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Sample records for behavior comparing cancer

  1. Colorectal Cancer, Socioeconomic Distribution and Behavior: A Comparative Analysis of Urban and Rural Counties in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaamel M Nuhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC ranks second for all cancer related deaths among men and women together and third for either sex when considered separately. Disparities exist in CRC incidence and mortality between rural and urban counties in the USA. This study sought to explore socioeconomic and behavioral factors that may partly explain these observed differences.Methods: Using educational and income levels as measures of socioeconomic status (SES, and average alcohol consumption and smoking frequency as behavioral factors, data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER program for analysis were coupled.Results: Results showed statistically significant inequalities for CRC incidence (t = 2.678, p = 0.010 and mortality (t = 2.567, p = 0.013, as well as socioeconomic (i.e., poverty; t = 5.644, p < 0.001 and behavioral (i.e., smoking; t = 2.885, p = 0.006 factors between selected rural and urban counties. Regression analysis for colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates at the rural, urban, and national levels yielded relative impacts of smoking frequency, alcohol consumption, and educational level.Conclusions: Health policies aimed at reducing disparities between rural and urban populations in the USA must therefore adequately address SES and behavioral factors.Key words: colorectal cancer, rural health, social determinants of health, health behavior 

  2. CHoosing Options for Insomnia in Cancer Effectively (CHOICE): Design of a patient centered comparative effectiveness trial of acupuncture and cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia.

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    Garland, Sheila N; Gehrman, Philip; Barg, Frances K; Xie, Sharon X; Mao, Jun J

    2016-03-01

    Insomnia is a prevalent and persistent side effect of cancer, which if left unaddressed, can be unremitting and negatively influence physical and mental well-being. Acupuncture and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) are commonly used non-pharmacological treatments that are efficacious for treating insomnia in cancer patients; however, little is known about the comparative effectiveness of these options. The goal of personalized medicine is to determine which treatments are most effective for which individuals, and patient preference for treatment is a particularly important contributor to adherence and outcomes. Here we describe the design of a clinical trial that begins to determine how best to personalize the treatment of insomnia for cancer survivors. This project is a randomized controlled comparative effectiveness trial with a nested qualitative study comparing acupuncture and CBT for insomnia and co-morbid symptoms in a heterogeneous sample of 160 cancer survivors. The primary aim is to determine which treatment is associated with the largest reduction in insomnia severity. The secondary aim is to examine the demographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics that predict and/or moderate treatment effect. Patients will receive ten treatments of acupuncture or 7 sessions of CBT over eight weeks and complete validated patient-reported outcome measures of sleep and co-morbid symptoms at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and at three-months to assess durability of effect. The results of the proposed study have the potential to improve healthcare outcomes by helping cancer survivors and their caregivers make informed and evidence-based decisions, leading to patient-centered and personalized care for cancer survivors with insomnia.

  3. Cancer-Related Fatigue and Rehabilitation : A Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial Comparing Physical Training Combined With Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy With Physical Training Only and With No Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, E.; May, A.M.; Korstjens, I.; Post, W.J.; van der Schans, C.P.; van den Borne, B.; Mesters, I.; Ros, W.J.G.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Research suggests that cancer rehabilitation reduces fatigue in survivors of cancer. To date, it is unclear what type of rehabilitation is most beneficial. Objective. This randomized controlled trial compared the effect on cancer-related fatigue of physical training combined with cogniti

  4. Comparative effectiveness in esophagogastric cancer.

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    Knab, Lawrence M; Belotte, Jim; Munshi, Hidayatullah G; Bentrem, David J

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of the esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) continues to have a dismal prognosis, with the incidence of esophageal cancer increasing in the United States. Although radical resection was initially the primary treatment for this disease process, systemic chemotherapy and radiation have been shown to play a role in prolonging survival in most patient populations. This chapter explores the evidence that guides treatment for esophageal and GEJ cancer today. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy were introduced as treatment modalities for esophageal and GEJ cancers when it became evident that surgical therapy alone provided poor long-term survival rates. A variety of treatment strategies have been explored including preoperative (neoadjuvant) and postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy, with and without radiation. The evidence suggests that neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy provides better outcomes compared to surgery alone for esophageal, GEJ, and gastric cancers. Studies indicate a trend towards improved survival when neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is compared to chemotherapy alone. When patients have undergone resection with node-positive disease without receiving neoadjuvant therapy, some form of adjuvant treatment is recommended. This chapter also explores the surgical management of esophageal, GEJ, and gastric cancers including the extent of the gastric lymph node dissection. It also includes a discussion about adherence to national guidelines in terms of gastric cancer treatment and esophageal and gastric lymph node examinations.

  5. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

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    Claire M. Cannon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  6. Skin Cancer Surveillance Behaviors Among Childhood Cancer Survivors.

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    Stapleton, Jerod L; Tatum, Kristina L; Devine, Katie A; Stephens, Sue; Masterson, Margaret; Baig, Amna; Hudson, Shawna V; Coups, Elliot J

    2016-03-01

    The risk of developing skin cancer is elevated among childhood cancer survivors (CCS), particularly among those treated with radiation. This survey study examined the skin cancer surveillance behaviors of 94 CCS. Approximately 48% of CCS had ever conducted skin self-examination (SSE) and 31% had ever received a physician skin examination. Rates of physician skin examination were 2.5 times higher among CCS treated with radiation compared to those without radiation. However, rates of SSEs did not differ based on treatment history. These findings highlight the need to promote skin cancer surveillance as an important aspect of CCS survivorship care.

  7. Cancer-related fatigue and rehabilitation: A randomized controlled multicenter trial comparing physical training combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy with physical training only and with no intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Weert (Ellen); A.M. May (Anne); I. Korstjens (Irene); W.J. Post (Wendy); C.P. van der Schans (Cees); B. van den Borne (Bart); I. Mesters (Ilse); W.J.G. Ros (Wynand); J.E.H.M. Hoekstra-Weebers (Josette)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Research suggests that cancer rehabilitation reduces fatigue in survivors of cancer. To date, it is unclear what type of rehabilitation is most beneficial. Objective. This randomized controlled trial compared the effect on cancerrelated fatigue of physical training combined w

  8. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, Claire M.

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations), but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medici...

  9. Comparative genomic analysis of esophageal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caygill, Christine P J; Gatenby, Piers A C; Herceg, Zdenko; Lima, Sheila C S; Pinto, Luis F R; Watson, Anthony; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2014-09-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on comparative genomic analysis of esophageal cancers: genomic polymorphisms, the genetic and epigenetic drivers in esophageal cancers, and the collection of data in the UK Barrett's Oesophagus Registry.

  10. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Behavioral Counseling ...

  11. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Cancer Patients

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    Cem Soylu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive behavioral therapy is one of the structured but flexible psychosocial interventions that could be applied to patients with cancer. In many studies the positive effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychological morbidity and improving the quality of life of cancer patients have been shown. In this article, the contents and techniques of adapted cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with cancer and its effectiveness in commonly seen psychiatric disorders have been reviewed. The aim of this article is to contribute positively to physicians and nurses in Turkey for early detection of psychological distress and referral to the therapist that would clearly increase the quality of life of cancer patients. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 257-270

  12. Comparative proteomics analysis of human gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Li; Jian-Fang Li; Ying Qu; Xue-Hua Chen; Jian-Min Qin; Qin-Long Gu; Min Yan; Zheng-Gang Zhu; Bing-Ya Liu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To isolate and identify differentially expressed proteins between cancer and normal tissues of gastric cancer by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS).METHODS: Soluble fraction proteins of gastric cancer tissues and paired normal tissues were separated by 2-DE.The differentially expressed proteins were selected and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and database search.RESULTS: 2-DE profiles with high resolution and reproducibility were obtained.Twenty-three protein spots were excised from sliver staining gel and digested in gel by trypsin,in which fifteen protein spots were identified successfully.Among the identified proteins,there were ten over-expressed and five under-expressed proteins in stomach cancer tissues compared with normal tissues.CONCLUSION: In this study,the well-resolved,reproducible 2-DE patterns of human gastric cancer tissue and paired normal tissue were established and optimized and certain differentially-expressed proteins were identified.The combined use of 2-DE and MS provides an effective approach to screen for potential tumor markers.

  13. Stomach cancer screening and preventive behaviors in relatives of gastric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung Min Kang; Dong Wook Shin; Young Min Kwon; Sang Min Park; Min Sun Park; Jin Ho Park; Ki Young Son; Be Long Cho

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gastric cancer screening and preventive behaviors among the relatives of patients with gastric cancer [i.e., gastric cancer relatives (GCRs)]. METHODS: We examined the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 (KNHANES Ⅲ) database and compared the gastric cancer screening and preventive behaviors of GCRs (n = 261) with those of non-GCRs (n = 454) and controls without a family history of cancer (n = 2842). RESULTS: The GCRs were more likely to undergo gastric cancer screening compared with the control group (39.2% vs 32.3%, adjusted odds ratio: 1.43, CI: 1.05-1.95), although the absolute screening rate was low. Dietary patterns and smoking rates did not differ significantly between the groups, and a high proportion of GCRs reported inappropriate dietary habits (i.e., approximately 95% consumed excessive sodium, 30% were deficient in vitamin C, and 85% were deficient in dietary fiber). CONCLUSION: The gastric cancer screening and preventive behaviors of GCRs have yet to be improved. To increase awareness among GCRs, systematic family education programs should be implemented.

  14. [Comparative imaging of cancers of the tongue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradji-Melia, P; Bruneton, J N; Balu-Maestro, C; Marcy, P Y; Dubruque, F; Dassonville, O

    1993-05-01

    In a comparative study of 18 cases of tongue cancer examined with ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the authors assess the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. MRI seems to be more effective for the detection of small lesions, the examination of the mobile part of the tongue, in case of dental artifacts, for the study of regional extension and to screen recurrence. CT retains its indications for large tumors in patients who are in a poor general condition, tired, and cannot stand lengthy examinations. Ultrasonography remains the first-intention examination in all cases because of its indisputable superiority for lymph node examination.

  15. Comparing local TV news with national TV news in cancer coverage: an exploratory content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-Joo; Long, Marilee; Slater, Michael D; Song, Wen

    2014-12-01

    The authors compared local TV news with national TV news in terms of cancer coverage using a nationally representative sample of local nightly TV and national network TV (i.e., ABC, CBS, NBC, and CNN) cancer news stories that aired during 2002 and 2003. Compared with national TV news, local TV cancer stories were (a) much shorter in length, (b) less likely to report on cancer prevention (i.e., preventive behaviors and screening tests), and (c) less likely to reference national organizations (i.e., National Cancer Institute, American Cancer Society, National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Food and Drug Administration) that have made clear recommendations about ways to prevent cancer. The implications of these findings for health communication research and cancer education were discussed.

  16. Health Behaviors and Quality of Life of Cancer Survivors in Massachusetts, 2006: Data Use for Comprehensive Cancer Control

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    Temeika L. Fairley, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionNearly 12 million cancer survivors are living in the United States. Few state-based studies have examined the health status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL of this growing population. The objective of this study was to use Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data to describe cancer survivors’ demographics, health behaviors, quality of life, use of preventive care services, and influenza vaccination rates.MethodsThe demographic characteristics of cancer survivors and respondents without cancer were estimated on the basis of responses to questions in the 2006 Massachusetts BRFSS. We used multivariate logistic regression to compare health behaviors, comorbidities, quality of life, and cancer screening and influenza vaccination rates for cancer survivors compared with respondents who did not have cancer.ResultsCancer survivors and respondents who did not have cancer had similar rates of health behavioral risk factors including smoking, obesity, and physical activity. Rates of chronic disease (eg, heart disease, asthma and disability were higher among cancer survivors. Cancer survivors reported higher rates of influenza vaccination and breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer screening than did respondents who did not have cancer. Survivors’ self-reported health status and HRQOL (physical and mental health improved as length of survivorship increased.ConclusionThis state-based survey allowed Massachusetts to assess health-related issues for resident cancer survivors. These findings will help state-based public health planners develop interventions to address the long-term physical and psychosocial consequences of cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Spatial Heterogeneity in Cancer Control Planning and Cancer Screening Behavior.

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    Mobley, Lee R; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; Urato, Matthew; Subramanian, Sujha; Watson, Lisa; Anselin, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Each state is autonomous in its comprehensive cancer control (CCC) program, and considerable heterogeneity exists in the program plans. However, researchers often focus on the concept of nationally representative data and pool observations across states using regression analysis to come up with average effects when interpreting results. Due to considerable state autonomy and heterogeneity in various dimensions-including culture, politics, historical precedent, regulatory environment, and CCC efforts-it is important to examine states separately and to use geographic analysis to translate findings in place and time. We used 100 percent population data for Medicare-insured persons aged 65 or older and examined predictors of breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening from 2001-2005. Examining BC and CRC screening behavior separately in each state, we performed 100 multilevel regressions. We summarize the state-specific findings of racial disparities in screening for either cancer in a single bivariate map of the 50 states, producing a separate map for African American and for Hispanic disparities in each state relative to whites. The maps serve to spatially translate the voluminous regression findings regarding statistically significant disparities between whites and minorities in cancer screening within states. Qualitative comparisons can be made of the states' disparity environments or for a state against a national benchmark using the bivariate maps. We find that African Americans in Michigan and Hispanics in New Jersey are significantly more likely than whites to utilize CRC screening and that Hispanics in 6 states are significantly and persistently more likely to utilize mammography than whites. We stress the importance of spatial translation research for informing and evaluating CCC activities within states and over time.

  18. Characterizing Online Narratives About Colonoscopy Experiences: Comparing Colon Cancer "Screeners" Versus "Survivors".

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    McQueen, Amy; Arnold, Lauren D; Baltes, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Effective screening can reduce colorectal cancer mortality; however, screening uptake is suboptimal. Patients' stories about various health topics are widely available online and in behavioral interventions and are valued by patients. Although these narratives may be promising strategies for promoting cancer screening behavior, scant research has compared the influence of different role models. This study involving content analysis of online stories aimed to (a) describe the content of online experiential narratives about colonoscopy; (b) compare narratives from individuals who had a colonoscopy and either had colon cancer (survivors) or did not have colon cancer (screeners); and (c) generate hypotheses for future studies. The authors identified 90 narratives eligible for analysis from 15 websites. More stories were about White patients, men, and routine (vs. diagnostic) colonoscopy. A higher-than-expected number of narratives reported a family history of colorectal cancer or polyps (20%) and a colorectal cancer diagnosis (47%). Colorectal cancer survivor (vs. screener) stories were longer, mentioned symptoms and diagnostic reasons for getting a colonoscopy more often, and described the colonoscopy procedure or referred to it as easy or painless less often. Future studies should examine the effects of the role model's personal characteristics and the colonoscopy test result on reader's perceptions and intentions to have a colorectal cancer screening.

  19. Evolution of cancer suppression as revealed by mammalian comparative genomics.

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    Tollis, Marc; Schiffman, Joshua D; Boddy, Amy M

    2017-02-02

    Cancer suppression is an important feature in the evolution of large and long-lived animals. While some tumor suppression pathways are conserved among all multicellular organisms, others mechanisms of cancer resistance are uniquely lineage specific. Comparative genomics has become a powerful tool to discover these unique and shared molecular adaptations in respect to cancer suppression. These findings may one day be translated to human patients through evolutionary medicine. Here, we will review theory and methods of comparative cancer genomics and highlight major findings of cancer suppression across mammals. Our current knowledge of cancer genomics suggests that more efficient DNA repair and higher sensitivity to DNA damage may be the key to tumor suppression in large or long-lived mammals.

  20. Contributions of behavioral primatology to veterinary science and comparative medicine.

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    Mitchell, G; Clarke, A S

    1984-01-01

    Behavioral primatology is a subdiscipline of the research area referred to as primatology. Like primatology, behavioral primatology is an eclectic field of study made up of researchers from diverse basic disciplines having very different historical roots and employing extremely different methodologies biased by emphases and assumptions dictated by their histories. Psychologists, zoologists, anthropologists, and psychiatrists make up the majority of those currently active in behavioral primatology, but others, including those in veterinary science, are active in research in the area. Behavioral data can be useful to veterinary scientists and to those in comparative medicine and are interesting in their own right. Veterinarians and medical scientists may specialize in behavioral disorders. In addition, those not directly interested in behavior itself may still make use of behavioral indices of potential physiologic and morphologic abnormality. Often an animal may be inadvertently stressed by social and nonsocial environmental factors, and such stress effects may be first and best recognized by behavioral means. A recognition by those not in the behavioral sciences of the basic feral behavior of primates can go a long way toward prevention or alleviation of both behavioral and physical stress of primates in captivity. Studies of free-ranging but captive troops are sources of information almost as good as, and sometimes even better than, field studies. In addition, there is a growing realization that "natural experiments" on primates in zoos can be of value, especially since many species held in zoologic parks are those least well known in more traditional captive research settings. It must be recognized that the findings from research done on captive primates living in large field cages are not directly comparable to those derived from more directly invasive but more experimental laboratory settings. A comparative perspective on captive environments, as well as on

  1. Factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Nonyelum; Ghebre, Rahel G; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Zhang, Yan; Warfa Osman, S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2014-06-01

    Immigrant populations in the United States (US) have lower cancer screening rates compared to none immigrant populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the rates of cancer screening and examine factors associated with cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota. A cross sectional survey of a community based sample was conducted among African immigrants in the Twin Cities. Cancer screening outcome measures were mammography and Papanicolau smear test. The revised theoretical model of health care access and utilization and the behavioral model for vulnerable populations were utilized to assess factors associated with cancer screening. Only 61 and 52% of the age eligible women in the sample had ever been screened for breast and cervical cancer respectively. Among these women, duration of residence in the US and ethnicity were significant determinants associated with non-screening. Programs to enhance screening rates among this population must begin to address barriers identified by the community.

  2. Comparative proteome analysis of human epithelial ovarian cancer

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    Gagné Jean-Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial ovarian cancer is a devastating disease associated with low survival prognosis mainly because of the lack of early detection markers and the asymptomatic nature of the cancer until late stage. Using two complementary proteomics approaches, a differential protein expression profile was carried out between low and highly transformed epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines which realistically mimic the phenotypic changes observed during evolution of a tumour metastasis. This investigation was aimed at a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation, proliferation and neoplastic progression of ovarian cancer. Results The quantitative profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer model cell lines TOV-81D and TOV-112D generated using iTRAQ analysis and two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry revealed some proteins with altered expression levels. Several of these proteins have been the object of interest in cancer research but others were unrecognized as differentially expressed in a context of ovarian cancer. Among these, series of proteins involved in transcriptional activity, cellular metabolism, cell adhesion or motility and cytoskeleton organization were identified, suggesting their possible role in the emergence of oncogenic pathways leading to aggressive cellular behavior. Conclusion The differential protein expression profile generated by the two proteomics approaches combined to complementary characterizations studies will open the way to more exhaustive and systematic representation of the disease and will provide valuable information that may be helpful to uncover the molecular mechanisms related to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  3. Cancers of unknown primary origin (CUP) are characterized by chromosomal instability (CIN) compared to metastasis of know origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikeså, Jonas; Møller, Anne Kirstine H; Kaczkowski, Bogumil;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancers of unknown primary (CUPs) constitute ~5% of all cancers. The tumors have an aggressive biological and clinical behavior. The aim of the present study has been to uncover whether CUPs exhibit distinct molecular features compared to metastases of known origin. METHODS: Employing...

  4. Perceived Neighborhood Quality and Cancer Screening Behavior: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Malecki, Kristen M; Hoormann, Kelly A; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-02-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in colorectal and breast cancer screening persist, partially accounting for disparities in cancer outcomes. Some neighborhood characteristics--particularly area level socioeconomic factors--have been linked to cancer screening behavior, but few studies have examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and screening behavior, which may provide more insight into the ways in which neighborhood environments shape cancer related behaviors. This study examines the relationship between several aspects of the perceived neighborhood environment and breast and colorectal cancer screening behavior among a population-based sample of Wisconsin residents. A sub-goal was to compare the relevance of different perceived neighborhood factors for different screening tests. This is a cross-sectional study of 2008-2012 data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin, a population-based annual survey of Wisconsin residents. An average risk sample of Black, Hispanic and White women age 50 and older (n = 1265) were selected. Survey regression analyses examined predictors of screening, as well as adherence to screening guidelines. Models controlled for individual socio-demographic information and insurance status. Perceptions of social and physical disorder, including fear of crime and visible garbage, were associated with screening rates. Findings emphasize the particular importance of these factors for colorectal cancer screening, indicating the necessity of improving screening rates in areas characterized by social disorganization, crime, and physical disorder. Additional work should be done to further investigate the pathways that explain the linkage between neighborhood conditions, perceived neighborhood risks and cancer screening behavior.

  5. Cancer risk and preventive behavior: persuasion as an intervention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonani, Marcela; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of interventions for health promotion, protection, and early diagnosis may include the process of persuasion employed. This study aims to evaluate the risk level of developing cancer, considering the pertinent risk factors, and the presence of persuasion and characteristics in communication regarding cancer prevention and early detection. It is an observational study, conducted among 110 inhabitants of a neighborhood in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was confirmed that there are high risks for colon/rectum, cervical, and endometrial cancer; and moderate risks for the above as well as lung and breast cancer. In terms of persuasion, it was observed that cancer information was spread but not sustained for long periods. Moreover, there was no reinforcement. In view of cancer risk and the identified preventive behaviors, persuasion is considered a useful strategy to reduce these risks, as well as to encourage and sustain preventive behaviors, since it indicates routes to be followed.

  6. Comparative epidemiology of gastric cancer between Japan and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingsong Lin; Junko Ueda; Shogo Kikuchi; Yukari Totsuka; Wen-Qiang Wei; You-Lin Qiao; Manami Inoue

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the similarities and differences in gastric cancer epidemiology between Japan and China. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of the PubMed database was performed. The relevant literature published in China was also been cited. Data on incidence and mortality rates in 2008 were obtained from the Cancer Mondial database, published by International Agency for Research on Cancer at http://www-dep.iarc.fr/.RESULTS: Gastric cancer remains a significant public health burden in both Japan and China. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization is high in the adult populations of both countries. Accumulating evidence from intervention studies in both countries has shown the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication in reducing gastric cancer incidence. There are differences, however, in many aspects of gastric cancer, including patterns of incidence and mortality, trends in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, H. pylori strains, the magnitude of risk of gastric cancer related to H. pylori infection, and associations with dietary habits. Compared with China, Japan has seen a more rapid decline in H. pylori infection among adolescents. While Japanese cohort studies have dominated the literature concerning the associations between gastric cancer and dietary habits, numerous case-control studies in China suggest a positive association between a high intake of preserved fish and vegetables and gastric cancer risk. There is a need for a multidisciplinary research approach to understand the interactions between various strains of H. pylori, host factors, and other lifestyle and environmental factors in gastric carcinogenesis in both countries.CONCLUSION: The shared high incidence of gastric cancer and high prevalence of H. pylori, as well as differences in many aspects of gastric cancer, provide an excellent opportunity to establish Sino-Japanese collaborations.

  7. Accounting for Heterogeneity in Hedging Behavior: Comparing & Evaluating Grouping Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.; Irwin, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Heterogeneity, i.e., the notion that individuals respond differently to economic stimuli, can have profound consequences for the interpretation of behavior and the formulation of agricultural policy. This paper compares and evaluates three grouping techniques that can be used to account for

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CAREGIVER BURDEN IN CANCER CERVIX AND CANCER BREAST ILLNESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasagopalan, Nappinnai, Solayappan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caregivers of individuals suffering from cancer illnesses are at risk of having subjected to mental health consequences. There is a paucity of data comparing the caregiver burden of cancer breast and cancer cervix patients. Aim: The aim of the present study is to compare the caregiver burden of cancer breast and cancer cervix patients. To study the association of caregiver burden with demographic factors like age, gender, duration of caregiving etc. Materials & Methods: This Cross sectional study is performed on the key relatives of patients of 31 cancer cervix and 31 cancer breast patients. Burden assessment schedule was used. Results: Our findings suggest burden is more in male caregivers of breast cancer patients. It is not so in caregivers of cancer cervix patients. Whenever the caregiver is closely related to the patients the burden is high in both groups. Whenever the burden scores were high the depression scores were also high. Treatment modalities as a whole correlates with burden scores in caregivers of breast cancer patients but not in cancer cervix patients. Conclusion: Caregivers with breast and cervical cancer patients are vulnerable if the caregiver is male, from low socioeconomical background, more closely related and when the patients received poor treatment modalities.

  9. Personality assessment in the Great Apes: comparing ecologically valid behavior measures, behavior ratings, and adjective ratings

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Three methods of personality assessment (behavior measures, behavior ratings, adjective ratings) were compared in 20 zoo-housed Great Apes: bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). To test a new bottom-up approach, the studied trait constructs were systematically generated from the species’ behavioral repertoires. The assessments were reliable, temporally stable, and showed substantial cross-method...

  10. [Advances in the experimental analysis of behavior: issues of choice behavior, comparative cognition, and human language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, T; Yamamoto, J; Jitsumori, M

    1994-12-01

    As the opportunity to contact with related areas has increased, the study of of the experimental analysis of behavior has experienced revolutionary changes. Some of the most active and important areas-studies of choice, comparative cognition, and human language--are reviewed to acquaint readers. Studies of CHOICE have linked to the molar theories of behavioral economics and behavioral ecology, which promoted research of choice by animals under uncertainty conditions. Further approach has been made to integrate the molar and molecular analyses on the basis of the ideas of behavior dynamics. COMPARATIVE COGNITION is a part of a larger field including cognitive science, behavioral neuroscience, and biological science. Recent developments, aided with a comparative perspective, made significant contributions to our understanding of the phylogeny and ontogeny of cognition. Advances in analysis of human behavior provided tools to study behavioral aspects of semantics, syntax, and pragmatics of HUMAN LANGUAGE. Using the paradigm of stimulus equivalence, the emergence of stimulus relations, stimulus-stimulus networks, hierarchical structure of verbal behavior, and other language-related behaviors have been investigated.

  11. Korean women: breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryujin Lisa T

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Clustered within the nomenclature of Asian American are numerous subgroups, each with their own ethnic heritage, cultural, and linguistic characteristics. An understanding of the prevailing health knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors of these subgroups is essential for creating population-specific health promotion programs. Methods Korean American women (123 completed baseline surveys of breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors as part of an Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program evaluation. Follow-up telephone surveys, initiated two weeks later, were completed by 93 women. Results Low adherence to the American Cancer Society's breast cancer screening guidelines and insufficient breast cancer knowledge were reported. Participants' receptiveness to the grocery store-based breast cancer education program underscores the importance of finding ways to reach Korean women with breast cancer early detection information and repeated cues for screening. The data also suggest that the Asian grocery store-based cancer education program being tested may have been effective in motivating a proportion of the women to schedule a breast cancer screening between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Conclusion The program offers a viable strategy to reach Korean women that addresses the language, cultural, transportation, and time barriers they face in accessing breast cancer early detection information.

  12. Use of comparative data for integrated cancer services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Mark

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative data are an important resource for management of integrated care. In 2001, the English Department of Health created 34 cancer networks, broadly serving populations of half to three million people, to coordinate cancer services across providers. We have investigated how national and regional routine data are used by the cancer network management teams. Methods Telephone interviews using a standardised semi-structured questionnaire were conducted with 68 participants in 29 cancer network teams. Replies were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Results While most network teams had a formal information strategy, data were used ad hoc more than regularly, and were not thought to be as influential in network decision making as other sources of information. Data collection was more prominent in information strategies than data use. Perceptions of data usefulness were mixed and there were worries over data quality, relevance, and potential misuse. Participants were receptive to the idea of a new limited dataset collating comparative data from currently available routine data sources. Few network structural factors were associated with data use, perceptions of current data, or receptivity to a new dataset. Conclusion Comparative data are underused for managing integrated cancer services in England. Managers would welcome more comparative data, but also desired data to be relevant, quality assured and contextualised, and for the teams to be better resourced for data use.

  13. Skin Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Collegiate Athletes

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    Courtney Hobbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor athletes represent an important group at risk for skin cancer because they are routinely exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess current skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among collegiate athletes. A modified version of the Melanoma Risk Behavior Survey was completed by 343 athletes attending a Southern University in the USA, generating an 87% response rate. Survey results demonstrated that the majority of the athletes do not limit their sun exposure and reported low levels of sun protective behaviors. In addition, athletes lacked knowledge about skin cancer and sun protection. Eighty-three percent of the athletes stated that tanning beds improve one’s overall health. Race was significantly associated with skin cancer knowledge, whereas, gender was found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards skin cancer. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior, but not between attitude and behavior. This study highlights the need to educate athletes about the hazards of tanning to minimize UV exposure and promote sun protection habits. Moreover, athletes should be educated on the dangers of indoor tanning facilities and encouraged to avoid these facilities.

  14. Voice in early glottic cancer compared to benign voice pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gogh, C. D. L.; Mahieu, H. F.; Kuik, D. J.; Rinkel, R. N. P. M.; Langendijk, J. A.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare (Dutch) Voice Handicap Index (VHIvumc) scores from a selected group of patients with voice problems after treatment for early glottic cancer with patients with benign voice disorders and subjects from the normal population. The study included a group of 35 pat

  15. Sun-related behaviors among individuals previously diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Vinayak K; Ford, M Allison; Jacks, Stephanie K; Thielen, Scott P; Johnson, Andrea K; Brodell, Robert T; Bass, Martha A

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the general population, the risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer is considerably higher among individuals with a previous history of this condition. Protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the primary evidence-based approach for minimizing this risk. This review was aimed to assess the prevalence of sun-safe behaviors in non-melanoma skin cancer survivors. Searches were conducted in six electronic databases including PubMed, Psyclnfo, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC and Science Direct. A narrative approach was adopted to synthesize the data. The findings demonstrated that respondents do not protect themselves optimally from UV radiation exposure. Low levels of perceived skin cancer risk, a lack of knowledge about effective sun protection strategies and the inconvenience associated with sun-safe behaviors appear to explain this finding. A note of caution is required here, as there is a potential for publication bias. Moreover, the results of this study cannot be generalized to all non-melanoma skin cancer patients. Skin cancer survivors must be educated about their increased risk of future skin cancers. Behavioral interventions must be developed to increase the adoption of skin protective behaviors in this high-risk population group.

  16. Sun-related behaviors among individuals previously diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak K Nahar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the general population, the risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer is considerably higher among individuals with a previous history of this condition. Protection from ultraviolet (UV radiation is the primary evidence-based approach for minimizing this risk. This review was aimed to assess the prevalence of sun-safe behaviors in non-melanoma skin cancer survivors. Searches were conducted in six electronic databases including PubMed, Psyclnfo, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC and Science Direct. A narrative approach was adopted to synthesize the data. The findings demonstrated that respondents do not protect themselves optimally from UV radiation exposure. Low levels of perceived skin cancer risk, a lack of knowledge about effective sun protection strategies and the inconvenience associated with sun-safe behaviors appear to explain this finding. A note of caution is required here, as there is a potential for publication bias. Moreover, the results of this study cannot be generalized to all non-melanoma skin cancer patients. Skin cancer survivors must be educated about their increased risk of future skin cancers. Behavioral interventions must be developed to increase the adoption of skin protective behaviors in this high-risk population group.

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TYPE C BEHAVIOR AND BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁNGELA MARÍA TORRES MARIÑO

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate deeply the relationship between Type C behavior pattern andbreast cancer through an analytical observation design of cases and controls. Three groups of variables were established:demographical, medical and risk factors, including in the last one the Type C behavior, for three groups: a women withbreast cancer, b women with cervix cancer, and c healthy women. The changing answer for ‘having breast cancer’ isdetermined by the family history of sickness, having hormone replace therapy, the history of the ovarian and endometrialcancer, and the age of the participants. One concludes that the behavior pattern, so and as is raised until the moment,is related more to the way the disease is faced, than a type of premorbid personality. New factors are proposed in baseof the Five Factor Model, the Temperament and Character set out.

