was used to estimate the item parameters, and the second sample (n2 = 504 was used to classify the participants using the established parameters and cross-validate the classification against multiple other measures. The cross-validated measure exhibited good nomothetic span (construct-consistent relationships with related measures that seemed to corroborate the ideas present in the original Buddhist source documents. The final 13-block questionnaire created from the best performing items (the Behavioral Tendencies Questionnaire or BTQ is a psychometrically valid questionnaire that is historically consistent, based in behavioral tendencies, and promises practical and clinical utility particularly in settings that teach and study meditation practices such as Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR.

  14. The Psyche as Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTURO CLAVIJO A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorism has argued that behavior is the Psyche and the subject matter of psychology. Although, some scientists had done empirical work with objective methods before 1913, the year in which John B. Watson published his manifesto, he was the first one to attempt a systematization of behavior as the Psyche, that is, as psychology’s subject matter. In this text, I outline Watson’s notion of behavior to compare it with two other forms of behaviorism: Skinner’s radical behaviorism and molar behaviorism. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate how the concept of behavior has been and is changing.

  15. Decreased sleep spindle density in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and patients with Parkinson’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle;

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine whether sleep spindles (SS) are potentially a biomarker for Parkinson’s disease (PD). MethodsFifteen PD patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (PD+RBD), 15 PD patients without RBD (PD−RBD), 15 idiopathic RBD (iRBD) patients and 15 age-matched controls underwent...... polysomnography (PSG). SS were scored in an extract of data from control subjects. An automatic SS detector using a Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) was developed and applied to the PSG recordings. The SS densities in N1, N2, N3, all NREM combined and REM sleep were obtained...

  16. Chemicals and chemoreceptors: ecologically relevant signals driving behavior in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eDepetris-Chauvin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Insects encounter a vast repertoire of chemicals in their natural environment, which can signal positive stimuli like the presence of a food source, a potential mate, or a suitable oviposition site as well as negative stimuli such as competitors, predators, or toxic substances reflecting danger. The presence of specialized chemoreceptors like taste and olfactory receptors allow animals to detect chemicals at short and long distances and accordingly, trigger proper behaviors towards these stimuli. Since the first description of olfactory and taste receptors in Drosophila fifteen years ago, our knowledge on the identity, properties, and function of specific chemoreceptors has increased exponentially. In the last years, multidisciplinary approaches combining genetic tools with electrophysiological techniques, behavioral recording, evolutionary analysis, and chemical ecology studies are shedding light on our understanding on the ecological relevance of specific chemoreceptors for the survival of Drosophila in their natural environment. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on chemoreceptors of both the olfactory and taste systems of the fruitfly. We focus on the relevance of particular receptors for the detection of ecologically relevant cues such as pheromones, food sources, and toxic compounds, and we comment on the behavioral changes that the detection of these chemicals induce in the fly. In particular, we give an updated outlook of the chemical communication displayed during one of the most important behaviors for fly survival, the courtship behavior. Finally, the ecological relevance of specific chemicals can vary depending on the niche occupied by the individual. In that regard, in this review we also highlight the contrast between adult and larval systems and we propose that these differences could reflect distinctive requirements depending on the change of ecological niche occupied by Drosophila along its life cycle.

  17. Computational Analysis of Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnor, S E Roian; Branson, Kristin

    2016-07-01

    In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior. To enable biologists to design experiments to obtain better behavioral measurements, and computer scientists to pinpoint fruitful directions for algorithm improvement, we review known effects of artificial manipulation of the animal on behavior. We also review machine vision and learning techniques for tracking, feature extraction, automated behavior classification, and automated behavior discovery, the assumptions they make, and the types of data they work best with.

  18. Computational Analysis of Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnor, S E Roian; Branson, Kristin

    2016-07-01

    In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior. To enable biologists to design experiments to obtain better behavioral measurements, and computer scientists to pinpoint fruitful directions for algorithm improvement, we review known effects of artificial manipulation of the animal on behavior. We also review machine vision and learning techniques for tracking, feature extraction, automated behavior classification, and automated behavior discovery, the assumptions they make, and the types of data they work best with. PMID:27090952

  19. Modeling of Agent Behavior Using Behavioral Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Treur, J.

    2006-01-01

    The behavioral dynamics of a cognitive agent can be considered both from an external and an internal perspective. From the external perspective, behavior is described by specifying (temporal) correlations between input and output states of the agent. From the internal perspective the agent’s dynamic

  20. Behavior Management: Examining the Functions of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate student behavior is essential for the success of a physical education lesson. Despite using effective proactive management strategies, teachers may need to also use reactive techniques to reduce problem behaviors by applying suitable consequences. For these consequences to be effective, they must be aligned with the function, or cause,…

  1. The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

  2. Toddlers and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Toddlers and Sexual Behavior Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... problem or sexual abuse. What kind of sexual behaviors are okay? Masturbation in toddlers is usually nothing ...

  3. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth ... family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. They involve a pattern ...

  4. What determines our behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Radovan

    2001-01-01

    In article Ajzen-Fishbein's attitude-behavior model called 'Theory of reasoned action' and Albert Bandura's Model of reciprocal determinism are presented. Both models are a part of social-cognitive paradigm which characterizes behavior with evaluation of different goals. Ajzen and Fishbein (1973; 1980) proposed that specific behavior are predictable from specific behavioral intentions. These intentions are a function of two components: the attitude toward the act in question a...

  5. Principles of (Behavioral) Economics

    OpenAIRE

    David Laibson; List, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics has become an important and integrated component of modern economics. Behavioral economists embrace the core principles of economics—optimization and equilibrium—and seek to develop and extend those ideas to make them more empirically accurate. Behavioral models assume that economic actors try to pick the best feasible option and those actors sometimes make mistakes. Behavioral ideas should be incorporated throughout the first-year undergraduate course. Instructors should...

  6. Consumer behavior research

    OpenAIRE

    Hašková, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The major part of this work is a consumer behavior research in process of buying christmas presents. The goal of this work is to describe a consumer behavior of Prague's customers in process of buying christmas presents, also describe a a consumer behavior of different age and social groups, as well as the difference between men and women.

  7. Behavioral Economics and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve...... individuals' decisions about health, wealth, and happiness....

  8. Behavioral Adaptation and Acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of Intelligent Vehicles is to improve road safety, throughput, and emissions. However, the predicted effects are not always as large as aimed for. Part of this is due to indirect behavioral changes of drivers, also called behavioral adaptation. Behavioral adaptation (BA) refers to uninte

  9. Relationship Between Sexting and Sexual Risk Behavior and Some Psychosocial Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Vrselja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to explore whether there are significant differences between those who have never engaged in sexting behavior and those who have for at least once in any number of variables: sexual risk behavior, anger, depression, anxiety, self-efficacy and association with deviant peers. Also, the goal was to explore whether anger and unpleasant emotions of depression and anxiety are significant predictors of sexting and whether self-efficacy and association with deviant peers express moderator role in the relationship between enlisted predictors and sexting. Analyzed data were collected in 2012 from 311 students (149 boys, 162 girls, aged between fifteen and seventeen years. The results of series of independent t-tests showed significant differences between the two groups in sexual risk behavior and deviant peers association, whereby those who have engaged in sexting behavior at least once, compared to those who have never sexted, engaged more frequently in sexual risk behaviors and have more deviant friends. The results of hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis showed that sexting was not significantly predicted by anger, depression and anxiety and that self-efficacy and association with deviant peers do not change the relationship between anger and sexting, as well as the relationship between unpleasant emotions of depression or anxiety and sexting. The results are discussed in terms of findings of previous research and in the context of the relationship between the variables specified in the context of Agnew's (1992 general strain theory.

  10. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior....... Employee characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work condition are included in the extended model. A survey was handed out to 654 employees in Chinese factories. This research contributes by demonstrating how employee- characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work...... condition influence their sustainable work behavior. A new definition of sustainable work behavior is proposed....

  11. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lefèvre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied.

  12. Behaviorism and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work. PMID:27606191

  13. Behavioral Labor Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral economics has in recent decades emerged as a prominent set of methodological developments that have attracted considerable attention both within and outside the economics profession. The time is therefore auspicious to assess behavioral contributions to particular subfields of economics such as labor economics. With empirical validity among its chief objectives, one might guess that behavioral economics would have made its clearest mark in data-driven subfields such as labor econom...

  14. Contingency and behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of contingency is central to theoretical discussions of learned behavior and in the application of learning research to problems of social significance. This paper reviews three aspects of the contingency concept as it has been developed by behavior analysts. The first is the empirical analysis of contingency through experimental studies of both human and nonhuman behavior. The second is the synthesis of experimental studies in theoretical and conceptual frameworks to yield a more...

  15. Online Shopping Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping is a very much developed phenomena in Scandinavian countries. Different online factors impact online consumers’ behavior differently depending on the environment of different regions. Sweden is one of the developed and technologically advanced countries. To see the impact of different factors on consumers’ online shopping behavior, the purpose of this study is to analyse the factors that influence consumers’ online shopping behavior in Sweden’s context. One of the objectives o...

  16. Behavioral Law and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral economics has been a growing force in many fields of applied economics, including public economics, labor economics, health economics, and law and economics. This paper describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the end...

  17. Green Consumption Behavior Antecedents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagiaslis, Anastasios; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    The present study adds to the evolving literature on green consumer behavior by examining through statistically robust methods the effect and interrelationships of the key constructs of environmental concern, consumer environmental knowledge, beliefs about biofuels, and behavioral intention (i...... for the environment has a positive and direct impact on environmental knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intention. Also, demographics determine levels of concern for the environment and environmental knowledge. All constructs associate positively with one another delineating that the interdependencies between them...... are important when accounting for environmental behavior. Future research should validate present results with the use of cross-cultural samples and investigate whether environmental concern increases due to social desirability response bias....

  18. Rule-governed behavior and behavioral anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malott, R W

    1988-01-01

    According to cultural materialism, cultural practices result from the materialistic outcomes of those practices, not from sociobiological, mentalistic, or mystical predispositions (e.g., Hindus worship cows because, in the long run, that worship results in more food, not less food). However, according to behavior analysis, such materialistic outcomes do not reinforce or punish the cultural practices, because such outcomes are too delayed, too improbable, or individually too small to directly reinforce or punish the cultural practices (e.g., the food increase is too delayed to reinforce the cow worship). Therefore, the molar, materialistic contingencies need the support of molecular, behavioral contingencies. And according to the present theory of rule-governed behavior, the statement of rules describing those molar, materialistic contingencies can establish the needed molecular contingencies. Given the proper behavioral history, such rule statements combine with noncompliance to produce a learned aversive condition (often labeled fear, anxiety, or guilt). The termination of this aversive condition reinforces compliance, just as its presentation punishes noncompliance (e.g., the termination of guilt reinforces the tending to a sick cow). In addition, supernatural rules often supplement these materialistic rules. Furthermore, the production of both materialistic and supernatural rules needs cultural designers who understand the molar, materialistic contingencies. PMID:22478012

  19. Competence Enhancement Behavior Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Goforth, Jennifer B.; Hives, Jacqueline; Aaron, Annie; Jackson, Frances; Sgammato, Adrienne

    2006-01-01

    Competence Enhancement Behavior Management is presented as a framework for supporting students with challenging behaviors in general education classrooms. This approach emphasizes classroom management and discipline strategies that (a) help to build positive relations with students, (b) communicate to students that they are important, and (c)…

  20. Modeling shopping behavior

    OpenAIRE

    SOUBUSTA, Václav

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with modeling agents in multiagent systems, where it will create a java application in program Greenfoot. This application will serve as a simulation of different shopping behavior of customers when choosing a suitable trade for purchase for them. The behavior will be visualized in the program Greenfoot and properly documented on the javadoc level .

  1. Nascent Leadership Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, Dennis L.; Libertella, Anthony F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a compendium of leadership behaviors that emerging or aspirant leaders could choose to enhance their management and leadership skills. These behaviors were drawn directly from the experience of the authors, both of whom have held senior leadership and management positions in business, law, and higher education. This paper is an…

  2. Behavior Modification with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel G.

    1972-01-01

    The author urges wider use of positive reinforcement theories in helping emotionally disturbed and mentally handicapped children. Underlining the influence of environment on behavior, he also notes that behavior modification programs utilize fewer trained personnel more effectively and, like Tennessee's Re-Education Treatment, allow for therapy in…

  3. Defining Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoplos, Florence; Valletutti, Peter

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the proposition that: "The educational problem involved in behavior modification, in the evaluationand measurement of learning, is the integration and coordination of three types of information affecting the achievement of specific behavioral goals: (1) information about the child, (2) information about the task, and (3) information…

  4. Behavior Therapy of Impotence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengrove, Edward

    1971-01-01

    Behavior therapy approaches to the treatment of male sexual impotence, specifically premature ejaculation and erective impotence, are discussed. Included in the behavioral therapies are systematic desensitization, active graded therapy, assertive techniques, sexual responses, operant approaches and others. Often marriage counseling is also…

  5. Clarifying Behavior Management Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justen, Joseph E., III; Howerton, D. Lynn

    1993-01-01

    Eight behavioral management terms/concepts commonly encountered in the special education literature are defined and discussed in terms of commonly occurring confusions. They are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, extinction, differential reinforcement of other behavior, timeout, response cost, and overcorrection. (DB)

  6. Stress and eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Achim; Langemann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    How stress, the stress response, and the adaptation of the stress response influence our eating behavior is a central question in brain research and medicine. In this report, we highlight recent advances showing the close links between eating behavior, the stress system, and neurometabolism.

  7. Zen and Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Zen's challenge for behavior analysis is to explain a repertoire that renders analysis itself meaningless--a result following not from scientific or philosophical arguments but rather from a unique verbal history generated by Zen's methods. Untying Zen's verbal knots suggests how meditation's and koans' effects on verbal behavior contribute to…

  8. What determines our behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Radovan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In article Ajzen-Fishbein's attitude-behavior model called 'Theory of reasoned action' and Albert Bandura's Model of reciprocal determinism are presented. Both models are a part of social-cognitive paradigm which characterizes behavior with evaluation of different goals. Ajzen and Fishbein (1973; 1980 proposed that specific behavior are predictable from specific behavioral intentions. These intentions are a function of two components: the attitude toward the act in question and percieved normative expectations of reference group. On the other hand Bandura (1986; 1997 claims that person's motivation for a specific behavior and direction toward a specific social object respectively, reflects perception of his or hers self-efficacy beliefs. Some of the findings concerning the synthesis of the two models are also reviewed.

  9. An uncommon case of random fire-setting behavior associated with Todd paralysis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanehisa Masayuki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between fire-setting behavior and psychiatric or medical disorders remains poorly understood. Although a link between fire-setting behavior and various organic brain disorders has been established, associations between fire setting and focal brain lesions have not yet been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old first time arsonist who suffered Todd’s paralysis prior to the onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior. Case presentation A case of a 24-year-old man with a sudden onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior is reported. The man, who had been arrested on felony arson charges, complained of difficulties concentrating and of recent memory disturbances with leg weakness. A video-EEG recording demonstrated a close relationship between the focal motor impairment and a clear-cut epileptic ictal discharge involving the bilateral motor cortical areas. The SPECT result was statistically analyzed by comparing with standard SPECT images obtained from our institute (easy Z-score imaging system; eZIS. eZIS revealed hypoperfusion in cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and hyperperfusion in frontal cortex,. A neuropsychological test battery revealed lower than normal scores for executive function, attention, and memory, consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction. Conclusion The fire-setting behavior and Todd’s paralysis, together with an unremarkable performance on tests measuring executive function fifteen months prior, suggested a causal relationship between this organic brain lesion and the fire-setting behavior. The case describes a rare and as yet unreported association between random, impulse-driven fire-setting behavior and damage to the brain and suggests a disconnection of frontal lobe structures as a possible pathogenic mechanism.

  10. Cornelia de Lange syndrome: Correlation of brain MRI findings with behavioral assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan Lal, Tamanna R; Kliewer, Mark A; Lopes, Thelma; Rebsamen, Susan L; O'Connor, Julia; Grados, Marco A; Kimball, Amy; Clemens, Julia; Kline, Antonie D

    2016-06-01

    Neurobehavioral and developmental issues with a broad range of deficits are prominent features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a disorder due to disruption of the cohesin protein complex. The etiologic relationship of these clinical findings to anatomic abnormalities on neuro-imaging studies has not, however, been established. Anatomic abnormalities in the brain and central nervous system specific to CdLS have been observed, including changes in the white matter, brainstem, and cerebellum. We hypothesize that location and severity of brain abnormalities correlate with clinical phenotype in CdLS, as seen in other developmental disorders. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated brain MRI studies of 15 individuals with CdLS and compared these findings to behavior at the time of the scan. Behavior was assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), a validated behavioral assessment tool with several clinical features. Ten of fifteen (67%) of CdLS patients had abnormal findings on brain MRI, including cerebral atrophy, white matter changes, cerebellar hypoplasia, and enlarged ventricles. Other findings included pituitary tumors or cysts, Chiari I malformation and gliosis. Abnormal behavioral scores in more than one behavioral area were seen in all but one patient. All 5 of the 15 (33%) patients with normal structural MRI studies had abnormal ABC scores. All normal ABC scores were noted in only one patient and this was correlated with moderately abnormal MRI changes. Although our cohort is small, our results suggest that abnormal behaviors can exist in individuals with CdLS in the setting of relatively normal structural brain findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Research on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Trust and Customer Citizenship Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Gongxing Guo; Xing Zhou

    2013-01-01

    The concept of Customer Citizenship Behavior is evolved from Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and therelationship between them has been researched by few scholars. To examine the effect of OrganizationalCitizenship Behavior on Customer Citizenship Behavior, this research adopted questionnaire investigationmethod to survey 208 consumers. As predicted, the results showed that, organizational citizenship behaviorinfluenced customer citizenship behavior positively; trust acted as a mediator b...

  12. Rule-governed behavior and behavioral anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Malott, Richard W

    1988-01-01

    According to cultural materialism, cultural practices result from the materialistic outcomes of those practices, not from sociobiological, mentalistic, or mystical predispositions (e.g., Hindus worship cows because, in the long run, that worship results in more food, not less food). However, according to behavior analysis, such materialistic outcomes do not reinforce or punish the cultural practices, because such outcomes are too delayed, too improbable, or individually too small to directly ...

  13. Relationship Quality and the Theory of Planned Behavior Models of Behavioral Intentions and Purchase Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. DE CANNIÈRE; P. DE PELSMACKER; M. GEUENS

    2008-01-01

    Using real-life purchase behavior data of apparel and survey information, this study compares the Relationship Quality and the Theory of Planned Behavior models. The attitude towards the buying behavior, the subjective norm and perceived behavioral control (antecedents of the buying intention in the Theory of Planned Behavior) are better predictors of behavioral intentions than Relationship Quality. In both models intentions fully mediate the impact of attitudinal antecedents on behavior, bot...

  14. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  15. Facilitator control as automatic behavior: A verbal behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Genae A.

    1993-01-01

    Several studies of facilitated communication have demonstrated that the facilitators were controlling and directing the typing, although they appeared to be unaware of doing so. Such results shift the focus of analysis to the facilitator's behavior and raise questions regarding the controlling variables for that behavior. This paper analyzes facilitator behavior as an instance of automatic verbal behavior, from the perspective of Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior. Verbal behavior is autom...

  16. Dealing with Oppositional Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ways to manage oppositional behaviors is a daily reality for many people who know FTD first hand. ... been heard. Adjust creatively and laugh Watching a television program I enjoy can be a challenge to ...

  17. Network-behavior dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, René; Dijkstra, Jan; Steglich, Christian; Van Zalk, Maarten H. W.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in disentangling selection and influence processes. This literature review provides context for the special issue on network-behavior dynamics. It brings together important conceptual, methodological, and empirical contributions focusing on longitudina

  18. Consumer Buying Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Vida; Mojca Maher Pirc

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the phenomenon of national identity and economic ethnocentrism in consumer buying behavior. Analysis of data collected from a representative sample of adult Slovenian consumers reveals only moderately expressed ethnocentric tendencies. Similar moderation was revealed in the preferences of Slovenian consumers for patriotic purchasing behavior, whereby the domestic origin of products was more important in the case of nondurable goods and services than in the case of durable g...

  19. SPORT CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Iftime Dragoș Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Without any doubt, sport has become a major consumer market, either we discuss about practicing any kind of sport at professional or amateur level, or we are just interested by a competition, sport organization or an athlete as a regular consumer. From this last perspective, we can distinguish between two types of behaviors, respectively the spectator and the supporter or fan. Each of these two typologies has its own characteristics which define, in a significant manner, the consumer behavior...

  20. Behavioral genetics and taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmanov Alexander A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on behavioral genetic studies of sweet, umami, bitter and salt taste responses in mammals. Studies involving mouse inbred strain comparisons and genetic analyses, and their impact on elucidation of taste receptors and transduction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the effect of genetic variation in taste responsiveness on complex traits such as drug intake is considered. Recent advances in development of genomic resources make behavioral genetics a powerful approach for understanding mechanisms of taste.

  1. Behavioral Law & Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nieborak

    2012-01-01

    Issues concerning the regulation aspects of financial markets are not simple. One of the reasons for this is that a great number of detailed factors have an effect, for example, the trust of the consumers of financial services or their behavior. The paper analyses the most important of them, and issues related to them, from a legal point of view, with the main objective of presenting the basic assumptions of the behavioral Law & Economics theorem. Dynamic development of financial markets and ...

  2. Zen and Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bass, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Zen's challenge for behavior analysis is to explain a repertoire that renders analysis itself meaningless—a result following not from scientific or philosophical arguments but rather from a unique verbal history generated by Zen's methods. Untying Zen's verbal knots suggests how meditation's and koans' effects on verbal behavior contribute to Enlightenment and Samādhi. The concept of stimulus singularity is introduced to account for why, within Zen's frame of reference, its methods can be stu...