  18. One Health and cancer: A comparative study of human and canine cancers in Nairobi

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    Nyariaro Kelvin Momanyi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Recent trends in comparative animal and human research inform us that collaborative research plays a key role in deciphering and solving cancer challenges. Globally, cancer is a devastating diagnosis with an increasing burden in both humans and dogs and ranks as the number three killer among humans in Kenya. This study aimed to provide comparative information on cancers affecting humans and dogs in Nairobi, Kenya. Materials and Methods: Dog data collection was by cancer case finding from five veterinary clinics and two diagnostic laboratories, whereas the human dataset was from the Nairobi Cancer Registry covering the period 2002-2012. The analysis was achieved using IBM SPSS Statistics® v.20 (Dog data and CanReg5 (human data. The human population was estimated from the Kenya National Census, whereas the dog population was estimated from the human using a human:dog ratio of 4.1:1. Results: A total of 15,558 human and 367 dog cancer cases were identified. In humans, females had higher cancer cases 8993 (an age-standardized rate of 179.3 per 100,000 compared to 6565 in males (122.1 per 100,000. This order was reversed in dogs where males had higher cases 198 (14.9 per 100,000 compared to 169 (17.5 per 100,000 in females. The incident cancer cases increased over the 11-year study period in both species. Common cancers affecting both humans and dogs were: Prostate (30.4, 0.8, the respiratory tract (8.3, 1.3, lymphoma (5.6, 1.4, and liver and biliary tract (6.3, 0.5, whereas, in females, they were: Breast (44.5, 3.6, lip, oral cavity, and pharynx (8.8, 0.6, liver and biliary tract (6.5, 1.2, and lymphoma (6.0, 0.6, respectively, per 100,000. Conclusion: The commonality of some of the cancers in both humans and dogs fortifies that it may be possible to use dogs as models and sentinels in studying human cancers in Kenya and Africa. We further infer that developing joint animalhuman cancer registries and integrated cancer surveillance systems may

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Worry, Uncertainty, and Insomnia for Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-04

    Anxiety Disorder; Worry; Uncertainty; Sleep Disorders; Insomnia; Fatigue; Pain; Depression; Cognitive-behavioral Therapy; Psychological Intervention; Esophageal Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Leukemia; Lung Cancer; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Neoplasm; Stage III or IV Cervical or Uterine Cancer; Stage IIIB, IIIC, or IV Breast Cancer; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Relapsed Lymphoma; Stage III or IV Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC or IV Melanoma

  20. Sleeping well with cancer: a systematic review of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Sheila N; Johnson, Jillian A; Savard, Josee; Gehrman, Philip; Perlis, Michael; Carlson, Linda; Campbell, Tavis

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with cancer are disproportionately affected by sleep disturbance and insomnia relative to the general population. These problems can be a consequence of the psychological, behavioral, and physical effects of a cancer diagnosis and treatment. Insomnia often persists for years and, when combined with already high levels of cancer-related distress, may place cancer survivors at a higher risk of future physical and mental health problems and poorer quality of life. The recommended first-line treatment for insomnia is cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), a non-pharmacological treatment that incorporates cognitive and behavior-change techniques and targets dysfunctional attitudes, beliefs, and habits involving sleep. This article presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the efficacy of CBT-I on sleep and psychological outcomes in cancer patients and survivors. The search revealed 12 studies (four uncontrolled, eight controlled) that evaluated the effects of CBT-I in cancer patients or survivors. Results suggest that CBT-I is associated with statistically and clinically significant improvements in subjective sleep outcomes in patients with cancer. CBT-I may also improve mood, fatigue, and overall quality of life, and can be successfully delivered through a variety of treatment modalities, making it possible to reach a broader range of patients who may not have access to more traditional programs. Future research in this area should focus on the translation of evidence into clinical practice in order to increase awareness and access to effective insomnia treatment in cancer care.

  1. Impact comparative study of phone carcasses behavior by FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Cărăuşu; Plăvănescu, Simona; Dumitru, Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    A constant concern of scientific research is based on plastics replace with biodegradable materials that reduce the adverse impact of waste on the environment. A biodegradable material that arouses interest lately is Arboform which is made of lignin, a component of wood and woody plants. Replacing plastic with Arboform in carrying components of products requires technical and economic studies on the implications of such replacement. Numerical simulation methods are a fast and economical way of analyzing the behavior of a product in various mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic and so on. The paper presents comparative results of numerical simulation using the software package SolidWorks impact behavior through the “Drop Test” of half shells made of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and of the Arboform LV3 Nature. Simulation watched the half-carcass behavior in three cases of accidental impact, “head”, “corner” and the “back side”. We analyzed the size and location of the maximum voltage and maximum deformation resulting from impact. Simulations have shown for all three cases a maximum voltage increase when using Arboform to use PEDH 93% for impact “forward” and “corner” and only 48.77% “back side” impact. If the maximum displacement, it increasing from carcasses of Arboform 4% for impact “head” and 6% for impact “corner”, but fell by 2.7% for the “back side” impact. The significant increase of stress can be attributed to the higher density of Arboform to PEDH, which led to different weights of the two half-carcasses.

  2. Molecular Markers for Breast Cancer: Prediction on Tumor Behavior

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    Bruna Karina Banin Hirata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers with greater than 1,300,000 cases and 450,000 deaths each year worldwide. The development of breast cancer involves a progression through intermediate stages until the invasive carcinoma and finally into metastatic disease. Given the variability in clinical progression, the identification of markers that could predict the tumor behavior is particularly important in breast cancer. The determination of tumor markers is a useful tool for clinical management in cancer patients, assisting in diagnostic, staging, evaluation of therapeutic response, detection of recurrence and metastasis, and development of new treatment modalities. In this context, this review aims to discuss the main tumor markers in breast carcinogenesis. The most well-established breast molecular markers with prognostic and/or therapeutic value like hormone receptors, HER-2 oncogene, Ki-67, and p53 proteins, and the genes for hereditary breast cancer will be presented. Furthermore, this review shows the new molecular targets in breast cancer: CXCR4, caveolin, miRNA, and FOXP3, as promising candidates for future development of effective and targeted therapies, also with lower toxicity.

  3. Psychological and behavioral approaches to cancer pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjala, Karen L; Jensen, Mark P; Mendoza, M Elena; Yi, Jean C; Fisher, Hannah M; Keefe, Francis J

    2014-06-01

    This review examines evidence for psychological factors that affect pain across the cancer continuum from diagnosis through treatment and long-term survivorship or end of life. Evidence is convincing that emotional distress, depression, anxiety, uncertainty, and hopelessness interact with pain. Unrelieved pain can increase a desire for hastened death. Patients with cancer use many strategies to manage pain, with catastrophizing associated with increased pain and self-efficacy associated with lower pain reports. A variety of psychological and cognitive behavioral treatments can reduce pain severity and interference with function, as indicated in multiple meta-analyses and high-quality randomized controlled trials. Effective methods include education (with coping skills training), hypnosis, cognitive behavioral approaches, and relaxation with imagery. Exercise has been tested extensively in patients with cancer and long-term survivors, but few exercise studies have evaluated pain outcomes. In survivors post-treatment, yoga and hypnosis as well as exercise show promise for controlling pain. Although some of these treatments effectively reduce pain for patients with advanced disease, few have been tested in patients at the end of life. Given the clear indicators that psychological factors affect cancer pain and that psychological and behavioral treatments are effective in reducing varying types of pain for patients with active disease, these methods need further testing in cancer survivors post-treatment and in patients with end-stage disease. Multidisciplinary teams are essential in oncology settings to integrate analgesic care and expertise in psychological and behavioral interventions in standard care for symptom management, including pain.

  4. Health Behaviors of Korean Gastric Cancer Survivors with Hypertension: A Propensity Analysis of KNHANES III-V (2005-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Ra Jo

    Full Text Available This study provides a comparison of health behaviors between gastric cancer survivors with hypertension and non-cancer subjects in Korea.Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES for the period of 2005-2012 were used in this study. A propensity score matching method was used to compare health behaviors. Before the matching of propensity scores, the number of participants was 11034 (102 gastric cancer survivors and 10932 non-cancer participants. A 1:5 propensity score matching procedure yielded a total of 480 participants (80 gastric cancer survivors and 400 non-cancer participants for the final analysis. Drinking, smoking, physical activity, antihypertensive medication adherence, self-reported diet control, and sodium intake accordance in the two groups were compared. A complex samples logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess any differences between the two groups.The group of hypertensive gastric cancer survivors had lower alcohol consumption (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.14-0.66; p-value = 0.003. They were more likely to be on dietary control than the control group (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.60-6.10; p-value = 0.001. However, there was no significant (p > 0.05 difference in sodium intake accordance or other health behaviors (including medication adherence, smoking, and physical activity between the two groups.Our results revealed that gastric cancer survivors with hypertension were more likely to be on dietary control with lower alcohol consumption than the control group. However, there was no significant difference in sodium intake accordance or other health behaviors between the two groups. Therefore, primary care physicians should inform cancer survivors about the appropriate health behaviors to reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease and improve their overall survival rate, even though they say they have been doing health behaviors.

  5. Correlations Between Polymorphisms of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 Genes, as Well as Drinking Behavior and Pancreatic Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-xian Zhang; Yong-mei Qin; Li-ke Guo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between drinking behavior combined with polymorphisms of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genes and pancreatic cancer. Methods The genetic polymorphisms of EC-SOD and ALDH2 were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism in the peripheral blood leukocytes obtained from 680 pancreatic cancer cases and 680 non-cancer controls. Subsequently the frequency of genotype was compared between the pancreatic cancer patients and the healthy controls.The relationship of drinking with pancreatic cancer was analyzed. Results The frequencies of EC-SOD (C/G) and ALDH2 variant genotypes were 37.35% and 68.82%respectively in the pancreatic cancer cases, and were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls (21.03% and 44.56%, all P Conclusion EC-SOD (C/G), ALDH2 variant genotypes and drinking might be the risk factors of pancreatic cancer.

  6. Comparability of the Social Behavior Inventory in English and Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    aan het Rot, Marije; Hogenelst, Koen; Moskowitz, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    The Social Behavior Inventory (SBI) assesses social behaviors along the 2 orthogonal axes defining the interpersonal circumplex; that is, in terms of quarrelsomeness-agreeableness and dominance-submissiveness. To contribute to evidence evaluating the cross-cultural construct validity of the SBI, we

  7. A Comparison of Behavioral Inhibition/ Activation System, Type D and Optimism in the Breast Cancer Patients and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Alipoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Nowadays, the role and importance of psychosocial factors on physical health, as well as the influence of personality characteristics in having psychosomatic diseases such as cancer are of interest to many researchers. In spite of increase in breast cancer in Iran, very few studies have been carried out on risk factors of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative Behavioral inhibition / Activation System, type D and optimism in the breast cancer patients and healthy individuals. Methods: In the present casual-comparative study, 190 people (95 Patients and 95 Normal Subjects were selected in Rasht, Iran. Moreover, the groups were matched for demographic characteristics (age, gender and education. All individuals diagnosed with Breast Cancer and Normal Subjects received a Gary-Wilson Personality Questionnaire, Life Orientation Test and Type D Personality Scale. Collected data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance and regression. Results: The findings revealed that there were significant differences between cancer and normal groups in behavioral inhibition/activation system, type D Personality and optimism. In this regard, the Breast Cancer group had higher scores subscales of negative affect, social inhibition, passive avoidance, extinction and fight-flight than normal group. In addition, subscales of approach, active avoidance and optimism in the normal group were more than the Breast Cancer group. Conclusion: The present study supported the role of psychological variables in breast cancer patients which is essential for improving patients’ health and quality of life.

  8. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...

  9. Brachytherapy for prostate cancer: Comparative characteristics of procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kanaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of interstitial radiation sources is the «youngest» of the radical method of treatment of patients with prostate cancer (PC. The high level of efficiency comparable to prostatectomy at a significantly lower rate of complications causes rapid growth of clinical use of brachytherapy (BT. Depending on the radiation source and the mode of administration into the prostate gland are two types BT – high-dose rate (temporary (HDR-BT and low-dose rate (permanent (LDR-BT brachytherapy. At the heart of these two methods are based on a single principle of direct effect of the quantum gamma radiation on the area of interest. However, the differences between the characteristics of isotopes used and technical aspects of the techniques cause the difference in performance and complication rates for expression HDR-BT and LDR-BT.

  10. Adjustment to cancer in the 8 years following diagnosis : A longitudinal study comparing cancer survivors with healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, Maya; Ranchor, A.V; Sanderman, R.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the long-term impact of a diagnosis of cancer on physical and psychological functioning, by comparing 8-year cancer survivors (n = 206) to a randomly selected sample of similar-aged references without cancer (n = 120) in the Netherlands. Comparisons were made at thre

  11. The association between beliefs about vitamin D and skin cancer risk-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Dawn M; Berkowitz, Zahava; Guy, Gery P; Lunsford, Natasha Buchanan; Coups, Elliot J

    2017-03-17

    Major health organizations recommend obtaining most of one's vitamin D through dietary sources rather than from sun exposure, given the link between sun exposure and increased skin cancer risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between beliefs about vitamin D and skin cancer risk-related behaviors, a topic on which research is limited. We analyzed cross-sectional online survey data collected in the summer of 2015 from 4127U.S. adults aged 18years and older. Overall, 19.7% of adults believed that sun protection would put them at risk of not getting enough vitamin D. However, less than half (43.1%) thought they could get enough vitamin D from dietary sources. Individuals with this belief were more likely to protect their skin when spending time outdoors (71.3%) compared with those who were neutral or disagreed (56.5%; Pvitamin D. Compared to those who disagreed or were neutral, those who thought it was effective were more likely to be outdoor tanners (45.1% vs. 28.5%; Pvitamin D were associated with skin cancer risk-related behaviors. Including information about vitamin D in skin cancer prevention messages may be beneficial.

  12. Individual cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled crossover pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Fiorentino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lavinia Fiorentino1, John R McQuaid2, Lianqi Liu3, Loki Natarajan4, Feng He4, Monique Cornejo3, Susan Lawton3, Barbara A Parker6, Georgia R Sadler5, Sonia Ancoli-Israel31Cousins Center for Psychoneuroimmunology, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, 4Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, 5Department of Surgery, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA; 6Moores UCSD Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA, USAPurpose: Estimates of insomnia in breast cancer patients are high, with reports of poor sleep lasting years after completion of cancer treatment. This randomized controlled crossover pilot study looked at the effects of individual cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (IND-CBT-I on sleep in breast cancer survivors.Patients and methods: Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (six weekly IND-CBT-I sessions followed by six weeks of follow up or a delayed treatment control group (no treatment for six weeks followed by six weekly IND-CBT-I sessions. Of these, 14 participants completed the pilot study (six in the treatment group and eight in the delayed treatment control group.Results: Self-rated insomnia was significantly improved in the treatment group compared to the waiting period in the delayed treatment control group. The pooled pre–post-IND-CBT-I analyses revealed improvements in self-rated insomnia, sleep quality, and objective measures of sleep.Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that IND-CBT-I is appropriate for improving sleep in breast cancer survivors. Individual therapy in a clinic or private practice may be a more practical option for this population as it is more easily accessed and readily available in an outpatient setting.Keywords: insomnia, breast cancer, cognitive behavioral therapy

  13. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi; Maryam Zare; Mehrdad Mostaghaci; Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad; Elham Naghshineh

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive corre...

  14. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Susan Crump

    2011-08-01

    Sleep-wake disturbances, particularly insomnia, are among the most prevalent and distressing symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. As a result of extensive interdisciplinary research conducted since 2000, cognitive-behavioral therapy now is considered the standard of care for the treatment of insomnia in the general population and also has been upgraded to "likely to be effective" in the Oncology Nursing Society Putting Evidence Into Practice weight of evidence category. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a multicomponent psychological and behavioral treatment designed to eliminate the perpetuating factors of insomnia. The most frequently used strategies are stimulus control, sleep restriction and relaxation therapies, paradoxical intention, sleep hygiene, and cognitive restructuring. Although this insomnia treatment recommendation has been well publicized, the nursing literature has not effectively translated the theories and principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy into practical guidelines or considerations for use by oncology staff nurses and advanced practitioners. This article attempts to demystify cognitive-behavioral therapy and provide nurses at different levels of practice a foundation from which to evaluate and potentially deliver this promising insomnia intervention.

  15. BRCA1 founder mutations compared to ovarian cancer in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanevich, Alena; Oszurek, Oleg; Lubiński, Jan; Cybulski, Cezary; Dębniak, Tadeusz; Narod, Steven A; Gronwald, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    In Belarus and other Slavic countries, founder mutations in the BRCA1 gene are responsible for a significant proportion of breast cancer cases, but the data on contribution of these mutations to ovarian cancers are limited. To estimate the proportion of ovarian cancers in Belarus, which are dependent on BRCA1 Slavic founder mutations, we sought the presence of three most frequent mutations (BRCA1: 5382insC, C61G and, 4153delA) in 158 consecutive unselected cases of ovarian cancer. One of the three founder mutations was present in 25 of 158 unselected cases of ovarian cancer (15.8 %). We recommend that all cases of ovarian cancer in Belarus be offered genetic testing for these founder mutations. Furthermore, genetic testing of the Belarusian population will provide the opportunity to prevent a significant proportion of ovarian cancer.

  16. Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing Critical Features from a Design Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Newby, Timothy J.

    1993-01-01

    Explains three learning theories (i.e., behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism) and examines how each can be used for planning and conducting instructional design activities. Historical foundations are discussed, and comparisons are made concerning how learning occurs, the role of memory, how transfer occurs, and types of learning. (Contains…

  17. Sleeping well with cancer: a systematic review of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheila N Garland,1 Jillian A Johnson,2 Josee Savard,3 Philip Gehrman,4 Michael Perlis,4 Linda Carlson,5 Tavis Campbell2 1Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 3School of Psychology, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada; 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Individuals with cancer are disproportionately affected by sleep disturbance and insomnia relative to the general population. These problems can be a consequence of the psychological, behavioral, and physical effects of a cancer diagnosis and treatment. Insomnia often persists for years and, when combined with already high levels of cancer-related distress, may place cancer survivors at a higher risk of future physical and mental health problems and poorer quality of life. The recommended first-line treatment for insomnia is cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I, a non-pharmacological treatment that incorporates cognitive and behavior-change techniques and targets dysfunctional attitudes, beliefs, and habits involving sleep. This article presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the efficacy of CBT-I on sleep and psychological outcomes in cancer patients and survivors. The search revealed 12 studies (four uncontrolled, eight controlled that evaluated the effects of CBT-I in cancer patients or survivors. Results suggest that CBT-I is associated with statistically and clinically significant improvements in subjective sleep outcomes in patients with cancer. CBT-I may also improve mood, fatigue, and overall quality of life, and can be successfully delivered through a variety of treatment modalities, making it possible to reach a broader range of patients who may not have access to more traditional programs. Future

  18. Matched-pair analysis of patients with female and male breast cancer: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn Walther C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer (MBC is a rare disease accounting for approximately 1% of all breast carcinomas. Presently treatment recommendations are derived from the standards for female breast cancer. However, those approaches might be inadequate because of distinct gender specific differences in tumor biology of breast cancer. This study was planned in order to contrast potential differences between female and male breast cancer in both tumor biological behavior and clinical management. Methods MBC diagnosed between 1995-2007 (region Chemnitz/Zwickau, Saxony, Germany was retrospectively analyzed. Tumor characteristics, treatment and follow-up of the patients were documented. In order to highlight potential differences each MBC was matched with a female counterpart (FBC that showed accordance in at least eight tumor characteristics (year of diagnosis, age, tumor stage, nodal status, grade, estrogen- and progesterone receptors, HER2 status. Results 108 male/female matched-pairs were available for survival analyses. In our study men and women with breast cancer had similar disease-free (DFS and overall (OS survival. The 5-years DFS was 53.4% (95% CI, range 54.1-66.3 in men respectively 62.6% (95% CI, 63.5-75.3 in women (p > 0.05. The 5-years OS was 71.4% (95% CI, 62.1-72.7% and 70.3% (95% CI, 32.6-49.6 in women (p > 0.05. In males DFS analyses revealed progesterone receptor expression as the only prognostic relevant factor (p = 0.006. In multivariate analyses for OS both advanced tumor size (p = 0.01 and a lack of progesterone receptor expression were correlated (p = 0.01 with poor patients outcome in MBC. Conclusion Our comparative study revealed no survival differences between male and female breast cancer patients and gives evidence that gender is no predictor for survival in breast cancer. This was shown despite of significant gender specific differences in terms of frequency and intensity of systemic therapy in favor to female

  19. Lay Representations of Cancer Prevention and Early Detection: Associations With Prevention Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen W. Sullivan, PhD, MPH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe Common Sense Model of illness representations posits that how people think about an illness affects how they try to prevent the illness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prevention representations vary by cancer type (colon, lung, and skin cancer and whether representations are associated with relevant behaviors.MethodsWe analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2005, a nationally representative survey of American adults (N = 5,586 conducted by telephone interview.ResultsRespondents reported that all 3 types of cancer can be prevented through healthy behaviors; however, fewer did so for colon cancer. More respondents reported screening as a prevention strategy for colon cancer than did so for lung or skin cancer. Representations were associated with colon cancer screening, smoking status, and sunscreen use.ConclusionRepresentations of cancer were associated with relevant health behaviors, providing a target for health messages and interventions.

  20. Comparing mass screening techniques for gastric cancer in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsushi Tashiro; Masatoshi Sano; Koichi Kinameri; Kazutaka Fujita; Yutaka Takeuchi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the efficacy of endoscopic mass screening for gastric cancer. METHODS: The data used in this study were the results of mass screening programs for gastric cancer in Niigata City from 2002 to 2004. The number of participants was 35089 in 2002, 34557 in 2003 and 36600 in 2004. The finding ratio referred to the final diagnosis of gastric cancer after a double check of endoscopic files and histological findings. The costs of identifying one case of gastric cancer were calculated based on the total expense for each screening program and additional close examinations. RESULTS: From the analysis of individual screening program with endoscopy, individual screening program with X-ray (ISX) and mass screening program with photofluorography (MSP) in reference to the finding ratio of gastric cancer, endoscopic examination was the best for detecting early gastric cancer, the finding ratio was 0.87% in 2004, approximately 2.7 and 4.6 times higher than those of the ISX and MSP groups. In addition, this novel method was the cheapest means regarding the cost of identifying one case of gastric cancer, which was estimated to be 1 608000 Japanese yen in 2004. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic mass screening is a promising method and can be effectively applied if a sufficient number of skilled endoscopists become available to staff the system and if city offices support it.

  1. Prostate cancer in dogs: comparative and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Bruce E; Northrup, Nicole

    2009-05-01

    The canine prostate gland shares many morphological and functional similarities with the human prostate and dogs are the only other large mammals that commonly develop spontaneous prostate cancer. However, the incidence of prostate cancer is much lower in dogs and the precise cell of origin is not known. Dogs with prostate cancer usually present with advanced disease that does not respond to androgen deprivation therapy. Similar to humans, affected dogs often develop osteoblastic bone metastases in the pelvis and/or lumbar spine with associated pain and neurological deficits. Other clinical signs include weight loss, lethargy, and abnormal urination and/or defecation. Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation have been used to treat dogs with prostate cancer, but success has been limited by the location and aggressive nature of the disease. It is evident that better methods of early detection and more effective therapies are needed for prostate cancer in dogs and advanced prostate carcinoma in men. Dogs with naturally-occurring prostate cancer are relevant models for the disease in humans and pre-clinical studies of new diagnostics and therapies in dogs may benefit both humans and dogs with prostate cancer.

  2. Cancer incidence among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes--a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Krasnik, A; Pipper, C;

    2007-01-01

    had a significantly lower incidence. All migrants had a significantly lower incidence of breast and colorectal cancer but male migrants from East Europe had a significantly higher incidence of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The overall cancer incidence among migrants was lower compared to native Danes....... The cohort was linked to the Danish Cancer Register and cancer cases among migrants (n=537) and native Danes (n=2829) were identified. RESULTS: The overall cancer incidence did not differ significantly between migrants from East Europe and native Danes; whereas migrants from the Middle East and North Africa......STUDY AIMS: To investigate the incidence of cancer among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes, including time trends in the risk of cancer among migrants. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design. Migrants were matched 1:4 on age and sex with a Danish born reference population...

  3. Associations of self-rated health and socioeconomic status with information seeking and avoiding behavior among post- treatment cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how self-rated health and socioeconomic status are associated with behaviour of cancer survivors regarding desire for information. For this association, we compared survivors who did not seek information about cancer with those who did. We examined how sociodemographic, socioeconomic, cancer- related, and health information factors are associated with self-rated health (SRH) by health information seeking/ avoiding behavior in a survey of 502 post-treatment cancer patients. In the information seeking group, all four factors exhibited significant relationships with SRH. SRH values were significantly high for women (pinformation by themselves (pinformation avoiding group, not only were there no significant relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and SRH, but there were negative associations between their attitude/capacity and the SRH. In terms of communication equity, the promotion of information seeking behavior can be an effective way to reduce health disparities that are caused by social inequalities. Information avoiding behavior, however, does not exhibit a negative contribution toward the relationship between SRH and SES. Information seeking behavior was positively associated with SRH, but avoiding behavior was not negatively associated. We thus need to eliminate communication inequalities using health intervention to support information seeking behavior, while simultaneously providing support for avoiders.

  4. The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brenda Elias1, Erich V Kliewer1–3, Madelyn Hall1, Alain A Demers1,2, Donna Turner1,2, Patricia Martens1, Say P Hong1, Lyna Hart4, Caroline Chartrand5, Garry Munro41Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Health Information Research Governance Committee, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 5Manitoba First Nations Diabetes Integration Project, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Canadian First Nations, the largest of the Aboriginal groups in Canada, have had lower cancer incidence and mortality rates than non-Aboriginal populations in the past. This pattern is changing with increased life expectancy, a growing population, and a poor social environment that influences risk behaviors, metabolic conditions, and disparities in screening uptake. These factors alone do not fully explain differences in cancer risk between populations, as genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also have significant influence. However, genetics and environment are difficult to modify. This study compared modifiable behavioral risk factors and metabolic-associated conditions for men and women, and cancer screening practices of women, between First Nations living on-reserve and a non-First Nations Manitoba rural population (Canada.Methods: The study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey to examine smoking, binge drinking, metabolic conditions, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and cancer-screening practices.Results: First Nations on-reserve had significantly higher rates of smoking (P < 0.001, binge drinking (P < 0.001, obesity (P < 0.001 and diabetes (P < 0.001, and less leisure-time physical activity (P = 0.029, and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001. Sex differences were also

  5. Comparative genetics of longevity and cancer: insights from long-lived rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei; Zhang, Zhengdong; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Vijg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mammals have evolved a dramatic diversity of aging rates. Within the single order of Rodentia maximum lifespans differ from four years in mice to 32 years in naked mole rats. Cancer rates also differ significantly, from cancer-prone mice to virtually cancer-proof naked and blind mole rats. Recent progress in rodent comparative biology, in combination with the emergence of whole genome sequence information, has opened opportunities for the discovery of genetic factors controlling longevity and cancer susceptibility. PMID:24981598

  6. Long distance related stressors and coping behaviors in parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, T J; Hathaway, G

    1993-01-01

    This descriptive comparative study addresses long distance related stress and coping behaviors of 53 parents of children with cancer. The purpose of the study was to determine the differences in the stress and coping behaviors of parents living 100 miles from the tertiary treatment center compared with those who live less than 100 miles from the center. The theoretical framework used was Lazarus' theory on stress and coping. The study participants were from several Pediatric Oncology Group member institutions. The parents completed Hymovich's Parent Perception Inventory and a demographic data sheet. Parametric (one-tailed t-test) and nonparametric (Mann-Whitney and chi-squared tests) were included in the statistical analysis. The results showed significant differences in demographic data, concerns, beliefs/feelings, and coping. Implications for the pediatric oncology treatment team include specific interventions that will improve the quality of care for the children/parents who live a long distance from the tertiary treatment center.

  7. Bone Cancer Rates in Dinosaurs Compared with Modern Vertebrates

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, L C; Rothschild, B M; Martin, L D

    2007-01-01

    Data on the prevalence of bone cancer in dinosaurs is available from past radiological examination of preserved bones. We statistically test this data for consistency with rates extrapolated from information on bone cancer in modern vertebrates, and find that there is no evidence of a different rate. Thus, this test provides no support for a possible role of ionizing radiation in the K-T extinction event.

  8. Sedentary behaviors and light-intensity activities in relation to colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, NaNa; Cao, Yin; Oh, Hannah; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Orav, John; Wu, Kana; Fuchs, Charles S; Cho, Eunyoung; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-05-01

    A recent meta-analysis found that sedentary behaviors are associated with an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Yet, the finding on TV viewing time, the most widely used surrogate of sedentary behaviors, was based on only two studies. Furthermore, light-intensity activities (e.g., standing and slow walking), non-sedentary by posture but close to sedentary behaviors by Metabolic Equivalent Task values, have not been investigated in relation to CRC risk. Thus, we prospectively analyzed the relationships based on 69,715 women from Nurses' Health Study (1992-2010) and 36,806 men from Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1988 - 2010). Throughout follow-up, time spent on sedentary behaviors including sitting watching TV and on light-intensity activities were assessed repeatedly; incidence of CRC was ascertained. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models from each cohort. A total of 1,119 and 913 incident cases were documented from women and men, respectively. The multivariable HR comparing ≥ 21 versus sedentary and physically less active had an approximately 41% elevated risk of CRC (95% CI = 1.03 to 1.92) compared with those less sedentary and physically more active. The other sedentary behaviors and light-intensity activities were not related to CRC risk in women or men. In conclusion, we found that prolonged sitting time watching TV was associated with an increased CRC risk in women but not in men.

  9. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Sanchez, Ingrid A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline…

  10. School Behavior and Attendance during the First Year of Treatment for Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehbens, James A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated school behavior and attendance of children with cancer (N=36) and hemophilia (N=26). Teacher ratings of students' behavior showed no differences before and after treatment. Children with cancer were absent four times more than healthy children; absenteeism of hemophiliacs was twice the normal rate. Academic performance was negatively…

  11. A coach in your pocket: on chronic cancer-related fatigue and physical behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolvers, Maria Dorethea Jacoba

    2017-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and distressing long-term consequence of cancer. Chronic cancer-related fatigue affects work ability, hampers in maintaining social relations, and impacts patients’ well-being. Most treatments for chronic cancer-related fatigue focus to some extend on changing physical behavior,

  12. Early parenting styles and sexual offending behavior: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended.

  13. The response of variant histology bladder cancer to intravesical immunotherapy compared to conventional cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Nathan Gofrit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-grade urothelial carcinomas (UC often show foci of variant differentiation. There is limited information in the literature about the response of these variant urothelial tumors to immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG. We compared the response to treatment with BCG of UC containing glandular, squamous, nested and micropapillary types of differentiation to response of conventional non-muscle invasive high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Methods: A total of 100 patients were diagnosed with variant histology urothelial cancer between June 1995 and December 2013. 41 patients with Ta or T1, confirmed by 2nd look biopsies, received immunotherapy with BCG. Fourteen patients in this group were diagnosed with micropapillary differentiation 13 patients with squamous differentiation, in 9 patients glandular differentiation was seen and in 7 patients nested variant. The control group included 140 patients with conventional high-grade UC. Both groups have been treated and followed similarly. Findings: Patients with variant tumors had similar clinical features to patients with conventional disease including: age, males to female ratio, stage, presence of Tis and median follow-up. Patients with variant tumors had a significantly worse prognosis compared to patients with conventional high-grade UC including: 5-year recurrence-free survival (63.5% Vs. 71.5%, p=0.05, 5-year progression to≥T2 -free survival (60% Vs. 82.5%, p=0.002, 5-year disease-specific survival (73% Vs. 92.5%, p=0.0004 and overall survival (66% Vs. 89.5%, 0.05. Interpretation: A patient with variant bladder cancer treated with intra-vesical immunotherapy has a 27% chance of dying from this disease within 5-years compared to 7.5% for a patient with conventional high-grade UC.

  14. Older Korean American men's prostate cancer screening behavior: the prime role of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Jung, Yunkyung

    2013-12-01

    East and South Asian male immigrants show markedly low odds of prostate cancer screening as compared to U.S.-born men. However, knowledge about these immigrants' culture-based screening behavior and barriers to screening is extremely limited. This study investigates factors influencing receipt of prostate cancer screening among Korean American immigrant men, particularly investigating culture's impact on screening behaviors. Data were collected through a convenience and purposive sampling technique from 134 Korean American males aged 50 and older recruited in New York City. A structured questionnaire was used and cultural variables were measured by adopting items from Tang and colleagues' work. Approximately 60 % of the sample had received a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test in their lifetime, and of these, about 66 % reported having done so in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed that a crisis-oriented intervention approach was associated with a substantially reduced likelihood of screening. A positive correlation was noted between the use of Eastern medicine and PSA test receipt. Further analysis revealed a significant interaction effect between use of Eastern medicine and age in predicting PSA test uptake. Culture-specific intervention strategies for increasing prostate cancer screening in this group are discussed, with particular attention to increasing pertinent health literacy. Health professionals should consider the cultural domain when working with Korean immigrant men in order to provide culturally competent care.

  15. Quality of life after prostate cancer treatments in patients comparable at baseline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol-Geerdink, J.J. van; Leer, J.W.H.; Oort, I.M. van; Lin, E.J. van; Weijerman, P.C.; Vergunst, H.; Witjes, J.A.; Stalmeier, P.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Previous studies on the effects of different prostate cancer treatments on quality of life, were confounded because patients were not comparable. This study examined treatment effects in more comparable groups.Methods:From 2008-2011, 240 patients with localised prostate cancer were select

  16. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Techniques on Anxiety and Depression in Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Soylu, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are generally considered to be the most important psychopathological comorbidities of cancer patients and experienced by approximately one-third of cancer patients. In the literature, studies have reported that patient characteristics such as gender, age, education level and disease characteristics such as recurrence, stage of cancer and metestazis are associated with anxiety and depression among cancer patients. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and techni...

  17. Comparability of EORTC and DAPROCA studies in advanced prostatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suciu, S; Sylvester, R; Iversen, P

    1990-01-01

    Very often not enough patients are entered and/or the follow-up is insufficient to be able to draw valid conclusions in cancer clinical trials. In this article, we discuss the possibility of pooling the data from two or more trials asking the same or similar questions in order to overcome such pr...

  18. Measuring, comparing and improving clinical outcomes in gastrointestinal cancer surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Henneman, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, hospital variation concerning various surgical outcomes is illustrated, thereby exploring the usability of these outcomes for hospital comparisons, both from a clinical and methodological point of view. Moreover, the studies provide insight in risk factors for adverse events in colorectal and oesophageal cancer surgery, focusing on the mechanism behind postoperative complications leading to mortality or not.

  19. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.

  20. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.

  1. East meets West: ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors of lung cancer between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhou; David C. Christian

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with large variation of the incidence and mortality across regions. Although the mortality of lung cancer has been decreasing, or steady in lhe US, it has been increasing in Asia for the past two decades. Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, and other risk factors such as indoor coal buming, cooking fumes, and infections may play important roles in the development of lung cancer among Asian never smoking women. The median age of diagnosis in Asian patients with lung cancer is generally younger than Caucasian patients, particularly among never smokers. Asians and Caucasians may have different genetic susceptibilities to lung cancer, as evidenced from candidate polymorphisms and genome-wide association studies. Recent epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have shown consistently that Asian ethnicity is a favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), independent of smoking status. Compared with Caucasian patients with NSCLC, East Asian patients have a much higher prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (approximately 30% vs. 7%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and never-smokers), a lower prevalence of K-Ras mutation (less than 10% vs. 18%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and smokers), and higher proportion of patients who are responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors should be taken into account when conducting global clinical trials that include different ethnic populations.

  2. Advancing Cancer Prevention and Behavior Theory in the Era of Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienza, Audie A; Serrano, Katrina J; Riley, William T; Moser, Richard P; Klein, William M

    2016-09-01

    The era of "Big Data" presents opportunities to substantively address cancer prevention and control issues by improving health behaviors and refining theoretical models designed to understand and intervene in those behaviors. Yet, the terms "model" and "Big Data" have been used rather loosely, and clarification of these terms is required to advance the science in this area. The objectives of this paper are to discuss conceptual definitions of the terms "model" and "Big Data", as well as examine the promises and challenges of Big Data to advance cancer prevention and control research using behavioral theories. Specific recommendations for harnessing Big Data for cancer prevention and control are offered.

  3. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  4. A Comparative Study of Group Contingencies and Randomized Reinforcers to Reduce Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Lea A.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation employed an alternating treatments design to (1) examine the efficacy of group contingencies in the reduction of disruptive behavior, and (2) compare the effects of independent, interdependent, and dependent group contingencies in the reduction of disruptive behavior in adolescent males identified with serious emotional…

  5. Dietary behaviors related to cancer prevention among pre-adolescents and adolescents: the gap between recommendations and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Mary C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is thought to play an important role in cancer risk. This paper summarizes dietary recommendations for cancer prevention and compares these recommendations to the dietary behaviors of U.S. youth ages 8-18. Methods We identified cancer prevention-related dietary recommendations from key health organizations and assessed dietary consumption patterns among youth using published statistics from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and other supplemental sources. Results Cancer prevention guidelines recommend a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, recommend limiting sugary foods and beverages, red and processed meats, sodium, and alcohol, and recommend avoiding foods contaminated with carcinogens. However, youth typically do not meet the daily recommendations for fruit, vegetable, or whole grain consumption and are over-consuming energy-dense, sugary and salty foods. Conclusions A large discrepancy exists between expert recommendations about diet and cancer and actual dietary practices among young people and points to the need for more research to better promote the translation of science into practice. Future research should focus on developing and evaluating policies and interventions at the community, state and national levels for aligning the diets of youth with the evolving scientific evidence regarding cancer prevention.

  6. DNA copy number aberrations in breast cancer by array comparative genomic hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, J.; Wang, K.; Li, S.;

    2009-01-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has been popularly used for analyzing DNA copy number variations in diseases like cancer. In this study, we investigated 82 sporadic samples from 49 breast cancer patients using 1-Mb resolution bacterial artificial chromosome CGH arrays. A number of h...

  7. Sun-Protective Behavior | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Risk factors for the onset of prostatic cancer: age, location, and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitzmann MF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Leitzmann1, Sabine Rohrmann21Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany; 2Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandAbstract: At present, only three risk factors for prostate cancer have been firmly established; these are all nonmodifiable: age, race, and a positive family history of prostate cancer. However, numerous modifiable factors have also been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. In the current review, we summarize the epidemiologic data for age, location, and selected behavioral factors in relation to the onset of prostate cancer. Although the available data are not entirely consistent, possible preventative behavioral factors include increased physical activity, intakes of tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables, and soy. Factors that may enhance prostate cancer risk include frequent consumption of dairy products and, possibly, meat. By comparison, alcohol probably exerts no important influence on prostate cancer development. Similarly, dietary supplements are unlikely to protect against the onset of prostate cancer in healthy men. Several factors, such as smoking and obesity, show a weak association with prostate cancer incidence but a positive relation with prostate cancer mortality. Other factors, such as fish intake, also appear to be unassociated with incident prostate cancer but show an inverse relation with fatal prostate cancer. Such heterogeneity in the relationship between behavioral factors and nonadvanced, advanced, or fatal prostate cancers helps shed light on the carcinogenetic process because it discerns the impact of exposure on early and late stages of prostate cancer development. Inconsistent associations between behavioral factors and prostate cancer risk seen in previous studies may in part be due to uncontrolled detection bias because of current widespread use of prostate-specific antigen

  9. Development in the smoking behavior of Danes compared to changes in smoking policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verwohlt, Betina; Jørgensen, Torben; Glümer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    and counseling. At the same time inequality in smoking behavior has increased. The article compares developments in Danish smoking policy to changes in smoking behavior in order to analyze whether there is consistency between the two. Doing so provides an important link between policy and behavior. Method...... for men with more than 4 years of education the smoking prevalence decreased from 63% to 20 %; similar picture was seen for women. Conclusions: Policy initiatives that address campaigns and individual counseling seem to increase disparities and creating inequality in smoking behavior as well as inequality...

  10. Proteome of human colon cancer stem cells: A comparative analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zou; Xiao-Feng Yu; Zhi-Jun Bao; Jie Dong

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To isolate and identify the biological characteristics of human colon cancer stem cells (SW1116 cells) and further study their proteome. METHODS: SW1116 cells were isolated and cultured with a serum-free medium (SFM). Sphere formation was assayed to observe the formation of colon cancer stem cell spheres. SW1116 cells were inoculated into a serum-containing medium for observing their differentiation characteristics. Proliferation curve and cross-resistance of SW1116 cells to different drugs were detected by MTT. Percentage of SP cells in SW1116 cells was detected with Hoechst33342 staining. Telomerase activity in SW1116cells was checked by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Expressions of stem cell relevant genes and proteins were detected by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Total protein was isolated from SW1116 cells by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and differentially expressed proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). RESULTS: The isolated SW1116 cells presented as spheroid and suspension growths in SFM with a strong self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation and drug-resistance ability. The percentage of SP cells in SW1116 cells was 38.9%. The SW1116 cells co-expressed the CD133 and CD29 proteins. The telomerase activity in SW1116 cells was increased. The expressions of different stem cell relevant genes and proteins were detected. The proteomic analysis showed that the 26 protein spots were differently expressed in SW1116 cells and 10 protein spots were identified as ubiquitin fusiondegradation 1-like protein, nuclear chloride channel protein, tubulin b, Raichu404X, stratifin, F-actin capping protein a-1 subunit, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta isoform 2, hypothetical protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and guanine nucleotide binding protein b polypeptide 2-like 1, respectively. CONCLUSION: SW1116 cells are biologically

  11. Comparing upper gastrointestinal X-ray and endoscopy for gastric cancer diagnosis in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hoo-Yeon; Lee; Eun-Cheol; Park; Jae; Kwan; Jun; Kui; Son; Choi; Myung-Il; Hahm

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To compare the cost and accuracy of upper gastrointestinal(GI)X-ray and upper endoscopy for diagnosis of gastric cancer using data from the 2002-2004 Korean National Cancer Screening Program(NCSP). METHODS:The study population included 1 503 646 participants in the 2002-2004 stomach cancer screening program who underwent upper GI X-ray or endoscopy.The accuracy of screening was defined as the probability of detecting gastric cancer.We calculated the probability by merging data from the NCSP and the Kore...

  12. [Comparative histological and cytological characteristics of peripheral lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotarevskiĭ, V B; Kogan, E A; Ablitsov, Iu A

    1983-01-01

    Peripheral pulmonary carcinoma was analysed retrospectively histologically, histochemically, and cytologically. The examination material (smears taken at percutaneous thoracic aspirational biopsy, resected lung or lung lobe) had been obtained from 113 patients with PPC among whom 85 patients underwent pulmon- or lobe-ectomy. Cytological examination of specimens from percutaneous thoracic biopsy allowed the diagnosis of PPC to be established in 90.6% of cases and to determine correctly the histological type of cancer in 85.7%. No regular correlation between the levels of tissue and cellular differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was found. Argyrophilic granules (Grimelius reaction) were detected in cells of combined oat cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma of transitional type. Because of the existence of combined tumors in the lungs consisting of cells of different types of differentiation it is suggested that complex histological types of pulmonary carcinoma can develop from a common polypotent precursor cell.

  13. A Comparative Investigation of Environmental Behaviors of Gifted Students and Their Peers

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    Gökhan Sontay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to compare gifted and non-gifted students’ behaviors towards environment. The sample of the study consisted of 364 sixth, seventh and eighth graders attending six different middle schools in the city of Amasya and 34 gifted sixth, seventh and eighth graders attending the Amasya Science and Art Center in Turkey. Data was collected through a 12-item “Environmental Behavior Scale (EBS” developed by the researchers. Independent samples t-test was used to compare scores. The findings showed that gifted students were superior to their peers in terms of showing positive environmental behaviors.

  14. Exercise, Behavioral Therapy Reduce Menopausal Symptoms Caused by Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study.

  15. Adolescents' emotional reactions to parental cancer : effect on emotional and behavioral problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donofrio, Stacey; Hoekstra, Harald J.; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, Gea A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined adolescents' emotional reactions to parental cancer and explored relationships between emotional reactions and adolescents' emotional/behavioral problems. METHODS: Two studies were performed: retrospective and prospective. A total of 221 adolescents (105 sons) of 138 patients

  16. Lung cancer patients' decisions about clinical trials and the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Pratt, Christie L; Bryant-George, Kathy; Caraway, Vicki D; Paternoster, Bonnie; Roldan, Tere; Shaffer, Andrea; Shimizu, Cynthia O; Vaughn, Elizabeth J; Williams, Charles; Bepler, Gerold

    2011-12-01

    The theory of planned behavior explores the relationship between behavior, beliefs, attitudes, and intentions presupposing that behavioral intention is influenced by a person's attitude about the behavior and beliefs about whether individuals, who are important to them, approve or disapprove of the behavior (subjective norm). An added dimension to the theory is the idea of perceived behavioral control, or the belief that one has control over performing the behavior. The theory of planned behavior suggests that people may make greater efforts to perform a behavior if they feel they have a high level of control over it. In this examination of data, we explored the application of the theory of planned behavior to patient's decisions about participating in a clinic trial. Twelve respondents in this study had previously participated in a clinical trial for lung cancer and nine respondents had declined a clinical trial for lung cancer. The data were analyzed with regard to the four constructs associated with the theory of planned behavior: behavioral intention, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Results indicate that the theory of planned behavior may be a useful tool to examine psychosocial needs in relation to behavioral intention of clinical trial participation.

  17. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis.

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    Pacheco, Sandaly O S; Pacheco, Fabio J; Zapata, Gimena M J; Garcia, Julieta M E; Previale, Carlos A; Cura, Héctor E; Craig, Winston J

    2016-07-09

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p cancer), cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p cancer diagnosis.

  18. Stakeholder engagement for comparative effectiveness research in cancer care: experience of the DEcIDE Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Caprice C; Wind, Jennifer K; Chang, George J; Chen, Ronald C; Schrag, Deborah

    2013-03-01

    Stakeholder input is a critical component of comparative effectiveness research. To ensure that the research activities of the Developing Evidence to Inform Decisions about Effectiveness (DEcIDE) Network, supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, translate into the greatest impact for everyday practice and policy-making in cancer, we were tasked with soliciting stakeholder input regarding priority areas in cancer-related comparative effectiveness research for the DEcIDE Cancer Consortium. Given the increasing emphasis on stakeholder engagement in research, many investigators are facing a similar task, yet there is limited literature to guide such efforts, particularly in cancer care. To help fill this gap, we present our approach to operationalizing stakeholder engagement and discuss it in the context of other recent developments in the area. We describe challenges encountered in convening stakeholders from multiple vantage points to prioritize topics and strategies used to mitigate these barriers. We offer several recommendations regarding how to best solicit stakeholder input to inform comparative effectiveness research in cancer care. These recommendations can inform other initiatives currently facing the challenges of engaging stakeholders in priority setting for cancer.

  19. Comparative indicators for cancer network management in England: Availability, characteristics and presentation

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    Coleman Michel P

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the national cancer plan for England created 34 cancer networks, new organisational structures to coordinate services across populations varying between a half and three million people. We investigated the availability of data sets reflecting measures of structure, process and outcome that could be used to support network management. Methods We investigated the properties of national data sets relating to four common cancers – breast, colorectal, lung and prostate. We reviewed the availability and completeness of these data sets, identified leading items within each set and put them into tables of the 34 cancer networks. We also investigated methods of presentation. Results The Acute Hospitals Portfolio and the Cancer Standards Peer Review recorded structural characteristics at hospital and cancer service level. Process measures included Hospital Episode Statistics, recording admissions, and Hospital Waiting-List data. Patient outcome measures included the National Survey of Patient Satisfaction for cancer, and cancer survival, drawn from cancer registration. Data were drawn together to provide an exemplar indicator set a single network, and methods of graphical presentation were considered. Conclusion While not as yet used together in practice, comparative indicators are available within the National Health Service in England for use in performance assessment by cancer networks.

  20. Comparative study of minimally invasive versus open esophagectomy for esophageal cancer in a single cancer center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Juwei; Yuan Zuyang; Zhang Baihua; Li Ning; Lyu Fang; Mao Yousheng; Xue Qi

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to minimize the injury reaction during the surgery and reduce the morbidity rate,hence reducing the mortality rate of esophagectomy,minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) was introduced.The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative outcomes in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma undergoing minimally invasive or open esophagectomy (OE).Methods The medical records of 176 consecutive patients,who underwent minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) between January 2009 and August 2013 in Cancer Institute & Hospital,Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences,were retrospectively reviewed.In the same period,142 patients who underwent OE,either Ivor Lewis or McKeown approach,were selected randomly as controls.The clinical variables of paired groups were compared,including age,sex,Charlson score,tumor location,duration of surgery,number of harvested lymph nodes,morbidity rate,the rate of leak,pulmonary morbidity rate,mortality rate,and hospital length of stay (LOS).Results The number of harvested lymph nodes was not significantly different between MIE group and OE group (median 20 vs.16,P=0.740).However,patients who underwent MIE had longer operation time than the OE group (375 vs.300 minutes,P <0.001).Overall morbidity,pulmonary morbidity,the rate of leak,in-hospital death,and hospital LOS were not significantly different between MIE and OE groups.Morbidities including anastomotic leak and pulmonary morbidity,inhospital death,hospital LOS,and hospital expenses were not significantly different between MIE and OE groups as well.Conclusions MIE and OE appear equivalent with regard to early oncological outcomes.There is a trend that hospital LOS and hospital expenses are reduced in the MIE group than the OE group.

  1. Behavioral Symptoms after Breast Cancer Treatment: A Biobehavioral Approach

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    Christopher Fagundes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Being diagnosed and treated for breast cancer is emotionally and physically challenging. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of death for women in the United States. Accordingly, women with a breast cancer history are the largest group of female cancer survivors. Psychological stress substantially augments adverse autonomic, endocrine, and immune discharge, including enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines. Importantly, inflammation is a key biological mechanism underlying the symptom cluster of pain, depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbances; there is also good evidence that inflammation contributes to breast cancer recurrence. Stress may exert direct effects on psychological and physiological risk processes. In this review, we take a biobehavioral approach to understanding predictors and mechanisms underlying somatic symptoms in breast cancer survivors.

  2. Cervical cancer screening: attitudes and behaviors of young Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Grace J; Le, Mai Nhung; Vong, Stephen; Lagman, Regina; Lam, Amy G

    2011-12-01

    Compared to other racial/ethnic groups, Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American women experience high incidence rates of cervical cancer but low rates of cervical cancer screenings. This study examines the behaviors and attitudes towards screening in young Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American women (n = 304) in the San Francisco Bay Area. Results indicated Vietnamese American (OR = 2.51) and Filipino American (OR = 2.31) women had greater odds of ever having a Pap test than Korean American women. Those older (OR = 1.55), born in the USA (OR = 2.64), and those comfortable with the test (OR = 3.41) also had greater odds of ever having a Pap test. Correct knowledge of cervical cancer and the human papillomavirus did not significantly affect the odds of having a Pap test. Interventions to increase Pap testing in these populations should focus on increasing levels of comfort and should target those younger and foreign born.

  3. Cancer Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Testing a Biobehavioral/Cognitive Behavior Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Brittany M.; Yang, Hae-Chung; Strunk, Daniel R.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this Phase II trial, we evaluated a novel psychological treatment for depressed patients coping with the stresses of cancer. Effectiveness of a combined biobehavioral intervention (BBI) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was studied. Method: Participants were 36 cancer survivors (mean age = 49 years; 88% Caucasian; 92% female)…

  4. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  5. Brief Behavioral Activation and Problem-Solving Therapy for Depressed Breast Cancer Patients: Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopko, Derek R.; Armento, Maria E. A.; Robertson, Sarah M. C.; Ryba, Marlena M.; Carvalho, John P.; Colman, Lindsey K.; Mullane, Christen; Gawrysiak, Michael; Bell, John L.; McNulty, James K.; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Major depression is the most common psychiatric disorder among breast cancer patients and is associated with substantial impairment. Although some research has explored the utility of psychotherapy with breast cancer patients, only 2 small trials have investigated the potential benefits of behavior therapy among patients with…

  6. A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Challenges Facing Comparative Cancer Survivorship Research

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    Astri Syse

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer survivorship research includes the study of physical, psychosocial, and economic consequences of cancer diagnosis and treatment among pediatric and adult cancer survivors. Historically, the majority of cancer survivorship studies were from the United States, but survivorship issues are increasingly being addressed in other developed countries. Cross-cultural studies remain, however, scarce. The degree to which knowledge attained may or may not be transferred across cultures, countries, or regions is not known. Some important challenges for comparative research are therefore discussed in a cross-cultural perspective. Several substantive and methodological challenges that complicate the execution of cross-cultural cancer survivorship research are presented with examples and discussed to facilitate comparative research efforts in the establishment of new survivorship cohorts and in the planning and implementation of survivorship studies. Comparative research is one key to understanding the nature of cancer survivorship, distinguishing modifiable from nonmodifiable factors at individual, hospital, societal, and system levels and may thus guide appropriate interventions. Lastly, suggested future courses of action within the field of comparative cancer survivorship research are provided.

  7. Cancer immunology and canine malignant melanoma: A comparative review.

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    Atherton, Matthew J; Morris, Joanna S; McDermott, Mark R; Lichty, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    Oral canine malignant melanoma (CMM) is a spontaneously occurring aggressive tumour with relatively few medical treatment options, which provides a suitable model for the disease in humans. Historically, multiple immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at provoking both innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses have been published with varying levels of activity against CMM. Recently, a plasmid DNA vaccine expressing human tyrosinase has been licensed for the adjunct treatment of oral CMM. This article reviews the immunological similarities between CMM and the human counterpart; mechanisms by which tumours evade the immune system; reasons why melanoma is an attractive target for immunotherapy; the premise of whole cell, dendritic cell (DC), viral and DNA vaccination strategies alongside preliminary clinical results in dogs. Current "gold standard" treatments for advanced human malignant melanoma are evolving quickly with remarkable results being achieved following the introduction of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptively transferred cell therapies. The rapidly expanding field of cancer immunology and immunotherapeutics means that rational targeting of this disease in both species should enhance treatment outcomes in veterinary and human clinics.

  8. Cancer information-seeking behaviors and information needs among Korean Americans in the online community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyejin; Park, Min Sook

    2014-04-01

    Korean Americans tend to have less access to health service and cancer screening tests than all US population. It is necessary to understand their current cancer information-seeking behaviors and information needs to more effectively provide adequate cancer information. However, there is little known about their cancer information seeking behaviors and needs. The purpose of the study was to understand cancer information seeking behaviors and information needs among Korean Americans. Data were collected from MissyUSA, which is one of the biggest websites for the Korean community in the USA. A total of 393 free-texts from January to June 2013 were reviewed; 120 were deleted because the messages were not related to cancer health information. A total of 273 posted free-texts were analyzed for this study, using an open source text-mining software program called AntConc 3.2.4. The extracted terms were categorized based on coding systems, after linguistic variations were handled. Terms such as "surgery," "breast cancer," "examination," "cancer" (unspecified), "Korea," and "pain" were most frequently identified. Medical topics accounted for 71.4 % of the main topics of the postings. Treatment was the most frequently discussed in the medical topics while in the non-medical category, the most frequently discussed topic was recommendations for hospitals or doctors. In relation to types of cancer, breast cancer was the greatest concern, followed by cervical and liver cancer. The findings from this study can help in establishing more effective strategies to provide better cancer information among Korean Americans by assessing their cancer information seeking trends and information needs.

  9. Characterization of genomic alterations in radiation-associated breast cancer among childhood cancer survivors, using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH arrays.

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    Xiaohong R Yang

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed cohorts have been primarily descriptive; molecular events responsible for the development of radiation-associated breast cancer have not been elucidated. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH to characterize genome-wide copy number changes in breast tumors collected in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS. Array-CGH data were obtained from 32 cases who developed a second primary breast cancer following chest irradiation at early ages for the treatment of their first cancers, mostly Hodgkin lymphoma. The majority of these cases developed breast cancer before age 45 (91%, n = 29, had invasive ductal tumors (81%, n = 26, estrogen receptor (ER-positive staining (68%, n = 19 out of 28, and high proliferation as indicated by high Ki-67 staining (77%, n = 17 out of 22. Genomic regions with low-copy number gains and losses and high-level amplifications were similar to what has been reported in sporadic breast tumors, however, the frequency of amplifications of the 17q12 region containing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 was much higher among CCSS cases (38%, n = 12. Our findings suggest that second primary breast cancers in CCSS were enriched for an "amplifier" genomic subgroup with highly proliferative breast tumors. Future investigation in a larger irradiated cohort will be needed to confirm our findings.

  10. Cancerous versus noncancerous breasts. A comparative morphological analysis of the entire glandular tree of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnelli, R; Squartini, F

    1989-01-01

    Cancerous and clinically normal autopsy obtained breasts were collected in order to compare the physiopathological profile of both types of glandular tree. Each breast was visualized by whole thin sections and observed under a stereomicroscope with removal of the more interesting changes for histology. The comparison was made between 67 atrophic cancerous breasts and 88 atrophic control breasts. The results were as follows: 25% of the cancerous breasts versus 47% of control breasts showed no changes, atypical lobules, microfoci of "in situ" and/or infiltrating cancer were present in 46% of cancerous breasts and in 16% of control breasts, showing a significant correlation with clinical cancer. All other types of functional and proliferative changes, variously associated each other, were found in 29% of cancerous and in 37% of control breasts. Our morphological data agree completely with the statements in follow-up studies carried out on benign breast biopsies. The significant differences in the physiopathological profile of the glandular tree between "normal" and cancerous breasts, confirms that some changes are causally related to clinical cancer.

  11. Sorting out measures and definitions of screening participation to improve comparability: the example of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Garcia, Montse; Blom, Johannes; Senore, Carlo; Mai, Verna; Klabunde, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Participation is a key indicator of the potential effectiveness of any population-based intervention. Defining, measuring and reporting participation in cancer screening programmes has become more heterogeneous as the number and diversity of interventions have increased, and the purposes of this benchmarking parameter have broadened. This study, centred on colorectal cancer, addresses current issues that affect the increasingly complex task of comparing screening participation across settings. Reports from programmes with a defined target population and active invitation scheme, published between 2005 and 2012, were reviewed. Differences in defining and measuring participation were identified and quantified, and participation indicators were grouped by aims of measure and temporal dimensions. We found that consistent terminology, clear and complete reporting of participation definition and systematic documentation of coverage by invitation were lacking. Further, adherence to definitions proposed in the 2010 European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Colorectal Cancer Screening was suboptimal. Ineligible individuals represented 1% to 15% of invitations, and variable criteria for ineligibility yielded differences in participation estimates that could obscure the interpretation of colorectal cancer screening participation internationally. Excluding ineligible individuals from the reference population enhances comparability of participation measures. Standardised measures of cumulative participation to compare screening protocols with different intervals and inclusion of time since invitation in definitions are urgently needed to improve international comparability of colorectal cancer screening participation. Recommendations to improve comparability of participation indicators in cancer screening interventions are made.

  12. Sun-protective behaviors in populations at high risk for skin cancer

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    Diao DY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diana Y Diao,1 Tim K Lee1,21Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 2Cancer Control Research Program, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Over 3 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US annually. Melanoma, a subtype of skin cancer that can be fatal if the disease is not detected and treated at an early stage, is the most common cancer for those aged 25–29 years and the second most common cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–29 years. The primary carcinogen for the genesis of skin cancers is ultraviolet light from solar radiation and tanning beds. In spite of massive health campaigns to raise public awareness on ultraviolet radiation, sun-protective practices still fall behind. A plausible explanation is the lack of behavioral change in the populations at risk; in this review article, we examine sun-protective behavior in the four high-risk skin cancer groups: skin cancer survivors, individuals with a family history of melanoma, individuals with physical characteristics associated with skin cancer risk, and organ transplantation patients. Findings in the literature demonstrate that increased knowledge and awareness does not consequently translate into behavioral changes in practice. Behavior can differ as a result of different attitudes and beliefs, depending on the population at risk. Thus, intervention should be tailored to the population targeted. A multidisciplinary health team providing consultation and education is required to influence these much needed changes.Keywords: skin cancer, melanoma, risk, prevention, behaviour

  13. Use of the dialectical behavior therapy skills and management of psychosocial stress with newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogwell Anderson, Rebecca; Jensik, Kathleen; Peloza, David; Walker, Alonzo

    2013-01-01

    Stress-related health concerns have the potential to impact quality of life for patients with breast cancer. National cancer organizations such as the National Cancer Institute, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network have acknowledged that all patients with cancer experience some level of distress during the course of illness and treatment. Literature on cancer suggests a range of expected distress from 20% to 50% among all patients diagnosed with cancer. Acknowledging and managing this distress with patients with cancer and providing them behavioral-based Interventions are important parts of cancer research. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy skill is are an empirically proven treatment modality across numerous patient populations. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the utilization and effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy skills modified for use with patients with breast cancer.

  14. Predictors of the Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Insomnia Comorbid with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Valerie; Savard, Josee; Ivers, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have supported the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia comorbid with cancer. This article reports secondary analyses that were performed on one of these studies to investigate the predictive role of changes in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, adherence to behavioral strategies, and some nonspecific factors…

  15. Subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedde, H.; van de Wiel, H. B. M.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Wijsen, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically describe the nature and context of subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer. Data on sexual behavior and subjective sexual well-being were collected through an internet questionnaire. Respondents were included if t

  16. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Techniques on Anxiety and Depression in Cancer Patients

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    Cem SOYLU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety are generally considered to be the most important psychopathological comorbidities of cancer patients and experienced by approximately one-third of cancer patients. In the literature, studies have reported that patient characteristics such as gender, age, education level and disease characteristics such as recurrence, stage of cancer and metestazis are associated with anxiety and depression among cancer patients. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT and techniques are one of the most frequently used approach in studying the effects of psychological intervention on anxiety and depression in cancer patients and its value has been demonstrated in reducing distress with diverse cancer populations. The aim of cognitive-behavioral interventions is to change particular thoughts and behaviors and teach specific coping skills, such as cognitive restructuring, behavior modification, relaxation training and activity plan by using specific techniques. Cognitive restructing, stress management and desensitization, relaxation and activity scheduling with use of diary sheet are most used among CBT techniques. This review summarizes the diagnosis, prevalence, risk factors and treatment of depression and anxiety in patients with cancer and CBT techniques applied to these symptoms and study findings related to treatment.