  3. Is Behavioral Economics Doomed?

    OpenAIRE

    David K. Levine

    2013-01-01

    It is fashionable to criticize economic theory for focusing too much on rationality and ignoring the imperfect and emotional way in which real economic decisions are reached. All of us facing the global economic crisis wonder just how rational economic men and women can be. Behavioral economics — an effort to incorporate psychological ideas into economics — has become all the rage. In this book, David K. Levine questions the idea that behavioral economics is the answer to economic problems. H...

  4. Behavioral Contract Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Botond Koszegi

    2014-01-01

    This review provides a critical survey of psychology-and-economics ("behavioral-economics") research in contract theory. First, I introduce the theories of individual decision making most frequently used in behavioral contract theory, and formally illustrate some of their implications in contracting settings. Second, I provide a more comprehensive (but informal) survey of the psychology-and-economics work on classical contract-theoretic topics: moral hazard, screening, mechanism design, and i...

  5. Prosocial behavior and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Paz eEspinosa; Jaromir eKovarik

    2015-01-01

    This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in “neutral” baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometime...

  6. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NGOs Protective Factors Parent Engagement School Connectedness Positive Parenting Practices Sexual Risk Behaviors Program Evaluation Evaluations of ... including— Behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence Sexual behaviors related to unintended pregnancy and sexually ...

  7. Behavioral addictions: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Reef; Chaudhri, Priya

    2012-01-01

    The legitimacy of nonsubstance addictions has received increased attention from clinicians, researchers and the general population as more and more individuals report symptoms consistent with impairment of impulse control. The clinical presentation of these disorders is varied, as compulsive activities may include: gambling, eating, sex, shopping, use of the Internet or videogames or even exercising, working or falling in love. As such, there is great controversy in diagnosing, treating or even naming these conditions, as many of these behaviors are daily rituals instrumental to our ultimate survival. Historically, the phrase "impulse control disorders" described these conditions but many researchers and clinicians also use the term "behavioral addictions," "process addictions" or "impulsive-compulsive behaviors" to report behavioral pathology. This review summarizes the data of each of these behavioral addictions from epidemiology to neurobiology to treatment options. Research suggests similarities between natural and drug reward processing but clinical evidence supports the utilization of treatment modalities for these behavioral conditions that can sometimes differ from traditional drug treatment. PMID:22641961

  8. Evaluating a Web-Based Educational Module on Oral Cancer Examination Based on a Behavioral Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Alvin G; Zimmerman, Lani M; Pullen, Carol H; Allen, Carl M; Lambert, Paul M; Paskett, Electra D

    2016-03-01

    Patients at risk of developing oral and/or oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) are more likely to see primary care providers (PCPs) than a dentist. Many PCPs do not regularly perform oral cancer examination (OCE). The purpose of this study was to design a web-based educational program based on a behavioral framework to encourage PCPs to conduct OCE. PCPs were solicited to provide feedback on the program and to evaluate their short-term knowledge. The integrated behavioral model was used to design the program. Fifteen PCPs (five in each group: physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) reviewed the program and took a posttest: (1) index of knowledge of risk factors for oral cancer (RiskOC) and (2) index of knowledge of diagnostic procedures for oral cancer (DiagOC). Findings from the process evaluation were mainly positive, with comments on the length of the program comprising the ten negative comments. No significant difference among groups of PCPs (physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) was detected for DiagOC (p = 0.43) or RiskOC (p = 0.201). A program on OPC for PCPs should be less than 40 min. Postviewing knowledge outcomes were similar for all PCPs. The web-based program on OPC based on a behavioral framework could have similar short-term knowledge outcomes for all PCPs and may increase the number of PCPs performing OCEs. PMID:25572460

  9. Computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy for children with epilepsy and anxiety: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, Jacquelyn B; Fujikawa, Mayu; Sung, Connie; Jackson, Daren C; Jones, Jana E

    2013-04-01

    Anxiety disorders are prevalent in children with epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, adaptability, and feasibility of a manual-based, computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for anxiety disorders in children with epilepsy. Fifteen anxious youth (aged 8-13 years) with epilepsy completed 12 weeks of manualized computer-assisted CBT. The children and parents completed a semi-structured interview at baseline, and questionnaires assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and behavior problems were completed prior to treatment, at treatment midpoint, after treatment completion, and at three months posttreatment. There were significant reductions in the symptoms of anxiety and depression reported by the children at completion of the intervention and at the three-month follow-up. Similarly, the parents reported fewer symptoms of anxiety and a reduction in behavior problems. No adverse events were reported. This CBT intervention for children with epilepsy and anxiety disorders appears to be safe, effective, and feasible and should be incorporated into future intervention studies.

  10. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  11. Fifteen years of econophysics: worries, hopes and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Roehner, Bertrand M

    2010-01-01

    This anniversary paper is an occasion to recall some of the events that shaped institutional econophysics. But in these thoughts about the evolution of econophysics in the last 15 years we also express some concerns. Our main worry concerns the relinquishment of the simplicity requirement. Ever since the groundbreaking experiments of Galileo some three centuries ago, the great successes of physicists were largely due to the fact that they were able to decompose complex phenomena into simpler ones. Remember that the first observation of the effects of an electrical current was made by Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) on the leg of a frog! Clearly, to make sense this observation had to be broken down into several separate effects. Nowadays, with computers being able to handle huge amounts of data and to simulate any stochastic process no matter how complicated, there is no longer any real need for such a search for simplicity. Why should one spend time and effort trying to break up complicated phenomena when it is ...

  12. Improving Learning and Reducing Costs: Fifteen Years of Course Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing that tuition increases can no longer be used as a safety valve to avoid dealing with the underlying issues of why costs increase so much, campuses have begun the hard work of cost containment. After sharpening priorities, sometimes making tough choices in light of those priorities, campuses are still groping for ways to wrestle costs…

  13. Implementing CBM: SQL-Tutor after Fifteen Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Antonija; Ohlsson, Stellan

    2016-01-01

    SQL-Tutor is the first constraint-based tutor. The initial conference papers about the system were published in 1998 (Mitrovic 1998a, 1998b, 1998c), with an "IJAIED" paper published in 1999 (Mitrovic and Ohlsson, "International Journal Artificial Intelligence in Education," 10(3-4), 238-256, 1999). We published another…

  14. Fifteen years of forest tree biosafety research in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoenicka H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since beginning of 1990, several projects on biosafety research were initiated in Germany with genetically modified plants. Germany was also one of the first countries active on biosafety research with genetically modified trees (GMTs. An EU-funded project coordinated by the Institute of Forest Genetics (Johann Heinrich von Thuenen Institute, Grosshansdorf, from 1994 to 1997, was the first project of this kind in Germany. In the frame of this project, transgene stability was studied under greenhouse conditions in different transgenic aspen clones. A high degree of transgene expression stability was found in transgenic lines, however, gene silencing was detected in some transgenic plants. In Germany, the jump of the GMTs from the greenhouse to the field was initiated in 1996 by the Institute of Forest Genetics (Grosshansdorf, when the first field trial with genetically modified (GM poplar was approved for five years. In the year 2000 and in cooperation with the University of Tuebingen, the same institute established a second field trial with GM poplar to study possible horizontal gene transfer (HGT from the transgenic poplar into mycorrhizal fungi. No HGT was detected in those studies. Two further national funded projects on phytoremediation and status of mycorrhizal fungi in GMTs under field conditions were run by the University of Freiburg on 2002 - 2004 and 2003 - 2005. Topics of national funded biosafety research projects on GMTs released to the field but as well on greenhouse grown plants were transgene stability, genetic containment, transgene influence on mycorrhizal and phytopathogenic fungi, generative and vegetative propagation capacity, and horizontal gene transfer.

  15. [Fifteen million young children at the mercy of apartheid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-16

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) organized a conference in March 1988 in Harare, Zimbabwe, to publicize the plight of the 15 million children of South Africa and the 9 neighboring countries of Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Children of the region have been imprisoned, tortured, kidnapped and assassinated, and have suffered all the atrocities of war. Of the 3.5 million children born each year in the 9 countries neighboring South Africa, 750,000 die before the age of 5 years. War is the cause of much of the mortality, and South Africa is at the center of the war. According to the UNICEF spokesperson, children have been kidnapped and taught to kill. Between 1980-86, 1/2 million children under 5 have died in Angola and Mozambique because of the war. Angola and Mozambique are undoubtedly the 2 "front-line" countries most touched by the aggression of South Africa. The infant mortality rate in the 2 countries the highest in the world. Victims of the ware include civilians of all types, not just military. Children are the most several affected by pillaging and burning of stores and supplies, destruction of villages, poisoning of water supplies, and cutting of communication links. In 1985, 40% of schools were destroyed, and 20% of children were forced to abandon their educations. About 8 million Angolans and Mozambicans, or 1/2 the rural population of the 2 countries, have been forced to flee and reduced to wandering. Among them are almost 4 million children. Serious psychological problems resulting from the upheaval and war have affected many of the children. The economic loss resulting from South Africa's aggression has been estimated at $30 billion between 1980-86 in the southern African countries. In South Africa itself, rigid censorship assures that little word escapes of the atrocities committed against children, but the rare news that filters out describes tortures so horrible that they recall the Nazi regime.

  16. MULTI-WAVELENGTHS OBSERVATIONS OF AGN: FIFTEEN YEARS ALONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Willem Wamsteker

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the results of the extensive efforts done over the past decade on the near environment of the central engines in Active Galactic Nuclei. The observational material is mainly based on the observations from Ground based observatories in the optical, infrared and radio bands, and of space missions like GINGA, IUE, HST, CGRO, ISO, BeppoSAX and RXTE. The availability of this instrumentation with sufficient sensitivity for the study of these objects in the γ-rays, X-rays, EUV, UV as well as Optical, IR and radio domain has opened a complete new insight. Although the results have not yet lead to a complete and full understanding, they have demonstrated with a high degree of probability that the central engines of these objects are associated with massive blackholes. A strong effort will be required from the theoretical side to make certain that we can actually use the results to distinguish between the different model parameters and place the AGN's in their proper place, not only as individual objects of interest,but also to clarify their place in the general scheme of the evolution in the Universe.The results obtained so far have not solved all the early questions, but with the promise of the new instruments a very exciting outlook exists for the future of the study of the physics of accretion in massive Black Holes.

  17. Hepatic metastasis from adrenocortical carcinoma fifteen years after primary resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mawardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 73-year-old man who presented with an asymptomatic hepatic mass during investigation of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by a plain chest radiograph, followed by ultrasonography, which revealed a solitary hepatic lesion measuring 7.1 cm × 6.5 cm × 5.8 cm in dimension. Fine- needle aspiration of the mass revealed malignant cells compatible with hepatocellular carcinoma. Interestingly, the patient had a left adrenalectomy and complete left nephrectomy in 1987, for a non-functioning left adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC. The ACC was diagnosed as stage two, with no evidence of local invasion or distant metastases. No adjuvant therapy was recommended postoperatively. After a five-year follow-up, there was no evidence of ACC recurrence and the patient was declared cured from his ACC. The patient underwent a complete segmental resection of the right lobe of the liver successfully. The final diagnosis of the mass was a well-differentiated metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.

  18. Feminism and School Reform: The Last Fifteen Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agre, Gene P.; Finkelstein, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Two distinct lines of argument elaborating connections between school reform and women's lives are identified. The "domestic feminism" tradition defines the meaning of education in relation to the processes of moral and psychological nurture; "economic feminists" have looked to schools to readjust the relationships of women to the marketplace.…

  19. Fifteen forms of biodiversity trend in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Brian J; Dornelas, Maria; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Magurran, Anne E

    2015-02-01

    Humans are transforming the biosphere in unprecedented ways, raising the important question of how these impacts are changing biodiversity. Here we argue that our understanding of biodiversity trends in the Anthropocene, and our ability to protect the natural world, is impeded by a failure to consider different types of biodiversity measured at different spatial scales. We propose that ecologists should recognize and assess 15 distinct categories of biodiversity trend. We summarize what is known about each of these 15 categories, identify major gaps in our current knowledge, and recommend the next steps required for better understanding of trends in biodiversity. PMID:25542312

  20. The history of Korean Institute Chemical Engineers for fifteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book reports the history of Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers with commemorative message, three congratulatory address and photos for fifty years. Nest, it consists of five chapters, which deals with development this institute by chronological classification. It reports the development history by activity such as education, research, publishing branch, international activity, data, woman, and executive office. It records challenge of chemical engineering, remembrance for past presidents and appendixes on history and a list of members.

  1. The history of Korean Institute Chemical Engineers for fifteen years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This book reports the history of Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers with commemorative message, three congratulatory address and photos for fifty years. Nest, it consists of five chapters, which deals with development this institute by chronological classification. It reports the development history by activity such as education, research, publishing branch, international activity, data, woman, and executive office. It records challenge of chemical engineering, remembrance for past presidents and appendixes on history and a list of members.

  2. Cervical Collagen Concentration within Fifteen Months after Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundtoft, Iben; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sommer, Steffe

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cervical collagen concentration decreases during pregnancy. The increased risk of preterm birth following a short interpregnancy interval may be explained by an incomplete remodeling of the cervix. The objective of this study was to describe the changes in cervical collagen concentration...... over 15 months following delivery. METHODS: The collagen concentrations were determined in cervical biopsies obtained from 15 women at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months after delivery. RESULTS: The mean cervical collagen concentrations were 50, 59, 63, 65, and 65 % of dry weight (SD 4.2 – 6.5). This increase...... was statistically significant until month 9, but not between months 9 and 12. CONCLUSIONS: Low collagen concentrations in the uterine cervix may contribute to the association between a short interpregnancy interval and preterm birth....

  3. Fifteen years on - early intervention for a new generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Steven; Thompson, Andrew; Upthegrove, Rachel; Broome, Matthew R

    2016-09-01

    Early intervention for psychosis (EIP) is a model of service delivery that aims to support young people with first-episode psychosis by providing the best available treatments, supporting recovery and preventing relapse. In this editorial, we review the evidence for EIP, how the model has developed since its inclusion in the NHS policy implementation guideline for mental health in 2001, challenges and areas of ongoing debate, and future development. PMID:27587758

  4. Fifteen-minute consultation: the infant with a tongue tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowley, Douglas M; Arul, G Suren

    2014-08-01

    Tongue tie is an increasingly common cause for referral of infants to our general paediatric surgery service. In this article, we will explore the indications for tongue tie division in the newborn child, the practicalities of the procedure and the supporting evidence. PMID:24419208

  5. Management of Nelson's syndrome: observations in fifteen patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemink, S.A.G.; Grotenhuis, J.A.; Vries, J. de; Pieters, G.F.F.M.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Smals, A.G.H.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the results of different treatment modalities for Nelson's syndrome, which was defined as radiological evidence of a pituitary macroadenoma, fasting plasma ACTH levels of more than 200 pmol/l after stopping glucocorticoid substitution for at least 24 h in a patient who had unde

  6. Review fifteen years of search for strong nucleosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Edward N; Nibhani, Reshma

    2015-08-01

    Don Crothers, Mikael Kubista, Jon Widom, and their teams have been first to look for strong nucleosomes, in a bid to reveal the nucleosome positioning pattern(s) carried by the nucleosome DNA sequences. They were first to demonstrate that the nucleosome stability correlates with 10-11 base sequence periodicity, and that the strong nucleosomes localize preferentially in centromeres. This review describes these findings and their connection to recent discovery of the strong nucleosomes (SNs) with visibly periodic nucleosome DNA sequences.

  7. Substantiated Best Practices in Transition: Fifteen Plus Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmark, Leena Jo; Ju, Song; Zhang, Dalun

    2010-01-01

    Since the transition movement in the 1980s, numerous transition practices have been developed. Kohler (1993) provided a comprehensive review and analysis of transition best practices and divided them into substantiated and implied practices based on the existence of empirical evidence. Since that review was published, the field of transition has…

  8. Leprosy in children under fifteen years in Brazil, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levantezi, Magda; Moreira, Tadiana; Sena Neto, Sebastião; De Jesus, Aline Ludmila

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the occurrence of Hansen's disease in children under 15 years of age and to analyse the burden of disease in the same population in Brazil in 2011. This is a descriptive epidemiological study on the positive cases of Hansen's disease in minors below 15 years of age notified in Brazil. Data was collected from the Information System on Disease Notification for Hansen's disease cases, and the Brazilian Institute of Geographic Statistics for population data. The study's results showed that 2420 minors with Hansen's Disease in 2011 were distributed in 5565 cities, 692 cities registered the occurrence of 1-10 cases of the disease, a total of 1489 cases (61%); 35 cities showed 15 to 25 cases, 544 (22.5%); and eight cities notified 25 cases or more, totalling 87 cases (16%), therefore, about one third of the Hansen's disease cases in minors under 15 years in Brazil in the year of 2011 are concentrated in 43 Brazilian cities. PMID:25255615

  9. Fifteen years of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Catherine E; Ford, Peter G; Plucinsky, Paul P

    2014-01-01

    As the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on the Chandra X-ray Observatory enters its fifteenth year of operation on orbit, it continues to perform well and produce spectacular scientific results. The response of ACIS has evolved over the lifetime of the observatory due to radiation damage, molecular contamination and aging of the spacecraft in general. Here we present highlights from the instrument team's monitoring program and our expectations for the future of ACIS. The ACIS calibration source produces multiple line energies and fully illuminates the entire focal plane which has greatly facilitated the measurement of charge transfer inefficiency and absorption from contamination. While the radioactive decay of the source has decreased its utility, it continues to provide valuable data on the health of the instrument. Performance changes on ACIS continue to be manageable, and do not indicate any limitations on ACIS lifetime.

  10. Chernobyl, fifteen years after; Tchernobyl, 15 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This work has been constituted around four questions: the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor, and the sarcophagus around it; the health consequences of the accident on the persons that have worked on the damaged reactor and on the population in the countries the most exposed to fallout,; the situation of contaminated territories around the power plant and their management today; the last question concerns especially the France with the consequences of the radioactive cloud and what we know about the health risks induced by this event. (N.C.)

  11. Behavioral Indicators and Behaviors Related to Sexting among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Heather K.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Ogletree, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Empirical studies on sexting are limited, and many sexting studies only assessed sexting behaviors. Few studies have assessed attitudes, subjective norms, or behavioral intentions related to sexting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral intentions, and behaviors related to sexting…

  12. O tamanho do ovo não prediz o desenvolvimento físico de avestruzes (Struthio camelus aos quinze dias de idade The size of the egg does not predict the physical development of ostriches (Struthio camelus at fifteen days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Braga Brasileiro de Alvarenga

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O tamanho dos ovos está relacionado com a sobrevivência e o crescimento de filhotes de aves precociais. A inter-relação entre ovo e filhote pode ser importante para a produção animal, fornecendo subsídios para decisões estratégicas de economia, manejo e bem-estar animal. Este estudo analisou a relação entre o peso dos ovos antes da incubação e o desenvolvimento de filhotes de avestruzes (N=48 aos quinze dias de idade. Os filhotes foram criados em grupos, em berçários, com alimentação comercial e sem cuidado parental. Nos filhotes, mensurou-se o peso, a altura da cernelha e o comprimento do tarso-metatarso. Houve uma significativa diferença nos pesos dos ovos, mas as medidas corporais equivalentes dos filhotes não foram estatisticamente diferentes. Em concordância com estudos em outras espécies de aves, o peso do ovo não parece influenciar o crescimento dos filhotes de avestruzes até os 15 dias de vida, em avestruzes.The size of the eggs is related to survival and chick growth in precocial birds. The interrelationship between egg and chick development can be important for the animal production, supplying data for strategic decisions of economy, handling and animal welfare. This study analyzed the relation between the weight of the eggs and the development of ostrich chicks (N=48 at age of fifteen days old. The chicks were kept in indoor nurseries, in groups, without parental care, and fed commercial feed. It was recorded the weight, the back height and the length of the tarsus-metatarsus. There was a significant difference in the weight of the eggs, but the correspondent body chicken measures were not statistically different. In agreement to the studies in other species of birds, the weight of the egg does not seem to influence the growth of the ostriches at fifteen days old.

  13. Rule-governed behavior: Unifying radical and paradigmatic behaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, G. Leonard; Staats, Arthur W.

    1991-01-01

    Commonalities and differences between Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior and the paradigmatic behaviorism (PB) approach are described as a means of introducing the latter to behavior analysis. The focus is on treating the topic of rule-governed behavior—a topic of current interest in behavior analysis in addressing the challenge of cognitive psychology—within the PB framework. Dealing behaviorally with traditional psychology interests is considered important in PB, and this article aims to...

  14. [Dyspnea and behavioral control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, T

    1992-04-01

    Respiration is automatically regulated via chemo- and mechanoreceptors existing in and outside the lungs, but it is also controlled voluntarily by behavioral factors. Voluntary increase in ventilation accentuates dyspnea and the sensory intensity at a given ventilation does not differ from that of exercise-induced hyperventilation, but it is significantly smaller than that during hypercapnia or hypoxia. Voluntary constraint of ventilation augments dyspnea in proportion to the degree of constraint even under isocapnic hyperoxia, and the respiratory sensation during constrained breathing is qualitatively more discomfortable than that during hyperventilation. Changes in the level and pattern of breathing under constant levels of chemical stimuli increase respiratory sensations and the intensity of dyspnea is minimal near the spontaneous levels, which supports the hypothesis that breathing is behaviorally regulated in part to minimize dyspnea. The system of behavioral control of breathing appears to be involved in the maintenance of body homeostasis by modifying the respiratory output through respiratory sensations.