  17. An actuarial approach to comparing early stage and late stage lung cancer mortality and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Sara W; Mulshine, James L; Hagstrom, Dale; Pyenson, Bruce S

    2010-02-01

    Comparing the mortality characteristics of different cohorts is an essential process in the life insurance industry. Pseudodisease, lead-time bias, and length bias, which are critical to determining the value of cancer screening, have close analogues in life insurance company management, including the temporal impact of underwriting. Ratios of all-cause mortality rates for cancer cohorts relative to standard population mortality rates can provide insights into early stage and late stage mortality differences, differences by age, sex, race, and histology, and allow modeling of biases associated with early stage detection or screening protocols. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data set has characteristics that allow efficient application of actuarial techniques. We show the mortality burden associated with treated early stage lung cancer and that identifying all lung cancers at early stage could reduce US lung cancer deaths by over 70,000 per year.

  18. A comparative analysis of lncRNAs in prostate cancer exosomes and their parental cell lines

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    Alireza Ahadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second leading cancer in men world-wide. Due to its heterogeneous nature, a considerable amount of research effort has been dedicated in identifying effective clinical biomarkers with a focus on proteins, messenger RNA and microRNAs [1]. However, there is limited data on the role and expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs in prostate cancer exosomes [2]. This array dataset which is linked to our publication describes the profiling of human lncRNAs in prostate cancer and their exosomes from five different cell lines [3]. From this dataset, we identified a list of statistically significant prostate cancer lncRNAs which are differentially expressed in the exosomes compared to their parent cell lines. This dataset has been deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE81034.

  19. Distribution Features of Skeletal Metastases: A Comparative Study between Pulmonary and Prostate Cancers.

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    Changyin Wang

    Full Text Available Bone scintigraphies are widely applied for detecting bone metastases. The aim of this study was to investigate distribution features of bone metastases in pulmonary and prostate cancers. Bone scintigraphies were performed in 460 patients with pulmonary cancer and 144 patients with prostate cancer. Patients were divided into three groups according to the total number of bone metastases: few bone metastases, moderate bone metastases, and extensive bone metastases. We compared the distribution of bone metastases in the two cancers, and analyzed the relationship between the distribution of metastatic lesions and their metastatic patterns. A total of 2279 and 2000 lesions of bone metastases were detected in 258 patients with pulmonary cancer and 102 patients with prostate cancer, respectively. In patients with few bone metastases, the distributions of metastatic lesions in the vertebrae (χ2 = 16.0, P = 0.000 and thoracic bones (χ2 = 20.7, P = 0.002 were significantly different between pulmonary and prostate cancers. In cases with moderate bone metastases, the distributions in the vertebrae (χ2 = 6.6, P = 0.010, pelvis (χ2 = 15.1 P = 0.000, and thoracic bones (χ2 = 38.8, P = 0.000 were also significantly different between the two cancers. However, in patients with extensive bone metastases, the distributions were very similar. As the total number of bone metastases increased, their distribution in pulmonary cancer did not noticeably change, but the distribution in the vertebrae and thoracic bones of prostate cancer patients significantly changed. Accordingly, the distribution characteristics of bone metastases differed in pulmonary and prostate cancers, mainly in the early stages of metastasis.

  20. Enhancing cancer registry data for comparative effectiveness research (CER) project: overview and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vivien W; Eheman, Christie R; Johnson, Christopher J; Hernandez, Monique N; Rousseau, David; Styles, Timothy S; West, Dee W; Hsieh, Meichin; Hakenewerth, Anne M; Celaya, Maria O; Rycroft, Randi K; Wike, Jennifer M; Pearson, Melissa; Brockhouse, Judy; Mulvihill, Linda G; Zhang, Kevin B

    2014-01-01

    Following the Institute of Medicine's 2009 report on the national priorities for comparative effectiveness research (CER), funding for support of CER became available in 2009 through the American Recovery and Re-investment Act. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) received funding to enhance the infrastructure of population-based cancer registries and to expand registry data collection to support CER. The CDC established 10 specialized registries within the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) to enhance data collection for all cancers and to address targeted CER questions, including the clinical use and prognostic value of specific biomarkers. The project also included a special focus on detailed first course of treatment for cancers of the breast, colon, and rectum, as well as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) diagnosed in 2011. This paper describes the methodology and the work conducted by the CDC and the NPCR specialized registries in collecting data for the 4 special focused cancers, including the selection of additional data variables, development of data collection tools and software modifications, institutional review board approvals, training, collection of detailed first course of treatment, and quality assurance. It also presents the characteristics of the study population and discusses the strengths and limitations of using population-based cancer registries to support CER as well as the potential future role of population-based cancer registries in assessing the quality of patient care and cancer control.

  1. Elucidation of how cancer cells avoid acidosis through comparative transcriptomic data analysis.

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    Kun Xu

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of cancer cells fueled by glycolysis produces large amounts of protons in cancer cells, which tri mechanisms to transport them out, hence leading to increased acidity in their extracellular environments. It has been well established that the increased acidity will induce cell death of normal cells but not cancer cells. The main question we address here is: how cancer cells deal with the increased acidity to avoid the activation of apoptosis. We have carried out a comparative analysis of transcriptomic data of six solid cancer types, breast, colon, liver, two lung (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and prostate cancers, and proposed a model of how cancer cells utilize a few mechanisms to keep the protons outside of the cells. The model consists of a number of previously, well or partially, studied mechanisms for transporting out the excess protons, such as through the monocarboxylate transporters, V-ATPases, NHEs and the one facilitated by carbonic anhydrases. In addition we propose a new mechanism that neutralizes protons through the conversion of glutamate to γ-aminobutyrate, which consumes one proton per reaction. We hypothesize that these processes are regulated by cancer related conditions such as hypoxia and growth factors and by the pH levels, making these encoded processes not available to normal cells under acidic conditions.

  2. Parents Function and Behavioral Disorders in Children with and without Diurnal Voiding Dysfunction: A Comparative Study

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    Parsa Yousefi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diurnal voiding dysfunction is one of the most common causes of pediatric urology clinic admissions. It can cause behavioral problems for children and their parents. We lunch this study to compare the parents’ function and children’s behavior problem in pediatric patients suffering from diurnal voiding dysfunction referring Arak Amir Kabir hospital. Materials and Methods: To perform this case-control study, we recruit 116 children with diurnal voiding dysfunction and compared them with other 116 children non-affected children aged between 5 to 16 years old. The child behavior checklist (CBCL4/18 for children behavior assessment and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF for the evaluation of their parent’s behavior was completed by the parents. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, qualitative variables and χ2 formula. Results: Among 116 patient with voiding dysfunction, 10 case (8.6% showed behavioral problem while this figure was 3 case (2.6% in the control group, denoting a significant difference (p=0.04. Moreover 20 children (17.2% in the case group and 9 children (7.8% in the control group had internalizing problem (p=0.02. Twenty two children (19% with voiding dysfunction and 8 children (6.9% in the healthy group had externalizing problem which was also a significant difference (p=0.01. As a significant difference (0.01, the parent’s average stress and behavior scores in case and control group were 3.65 and 3.76, respectively. Conclusion: The higher prevalence of behavioral problem in the children suffering from diurnal voiding dysfunction and their parent’s functional impairment highlights the importance of early parent’s intervention for early treatment and subsequently prevention of future behavioral problem in their sibling.

  3. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity: Effects and potential mechanisms of exercise training on cancer progression: A translational perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Review of the extant epidemiological evidence examining the association between exercise behavior, function capacity/exercise capacity, and cancer-specific recurrence and mortality as well as all-cause mortality individuals following a cancer diagnosis.

  4. Comparative oncology: what dogs and other species can teach us about humans with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Joshua D; Breen, Matthew

    2015-07-19

    Over 1.66 million humans (approx. 500/100,000 population rate) and over 4.2 million dogs (approx. 5300/100,000 population rate) are diagnosed with cancer annually in the USA. The interdisciplinary field of comparative oncology offers a unique and strong opportunity to learn more about universal cancer risk and development through epidemiology, genetic and genomic investigations. Working across species, researchers from human and veterinary medicine can combine scientific findings to understand more quickly the origins of cancer and translate these findings to novel therapies to benefit both human and animals. This review begins with the genetic origins of canines and their advantage in cancer research. We next focus on recent findings in comparative oncology related to inherited, or genetic, risk for tumour development. We then detail the somatic, or genomic, changes within tumours and the similarities between species. The shared cancers between humans and dogs that we discuss include sarcoma (osteosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, histiocytic sarcoma, hemangiosarcoma), haematological malignancies (lymphoma, leukaemia), bladder cancer, intracranial neoplasms (meningioma, glioma) and melanoma. Tumour risk in other animal species is also briefly discussed. As the field of genomics advances, we predict that comparative oncology will continue to benefit both humans and the animals that live among us.

  5. Comparative oncology: what dogs and other species can teach us about humans with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Joshua D.; Breen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Over 1.66 million humans (approx. 500/100 000 population rate) and over 4.2 million dogs (approx. 5300/100 000 population rate) are diagnosed with cancer annually in the USA. The interdisciplinary field of comparative oncology offers a unique and strong opportunity to learn more about universal cancer risk and development through epidemiology, genetic and genomic investigations. Working across species, researchers from human and veterinary medicine can combine scientific findings to understand more quickly the origins of cancer and translate these findings to novel therapies to benefit both human and animals. This review begins with the genetic origins of canines and their advantage in cancer research. We next focus on recent findings in comparative oncology related to inherited, or genetic, risk for tumour development. We then detail the somatic, or genomic, changes within tumours and the similarities between species. The shared cancers between humans and dogs that we discuss include sarcoma (osteosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, histiocytic sarcoma, hemangiosarcoma), haematological malignancies (lymphoma, leukaemia), bladder cancer, intracranial neoplasms (meningioma, glioma) and melanoma. Tumour risk in other animal species is also briefly discussed. As the field of genomics advances, we predict that comparative oncology will continue to benefit both humans and the animals that live among us. PMID:26056372

  6. The Role of Biomaterials on Cancer Stem Cell Enrichment and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordikhani, Faride; Kim, Yonghyun; Zustiak, Silviya P.

    2015-11-01

    The theory of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their role in cancer metastasis, tumorigenicity and resistance to therapy is slowly shifting the emphasis on the search for cancer cure: more evidence is surfacing that a successful therapy should be geared against this rare cancer cell population. Unfortunately, CSCs are difficult to culture in vitro which severely limits the progress of CSC research. This review gives a brief overview of CSCs and their microenvironment, with particular focus on studies that used in vitro biomaterial-based models and biomaterial/CSC interfaces for the enrichment of CSCs. Biomaterial properties relevant to CSC behaviors are also addressed. While the discussed research field is still in its infancy, it appears that in vitro cancer models that include a biomaterial can support CSC enrichment and this has proved indispensable to the study of their biology as well as the development of novel cancer therapies.

  7. Expression of tumor antigens on primary ovarian cancer cells compared to established ovarian cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloudová, Kamila; Hromádková, Hana; Partlová, Simona; Brtnický, Tomáš; Rob, Lukáš; Bartůňková, Jiřina; Hensler, Michal; Halaška, Michael J.; Špíšek, Radek; Fialová, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In order to select a suitable combination of cancer cell lines as an appropriate source of antigens for dendritic cell-based immunotherapy of ovarian cancer, we analyzed the expression level of 21 tumor associated antigens (BIRC5, CA125, CEA, DDX43, EPCAM, FOLR1, Her-2/neu, MAGE-A1, MAGE-A2, MAGE-A3, MAGE-A4, MAGE-A6, MAGE-A10, MAGE-A12, MUC-1, NY-ESO-1, PRAME, p53, TPBG, TRT, WT1) in 4 established ovarian cancer cell lines and in primary tumor cells isolated from the high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer tissue. More than 90% of tumor samples expressed very high levels of CA125, FOLR1, EPCAM and MUC-1 and elevated levels of Her-2/neu, similarly to OVCAR-3 cell line. The combination of OV-90 and OVCAR-3 cell lines showed the highest overlap with patients' samples in the TAA expression profile. PMID:27323861

  8. Gender identification of Grasshopper Sparrows comparing behavioral, morphological, and molecular techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, F.K.; Wood, P.B.; McPherson, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Correct gender identification in monomorphic species is often difficult especially if males and females do not display obvious behavioral and breeding differences. We compared gender specific morphology and behavior with recently developed DNA techniques for gender identification in the monomorphic Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum). Gender was ascertained with DNA in 213 individuals using the 2550F/2718R primer set and 3% agarose gel electrophoresis. Field observations using behavior and breeding characteristics to identify gender matched DNA analyses with 100% accuracy for adult males and females. Gender was identified with DNA for all captured juveniles that did not display gender specific traits or behaviors in the field. The molecular techniques used offered a high level of accuracy and may be useful in studies of dispersal mechanisms and winter assemblage composition in monomorphic species.

  9. Social behaviors increase in children with autism in the presence of animals compared to toys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite E O'Haire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated the capacity of animal presence to stimulate social interaction among humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD with an adult and their typically-developing peers in the presence of animals (two guinea pigs compared to toys. METHODS: Ninety-nine children from 15 classrooms in 4 schools met the inclusion criteria and participated in groups of three (1 child with ASD and 2 typically-developing peers. Each group was video-recorded during three 10-minute, free-play sessions with toys and three 10-minute, free-play sessions with two guinea pigs. Two blinded observers coded the behavior of children with ASD and their peers. To account for the nested study design, data were analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear modeling. RESULTS: Participants with ASD demonstrated more social approach behaviors (including talking, looking at faces, and making tactile contact and received more social approaches from their peers in the presence of animals compared to toys. They also displayed more prosocial behaviors and positive affect (i.e., smiling and laughing as well as less self-focused behaviors and negative affect (i.e., frowning, crying, and whining in the presence of animals compared to toys. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the presence of an animal can significantly increase positive social behaviors among children with ASD.

  10. Breast-cancer patients' participation behavior and coping during presurgical consultations: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetis, Maria K; Robinson, Jeffrey D; Kearney, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In the context of breast-cancer care, there is extremely little research on the association between observed (i.e., taped and coded) communication behaviors and patients' health outcomes, especially those other than satisfaction. In the context of presurgical consultations between female breast cancer patients and a surgeon, the aim of this exploratory study was to test the association between communication-based participation behaviors and pre-post consultation changes in aspects of patients' mental adjustment to cancer (i.e., coping). Participants included 51 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and a surgical oncologist from a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated cancer center in the northeastern United States. Outcomes were changes in patients' fighting spirit, helplessness/hopelessness, anxious preoccupation, cognitive avoidance, and fatalism (measured immediately before and after consultations via survey), and the main predictors were three communication-based participation behaviors coded from videotapes of consultations: patient question asking, patient assertion of treatment preferences, and surgeon solicitation of patient question/concern/opinion. Patients who more frequently asserted their treatment preferences experienced increases in their fighting spirit (p = .01) and decreases in their anxious preoccupation (p = .02). When companions (e.g., sister, spouse) asked more questions, patients experienced decreases in their anxious preoccupation (p = .05). These findings suggest that, in the present context, there may be specific, trainable communication behaviors, such as patients asserting their treatment preferences and companions asking questions, that may improve patients' psychosocial health outcomes.

  11. Evaluation of heat hyperalgesia and anxiety like-behaviors in a rat model of orofacial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambeta, Eder; Kopruszinski, Caroline Machado; Dos Reis, Renata Cristiane; Zanoveli, Janaina Menezes; Chichorro, Juliana Geremias

    2016-04-21

    Pain and anxiety are commonly experienced by cancer patients and both significantly impair their quality of life. Some authors claim that there is a relationship between pain and anxiety, while others suggest that there is not a direct association. In any case, there is indeed a consensus that anxiety impairs the pain condition beyond be under diagnosed and undertreated in cancer pain patients. Herein we investigated if rats presenting heat hyperalgesia induced by orofacial cancer cell inoculation would display anxiety-like behaviors. In addition, we evaluated if pain blockade would result in alleviation of anxiety behaviors, as well as, if blockade of anxiety would result in pain relief. Orofacial cancer was induced in male Wistar rats by inoculation of Walker-256 cells into the right vibrissal pad. Heat facial hyperalgesia was assessed on day 6 after the inoculation, and on this time point rats were submitted to the elevated plus maze and the light-dark transition tests. The influence of lidocaine and midazolam on heat hyperalgesia and anxiety-like behaviors was assessed. The peak of facial heat hyperalgesia was detected 6 days after cancer cells inoculation, and at this time point, rats exhibited increased anxiety-like behaviors. Local treatment with lidocaine (2%/50μL) caused a marked reduction of heat hyperalgesia, but failed to affect the anxiety-like behaviors, while midazolam (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) treatment failed to change the heat threshold, but induced an anxiolytic-like effect. Altogether, our data demonstrated that rats with orofacial cancer present pain- and anxiety-like behaviors, but brief heat hyperalgesia relief does not affect the anxiety-like behaviors, and vice-versa, in our experimental conditions.

  12. Using Cover, Copy, and Compare Spelling with and without Timing for Elementary Students with Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Danette; McLaughlin, T. F.; Derby, K. Mark; Johnson, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cover, copy, and compare (CCC) procedures on spelling performance with two students. The participants were two elementary students enrolled in a self-contained behavior intervention classroom. A multiple baseline design across participants was employed to evaluate the effects of CCC…

  13. A Comparative Study of the Seriousness Attributed to Disruptive Classroom Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotzens, Concepcion; Badia, Mar; Genovard, Candido; Dezcallar, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we present a comparative analysis of three samples of teachers from Coimbra, Barcelona and Murcia that provides insight into the importance teachers attach to disruptive behavior and how different perspectives and values affect their daily work. Method: This research is framed within a quantitative empirical-analytic…

  14. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Anti-Cancer Mechanism by Periplocin Treatment in Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Lu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periplocin is used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, reinforcement of bones and tendons, palpitations or shortness of breath and lower extremity edema in traditional medicine. Our previous findings suggested that periplocin could inhibit the growth of lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. But the biological processes and molecular pathways by which periplocin induces these beneficial effects remain largely undefined. Methods: To explore the molecular mechanisms of periplocin involved in anti-cancer activity, in the present study the protein profile changes of human lung cancer cell lines A549 in response to periplocin treatment were investigated using the proteomics approaches (2-DE combined with MS/MS. Western blot was employed to verify the changed proteins. Interactions between changed proteins were analyzed by STRING. Results: 29 down-regulated protein species named GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran (RAN, Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 (ARHGDIA, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 (EIF5A and Profilin-1(PFN1, and 10 up-regulated protein species named Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (HSPA8,10 kDa heat shock protein (HSPE1, and Cofilin-1(CFL-1 were identified. Among them, GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran (RAN and Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 (ARHGDIA were the most significantly changed (over tenfold. The proteasome subunit beta type-6 (PSMB6, ATP synthase ecto-α-subunit (ATP5A1, Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 and EIF5A were verified by immunoblot assays to be dramatically down-regulated. By STRING bioinformatics analysis revealing interactions and signaling networks it became apparent that the proteins changed they are primarily involved in transcription and proteolysis. Conclusion: Periplocin inhibited growth of lung cancer by down-regulating proteins, such as ATP5A1, EIF5A, ALDH1 and PSMB6. These findings may improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effects of

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic and Epigenetic Events of Breast and Ovarian Cancer Related to Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mckenna Longacre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer persists as the most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Ovarian cancer is also a significant source of morbidity and mortality, as the fifth leading cause of cancer death among women. This reflects the continued need for further understanding and innovation in cancer treatment. Though breast and ovarian cancer usually present as distinct clinical entities, the recent explosion of large-scale -omics research has uncovered many overlaps, particularly with respect to genetic and epigenetic alterations. We compared genetic, microenvironmental, stromal, and epigenetic changes common between breast and ovarian cancer cells, as well as the clinical relevance of these changes. Some of the most striking commonalities include genetic alterations of BRCA1 and 2, TP53, RB1, NF1, FAT3, MYC, PTEN, and PIK3CA; down regulation of miRNAs 9, 100, 125a, 125b, and 214; and epigenetic alterations such as H3K27me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H4K20me3, and H3K4me. These parallels suggest shared features of pathogenesis. Furthermore, preliminary evidence suggests a shared epigenetic mechanism of oncogenesis. These similarities, warrant further investigation in order to ultimately inform development of more effective chemotherapeutics, as well as strategies to circumvent drug resistance.

  16. Air pollution and DNA methylation alterations in lung cancer: A systematic and comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng-Lan; He, Shui-Wang; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Duan, He-Xian; Huang, Tao; Huang, Yun-Chao; Li, Gao-Feng; Wang, Ping; Ma, Li-Ju; Zhou, Guang-Biao; Cao, Yi

    2017-01-01

    The lung cancer incidence in the Xuanwei and neighboring region, Yunnan, China, is among the highest in China and is attributed to severe air pollution with high benzo(a)pyrene levels. We systematically and comparatively analyzed DNA methylation alterations at genome and gene levels in Xuanwei lung cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as benzo(a)pyrene-treated cells and mouse samples. We obtained a comprehensive dataset of genome-wide cytosine-phosphate-guanine island methylation in air pollution-related lung cancer samples. Benzo(a)pyrene exposure induced multiple alterations in DNA methylation and in mRNA expressions of DNA methyltransferases and ten-11 translocation proteins; these alterations partially occurred in Xuanwei lung cancer. Furthermore, benzo(a)pyrene-induced DKK2 and EN1 promoter hypermethylation and LPAR2 promoter hypomethylation led to down-regulation and up-regulation of the genes, respectively; the down-regulation of DKK2 and EN1 promoted the cellular proliferation. Thus, DNA methylation alterations induced by benzo(a)pyrene contribute partially to abnormal DNA methylation in air pollution-related lung cancer, and these DNA methylation alterations may affect the development and progression of lung cancer. Additionally, vitamin C and B6 can reduce benzo(a)pyrene-induced DNA methylation alterations and may be used as chemopreventive agents for air pollution-related lung cancer. PMID:27901495

  17. Discovery and development of educational strategies to encourage safe food handling behaviors in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Lydia C; Chen, Gang; Hillers, Virginia N; Kendall, Patricia A

    2008-08-01

    Foodborne infections pose a threat to cancer patients who are immunocompromised because of disease or medical therapy. Comprehensive food safety education can raise cancer patients' awareness of risk for foodborne infections and encourage risk-reducing behavior. The objectives of this study were to assess food safety informational needs of cancer patients and to determine factors that may influence prospective educational interventions that foster risk-reducing behaviors. Focus groups with cancer patients were formed, and interviews with health professionals working with cancer patients were conducted. Findings were used to develop three educational resource prototypes for cancer patients. Information from two additional focus groups and interviews with cancer patients was used to evaluate the prototypes before revision and finalization. There was a general awareness among focus group participants that chemotherapy increased their susceptibility to foodborne illness and infections. Participants had a basic knowledge of safe food handling practices but did not necessarily link their awareness of increased susceptibility for infection with their routine food handling practices. When informed of specific high-risk foods, there was skepticism about compliance due to disbelief of the risk, personal preferences for the high-risk food, and lack of information about how to use the recommendation. Most of the health care providers agreed that food safety information should be provided by dietitians, physicians, and nurses, but physicians stated they had little time to do so. Cancer patients expressed positive attitudes toward the educational resource prototypes and willingness to follow the food safety recommendations provided.

  18. Health Related Quality of Life, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Intervention Preferences of Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Hoda; Chandra, Joya; Paxton, Raheem J.; Ater, Joann L.; Urbauer, Diana; Cruz, Cody Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are at increased risk for poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and chronic health conditions -- both of which can be exacerbated by unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. Developing a clearer understanding of the associations between HRQOL, lifestyle behaviors, and medical and demographic variables (e.g., age/developmental stage at time of diagnosis) is an important step toward developing more targeted behavioral interventions for this population. METHOD Cross-sectional questionnaires were completed by 170 CCSs who were diagnosed with leukemia, lymphoma, sarcoma, or a cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) and treated at a comprehensive cancer center between 1992 and 2007. Questionnaires addressed weight status, lifestyle behaviors, aspects of HRQOL, and intervention preferences. RESULTS Adolescent and young adult survivors (AYAs) and survivors of CNS tumors or lymphoma reported significantly (pexercise interventions. CONCLUSION Findings support the premise that females, AYAs, and survivors of cancers of the CNS or lymphoma are “at risk” subgroups within the CCS population for poor dietary practices, sedentary behaviors, and poor HRQOL. Future research should focus on developing diet and PA interventions to improve HRQOL that target these groups. IMPLICATIONS FOR SURVIVORS Greater consideration of the role of gender, developmental stage, and the HRQOL challenges facing CCSs may help researchers to develop targeted behavioral interventions for those who stand to benefit the most. PMID:23749663

  19. Comparative study of laparoscopic vs open gastrectomy in gastric cancer management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe S Sica; Edoardo Iaculli; Livia Biancone; Sara Di Carlo; Rosa Scaramuzzo; Cristina Fiorani; Paolo Gentileschi; Achille L Gaspari

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To compare long-term results of gastric cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic and open gastrectomy in a single unit.METHODS: From February 2000 to September 2004, all patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach were assessed to entry in this longitudinal prospective non-randomized trial. Primary endpoint was cancer-related survival and secondary endpoints were overall survival, evaluation of surgical complications and mortality.RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients were enrolled. Forty-seven patients were followed-up (range 11-103, median 38 mo). Four patients were lost at follow up. Twenty-two patients underwent a laparoscopic gastric surgery (LGS) and 25 had a standard open procedure (OGS). No statistical difference was found between the two groups in terms of 5 years cancer-related mortality rate (50% vs 52%, P = 1), and 5 years overall mortality rate (54.5% vs 56%, P = 1). Accordingly, cancer-related and overall survival probability by Kaplan-Meier method showed comparable results (P = 0.81 and P = 0.83, respectively). We found no differences in surgical complications in the 2 groups. There was no conversion to open surgery in this series.CONCLUSION: LGS is as effective as OGS in the management of advanced gastric cancer. However LGS cannot be recommended routinely over OGS for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer.

  20. Lympho-vascular invasion in BRCA related breast cancer compared to sporadic controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wall Elsken

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline mutations in the BRCA1 gene predispose to the development of breast cancer, exhibiting a specific histological phenotype. Identification of possible hallmarks of these tumors is important for selecting patients for genetic screening and provides inside in carcinogenetic pathways. Since BRCA1-associated breast cancers have pushing borders that prevent them from easily reaching vessels and are often of the medullary (like type that is known to have a low rate of lympho-vascular invasion (LVI, we hypothesized that absence of LVI could characterize BRCA1 related breast cancer. Methods A population of 68 BRCA1 related invasive breast cancers was evaluated for LVI by an experienced breast pathologist blinded to mutation status, and compared to a control group matched for age, grade and tumor type. Results LVI was present in 25.0% of BRCA1 related cases, compared to 20.6% of controls (P = 0.54, OR = 1.29, CI 0.58-2.78. Conclusion LVI is frequent in BRCA1 germline mutation related breast cancers, but seems to occur as often in sporadic controls matched for age, grade and tumor type. Apparently, these hereditary cancers find their way to the blood and lymph vessels despite their well demarcation and often medullary differentiation.

  1. Comparing the DNA hypermethylome with gene mutations in human colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornel E Schuebel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a transcriptome-wide approach to identify genes affected by promoter CpG island DNA hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing in colorectal cancer. By screening cell lines and validating tumor-specific hypermethylation in a panel of primary human colorectal cancer samples, we estimate that nearly 5% or more of all known genes may be promoter methylated in an individual tumor. When directly compared to gene mutations, we find larger numbers of genes hypermethylated in individual tumors, and a higher frequency of hypermethylation within individual genes harboring either genetic or epigenetic changes. Thus, to enumerate the full spectrum of alterations in the human cancer genome, and to facilitate the most efficacious grouping of tumors to identify cancer biomarkers and tailor therapeutic approaches, both genetic and epigenetic screens should be undertaken.

  2. Various functions of PBMC from colon cancer patients are not decreased compared to healthy blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    no difference in levels of intracellular cAMP, IL-2 mRNA expression, IL-2R mRNA expression, or proliferative responses of PBMC from colon cancer patients compared to healthy blood donors. There was no effect of the immune modulating agents on PBMC from colon cancer patients.......The immune surveillance hypothesis suggests impaired immune responses to participate in development of cancer. This may partly be due to increased amounts of PGE2 and histamine, which inhibit cellular immunity. These effects are mediated by cAMP, which is increased and thereby may down-regulate IL......-2 and its receptor proteins in T helper cells. The proliferative responses and IL-2 synthesis of PBMC have earlier been shown to be reduced in patients with colon cancer. Recently immune modulating agents have been demonstrated to increase the proliferative response of PBMC in vitro, probably...

  3. A comparative ecological study of selected cancers in Kanawha County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.; Talbott, E.O.; Marsh, G.M.; Case, B.W. (Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This study compares mortality rates for selected causes of death in Kanawha County, West Virginia, to rates reported in a number of geographically defined populations for 1950-1984. Specific conditions selected for study included cancers of the biliary passages and liver, the bladder and other urinary organs, and the central nervous system (CNS), as well as leukemia and aleukemia, lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease, and cancer of all other lymphopoietic tissue. The analysis made use of several techniques for the investigation of ecological data, including the modeling of rates using Poission regression. The primary findings of this study concern two subgroups of cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue: (1) leukemia and aleukemia, and (2) lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma. For both subgroups of cancers, white male residents of Kanawha County show evidence of significantly elevated mortality rates over the 35-year period of this study.

  4. Data Sources for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Behaviors - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The model-based estimates of important cancer risk factors and screening behaviors are obtained by combining the responses to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

  5. The Survey of Behavioral Systems in Relation to Test Anxiety: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir ABDOLHOSSEINI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to compare the behavioral activation systems between students with test anxiety (TA and without TA. Methods: This study included undergraduate students registered at the Medical Science University of during 2009-2010. The selected female students (N=300 completed Test Anxiety Scale (TAS and Gray-Wilson personality questionnaire (GWPQ and 100 students who have obtained the lowest and highest scores in TA questionnaire, were further compared according to Grays Brine-Behavioral questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a T-test. Results: The results showed that samples were significantly different in total scores of Gray-Wilson personality questionnaire. In terms of subscales of Gray-Wilson personality questionnaire, there was a significant difference between the two groups in the behavioral inhabitation system (BIS and fight -flight system (FFS but no significant differences found between two groups in the behavioral activation system (BAS. Conclusion: Test Anxiety was corresponded with brain systems behavior theory, and anxiety increased in the avoidance system activation.

  6. PANI and Graphene/PANI Nanocomposite Films — Comparative Toluene Gas Sensing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitesh Parmar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work discusses and compares the toluene sensing behavior of polyaniline (PANI and graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite (C-PANI films. The graphene–PANI ratio in the nanocomposite polymer film is optimized at 1:2. For this, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP solvent is used to prepare PANI-NMP solution as well as graphene-PANI-NMP solution. The films are later annealed at 230 °C, characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM as well Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and tested for their sensing behavior towards toluene. The sensing behaviors of the films are analyzed at different temperatures (30, 50 and 100 °C for 100 ppm toluene in air. The nanocomposite C-PANI films have exhibited better overall toluene sensing behavior in terms of sensor response, response and recovery time as well as repeatability. Although the sensor response of PANI (12.6 at 30 °C, 38.4 at 100 °C is comparatively higher than that of C-PANI (8.4 at 30 °C, 35.5 at 100 °C, response and recovery time of PANI and C-PANI varies with operating temperature. C-PANI at 50 °C seems to have better toluene sensing behavior in terms of response time and recovery time.