  15. Behavioral Economics of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    -dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how......During the last decade knowledge about human behavior from psychology and sociology has enhanced the field of economics of education. By now research recognizes cognitive skills (as measured by achivement tests) as equally important drivers of later economic outcomes, and skills are seen as multi...... approaches from behavioral economics help our understanding of the complexity of educational investments and outcomes, and we discuss what insights can be gained from such concepts in the context of education....

  16. SPORT CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftime Dragoș Adrian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Without any doubt, sport has become a major consumer market, either we discuss about practicing any kind of sport at professional or amateur level, or we are just interested by a competition, sport organization or an athlete as a regular consumer. From this last perspective, we can distinguish between two types of behaviors, respectively the spectator and the supporter or fan. Each of these two typologies has its own characteristics which define, in a significant manner, the consumer behavior. A correct understanding and management of this phenomenon, of the factors that influence the attitudes and the decisions taken by the respective consumer, of the display manner for the consumer behavior have a major importance from the management and marketing point of view. This paper focuses on the football consumer and describes, first of all, the main characteristics of each of the typologies mentioned above from this perspective, presenting also the reasons for their transition from passive supporter to fan. Another issue we approach in the current paper refers to the changes appeared in the consumer behavior when the market segment is represented by those supporters whose teams are either relegated or liquidated, which is a global phenomenon in the football area. Having in mind this aspect and taking into consideration the influence of media (TV, press, Internet, social media etc, some individual benchmarks that influence those consumer’s behavior are identified within the context of the general typologies previously mentioned. These influences help the consumer to obtain benefits or satisfaction similar to those already lost. The findings may be used in further research focused on that particular market segment and could provide the necessary support data for further development of proper techniques and tools for reshaping and changing the respective consumer behavior.

  17. Prevalence of hypersexual behavior in Parkinson’s disease patients: Not restricted to males and dopamine agonist use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A Cooper

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Christine A Cooper, Armon Jadidian, Michelle Paggi, Janet Romrell, Michael S Okun, et alDepartment of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: This study investigates the prevalence and demographic characteristics of hypersexuality in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Impulse control disorders in PD patients have been associated with dopamine agonist therapy. Moreover, hypersexuality and pathological gambling have been associated with males, while females may be inherently thought to be more likely to participate in compulsive shopping and binge-eating behaviors. In this study, a screening mail-in survey was sent to all PD patients at a single Movement Disorders Center. One  hundred forty one of 400 (35.3% research packets were returned completed. Fifteen of 141 patients met initial screening criteria for hypersexual behavior. After detailed interview, only 6/141 (4.3% of PD patients met criteria for pathologic hypersexual behavior. These behaviors included: compulsive masturbation, prostitution, and paraphilias. Patients with a younger age of PD onset were more likely to exhibit hypersexual behavior. Unlike previous report, no significant association was found between hypersexuality and gender or dopamine agonist use. Rather, this study suggests that physicians should be vigilant for hypersexual behavior in all PD patients, regardless of gender and PD medication regimen. Ultimately, given the innate sensitivity of the topic and survey limitations, it is very likely that hypersexual behavior in our cohort, as it is in the general PD population, has been under-reported.Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, hypersexuality, impulsive behavior, dopamine agonists

  18. Teaching Behavioral Awareness in Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a model for behavioral change which synthesizes behavioral awareness with empirically identified target behaviors. Stages of the model are presented and cautions for implementation are given. Suggests the model can help students gain an understanding of the consequences of behavioral problems. (BL)

  19. Behavior Disorders in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Herbert C.

    1978-01-01

    The research findings of most studies on student behavior problems have shown that these behaviors can be reduced to four major clusters of interrelated characteristics--conduct disorder, personality disorder, inadequacy-immaturity and socialized delinquency. Discusses these behaviors and some research on behavior change. (Author/RK)

  20. Healthy Behaviors or Age Denials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Erdman B.

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable confusion in the media and the public about healthy behaviors in contrast to "antiaging" behaviors designed to make one look "younger." As an aid in clarifying the differences between these two types of behaviors, we have developed a questionnaire called the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI). We also wanted to estimate…

  1. INFLUENCE OF MEDIA ON BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Schieser, Hans

    2013-01-01

    How far do Media (Television, Video Games, Publications) influence the behavior of young people? The increasing occurrence of violent behavior (e.g. amuck shootings) suggest a negative influence upon the minds and behavior of youth. Psychologists point to the effects of propaganda, the fallacy of "behaviorism" and the facts of experience with addiction (e.g. pornography) and physical effects on the brain.

  2. Organizational citizenship behavior towards sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Dhiman Deb

    2013-01-01

    This article extends literature of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) in the context of corporate sustainability. The author presents the concept of Organizational Citizenship Behavior towards Sustainability (OCBS) as a variant, contending it's appropriateness for today's much needed behavioral competence to implement sustainability measure at organizational level. The formulation of OCBS espouses Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) with a twist. The viewpoint defended that a for...

  3. Evaluation of physiological and behavioral measures in relation to dental anxiety during sequential dental visits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayen R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is a special variety of fear, experienced in anticipation of threatening stimuli. While some research workers have said that the response of a child improves with the number of visits, many have felt otherwise. The present study is yet another effort to find the patterns of anxiety in children during sequential dental visits. The main aim was to determine the physiological and behavioral variations during sequential dental visits and its impact on age and sex. The study was conducted at the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and preventive dentistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai to evaluate the physiological and behavioural measures of stress and anxiety in children. One hundred and fifteen children, between four and eleven years of age who reported for dental treatment were selected for the study.

  4. Heightened D3 Dopamine Receptor Levels in Cocaine Dependence and Contributions to the Addiction Behavioral Phenotype: A Positron Emission Tomography Study with [11C]-(+)-PHNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Doris E; Behzadi, Arian; Kish, Stephen J; Houle, Sylvain; Wilson, Alan A; Rusjan, Pablo M; Tong, Junchao; Selby, Peter; George, Tony P; McCluskey, Tina; Boileau, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine system is a primary treatment target for cocaine dependence (CD), but research on dopaminergic abnormalities (eg, D2 receptor system deficiencies) has so far failed to translate into effective treatment strategies. The D3 receptor system has recently attracted considerable clinical interest, and D3 antagonism is now under investigation as a novel avenue for addiction treatment. The objective here was to evaluate the status and behavioral relevance of the D3 receptor system in CD, using the positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer [11C]-(+)-PHNO. Fifteen CD subjects (many actively using, but all abstinent 7–240 days on scan day) and fifteen matched healthy control (HC) subjects completed two PET scans: one with [11C]-(+)-PHNO to assess D3 receptor binding (BPND; calculated regionally using the simplified reference tissue model), and for comparison, a second scan with [11C]raclopride to assess D2/3 binding. CD subjects also completed a behavioral battery to characterize the addiction behavioral phenotype. CD subjects showed higher [11C]-(+)-PHNO BPND than HC in the substantia nigra, which correlated with behavioral impulsiveness and risky decision making. In contrast, [11C]raclopride BPND was lower across the striatum in CD, consistent with previous literature in ⩾2 week abstinence. The data suggest that in contrast to a D2 deficiency, CD individuals may have heightened D3 receptor levels, which could contribute to addiction-relevant traits. D3 upregulation is emerging as a biomarker in preclinical models of addiction, and human PET studies of this receptor system can help guide novel pharmacological strategies for treatment. PMID:23921256

  5. Clinical Study of Fifteen Cases with Functional Fecal Incontinence Treated by Biofeedback and Wheat Grain Moxibustion%生物反馈配合麦粒灸疗法治疗功能性便失禁15例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 丁曙晴

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察生物反馈配合麦粒灸疗法治疗功能性便禁的临床疗效.方法:选择符合功能性便失禁症状患者15例,运用生物反馈配合麦粒灸疗法方法治疗,所有病例1周治疗5次,共治疗2~4周.结果:运用生物反馈配合麦粒灸疗法治疗后患者便失禁评分明显减低,均较治疗前有明显改善.结论:生物反馈配合麦粒灸疗法治疗功能性便失禁有较好的临床疗效.%Objective:To study the clinical effect of biofeedback and wheat grain moxibustion for treatment of functional fecal incontinence. Methods : To treat Fifteen Cases of functional fecal incontinence by biofeedback and wheat grain moxibustion. For treatment five times a week , about two-four weeks. Result: The score of fecal incontinence was obviously reduced after treatment by biofeedback and wheat grain moxibustion . All the cases were obviously improved than before treatment. Conclusion : The clinical effect of functional fecal incontinence is good by biofeedback and wheat grain moxibustion .

  6. Chronic cocaine or ethanol exposure during adolescence alters novelty-related behaviors in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Kirstie H; Kirstein, Cheryl L

    2007-04-01

    Adolescence is a time of high-risk behavior and increased exploration. This developmental period is marked by a greater probability to initiate drug use and is associated with an increased risk to develop addiction and adulthood dependency and drug use at this time is associated with an increased risk. Human adolescents are predisposed toward an increased likelihood of risk-taking behaviors [Zuckerman M. Sensation seeking and the endogenous deficit theory of drug abuse. NIDA Res Monogr 1986;74:59-70.], including drug use or initiation. In the present study, adolescent animals were exposed to twenty days of either saline (0.9% sodium chloride), cocaine (20 mg/kg) or ethanol (1 g/kg) i.p. followed by a fifteen-day washout period. All animals were tested as adults on several behavioral measures including locomotor activity induced by a novel environment, time spent in the center of an open field, novelty preference and novel object exploration. Animals exposed to cocaine during adolescence and tested as adults exhibited a greater locomotor response in a novel environment, spent less time in the center of the novel open field and spent less time with a novel object, results that are indicative of a stress or anxiogenic response to novelty or a novel situation. Adolescent animals chronically administered ethanol and tested as adults, unlike cocaine-exposed were not different from controls in a novel environment, indicated by locomotor activity or time spent with a novel object. However, ethanol-exposed animals approached the novel object more, suggesting that exposure to ethanol during development may result in less-inhibited behaviors during adulthood. The differences in adult behavioral responses after drug exposure during adolescence are likely due to differences in the mechanisms of action of the drugs and subsequent reward and/or stress responsivity. Future studies are needed to determine the neural substrates of these long lasting drug-induced changes. PMID

  7. Personality and Prosocial Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Glöckner, Andreas; Zettler, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Concerning the dispositional determinants of prosocial behavior and cooperation, work based on the classic 5 personality factors, and especially Agreeableness, has turned out somewhat inconsistent. A clearer picture has emerged from consideration of the HEXACO model of personality-though supporte...

  8. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk. PMID:25595115

  9. Irrational Human Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Şener

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neo Classical economists used to posit that, since consumers are rational, they make decisions to maximize their pleasure (utility. Opposing to Neo Classical understanding, Behavioral Economists argue that, consumers are infect not rational, but prone to all sort of biases and habits that pull them being rational. For instance, there are too many irrational choices made by the Turkish consumers like; expensive wedding parties given by low income families; although riding bicycle is healthy and cheap, but people buy expensive cars; it is cheaper staying at a hotel or a timeshare, however people buy expensive summer houses, where they stayed only few weeks a year. These type of irrational behaviors adversely affect the decisions on savings, investments and economic growth. On the consumers irrationality, Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics, wrote Prospect Theory. They developed a cognitive psychological model to explain divergences from neoclassical economics. They claimed that people take decisions under psychological, social, emotional and economic factors that affect market prices and resource allocation. In order to explain the irrational behaviors of Turkish consumers, I utilized some concepts such as conspicuous consumption (or keeping up with Johns, Veblen Effect, Bandwagon Effect, bounded rationality, 20 to 80 Law and ethical considerations developed by Behavioral Economists and Heterodox Economics. Thus, I came to conclusion that why the free market economic understanding fails in Turkey by giving some examples and economic reasons stated in the last section of this paper.

  10. Improving Student Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, James R.; Boivin, Real G.

    1991-01-01

    This document provides brief descriptions of 12 prevention strategies, 6 curriculum-based strategies, and 7 motivational strategies for improving student behavior. Alternative schools and programs, counseling, parent involvement, community involvement, student orientation programs, learning styles, writing activities, student codes of conduct,…

  11. Factorization of Behavioral Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ximeng; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2015-01-01

    We develop a bisimulation-based nonintereference property that describes the allowed dependencies between communication behaviors of different integrity levels. The property is able to capture all possible combinations of integrity levels for the “presence” and “content” of actual communications....

  12. Networks and Economic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Matthew O.

    2009-01-01

    Recent analyses of social networks, both empirical and theoretical, are discussed, with a focus on how social networks influence economic behavior, as well as how social networks form. Some challenges of such research are discussed as are some of the important considerations for the future.

  13. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk.

  14. On Storekeepers' Pricing Behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bode (Ben); J. Koerts (Johan); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis research note deals with a quantitative analysis of differences in percentage gross margin between individual stores in the retail trade. A number of hypotheses on pricing behavior of storekeepers are tested using Dutch survey data from nine different types of retail stores. We defi

  15. Evaluating meeting behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Boogaard, S.A.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Many attempts are underway for developing meeting support tools, but less attention is paid to the evaluation of meetingware. This paper describes the development of an instrument for evaluating meeting behavior. An explorative research is done using a rating scale, questionnaires and information fl

  16. Testing abstract behavioral specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, P.Y.H.; Bubel, R.; Boer, F.S. de; Gouw, C.P.T. de; Gómez-Zamalloa, M.; Haehnle, R; Meinke, K.; Sindhu, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a range of testing techniques for the Abstract Behavioral Specification (ABS) language and apply them to an industrial case study. ABS is a formal modeling language for highly variable, concurrent, component-based systems. The nature of these systems makes them susceptible to the introduc

  17. Driver Behavior and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patricia

    School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…

  18. Behavioral Decisions and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.

    2010-01-01

    We study the public policy implications of a model in which agents do not fully internalize all the conscequences of their actions. Such a model uni es seemingly disconected models with behavioral agents. We evaluate the scope of paternalistic and libertarian-parternalistic policies in the light of

  19. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  20. Architecture, constraints, and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, John C.; Csete, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to bridge progress in neuroscience involving sophisticated quantitative analysis of behavior, including the use of robust control, with other relevant conceptual and theoretical frameworks from systems engineering, systems biology, and mathematics. Familiar and accessible case studies are used to illustrate concepts of robustness, organization, and architecture (modularity and protocols) that are central to understanding complex networks. These essential organizational feature...

  1. Fetal behavioral teratology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Gerard H. A.; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Ververs, F. F. Tessa

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct - in vivo - insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quanti

  2. Behavioral approach to leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Piccolo; C. Buengeler

    2013-01-01

    After several decades of leadership research that attempted to identify the specific and unique traits characteristic of those in supervisory positions, academic research shifted to pursue the patterns of behavior exhibited by those who were influential in and around positions of formal leadership.

  3. Analysis of Malware behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirscoveanu, Radu-Stefan; Hansen, Steven Strandlund; Larsen, Thor Mark Tampus;

    2015-01-01

    and automatized manner. We have developed a distributed malware testing environment by extending Cuckoo Sandbox that was used to test an extensive number of malware samples and trace their behavioral data. The extracted data was used for the development of a novel type classification approach based on supervised...

  4. Sexual behavior of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijatović-Jovanović Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Numerous studies have shown that sexual behavior increases among adolescents. Disharmony between biological and psychosocial maturity among young people may cause risky behavior, and endanger psychophysical and reproductive health of young persons. Material and methods A questionnaire on sexual behavior was completed by 169 adolescents, 1st and 4th year high school students. Results Every 6th first grade and every 2nd forth grade adolescent is sexually active. Male adolescents begin sexual activities significantly earlier (at the age of 15.6 than female adolescents (16.5. Also, young men have significantly more partners (3.6 than girls (1.3, and more parallel sexual relations than girls. Only 1/3 of sexually active adolescents always use some kind of contraception, more frequently boys (41.9% than girls (26.7%. Discussion Early commencement of sexual activity results with longer active period before realization of the reproductive function, which increases risk for reproductive health disorders. Unprotected sexual intercourse and large number of partners also present significant risk factors. Conclusion Sexual life of adolescents begins at the age of 16, on average, and only every third always uses contraceptive protection, which points to a need for better education on reproductive health by using contemporary methods. It is also necessary to increase availability of contraceptives (condoms at all places where adolescents spend time (in schools, bars, cinemas, disco clubs etc. in order to achieve responsible sexual behavior and protection of reproductive health among youth.

  5. Markups and Exporting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2012-01-01

    estimates of plant- level markups without specifying how firms compete in the product market. We rely on our method to explore the relationship be- tween markups and export behavior. We find that markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity; that exporters charge......, on average, higher markups and that markups increase upon export entry....

  6. Quantifying biopsychosocial aspects in everyday contexts: an integrative methodological approach from the behavioral sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portell M

    2015-06-01

    commitment to prioritizing ecological validity in behavioral research seeking to quantify biopsychosocial aspects. Keywords: experience sampling method, ecological momentary assessment, ambulatory assessment, observational methodology, naturalistic observation

  7. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  8. Role of behavior in marine pollution monitoring: behavior panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olla, B.L.; Atema, J.; Forward, R.; Kittredge, J.; Livingston, R.J.; McLeese, D.W.; Miller, D.C.; Vernberg, W.B.; Wells, P.G.; Wilson, K.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the use of behavior as a sensitive tool for assessing environmental pollution. Regarding the eventual development of behavioral monitoring, the authors have presented what they believe are the necessary prerequisites for insuring that the behavioral measures will have ecological relevance. They have also presented some specific examples of behaviors that might prove useful within a monitoring scheme but have yet to be tested within this context. Based on the expertise and interests of the panel members, they have limited these examples to include behavior which is mediated by chemoreception in certain selected organisms and various behaviors that might be monitored specifically in species of zooplankton.

  9. Towards accurate emergency response behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactor operator emergency response behavior has persisted as a training problem through lack of information. The industry needs an accurate definition of operator behavior in adverse stress conditions, and training methods which will produce the desired behavior. Newly assembled information from fifty years of research into human behavior in both high and low stress provides a more accurate definition of appropriate operator response, and supports training methods which will produce the needed control room behavior. The research indicates that operator response in emergencies is divided into two modes, conditioned behavior and knowledge based behavior. Methods which assure accurate conditioned behavior, and provide for the recovery of knowledge based behavior, are described in detail

  10. "Reinforcement" in behavior theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, W N

    1978-01-01

    In its Pavlovian context, "reinforcement" was actually a descriptive term for the functional relation between an unconditional and a conditional stimulus. When it was adopted into operant conditioning, "reinforcement" became the central concept and the key operation, but with new qualifications, new referents, and new expectations. Some behavior theorists believed that "reinforcers" comprise a special and limited class of stimuli or events, and they speculated about what the essential "nature of reinforcement" might be. It is now known that any stimulus can serve a reinforcing function, with due recognition of such parameters as subject species characteristics, stimulus intensity, sensory modality, and schedule of application. This paper comments on these developments from the standpoint of reflex behavior theory.

  11. Religious thought and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Ernest Thomas

    2012-09-01

    While earlier approaches to religious thought and practice searched for 'magic bullet' approaches to explain religious thought and behavior, seeing it as an example of irrationality, illusion, integrative force, symbolism, or false explanations of origins, cognitive scientific approaches have suggested that we see it rather as an aggregate of the products of various cognitive mechanisms. Studies in the cognitive science of religion, informed by experimental work, have converged on a standard model of explaining religious thought and behavior by focussing on the role of minimally counter-intuitive concepts, agent and animacy detection, ritual representations, notions of contagion and contamination avoidance, theory of mind, coalitions, and moral intuitions. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1189 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  12. Behavioral Economics: A Tutorial for Behavior Analysts in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Derek D.; Niileksela, Christopher R.; Kaplan, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research i...

  13. Behavioral responses of California sea lions to mid-frequency (3250-3450 Hz) sonar signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Dorian S; Martin, Stephen W; Finneran, James J

    2013-12-01

    Military sonar has the potential to negatively impact marine mammals. To investigate factors affecting behavioral disruption in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), fifteen sea lions participated in a controlled exposure study using a simulated tactical sonar signal (1 s duration, 3250-3450 Hz) as a stimulus. Subjects were placed into groups of three and each group received a stimulus exposure of 125, 140, 155, 170, or 185 dB re: 1 μPa (rms). Each subject was trained to swim across an enclosure, touch a paddle, and return to the start location. Sound exposures occurred at the mid-point of the enclosure. Control and exposure sessions were run consecutively and each consisted of ten, 30-s trials. The occurrence and severity of behavioral responses were used to create acoustic dose-response and dose-severity functions. Age of the subject significantly affected the dose-response relationship, but not the dose-severity relationship. Repetitive exposures did not affect the dose-response relationship.

  14. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: Empirical review and clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Martin E; Kratz, Hilary E; Freeman, Jennifer B; Ivarsson, Tord; Heyman, Isobel; Sookman, Debbie; McKay, Dean; Storch, Eric A; March, John

    2015-05-30

    The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been the subject of much study over the past fifteen years. Building on a foundation of case studies and open clinical trials, the literature now contains many methodologically sound studies that have compared full CBT protocols to waitlist controls, pill placebo, psychosocial comparison conditions, active medication, combined treatments, and brief CBT. This review is part of a series commissioned by The Canadian Institute for Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (CIOCD) in an effort to publish in one place what is known about the efficacy of treatments for OCD. A total of fourteen studies were identified; collectively their findings support the efficacy of CBT for youth with OCD. CBT protocols that emphasized either strictly behavioral or cognitive conceptualizations have each been found efficacious relative to waitlist controls. Efforts to enhance CBT׳s efficacy and reach have been undertaken. These trials provide guidance regarding next steps to be taken to maximize efficacy and treatment availability. Findings from studies in community clinics suggest that significant treatment benefits can be realized and are not reported only from within academic contexts. These findings bode well for broader dissemination efforts. Recommendations for future research directions are provided.

  15. Essays in Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two chapters on behavioral economics.Chapter one analyzes mutual fund flows from 1999 to 2012 to provide evidence that financial advisers exploit their clients' extrapolative beliefs to sell funds that pay high commissions. Utilizing comparisons between twin retail mutual fund share classes that differ only in commissions, I find a strong positive correlation between commission levels and return chasing. Fund flows from high commission shares show increased purch...

  16. Organizational culture & employee behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tianya

    2015-01-01

    Organizations are among the key units of the society. During their establishment and development, a specific kind of organizational culture eventually appears. The purpose of organizational culture is to improve solidarity and cohesion, and to stimulate employees' enthusiasm and creativity to improve the organization’s economic efficiency. In addition, organizational culture greatly influences employee behavior. The aim of this study is to find out how organizational culture affects employ...

  17. Behavioral Modeling of Memcapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Biolek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two behavioral models of memcapacitor are developed and implemented in SPICE-compatible simulators. Both models are related to the charge-controlled memcapacitor, the capacitance of which is controlled by the amount of electric charge conveyed through it. The first model starts from the state description of memcapacitor whereas the second one uses the memcapacitor constitutive relation as the only input data. Results of transient analyses clearly show the basic fingerprints of the memcapacitor.

  18. Active Travel Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Burbidge, Shaunna K; Goulias, Konstadinos G.

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity has become a dominant feature of most American’s lives over the past quarter century. This has spurred an entire research domain straddling several different disciplines. Although model development within the field of travel behavior as a whole continues today with more momentum than ever, the focus on active mode choice has largely been overlooked and left to a small fragment of transportation and public health researchers. Research regarding active mode choice has been...

  19. Adaptive Consumption Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Howitt; Ömer Özak

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and studies a theory of adaptive consumption behavior under income uncertainty and liquidity constraints. We assume that consumption is governed by a linear function of wealth, whose coefficients are revised each period by a procedure, which, although sophisticated, places few informational or computational demands on the consumer. We show that under a variety of settings, our procedure converges quickly to a set of coefficients with low welfare cost relative to a fully op...

  20. Managing Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprick, Randy; Daniels, K.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers are a combination of who they are and what they've learned--with a bit more emphasis on what they've learned. It helps to be a born comedian or a motivational speaker, but it isn't necessary. What is necessary is a great desire to teach children and knowledge of how to manage student behavior to keep students engaged academically and…

  1. Taking behavioralism seriously: some evidence of market manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J D; Kysar, D A

    1999-05-01

    Over the last ten to fifteen years, economists and legal scholars have become increasingly interested in and sensitive to behavioralist insights. In a companion article, Jon Hanson and Douglas Kysar argued that those scholars have nevertheless given short shrift to what is, at least for policymaking purposes, perhaps the most important lesson of the behavioralist research: individuals' perceptions and preferences are highly manipulable. According to Hanson and Kysar, one theoretical implication of that insight for products liability law is that manufacturers and marketers will manipulate the risk perceptions of consumers. Indeed, to survive in a competitive market, manufacturers and marketers must do so. In this Article, Hanson and Kysar present empirical evidence of market manipulation--a previously unrecognized source of market failure. The Article begins by surveying the extensive qualitative and quantitative marketing research and consumer behavioral studies that discern and influence consumer perceptions. It then provides evidence of market manipulation by reviewing common practices in everyday market settings, such as gas stations and supermarkets, and by examining familiar marketing approaches, such as environmentally oriented and fear-based advertising. Although consumers may be well-aware of those practices and approaches, they appear to be generally unaware of the extent to which those tactics are manipulative. The Article then focuses on the industry that has most depended upon market manipulation: the cigarette industry. Through decades of sophisticated marketing and public relations efforts, cigarette manufacturers have heightened consumer demand and lowered consumer risk perceptions. Because consumers are aware that smoking may pose significant health risks, the tobacco industry's success in manipulating risk perceptions constitutes especially strong evidence of the power of market manipulation. The Article concludes by arguing that the evidence of

  2. Reinforcing Productive Classroom Behavior. A Teacher's Guide to Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarason, Irwin G.; And Others

    This guide to behavior modification provides teachers and others who work with children with some practical suggestions to reinforce productive classroom behavior. A description of common elementary classroom problems, the principles and ethical considerations in the use of behavior modification, suggestions for establishing a classroom climate…

  3. Electricity curtailment behaviors in Greek households: Different behaviors, different predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We study the self-reported energy (electricity) curtailment behaviors of Greek households (N=285). • We find that the curtailment behaviors are distinct and should be studied/analyzed separately. • ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ are statistically significant predictors of most behaviors. • The demographic/structural and the psychological predictors contribute significantly explain the variance of the behaviors. • The cluster of moral predictors does not contribute statistically significantly to the explained variance. - Abstract: This paper argues that electricity ‘curtailment’ behaviors (i.e. frequent and/or low cost or free energy saving behaviors) in households are distinct from one another and they thus should be analyzed and promoted. We test this claim with data from telephone interviews with Greek households in the capital city of Athens (N=285), analyzing the impact of a number of demographical/structural, psychological (based on the Theory of Planned Behavior) and moral (based on norms’ activation) predictors though hierarchical binary logistic regression modeling. We find that that each electricity curtailment behavior depends on a different mix of predictors with ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ being statistically significant for most behaviors. Overall, the psychological and the demographical/structural clusters of variables substantially contribute to the explained variance of electricity curtailment behaviors. The moral cluster's contribution is not statistically significant since moral concerns are largely interwoven in the psychological constructs

  4. Behavioral economic influences on treatments designed to decrease destructive behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, A C; Fisher, W W

    2001-01-01

    In behavioral economics terms, response allocation is viewed as an exchange between the price of and the demand for reinforcers associated with various responses. In this study, behavioral economics principles were used to develop and evaluate a treatment package that reduced destructive behavior to zero while communication and compliance were increased.

  5. Behavioral Genetic Analyses of Prosocial Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Light-Hausermann, Jade H.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.

    2009-01-01

    Prosocial behavior is an important aspect of normal social and psychological development. Adult and child twin studies typically estimate the heritability of prosocial behavior to be between 30 and 50%, although relatively little is known about genetic and environmental influences upon prosocial behavior in adolescence. We therefore examined…

  6. Autistic Behavior, Behavior Analysis, and the Gene—Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Malott, Richard W.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the negative behavior-analytic commentary on Drash and Tudor's behavior-analytic analysis of the etiology of autistic repertoires and values. This article also asks that, in our effort to scrub it clean, we not drown Drash and Tudor's beautiful, but fragile, new-born, behavior-analytic baby in hyper-methodological, hyper-scholarly bathwater.

  7. The Impact of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" on Organizational Behavior Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric J.; VanStelle, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    In the book "Verbal Behavior," Skinner provided a comprehensive, behavioral account of language. While the impact of Skinner's analysis on empirical research has been examined broadly, this review of the literature focused on studies relevant to organizational behavior management (OBM). Both empirical and nonempirical journal articles in OBM were…

  8. Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucel, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

  9. Attachment and coercive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.

  10. Brain and Behavior Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View All > Donate DONATE TODAY! > The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation is committed to alleviating the suffering caused by ... in scientific research. Copyright © 2016 the brain & behavior research foundation Privacy Policy Legal Notices and Disclaimers

  11. Behavior analysis and linguistic productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Malott, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    The greatest intellectual challenge to the field of behavior analysis may be understanding linguistic productivity (e.g., being able to correctly say and understand novel sentences). One of the main issues concerning linguistic productivity is whether behavioral productivity is, itself, a fundamental behavioral process, as claimed by the proponents of relational frame theory, or whether we can understand linguistic productivity in terms of more fundamental behavioral principles.

  12. Emergent behaviors of classifier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, S.; Miller, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some examples of emergent behavior in classifier systems, describes some recently developed methods for studying them based on dynamical systems theory, and presents some initial results produced by the methodology. The goal of this work is to find techniques for noticing when interesting emergent behaviors of classifier systems emerge, to study how such behaviors might emerge over time, and make suggestions for designing classifier systems that exhibit preferred behaviors. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Anticipated affect and behavioral choice.

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, R.; Pligt, van der, J.; Vries, de, N.

    1996-01-01

    Most research on the impact of affect on attitudes and behavior emphasizes the effect of past and present affective reactions. In this article we focus on anticipated, postbehavioral, affective reactions. The influence of anticipated affective reactions on a number of behaviors was investigated in the context of Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1991). Results showed that anticipated affective reactions predicted behavioral intentions independent from general attitudes (evaluat...

  14. Is functional behavioral assessment functional?

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Traditional methods of discipline, like punishment, suspension, and expulsion have in the past seemed beneficial, on a short-term basis, against problem behavior in schools. Four schools in Norway have recently implemented Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) as part of a pilot project, to test the School-Wide Positive Behavioral Support (SW-PBS). A completed FBA procedure reveals the setting events, the antecedents and the consequences around the problem behavior, which provides ...

  15. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.

  16. Risky Behavior, Ecstasy, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Heather H.

    2011-01-01

    Ecstasy is a risky behavior that continues to be a concern in the education system today. The review of the Ecstasy literature focused on the definition of risky behavior, prevalence, and other basis aspects of Ecstasy; discovering life events that are associated with Ecstasy use, the function of this behavior, interventions for substance abuse,…

  17. Behavior Analysis: A Student's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberger, William

    This paper provides students with a brief outline of behavioral principles and behavior change techniques, and describes various means of behavior change including operant conditioning. Methods discussed include reinforcement, extinction, punishment, response cost, time-out, overcorrection, training, and data collection for taking a baseline.…

  18. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus g

  19. Behavior Plan, Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Blanca M.; Brown, D.

    2015-01-01

    As educators, we are responsible for teaching academic skills. However, some students not only need to learn academic skills but they need behavior support, due to problematic behaviors that are happening in the school setting. In this article, we will learn more of what are the implications, requirements and best strategies for a behavior plan.…

  20. Theories of information behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Erdelez, Sandra; McKechnie, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This unique book presents authoritative overviews of more than 70 conceptual frameworks for understanding how people seek, manage, share, and use information in different contexts. A practical and readable reference to both well-established and newly proposed theories of information behavior, the book includes contributions from 85 scholars from 10 countries. Each theory description covers origins, propositions, methodological implications, usage, links to related conceptual frameworks, and listings of authoritative primary and secondary references. The introductory chapters explain key concepts, theory–method connections, and the process of theory development.

  1. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome......, firms in competitive product markets, and firms that have incurred substantial sunk cost are associated with lower rates of technology out-licensing. We also posit that sunk costs negatively moderate the relationship between competition in the licensor?s product market, and licensing rate. We test our...

  2. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    It is widely recognized that the transition from Word-of-mouth (WOM) to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) allows for a wider and faster spread of information. However, little attention has been given to how digital channels expand the types of information consumers share. In this paper, we argue...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  3. Behavioral Econometrics for Psychologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten;

    We make the case that psychologists should make wider use of structural econometric methods. These methods involve the development of maximum likelihood estimates of models, where the likelihood function is tailored to the structural model. In recent years these models have been developed...... for a wide range of behavioral models of choice under uncertainty. We explain the components of this methodology, and illustrate with applications to major models from psychology. The goal is to build, and traverse, a constructive bridge between the modeling insights of psychology and the statistical tools...

  4. Clustering Game Behavior Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet

    2015-01-01

    and other techniques for player profiling and play style analysis have, therefore, become popular in the nascent field of game analytics. However, the proper use of clustering techniques requires expertise and an understanding of games is essential to evaluate results. With this paper, we address game data...... scientists and present a review and tutorial focusing on the application of clustering techniques to mine behavioral game data. Several algorithms are reviewed and examples of their application shown. Key topics such as feature normalization are discussed and open problems in the context of game analytics...

  5. Adjunctive behaviors are operants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Peter R; Pellón, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Adjunctive behaviors such as schedule-induced polydipsia are said to be induced by periodic delivery of incentives, but not reinforced by them. That standard treatment assumes that contingency is necessary for conditioning and that delay of reinforcement gradients are very steep. The arguments and evidence for this position are reviewed and rejected. In their place, data are presented that imply different gradients for different classes of responses. Proximity between response and reinforcer, rather than contingency or contiguity, is offered as a key principle of association. These conceptions organize a wide variety of observations and provide the rudiments for a more general theory of conditioning. PMID:23359373

  6. Epigenetics: Behavioral Influences on Gene Function, Part I: Maternal Behavior Permanently Affects Adult Behavior in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, Marilee P.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The article highlights the field of epigenetics and its relevance in determining the effects of maternal nurturing on behavioral patterns in offsprings. Results concluded that maternal behavior influences the offspring's behavior to stress in adulthood and the effects are transgenerational through epigenetic mechanisms.

  7. Self Injurious Behavior in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Self injury is a kind of behavior which begins in early adolescence and difficult to determine because remains suppressed. Most often forms are to cut and hit own. To be exposed to sexual abuse and stressfully life events are known as risk factors for self injurious behavior. High anxiety, depression and hostility levels, decrease of self esteem, suicidal attempts and thoughts are usually together with self injurious behavior and it may be mediating to emotional regulation. To explain the functions of self injurious behavior automatic and social support theories and social learning theories have suggested. The relation between suicidality and self injurious behavior is complex for adolescents. There is no enough knowledge if self injurious behavior aggravates the risk of completed suicide. Although it’s a frequent behavior there are limited randomized controlled studies which examine specific treatment approaches. Dialectic behavior treatment is the type of treatment which shown as most effective for adults. To determine the needs to stop the behavior, to manage emotional senses and urges and to learn more healthy ways for needs to youth are necessary in treatment of self injurious behavior. Treatment also includes determining suicidal risk and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In self injurious behavior medical treatment is useful for comorbid psychiatric disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 201-210

  8. Prosocial behavior on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproull, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers and charitable organizations contribute significantly to community welfare through their prosocial behavior: that is, discretionary behavior such as assisting, comforting, sharing, and cooperating intended to help worthy beneficiaries. This essay focuses on prosocial behavior on the Internet. It describes how offline charitable organizations are using the Net to become more efficient and effective. It also considers entirely new models of Net-based volunteer behavior directed at creating socially beneficial information goods and services. After exploring the scope and diversity of online prosocial behavior, the essay focuses on ways to encourage this kind of behavior through appropriate task and social structures, motivational signals, and trust indicators. It concludes by asking how local offline communities ultimately could be diminished or strengthened as prosocial behavior increases online.

  9. Behavioral endpoints for radiation injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Hunt, W. A.; Dalton, T. B.; Kandasamy, S. B.; Harris, A. H.; Ludewig, B.

    1994-10-01

    The relative behavioral effectiveness of heavy particles was evaluated. Using the taste aversion paradigm in rats, the behavioral toxicity of most types of radiation (including 20Ne and 40Ar) was similar to that of 60Co photons. Only 56Fe and 93Nb particles and fission neutrons were significantly more effective. Using emesis in ferrets as the behavioral endpoint, 56Fe particles and neutrons were again the most effective; however, 60Co photons were significantly more effective than 18 MeV electrons. These results suggest that LET does not completely predict behavioral effectiveness. Additionally, exposing rats to 10 cGy of 56Fe particles attenuated amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning. This behavior is one of a broad class of behaviors which depends on the integrity of the dopaminergic system and suggests the possibility of alterations in these behaviors following exposure to heavy particles in a space radiation environment.

  10. [Challenging behavior: behavioral phenotypes of some genetic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Challenging behavior in individuals with mental retardation (MR) is relatively frequent, and represents a significant obstacle to adaptive skills. The frequency of specific forms and manifestations of challenging behavior can depend on a variety of personal and environmental factors. There are several prominent theoretical models regarding the etiology of challenging behavior and psychopathology in persons with MR: behavioral, developmental, socio-cultural and biological.The biological model emphasizes the physiological, biochemical and genetic factors as the potential source of challenging behavior. The progress in the field of genetics and neuroscience has opened the opportunity to study and discover the neurobiological basis of phenotypic characteristics. Genetic syndromes associated with MR can be followed by a specific set of problems and disorders which constitutes their behavioral phenotype. The aim of this paper was to present challenging behaviors that manifest in the most frequently studied syndromes: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Williams syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome. The concept of behavioral phenotype implies a higher probability of manifesting specific developmental characteristics and specific behaviors in individuals with a certain genetic syndrome. Although the specific set of (possible) problems and disorders is distinctive for the described genetic syndromes, the connection between genetics and behavior should be viewed through probabilistic dimension. The probabilistic concept takes into consideration the possibility of intra-syndrome variability in the occurrence, intensity and time onset of behavioral characteristics, at which the higher variability the lower is the specificity of the genetic syndrome. Identifying the specific pattern of behavior can be most important for the process of early diagnosis and prognosis. In addition, having knowledge about behavioral phenotype can be a landmark in the creation of

  11. Challenging behavior: Behavioral phenotypes of some genetic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buha Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenging behavior in individuals with mental retardation (MR is relatively frequent, and represents a significant obstacle to adaptive skills. The frequency of specific forms and manifestations of challenging behavior can depend on a variety of personal and environmental factors. There are several prominent theoretical models regarding the etiology of challenging behavior and psychopathology in persons with MR: behavioral, developmental, socio-cultural and biological. The biological model emphasizes the physiological, biochemical and genetic factors as the potential source of challenging behavior. The progress in the field of genetics and neuroscience has opened the opportunity to study and discover the neurobiological basis of phenotypic characteristics. Genetic syndromes associated with MR can be followed by a specific set of problems and disorders which constitutes their behavioral phenotype. The aim of this paper was to present challenging behaviors that manifest in the most frequently studied syndromes: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Williams syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome. The concept of behavioral phenotype implies a higher probability of manifesting specific developmental characteristics and specific behaviors in individuals with a certain genetic syndrome. Although the specific set of (possible problems and disorders is distinctive for the described genetic syndromes, the connection between genetics and behavior should be viewed through probabilistic dimension. The probabilistic concept takes into consideration the possibility of intra-syndrome variability in the occurrence, intensity and time onset of behavioral characteristics, at which the higher variability the lower is the specificity of the genetic syndrome. Identifying the specific pattern of behavior can be most important for the process of early diagnosis and prognosis. In addition, having knowledge about behavioral phenotype can be a landmark in

  12. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  13. Behavioral contingency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechner, Francis

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a formal symbolic language, with its own specialized vocabulary and grammar, for codifying any behavioral contingency, including the complex multiparty contingencies encountered in law, economics, business, public affairs, sociology, education, and psychotherapy. This language specifies the "if, then" and temporal relationships between acts and their consequences for the parties involved. It provides for the notation of the probabilities, magnitudes, positive or negative valences, or time delays of the consequences for the parties, and for the parties that would perceive, misperceive, not perceive, predict, mispredict, or not predict events. The language's fractal-like hierarchical and recursive grammar provides for the flexible combination and permutation of the modifiers of the language's four nouns: acts, consequences, time intervals, and agents of acts; and its four verbs: consequate, prevent, perceive, and predict-thereby giving the language the ability to describe and codify various nuances of such complex contingencies as fraud, betting, blackmail, various types of games, theft, crime and punishment, contracts, family dynamics, racing, competition, mutual deterrence, feuding, bargaining, deception, borrowing, insurance, elections, global warming, tipping for service, vigilance, sexual overtures, decision making, and mistaken identity. Applications to the management of practical situations and techniques for doing so, as well as applications in current behavior analysis research and neuroscience, are discussed. PMID:18329187

  14. Investigation of basic notions of positive psychology with an aid of Experience Sampling Method (ESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levit L.Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two investigations of the main concepts of the contemporary positive psychology (eudaimonia, hedonism, the flow, happiness and unhappiness with the help of ESM. The studies were built upon Person-Oriented Conception of Happiness (POCH elaborated by the author. The results indicate that the flow can be accompanied by the rise of the other «components of happiness» belonging to other theories. The study of the situations, that were associated with «unhappiness», showed that most of them belong to maintenance activities of the individual.

  15. Exploring Engagement with Music in Everyday Life using Experience Sampling Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Greasley, Alinka; Lamont, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The types, functions, sources and effects of musicians’ bodily movements have been studied in soloists’ live and recorded performances, to a lesser extent in their practice sessions and rehearsals, and in ensemble musicians’ rehearsals. The present study explored the effects of familiarity and expertise on singers’ and pianists’ bodily movements and eye contact in ensemble rehearsals. Two established singer-pianist duos rehearsed three songs in different combinations. Quantitative and qualita...

  16. Concurrent and prospective relations between attention to emotion and affect intensity: an experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Renee J; Mata, Jutta; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H

    2011-12-01

    Theorists contend that emotional awareness is vital to being able to use emotional information adaptively. The extent to which individuals attend to and value their feelings, or attention to emotion, is a facet of emotional awareness. Little research, however, has examined whether attention to emotion affects the magnitude or intensity of emotional experiences. In the present study we examined the relations between attention to emotion and levels of affect in 53 healthy adults. Participants carried hand-held electronic devices for approximately 7 days and were randomly prompted eight times per day to answer a series of questions. At each prompt, participants reported attention to emotion, current negative affect (NA), and positive affect (PA). All findings presented were computed using multilevel modeling. Replicating findings obtained using trait-level measures, we found that attention to emotion was associated concurrently with higher levels of both NA and PA. We also found prospectively that attention to emotion at one prompt predicted a decrease in levels of NA, but no change in levels of PA, at the subsequent prompt. These findings suggest that emotional processes serve different functions over time and highlight the role of attention to emotion in affect regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Simulating systematic errors in X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments: Sample and beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curis, Emmanuel [Laboratoire de Biomathematiques, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Rene, Descartes (Paris V)-4, Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France)]. E-mail: emmanuel.curis@univ-paris5.fr; Osan, Janos [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (AEKI)-P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Falkenberg, Gerald [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor (HASYLAB), Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)-Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Benazeth, Simone [Laboratoire de Biomathematiques, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Rene, Descartes (Paris V)-4, Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE)-Ba-hat timent 209D, Campus d' Orsay, 91406 Orsay (France); Toeroek, Szabina [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (AEKI)-P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-07-15

    The article presents an analytical model to simulate experimental imperfections in the realization of an X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiment, performed in transmission or fluorescence mode. Distinction is made between sources of systematic errors on a time-scale basis, to select the more appropriate model for their handling. For short time-scale, statistical models are the most suited. For large time-scale, the model is developed for sample and beam imperfections: mainly sample inhomogeneity, sample self-absorption, beam achromaticity. The ability of this model to reproduce the effects of these imperfections is exemplified, and the model is validated on real samples. Various potential application fields of the model are then presented.