  7. COMPARING SAFE VS. AT-RISK BEHAVIORAL DATA TO PREDICT ACCIDENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe

    2001-11-01

    The Safety Observations Achieve Results (SOAR) program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) encourages employees to perform in-field observations of each other’s behaviors. One purpose for performing these observations is that it gives the observers the opportunity to correct, if needed, their co-worker’s at-risk work practices and habits (i.e., behaviors). The underlying premise of doing this is that major injuries (e.g., OSHA-recordable events) are prevented from occurring because the lower level at-risk behaviors are identified and corrected before they can propagate into culturally accepted unsafe behaviors that result in injuries or fatalities. However, unlike other observation programs, SOAR also emphasizes positive reinforcement for safe behaviors observed. The underlying premise of doing this is that positive reinforcement of safe behaviors helps establish a strong positive safety culture. Since the SOAR program collects both safe and at-risk leading indicator data, this provides a unique opportunity to assess and compare the two kinds of data in terms of their ability to predict future adverse safety events. This paper describes the results of analyses performed on SOAR data to assess their relative predictive ability. Implications are discussed.

  8. Effect of media relations on audiences: comparing how editorials and advertising influence behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tkalac Verčič

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A notion, according to which editorials have a bigger communication influence than advertisements, is very common and quite popular in public relations. The said notion is so prevalent (among both public relations and marketing communications experts that it has led to the concept of perceived influence multipliers that point to a stronger editorial influence in comparison to advertising influence (2.5 to 8 times stronger. Based on the described assumption, the aim of this paper was to further explore how the target audience perceives editorial and advertising content. The research problem was to compare the effects of both types of content on behavior and behavioral intent (through four media – Internet, radio, newspapers and television. Respondents were divided into two groups – current users of the service that was in focus (for influence on behavior and potential users (for influence on behavioral intent. Even though current users said that editorials had a bigger influence on their behavior, this difference was not significant. On the other hand, potential users stated that the advertising content shaped their behavioral intent more than did editorials. These results once again show the assumption, according to which editorials have a stronger communication influence than advertisements, to be highly questionable.

  9. Are long-term cancer survivors and physicians discussing health promotion and healthy behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzik, Kelly M; Fouad, Mona N.; Pisu, Maria; Martin, Michelle Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to 1) describe the proportion of survivors reporting that a physician discussed strategies to improve health and 2) identify which groups are more likely to report these discussions Methods Lung and colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors (>5 years from diagnosis) (n=874) completed questionnaires, including questions on whether in the previous year a physician discussed 1) strategies to improve health, 2) exercise, and 3) diet habits. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used to examine whether the likelihood of these discussions varied by demographic and clinical characteristics. Results Approximately 59% reported a physician discussed strategies to improve health and exercise, 44% discussed diet, and 24% reported no discussions. Compared to their counterparts, survivors with lower education were less likely report discussing all three areas, while survivors with diabetes were more likely. Survivors ≥65 were less likely to report discussing strategies to improve health and diet. Males and CRC survivors reported discussing diet more than their female and lung cancer counterparts, respectively Conclusion The frequency of health promotion discussions varies across survivor characteristics. While discussions were more frequently reported by some groups, e.g., survivors with diabetes, or among individuals less likely to engage in healthy behaviors, e.g., males, older and less educated survivors were less likely to have these discussions. Implications for survivors Decreasing physician barriers and activating patients to discuss health promotion especially in the context of clinical care for older survivors and those with low education, is critical to promoting the overall well-being of cancer survivors. PMID:26210659

  10. Defining Tumor Cell and Immune Cell Behavior in Vivo during Pulmonary Metastasis of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Congress in the Educational Session on Cancer Immunology . I gave a talk entitled “ Harnessing Intravital Microscopy To Understand The Real-Time...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0009 TITLE: Defining Tumor Cell and Immune Cell Behavior in Vivo during Pulmonary Metastasis of Breast Cancer ...average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data

  11. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  12. A comparative study of sexual function, behavior, and cognitions of women with lifelong vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherner, Rebecca A; Reissing, Elke D

    2013-11-01

    Vaginismus is classified as a sexual dysfunction, yet limited research is available on the sexual function and behavior of women with this condition. Comparing women with lifelong vaginismus to women with lifelong dyspareunia and women with no pain during intercourse, this study explored sexual function, anxiety, and behavior along with cognitions related to vaginal penetration. A total of 152 women completed an online survey that included a series of validated questionnaires. Main findings indicated that, relative to both comparison groups, women in the vaginismus group reported a more limited range of sexual behavior across the lifespan and more maladaptive cognitions related to fear of losing control of one's body and the situation during penetration. Compared to the no-pain group, both symptomatic groups reported more difficulties across several indicators of sexual function, more limited sexual behavior in the past year and past month, and more maladaptive cognitions related to vaginal penetration. However, women with vaginismus reported more sexual desire and less difficulty with lubrication compared to women with dyspareunia. Numerous sexual problems extending beyond vaginal penetration difficulties were confirmed, suggesting a need for broader treatment approaches not limited to the experience of vaginal penetration. Results were discussed as they relate to the fear-avoidance model of vaginismus.

  13. Using Cover, Copy, and Compare Spelling With and Without Timing for Elementary Students with Behavior Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danette DARROW

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cover, copy, and compare (CCC procedures on spelling performance with two students. The participants were two elementarystudents enrolled in a self-contained behavior intervention classroom. A multiple baseline design across participants was employed to evaluate the effects of CCC on time to completion and words spelled correctly. Improvements in all measures were found when CCC was in effect. The participants enjoyed the procedures and each improved their spelling over baseline performance. Theapplicability of CCC across academic contexts and for students with behavior disorders was discussed.

  14. Small-Sample Behavior of Novel Phase I Cancer Trial Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Oron, Assaf P

    2012-01-01

    Novel dose-finding designs, using estimation to assign the best estimated maximum- tolerated-dose (MTD) at each point in the experiment, most commonly via Bayesian techniques, have recently entered large-scale implementation in Phase I cancer clinical trials. We examine the small-sample behavior of these "Bayesian Phase I" (BP1) designs, and also of non-Bayesian designs sharing the same main "long-memory" traits (hereafter: LMP1s). For all LMP1s examined, the number of cohorts treated at the true MTD (denoted here as n*) was highly variable between numerical runs drawn from the same toxicity-threshold distribution, especially when compared with "up-and-down" (U&D) short-memory designs. Further investigation using the same set of thresholds in permuted order, produced a nearly-identical magnitude of variability in n*. Therefore, this LMP1 behavior is driven by a strong sensitivity to the order in which toxicity thresholds appear in the experiment. We suggest that the sensitivity is related to LMP1's tenden...

  15. Health psychology and translational genomic research: bringing innovation to cancer-related behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control.

  16. A Feasibility Study Related To Inactive Cancer Survivors Compared with Non-Cancer Controls during Aerobic Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Scott N.; Klika, Riggs J.; Carter, Susan D.; Sprod, Lisa K.; Donath, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Cancer survivors (CA) tend to demonstrate metabolic, cardiac, and ventilatory alterations due to previous chemotherapy and radiation that may impair adaptability following aerobic exercise training. Exercise training adaptations of CA finished with primary treatment compared to non-cancer participants (NC) have not yet been extensively elucidated. Thus, the present study compared physiologic responses of CA versus NC following a low-to-moderate intensity, 8-wk aerobic training program. Thirty-seven previously sedentary participants (CA: n = 14, 12 females; NC: n = 23, 19 females) with no heart or metabolic disease did not differ in age, height, weight, and body mass index (51 ± 2 y, 1.66 ± 0.02 m, 83.8 ± 3.2 kg, and 30.5 ± 1 kg·m-2). Each participant underwent baseline, 3-, 6-, and 8-wk VO2peak treadmill testing using the USAFSAM protocol and walked on a treadmill three times per week at 80-90% of ventilatory threshold (VT) for approximately 40-min·session-1. Variables obtained on the VO2peak tests included: HR at stage 2 (HR@stage2), rating of perceived exertion at stage 2 (RPE@stage2), lactate threshold (LT), ventilatory threshold (VT), salivary cortisol at 30-min post VO2peak test (SC@30-minPost),VO2peak level, time of fatigue (TOF), and maximal heart rate (HRmax). NC had significantly (p exercise capacity during 8 weeks of aerobic training and did not show altered adaptability compared to NC. We suggest prescribing aerobic exercise training at low/moderate intensity and duration initially, with progressive increases in duration and intensity after approximately 8-weeks. If available and supported, we advise clinicians to utilize submaximal threshold concepts obtained from cardiopulmonary exercise testing to prescribe more precise aerobic exercise training parameters. Key points Cancer survivors will most likely begin an exercise program after cancer therapy with a diminished functional capacity whereby baseline cardiopulmonary testing is recommended. By

  17. Can a virtual supermarket bring realism into the lab? Comparing shopping behavior using virtual and pictorial store representations to behavior in a physical store

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van Erica; Broek, van den Eva; Trijp, van Hans C.M.; Yu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Immersive virtual reality techniques present new opportunities for research into consumer behavior. The current study examines whether the increased realism of a virtual store compared to pictorial (2D) stimuli elicits consumer behavior that is more in line with behavior in a physical store. We exam

  18. Three-dimensional grayscale ultrasound: evaluation of prostate cancer compared with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Roermund, J.G. van; Leenders, G.L. van; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.; Wijkstra, H.; Rosette, J.J.M.H.C. de la

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the accuracy of the detection, localization, and staging of prostate cancer using transrectal three-dimensional (3D) grayscale ultrasonography (3D-US) with conventional transrectal two-dimensional grayscale ultrasonography (2D-US). METHODS: Fifty patients with clinical localiz

  19. Oral ftorafur versus intravenous 5-fluorouracil. A comparative study in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E; Pedersen, H

    1987-01-01

    The toxicities of oral Ftorafur (1 g/m2/day 1-21) and intravenous 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (500 mg/m2/day 1-5) were compared in a prospective randomized study in patients with colorectal cancer. The treatment courses were repeated every 6th week. Leucopenia was more common after 5-FU. Leucocyte nadir...

  20. Comparing factors affecting commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behavior in Taiwanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Hsiao-Ching

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel quid is the fourth most common used substance in the world after tobacco, alcohol and caffeine. Although factors related to betel quid chewing or cessation of behaviors were reported previously, few studies simultaneously compared both behaviors in the same population. In addition, it is essential to consider time-to-event concept, since the chance of developing or stopping habit may vary over time. The purpose of this study was to compare the risk factors for commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviors in a time-to-event setting. Methods A stratified multi-stage cluster sampling with selection probabilities proportional to size (PPS was designed for Taiwanese adults with aged 18 years old and above. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to compare and calculate the hazard rate ratios for related factors to commencement or cessation of chewing habits. Results In Taiwan, men had a higher betel quid chewing rate (M: 20.9%, W: 1.2%, but woman chewers had a lower cessation rate (M: 27.5%, W: 12.7%. The hazard rate ratio (HRR of having chewing habit changed from 4.22 (men vs women univariately to 1.38 multivariablely, which indicated gender differences were confounded by other factors. In multivariable analysis, the risk factors of gender, education and ethnicity were significantly associated with both starting and cessation of betel quid chewing behavior. The factors of occupation, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking were only associated with starting habit. Conclusion Commencement or cessation of chewing behavior involves a scenario of time, hence it is preferable to use a time-to-event approach for the comparison. The cessation rates of betel quid chewing were decreasingly associated with the daily consumption of betel quid. Hence, reducing of daily amount in betel quid cessation program may be associated with future stopping habit.

  1. Toward a better understanding of the comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates in Utah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiggins Charles L

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assesses whether comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates among white men in Utah represent higher rates among members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons, who comprise about 70% of the state's male population, and considers the potential influence screening has on these rates. Methods Analyses are based on 14,693 histologically confirmed invasive prostate cancer cases among men aged 50 years and older identified through the Utah Cancer Registry between 1985 and 1999. Cancer records were linked to LDS Church membership records to determine LDS status. Poisson regression was used to derive rate ratios of LDS to nonLDS prostate cancer incidence, adjusted for age, disease stage, calendar time, and incidental detection. Results LDS men had a 31% (95% confidence interval, 26% – 36% higher incidence rate of prostate cancer than nonLDS men during the study period. Rates were consistently higher among LDS men over time (118% in 1985–88, 20% in 1989–92, 15% in 1993–1996, and 13% in 1997–99; age (13% in ages 50–59, 48% in ages 60–69, 28% in ages 70–79, and 16% in ages 80 and older; and stage (36% in local/regional and 17% in unstaged. An age- and stage-shift was observed for both LDS and nonLDS men, although more pronounced among LDS men. Conclusions Comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates among LDS men in Utah are explained, at least in part, by more aggressive screening among these men.

  2. Comparative Development of Heterosexual and Homosexual Behaviors in Free-Ranging Female Japanese Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-07-01

    We used cross-sectional focal data collected in adolescent and adult females to elucidate the comparative development of heterosexual and homosexual behaviors in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama, Japan, in a group where adult females routinely exhibit sexual interactions with both males and females. Our data fully or partially supported most of our predictions (20 out of 30) related to the "learning hypothesis," which postulated that adolescence would serve to provide young females with a period in which to practice, and gradually acquire, three types of adult female-like heterosexual and homosexual behavioral patterns, namely sexual solicitations, sexual mounts, and spatio-temporal coordination during consortships. However, there were marked differences in the development of heterosexual and homosexual behaviors. The percentage of homosexual mounts was significantly higher in adolescent than in adult females. Of the fully or partially supported predictions, 13 of 15 pertained to heterosexual activity whereas only seven of 15 pertained to homosexual activity. A number of sexual behavioral patterns (e.g., demonstrative solicitations, range of solicitation patterns and mounting postures, and grasping behavior during consortships) emerged earlier and developed faster when directed to females than when directed to males. We explain such differences in terms of risk of male aggression, males' disinterest in adolescent females' sexual solicitations, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners, social facilitation, and sexual reward.

  3. Life expectancy of screen-detected invasive breast cancer patients compared with women invited to the Nijmegen Screening Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.M. Otten; M.J.M. Broeders (Mireille); G.J. den Heeten (Gerard); R. Holland (Roland); J. Fracheboud (Jacques); H.J. de Koning (Harry); A.L.M. Verbeek (Andre)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Screening can lead to earlier detection of breast cancer and thus to an improvement in survival. The authors studied the life expectancy of women with screen-detected invasive breast cancer (patients) compared with women invited to the breast cancer screening program in Nijme

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Nimesulide-Loaded Nanoparticles for Anticancer Activity Against Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengel-Turk, Ceyda Tuba; Hascicek, Canan; Bakar, Filiz; Simsek, Elif

    2017-02-01

    Recent clinical and epidemiological researches have declared that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents may display as antineoplastic agents and indicate pro-apoptotic and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells. The major purpose of this research was to develop a novel poly(ethyleneglycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) nano-sized particles encapsulated with nimesulide (NMS), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, and to evaluate its anticancer activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. NMS-encapsulated PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles were fabricated using three different production techniques: (i) by emulsion-solvent evaporation using a high shear homogenizer, (ii) by emulsion-solvent evaporation using an ultrasonicator, and (iii) by nanoprecipitation. Nanoparticles were evaluated with respect to the entrapment efficiency, size characteristics, drug release rates, thermal behavior, cell viability assays, and apoptosis. The resulting nanoparticles were found to be spherical shapes with negative surface charges. The average diameter of all nanoparticles ranged between 148.5 and 307.2 nm. In vitro release profiles showed that all nanoparticles exhibited a biphasic release pattern. NMS-loaded PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles demonstrated significant anticancer activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the effects of nanoparticles on cell proliferation were significantly affected by the preparation techniques. The nanoparticles developed in this work displayed higher potential for the NMS delivery against breast cancer treatment for the future.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Thermal Behavior, Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics and Polymorphism of Palm Oil Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xia; Lin LI; Xie, He; Liang, Zhili; Su, Jianyu; Liu, Guoqin; LI, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Thermal behavior of palm stearin (PS) and palm olein (PO) was explored by monitoring peak temperature transitions by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The fatty acid composition (FAC), isothermal crystallization kinetics studied by pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (pNMR) and isothermal microstructure were also compared. The results indicated that the fatty acid composition had an important influence on the crystallization process. PS and PO both exhibited more multiple endotherms than...

  6. Predicting Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Smokers, Former Smokers and Nonsmokers Using the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suekyung

    2013-01-01

    Cancer can be one of the most serious diseases that can result in a costly reduction in the quality of life. Among a number of cancer risk factors, tobacco use has been identified as the leading preventable cause of deaths. Prior research has suggested that cancer information seeking may be a pre-step to adopt health protective behaviors that can…

  7. Effects of continuous wave and fractionated diode laser on human fibroblast cancer and dermal normal cells by zinc phthalocyanine in photodynamic therapy: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaeipour, Farzaneh; Afsharan, Hadi; Tajalli, Habib; Mollabashi, Mahmood; Ranjbari, Farideh; Montaseri, Azadeh; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-08-01

    In this experimental study, cancer and normal cells behavior during an in vitro photodynamic therapy (PDT) under exposure of continuous wave (CW) and fractionated mode of laser with different irradiation power and time intervals was compared and investigated. At the first, human fibroblast cancer cell line (SW 872) and human dermal normal (HFFF2) cell line were incubated with different concentrations of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc), as a PDT drug. The cells, then, were irradiated with a 675nm diode laser and the cell viability was evaluated using MTT assay. Under optimized conditions, the viability of the cancer cells was eventually reduced to 3.23% and 13.17%, and that of normal cells was decreased to 20.83% and 36.23% using CW and fractionated diode lasers, respectively. In general, the ratio of ZnPc LD50 values for the normal cells to the cancer cells with CW laser was much higher than that of the fractionated laser. Subsequently, cancer cells in comparison with normal ones were found to be more sensitive toward the photodynamic damage induced by ZnPc. In addition, treatment with CW laser was found to be more effective against the cancer cells with a lower toxicity to the normal cells compared with the fractionated diode laser.

  8. Comparing Executive Function and Behavioral Inhibition in Schizophrenia, Bipolar Mood Disorder Type I and Normal Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziye Khodaee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and Bipolar I disorder seems to be different from the normal individuals, that these defects affect their treatment results. Therefore, this study aimed to compare executive function and behavioral inhibition within patients suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar type I as well as a normal group. Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, out of all patients hospitalized in daily psychiatric clinic in Najafabad in 2014 due to these disorders, 20 schizophrenia and 20 bipolar type I as well as 20 normal individuals were selected via the convinience sampling. All the study participants completed the computerizing tests including Tower of London and Go-No Go. The study data were analyzed utilizing SPSS software (ver 22 via MANOVA. Results: The study findings revealed a significant difference between the two patient groups and the normal group in regard with executive function and behavioral inhibition (p<0.05, whereas no differences were detected between schizophrenics and bipolar patient groups. Furthermore, patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar I mood disorder demonstrated significantly poor performance in cognitive function and behavioral inhibition compared to the normal group. Conclusion: The present study results can be significantly applied in pathology and therapy of these disorders, so as recognizing the inability of such patients can be effective in developing cognitive rehabilitation programs in these patients.

  9. Breast Cancer Survivors’ Beliefs and Preferences Regarding Technology-Supported Sedentary Behavior Reduction Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. Spring

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Less time spent in sedentary behaviors is associated with improved health and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, little is known about survivors’ interest in sedentary behavior reduction interventions and how to effectively reduce this risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore breast cancer survivors’ interest in and preferences for technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions. Methods: Breast cancer survivors (n = 279; Mage = 60.7 (SD = 9.7 completed a battery of online questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all data. To examine potential relationships between demographic, disease and behavioral factors, and survivors’ interest in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention, we conducted logistic regression analyses. These same factors were examined in relation to the perceptions of the effectiveness of such intervention using multiple regression analyses. Results: On average, survivors spent 10.1 (SD = 4.3 hours/day in sedentary activity. They believed prolonged periods of sedentary behavior were harmful to their health (87.0% and that reducing sedentary behavior could improve their health (88.4%. Survivors believed they should move around after 30–60 (56.7% or ≥ 60 (29.9% minutes of sedentary behavior and indicated they were most likely to replace sedentary behaviors with walking around (97.1% or walking in place (73.4%. The majority of survivors (79.9% was interested in participating in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention and indicated they would use a smartphone application (61.3% 2–3 times/day (48.0%, 6 to 7 days/week (52.0%. Most survivors (73.5% believed reminders would help them decrease sedentary behavior and preferred they be delivered after sitting for 60 minutes (60.5% via vibrations on a wrist worn activity tracker (77.3% or text messages (54.4%. Conclusions: Technology-supported sedentary

  10. Acetylsalicylic Acid Compared to Placebo in Treating High-Risk Patients With Subsolid Lung Nodules | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies acetylsalicylic acid compared to placebo in treating high-risk patients with subsolid lung nodules. A nodule is a growth or lump that may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). Chemoprevention is the use of drugs to keep cancer from forming or coming back. The use of acetylsalicylic acid may keep cancer from forming in patients with subsolid lung nodules. |

  11. Lifestyle behaviors, obesity, and perceived health among men with and without a diagnosis of prostate cancer: A population-based, cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markwell Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of how prostate cancer survivors differ from men without prostate cancer and whether these potential differences vary across demographic subgroups will help to focus and prioritize future public health interventions for improving the health and well-being of prostate cancer survivors. Therefore, our study aims were to compare lifestyle behaviors, body mass index (BMI, and perceived health in men with and without a diagnosis of prostate cancer in a national, population-based sample and to explore whether these comparisons differ for demographic subgroups. Methods In a cross-sectional study, men aged ≥ 40 were identified from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS 2002 data (n = 63,662. Respondents reporting history of prostate cancer (n = 2,524 were compared with non prostate cancer controls (n = 61,138 with regard to daily fruit and vegetable servings (FVPD, smoking, alcohol, sedentary behavior, BMI, and perceived health. Multivariable logistic regression calculated adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the entire sample and for age, race, education, and urbanicity subgroups. Results Men with prostate cancer did not differ from men without prostate cancer with regard to smoking, alcohol, sedentary behavior, and obesity but were more likely to consume ≥ 5 FVPD (OR, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.09–1.56 and report poor or fair health (OR, 95% CI: 1.62, 1.33–1.97. Subgroup analyses demonstrated attenuation of the higher likelihood of ≥ 5 FVPD among prostate cancer survivors in rural respondents (OR, 95% CI: 0.98, 0.72–1.33. Poorer perceived health was greatest if ≤ 65 years of age (OR, 95% CI: 2.54, 1.79–3.60 and nonsignificant if black (OR, 95% CI: 1.41, 0.70–2.82. Smoking and alcohol which were not significant for the sample as a whole, demonstrated significant associations in certain subgroups. Conclusion Although efforts to enhance perceived health and healthy

  12. Increasing Disadvantages in Cancer Survival in New Zealand Compared to Australia, between 2000-05 and 2006-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, J Mark; Aye, Phyu Sin; Tin Tin, Sandar

    2016-01-01

    New Zealand has lower cancer survival compared to its neighbour Australia. If this were due to long established differences between the two patient populations, it might be expected to be either constant in time, or decreasing, as improving health services deals with inequities. In this study we compared trends in relative cancer survival ratios in New Zealand and Australia between 2000-05 and 2006-10, using data from the New Zealand Cancer Registry and the Australian Institute for Health and Welfare. Over this period, Australia showed significant improvements (6.0% in men, 3.0% in women) in overall 5-year cancer survival, with substantial increases in survival from major cancer sites such as lung, bowel, prostate, and breast cancers. New Zealand had only a 1.8% increase in cancer survival in men and 1.3% in women, with non-significant changes in survival from lung and bowel cancers, although there were increases in survival from prostate and breast cancers. For all cancers combined, and for lung and bowel cancer, the improvements in survival and the greater improvements in Australia were mainly in 1-year survival, suggesting factors related to diagnosis and presentation. For breast cancer, the improvements were similar in each country and seen in survival after the first year. The findings underscore the need to accelerate the efforts to improve early diagnosis and optimum treatment for New Zealand cancer patients to catch up with the progress in Australia.

  13. Increasing Disadvantages in Cancer Survival in New Zealand Compared to Australia, between 2000-05 and 2006-10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mark Elwood

    Full Text Available New Zealand has lower cancer survival compared to its neighbour Australia. If this were due to long established differences between the two patient populations, it might be expected to be either constant in time, or decreasing, as improving health services deals with inequities. In this study we compared trends in relative cancer survival ratios in New Zealand and Australia between 2000-05 and 2006-10, using data from the New Zealand Cancer Registry and the Australian Institute for Health and Welfare. Over this period, Australia showed significant improvements (6.0% in men, 3.0% in women in overall 5-year cancer survival, with substantial increases in survival from major cancer sites such as lung, bowel, prostate, and breast cancers. New Zealand had only a 1.8% increase in cancer survival in men and 1.3% in women, with non-significant changes in survival from lung and bowel cancers, although there were increases in survival from prostate and breast cancers. For all cancers combined, and for lung and bowel cancer, the improvements in survival and the greater improvements in Australia were mainly in 1-year survival, suggesting factors related to diagnosis and presentation. For breast cancer, the improvements were similar in each country and seen in survival after the first year. The findings underscore the need to accelerate the efforts to improve early diagnosis and optimum treatment for New Zealand cancer patients to catch up with the progress in Australia.

  14. Emotional and behavioral problems in children of parents recently diagnosed with cancer : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, Gea A.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Van Der Graaf, Winette Ta; Donofrio, Stacey; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette Ehm

    2007-01-01

    A study examines the prevalence of problems in children within four months after a parent's cancer diagnosis (T1) and six (T2) and twelve months (T3) afterwards. Sixty-nine ill parents and 57 spouses completed the Child Behavior Checklist for 57 primary school (aged 4-11 years) and 66 adolescent chi

  15. Emotional and behavioral problems in children of parents recently diagnosed with cancer : a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Huizinga, G.A.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of problems in children within four months after a parent's cancer diagnosis (T1) and six (T2) and twelve months (T3) afterwards. Sixty-nine ill parents and 57 spouses completed the Child Behavior Checklist for 57 primary school (aged 4-11 years) and 66 adolescent

  16. Oral Cancer Risk Behaviors among Indiana College Students: A Formative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychowdhury, Swati; Lohrmann, David K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: In fall 2004, the authors used a survey to assess the knowledge, attitudes, motivations, and behaviors of college students relative to oral cancer prevention to inform development of targeted prevention programming. Participants: A convenience sample of 1,003 undergraduate students at one public university in Indiana participated.…

  17. Recognition of skin cancer and sun protective behaviors in skin of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Chikoti M; Wesley, Naissan O; Jackson, Brooke A

    2013-09-01

    Sun protective behaviors are not as frequently practiced in skin of color as they are amongst Caucasians.1 Thus providing a reasonable assumption this behavior, or lack thereof, increases the risk of skin cancer in this skin of color populations. The aim of this study was two-fold-- the first was to understand whether patients with skin of color, when categorized by ethnicity or skin type, are able to recognize skin cancer lesions. The second was to examine the correlation between ethnicity and/or skin type and practice of sun protective behaviors. We surveyed 105 respondents presenting for various skin problems in a dermatology office in Chicago, IL. Topics covered in the survey included recognition of skin cancer appearance and choice of sun protective behaviors. We show that there is a tendency for patients to potentially recognize atypical pigmented lesions when they are "dark moles with irregular borders" or "new moles". In contrast, there is a reduced ability among darkly pigmented skin types IV to VI, to recognize non-melanoma skin cancers. We also show that in addition to ethnicity, skin type within ethnic groups may also play an influential role on the decision to protect or not protect oneself from the sun.

  18. Review of colorectal cancer and its metastases in rodent models: comparative aspects with those in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobaek-Larsen, M; Thorup, I; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt;

    2000-01-01

    that human trials become more directed, with greater chances of success. The orthotopic transplantation of colon cancer cells into the cecum of syngeneic animals or intraportal inoculation appears to resemble the human metastatic disease most closely, providing a model for study of the treatment......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the most common cancer forms developing in industrialized countries, and its incidence appears to be rising. Studies of human population groups provide insufficient information about carcinogenesis, pathogenesis, and treatment of CRC...... models approximate many of the characteristics of human colonic carcinogenesis and metastasis. So far few comparative evaluations of the various animal models of CRC have been made. CONCLUSION: Animal studies cannot replace human clinical trials, but they can be used as a pre-screening tool, so...

  19. Skin Cancer Knowledge, Beliefs, Self-Efficacy, and Preventative Behaviors among North Mississippi Landscapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak K. Nahar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are slightly over one million workers in the landscape service industry in the US. These workers have potential for high levels of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure, increasing their risk of skin cancer. A cross-sectional sample of 109 landscapers completed a self-administered questionnaire based on Health Belief Model (HBM. The participants correctly answered 67.1% of the knowledge questions, 69.7% believed they were more likely than the average person to get skin cancer, and 87.2% perceived skin cancer as a severe disease. Participants believed that the use of wide-brimmed hats, long sleeved shirts/long pants, and sunscreen was beneficial but reported low usage of these and other sun protective strategies. The primary barriers to using sun protection were “I forget to wear it” and “it is too hot to wear.” Of the HBM variables, perceived benefits outweighing perceived barrier (, and self-efficacy (, were correlated with sun protection behaviors. The reasons for absence of the relationship between perceived skin cancer threat and sun protection behaviors could be lack of skin cancer knowledge and low rate of personal skin cancer history.

  20. Applying the Health Belief Model in Predicting Breast Cancer Screening Behavior of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoudiyekta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. However, early detection of this cancer leads to a timely treatment and better prognosis, which significantly improves the survival rate in patients. Objectives The purpose of this study was to predict the breast cancer screening behavior of women who referred to health centers in Dezful, Iran, using the health belief model (HBM. Patients and Methods This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 226 women who were selected with cluster sampling method from those referred to Dezful health centers. Data collection tool was a researcher made questionnaire based on the constructs of the HBM. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and through methods of descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and regression. Results According to the findings of the study, the knowledge and performance of women were poor, and there was a significant relationship between women’s performance and variables of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action. In addition, variables of knowledge (P = 0.001, perceived sensitivity (P = 0.022, and self-efficacy (P = 0.001 were predictors of performance in women participating in this study. Conclusions Poor knowledge and performance of women indicates a crucial need for formal educational programs to sensitize women regarding the importance of breast cancer screening. These educational programs should consider factors affecting breast cancer screening behaviors.

  1. Electrical field manipulation of cancer cell behavior monitored by whole cell biosensing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondroulis, Evangelia; Melnick, Steven J; Zhang, Xueji; Wu, Ze-Zhi; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2013-08-01

    All living cells possess electrical characteristics and are thus responsive to, and even generate electric fields and currents. It has been shown that the electrical properties of cancer cells differ from normal proliferating cells, thus electric fields may induce differential effects in normal and cancer cells. Manipulation of these electrical properties may provide a powerful direct and/or adjuvant therapeutic option for cancer. A whole cell impedance-based biosensor to monitor the effects of a range of different frequencies (50 kHz-2 MHz) at low-intensity (growth rate of human SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells versus non-cancerous HUVECs is reported. Rapid real-time monitoring of the SKOV3 behavior was observed as the alternating electric fields were applied and the impedimetric response of the cells was recorded. The cells were also labeled with propidium iodide to examine morphological changes and cell viability with fluorescence microscopy with trypan blue for comparison. A noticeable decrease in the growth profile of the SKOV3 was observed with the application of 200 kHz alternating electric fields indicating specific inhibitory effects on dividing cells in culture in contrast to the HUVECs. The outcome of this research will improve our fundamental understanding of the behavior of cancer cells when exposed to alternating electric fields at specific frequencies and foster the development strategies and optimal parameters for alternating electric field therapies for clinical and drug delivery applications.

  2. Depression treatment in individuals with cancer: a comparative analysis with cardio-metabolic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi B. Rane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A clear picture of the current state of nationwide depression treatment practices in individuals with cancer and depression does not exist in the United States (US. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to examine rates of any depression treatment among individuals with cancer and depression in the US. To better understand the relationship between any treatment for depression and presence of cancer, we used a comparison group of individuals with cardio-metabolic conditions owing to the similar challenges faced in management of depression in individuals with these conditions. We used a retrospective cross-sectional design and data from multiple years of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative household-survey on healthcare utilization and expenditures. Study sample consisted of adults aged 21 or older with self-reported depression and cancer (n=528 or self-reported depression and diabetes, heart disease or hypertension (n=1643. Depression treatment comprised of any use of antidepres- sants and/or any use of mental health counseling services. Treatment rates for depression were 78.0% and 81.7% among individuals with cancer and cardio-metabolic conditions respectively. After controlling for socio-demographic, access-to-care, number of physician-visits, health-status, and lifestyle risk-factors related variables; individuals with cancer were less likely to report any treatment for depression (Adjusted Odds Ratio=0.67; 95% Confidence Interval=0.49, 0.92 compared to individuals with cardio-metabolic conditions (P≤0.01. Our findings highlight the possibility that competing demands may crowd out treatment for depression and that cancer diagnosis may be a barrier to depression treatment.

  3. A Prefrontal-Hippocampal Comparator for Goal-Directed Behavior: The Intentional Self and Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this article is that the interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus play a critical role in the modulation of goal-directed self-action and the strengthening of episodic memories. We describe various theories that model a comparator function for the hippocampus, and then elaborate the empirical evidence that supports these theories. One theory which describes a prefrontal-hippocampal comparator for voluntary action is emphasized. Action plans are essential for successful goal-directed behavior, and are elaborated by the prefrontal cortex. When an action plan is initiated, the prefrontal cortex transmits an efference copy (or corollary discharge) to the hippocampus where it is stored as a working memory for the action plan (which includes the expected outcomes of the action plan). The hippocampus then serves as a response intention-response outcome working memory comparator. Hippocampal comparator function is enabled by the hippocampal theta rhythm allowing the hippocampus to compare expected action outcomes to actual action outcomes. If the expected and actual outcomes match, the hippocampus transmits a signal to prefrontal cortex which strengthens or consolidates the action plan. If a mismatch occurs, the hippocampus transmits an error signal to the prefrontal cortex which facilitates a reformulation of the action plan, fostering behavioral flexibility and memory updating. The corollary discharge provides the self-referential component to the episodic memory, affording the personal and subjective experience of what behavior was carried out, when it was carried out, and in what context (where) it occurred. Such a perspective can be applied to episodic memory in humans, and episodic-like memory in non-human animal species.

  4. A prefrontal-hippocampal comparator for goal-directed behavior: the intentional self and episodic memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eNuman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe hypothesis of this article is that the interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus play a critical role in the modulation of goal-directed self-action and the strengthening of episodic memories. We describe various theories that model a comparator function for the hippocampus, and then elaborate the empirical evidence that supports these theories. One theory which describes a prefrontal-hippocampal comparator for voluntary action, is emphasized. Action plans are essential for successful goal-directed behavior, and are elaborated by the prefrontal cortex. When an action plan is initiated, the prefrontal cortex transmits an efference copy (or corollary discharge to the hippocampus where it is stored as a working memory for the action plan (which includes the expected outcomes of the action plan. The hippocampus then serves as a response intention-response outcome working memory comparator. Hippocampal comparator function is enabled by the hippocampal theta rhythm allowing the hippocampus to compare expected action outcomes to actual action outcomes. If the expected and actual outcomes match, the hippocampus transmits a signal to prefrontal cortex which strengthens or consolidates the action plan. If a mismatch occurs, the hippocampus transmits an error signal to the prefrontal cortex which facilitates a reformulation of the action plan, fostering behavioral flexibility. The corollary discharge provides the self-referential component to the episodic memory, affording the personal and subjective experience of what behavior was carried out, when it was carried out, and in what context (where it occurred. Such a perspective can be applied to episodic memory in humans, and episodic-like memory in subhuman animal species.

  5. Collective behavior and critical fluctuations in the spatial spreading of obesity, diabetes and cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Gallos, Lazaros K; Havlin, Shlomo; Sigman, Mariano; Makse, Hernán A

    2012-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases like diabetes, obesity and certain forms of cancer have been increasing in many countries at alarming levels. A difficulty in the conception of policies to reverse these trends is the identification of the drivers behind the global epidemics. Here, we implement a spatial spreading analysis to investigate whether diabetes, obesity and cancer show spatial correlations revealing the effect of collective and global factors acting above individual choices. We adapt a theoretical framework for critical physical systems displaying collective behavior to decipher the laws of spatial spreading of diseases. We find a regularity in the spatial fluctuations of their prevalence revealed by a pattern of scale-free long-range correlations. The fluctuations are anomalous, deviating in a fundamental way from the weaker correlations found in the underlying population distribution. This collective behavior indicates that the spreading dynamics of obesity, diabetes and some forms of cancer like lung can...

  6. "That word, cancer": breast care behavior of Hispanic women in new Mexico background and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar; De Vargas, Felicia; Sanchez, Christina; Oetzel, John

    2010-01-01

    Despite international efforts, national and ethnic disparities in utilization of breast cancer (BC) screenings prevail. In the United States, Hispanic women have one of the lowest BC screening rates. The purpose of our study was to examine how Hispanic women in New Mexico described their breast care behavior (BCB; BC screening practices, motivation to act, and breast care information behavior). Analysis of focus groups revealed five types of approaches to BCB. These findings have global implications for health care practitioners in directing attention toward the complexity of BC preventive behavior. Implications for other ethnic groups are discussed.

  7. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE AND COMBINATION FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING CERVICAL CANCER LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pradeep Kumar Kenny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common form of cancer affecting women especially in third world countries. The predominant reason for such alarming rate of death is primarily due to lack of awareness and proper health care. As they say, prevention is better than cure, a better strategy has to be put in place to screen a large number of women so that an early diagnosis can help in saving their lives. One such strategy is to implement an automated system. For an automated system to function properly a proper set of features have to be extracted so that the cancer cell can be detected efficiently. In this paper we compare the performances of detecting a cancer cell using a single feature versus a combination feature set technique to see which will suit the automated system in terms of higher detection rate. For this each cell is segmented using multiscale morphological watershed segmentation technique and a series of features are extracted. This process is performed on 967 images and the data extracted is subjected to data mining techniques to determine which feature is best for which stage of cancer. The results thus obtained clearly show a higher percentage of success for combination feature set with 100% accurate detection rate.

  8. Caregiving associated with selected cancer risk behaviors and screening utilization among women: cross-sectional results of the 2009 BRFSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Katherine W

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Informal caregiving is increasingly common as the U.S. population ages, and there is concern that caregivers are less likely than non-caregivers to practice health-promoting behaviors, including cancer screening. We examined caregiving effects on cancer risk behaviors and breast and cervical cancer screening in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Methods Women age ≥41 with data on breast and cervical cancer screening were included (weighted frequency 3,478,000 women. Cancer screening was classified according to American Cancer Society guidelines. We evaluated the association of caregiving with cancer risk behaviors (obesity, physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking status, and fruit/vegetable consumption and cancer screening (mammography, clinical breast exam [CBE], and Pap test using logistic regression overall and with stratification on age ( Results Caregivers had greater odds of being obese, physically active, and current smokers. Subgroup analyses revealed that caregiving was associated with obesity in younger women and whites, and with less obesity in older women. Also, caregiving was associated with smoking only among younger women and non-whites. Caregivers had greater odds of ever having had a mammogram or CBE, yet there was no association with mammogram, CBE, or Pap test within guidelines. Conclusions Caregiving was associated with some health behaviors that increase cancer risk, yet not with cancer screening within guidelines. Effects of caregiving by age and race require confirmation by additional studies.

  9. Comparing Reasons for Quitting Substance Abuse with the Constructs of Behavioral Models: A Qualitative Study

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    Hamid Tavakoli Ghouchani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The world population has reached over seven billion people. Of these, 230 million individuals abuse substances. Therefore, substance abuse prevention and treatment programs have received increasing attention during the past two decades. Understanding people’s motivations for quitting drug abuse is essential to the success of treatment. This study hence sought to identify major motivations for quitting and to compare them with the constructs of health education models. Materials and Methods: In the present study, qualitative content analysis was used to determine the main motivations for quitting substance abuse. Overall, 22 patients, physicians, and psychotherapists were selected from several addiction treatment clinics in Bojnord (Iran during 2014. Purposeful sampling method was applied and continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews and field notes. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Results: Content analysis revealed 33 sub-categories and nine categories including economic problems, drug-related concerns, individual problems, family and social problems, family expectations, attention to social status, beliefs about drug addiction, and valuing the quitting behavior. Accordingly, four themes, i.e. perceived threat, perceived barriers, attitude toward the behavior, and subjective norms, were extracted. Conclusion: Reasons for quitting substance abuse match the constructs of different behavioral models (e.g. the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior.

  10. Topics and sources of memorable breast cancer messages and their impact on prevention and detection behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W; Nazione, Samantha; Laplante, Carolyn; Kotowski, Michael R; Atkin, Charles; Skubisz, Christine M; Stohl, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Often, people are able to recall a message on a particular topic for a long period of time. These memorable messages have the ability to influence behavior when they are recalled from memory long after initial exposure. Knowing the topics and sources of the messages that are remembered about breast cancer can improve the efficacy of future breast cancer outreach. To this end, 359 women completed an online survey about memorable breast cancer messages. Most women (60%) recalled a memorable message, described it, identified its source, and noted whether it had resulted in prevention or detection behaviors. Four categories of message topics emerged: early detection (37.3%), awareness (30.9%), treatment (25.8%), and prevention (6%). Furthermore, five categories of sources of these memorable messages were found: media (35.5%), friends (22.2%), family (21.6%), medical professionals (15.2%), and others (5.5%). The media were a major source of all four topics of messages, although family members, friends, and the medical community were major sources for particular message topics as well. Memorable messages originating from medical professionals were substantially more likely to motivate detection behaviors than prevention behaviors. This research demonstrates that message topic and source both play roles in determining message recall as well as in determining how memorable messages impacted behavior.

  11. Factors associated with prostate cancer screening behavior among men over 50 in Fasa, Iran, based on the PRECEDE model

    OpenAIRE

    Jeihooni, Ali Khani; Kashfi, Seyyed Mansour; Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan; Heydarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Imanzad, Masoumeh; Hafez, Asghar Ashrafi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most common and lethal cancers in the world. The incidence of prostate cancer has been increasing in recent years. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with prostate cancer screening behaviors among men over 50 in Fasa, Iran, based on the PRECEDE model. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 400 men over 50 were studied in Fasa, Iran. Data were collected via a questionnaire on demographic characteristics, such as age, numbe...

  12. Comparative oncogenomic analysis of copy number alterations in human and zebrafish tumors enables cancer driver discovery.

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    GuangJun Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of cancer drivers is a major goal of current cancer research. Finding driver genes within large chromosomal events is especially challenging because such alterations encompass many genes. Previously, we demonstrated that zebrafish malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are highly aneuploid, much like human tumors. In this study, we examined 147 zebrafish MPNSTs by massively parallel sequencing and identified both large and focal copy number alterations (CNAs. Given the low degree of conserved synteny between fish and mammals, we reasoned that comparative analyses of CNAs from fish versus human MPNSTs would enable elimination of a large proportion of passenger mutations, especially on large CNAs. We established a list of orthologous genes between human and zebrafish, which includes approximately two-thirds of human protein-coding genes. For the subset of these genes found in human MPNST CNAs, only one quarter of their orthologues were co-gained or co-lost in zebrafish, dramatically narrowing the list of candidate cancer drivers for both focal and large CNAs. We conclude that zebrafish-human comparative analysis represents a powerful, and broadly applicable, tool to enrich for evolutionarily conserved cancer drivers.

  13. Treatment outcome in patients with triple negative early stage breast cancers compared with other molecular subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young; Chang, Sei Kyung; Lee, Bo Mi; Shin, Hyun Soo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heily [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Presbyterian Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To determine whether triple negative (TN) early stage breast cancers have poorer survival rates compared with other molecular types. Between August 2000 and July 2006, patients diagnosed with stage I, II early stage breast cancers, in whom all three markers (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor [HER]-2) were available and treated with modified radical mastectomy or breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy, were retrospectively reviewed. Of 446 patients, 94 (21.1%) were classified as TN, 57 (12.8%) as HER-2 type, and 295 (66.1%) as luminal. TN was more frequently associated with young patients younger than 35 years old (p = 0.002), higher histologic grade (p < 0.0001), and nuclear (p < 0.0001). The median follow-up period was 78 months (range, 4 to 130 months). There were 9 local relapses (2.0%), 15 nodal (3.4%), 40 distant metastases (9.0%), and 33 deaths (7.4%) for all patients. The rates of 5-year OS, DFS, LFS, and DMFS for all patients were 95.5%, 89.9%, 95.4%, and 91.7%, respectively. There were no significant differences in OS, DFS, LFS, and DMFS between triple negative and other subtypes (p > 0.05). We found that patients with TN early stage breast cancers had no difference in survival rates compared with other molecular subtypes. Prospective study in homogeneous treatment group will need for a prognosis of TN early stage breast cancer.

  14. Unsupportive Partner Behaviors, Social-Cognitive Processing, and Psychological Outcomes in Couples Coping with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Manne, Sharon; Kashy, Deborah A.; Siegel, Scott; Myers, Shannon; Heckman, Carolyn; Ryan, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between partner unsupportive behaviors, social and cognitive processing, and adaptation in patients and their spouses using a dyadic and interdependent analytic approach. Women with early stage breast cancer (N=330) and their spouses completed measures of partner unsupportive behavior, maladaptive social (holding back sharing concerns) and cognitive processing (mental disengagement, and behavioral disengagement), and global well-being and cancer distress. Resu...

  15. Individual-Level Factors in Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Review of the Literature on the Relation of Individual-Level Health Behavior Constructs and Screening Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviniemi, Marc T.; Bennett, Alyssa; Zaiter, Marie; Marshall, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Compliance with colorectal cancer screening recommendations requires considerable conscious effort on the part of the individual patient, making an individual's decisions about engagement in screening an important contributor to compliance or noncompliance. The objective of this paper was to examine the effectiveness of individual-level behavior theories and their associated constructs in accounting for engagement in colorectal cancer screening behavior. We reviewed the literature examining c...

  16. Health seeking behavioral analysis associated with breast cancer screening among Asian American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast

  17. Comparing two classifications of cancer cachexia and their association with survival in patients with unresected pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseltoft-Rao, Nima; Hjermstad, Marianne J; Ikdahl, Tone; Dajani, Olav; Ulven, Stine M; Iversen, Per Ole; Bye, Asta

    2015-01-01

    There is no universally accepted definition of cancer cachexia. Two classifications have been proposed; the 3-factor classification requiring ≥ 2 of 3 factors; weight loss ≥ 10%, food intake ≤ 1500 kcal/day, and C-reactive protein ≥ 10 mg/l, and the consensus classification requiring weight loss >5% the past 6 mo, or body mass index 2%. Precachexia is the initial stage of the cachexia trajectory, identified by weight loss ≤ 5%, anorexia and metabolic change. We examined the consistency between the 2 classifications, and their association with survival in a palliative cohort of 45 (25 men, median age of 72 yr, range 35-89) unresected pancreatic cancer patients. Computed tomography images were used to determine sarcopenia. Height/weight/C-reactive protein and survival were extracted from medical records. Food intake was self-reported. The agreement for cachexia and noncachexia was 78% across classifications. Survival was poorer in cachexia compared to noncachexia (3-factor classification, P = 0.0052; consensus classification, P = 0.056; when precachexia was included in the consensus classification, P = 0.027). Both classifications showed a trend toward lower median survival (P cachexia. In conclusion, the two classifications showed good overall agreement in defining cachectic pancreatic cancer patients, and cachexia was associated with poorer survival according to both.

  18. Pharmacokinetics in Mouse and Comparative Effects of Frondosides in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasem Al Shemaili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The frondosides are triterpenoid glycosides from the Atlantic sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa. Frondoside A inhibits growth, invasion, metastases and angiogenesis and induces apoptosis in diverse cancer types, including pancreatic cancer. We compared the growth inhibitory effects of three frondosides and their aglycone and related this to the pharmocokinetics and route of administration. Frondoside A potently inhibited growth of pancreatic cancer cells with an EC50 of ~1 µM. Frondoside B was less potent (EC50 ~2.5 µM. Frondoside C and the aglycone had no effect. At 100 µg/kg, frondoside A administered to CD2F1 mice as an i.v. bolus, the Cpmax was 129 nM, Cltb was 6.35 mL/min/m2, and half-life was 510 min. With i.p. administration the Cpmax was 18.3 nM, Cltb was 127 mL/min/m2 and half-life was 840 min. Oral dosing was ineffective. Frondoside A (100 µg/kg/day i.p. markedly inhibited growth cancer xenografts in nude mice. The same dose delivered by oral gavage had no effect. No evidence of acute toxicity was seen with frondoside A. Frondoside A is more potent inhibitor of cancer growth than other frondosides. The glycoside component is essential for bioactivity. Frondoside A is only effective when administered systemically. Based on the current and previous studies, frondoside A appears safe and may be valuable in the treatment of cancer.

  19. Comparative analysis of clinicopathological correlations of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in resectable pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marketa; Hermanova; Petr; Karasek; Jiri; Tomasek; Jiri; Lenz; Jiri; Jarkovsky; Petr; Dite

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To perform a comparative analysis of clinicopathological correlations of cyclooxygenase2 (COX2) expression in pancreatic cancer, examined by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies.METHODS: The COX2 expression in 85 resection specimens of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma was immunohistochemically examined using both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. The final immunoscores were obtained by multiplying the percentage of positive cells with the numeric score reflecting the staining intensity.COX2 expressi...

  20. Effects of Notch-1 down-regulation on malignant behaviors of breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gong-ling; Tian, Ye; Lu, Chong; Guo, Hui; Zhao, Xiang-wang; Guo, Ya-wen; Wang, Long-qiang; Du, Qiu-li; Liu, Chun-ping

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the effect of Notch-1 signaling on malignant behaviors of breast cancer cells by regulating breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). BCSCs were enriched by using serum-free medium and knocked out of Notch-1 by using a lentiviral vector. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect the Notch-1 expression levels in breast cancer cell lines and BCSCs, and flow cytometry to detect the proportion of BCSCs in BCSC spheres. The BCSC self-renewal, migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity were examined by the tumor microsphere-forming assay and transwell assay and after xenotransplantation. The results showed that the Notch-1 silencing reduced the number of BCSC spheres, the proportion of BCSCs, and the number of cells penetrating through the transwell membrane. It also decreased the size of tumors that were implanted in the nude mice. These results suggest that Notch-1 signaling is intimately linked to the behaviors of BCSCs. Blocking Notch-1 signaling can inhibit the malignant behaviors of BCSCs, which may provide a promising therapeutical approach for breast cancer.

  1. Comparative genomic analysis of primary tumors and metastases in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, François; Finetti, Pascal; Guille, Arnaud; Adélaïde, José; Garnier, Séverine; Carbuccia, Nadine; Monneur, Audrey; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Goncalves, Anthony; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel; Chaffanet, Max

    2016-05-10

    Personalized medicine uses genomic information for selecting therapy in patients with metastatic cancer. An issue is the optimal tissue source (primary tumor or metastasis) for testing. We compared the DNA copy number and mutational profiles of primary breast cancers and paired metastases from 23 patients using whole-genome array-comparative genomic hybridization and next-generation sequencing of 365 "cancer-associated" genes. Primary tumors and metastases harbored copy number alterations (CNAs) and mutations common in breast cancer and showed concordant profiles. The global concordance regarding CNAs was shown by clustering and correlation matrix, which showed that each metastasis correlated more strongly with its paired tumor than with other samples. Genes with recurrent amplifications in breast cancer showed 100% (ERBB2, FGFR1), 96% (CCND1), and 88% (MYC) concordance for the amplified/non-amplified status. Among all samples, 499 mutations were identified, including 39 recurrent (AKT1, ERBB2, PIK3CA, TP53) and 460 non-recurrent variants. The tumors/metastases concordance of variants was 75%, higher for recurrent (92%) than for non-recurrent (73%) variants. Further mutational discordance came from very different variant allele frequencies for some variants. We showed that the chosen targeted therapy in two clinical trials of personalized medicine would be concordant in all but one patient (96%) when based on the molecular profiling of tumor and paired metastasis. Our results suggest that the genotyping of primary tumor may be acceptable to guide systemic treatment if the metastatic sample is not obtainable. However, given the rare but potentially relevant divergences for some actionable driver genes, the profiling of metastatic sample is recommended.

  2. The association of DNA Repair with breast cancer risk in women. A comparative observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matta Jaime

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have found a link between a low DNA repair capacity (DRC level and increased cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the statistical association of DRC level and breast cancer (BC using a case–control epidemiological study in a Hispanic community. Methods We conducted a comparative observational study to assess the validity of DRC in detecting BC in 824 women throughout Puerto Rico. Over a 6-year period, we compared 285 women newly diagnosed with BC to 539 without BC. DRC levels were measured in lymphocytes by means of a host-cell reactivation assay. We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, and association using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Multiple logistic regression-adjusted odds ratios were estimated with 95% confidence level to measure the strength of the association of DRC and BC after adjusting for all confounders simultaneously. Results Compared to women without cancer, women with BC showed an average decrease of 60% in their DRC levels (p p Conclusions Our results support the usefulness of DRC level as a measure of BC risk. Additional studies in other populations are needed to further verify its usefulness.

  3. Comparative Study of the Critical Chain and PERT Planning Methods: No Bad Human Behaviors Involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ling Huang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 1997, Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM method has received a lot of attention and hundreds of successful cases have also been reported and all claims that it is possible to rapidly achieve highly reliable on-time delivery (OTD with short project lead time (PLT in multi-project environment. The main reason that CCPM can achieve highly reliable OTD and short PLT in multi-project environment can be contributed to that CCPM makes good use of safety time imbedded in tasks by two changes: logistical change and bad human behaviors change. However, if no bad human behaviors involved, does the mere emphasis on logistical change contributed to the success of project time reduction and OTD improvement? This is the key question still remained. A comparative study of the critical chain and Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT planning methods, no bad human behaviors involved, was performed in this study. The simulation results showed that in terms of mean project time, CCPM is no significantly better than PERT. However, in terms of plan reliability, CCPM achieve higher reliable than PERT did and this is the contribution of CCPM logistical change.

  4. EFFECT OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY AS COMPARED TO MYOFASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE IN FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME

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    Kaur kusumpreet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and introduction:Fibromyalgia or fibromyalgic syndrome is a common form of non-articularrheumatism characterized by variety of non-specific symptoms including diffuse widespread musculoskeletalaching associated with fatigue, morning stiffness and sleep disturbances (Bennett, 1997. The current study willcompare the beneficial effects of Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT and Myofascial release (MFR along withconventional treatment. This study tries to find out new effective method for reducing the problemsof pain,anxiety and sleep disturbance in fibromyalgia.Method:24 subjects selected according to the inclusion andexclusion criteria were randomly divided in to three groups: Conventional group, Myofascial releasealong withconventional treatment and Cognitive behavior therapy along with conventional treatment. Pre and post readingsat 0 day, 7thday and 14thday were recorded for Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Epworth SleepinessScale (ESS and State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI.Results:After two week protocol it was found that all threetreatment approaches were effective in reducing the problem of pain, anxiety and sleep disturbance to someextent. However on comparing three treatment approaches , CBT is the most effective in reducing theaboveparameters. (p<0.05Conclusion:Cognitive behavior therapy is more effective than Myofascial release tehniquesin reducing fibromyalgia symptoms.

  5. A Comparative Study on the Quality of Living for Therapeutic Cancer and Hospice Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Kook [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Kwangju Health College, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Dong Soo; Rou, Jae Man; Kim, Jong Deok [Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology, Chonnam University Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    This study carried a comparative analysis of quality of living perceived by cancer and hospice patients who received radiotherapy, and influential factors in order to provide basic data for nursing goals and establishment of strategy. The subjects of the study were 50 cancer patients who were more than twenty years old and was receiving radiotherapy in therapeutic radiology department of C university hospital, and fourteen hospice patients who were in J hospital in Gwangju. They were conveniently sampled according to the selection standard, and researchers personally interviewed them using questionnaire and patient scripts to obtain necessary data. The results were presented as follows: 1. When cancer and hospice patients were examined demographically, the number of 60 year-old patients were the most. The subjects whose marriage period was more than thirty-one years were the most. In medical expense, more than 70.0% of the patients bore their expenses themselves. 2. When disease-related characteristics of the cancer and pos piece patients were examined, more than 75% of the patients had experience of being in hospital, and more than experienced operation. However, for prevalence period, 57.5% of the cancer patients had less than six months, and 64.3% of the hospice patients had more than two years. 3. For physical symptoms of cancer patients, 77.5% had fatigue, 60.0% had loss of appetite, and 52.5% had loss of weight while for the hospice patients, 100% had loss of weight, and 92.9% had fatigue and loss of appetite. For the cancer patients, 0.0% had swelling, and 7.5% had bleeding, For the hospice patients, 7.1% had change in skin, and 14.3% had diarrhea. 4. Mean score of the cancer subjects were as follows: family support, social support, emotional and spiritual support, physical symptoms, and periods were 3.87, 2.88, 3.10, 2.80, and 2.94 respectively. Those of the hospice patients were 3.80, 1.96, 1.58, 2.64 and 3.24 respectively. 5. Mean score of family support

  6. COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY FOR INSOMNIA IN BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Debora Aricò; Alberto Raggi; Raffaele Ferri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insomnia is a common sleep disorder in patients with breast cancer and studies show a higher frequency than in the general population but it appears to be understudied and the treatment seems to be a neglected problem. There is a growing body of evidence about the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in breast cancer survivors. The aim of this review is to examine the best available scientific evidence related to CBT-I and insomnia in patients with breast ...

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Aricò, Debora; Raggi, Alberto; Ferri, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insomnia is a common sleep disorder in patients with breast cancer and studies show a higher frequency than in the general population but it appears to be understudied and the treatment seems to be a neglected problem. There is a growing body of evidence about the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in breast cancer survivors (BCS). The aim of this review is to examine the best available scientific evidence related to CBT-I and insomnia in patients with b...

  8. Decorin in Human Colon Cancer: Localization In Vivo and Effect on Cancer Cell Behavior In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Marie C; Sainio, Annele O; Pennanen, Mirka M; Lund, Riikka J; Vuorikoski, Sanna; Sundström, Jari T T; Järveläinen, Hannu T

    2015-09-01

    Decorin is generally recognized as a tumor suppressing molecule. Nevertheless, although decorin has been shown to be differentially expressed in malignant tissues, it has often remained unclear whether, in addition to non-malignant stromal cells, cancer cells also express it. Here, we first used two publicly available databases to analyze the current information about decorin expression and immunoreactivity in normal and malignant human colorectal tissue samples. The analyses demonstrated that decorin expression and immunoreactivity may vary in cancer cells of human colorectal tissues. Therefore, we next examined decorin expression in normal, premalignant and malignant human colorectal tissues in more detail using both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for decorin. Our results invariably demonstrate that malignant cells within human colorectal cancer tissues are devoid of both decorin mRNA and immunoreactivity. Identical results were obtained for cells of neuroendocrine tumors of human colon. Using RT-qPCR, we showed that human colon cancer cell lines are also decorin negative, in accordance with the above in vivo results. Finally, we demonstrate that decorin transduction of human colon cancer cell lines causes a significant reduction in their colony forming capability. Thus, strategies to develop decorin-based adjuvant therapies for human colorectal malignancies are highly rational.

  9. Alternative Education: A Comparative Case Study of the Behavior Modification Programs of Two Upstate South Carolina Alternative Schools for Youth Who Exhibit Behavior That Is Disruptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipio, Timothy Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavior modification programs in schools designed to focus on discipline and that aim to reform disruptive behavior in students, usually over a limited period of time. This was a comparative case study of two type II alternative schools in the Upstate of South Carolina. The findings contributed to the research base regarding…

  10. Comparative Investigation on Brazing Behavior, Compressive Strength, and Wear Properties of Multicrystalline CBN Abrasive Grains

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    Wen-Feng Ding

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to fabricate the abrasive wheels with good grain self-sharpening capacity, two types of multicrystalline CBN grains, that is, polycrystalline CBN (PCBN and binderless CBN (BCBN, were brazed using Cu-Sn-Ti alloy, respectively. Comparative investigation on the brazing interface, compressive strength, and wear properties of the different grains was carried out. Results obtained show that the PCBN grains have more intricate reaction, more complicated resultants, and thicker reaction layer than the BCBN counterparts under the identical brazing conditions. Though the average compressive strength of the PCBN grains is similar to that of BCBN ones, stronger self-sharpening action by virtue of the microfracture behavior takes place with BCBN grains during grinding. As a consequence, compared to the brazed PCBN wheels and the conventional monocrystalline CBN (MCBN ones, longer service life is obtained for the brazed BCBN wheels.

  11. Comparative analysis of methods for identifying recurrent copy number alterations in cancer.

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    Xiguo Yuan

    Full Text Available Recurrent copy number alterations (CNAs play an important role in cancer genesis. While a number of computational methods have been proposed for identifying such CNAs, their relative merits remain largely unknown in practice since very few efforts have been focused on comparative analysis of the methods. To facilitate studies of recurrent CNA identification in cancer genome, it is imperative to conduct a comprehensive comparison of performance and limitations among existing methods. In this paper, six representative methods proposed in the latest six years are compared. These include one-stage and two-stage approaches, working with raw intensity ratio data and discretized data respectively. They are based on various techniques such as kernel regression, correlation matrix diagonal segmentation, semi-parametric permutation and cyclic permutation schemes. We explore multiple criteria including type I error rate, detection power, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curve and the area under curve (AUC, and computational complexity, to evaluate performance of the methods under multiple simulation scenarios. We also characterize their abilities on applications to two real datasets obtained from cancers with lung adenocarcinoma and glioblastoma. This comparison study reveals general characteristics of the existing methods for identifying recurrent CNAs, and further provides new insights into their strengths and weaknesses. It is believed helpful to accelerate the development of novel and improved methods.

  12. Data quality at the Bulgarian National Cancer Registry: An overview of comparability, completeness, validity and timeliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Nadya; Parkin, Donald Maxwell

    2015-06-01

    Reporting of neoplasms in Bulgaria has been compulsory since a directive from the Ministry of Health in 1951. The quality of cancer registry data has been estimated rather infrequently in past years. We aimed to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the quality of the data at the Bulgarian National Cancer Registry (BNCR). Quantitative and semi-quantitative methods were applied for cancers diagnosed during the whole period 1993-2010, and also for cases diagnosed in 2006-2010. The methods used include historic data methods, mortality-to-incidence ratios (M:I), capture-recapture and death-certificate methods, proportions of morphologically verified cases (MV%), death-certificate-only cases (DCO%), and cases with missing information (primary site unknown, PSU%; stage unknown, SU%). The BNCR coding and classification systems follow international standards. The overall completeness was estimated at 92.6-94.7% for the period 2006-2010, with variations between cancer sites (86.7-98.5%). During the period 1993-2010, M:I decreased to 0.5 for males and 0.4 for females, MV increased to 87.4%, DCO and SU decreased to 4.8% and 18.8%, respectively, and PSU remained at the same level of about 4% for both sexes together. Sub-analysis revealed differences by site, sex and age groups. The comparison with other registries from the region showed similar incidence rates and directions of trends: M:I, MV% and DCO% that were not significantly different. The underreporting in 2008 and 2009 due to timely publication was estimated at an overall 0.8% and 0.5%, respectively. The present review showed that the BNCR yields internationally comparable data that are reasonably accurate, timely, and close to complete, especially in recent years. This is a prerequisite for the BNCR to expand its role to more areas of cancer control.