  18. Cognition, behavior, and the experimental analysis of behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shimp, Charles P.

    1984-01-01

    A case history illustrates how one research program in the experimental analysis of behavior evolved somewhat differently from the modal research program represented in this journal. A chief issue that seems to be responsible for this difference is the role attributed to theory in behavioral research: Skinner's views on the nature and function of theory and on the nature of observation combine to produce a certain kind of picture of behavior. The classic conception of reinforcement contingenc...

  19. Cognitive behavioral therapy for suicidal behaviors: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mewton L

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Louise Mewton,1 Gavin Andrews2 1National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Research Excellence in Mental Health and Substance Use, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, 2Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression (CRUfAD, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in reducing suicidal cognitions and behavior in the adult population. We identified 15 randomized controlled trials of CBT for adults (aged 18 years and older that included suicide-related cognitions or behaviors as an outcome measure. The studies were identified from PsycINFO searches, reference lists, and a publicly available database of psychosocial interventions for suicidal behaviors. This review identified some evidence of the use of CBT in the reduction of both suicidal cognitions and behaviors. There was not enough evidence from clinical trials to suggest that CBT focusing on mental illness reduces suicidal cognitions and behaviors. On the other hand, CBT focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors was found to be effective. Given the current evidence, clinicians should be trained in CBT techniques focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors that are independent of the treatment of mental illness. Keywords: suicidal behaviors, suicidal cognitions, CBT

  20. Behavior computing modeling, analysis, mining and decision

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Includes six case studies on behavior applications Presents new techniques for capturing behavior characteristics in social media First dedicated source of references for the theory and applications of behavior informatics and behavior computing

  1. Anticipated regret and precautionary sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Richard; N.K. de Vries; J. van der Pligt

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of anticipated regret on precautionary sexual behavior. 317 female and 134 male 18-48 yr old college students completed questionnaires assessing behavioral expectations regarding casual sexual behavior, anticipated regret, perceived behavioral control, attitudes, s

  2. Focus On Behavioral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Long stigmatized, behavioral health conditions are finally becoming a focal point not just for policy makers but also in public discussions about the well-being of the United States. This is in part because of a rising opioid epidemic; the concentration of people with mental illnesses in prisons and jails; and a greater appreciation of the toll taken by depression and other mental disorders on individuals, families, and the economy. The United States spends more on mental health and addiction than on any other medical condition, including heart disease, trauma, and cancer. Within this spending, there's been a shift toward outpatient and other types of community treatment and away from inpatient care. Meanwhile, the Affordable Care Act has made it possible for more people with serious mental illnesses to obtain care, but treatment rates for racial and ethnic minorities still trail those of whites. PMID:27269009

  3. Conscious behavior explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurthen, M

    1999-06-01

    Current neurobiological research on temporal binding in binocular rivalry settings contributes to a better understanding of the neural correlate of perceptual consciousness. This research can easily be integrated into a theory of conscious behavior, but if it is meant to promote a naturalistic theory of perceptual consciousness itself, it is confronted with the notorious explanatory gap argument according to which any statement of psychophysical correlations (and their interpretation) leaves the phenomenal character of, e.g., states of perceptual consciousness open. It is argued that research on temporal binding plays no role in a naturalistic theory of consciousness if the gap argument can be solved on internal philosophical grounds or if it turns out to be unsolvable at the time being. But there may be a way to dissolve or deconstruct it, and the accessibility of this way may well depend on scientific progress, including neurobiological research on the neural correlate of perceptual consciousness. PMID:10447997

  4. Normative sexual behavior in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, W N; Grambsch, P; Broughton, D; Kuiper, J; Beilke, R L

    1991-09-01

    A large-scale, community-based survey was done to assess the frequency of a wide variety of sexual behaviors in normal preadolescent children and to measure the relationship of these behaviors to age, gender, and socioeconomic and family variables. A sample of 880 2- through 12-year-old children screened to exclude those with a history of sexual abuse were rated by their mothers using several questionnaire measures. The frequency of different behaviors varied widely, with more aggressive sexual behaviors and behaviors imitative of adults being rare. Older children (both boys and girls) were less sexual than younger children. Sexuality was found to be related to the level of general behavior problems, as measured by the Achenbach Internalizing and Externalizing T scores and to a measure of family nudity. It was not related to socioeconomic variables. PMID:1881723

  5. Behavioral Economics: Past, Present, Future

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.; Loewenstein, George

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral economics increases the explanatory power of economics by providing it with more realistic psychological foundations. This book consists of representative recent articles in behavioral economics. This chapter is intended to provide an introduction to the approach and methods of behavioral economics, and to some of its major findings, applications, and promising new directions. It also seeks to fill some unavoidable gaps in the chapters’ coverage of topics.

  6. Extinction, Relapse, and Behavioral Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Previous experiments on behavioral momentum have shown that relative resistance to extinction of operant behavior in the presence of a discriminative stimulus depends upon the baseline rate or magnitude of reinforcement associated with that stimulus (i.e., the Pavlovian stimulus–reinforcer relation). Recently, we have shown that relapse of operant behavior in reinstatement, resurgence, and context renewal preparations also is a function of baseline stimulus–reinforcer relations. In this paper...

  7. Hormones, genes, and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaff, Donald W.

    1997-01-01

    With assays of hormone-sensitive behaviors, it is possible to demonstrate both direct and indirect actions of genes on mammalian social behaviors. Direct effects of estrogen receptor gene expression and progesterone receptor gene expression figure prominently in well analyzed neuroendocrine mechanisms for sex behavior, operating through a neural circuit that has been delineated. Indirect effects, notably the consequences of sexual differentiation, display complex d...

  8. Behavioral Economics: A Maverick Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    These are the notes from the first half of a course in behavioral economics offered in Uruguay in November 2014. This part of the course, entirely verbal, was aimed at outlining the essentials of behavioral economics. The principal assignments were from the second edition of Edward Cartwright’s Behavioral Economics. The second part of the course, taught by Dr. Martin Egozcue, is not included. It emphasized prospect theory, mental accounts and inter-temporal decision making, and featured subst...

  9. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Svatošová Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the ...

  10. Neuroscientific Measures of Covert Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ortu, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In radical behaviorism, the difference between overt and covert responses does not depend on properties of the behavior but on the sensitivity of the measurement tools employed by the experimenter. Current neuroscientific research utilizes technologies that allow measurement of variables that are undetected by the tools typically used by behavior analysts. Data from a specific neuroscientific technique, event-related potential (ERP), suggest that emission of otherwise covert responses can be ...

  11. Economic Behavior of Restaurant Tipping

    OpenAIRE

    Tin-Chun Lin

    2007-01-01

    This paper offers a thoughtful discussion of social norms and alternative economic viewpoints and analysis of restaurant tipping behavior. A survey of Louisiana residents was conducted to collect public opinions about tipping. The analysis suggests that social norms are indeed the primary reason for diner tipping. As long as consumer behavior is guided by social norms, social norms will costs for diners. The conclusion suggests that if customer's tipping behavior were completely guided by soc...

  12. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations. PMID:22608867

  13. Bosonic behavior of entangled fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Tichy, Malte; Alexander Bouvrie, Peter; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi-composite-boson st......Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi...

  14. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations.

  15. Parent Behavior Importance and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaires: Psychometric Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Sanders, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire (PBIQ) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire (PBFQ). Both research questionnaires are based on the parent development theory (PDT) and offer parent as well as non-parent respondents the opportunity to rate 38 parenting…

  16. Behavioral assessment in youth sports: coaching behaviors and children's attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R E; Zane, N W; Smoll, F L; Coppel, D B

    1983-01-01

    To define the characteristics and dimensional patterning of coaching behaviors, 15,449 behaviors of 31 youth basketball coaches were coded in terms of a 10-category system. Post-season attitude and self-esteem data were obtained from players on 23 teams and were related to the behavioral measures. Compared with rates of reinforcement, encouragement, and technical instruction, punitive responses occurred relatively infrequently. Factor analysis of the coaching behaviors indicated that supportive and punitive behavioral dimensions were orthogonal or statistically independent of one another rather than opposite ends of the same dimension. Punitive and instructional categories were part of the same behavior cluster. The relationship between coaching behaviors and the various player attitudes were highly specific in nature. Coaching behaviors accounted for about half of the variance in post-season attitudes toward the coach and the sport, but for significantly less variance in measures of team solidarity and self-esteem. Surprisingly, the rate of positive reinforcement was unrelated to any of the attitudinal measures. Punishment was negatively related to liking for the coach. In general, technical instruction categories were the strongest predictors of basketball player attitudes. PMID:6621307

  17. The Attitude-Behavior Linkage in Behavioral Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedkin, Noah E.

    2010-01-01

    The assumption that individual behavior has an antecedent evaluative foundation is an important component of theories in sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. In its simplest form, the antecedent evaluation is a positive or negative attitude toward an object that may affect an individual's object-related behavior. This attitude…

  18. Cognition, behavior, and the experimental analysis of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimp, C P

    1984-11-01

    A case history illustrates how one research program in the experimental analysis of behavior evolved somewhat differently from the modal research program represented in this journal. A chief issue that seems to be responsible for this difference is the role attributed to theory in behavioral research: Skinner's views on the nature and function of theory and on the nature of observation combine to produce a certain kind of picture of behavior. The classic conception of reinforcement contingencies is tied to this particular picture. But this picture may be incompatible with, and certainly is different from, other possible pictures. Reinforcement contingencies that place greater emphasis on the local temporal patterning of behavior seem tied to some of these alternative pictures of what behavior is. These other pictures encourage a wide range of theoretical approaches, including cognitive ones, various kinds of mathematical analyses, and computer-simulation methods to characterize entire behavior streams. In the future, perhaps the experimental analysis of behavior will accept a somewhat different range of views on the nature and function of theory, a correspondingly different set of experimental methods, and alternative ways of talking about behavior. PMID:16812399

  19. A STUDY OF THE INVESTMENT BEHAVIOR BASED ON BEHAVIORAL FINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavior finance introduces psychology, sociology and other research methods into the study of investment behavior to explain how investors handle the information and take actions. This paper presents the literatures as theoretical solutions to the market anomalies of the traditional market theories. The behavioral psychology is examined through the study on the questionnaire of Chinese security investors. The results show that the investors are not always adopt rational behaviors as traditional finance theory assumed, but make a lot of irrational decisions based on individual cognitive and prejudices, even institutional investors often show the characteristic of irrational. In the guidance of the behavioral finance theory, the research will be closer to the reality and give more significant insight to the selection of investment strategy and psychology characteristic used to explain market anomalies.

  20. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  1. Depression, Pain, and Pain Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the degree to which depression predicted pain and pain behavior. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to 207 low back pain patients. Depression and physical findings were the most important predictors of pain and pain behavior. Depression proved significant even after controlling for important demographic and medical status…

  2. Substance abuse and criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Motayne, G G

    1992-09-01

    As forensic psychiatry develops as a clinical subspecialty, clinical skill in understanding, treating, and predicting violent behavior will become more important. This article addresses the importance of understanding the relationship between substance abuse and violent behavior. This article also discusses morbidity and mortality in substance abuse, the demographics of substance abuse and criminality, and the clinical aspects of the forensic psychiatric evaluation.

  3. Environmental Attitude and Ecological Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Florian G.; And Others

    This paper establishes environmental attitude, a construct in environmental psychology, as a powerful predictor of ecological behavior. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, this study uses a unified concept of attitude and a probabilistic measurement approach. Questionnaire data from members of two ideologically different Swiss…

  4. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  5. Common Issues in Professional Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Most conversations about ethics and professional behavior involve case studies and hypothetical situations. This study identifies and examines the most common concerns in professional behavior as reported by 303 student affairs practitioners in the field. Differences by gender, years of experience, organizational level, institutional type, and…

  6. Anticipated affect and behavioral choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Richard; J. van der Pligt; N.K. de Vries

    1996-01-01

    Most research on the impact of affect on attitudes and behavior emphasizes the effect of past and present affective reactions. In this article we focus on anticipated, postbehavioral, affective reactions. The influence of anticipated affective reactions on a number of behaviors was investigated in t

  7. Logic, reasoning, and verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, Dudley J.; Johnston, J M

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyzes the traditional concepts of logic and reasoning from the perspective of radical behaviorism and in the terms of Skinner's treatment of verbal behavior. The topics covered in this analysis include the proposition, premises and conclusions, logicality and rules, and deductive and inductive reasoning.

  8. Analyzing and modeling heterogeneous behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiting; Wu, Xiaoqing; He, Dongyue; Zhu, Qiang; Ni, Jixiang

    2016-05-01

    Recently, it was pointed out that the non-Poisson statistics with heavy tail existed in many scenarios of human behaviors. But most of these studies claimed that power-law characterized diverse aspects of human mobility patterns. In this paper, we suggest that human behavior may not be driven by identical mechanisms and can be modeled as a Semi-Markov Modulated Process. To verify our suggestion and model, we analyzed a total of 1,619,934 records of library visitations (including undergraduate and graduate students). It is found that the distribution of visitation intervals is well fitted with three sections of lines instead of the traditional power law distribution in log-log scale. The results confirm that some human behaviors cannot be simply expressed as power law or any other simple functions. At the same time, we divided the data into groups and extracted period bursty events. Through careful analysis in different groups, we drew a conclusion that aggregate behavior might be composed of heterogeneous behaviors, and even the behaviors of the same type tended to be different in different period. The aggregate behavior is supposed to be formed by "heterogeneous groups". We performed a series of experiments. Simulation results showed that we just needed to set up two states Semi-Markov Modulated Process to construct proper representation of heterogeneous behavior.

  9. Anticipated affect and behavioral choice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Richard; J. van der Pligt; N.K. de Vries

    1996-01-01

    Most research on the impact of affect on attitudes and behavior emphasizes the effect of past and present affective reactions. In this article we focus on anticipated, postbehavioral, affective reactions. The influence of anticipated affective reactions on a number of behaviors was investigated in t

  10. A Behavioral Conceptualization of Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jonathan C.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Raetz, Paige B.

    2008-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 1 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of aphasia is also possible. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes a…

  11. Genes, Environment, and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Mark V.; Cutter, Mary Ann; Davidson, Ronald; Dougherty, Michael J.; Drexler, Edward; Gelernter, Joel; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Vogler, George P.; Zola, John

    This curriculum module explores genes, environment, and human behavior. This book provides materials to teach about the nature and methods of studying human behavior, raise some of the ethical and public policy dilemmas emerging from the Human Genome Project, and provide professional development for teachers. An extensive Teacher Background…

  12. Behavioral Consultation: Theory and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael L.

    1978-01-01

    This model examines the theory, clinical process, and intervention techniques of behavioral consultation in educational and medical settings. Behavioral consultation requires empirical validation of intervention. It also holds the counselee accountable for consultations. The consultant has many techniques, but must be sensitive to interaction…

  13. [Behavioral treatment for chronic insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yoshiko; Yamagami, Toshiko

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of non-pharmacological intervention for chronic insomnia has been proven by several meta-analytic reviews, an NIH report, an American Academy of Sleep Medicine review, and numerous clinical trials. Behavior therapy for chronic insomnia consists of relaxation, stimulus control, sleep restriction, cognitive restructuring and sleep hygiene education, which has produced reliable and durable changes in total sleep time, sleep onset latency, number and duration of awakening. These studies also showed that the post-treatment effect of behavior therapy is equal to that of hypnotic therapy, and that these effects were maintained for 6 months on follow-up assessment. Elderly insomniac patients would gain considerable benefit from behavioral treatments because there are no adverse physical effects as there are from pharmacological therapy. The authors present the basic theory, techniques of behavior therapy for insomnia, and the results of two important key meta-analytic reviews. Any behavioral approach such as convenient education, self-care enhancement by bibliotherapy, and individual face-to-face counseling, seem to be fruitful not only for American but also Japanese insomnia patients. Nonetheless, there are no currently actual intervention studies using behavior therapy in Japan. We have discussed the methodology of intervention study and published a behavioral self-help manual for people with sleep problems. Development of a behavioral approach to chronic insomnia seemed to be very beneficial and a useful contribution to mental health services. PMID:12373807

  14. Tax evasion under behavioral structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Pantoja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the strategic interactions between the fiscal authority and the taxpayer regarding tax evasion and auditing. We fit this interaction into a Bayesian game and introduce the concept of behavioral consistency, which helps reducing the number of available strategies and models the stylized fact according to which the choice to evade is subject to behavioral patterns.

  15. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2 ex

  16. Healthcare-seeking behavior of patients with epileptic seizure disorders attending a tertiary care hospital, Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Neurological diseases are very important causes of prolonged morbidity and disability, leading to profound financial loss. Epilepsy is one of the most important neurological disorders Healthcare seeking by epilepsy patients is quite diverse and unique. Aims and Objectives: The study was conducted among the epilepsy patients, to assess their healthcare-seeking behavior and its determinants. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and fifteen epilepsy patients, selected by systematic random sampling, in the neuromedicine outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital were interviewed with a predesigned, pretested, semi-structured proforma. Results and Conclusion: More than 90% sought healthcare just after the onset of a seizure. The majority opted for allopathic medicine and the causes for not seeking initial care from allopaths were ignorance, faith in another system, constraint of money, and so on. A significant association existed between rural residence and low social status of the patients with initial care seeking from someone other than allopaths. No association was found among sex, type of seizure, educational status of the patients, and care seeking. The mean treatment gap was 2.98 ± 10.49 months and the chief motivators were mostly the family members. Patients for anti epileptic drugs preferred neurologists in urban areas and general practitioners in rural areas. District care model of epilepsy was proposed in the recommendation.

  17. Deformation Behaviors of Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Walls on Shallow Weak Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You-Seong; Won, Myoung-Soo

    In this study, the fifteen-month behavior of two geosynthetic reinforced soil walls, which was constructed on the shallow weak ground, was measured and analyzed. The walls were backfilled with clayey soil obtained from the construction site nearby, and the safety factors obtained from general limit equilibrium analysis were less than 1.3 in both wall. To compare with the measured data from the real GRS walls and unreinforced soil mass, a series of finite element method (FEM) analyses on two field GRS walls and unreinforced soil mass were conducted. The FEM analysis results showed that failure plane of unreinforced soil mass was consistent with the Rankine active state, but failure plane did not occur in GRS walls. In addition, maximum horizontal displacements and shear strains in GRS walls were 50% smaller than those found in unreinforced soil mass. Modeling results such as the maximum horizontal displacements, horizontal pressure, and geosynthetic tensile strengths in GRS wall have a god agreement with the measured data. Based on this study, it could be concluded that geosynthetic reinforcement are effective to reduce the displacement of the wall face and/or the deformation of the backfill soil even if the mobilized tensile stress after construction is very small.

  18. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study. PMID:27464816

  19. Pollen processing behavior of Heliconius butterflies: a derived grooming behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Krenn, Harald W

    2011-01-01

    Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with proboscis grooming behavior in various nymphalid butterflies using video analysis. The proboscis movements of pollen processing behavior consisted of a lengthy series of repeated coiling and uncoiling movements in a loosely coiled proboscis position combined with up and down movements and the release of saliva. The proboscis-grooming behavior was triggered by contamination of the proboscis in both pollen feeding and non-pollen feeding nymphalid butterflies. Proboscis grooming movements included interrupted series of coiling and uncoiling movements, characteristic sideways movements, proboscis lifting, and occasionally full extension of the proboscis. Discharge of saliva was more pronounced in pollen feeding species than in non-pollen feeding butterfly species. We conclude that the pollen processing behavior of Heliconius and Laparus is a modified proboscis grooming behavior that originally served to clean the proboscis after contamination with particles.

  20. Automated Behavioral Text Messaging and Face-to-Face Intervention for Parents of Overweight or Obese Preschool Children: Results From a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Children are 5 times more likely to be overweight at the age of 12 years if they are overweight during the preschool period. Objective The purpose of this study was to establish the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effects of a cognitive behavioral intervention (TEXT2COPE) synergized with tailored mobile technology (mHealth) on the healthy lifestyle behaviors of parents of overweight and obese preschoolers delivered in a primary care setting. Methods Fifteen preschooler-parent dyads recruited through primary care clinics completed a manualized 7-week cognitive behavioral skills building intervention. Beck’s Cognitive Theory guided the TEXT2COPE intervention content and Fogg’s Behavior Model guided the implementation. The intervention employed a combination of face-to-face clinic visits and ecological momentary interventions using text messaging (short message service, SMS). To enhance the intervention’s relevance to the family’s needs, parents dictated the wording of the text messages and also were able to adapt the frequency and timing of delivery throughout program implementation. Results Self-reported findings indicate that the program is feasible and acceptable in this population. The intervention showed preliminary effects with significant improvements on parental knowledge about nutrition (P=.001) and physical activity (P=.012) for their children, parental beliefs (P=.001) toward healthy lifestyles, and parental behaviors (P=.040) toward engaging in healthy lifestyle choices for their children. Effect sizes were medium to large for all variables. The timing, frequency, and wording of the text messages were tailored to the individual families, with 69% of parents (9/13) increasing the frequency of the tailored SMS from being sent once weekly to as many as 5 times a week. Conclusions Utilizing a cognitive behavioral skills intervention with SMS has great potential for supporting clinical care of overweight and obese preschool

  1. Rattlesnake strike behavior: kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardong; v

    1998-03-01

    The predatory behavior of rattlesnakes includes many distinctive preparatory phases leading to an extremely rapid strike, during which venom is injected. The rodent prey is then rapidly released, removing the snake's head from retaliation by the prey. The quick action of the venom makes possible the recovery of the dispatched prey during the ensuing poststrike period. The strike is usually completed in less than 0.5 s, placing a premium on an accurate strike that produces no significant errors in fang placement that could result in poor envenomation and subsequent loss of the prey. To clarify the basis for effective strike performance, we examined the basic kinematics of the rapid strike using high-speed film analysis. We scored numerous strike variables. Four major results were obtained. (1) Neurosensory control of the strike is based primarily upon sensory inputs via the eyes and facial pits to launch the strike, and upon tactile stimuli after contact. Correction for errors in targeting occurs not by a change in strike trajectory, but by fang repositioning after the jaws have made contact with the prey. (2) The rattlesnake strike is based upon great versatility and variation in recruitment of body segments and body postures. (3) Forces generated during acceleration of the head are transferred to posterior body sections to decelerate the head before contact with the prey, thereby reducing impact forces upon the snake's jaws. (4) Body acceleration is based on two patterns of body displacement, one in which acute sections of the body open like a gate, the other in which body segments flow around postural curves similar to movements seen during locomotion. There is one major implication of these results: recruitment of body segments, launch postures and kinematic features of the strike may be quite varied from strike to strike, but the overall predatory success of each strike by a rattlesnake is very consistent.

  2. Hanseníase em menores de 15 anos no Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, Brasil Lepra en menores de 15 años en el Vale del Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, Bra Hansen's Disease in children under fifteen years-old in Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Félix Lana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A hanseníase é uma doença de evolução lenta que acomete principalmente a população adulta. A detecção de casos em crianças indica a manutenção da endemia e a precocidade da exposição da população ao bacilo. Este é um estudo ecológico cujo objetivo é analisar a ocorrência da hanseníase em menores de 15 anos no Vale do Jequitinhonha através de indicadores epidemiológicos e operacionais. Os resultados apontam para a manutenção da endemia na região, evidenciando uma passividade dos serviços de saúde e a necessidade de implementação de medidas de prevenção e controle específicas para essa faixa etária, a fim de diminuir a transmissão da doença e os eventuais prejuízos que ela pode acarretar à vida do indivíduo, principalmente, ao acometê-lo na infância.La Lepra es una enfermedad de evolución lenta que acomete principalmente a la población adulta. La detección de casos en niños indica el mantenimiento de la endemia y la precocidad de la exposición de la población al bacilo. Éste es un estudio ecológico cuyo objetivo es analizar la ocurrencia de lepra en menores de 15 años en el Valle del Jequitinhonha a través de indicadores epidemiológicos y operacionales. Los resultados apuntan para el mantenimiento de la endemia en la región, evidenciando una pasividad de los servicios de salud y la necesidad de implementación de medidas de prevención y control específicas para esafaja etaria , a fin de disminuir la transmisión de la enfermedad y los eventuales perjuicios que ella puede acarrearle a la vida del individuo, principalmente, al acometerlo en la infancia.Hansen's disease has a slow evolution, which mostly affects the adult population. Detecting cases in children shows that the endemic continues and there is early exposure of the population to the bacillus. This is an ecological study with the objective of analyzing the occurrence of Hansen's disease in children under fifteen in the Jequitinhonha

  3. The behavioral economics of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2004-12-01

    From the viewpoint of teleological behaviorism the first question to ask in attempting to understand any behavior, including violent behavior, is: What are its contingencies of reward and punishment? Or, to put the question in economic terms: What are the short-term and long-term costs and benefits that such behavior entails? Let us therefore consider the costs and benefits of youth violence. Among the short-term costs of violent behavior are the physical effort of the act, the possibility of immediate physical retaliation, immediate social disapproval, and the opportunity cost of other social acts that the violent behavior takes the place of (you can't be affectionate and violent at the same time, for instance). Among the immediate benefits of violent behavior are the intrinsic satisfaction of the violent act itself and any extrinsic benefit; if A violently appropriates B's new sneakers then obtaining the sneakers reinforces A's violence. These immediate benefits may well outweigh the costs in many contexts. Among the long-term costs of violent behavior are delayed retaliation, possible social disapproval and loss of social support, rejection from a social group, job loss, and health risks associated with a violent lifestyle. Among the long-term benefits are long-term intimidation of others (your neighbor is less likely to build a fence on your property if you have a reputation for violence), and a possibly exciting lifestyle. These long-term benefits may well be outweighed by the long-term costs. Opposition of long-term net costs to short-term net benefits, where it exists, creates a personal self-control trap: Overall satisfaction may decrease monotonically with rate of the target behavior but, regardless of its rate, the immediate satisfaction of doing it is always higher than that of not doing it. In the case of violent behavior, this trap is exacerbated by the fact that as a person's violence increases, net immediate reinforcement also increases (due to

  4. Behavior genetics: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R; Price, Thomas S; Reyes, Teresa M

    2013-11-01

    The disciplines of developmental psychopathology and behavior genetics are concerned with many of the same questions about the etiology and course of normal and abnormal behavior and about the factors that promote typical development despite the presence of risk. The goal of this paper is to summarize how research in behavior genetics has shed light on questions that are central to developmental psychopathology. We briefly review the origins of behavior genetics, summarize the findings that have been gleaned from several decades of quantitative and molecular genetics research, and describe future directions for research that will delineate gene function as well as pathways from genes to brain to behavior. The importance of environmental contributions, at both genetic and epigenetic levels, will be discussed. We conclude that behavior genetics has made significant contributions to developmental psychopathology by documenting the interplay among risk and protective factors at multiple levels of the organism, by clarifying the causal status of risk exposures, and by identifying factors that account for change and stability in psychopathology. As the tools to identify gene function become increasingly sophisticated, and as behavioral geneticists become increasingly interdisciplinary in their scope, the field is poised to make ever greater contributions to our understanding of typical and atypical development.

  5. Behavioral interventions for office-based care: behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Matthew; Larzelere, Michele McCarthy

    2014-03-01

    Family physicians play an important role in identifying and treating the behavioral etiologies of morbidity and mortality. Changing behavior is a challenging process that begins with identifying a patient's readiness to change. Interventions, such as motivational interviewing, are used to increase a patient's desire to change, and cognitive behavioral therapy can be initiated to increase a patient's likelihood of change, particularly if barriers are identified. After patients embark on change, family physicians are uniquely positioned to connect them to self-help programs, more intensive psychotherapy, and newer technology-based support programs, and to provide repeated, brief, positive reinforcement. Specific behavioral interventions that can be effective include computerized smoking cessation programs; electronic reminders and support delivered by family physicians or other clinicians for weight loss; linkage to community-based programs for seniors; increased length and demands of in-school programs to support exercise participation by children; and access reduction education to prevent firearm injury. PMID:24628011

  6. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB. PMID:27378999

  7. Offering Behavioral Assistance to Latino Students Demonstrating Challenging Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Moreno

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Challenging behaviors can significantly alter the learning environment of any classroom. Traditionally, schools have implemented practices that remove the offending student from the classroom, deliver punitive disciplinary actions, or refer the student to special education evaluation. Unfortunately, such practices have demonstrated little longitudinal effectiveness, with detrimental outcomes for the referred student, particularly students from Latino backgrounds. With enrollment projections indicating Latinos will become the majority in U.S. schools, educators are presented with the opportunity to shift away from past practices and implement evidence-based practices that concurrently assist students while addressing challenging behaviors. In this paper, the authors discuss past disciplinary practices, the adverse effects on Latino students, and offer recommendations on implementing functional behavioral assessment as a means to better meet the needs of Latino students demonstrating challenging behaviors.

  8. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB. PMID:27378999

  9. Research on Container Behaviors Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the development of middleware technology, there are some new features to be adopted on demand in middleware platform based on container component. Aiming at the adaptation of middleware platform, from the nature of component container, this paper begins with behaviors features of EJB (Enterprise Java Bean) container, extracts general behaviors protocol of container, and defines its formal behaviors specification. In the end, the interactive relationship of components is described by WRIGHT language, and the configuration of whole system is shown. The method proposed in this paper mines the hidden features of framework of component container, and applies to refactor middleware platform in reflection and aspect-oriented programming technology.

  10. Patterns of Individual Shopping Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Krumme, Coco; Pentland, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Much of economic theory is built on observations of aggregate, rather than individual, behavior. Here, we present novel findings on human shopping patterns at the resolution of a single purchase. Our results suggest that much of our seemingly elective activity is actually driven by simple routines. While the interleaving of shopping events creates randomness at the small scale, on the whole consumer behavior is largely predictable. We also examine income-dependent differences in how people shop, and find that wealthy individuals are more likely to bundle shopping trips. These results validate previous work on mobility from cell phone data, while describing the unpredictability of behavior at higher resolution.

  11. Brain and Behavior: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Urbina, Guadalupe N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of many scientific disciplines allows us to know surprising aspects of the relationship between the brain and its functions. Current technology and the convergence of these disciplines are essential to understand the complex brain mechanisms underlying behavior. In this paper will be described some scientific disciplines whose studies help to understand the biological substrates of normal and altered behavior. We will describe some pathologies or neuropsychological disorders and, in addition, we will review some of the known neurobiological mechanisms that control our brain functions. This allows us to conclude that the behavior and brain functions depend on complex biological mechanisms, many of which are still to be elucidated.

  12. [Behavior therapy in older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkers, G

    1981-01-01

    Behavior therapy has up to now, only been applied to a limited degree to elderly people. Operant learning paradigma receive special meaning within the framework of intervention as well as theoretical explanation. Publications will be presented for the areas of social behavior, self care, motoric ability etc. according to their different techniques. It is remarkable that interest has only focused institutionalized elderly people with a high degree of incapacitation. In the following discussion the necessity for stronger consideration of the newer behavioral approach as well the latest developments in gerontology will be made clear. PMID:7222914

  13. Terrorism and the behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Terrorism has existed for millennia and is a phenomenon well-known to many parts of the world. Americans were forced to recognize this phenomenon, and our vulnerability to it, by two sets of events in 2001: the attacks on New York City and Washington, DC, and the anthrax mailings that followed shortly thereafter. Psychiatry, psychology, and other behavioral and social sciences have been looked to for assistance in collecting and analyzing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. In addition to reviewing areas in which the behavioral sciences have made contributions in addressing this problem, this article discusses the developing roles for behavioral scientists in this field.

  14. [Behavior therapy in older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkers, G

    1981-01-01

    Behavior therapy has up to now, only been applied to a limited degree to elderly people. Operant learning paradigma receive special meaning within the framework of intervention as well as theoretical explanation. Publications will be presented for the areas of social behavior, self care, motoric ability etc. according to their different techniques. It is remarkable that interest has only focused institutionalized elderly people with a high degree of incapacitation. In the following discussion the necessity for stronger consideration of the newer behavioral approach as well the latest developments in gerontology will be made clear.

  15. Infant behaviors influence mothers' provision of responsive and directive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Carrie A; Masur, Elise Frank

    2014-08-01

    Mother-infant interactions are important to infant development because they are predictive of infants' social, cognitive, and language development (Lamb, Bornstein, & Teti, 2002; Tamis-LeMonda, Bornstein, & Baumwell, 2001). Because maternal responsive and directive behaviors are associated with differential infant outcomes, it is important to investigate influences on mothers' provision of responsive and directive behaviors. Yet, the dyadic interaction literature is predominantly unidirectional from maternal behavior to infant outcomes. Therefore, the current study examined infant initiating behaviors and consequent maternal responses in a sample of 26 13-month-old infants and their mothers, videotaped during 5 min of free-play. Findings revealed that infants produced a variety of initiatives, and that these different infant initiatives prompted differential patterns of maternal responsive versus directive behaviors. Further, results of analyses of divergent types of maternal directive behaviors - Responsive Directives, ReDirectives, and Intrusive Directives - also may help clarify major discrepancies in the current literature regarding the positive and negative effects of maternal directiveness.

  16. Behavioral variability in an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Andrei; McDowell, J J

    2016-03-01

    McDowell's evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics (McDowell, 2004) instantiates populations of behaviors (abstractly represented by integers) that evolve under the selection pressure of the environment in the form of positive reinforcement. Each generation gives rise to the next via low-level Darwinian processes of selection, recombination, and mutation. The emergent patterns can be analyzed and compared to those produced by biological organisms. The purpose of this project was to explore the effects of high mutation rates on behavioral variability in environments that arranged different reinforcer rates and magnitudes. Behavioral variability increased with the rate of mutation. High reinforcer rates and magnitudes reduced these effects; low reinforcer rates and magnitudes augmented them. These results are in agreement with live-organism research on behavioral variability. Various combinations of mutation rates, reinforcer rates, and reinforcer magnitudes produced similar high-level outcomes (equifinality). These findings suggest that the independent variables that describe an experimental condition interact; that is, they do not influence behavior independently. These conclusions have implications for the interpretation of high levels of variability, mathematical undermatching, and the matching theory. The last part of the discussion centers on a potential biological counterpart for the rate of mutation, namely spontaneous fluctuations in the brain's default mode network. PMID:27002687

  17. Disordered Money Behaviors: Development of the Klontz Money Behavior Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Klontz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of the existing literature on financial behavior focuses on basic money management tasks (e.g., balancing a checkbook. However, it can be equally important to identify problematic financial behaviors that can sabotage one’s financial health. The purpose of this study was to create an assessment tool that can be used by mental health and financial professionals to identify disordered money behaviors that may impede on progress towards one’s financial goals. This study asked 422 respondents to indicate their agreement with disordered money behaviors, including compulsive buying, pathological gambling, compulsive hoarding, workaholism, financial enabling, financial dependence, financial denial, and financial enmeshment, which were correlated with demographic characteristics and financial outcomes. The results identified eight subscales derived from 68 disordered money behavior items. All eight subscales were found to have high reliability in measuring disordered behaviors, and six were associated with negative financial health indicators (e.g. less net worth, less income, and/or more revolving credit.

  18. Behavioral variability in an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Andrei; McDowell, J J

    2016-03-01

    McDowell's evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics (McDowell, 2004) instantiates populations of behaviors (abstractly represented by integers) that evolve under the selection pressure of the environment in the form of positive reinforcement. Each generation gives rise to the next via low-level Darwinian processes of selection, recombination, and mutation. The emergent patterns can be analyzed and compared to those produced by biological organisms. The purpose of this project was to explore the effects of high mutation rates on behavioral variability in environments that arranged different reinforcer rates and magnitudes. Behavioral variability increased with the rate of mutation. High reinforcer rates and magnitudes reduced these effects; low reinforcer rates and magnitudes augmented them. These results are in agreement with live-organism research on behavioral variability. Various combinations of mutation rates, reinforcer rates, and reinforcer magnitudes produced similar high-level outcomes (equifinality). These findings suggest that the independent variables that describe an experimental condition interact; that is, they do not influence behavior independently. These conclusions have implications for the interpretation of high levels of variability, mathematical undermatching, and the matching theory. The last part of the discussion centers on a potential biological counterpart for the rate of mutation, namely spontaneous fluctuations in the brain's default mode network.

  19. Effect of cognitive enrichment on behavior, mucosal immunity and upper respiratory disease of shelter cats rated as frustrated on arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourkow, Nadine; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-09-01

    Acquisition of resources and opportunity to engage in natural behaviors has been shown to reduce frustration-related behaviors and enhance health in nondomestic felids kept in zoos, but little is known about whether there are similar effects in domestic cats living in confinement in animal shelters. Fifteen cats rated as Frustrated during the first hour of confinement to a cage at an animal shelter were assigned to either a Treatment (n=7) or Control (n=8) group. Treatment cats were taken from their cages to a separate room four times daily for 10min each time over a 10 d period, where they took part in training sessions to learn a novel behavior (paw-hand contact with a researcher). Changes in emotional states and mucosal immune response were evaluated over 10days. Infectious status was determined upon admission and incidence of upper respiratory was determined up to day 40 based on clinical signs. Treated cats were more likely to be rated as Content than Control cats and had greater concentrations of S-IgA (537μg/g) in feces than Control cats (101μg/g). Within the Treatment group, cats that responded positively had greater concentrations of S-IgA (925μg/g) than those that responded negatively (399μg/g). Control cats were more likely to develop respiratory disease over time compared to cats that received treatment (Hazard Ratio: 2.37, Confidence Interval: 1.35-4.15). It is concluded that there is prima facie evidence that cognitive enrichment of cats exhibiting frustration-related behaviors can elicit positive affect (contentment), stimulate secretion of IgA and reduce incidence of respiratory disease, which is worthy of further study. PMID:27544259

  20. Information: theory, brain, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Greg; Ward, Ryan D; Balsam, Peter D

    2013-11-01

    In the 65 years since its formal specification, information theory has become an established statistical paradigm, providing powerful tools for quantifying probabilistic relationships. Behavior analysis has begun to adopt these tools as a novel means of measuring the interrelations between behavior, stimuli, and contingent outcomes. This approach holds great promise for making more precise determinations about the causes of behavior and the forms in which conditioning may be encoded by organisms. In addition to providing an introduction to the basics of information theory, we review some of the ways that information theory has informed the studies of Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and behavioral neuroscience. In addition to enriching each of these empirical domains, information theory has the potential to act as a common statistical framework by which results from different domains may be integrated, compared, and ultimately unified.

  1. Classification systems for stalking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Christopher; Billick, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Stalking is a complex behavioral phenomenon that is unique in that it necessarily involves a prolonged dyadic relationship between both a perpetrator and a victim. Since criminalization of stalking behavior in the 1990s, different conceptual typologies have attempted to classify this behavior to assess risk and aid in management decisions. The authors reviewed the current literature regarding the most recent and accepted stalking classification systems. The three predominant stalker typologies currently in use include Zona's stalker-victim types, Mullen's stalker typology, and the RECON stalker typology. Of these, the RECON classification system alone was developed in an attempt to separate stalkers into groups based on previously known risk factors for behaviorally based phenomenon such as propensity for violence. Understanding and simplifying these classification systems may enhance the potential that new research will lead to evidence-based management and treatment strategies in the stalking situation. PMID:23980606

  2. Dementia - behavior and sleep problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000029.htm Dementia - behavior and sleep problems To use the sharing ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. People with dementia often have certain problems when it gets dark ...

  3. OLFACTION: ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  4. Obesity and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Oguz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, obesity is a public health problem with significant negative effects on mortality and morbidity rates in developing countries, and impact on all levels of the society. In recent years cognitive behavioral therapy approach has been considered as an important part of the obesity treatment. Behavioral therapy for obesity includes sections like self-monitoring, stimulus control, food control, consolidation and reinforcement, cognitive restructuring, proper nutrition education, increase in physical activity, and behavior contracts. As part of the obesity treatment, combining cognitive-behavioral treatments with lifestyle changes such as increase in physical activity increases effectiveness of the treatment and ensures durability of the achieved weight loss. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 133-144

  5. Metabolic Cause of Hyperkinetic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old female child with congenital ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD who presented with a hyperkinetic behavior disorder at 3 years is reported from the Medical School Hanover, Germany.

  6. Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollicone, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral health risks during long-duration space exploration missions are among the most difficult to predict, detect, and mitigate. Given the anticipated extended duration of future missions and their isolated, extreme, and confined environments, there is the possibility that behavior conditions and mental disorders will develop among astronaut crew. Pulsar Informatics, Inc., has developed a health monitoring tool that provides a means to detect and address behavioral disorders and mental conditions at an early stage. The tool integrates all available behavioral measures collected during a mission to identify possible health indicator warning signs within the context of quantitatively tracked mission stressors. It is unobtrusive and requires minimal crew time and effort to train and utilize. The monitoring tool can be deployed in space analog environments for validation testing and ultimate deployment in long-duration space exploration missions.

  7. Risk factors for suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.

  8. Behavior of Columns During Earthquakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The behavior of columns during earthquakes is very important since column failures may lead to additional structural failures and result in total building...

  9. Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Counterproductive Work Behavior: Cross-cultural comparisons between Turkey and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Cem-Ersoy (Nevra)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis research project explores cultural determinants that facilitate positive employee behavior. In the literature, this behavior is identified as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The dissertation also focuses on factors related to counterproductive work behavior (CWB). CWB is

  10. Customer Behavior Clustering Using SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongying; Su, Xiaolong

    In order to supply better service for network customers, deeply analyzing customers' behavior is required. This paper extracts three features from customers' network behavior which is divided into different categories, such as browsing news, downloading shared resources and real-time communications etc. Support vector machine is used to perform clustering, thanks to its fast and valid executing, especially in the situation of small datasets. Using the analysis results, we can make our applications and services more personalized and easier to be used.

  11. Automobile Driving and Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Novaco, Raymond W.

    1991-01-01

    Automobile driving and aggressive behavior have had an extensive association. Themes of dominance and territoriality have long been part of automobile driving, which has also involved flagrant assaultive actions. Recent episodes of roadway violence in metropolitan areas have raised community concern about aggressive behavior in driving, although common beliefs about why such violence occurs can be seen as pseudoexplanations. Various themes in the psychology of aggression are presented as they...