  13. Dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients: comparing adults and older adults

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    Henyse Gómez Valiente da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the nutrient intake and nutritional status of food in cancer patients admitted to a university hospital, with comparison of adult and older adult age category Methods: Cross-sectional study. This study involved cancer patients admitted to a hospital in 2010. Dietary habits were collected using a Brazilian food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided in two groups: adults or older adults and in 4-cancer category: hematologic, lung, gastrointestinal and others. Body Mass Index evaluated nutritional status. Results: A total of 86 patients with a mean age of 56.5 years, with 55% males and 42% older adults were evaluated. The older adult category had a higher frequency of being underweight (24.4% vs 16.3%, p < 0.01 and a lower frequency of being overweight (7% vs. 15.1%, p < 0.01 than adults. Both, adult and older adults had a high frequency of smoking, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity. The older adults had lower consumption of calories, intake of iron and folic acid. Inadequacy of vitamin intake was observed in both groups; respectively, 52%, 43%, 95%, 76% and 88% for Vitamin A, C, D, E and folic acid. The older adults had a higher folic acid and calcium inadequacy than the adults (97% vs 82%, p <0.01; 88% vs 72%, p < 0.01. There was no association of micronutrient intake with cancer, nor with nutritional status. Conclusion: The food intake, macro and micronutrients ingestion is insufficient among cancer individuals. Food intake of older adults was inferior, when compared to the adult category. There was a high prevalence of BMI excess in the adult group and a worst nutritional status in the older adult category.

  14. Comparative Study of the Activity of Brain Behavioral Systems in Methamphetamine and Opiate Dependents

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    Alemikhah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Substance dependency is a major problem for the general health of a society. Different approaches have investigated the substance dependency in order to explain it. Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST is an advanced and important neuropsychological theory in this area. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare three systems of the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory the behavioral activation system (r-BAS, the revised behavioral inhibition system (r-BIS, and the revised fight/flight/freezing system (r-FFFS between patients dependent on methamphetamine and opiates, and a group of controls. Patients and Methods This research was a causal-comparative study that was conducted in the first six months of 2012. The population of the study was males of Mashhad city, who were dependent on methamphetamine or opiates, and ruling out psychotic disorders and prominent Axis II. Twenty-five people were selected by the convenient sampling method. Also, 25 non-dependent people from the patients’ relatives were selected and matched for the variables of age, gender, and education to participate in this study. Participants were evaluated using a structured clinical interview (SCID for DSM-IV, demographic questionnaire information, and a Jackson-5 questionnaire (2009. Data were analyzed by Chi-square, K-S, and independent t-test. Results The methamphetamine dependent group had a higher sensitivity in the r-BAS, r-BIS, and the r-Fight and r-Freezing systems compared to the control group (P 0.05. “The scores of r-BIS were also significantly higher in the methamphetamine-dependent group than the opioid-dependent and control groups. For the r-Fight variable, the methamphetamine-dependent group was higher than the opioid-dependent group”. Conclusions The personality patterns of patients dependent on methamphetamines were different from the controls. These people have a high sensitivity to punishment cues, such as being compared in

  15. Health behavior changes following breast cancer treatment: a qualitative comparison among Chinese American, Korean American, and Mexican American survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-won; Gonzalez, Patricia; Wang-Letzkus, Ming F; Baik, Okmi; Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin T

    2013-05-01

    This study explored how Chinese American, Korean American, and Mexican American women modify their health behaviors following breast cancer treatment and identified motivators and barriers that influence their changes. An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study was undertaken using six focus groups. Discussions were transcribed and translated for content analysis. Significant differences among the ethnic groups were noted in the following health behavior practices which were most commonly stated as changed behaviors after a breast cancer diagnosis: 1) eating habits, 2) physical activity, 3) alternative medicine, 4) sleeping, 5) social activity, 6) weight control, and 7) alcohol consumption. Family, financial concerns, environment, and religious faith were commonly mentioned as motivators of and/or barriers to changes in health behaviors. Findings provide insight into different perspectives related to changes in health behaviors by ethnicity, which is critical for developing culturally tailored behavioral interventions to improve underserved breast cancer survivors' quality of life and to reduce health disparities.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Feature Extraction Methods for the Classification of Prostate Cancer from TRUS Medical Images

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    Manavalan Radhakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing Prostate cancer is a challenging task for Urologists, Radiologists, and Oncologists. Ultrasound imaging is one of the hopeful techniques used for early detection of prostate cancer. The Region of interest (ROI is identified by different methods after preprocessing. In this paper, DBSCAN clustering with morphological operators is used to extort the prostate region. The evaluation of texture features is important for several image processing applications. The performance of the features extracted from the various texture methods such as histogram, Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM, Gray-Level Run-Length Matrix (GRLM, are analyzed separately. In this paper, it is proposed to combine histogram, GLRLM and GLCM in order to study the performance. The Support Vector Machine (SVM is adopted to classify the extracted features into benign or malignant. The performance of texture methods are evaluated using various statistical parameters such as sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The comparative analysis has been performed over 5500 digitized TRUS images of prostate.

  17. DNA Copy Number Aberrations in Breast Cancer by Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Li; Kai Wang; Shengting Li; Vera Timmermans-Wielenga; Fritz Rank; Carsten Wiuf; Xiuqing Zhang; Huanming Yang; Lars Bolund

    2009-01-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has been popularly used for an-alyzing DNA copy number variations in diseases like cancer. In this study, we investigated 82 sporadic samples from 49 breast cancer patients using 1-Mb reso-lution bacterial artificial chromosome CGH arrays. A number of highly frequent genomic aberrations were discovered, which may act as "drivers" of tumor pro-gression. Meanwhile, the genomic profiles of four "normal" breast tissue samples taken at least 2 cm away from the primary tumor sites were also found to have some genomic aberrations that recurred with high frequency in the primary tu-mors, which may have important implications for clinical therapy. Additionally, we performed class comparison and class prediction for various clinicopathological pa-rameters, and a list of characteristic genomic aberrations associated with different clinicopathological phenotypes was compiled. Our study provides clues for further investigations of the underlying mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis.

  18. Comparative evaluation of techniques for the manufacturing of dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohnal, Alexander Michael; Graffi, Sebastian; Witt, Volker; Eichstill, Christina; Wagner, Dagmar; Ul-Haq, Sidrah; Wimmer, Doris; Felzmann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Manufacturing procedures for cellular therapies are continuously improved with particular emphasis on product safety. We previously developed a dendritic cell (DC) cancer vaccine technology platform that uses clinical grade lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon (IFN)-y for the maturation of monocyte derived DCs. DCs are frozen after 6 hrs exposure at a semi-mature stage (smDCs) retaining the capacity to secret interleukin (IL)-12 and thus support cytolytic T-cell responses, which is lost at full maturation. We compared closed systems for monocyte enrichment from leucocyte apheresis products from healthy individuals using plastic adherence, CD14 selection, or CD2/19 depletion with magnetic beads, or counter flow centrifugation (elutriation) using a clinical grade in comparison to a research grade culture medium for the following DC generation. We found that elutriation was superior compared to the other methods showing 36 +/- 4% recovery, which was approximately 5-fold higher as the most frequently used adherence protocol (8 +/- 1%), and a very good purity (92 +/- 5%) of smDCs. Immune phenotype and IL-12 secretion (adherence: 1.4 +/- 0.4; selection: 20 +/- 0.6; depletion: 1 +/-0.5; elutriation: 3.6 +/- 1.5 ng/ml) as well as the potency of all DCs to stimulate T cells in an allogeneic mixed leucocyte reaction did not show statistically significant differences. Research grade and clinical grade DC culture media were equally potent and freezing did not impair the functions of smDCs. Finally, we assessed the functional capacity of DC cancer vaccines manufactured for three patients using this optimized procedure thereby demonstrating the feasibility of manufacturing DC cancer vaccines that secret IL-12 (9.4 +/- 6.4 ng/ml). We conclude that significant steps were taken here towards clinical grade DC cancer vaccine manufacturing.

  19. Effect of health belief model and health promotion model on breast cancer early diagnosis behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersin, Fatma; Bahar, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an important public health problem on the grounds that it is frequently seen and it is a fatal disease. The objective of this systematic analysis is to indicate the effects of interventions performed by nurses by using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors and on the components of the Health Belief Model and Health Promotion Model. The reveiw was created in line with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guide dated 2009 (CRD) and developed by York University National Institute of Health Researches. Review was conducted by using PUBMED, OVID, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases. Six hundred seventy eight studies (PUBMED: 236, OVID: 162, EBSCO: 175, COCHRANE:105) were found in total at the end of the review. Abstracts and full texts of these six hundred seventy eight studies were evaluated in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria and 9 studies were determined to meet the criteria. Samplings of the studies varied between ninety four and one thousand six hundred fifty five. It was detected in the studies that educations provided by taking the theories as basis became effective on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors. When the literature is examined, it is observed that the experimental researches which compare the concepts of Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) preoperatively and postoperatively and show the effect of these concepts on education and are conducted by nurses are limited in number. Randomized controlled studies which compare HBM and HPM concepts preoperatively and postoperatively and show the efficiency of the interventions can be useful in evaluating the efficiency of the interventions.

  20. The Accuracy of Prostate Cancer Localization Diagnosed on Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy Compared to 3-Dimensional Transperineal Approach

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    Kevin Krughoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prostate cancer is often understaged following 12-core transrectal ultrasound- (TRUS- guided biopsies. Our goal is to understand where cancers are typically missed by this method. Methods. Transperineal 3-dimensional mapping biopsy (3DMB provides a more accurate depiction of disease status than transrectal ultrasound- (TRUS- guided biopsy. We compared 3DMB findings in men with prior TRUS-guided biopsies to determine grade and location of missed cancer. Results were evaluated for 161 men with low-risk organ confined prostate cancer. Results. The number of cancer-positive biopsy zones per patient with TRUS was 1.38 ± 1.21 compared to 3.33 ± 4.06 with 3DMB, with most newly discovered cancers originating from the middle lobe and apex. Approximately half of all newly discovered cancerous zones resulted from anterior 3DMB sampling. Gleason upgrade was recognized in 56 patients using 3DMB. When both biopsy methods found positive cores in a given zone, Gleason upgrades occurred most frequently in the middle left and right zones. TRUS cancer-positive zones not confirmed by 3DMB were most often the basal zones. Conclusion. Most cancer upgrades and cancers missed from TRUS biopsy originated in the middle left zone of the prostate, specifically in anterior regions. Anterior sampling may lead to more accurate diagnosis and appropriate followup.

  1. Treatment success in cancer: industry compared to publicly sponsored randomized controlled trials.

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    Benjamin Djulbegovic

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess if commercially sponsored trials are associated with higher success rates than publicly-sponsored trials. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTINGS: We undertook a systematic review of all consecutive, published and unpublished phase III cancer randomized controlled trials (RCTs conducted by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK and the NCIC Clinical Trials Group (CTG. We included all phase III cancer RCTs assessing treatment superiority from 1980 to 2010. Three metrics were assessed to determine treatment successes: (1 the proportion of statistically significant trials favouring the experimental treatment, (2 the proportion of the trials in which new treatments were considered superior according to the investigators, and (3 quantitative synthesis of data for primary outcomes as defined in each trial. RESULTS: GSK conducted 40 cancer RCTs accruing 19,889 patients and CTG conducted 77 trials enrolling 33,260 patients. 42% (99%CI 24 to 60 of the results were statistically significant favouring experimental treatments in GSK compared to 25% (99%CI 13 to 37 in the CTG cohort (RR = 1.68; p = 0.04. Investigators concluded that new treatments were superior to standard treatments in 80% of GSK compared to 44% of CTG trials (RR = 1.81; p<0.001. Meta-analysis of the primary outcome indicated larger effects in GSK trials (odds ratio = 0.61 [99%CI 0.47-0.78] compared to 0.86 [0.74-1.00]; p = 0.003. However, testing for the effect of treatment over time indicated that treatment success has become comparable in the last decade. CONCLUSIONS: While overall industry sponsorship is associated with higher success rates than publicly-sponsored trials, the difference seems to have disappeared over time.

  2. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Zimmer; Baumann, Freerk T; Max Oberste; Peter Wright; Alexander Garthe; Alexander Schenk; Thomas Elter; Galvao, Daniel A.; Wilhelm Bloch; Sven T. Hübner; Florian Wolf

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results f...

  3. Family functioning and adolescents' emotional and behavioral problems: when a parent has cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Hoekstra, H. J.; van der Graaf, W. T. A.; van de Wiel, H. B.; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, G.A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This article focuses on possible relationships between functioning of adolescents with a parent diagnosed with cancer 1-5 years earlier and family environment. Patients and methods: In all, 138 patients, 114 spouses and 221 adolescents completed the Family Environment Scale. Additionally, adolescents filled in the Impact of Event Scale and Youth Self-report and parents reported on the adolescents' functioning using the Child Behavior Checklist. Results: Patients and spouses report...

  4. Care-seeking behavior of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors suffering from adverse effects

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    Oshima Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-treatment follow-up visits for gynecological cancer survivors should provide opportunities for management of adverse physical/psychological effects of therapy and early recurrence detection. However, the adequacy of such visits in Japan is poorly documented. We qualitatively explored care-seeking experiences of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors and deduced factors influencing care-seeking behaviors and treatment access. Methods We conducted 4 semi-structured focus groups comprising altogether 28 Japanese gynecological cancer survivors to collect a variety of participants’ post-treatment care-seeking behaviors through active interaction with participants. Factors influencing access to treatment for adverse effects were analyzed qualitatively. Results Survivors sought care through specialty clinic visits when regular post-treatment gynecological follow-ups were inadequate or when symptoms seemed to be non-treatment related. Information provided by hospital staff during initial treatment influenced patients’ understanding and response to adverse effects. Lack of knowledge and inaccurate symptom interpretation delayed help-seeking, exacerbating symptoms. Gynecologists’ attitudes during follow-ups frequently led survivors to cope with symptoms on their own. Information from mass media, Internet, and support groups helped patients understand symptoms and facilitated care seeking. Conclusions Post-treatment adverse effects are often untreated during follow-up visits. Awareness of possible post-treatment adverse effects is important for gynecological cancer survivors in order to obtain appropriate care if the need arises. Consultation during the follow-up visit is essential for continuity in care.

  5. Pathobiological behavior and molecular mechanism of signet ring cell carcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma of the stomach:A comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Fei Yang; Lin Yang; Xiao-Yun Mao; Dong-Ying Wu; Su-Min Zhang; Yan Xin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the distinctive pathobiological behavior between signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC) and mucinous adenocarcinoma of the stomach.METHODS: Based on the histological growth patterns and cell-functional differentiation classifications of stomach carcinoma, we conducted a series of comparative studies.All paraffin-embedded and frozen blocks were collected from the files of Cancer Institute of China Medical University. On the basis of histopathological observation, we applied enzymatic and mucous histochemistry, immunohistochemistry,flow cytometry (FCM) and molecular biology to compare these two categories of gastric cancers in terms of the DNA ploidy, proliferative kinetics, the expression of gastric carcinoma associated gene product and instabilities of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA).RESULTS: Gastric SRC was commonly seen in females below 45 years, mostly presenting diffuse growth and ovary or uterine cervix metastasis. The majority of SRC were absorptive and mucus-producing functional differentiation type (AMlPFDT), which growth relied on estrogen. Meanwhile,stomach mucinous adenocarcinomas were mostly observed in males over 50 years, prone to massive growth or nest growth and extensive peritoneal infiltration, showing two categories of cell-functional differentiation types: AMPFDT and mucus-secreting functional differentiation type (MSFDT).Expressions of ER, enzyme c-PDE and 67kDaLN-R in SRC were evidently higher than that in mucinous adenocarcinoma,while expressions of LN, CN-IV, CD44v6, and PTEN protein were obviously lower in SRC than that in mucinous adenocarcinoma (P<0.05). There was no statistic significance in VEGF, ECD and instabilities of mtDNA (P>0.05) between the above two gastric carcinomas.CONCLUSION: Though SRC and mucinous adenocarcinoma were both characterized by abundant mucus-secretion, they were quite different in morphology, ultrastructure, cellfunctional differentiation and protein expression, indicating different mechanisms of

  6. Differences in Cancer Information Seeking Behavior, Preferences, and Awareness Between Cancer Survivors and Healthy Controls: A National, Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Abbey R.; Lykins, Emily L.B.; Gochett, Celestine G.; Brechting, Emily H.; Graue, Lili O.; Andrykowski, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Background No research has examined how cancer diagnosis and treatment might alter information source preferences or opinions. Methods Data from 719 cancer survivors (CS group) and 2012 matched healthy controls (NCC group) regarding cancer-related information seeking behavior, preferences, and awareness from the population-based 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was examined. Results The CS group reported greater consumption of cancer-related information but the CS and NCC groups did not differ in information source use or preferences. The CS group was more confident of their ability to get cancer information, reported more trust in health care professionals and television as cancer information sources, but evaluated their recent cancer information seeking experiences more negatively than the NCC group. Awareness of cancer information resources was surprisingly low in both the CS and NCC groups. Conclusions Cancer diagnosis and treatment subtly alters cancer information seeking preferences and experience. However awareness and use of cancer information resources was relatively low regardless of personal history of cancer. PMID:19259869

  7. Blunted HPA Axis Activity in Suicide Attempters Compared to those at High Risk for Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, Nadine M; Keilp, John G; Porta, Giovanna; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Cooper, Thomas B; Mann, J John; Brent, David A

    2016-05-01

    Studies looking at the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to suicidal behavior and its risk factors, such as depression, childhood abuse, and impulsive aggression, report inconsistent results. These studies also do not always differentiate between subjects who go on to attempt suicide, suicidal subjects who never attempted suicide, and non-suicidal subjects with psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined cortisol responses to an experimental stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), in 208 offspring of parents with mood disorder. Offspring suicide attempters showed lower total cortisol output (β=-0.47, 95% CI (-0.83, -0.11), p=0.01) compared with offspring with suicide-related behavior (SRB) but never attempted, non-suicidal offspring, and a healthy control group. The result remained significant even after controlling for sex, age, race, ethnicity, site, socio-economic status, and hour of the day when the TSST was conducted. Suicide attempters also showed lower baseline cortisol before the TSST (β=-0.45, 95% CI (-0.74, -0.17), p=0.002). However, there were no significant differences between the groups on cortisol reactivity to stress (β=4.5, 95% CI (-12.9, 22), p=0.61). Although subjects with suicide attempt and SRB have similar clinical and psychosocial characteristics, this is the first study to differentiate them biologically on HPA axis indices. Blunted HPA axis activity may increase risk for suicide attempt among individuals with psychopathology by reducing their ability to respond adaptively to ongoing stressors. These results may help better identify subjects at high risk for suicidal behavior for targeted prevention and intervention efforts.

  8. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  9. Rheological Behavior of Immiscible PS/LDPE Blends: A Comparative Study of the Palierne Emulsion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai KUNYAWUT

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behavior of polystyrene (PS/low density polyethylene (LDPE blends have been investigated. Blends with 10, 20 and 30 wt% LDPE were prepared using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder at a melt mixing temperature of 180°C. SEM micrographs revealed that all blends exhibited droplet-type dispersion morphology. Rheological measurements were performed at the same temperature as the mixing temperature. The complex viscosity of the blends laid between those of the PS and the LDPE and decreased with increasing LDPE concentration. The plots of tand of blends with 10 and 20 wt% LDPE suggested that the elasticity of these blends was comparable to that of the pure PS. By contrast, the elasticity behavior of the blend with 30 wt% LDPE was shown to be similar to that of LDPE. Palierne model predictions were in very good agreement with the experimental data for the blends having 10 and 20 wt% LDPE. For the 30 wt% LDPE blend, agreement with the prediction and the experimental data was not as good. Within the frequency range of the rheological measurements, the second plateau at low frequency which results from an increase of the elasticity was not observed in any of the blends studied. This is expected to be due to the long relaxation times of the relatively large LDPE droplets of these blends.

  10. Flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beams: Comparative analysis between high-performance concrete and ordinary concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamrat Mostefa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the flexural strength of reinforced concrete beams made with high performance concrete (HPC and ordinary concrete (OC. We are carried an experimental campaign aimed comes in three points: 1- the study of the law of behavior of the two materials (OC and HPC, 2- the influence of the compressive strength of concrete and the rate of longitudinal reinforcement on the loaddeflection behavior and ductility index, 3- comparative analysis (ACI318, Eurocode 2 and BS8110 against the crack opening. Test results showed that the capacity of the beams in HPC is higher (6% to 20 % than the beams in OC. The use of HPC is more efficient than the OC to delay the first cracking. The average value of the ductility index for the beams in HPC is 1.30 times those beams in OC. The formula for calculating the crack opening derived of the Eurocode 2 gives the best prediction the crack width of beams (for both types of concrete.

  11. A comparative study of variant turbulence modeling in the physical behaviors of diesel spray combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini Behnaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the performance of non-linear k-ε turbulence model in resolving the time delay between mean flow changes and its proportionate turbulent dissipation rate adjustment was investigated. For this purpose, the ability of Launder-Spalding linear, Suga non-linear, Yakhot RNG and Rietz modified RNG k-ε models are compared in the estimation of axial mean velocity profile and turbulent integral length scale evolution during engine compression stroke. Computed results showed that even though all the models can predict the acceptable results for velocity profile, for turbulent integral length scale curve, non-linear model is in a good agreement with modified RNG model prediction that depicts correspondence with experimental reported data, while other models show a different unrealistic behaviors. Also after combustion starts and piston is expanding, non-linear model can predicts actual manner for integral length scale while linear one cannot. It is concluded that, physical behavior of turbulence models characteristics should be ascertained before being successfully applied to simulate complex flow fields like internal combustion engines.

  12. Improved physical fitness of cancer survivors : A randomised controlled trial comparing physical training with physical and cognitive-behavioural training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, Anne M.; Van Weert, Ellen; Korstjens, Irene; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Van Der Schans, Cees P.; Zonderland, Maria L.; Mesters, Ilse; Van Den Borne, Bart; Ros, Wynand J. G.

    2008-01-01

    We compared the effect of a group-based 12-week supervised exercise programme, i.e. aerobic and resistance exercise, and group sports, with that of the same programme combined with cognitive-behavioural training on physical fitness and activity of cancer survivors. One hundred and forty seven cancer

  13. Correlates of exercise motivation and behavior in a population-based sample of endometrial cancer survivors: an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dundas George

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence of the benefits of exercise in cancer survivors, exercise participation rates tend to decline after treatments. Few studies have examined the determinants of exercise in less common cancer sites. In this study, we examined medical, demographic, and social cognitive correlates of exercise in endometrial cancer survivors using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. Methods A mailed survey was completed by 354 endometrial cancer survivors (1 to 10 years postdiagnosis residing in Alberta, Canada. The study was cross-sectional. Exercise behavior was assessed using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the TPB constructs were assessed with standard self-report scales. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine the independent associations of the TPB constructs with intention and behavior. Results Chi-square analyses indicated that marital status (p = .003, income level (p = .013, and body mass index (BMI (p = .020 were associated with exercise. The TPB explained 34.1% of the variance in exercise behavior with intention (β = .38, p β = .18, p = .029 being independent correlates. For intention, 38.3% of the variance was explained by the TPB with self-efficacy (β = .34, p β = .30, p Conclusion The TPB may be a useful framework for understanding exercise in endometrial cancer survivors. Exercise behavior change interventions based on the TPB should be tested in this growing population.

  14. Comparative Study on the Pyrolysis Behaviors of Corn Stalk and Pine Sawdust Using TG-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云鹏; 丁曼; 窦有权; 樊星; 王月伦; 魏贤勇

    2014-01-01

    The pyrolysis behaviors of corn stalk (CS) and pine sawdust (PS) were investigated with thermogravim-etry-mass spectroscopy (TG-MS). The peak temperature of PS was higher and the main decomposition region shifted to higher temperature compared with CS, which implied that the hemicellulose and cellulose of PS were more ther-mally stable than those of CS. However, the hemicellulose and cellulose of PS were more easily decomposed into gaseous products than those of CS during pyrolysis. The pyrolysis process of biomass can be described by a two-step independent first-order kinetic model. This fundamental study provides a basic insight into the biomass pyrolysis, which is beneficial for understanding the pyrolysis mechanism of biomass and developing an advanced thermal proc-ess for effective utilization of biomass.

  15. Comparative anticancer effects of flavonoids and diazepam in cultured cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Tae; Lee, In-Kyu; Ha, Jeoung-Hee

    2008-02-01

    This study examined the comparative anticancer effects of flavonoids and diazepam in the cultured cancer cells. In the SNU-C4 colorectal and MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cells, apigenin and fisetin, flavonoids, and diazepam inhibited cancer cell survival concentration and incubation-time dependently. Diazepam consistently inhibited FAS activity, a known anticancer mechanism of flavonoids, in a concentration dependent manner. Unlike diazepam, in highly aggressive breast MDA-MB-231 cells known to have a nuclear/perinuclear located PBR, PK11195, a specific PBR ligand enhanced the proliferation of cells, and the proliferative effect of PK11195 was reversed by an addition of lovastatin, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. Diazepam- and flavonoids-induced cytotoxic activity in both cancer cell lines was not reduced by the addition of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a chemotherapeutic agent. Like flavonoids, diazepam inhibited the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) into supernatants of cultured in the SNU-C4 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, this study provided in vitro information on the safe use of sedative in oncologic patients.

  16. Cytological grading of breast cancers and comparative evaluation of two grading systems

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    Wani Farooq

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate and compare the cytograding of breast cancers using Robinson′s and Mouriquand′s grading methods. Materials and Methods: A 5-year retrospective (from Oct 2000 to Sept 2005 and 1-year prospective study (from Oct 2005 to Oct 2006. A total of 110 fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC cases of breast cancers were studied. These were graded according to Robinson′s and Mouriquand′s grading methods (grade I-III followed by comparison of the two methods. Results: Of the 110 cases graded according to Robinson′s method, 28 (25.45% cases were grade I, 46 (41.81% grade II, and 36 (32.72% were grade III, whereas using Mouriquand′s grading methods, 28 (25.45%, 42 (38.18%, and 40 (36.36% cases were graded as grade I, II, and III, respectively. A high degree of concordance was observed between the two grading methods (90.9%. A highly significant relationship between the scores obtained by two methods was also observed (P=0.004. Conclusions: A comprehensive cytological grading of breast cancers is possible by using two different methods proposed by Robinson and Mouriquand. In spite of a high degree of concordance between the two methods, the Robinson′s grading system has been found to be easier and better because of more objective set of criteria and easy reproducibility.

  17. Uptake of prenatal diagnostic testing for retinoblastoma compared to other hereditary cancer syndromes in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommering, Charlotte J; Henneman, Lidewij; van der Hout, Annemarie H; Jonker, Marianne A; Tops, Carli M J; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van der Luijt, Rob B; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Redeker, Egbert J W; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; Moll, Annette C; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne

    2017-04-01

    Since the 1980s the genetic cause of many hereditary tumor syndromes has been elucidated. As a consequence, carriers of a deleterious mutation in these genes may opt for prenatal diagnoses (PND). We studied the uptake of prenatal diagnosis for five hereditary cancer syndromes in the Netherlands. Uptake for retinoblastoma (Rb) was compared with uptake for Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and hereditary breast ovarian cancer (HBOC). A questionnaire was completed by all nine DNA-diagnostic laboratories assessing the number of independent mutation-positive families identified from the start of diagnostic testing until May 2013, and the number of PNDs performed for these syndromes within these families. Of 187 families with a known Rb-gene mutation, 22 had performed PND (11.8%), this was significantly higher than uptake for FAP (1.6%) and HBOC (<0.2%). For VHL (6.5%) and LFS (4.9%) the difference was not statistically significant. PND for Rb started 3 years after introduction of diagnostic DNA testing and remained stable over the years. For the other cancer syndromes PND started 10-15 years after the introduction and uptake for PND showed an increase after 2009. We conclude that uptake of PND for Rb was significantly higher than for FAP and HBOC, but not different from VHL and LFS. Early onset, high penetrance, lack of preventive surgery and perceived burden of disease may explain these differences.

  18. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Charles C; Kimball, Bruce A; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R; Yates, Bill J; Andrews, Paul L R

    2013-01-01

    The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed.

  19. Increasing organizational energy conservation behaviors: Comparing the theory of planned behavior and reasons theory for identifying specific motivational factors to target for change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlinson, Scott Michael

    Social scientists frequently assess factors thought to underlie behavior for the purpose of designing behavioral change interventions. Researchers commonly identify these factors by examining relationships between specific variables and the focal behaviors being investigated. Variables with the strongest relationships to the focal behavior are then assumed to be the most influential determinants of that behavior, and therefore often become the targets for change in a behavioral change intervention. In the current proposal, multiple methods are used to compare the effectiveness of two theoretical frameworks for identifying influential motivational factors. Assessing the relative influence of all factors and sets of factors for driving behavior should clarify which framework and methodology is the most promising for identifying effective change targets. Results indicated each methodology adequately predicted the three focal behaviors examined. However, the reasons theory approach was superior for predicting factor influence ratings compared to the TpB approach. While common method variance contamination had minimal impact on the results or conclusions derived from the present study's findings, there were substantial differences in conclusions depending on the questionnaire design used to collect the data. Examples of applied uses of the present study are discussed.

  20. Identification of chromosome aberrations in sporadic microsatellite stable and unstable colorectal cancers using array comparative genomic hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Dyrsø; Li, Jian; Wang, Kai;

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in Denmark and in the western world in general, and the prognosis is generally poor. According to the traditional molecular classification of sporadic colorectal cancer, microsatellite stable (MSS)/chromosome unstable (CIN) colorectal...... cancers constitute approximately 85% of sporadic cases, whereas microsatellite unstable (MSI) cases constitute the remaining 15%. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to identify genomic hotspot regions that harbor recurrent copy number changes. The study material...

  1. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Sandaly O. S.; Pacheco, Fabio J.; Zapata, Gimena M. J.; Garcia, Julieta M. E.; Previale, Carlos A.; Cura, Héctor E.; Craig, Winston J.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p < 0.001). After diagnosis, cases significantly reduced the intake of meats and fats, and reported other dietary modifications with increased consumption of fish, fruits (including red fruits in prostate cancer), cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p < 0.001). Additional lifestyle aspects significantly predominant in cases included a reduced quality of sleep, emotional stress, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, living in rural areas, and being exposed to environmental contaminants. Argentinian men were predisposed to modify their unhealthy dietary habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis. PMID:27409631

  2. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandaly O. S. Pacheco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326 were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394, compared with control subjects (n = 629. Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p < 0.001. After diagnosis, cases significantly reduced the intake of meats and fats, and reported other dietary modifications with increased consumption of fish, fruits (including red fruits in prostate cancer, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p < 0.001. Additional lifestyle aspects significantly predominant in cases included a reduced quality of sleep, emotional stress, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, living in rural areas, and being exposed to environmental contaminants. Argentinian men were predisposed to modify their unhealthy dietary habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis.

  3. Comparative validation of the IPAQ and the 7-Day PAR among women diagnosed with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rock Cheryl L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The criterion-related validity and measurement bias of the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was compared to the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR. Methods Participants were women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer and enrolled in the ongoing Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study. Women (N = 159, average age 57 years wore an accelerometer for one week and then completed the IPAQ or the PAR. Results The validity correlation of the PAR was significantly higher (p Conclusion The PAR was superior to the IPAQ in terms of validity, measurement bias, and screening statistics.

  4. EMDR and CBT for Cancer Patients: Comparative Study of Effects on PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Capezzani, L; Ostacoli, L; Cavallo, M; Carletto, S; Fernendez, I; Solomon, R; Pagani, M.; Cantelmi, T

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study examined the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment compared with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in oncology patients in the follow-up phase of the disease. The secondary aim of this study was to assess whether EMDR treatment has a different impact on PTSD in the active treatment or during the followup stages of disease. Twenty-one patients in follow-up care were randomly assigned to EMDR...