  12. Russian Consumer Behavior in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Potapova, Eila

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to study consumer behavior of Russian tourists in Finland and to analyze the main factors that are influencing their buying habits. The growing effect of Russians on Finnish market triggered the interest to start this thesis. Theoretical part of the thesis starts with a definition of the consumer and consumer behavior. Segmentation, positioning and targeting are discussed next. Afterwards, segments of Russian consumers are described generally. Empirical study ...

  13. INVESTMENT BEHAVIOR AND ENERGY CONSERVATION

    OpenAIRE

    LaDue, Eddy L.; Miller, Lynn H.; Kwiatkowski, Joseph H.

    1990-01-01

    Binary logit and bivariate probit models were used to investigate the investment behavior of farmers relative to two energy-conserving assets, heat-recovery systems and precoolers. The bivariate probit procedure was useful in correcting for self-selectivity bias. Holdout samples and cross-validation procedures were used to develop true model statistics. Farm size, educational level of the operator, and the type of milking system in use were the important factors influencing investment behavior.

  14. BEHAVIORAL BIASES IN TRADING SECURITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turcan Ciprian Sebastian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of this paper represents the importance and the effects that human behavior has over capital markets. It is important to see the link between the asset valuation and investor sentiment that motivate to pay for an asset a certain prices over/below the intrinsic value. The main behavioral aspects discussed are emotional factors such as: fear of regret, overconfidence, perseverance, loss aversion ,heuristic biases, misinformation and thinking errors, herding and their consequences.

  15. Behavioral assays in environmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental toxicology is too permeated by questions about how the whole organism functions to abandon intact animals as test systems. Behavior does not participate as a single entity or discipline. It ranges across the total spectrum of functional toxicity, from tenuous subjective complaints to subtle sensory and motor disturbances demanding advanced instrumentation for their evaluation. Three facets of behavioral toxicology that illustrate its breadth of interests and potential contributions are discussed.

  16. Behavior Classification Algorithms at Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Aoude, Georges; Desaraju, Vishnu Rajeswar; Stephens, Lauren H.; How, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to classify driver behavior lays the foundation for more advanced driver assistance systems. Improving safety at intersections has also been identified as high priority due to the large number of intersection related fatalities. This paper focuses on developing algorithms for estimating driver behavior at road intersections. It introduces two classes of algorithms that can classify drivers as compliant or violating. They are based on 1) Support Vector Machines (SVM) and 2) Hidden ...

  17. Editorial behaviors in peer review

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Kong, Xiangjie; Jun ZHANG; Chen, Zhen; Xia, Feng; Wang, Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    Editors play a critical role in the peer review system. How do editorial behaviors affect the performance of peer review? No quantitative model to date allows us to measure the influence of editorial behaviors on different peer review stages such as, manuscript distribution and final decision making. Here, we propose an agent-based model in which the process of peer review is guided mainly by the social interactions among three kinds of agents representing authors, editors and reviewers respe...

  18. Maximization, learning, and economic behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E.

    2014-01-01

    The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, su...

  19. Obesity and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gulay Oguz; Aytul Karabekiroglu; Birsen Kocamanoglu; Mehmet Zihni Sungur

    2016-01-01

    Today, obesity is a public health problem with significant negative effects on mortality and morbidity rates in developing countries, and impact on all levels of the society. In recent years cognitive behavioral therapy approach has been considered as an important part of the obesity treatment. Behavioral therapy for obesity includes sections like self-monitoring, stimulus control, food control, consolidation and reinforcement, cognitive restructuring, proper nutrition education, increase in ...

  20. Behavioral Economics and Institutional Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Shiller, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Behavioral economics has played a fundamental role historically in innovation in economic institutions, even long before behavioral economics was recognized as a discipline. Examples from history, notably that of the invention of workers’ compensation, illustrate this point. Though scholarly discussion develops over decades, actual innovation tends to occur episodically, particularly at times of economic crisis. Fortunately, some of the major professional societies, the Verein fur Sozialpolit...

  1. Servant leadership behaviors of aerospace and defense project managers and their relation to project success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, Michael T.

    The success of a project is dependent in part on the skills, knowledge, and behavior of its leader, the project manager. Despite advances in project manager certifications and professional development, the aerospace and defense industry has continued to see highly visible and expensive project failures partially attributable to failures in leadership. Servant leadership is an emerging leadership theory whose practitioners embrace empowerment, authenticity, humility, accountability, forgiveness, courage, standing back, and stewardship, but has not yet been fully examined in the context of the project manager as leader. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between servant leadership behaviors demonstrated by aerospace and defense project managers and the resulting success of their projects. Study participants were drawn from aerospace and defense oriented affinity groups from the LinkedInRTM social media web system. The participants rated their project managers using a 30-item servant leadership scale, and rated the success of their project using a 12-item project success scale. One hundred and fifteen valid responses were analyzed from 231 collected samples from persons who had worked for a project manager on an aerospace and defense project within the past year. The results of the study demonstrated statistically significant levels of positive correlation to project success for all eight servant leadership factors independently evaluated. Using multiple linear regression methods, the servant leadership factors of empowerment and authenticity were determined to be substantial and statistically significant predictors of project success. The study results established the potential application of servant leadership as a valid approach for improving outcomes of projects.

  2. The vulnerability to suicidal behavior is associated with reduced connectivity strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn eBijttebier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Suicidal behavior constitutes a major public health problem. Based on the stress–diathesis model, biological correlates of a diathesis might help to predict risk after stressor-exposure. Structural changes in cortical and subcortical areas and their connections have increasingly been linked with the diathesis. The current study identified structural network changes associated with a diathesis using a whole-brain approach by examining the structural connectivity between regions in euthymic suicide attempters. In addition, the association between connectivity measures, clinical and genetic characteristics was investigated. We hypothesized that suicide attempters showed lower connectivity strength, associated with an increased severity of general clinical characteristics and an elevated expression of short alleles in serotonin polymorphisms.Thirteen euthymic suicide attempters (SA were compared with fifteen euthymic non-attempters and seventeen healthy controls. Clinical characteristics and three serotonin-related genetic polymorphisms were assessed. Diffusion MRI together with anatomical scans were administered. Preprocessing was performed using Explore DTI. Whole brain tractography of the diffusion-weighted images was followed by a number of streamlines-weighted network analysis using NBS.The network analysis revealed decreased connectivity strength in SA in the connections between the left olfactory cortex and left anterior cingulate gyrus. Furthermore, SA had increased suicidal ideation, hopelessness and self-reported depression, but did not show any differences for the genetic polymorphisms. Finally, lower connectivity strength between the right calcarine fissure and the left middle occipital gyrus was associated with increased trait anxiety severity (rs=-0.78, p<0.01 and hopelessness (rs=-0.76, p<0.01.SA showed differences in white matter network connectivity strength associated with clinical characteristics. Together, these variables could

  3. Predicting moral behavior in physical education classes: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Emmanouilidou, Maria

    2005-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the potential of the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict moral behavior in primary school physical education classes. Primary school children (N=611) completed a questionnaire including the Theory of Planned Behavior variables. Also, 21 teachers filled in an adapted version of Horrocks' Prosocial Play Behavior Inventory which assesses five moral behavior facets. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that attitudes toward moral behavior and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of intention towards moral behavior (54%). Intention and perceived behavioral control predicted teacher-reported moral behavior (41%). The present results indicated that the theory provides a valuable framework for study of primary school children's moral behavior. PMID:16158692

  4. STUDY ON VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF PAPER COATING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng Zhang; Kefu Chen; Rendang Yang

    2004-01-01

    The flow behavior of paper coating is critical to the coating operation. In this work, the influence of the added agents on the flow behavior and the viscoelastic behavior is investigated using rheometer in steady and dynamic oscillatory modes.

  5. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M.; Locatelli, Fernando F.

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  6. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  7. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George William H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010. Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change.

  8. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M; Locatelli, Fernando F

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  9. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  10. Editorial behaviors in peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Kong, Xiangjie; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhen; Xia, Feng; Wang, Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    Editors play a critical role in the peer review system. How do editorial behaviors affect the performance of peer review? No quantitative model to date allows us to measure the influence of editorial behaviors on different peer review stages such as, manuscript distribution and final decision making. Here, we propose an agent-based model in which the process of peer review is guided mainly by the social interactions among three kinds of agents representing authors, editors and reviewers respectively. We apply this model to analyze a number of editorial behaviors such as decision strategy, number of reviewers and editorial bias on peer review. We find out that peer review outcomes are significantly sensitive to different editorial behaviors. With a small fraction (10 %) of biased editors, the quality of accepted papers declines 11 %, which indicates that effects of editorial biased behavior is worse than that of biased reviewers (7 %). While several peer review models exist, this is the first account for the study of editorial behaviors that is validated on the basis of simulation analysis. PMID:27386349

  11. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  12. Behavioral Targeting—Consumer Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, P. K.; Srinivas, A.

    2011-12-01

    Behavioral targeting is an online marketing method that collects data on the browsing activities of consumers, in order to `target' more relevant online advertising. Behavioral targeting enables marketers to reach in-market consumers and increases the value of publisher inventory. At the heart of behavioral targeting is a learning-based investigation of consumer behaviors. It helps marketers understand consumers' purchase patterns over time, mapping out a customer's activities based not only on a single purchase but also on an annual or even lifetime basis. As marketers increasingly appreciate the importance of customer lifetime value, behavioral targeting can be a foundation for creating a continuous analytical study of consumer trends and patterns. But as behavioural-targeting systems become more sophisticated and invasive, it is vital that the companies behind them are open with users about what is going on, and give them control over their personal information. The aim of this paper is to explore the various tools and techniques of behavioral targeting and its benefits to online marketing. A multiple—case study approach was used for exploring the effectiveness and acceptance of online marketing in the area of the online marketing.

  13. Extinction, relapse, and behavioral momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2010-05-01

    Previous experiments on behavioral momentum have shown that relative resistance to extinction of operant behavior in the presence of a discriminative stimulus depends upon the baseline rate or magnitude of reinforcement associated with that stimulus (i.e., the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation). Recently, we have shown that relapse of operant behavior in reinstatement, resurgence, and context renewal preparations also is a function of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations. In this paper we present new data examining the role of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations on resistance to extinction and relapse using a variety of baseline training conditions and relapse operations. Furthermore, we evaluate the adequacy of a behavioral momentum based model in accounting for the results. The model suggests that relapse occurs as a result of a decrease in the disruptive impact of extinction precipitated by a change in circumstances associated with extinction, and that the degree of relapse is a function of the pre-extinction baseline Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation. Across experiments, relative resistance to extinction and relapse were greater in the presence of stimuli associated with more favorable conditions of reinforcement and were positively related to one another. In addition, the model did a good job in accounting for these effects. Thus, behavioral momentum theory may provide a useful quantitative approach for characterizing how differential reinforcement conditions contribute to relapse of operant behavior.

  14. Extinction, relapse, and behavioral momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2010-05-01

    Previous experiments on behavioral momentum have shown that relative resistance to extinction of operant behavior in the presence of a discriminative stimulus depends upon the baseline rate or magnitude of reinforcement associated with that stimulus (i.e., the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation). Recently, we have shown that relapse of operant behavior in reinstatement, resurgence, and context renewal preparations also is a function of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations. In this paper we present new data examining the role of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations on resistance to extinction and relapse using a variety of baseline training conditions and relapse operations. Furthermore, we evaluate the adequacy of a behavioral momentum based model in accounting for the results. The model suggests that relapse occurs as a result of a decrease in the disruptive impact of extinction precipitated by a change in circumstances associated with extinction, and that the degree of relapse is a function of the pre-extinction baseline Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation. Across experiments, relative resistance to extinction and relapse were greater in the presence of stimuli associated with more favorable conditions of reinforcement and were positively related to one another. In addition, the model did a good job in accounting for these effects. Thus, behavioral momentum theory may provide a useful quantitative approach for characterizing how differential reinforcement conditions contribute to relapse of operant behavior. PMID:20152889

  15. Developmental origins of early antisocial behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2009-01-01

    Early antisocial behavior has its origins in childhood behavior problems, particularly those characterized by aggressive and destructive behavior. Deficits in self-regulation across multiple domains of functioning, from the physiological to the cognitive, are associated with early behavior problems, and may place children at greater risk for the development of later antisocial behavior. Data are presented from a longitudinal study of early self-regulation and behavior problems, the RIGHT Trac...

  16. The Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review of Its Applications to Health-Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Gaston; Kok, Gerjo

    1996-01-01

    The literature review discussed here located 56 studies examining 87 behaviors that predicted future health-related behaviors using the theory of planned behavior. About 41% of variance in intentions and 34% of variance in future behavior were explained by the theory. Perceived behavioral control explained 11.5% of variance in behavior above…

  17. Consumer behavior and marketing communication: value approach

    OpenAIRE

    Popova Nadezhda; Sosnova Olga

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the relationship between consumer behavior and marketing communications. It reveals the possible influence of marketing communications, appealing to the values of consumers, on their behavior.

  18. Behavioral Decision Research Intervention Reduces Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial. PMID:26149165

  19. Your browsing behavior for a Big Mac: Economics of Personal Information Online

    CERN Document Server

    Carrascal, Juan Pablo; Erramilli, Vijay; Cherubini, Mauro; de Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Most online services (Google, Facebook etc.) operate by providing a service to users for free, and in return they collect and monetize personal information (PI) of the users. This operational model is inherently economic, as the "good" being traded and monetized is PI. This model is coming under increased scrutiny as online services are moving to capture more PI of users, raising serious privacy concerns. However, little is known on how users valuate different types of PI while being online, as well as the perceptions of users with regards to exploitation of their PI by online service providers. In this paper, we study how users valuate different types of PI while being online, while capturing the context by relying on Experience Sampling. We were able to extract the monetary value that 168 participants put on different pieces of PI. We find that users value their PI related to their offline identities more (3 times) than their browsing behavior. Users also value information pertaining to financial transactio...

  20. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…

  1. Towards Behaviorally Informed Public Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Olejniczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article informs readers about the theoretical and practical origins of the behaviorally informed interventions (BIPI, analyzes examples of the BIPI from different policy sectors and strategies they offer for policy and regulatory design, and discusses applications and implications of BIPI for public interventions Methodology: This paper is based on a review of literature, as well as an inspection of administrative practices in OECD countries. It encompasses a systematic analysis of scientific papers fromthe SCOPUS database and a query carried out at the library of George Washington University. Findings: The traditional approach to public policy research is based on rational choice theory. It offers limited support, because by assuming perfect rationality of policy decisions, it overlooks existence of systematic errors and biases of human decision-making. The authors argue that behaviorally informed public interventions (BIPI might contribute to improving the effectiveness of a number of public measures – regulation, projects, programs, and even entire policies. Practical implications: The behavioral approach allows decision-makers to better understand the decisions and behaviors of citizens, as well as to design more effective interventions with minimum effort by adapting the existing solutions to real decision mechanisms of citizens. Originality: By combining the concepts of traditional approach with the growing behavioral approach, the authors aim to propose a new theoretical framework (BIPI to be used as a tool for policy design, delivery and evaluation.

  2. Behavior model for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result

  3. Information recovery in behavioral networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; Garlaschelli, Diego; Judge, George

    2015-01-01

    In the context of agent based modeling and network theory, we focus on the problem of recovering behavior-related choice information from origin-destination type data, a topic also known under the name of network tomography. As a basis for predicting agents' choices we emphasize the connection between adaptive intelligent behavior, causal entropy maximization, and self-organized behavior in an open dynamic system. We cast this problem in the form of binary and weighted networks and suggest information theoretic entropy-driven methods to recover estimates of the unknown behavioral flow parameters. Our objective is to recover the unknown behavioral values across the ensemble analytically, without explicitly sampling the configuration space. In order to do so, we consider the Cressie-Read family of entropic functionals, enlarging the set of estimators commonly employed to make optimal use of the available information. More specifically, we explicitly work out two cases of particular interest: Shannon functional and the likelihood functional. We then employ them for the analysis of both univariate and bivariate data sets, comparing their accuracy in reproducing the observed trends.

  4. ANIMAL BEHAVIORAL MODELS OF TINNITUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao; WANG Qiuju; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of tinnitus is poorly understood and treatments are often unsuccessful. A number of animal models have been developed in order to gain a better understanding of tinnitus. A great deal has been learned from these models re-garding the electrophysiological and neuroanatomical correlates of tinnitus following exposure to noise or ototoxic drugs. Re-liable behavioral data is important for determining whether such electrophysiological or neuroanatomical changes are indeed related to tinnitus. Of the many documented tinnitus animal behavioral paradigms, the acoustic startle reflex had been pro-posed as a simple method to identify the presence or absence of tinnitus. Several behavioral models based on conditioned re-sponse suppression paradigms have also been developed. In addition to determining the presence or absence of tinnitus, some of the behavioral paradigms have provided signs of the onset, frequency, and intensity of tinnitus in animals. Although none of these behavioral models have been proved to be a perfect model, these studies provide useful information on understanding the neural mechanisms underlying tinnitus.

  5. Maximization, learning, and economic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E

    2014-07-22

    The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design.

  6. Behavior model for performance assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borwn-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-07-23

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result.

  7. Maximization, learning, and economic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E

    2014-07-22

    The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design. PMID:25024182

  8. Creativity, personality, and hoarding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Dianne M; Hooley, Jill M

    2014-12-15

    Compulsive hoarding is a debilitating illness that is characterized by excessive collection of and failure to discard items, irrespective of their uselessness or hazardousness. Anecdotal evidence suggests that individuals who hoard may be more creative than individuals without hoarding behavior; however, this hypothesis has never been tested empirically. In the present study, we examined the relationship between hoarding symptoms and performance on a series of creativity measures. We also explored the extent to which hoarding symptoms were associated with factors such as personality, impulsivity, distress tolerance, and attitudes about money and the environment. Our findings revealed no significant associations between hoarding behavior and any measure of creativity. Hoarding behavior was also unrelated to attitudes about money or concern about the environment. However, consistent with previous research, hoarding tendencies were correlated with higher levels of neuroticism and impulsivity, as well as with lower levels of conscientiousness and distress tolerance. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Evolutionary consequences of behavioral diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2016-01-01

    Iterated games provide a framework to describe social interactions among groups of individuals. Recent work stimulated by the discovery of "zero-determinant" strategies has rapidly expanded our ability to analyze such interactions. This body of work has primarily focused on games in which players face a simple binary choice, to "cooperate" or "defect". Real individuals, however, often exhibit behavioral diversity, varying their input to a social interaction both qualitatively and quantitatively. Here we explore how access to a greater diversity of behavioral choices impacts the evolution of social dynamics in finite populations. We show that, in public goods games, some two-choice strategies can nonetheless resist invasion by all possible multi-choice invaders, even while engaging in relatively little punishment. We also show that access to greater behavioral choice results in more "rugged " fitness landscapes, with populations able to stabilize cooperation at multiple levels of investment, such that choice f...

  10. Goal directed behavior and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarenza, Giuseppe Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Goal directed behavior is explained by two approaches: the first, which can be named as cybertetic (behavior is wieved as homeostatic and reflexive), and second, as cognitive approach, a learned response, (skills developed by whaching the behavior of another individual). The aim of the paper is to present a noninvasive method described as an interaction of human beings with environment, recording the electrical activity of the brain from the human scalp. Obtained results are in agreement of psychological theories that place at determined levels of age the acquisition of the capacities of abstract thinking and with the functional neuroanatomic studies according to which biological maturation is necessary for learning processes to develop. An acquired level of learning is in close relationship with the maturation level of the cerebral structures. PMID:27442417

  11. Pavlov's position toward American behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, G

    1983-10-01

    Pavlov's development of the conditional reflex theory coincided with the rise of American behaviorism. Substituting an objective physiology for a subjective psychology, Pavlov saw in the rise of American behaviorism a clear confirmation of his method and theory. But in the early 1930s, Lashley attacked Pavlov's theory of specific cerebral localization of function, proposing instead the concept of an internal cerebral organization; Guthrie objected to Pavlov's centralist interpretation of conditioning, proposing instead a peripheralist interpretation; while Hull challenged Pavlov's theory of sleep and hypnosis as the manifestations of inhibition. Pavlov replied with critiques of Lashley's, Guthrie's, and Hull's views, and, convinced that Lashley and Guthrie misunderstood his position, repeated his method's and theory's basic propositions. Yet, Pavlov never gave up the expectation that American behaviorism would accept his conditional reflex theory and saw in Hunter's 1932 statements a support of his assumptions.

  12. Neuroeconomics and behavioral health economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

      Objective: Neuroeconomics integrates behavioral economics, psychology and neuroscience. Recently, this line of research is summarized in a neuroeconomic model (NeM) which addresses behavioral health from a new angle as surveyed in this study. Data and Method Firstly, NeM is used as framework...... for explanation of the neural dynamics of normal decision making. Secondly, the literature is reviewed for evidence on hypothesized applications of NeM in behavioral health. Results I. The present bias as documented by neuroeconomic game-trials is explained by NeM as rooted in the basal activation of Amygdala...... dissemination of relaxation procedures is evident in industrialized countries since about 1970 both inside the medical healthcare system and as NGO-settings in a market-alike competition. However, a serious barrier to the dissemination of meditative de-stressing is the lack of general knowledge of the action...

  13. Behavior Relativity of Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊; 王怀清; 廖少毅

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology for modelling and analyzing of behav-ior relations of concurrent systems. The set of all firing sequences of a Petri net is an importanttool for describing the dynamic behavior of concurrent systems. In this paper, the behaviorrelativity of two concurrent subsystems in their synchronous composition is presented. Such be-havior relativities, including Controlled Relativity, United Relativity, Interactive Relativity andExclusive Relativity, are defined respectively. The properties of the relativities are discussed indetail. The analysis method for these properties is based on minimum T-invariants, when twosubsystems are live bounded Petri nets. A well-known example has also been analyaed usingthe new methodology to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed methodology.

  14. Asymptotic behavior of generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Pilipović, Stevan; Vindas, Jasson

    2012-01-01

    The asymptotic analysis has obtained new impulses with the general development of various branches of mathematical analysis and their applications. In this book, such impulses originate from the use of slowly varying functions and the asymptotic behavior of generalized functions. The most developed approaches related to generalized functions are those of Vladimirov, Drozhinov and Zavyalov, and that of Kanwal and Estrada. The first approach is followed by the authors of this book and extended in the direction of the S-asymptotics. The second approach — of Estrada, Kanwal and Vindas — is related to moment asymptotic expansions of generalized functions and the Ces'aro behavior. The main features of this book are the uses of strong methods of functional analysis and applications to the analysis of asymptotic behavior of solutions to partial differential equations, Abelian and Tauberian type theorems for integral transforms as well as for the summability of Fourier series and integrals. The book can be used by...

  15. Unveiling small sphere's scattering behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Tzarouchis, Dimitrios C; Sihvola, Ari

    2016-01-01

    A classical way for exploring the scattering behavior of a small sphere is to approximate Mie coefficients with a Taylor series expansion. This ansatz delivered a plethora of insightful results, mostly for small spheres supporting electric localized plasmonic resonances. However, many scattering aspects are still uncharted, especially for the case of magnetic resonances. Here, an alternative system ansatz is proposed based on the Pad\\'e approximants for the Mie coefficients. The extracted results reveal new aspects, such as the existence of a self-regulating radiative damping mechanism for the first magnetic resonance. Hence, a systematic way of exploring the scattering behavior is introduced, sharpening our understanding about sphere's scattering behavior and its emergent functionalities.

  16. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William T.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Ruckstuhl, L. E.

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers. PMID:22478314

  17. Extending the theory of planned behavior: The role of behavioral options and additional factors in predicting speed behavior

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTEA, Mioara; PARAN, Françoise; DELHOMME, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has been successfully predicting behavior with a small number of factors. Nonetheless, to increase its predictive power we introduced several behavioral options and additional factors in the same prediction model about drivers’ self-reported speed behavior on a road with a speed limit of 90 km/h. We investigated the TPB factors as well as descriptive norms, perceived similarity with/description of the prototypical driver, and past behavior with re...

  18. DEMOGRAPHY OF PEDIATRIC BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Keihanidoust MD

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective :Behavioral disorders of children and adolescents have long been a subject of discussion among researchers of pedology,   psychology, medicine and psychiatry and are also a commonly encountered complaint of patients referring to the pediatric neurology out patient clinics. The main purpose of the present study is to survey some organic disorders, e.g. temporal lobe epilepsy (non convulsive seizures and to investigate the role of some trace element deficiencies, in particular iron deficiency on the development of behavioral disorders seen in children.Materials & Methods:In this study all patients referring to the Imam Khomeini pediatric neurology out patient clinic with the chief complaint of behavioral problems, between October 1996 and January 1998 were  enrolled; they were individually interviewed and underwent physical examinations, completing the relevant questionnaires.Results:Overall 139 patients (92boys and 47 girls were enrolled and the data were analyzed using SPSS and Harvard's graphic package. Analysis revealed that the most common behavioral disorders documented were: Sleep problems, in 38 patients (27.3%, Irritability in 37(26.6%, aggressiveness in 28 (20.1% staring in 27 (19.4%, altercation in 27(19.4%. Non psychiatric problem was seen in 77 patients (62.6%; neurological examinations in 36(25.9% revealed abnormal findings; 103 patients (74-8% had abnormal findings in other systems. 105 patients (76.6% had abnormal EEG and 72 of them (51.9% had abnormal findings in brain imaging. Iron deficiency was found in 88 (63.2% of the patients.Conclusion:According to these findings, treatment of organic disorders in patients with behavioral problems, can lead to partial or total control of their problems, which could otherwise result in major disturbances and disruptions in their own and in their family's lives.Key words:behavioral problems, EEG, Imaging, Iron deficiency

  19. Cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob; Roth, Alicia; Vatthauer, Karlyn; McCrae, Christina S

    2013-02-01

    Chronic insomnia (symptoms for ≥ 6 months) is the most common sleep disorder, affecting 6% to 10% of adults in the general population, with even higher rates in patients with comorbid conditions (eg, hypertension, 44%; cardiac disease, 44.1%; breathing problems, 41.5%). Traditionally, chronic insomnia occurring with another condition has been considered secondary and rarely received direct treatment because treatment of the primary condition was expected to improve the insomnia. However, this approach often failed because chronic insomnia is maintained by behaviors, cognitions, and associations that patients adopt as they attempt to cope with poor sleep but that end up backfiring (eg, increasing caffeine, spending more time in bed, trying harder to sleep). Cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia (CBTi) targets those behaviors, cognitions, and associations and is effective across a variety of populations, including those with medical and psychologic comorbidities. Thus, in 2005, a National Institutes of Health expert consensus panel on chronic insomnia recommended dropping the term "secondary insomnia" in favor of the term "comorbid insomnia." Because CBTi does not carry the risks associated with some sleep medications (eg, dependency, polypharmacy, cognitive and psychomotor impairment), it is an attractive option for patients with other conditions. Through the Society of Behavioral Sleep Medicine (www.behavioralsleep.org) and the American Board of Sleep Medicine (www.absm.org), it is possible to find practitioners with expertise in CBTi (as well as other aspects of behavioral sleep medicine) and other behavioral sleep resources. Given the currently limited number of trained practitioners, exploration of alternative delivery methods (eg, briefer protocols, self-help, Internet) to improve access to this highly effective treatment and expanded training in these treatments are warranted. PMID:23381322

  20. Contextual behavior and neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inah eLee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Animals including humans engage in goal-directed behavior flexibly in response to items and their background, which is called contextual behavior in this review. Although the concept of context has long been studied, there are differences among researchers in defining and experimenting with the concept. The current review aims to provide a categorical framework within which not only the neural mechanisms of contextual information processing but also the contextual behavior can be studied in more concrete ways. For this purpose, we categorize contextual behavior into three subcategories as follows by considering the types of interactions among context, item, and response: contextual response selection, contextual item selection, and contextual item-response selection. Contextual response selection refers to the animal emitting different types of responses to the same item depending on the context in the background. Contextual item selection occurs when there are multiple items that need to be chosen in a contextual manner. Finally, when multiple items and multiple contexts are involved, contextual item-response selection takes place whereby the animal either choose an item or inhibit such a response depending on item-context paired association. The literature suggests that the rhinal cortical regions and the hippocampal formation play key roles in mnemonically categorizing and recognizing contextual representations and the associated items. In addition, it appears that the fronto-striatal cortical loops in connection with the contextual information-processing areas critically control the flexible deployment of adaptive action sets and motor responses for maximizing goals. We suggest that contextual information processing should be investigated in experimental settings where contextual stimuli and resulting behaviors are clearly defined and measurable, considering the dynamic top-down and bottom-up interactions among the neural systems for

  1. Understanding Behaviors in Videos through Behavior-Specific Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor;

    2016-01-01

    Understanding behaviors is the core of video content analysis, which is highly related to two important applications: abnormal event detection and action recognition. Dictionary learning, as one of the mid-level representations, is an important step to process a video. It has achieved state-of-th...

  2. LSCI in Functional Behavior Assessment and Positive Behavioral Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, John R.

    2001-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 mandated a shift from reactive strategies toward proactive interventions with students who experience both disability and behavioral challenges. The author describes how the methodology of Life Space Crisis Intervention can provide a source of data for functional assessment…

  3. Designing Mouse Behavioral Tasks Relevant to Autistic-Like Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2004-01-01

    The importance of genetic factors in autism has prompted the development of mutant mouse models to advance our understanding of biological mechanisms underlying autistic behaviors. Mouse models of human neuropsychiatric diseases are designed to optimize (1) face validity, i.e., resemblance to the human symptoms; (2) construct validity, i.e.,…

  4. Offering Behavioral Assistance to Latino Students Demonstrating Challenging Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2015-01-01

    Challenging behaviors can significantly alter the learning environment of any classroom. Traditionally, schools have implemented practices that remove the offending student from the classroom, deliver punitive disciplinary actions, or refer the student to special education evaluation. Unfortunately, such practices have demonstrated little…

  5. Sexual Behavior in Adults with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bourgondien, Mary E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the sexual behavior of 89 adults with autism living in group homes found that the majority of individuals were engaging in some form of sexual behavior. Masturbation was the most common sexual behavior; however, person-oriented sexual behaviors with obvious signs of arousal were also found. Information regarding group home sexuality…

  6. The neurobiology of repetitive behavior : of mice…

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, Marieke; Kas, Martien J H; Staal, Wouter G; van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped behavior is a prominent element of both animal and human behavior. Similar behavior is seen across species, in diverse neuropsychiatric disorders and in key phases of typical development. This raises the question whether these similar classes of behavior are caused by simi

  7. Contextualism: The World View of Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward K.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the world view of contemporary behavior analysis, especially behavior analysis of child development, is contextualistic, not mechanistic. The history of behavior analysis is presented in a revised account that focuses on philosophic movements. Contextualism of behavior analysis is contrasted with mechanism with respect to five core…

  8. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics ...

  9. Governing Individual Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The emerging Knowledge Governance Approach asserts the need to build microfoundations grounded in individual action. Toward this goal, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we aim to explain individual knowledge sharing behavior as being determined by the intention to share knowledge and its...... the model arrived at on a dataset collected among individuals engaged in knowledge sharing in two competing firms. Results of the LISREL analysis show that the use of rewards affects attitudes toward knowledge sharing negatively, while the use of reciprocal schemes and communication mechanisms have...

  10. Digital behavioral and psychological principles

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The chapters in this e-book lie firmly within Web 2.0 and deal with human aspects of interactions between consumers and between consumers and brands in digital space. The first chapter, Consumer Behavior in the Online Context, by Cummings, Peltier, Schibrowsky and Nill, provides an excellent introduction to this ebook by reviewing literature related to the consumer behavior and social network theory as they apply to the Internet, literature covering the period from 1993-2012, spanning over 900 articles across more than 85 marketing journals. The second chapter, by Kabadayi and Price, investiga

  11. Creep behavior of microbiotic crust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The creep behavior of microbiotic crust at room temperature was revealed by the creep bending tests of cantilever beam under constant-load conditions.The variation in the deflection with time can be depicted well by a standard creep curve.Creep rupture is a fundamental failure mechanism of microbiotic crust due to creep.A simple theory was then applied to describe this new me-chanical behavior.The existence of creep phenomenon brings into question the validity of widely used methods for measuring the strength of microbiotic crust.

  12. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, James [Cadmus Group, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral social sciences to influence household energy use. Strategies may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy-efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5%.

  13. Suicidal behavior: measurement and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquendo, Maria A

    2015-12-01

    This issue of Focus on Suicide brings us new data about risk assessment, with 2 articles examining the utility of rating scales for assessment of suicidal behavior. Youngstrom et al conduct a careful comparison of 3 suicide rating scales: the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), the Suicide Tracking Scale (STS), and the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale (S-STS). While the scales did comparably in 2 broad categories, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, the study suggests that some subtypes of suicidal behavior/ideation are not captured as well by the S-STS. PMID:26717527

  14. A Review of Different Behavior Modification Strategies Designed to Reduce Sedentary Screen Behaviors in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy A. Steeves; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R.; Eugene C. Fitzhugh; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior mo...

  15. Attitude-behavior congruity, mindfulness, and self-focused attention: A behavior-analytic reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Street, Warren R.

    1994-01-01

    Social psychologists have responded to research reporting low agreement between attitude measures and related behavior with attempts to explain the incongruities and enhance agreement. This article examines attitude-behavior incongruity from a behavior-analytic point of view. Traditional and behavior-analytic views of attitudes and behaviors are compared. In the behavior-analytic view, answering an attitude scale should be considered as behavior displayed by a person under rather unusual soci...

  16. Genetics and behavior: a guide for practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Karen L; Tiira, Katriina; Broach, Desiree; Bryant, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    Phenotyping behavior is difficult, partly because behavior is almost always influenced by environment. Using objective terms/criteria to evaluate behaviors is best; the more objective the assessment, the more likely underlying genetic patterns will be identified. Behavioral pathologies, and highly desirable behavioral characteristics/traits, are likely complex, meaning that multiple genes are probably involved, and therefore simple genetic tests are less possible. Breeds can be improved using traditional quantitative genetic methods; unfortunately, this also creates the possibility of inadvertently selecting for covarying undesirable behaviors. Patterns of behaviors within families and breed lines are still the best guidelines for genetic counseling in dogs.

  17. Social memory, social stress, and economic behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Taiki Takahashi

    2005-01-01

    Social memory plays a pivotal role in social behaviors, from mating behaviors to cooperative behaviors based on reciprocal altruism. More specifically, social/person recognition memory is supposed, by behavioral-economic and game-theoretic analysis, to be required for tit- for-tat like cooperative behaviors to evolve under the N-person iterated prisoner fs dilemma game condition. Meanwhile, humans are known to show a social stress response during face-to-face social interactions, which might ...

  18. Human behavior representation of military teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a conceptual structure for the behaviors of artificial intelligence agents, with emphasis on creating teamwork through individual behaviors. The goal is to set up a framework which enables teams of simulation agents to behave more realistically. Better team behavior can lend a higher fidelity of human behavior representation in a simulation, as well as provide opportunities to experiment with the factors that create teamwork. The framework divides agent behaviors into three...

  19. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, J

    1996-07-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initiated by inadequate husbandry techniques, eventually become medical problems because of their severity. PMID:8809393

  20. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, J.

    1996-01-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initi...

  1. IMPLICIT ATTITUDES TOWARD GREEN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    D. VANTOMME; M. GEUENS; De Houwer, J.; De Pelsmacker, P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of implicit (automatic) attitudes to explain the weak attitude-behavior relationships often found in consumer behavior research. One research domain that has revealed low attitude-behavior consistencies is environmentally friendly consumer behavior. In order to better understand this discrepancy, we measured not only explicit but also implicit attitudes toward green consumer behavior by means of the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Expli...

  2. Why Behavior Change is Difficult to Sustain

    OpenAIRE

    Bouton, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy behavior is responsible for much human disease, and a common goal of contemporary preventive medicine is therefore to encourage behavior change. However, while behavior change often seems easy in the short run, it can be difficult to sustain. This article provides a selective review of research from the basic learning and behavior laboratory that provides some insight into why. The research suggests that methods used to create behavior change (including extinction, counterconditioni...

  3. Behavioral and Brain Functions. A new journal

    OpenAIRE

    Sagvolden Terje

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Behavioral and Brain Functions (BBF) is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal considering original research, review, and modeling articles in all aspects of neurobiology or behavior, favoring research that relates to both domains. Behavioral and Brain Functions is published by BioMed Central. The greatest challenge for empirical science is to understand human behavior; how human behavior arises from the myriad functions such as attention, language, memory and emotion; how the...

  4. Behavior of dislocations in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumino, Koji [Nippon Steel Corp., Chiba Prefecture (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    A review is given of dynamic behavior of dislocations in silicon on the basis of works of the author`s group. Topics taken up are generation, motion and multiplication of dislocations as affected by oxygen impurities and immobilization of dislocations due to impurity reaction.

  5. AMERICAN QUARTER HORSES’ BEHAVIORAL FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Olexandrivna Suprun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The review of basic literary sources is made out of behavior of horse. On the basis of the field researches (visual supervisions after three different aged groups of mares it is built ethograms. An ethogram of behavioral forms among mares was developed. They represent the different forms of mares’ behavior in a dynamics. The reaction of mares of the different age-related and physiology groups on appearance of extraneous objects on a pasture, their activity, hierarchy, socialization is analyzed in groups. Several main studies on equines were reviewed in ethogram. Four objects were placed into the pasture with the mares and foals including a mat, cone, halter, and mounting block. Initial interest of mares in objects was high. Herd mentality highly evident. When one horse spooked at object the whole herd followed. After 5 minutes, majority of mares and foals lose interest in objects. The major general behavior categories observed include: locomotion, comfort, and harem social. Dominance was demonstrated while looking at the objects. Dominance was also demonstrated when a mare wanted to be in a specific place or play with a specific toy, she would pin her ears back, bite, or kick at the other mare. 

  6. Behavior Trees for Evolutionary Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, Kirk Y W; Tijmons, Sjoerd; de Visser, Cornelis C; de Croon, Guido C H E

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary Robotics allows robots with limited sensors and processing to tackle complex tasks by means of sensory-motor coordination. In this article we show the first application of the Behavior Tree framework on a real robotic platform using the evolutionary robotics methodology. This framework is used to improve the intelligibility of the emergent robotic behavior over that of the traditional neural network formulation. As a result, the behavior is easier to comprehend and manually adapt when crossing the reality gap from simulation to reality. This functionality is shown by performing real-world flight tests with the 20-g DelFly Explorer flapping wing micro air vehicle equipped with a 4-g onboard stereo vision system. The experiments show that the DelFly can fully autonomously search for and fly through a window with only its onboard sensors and processing. The success rate of the optimized behavior in simulation is 88%, and the corresponding real-world performance is 54% after user adaptation. Although this leaves room for improvement, it is higher than the 46% success rate from a tuned user-defined controller. PMID:26606468

  7. Behavioral Expression of Teacher Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Thomas; Brophy, Jere E.

    In a replication and extension of work by Silberman (1969), differential teacher behavior toward different students was studied in relation to the attitudes teachers held toward those students. Using data on dyadic teacher-child interactions collected with the Brophy-Good system, contrasting patterns were noted in the ways teachers interacted with…

  8. Behavioral Cues of Interpersonal Warmth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayes, Marjorie A.

    1972-01-01

    The results of this study suggest, first, that interpersonal warmth does seem to be a personality dimension which can be reliably judged and, second, that it was possible to define and demonstrate the relevance of a number of behavioral cues for warmth. (Author)

  9. Conceptual Frameworks in Information Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Karen E.; Fidel, Raya; Bruce, Harry

    2001-01-01

    Reviews advancements in the development of conceptual frameworks for studying information behavior. Concludes that a unifying theoretical body is emerging that, beyond its user-centered core, emphasizes the contextual interplay of cognitive, social, cultural, organizational, affective, and linguistic factors and asserts that information behavior…

  10. Teachers' Judgments of Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1987-01-01

    After viewing videotaped vignettes of classroom situations, 155 teachers rated severity, tolerance, manageability, and contagion factors related to a target child. Ratings indicated significant multivariate differences between regular/special education teachers and disruptive/nondisruptive behaviors, with regular educators being less tolerant and…

  11. Viscoelastic behavior of rubbery materials

    CERN Document Server

    Roland, C M

    2011-01-01

    The gigantic size of polymer molecules makes them viscoelastic - their behavior changes depending on how fast and for how long the material is used. This book looks at the latest discoveries in the field from a fundamental molecular perspective, in order to guide the development of better and new applications for soft materials.

  12. Indoor Tanning and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Banerjee, Smita; Greene, Kathryn; Campo, Shelly

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined factors predicting college students' use of tanning beds. Participants and Methods: Undergraduate students (N = 745) at a large Northeastern university participated in the study by answering a survey measuring tanning behavior and other psychosocial variables, including sensation seeking, self-esteem, tanning image…

  13. Delayed Reinforcement of Operant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement but also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between…

  14. Attachment Behaviors in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Marian; Ungerer, Judy A.

    1984-01-01

    Observation of 14 autistic and 14 nonautistic children of equivalent mental age revealed that autistic Ss showed evidence of attachment to their mothers. Among autistic Ss, those showing increased attachment behaviors in response to separation and reunion demonstrated more advanced symbolic play skills than those showing no attachment change.…

  15. Behavioral Neuropsychology in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Arthur MacNeill, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A rationale for the integration of the principles of behavior therapy with those of neuropsychology is provided. Theoretical issues, empirical considerations and future directions pertaining to this area of specialization are discussed, with special reference to the practice of school psychology. (Author/AL)

  16. Unethical behavior in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Landini, Fabio; Piovesan, Marco

    2013-01-01

    What are the individual demographic characteristics that correlate with unethical behavior? To answer this question we randomly interviewed 541 passengers who used the bus in Reggio Emilia (Italy). Exploiting the high level of fare evasion (43% without a valid ticket) we find that young individuals...

  17. Television Violence and Violent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnagel, Timothy F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Discusses a survey investigation of whether exposure to television violence is associated with an increased probability of engaging in violent behavior. Questionnaire data collected in 1970 in junior and senior high schools in Maryland, included self-reports of favorite television show, amount of violence in that show, and respondent's violent…

  18. Health Behavior in Ecological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Health is best understood within an ecological context. Accordingly, health promotion involves processes that foster supportive environments and healthful behavior. Thus, effective health promotion programs are typically multilevel, focusing not only on the population at risk but also on the environmental conditions that contribute so importantly…

  19. Multidimensional Perception of Counselor Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Azy; LaCrosse, Michael B.

    1975-01-01

    Investigated Strong's prediction of the existence of three dimensions of perceived counselor behavior--expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. Films of interviews given by Rogers, Ellis, and Perls were watched by 202 subjects, who rated each counselor on 36 bipolar scales. Results supported the existence of the hypothesized dimensions for…

  20. Behavior Modification in Marriage Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Emily; Redfering, David L.

    1975-01-01

    The spouses were counseled jointly with a cognitive approach and separately with behavior modification techniques for the husband's obesity and the wife's lack of affective verbalization. After eight weeks, the husband had lost thirty pounds and the wife's affective language had increased markedly. (Author)