  5. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Features of Lung Cancer in West China Hospital in 2000 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun YAO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Primary lung cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. The aim of the current study is to retrospectively analyze the clinical features variation of patients with primary bronchogenic carcinoma in West China Hospital Sichuan University to provide information for early detection and treatment of lung cancer. Methods We collected data of patients of permanent population in Sichuan province who diagnosed primary bronchogenic carcinoma in 2000 and 2010 in West China Hospital Sichuan University respectively for comparative analysis of reasons to visit the doctor, duration from symptom onset to visit the doctor, combined diseases, incidences of bi-primary carcinoma, family history of malignant tumor, sites of tumors, grade of differentiation, tumor staging and initial treatment modalities. Results A total of 2,167 cases (616 cases in 2000 and 1,551 cases in 2010 met inclusion criteria were retrieved for analysis. In 2010, compared with data of 2000, the rate of patients who visit the doctors because abnormalities were detected by health examination elevated remarkably (5.2% vs 16.7%, P<0.001, the duration from symptom onset to visit the doctor abridged significantly (P<0.001, patients with family history of malignant tumor increased significantly (3.9% vs 13.7%, P<0.001, the constituent ratio of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma decreased (72.3% vs 51.8%, P=0.002 accompanied with low differentiated squamous cell carcinoma increased (59.4% vs 76.7%, P=0.002. For NSCLC staging, there is a notably increase of rate of stage Ia (1.0% vs 4.5%, P< 0.001 and stage IV (30.4% vs 37.8%, P<0.001 while decrease of stage IIIa (26.6% vs 14.8%, P=0.002. For initial treatment modalities, there is markedly increased chemotherapy rate of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients (41.8% vs 63.4%, P=0.002 while remarkably increased surgery rate of stage IIIa patients (41.8% vs 63.4%, P=0.002 and decreased surgery rate of stage IV

  6. Comparative study of caudal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine with tramadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Hegazy; Ayman A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Caudal epidural analgesia has become very common analgesic technique in paediatric surgery. Add-ing tramadol to bupivacaine for caudal injection prolongs duration of analgesia with minimal side effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the different effects of caudal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine with thamadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric cancer patients. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted over 40 paediatric cancer pa-tients who were recruited from Children Cancer Hospital of Egypt (57357 Hospital). Patients were randomized into 2 groups: bupivacaine group (group B, 20 patients) to receive single shot caudal block of 1 mL/kg 0.1875% bupivacaine; tramadol group (group T, 20 patients) prepared as group B with the addition of 1 mg/kg caudal tramadol. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer among group T than group B [(24 ± 13.7) hours versus (7 ± 3.7) hours respectively with P = 0.001]. Group T showed a significantly lower mean FLACC score than group B (2.2 ± 0.9 versus 3.6 ± 0.6 with P = 0.002). The difference in FLACC score was comparable on arrival, and after 2 and 4 hours. At 8 and 12 hours the group B recorded significantly higher scores (P = 0.002 and 0.0001 respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups as regards sedation score [the median in both groups was 1 (0–1) with P value = o.8]. No one developed facial flush or pruritis. Conclusion: Caudal injection of low dose tramadol 1 mg/kg with bupivacaine 0.1875% is proved to be effective, long standing technique for postoperative analgesia in major paediatric cancer surgery and almost devoid of side effect.

  7. Predicting intentions to engage in cancer prevention and detection behaviors: examining differences between Black and White adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Fishbein, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Reducing cancer-related mortality rates can be achieved by increasing cancer screening rates and by increasing the number of people who engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors. This study uses the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IM; Fishbein, 2000) to examine differences between Blacks and Whites in the US in the degree to which attitudes, perceived behavioral control (PBC) and normative pressure contribute to predicting intentions to engage in three cancer screening behaviors (mammogram, colonoscopy and PSA test) and three healthy lifestyle behaviors (controlling ones diet to lose weight, eating fruits and vegetables and exercising regularly). Prior research has demonstrated that these behaviors are effective at reducing incidence and mortality rates for some cancers. Results indicated that for Blacks intentions to engage in all behaviors were driven by PBC. Patterns were more varied for Whites and indicated that normative pressure was a particularly important determinant of screening intentions whereas attitudes were most strongly associated with dieting intentions. Results suggest that interventions targeting these behaviors should be tailored by behavior and by ethnicity.

  8. Intensity modulated radiotherapy versus volumetric modulated arc therapy in breast cancer: A comparative dosimetric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KR Muralidhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT has the capacity to optimize the dose distribution. We analyzed the dosimetric differences of plans in treatment planning system (TPS between VMAT and IMRT in treating breast cancer. Methods: Fourteen patients were simulated, planned, and treated with VMAT using single, double or partial arcs. IMRT treatments were generated using 4 to 5 tangential IMRT fields for the same patients. All treatment plans were planned for 50 Gy in 25 fractions. The VMAT and IMRT plans were compared using the planning target volume (PTV dose and doses to the other organs at risk (OARs. Results: For the PTV, comparable minimum, mean, maximum, median, and modal dose as well equivalent sphere diameter of the structure (Equis were observed between VMAT and IMRT plans and found that these values were significantly equal in both techniques. The right lung mean and modal doses were considerably higher in VMAT plans while maximum value was considerably lower when compared with IMRT plans. The left lung mean and modal doses were higher with VMAT while maximum doses were higher in IMRT plans. The mean dose to the heart and maximum dose to the spinal cord was lower with IMRT. The mean dose to the body was higher in VMAT plans while the maximum dose was higher in IMRT plans. Conclusion: Four field tangential IMRT delivered comparable PTV dose with generally less dose to normal tissues in our breast cancer treatment study. The IMRT plans typically had more favourable dose characteristics to the lung, heart, and spinal cord and body dose when compared with VMAT. The only minor advantage of VMAT for breast cases was slightly better PTV coverage.

  9. Robotic surgery compared with laparotomy for high-grade endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Alok; Schink, Julian; Lurain, John

    2014-06-01

    High-grade endometrial cancer often presents with occult metastatic disease and this presentation pattern can be considered a contraindication to minimally invasive surgery. We sought to compare the surgical and oncologic outcomes of patients with high-grade endometrial cancer who underwent surgical management/staging via the robotic approach versus the traditional open approach. A retrospective analysis was performed of patients with high-grade endometrial cancer who were treated at a single institution from January 2008 through December 2011. High-grade endometrial histology was defined as FIGO grade 2 or 3 endometrioid, serous, clear cell or uterine carcinosarcoma. Pre-operatively, all patients had clinical stage I disease based on a combination of physical examination and imaging studies. Baseline patient demographics, operative results, complications and oncologic outcomes were analyzed. Eighty consecutive patients were included. Forty-seven patients underwent surgical management using the robotic approach and 33 patients underwent a traditional operation via laparotomy. The groups were well matched in terms of age, body mass index, medical co-morbidities, stage and histology. The average hospital stay for patients who underwent open surgery was significantly longer than for those who underwent a robotic approach [5.6 versus 1.4 days (p = 0.0001)]. Of the patients who underwent robotic surgery, 7/47 (15 %) experienced an operative complication versus 18/33 (55 %) in the open surgery cohort (p = 0.002). The average number of pelvic lymph nodes retrieved in each cohort was 12. The average number of para-aortic lymph nodes retrieved in each group was 4. On final pathologic analysis, 20 patients in the robotic surgery arm were found to have disease that had spread beyond the uterus (43 %), compared to 14 in the traditional surgery group (42 %). There were 11/47 (23 %) recurrences in the robotic surgery group during the study period, compared to 8/33 (24

  10. Comparative effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Matthew D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insomnia is common in primary care, can persist after co-morbid conditions are treated, and may require long-term medication treatment. A potential alternative to medications is cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I. Methods In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register, and PsycINFO for randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing CBT-I to any prescription or non-prescription medication in patients with primary or comorbid insomnia. Trials had to report quantitative sleep outcomes (e.g. sleep latency in order to be included in the analysis. Extracted results included quantitative sleep outcomes, as well as psychological outcomes and adverse effects when available. Evidence base quality was assessed using GRADE. Results Five studies met criteria for analysis. Low to moderate grade evidence suggests CBT-I has superior effectiveness to benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine drugs in the long term, while very low grade evidence suggests benzodiazepines are more effective in the short term. Very low grade evidence supports use of CBT-I to improve psychological outcomes. Conclusions CBT-I is effective for treating insomnia when compared with medications, and its effects may be more durable than medications. Primary care providers should consider CBT-I as a first-line treatment option for insomnia.

  11. Effects of an occlusal splint compared with cognitive-behavioral treatment on sleep bruxism activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommerborn, Michelle A; Schneider, Christine; Giraki, Maria; Schäfer, Ralf; Handschel, Jörg; Franz, Matthias; Raab, Wolfgang H-M

    2007-02-01

    The impact of an occlusal splint (OS) compared with cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) on the management of sleep bruxism (SB) has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an OS with CBT in SB patients. Following a randomized assignment, the OS group consisted of 29, and the CBT group of 28, SB patients. The CBT comprised problem-solving, progressive muscle relaxation, nocturnal biofeedback, and training of recreation and enjoyment. The treatment took place over a period of 12 wk, and the OS group received an OS over the same time period. Both groups were examined pretreatment, post-treatment, and at 6 months of follow-up for SB activity, self-assessment of SB activity and associated symptoms, psychological impairment, and individual stress-coping strategies. The analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in SB activity, self-assessment of SB activity, and psychological impairment, as well as an increase of positive stress-coping strategies in both groups. However, the effects were small and no group-specific differences were seen in any dependent variable. This is an initial attempt to compare CBT and OS in SB patients, and the data collected substantiate the need for further controlled evaluations, using a three-group randomized design with repeated measures to verify treatment effects.

  12. Women and Cancer: Examining Breast Cancer-Screening Behaviors and Survival

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-07-24

    This podcast features Siran Koroukian, PhD, associate professor in the School of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University and lead author of one of PCD’s most recent articles. Dr. Koroukian answers questions about the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (BCCP) in Ohio and discusses the effectiveness of the program among low-income women enrolled Medicare.  Created: 7/24/2015 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 7/24/2015.

  13. Breast Cancer Knowledge and Preventive Behavior Among Filipino Women in a Rural Area: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashiwagi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer are high among Filipino women. The lack of knowledge on preventive behavior and early detection related to breast cancer is considered a reason. Objectives This study aimed to determine the association between knowledge about breast cancer and selected sociodemographic characteristics, daily life factors, reproductive factors, and perceived breast cancer risk factors. Patients and Methods This study used a cross-sectional design. The study population consisted of 527 women. Interviews were conducted by the investigators. The contents of the questionnaire collected basic characteristics of the respondents, including their sociodemographic profiles, their knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, preventive behaviors, early detection, and their daily life and reproductive factors. Predictor variables were analyzed using a Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and a t-test. Multivariate logistic regression was applied for any significant differences (P < 0.005 among the predictor variables. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HDS were used to evaluate the association between education level and reproductive factors. Results Less than half of the women (42.7% had knowledge on breast cancer risk factors, and an equivalent number had knowledge on breast cancer symptoms. Women with higher educational levels were noted to give birth to their first child at a significantly older age and have a significantly lower number of childbirths. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that body mass index, education history, knowledge about symptoms, knowing how to conduct a breast self-examination, family history of cancer, and passive smoking could predict breast cancer knowledge. Conclusions Women who were aware of risk factors for breast cancer possessed a higher education level and had knowledge of the association of risk factors with preventive behaviors and early detection. However, a minority of

  14. Comparing Growth Trajectories of Risk Behaviors from Late Adolescence through Young Adulthood: An Accelerated Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S.; Croudace, Tim J.; Brown, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Risk behaviors such as substance use or deviance are often limited to the early stages of the life course. Whereas the onset of risk behavior is well studied, less is currently known about the decline and timing of cessation of risk behaviors of different domains during young adulthood. Prevalence and longitudinal developmental patterning of…

  15. Influence of Leader Behaviors on Creativity: A Comparative Study between South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seog Joo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates what are the relationships between different leader behaviors (i.e. supportive, participative, and controlling leader behaviors) and follower creativity, and whether the relationships differ between South Korea and the United States. Although creativity research suggests that supportive leader behaviors tend to enhance…

  16. Comparative skin dose measurement in the treatment of anal canal cancer: conventional versus conformal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devic, Slobodan; Hegyi, Gyorgy; Vuong, Té; Muanza, Thierry; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2004-06-01

    The subject of this work was to compare the effect of Conventional and Conformal techniques, used for anal canal cancer treatments, on the skin dose deposition. Skin dose was measured on a Rando phantom using XR-T GAFCHROMIC film. A skin surface dose histogram was constructed and a skin dose profile in the sagittal direction of the perineal region was measured, for both techniques. The measured skin dose in the anterior and posterior region of the skin exposed to radiation is from two to ten times higher when using a conventional technique. In the perineal region, an 85% of the prescription isodose line spreads over 25% of the perineum for conformal technique as compared to 65% with conventional techniques. In addition, conformal technique dose profiles confine better the anatomical position of the anal verge than conventional techniques. Results presented in this work confirm clinically observed improvement in the radiation-induced dermatitis when using the conformal technique.

  17. Short-term outcomes after complete mesocolic excision compared with 'conventional' colonic cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, C A; Neuenschwander, A U; Jansen, J E

    2016-01-01

    2008 to December 2013) were retrieved from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database and medical charts. Approval from a Danish ethics committee was not required (retrospective study). RESULTS: Some 529 patients who underwent CME surgery at one centre were compared with 1701 patients undergoing......BACKGROUND: Complete mesocolic excision (CME) seems to be associated with improved oncological outcomes compared with 'conventional' surgery, but there is a potential for higher morbidity. METHODS: Data for patients after elective resection at the four centres in the Capital Region of Denmark (June...... group was 6·2 per cent versus 4·9 per cent in the 'conventional' group (P = 0·219), with a propensity score-adjusted logistic regression odds ratio (OR) of 1·22 (95 per cent c.i. 0·79 to 1·87). Laparoscopic surgery was associated with a lower risk of mortality at 90 days (OR 0·63, 0·42 to 0...

  18. Accuracy of MRI for prediction of response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in triple negative breast cancer compared to other subtypes of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav J Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for the prediction of response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in triple negative (TN breast cancer, with respect to other subtypes. Materials and Methods: There were a total of 1610 breast cancers diagnosed between March 2009 and August 2014, out of which 82 patients underwent MRI before and after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy but just before surgery. TN cancers were analyzed with respect to others subtypes. Accuracy of MRI for prediction of pathological complete response was compared between different subtypes by obtaining receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21 was used for all data analysis, with P value of 0.05 as statistically significant. Results: Out of 82 patients, 29 were luminal (HR+/HER2−, 23 were TN (HR−, HER2−, 11 were HER2 positive (HR−, HER2+, and 19 were of hybrid subtype (HR+/HER2+. TN cancers presented as masses on the pre-chemotherapy MRI scan, were grade 3 on histopathology, and showed concentric shrinkage following chemotherapy. TN cancers were more likely to have both imaging and pathological complete response following chemotherapy (P = 0.055 in contrast to luminal cancers, which show residual cancer. ROC curves were constructed for the prediction of pathological complete response with MRI. For the TN subgroup, MR had a sensitivity of 0.745 and specificity of 0.700 (P = 0.035, with an area under curve of 0.745 (95% confidence interval: 0.526–0.965, which was significantly better compared to other subtypes. Conclusion: TN breast cancers present as masses and show concentric shrinkage following chemotherapy. MRI is most accurate in predicting response to chemotherapy in the TN group, compared to others subtypes. MRI underestimates residual disease in luminal cancers.

  19. Examining the Correlates of Online Health Information-Seeking Behavior Among Men Compared With Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoloudakis, Irene A; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rebar, Amanda L; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie; Duncan, Mitch J; Short, Camille E

    2016-05-18

    This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic, health behavior, health status, and social media use correlates of online health-seeking behaviors among men and women. Cross-sectional self-report data were collected from 1,289 Australian adults participating in the Queensland Social Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the correlates of online health information seeking for men and women. Differences in the strength of the relation of these correlates were tested using equality of regression coefficient tests. For both genders, the two strongest correlates were social media use (men: odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.78, 3.71]; women: OR = 2.93, 95% CI [1.92, 4.45]) and having a university education (men: OR = 3.63, 95% CI [2.37, 5.56]; women: OR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.66, 4.51]). Not being a smoker and being of younger age were also associated with online health information seeking for both men and women. Reporting poor health and the presence of two chronic diseases were positively associated with online health seeking for women only. Correlates of help seeking online among men and women were generally similar, with exception of health status. Results suggest that similar groups of men and women are likely to access health information online for primary prevention purposes, and additionally that women experiencing poor health are more likely to seek health information online than women who are relatively well. These findings are useful for analyzing the potential reach of online health initiatives targeting both men and women.

  20. Effects of laminin glycopeptides on metastasis—related behaviors of cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGXINNONG; ROULIZHOU; 等

    1998-01-01

    Our previous reports have shown that lamininglycopeptides (LN-GPs),the total glycopeptides prepared from laminin (LN),can prevent the experimental lung metastasis and liver metastasis of mouse cancer cells.In order to explore the anti-metastatic mechanism of LN-GPs,we studied the effects of LN-GPs on metastasisrelated behaviors of cancer cells in vitro.LN-GPs did not affect cell survival.However,LN-GPs inhibited cell attachment and spreading of S180 cells on LN-and Matrigelsubstrate in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners.Moreover,inhibition of cell attachment and spreading on Matrigel substrates were much greater on Matrigel substrate than on LN substrate.In the gresence of LN-GPs,S180 cells on LN substrate changed from a flattened polygonal shape to a round one,the migration of S180 cells on LN substrate decreased,and the number of a highly invasive human pulmonary giant carcinoma PG cells invading Matrigel filter in a Boyden chamber was reduced.LN-GPs thus have multiple inhibitory effects on cancer metastasisrelated behaviors.

  1. Methodology for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Behaviors - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    This model-based approach uses data from both the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to produce estimates of the prevalence rates of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors at the state, health service area, and county levels.

  2. Fruit and Vegetable Dietary Behavior in Response to a Low-Intensity Dietary Intervention: The Rural Physician Cancer Prevention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcaise-Edinboro, Patricia; McClish, Donna; Kracen, Amanda C.; Bowen, Deborah; Fries, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Context: Increased fruit and vegetable intake can reduce cancer risk. Information from this study contributes to research exploring health disparities in high-risk dietary behavior. Purpose: Changes in fruit and vegetable behavior were evaluated to assess the effects of a low-intensity, physician-endorsed dietary intervention in a rural…

  3. Excess of health care use in general practice and of comorbid chronic conditions in cancer patients compared to controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabaaij Lea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of cancer patients and the number of patients surviving initial treatments is expected to rise. Traditionally, follow-up monitoring takes place in secondary care. The contribution of general practice is less visible and not clearly defined. This study aimed to compare healthcare use in general practice of patients with cancer during the follow-up phase compared with patients without cancer. We also examined the influence of comorbid conditions on healthcare utilisation by these patients in general practice. Methods We compared health care use of N=8,703 cancer patients with an age and gender-matched control group of patients without cancer from the same practice. Data originate from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH, a representative network consisting of 92 general practices with 350,000 enlisted patients. Health care utilisation was assessed using data on contacts with general practice, prescription and referral rates recorded between 1/1/2001 and 31/12/2007. The existence of additional comorbid chronic conditions (ICPC coded was taken into account. Results Compared to matched controls, cancer patients had more contacts with their GP-practice (19.5 vs. 11.9, p Conclusion We found that cancer patients in the follow-up phase consulted general practice more often and suffered more often from comorbid chronic conditions, compared to patients without cancer. It is expected that the number of cancer patients will rise in the years to come and that primary health care professionals will be more involved in follow-up care. Care for comorbid chronic conditions, communication between specialists and GPs, and coordination of tasks then need special attention.

  4. Inhibitory effect of silibinin combined with 5-FU treatment on malignant biological behaviors of gastric cancer cell lines MGC803

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wang; Chang-Lin Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the inhibitory effect of silibinin combined with 5-FU treatment on malignant biological behaviors of gastric cancer cell lines MGC803.Methods:Gastric cancer cell lines MGC803 were cultured, divided into NC group, 5-Fu group and SB+5-Fu group and treated with different conditions, and then the number of apoptotic cells, the number of invasive cells as well as the expression of proliferation and invasion-related genes were detected.Results:At 6 h, 12 h, 18 h and 24 h after treatment, the number of apoptotic cells of 5-Fu group and SB+5-Fu group was significantly more than that of NC group, the number of invasive cells was significantly less than that of NC group, the number of apoptotic cells of SB+5-Fu group was significantly more than that of 5-Fu group, and the number of invasive cells was significantly less than that of 5-Fu group; mRNA contents of Vav3, PTP1B, GOLPH3, RUNX3, Sipa1, UbcH10, NEDD9, Mig-7, CD157, AEP and Galectin-1 of 5-Fu group and SB+5-Fu group were lower than those of NC group; mRNA contents of Vav3, PTP1B, GOLPH3, UbcH10, NEDD9, Mig-7, CD157, AEP and Galectin-1 of SB+5-Fu group were lower than those of 5-Fu group, and mRNA contents of RUNX3 and Sipa1 were not different from those of 5-Fu group. Conclusion:Compared with single 5-FU treatment, silibinin combined with 5-FU treatment can more effectively promote gastric cancer cell apoptosis, inhibit gastric cancer cell invasion and regulate the expression of proliferation and invasion-related genes.

  5. Posttranslational regulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN and its functional impact on cancer behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu WT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wenting Xu,1 Zhen Yang,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,2 Nonghua Lu1 1Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA Abstract: The incidence of cancer is increasing worldwide, but the biochemical mechanisms for the occurrence of cancer is not fully understood, and there is no cure for advanced tumors. Defects of posttranslational modifications of proteins are linked to a number of important diseases, such as cancer. This review will update our knowledge on the critical role of posttranscriptional regulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN and its activities and the functional impact on cancer behaviors. PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene that occupies a key position in regulating cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, mobility, signal transduction, and other crucial cellular processes. The activity and function of PTEN are regulated by coordinated epigenetic, transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational modifications. In particular, PTEN is subject to phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, somoylation, acetylation, and active site oxidation. Posttranslational modifications of PTEN can dynamically change its activity and function. Deficiency in the posttranslational regulation of PTEN leads to abnormal cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and adhesion, which are associated with cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. With increasing information on how PTEN is regulated by multiple mechanisms and networked proteins, its exact role in cancer initiation, growth, and metastasis will be revealed. PTEN and its functionally related proteins may represent useful targets for the discovery of new anticancer drugs, and gene therapy and the therapeutic potentials should be fully explored. Keywords: phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, oxidation

  6. COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY FOR INSOMNIA IN BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Aricò

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insomnia is a common sleep disorder in patients with breast cancer and studies show a higher frequency than in the general population but it appears to be understudied and the treatment seems to be a neglected problem. There is a growing body of evidence about the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I in breast cancer survivors. The aim of this review is to examine the best available scientific evidence related to CBT-I and insomnia in patients with breast cancer and to assess the effect of CBT-I on their psychosocial functioning, sleep, quality of life, and mood. Methods: Empirical articles published in peer-reviewed journals from the earliest reports available until August 2015 were considered. The research on PubMed generated 18 papers, three of which did not meet the inclusion criteria. Another paper was retrieved by screening the reference list of the previously selected papers. Results: A total of 16 studies were found that evaluated the effects of CBT-I in breast cancer patients. CBT-I appears to be an effective therapy for insomnia in breast cancer survivors, improving mood, general and physical fatigue and global and cognitive dimensions of quality of life. CBT-I may also reduce menopausal symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweat problems, frequency of medicated nights, level of depression, and anxiety. Conclusions: CBT-I seems to be an eligible intervention for improving sleep in breast cancer survivors. Improvements concerning insomnia and sleep quality are durable (usually up to 12 months and statistically significant.

  7. Comparing Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy to Chemotherapy Alone for Locally Advanced Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Woo Chul; Kim, Hun Jung; Gwak, Hee Keun [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is the standard treatment for locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer. However, the introduction of gemcitabine and the recognition of a benefit in patients with advanced disease stimulated the design of trials that compare chemotherapy alone to concurrent chemoradiation. Therefore, we evaluated role of CCRT for locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer. We carried out a retrospective analysis of treatment results for patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer between January 2000 and January 2008. The radiation was delivered to the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes with a 1{approx}2 cm margin at a total dose of 36.0{approx}59.4 Gy (median: 54 Gy). The chemotherapeutic agent delivered with the radiation was 5-FU (500 mg/m{sup 2}). The patients who underwent chemotherapy alone received gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m{sup 2}) alone or gemcitabine with 5-FU. The follow-up period ranged from 2 to 38 months. The survival and prognostic factors were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, respectively. Thirty-four patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy, whereas 21 patients received chemotherapy alone. The median survival time was 12 months for CCRT patients, compared to 11 months for chemotherapy alone patients (p=0.453). The median progression-free survival was 8 months for CCRT patients, compared to 5 months for chemotherapy alone patients (p=0.242). The overall response included 9 partial responses for CCRT and 1 partial response for chemotherapy alone. In total, 26% of patients from the CCRT group experienced grade 3{approx}4 bowel toxicity. In contract, no grade 3{approx}4 bowel toxicity was observed in the chemotherapy alone group. The significant prognostic factors of overall survival were lymph node status, high CA19-9, and tumor location. The response rate and progression-free survival were more favorable in the CCRT group, when compared with the chemotherapy alone group

  8. Educational Differences in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer - Quantifying Indirect Effects through Health Behaviors, Body Mass Index and Reproductive Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise;

    2013-01-01

    of the effect of educational level on breast cancer incidence into indirect effects through reproductive patterns (parity and age at first birth), body mass index and health behavior (alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and hormone therapy use). The study was based on a pooled cohort of 6 studies from......-years at risk. Of these, 26% (95% CI 14%-69%) could be attributed to alcohol consumption. Similar effects were observed for age at first birth (32%; 95% CI 10%-257%), parity (19%; 95%CI 10%-45%), and hormone therapy use (10%; 95% CI 6%-18%). Educational level modified the effect of physical activity on breast...... educational level may be more vulnerable to physical inactivity compared to women of low educational level....

  9. Postoperative radiotherapy following mastectomy for patients with left-sided breast cancer: A comparative dosimetric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiahao, E-mail: mashenglin@medmail.com.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Li, Xiadong; Deng, Qinghua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou First People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Xia, Bing; Wu, Shixiu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Liu, Jian [Department of Breast Surgery, Hangzhou First People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Ma, Shenglin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou First People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-10-01

    The purposes of this article were to compare the biophysical dosimetry for postmastectomy left-sided breast cancer using 4 different radiotherapy (RT) techniques. In total, 30 patients with left-sided breast cancer were randomly selected for this treatment planning study. They were planned using 4 RT techniques, including the following: (1) 3-dimensional conventional tangential fields (TFs), (2) tangential intensity-modulated therapy (T-IMRT), (3) 4 fields IMRT (4F-IMRT), and (4) single arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (S-VMAT). The planning target volume (PTV) dose was prescribed 50 Gy, the comparison of target dose distribution, conformity index, homogeneity index, dose to organs at risk (OARs), tumor control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and number of monitor units (MUs) between 4 plans were investigated for their biophysical dosimetric difference. The target conformity and homogeneity of S-VMAT were better than the other 3 kinds of plans, but increased the volume of OARs receiving low dose (V{sub 5}). TCP of PTV and NTCP of the left lung showed no statistically significant difference in 4 plans. 4F-IMRT plan was superior in terms of target coverage and protection of OARs and demonstrated significant advantages in decreasing the NTCP of heart by 0.07, 0.03, and 0.05 compared with TFs, T-IMRT, and S-VMAT plan. Compared with other 3 plans, TFs reduced the average number of MUs. Of the 4 techniques studied, this analysis supports 4F-IMRT as the most appropriate balance of target coverage and normal tissue sparing.

  10. Exploratory behavior of two species of murid rodents, Acomys cahirinus and Mus musculus: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, L I; D'Udine, B; Albonetti, M E

    1985-03-01

    The exploratory behavior of two species of murid rodents, Acomys cahirinus and Mus musculus, was compared in four experiments: In the first, the responses of the two species to a novel arena were studied. Mus was found to take longer to enter the arena, and to spend more time in the relatively familiar or safer start box, than was Acomys. The results suggest that Acomys may persevere longer in exploring particular areas, whereas Mus appear to explore in the open arena by using frequent shifts of attention. The second experiment investigated species differences in response to the addition of a small novel object. Although the species did respond differently, the major species differences seemed to be related more to the open arena than to the object. The third experiment tested the hypothesis that both species would explore more if there was somewhere to hide (e.g., an artificial burrow) than if there was not. It was found that Acomys treated the available artificial burrow as another novel object, while Mus, as predicted, spent more time hiding inside it than did Acomys. The fourth experiment investigated burrow use when a model "predator" was introduced: Both species increased their use of the burrow but some species differences were found. Mus responded to the model more by freezing, or running immediately into the burrow; Acomys responded more by fleeing.

  11. Comparative sorption and desorption behaviors of PFHxS and PFOS on sequentially extracted humic substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia Zhao; Yifeng Zhang; Shuhong Fang; Lingyan Zhu; Zhengtao Liu

    2014-01-01

    The sorption and desorption behaviors of two perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs),including perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on two humic acids (HAs) and humin (HM),which were extracted from a peat soil,were investigated.The sorption kinetics and isotherms showed that the sorption of PFOS on the humic substances (HSs) was much higher than PFHxS.For the same PFSA compound,the sorption on HSs followed the order of HM > HA2 > HA1.These suggest that hydrophobic interaction plays a key role in the sorption of PFSAs on HSs.The sorption capacities of PFSAs on HSs were significantly related to their aliphaticity,but negatively correlated to aromatic carbons,indicating the importance of aliphatic groups in the sorption of PFSAs.Compared to PFOS,PFHxS displayed distinct desorption hysteresis,probably due to irreversible pore deformation after sorption of PFHxS.The sorption of the two PFSAs on HSs decreased with an increase in pH in the solution.This is ascribed to the electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding at lower pH.Hydrophobic interaction might also be stronger at lower pH due to the aggregation of HSs.

  12. Comparative investigation of creep behavior of ceramic fiber-reinforced alumina and silica aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Wei, Jing [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Shi, Duoqi, E-mail: shdq@buaa.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Sun, Yantao; Lv, Shuangqi [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Feng, Jian; Jiang, Yonggang [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Ambient and high temperature creep experiments at constant stresses of 0.05 MPa and 0.2 MPa were conducted on a ceramic fiber-reinforced alumina aerogel. Experimental results show that at low temperature (below 300 °C), there is no significant creep phenomenon at low stress level (0.05 MPa), but time-dependent creep deformation is found at high stress level (0.2 MPa) for the material. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis was also conducted to understand the micro mechanism of the creep behavior. Crack initiation and propagation in matrix are the key factors that change the creep property. Comparative investigation of creep properties was also carried out between ceramic fiber-reinforced alumina and silica aerogel. Finally the application prospect of the two composites was discussed. The result shows that alumina aerogel has excellent creep resistance, thermal stability and heat insulation properties at high temperature (above 800 °C), and it has a good application prospect in high temperature insulation fields, while the ceramic fiber-reinforced silica aerogel, limited by the sintering and poor creep resistance under high temperature, is more suitable for low temperature (below 600 °C) insulation field.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Thermal Behavior, Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics and Polymorphism of Palm Oil Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal behavior of palm stearin (PS and palm olein (PO was explored by monitoring peak temperature transitions by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The fatty acid composition (FAC, isothermal crystallization kinetics studied by pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (pNMR and isothermal microstructure were also compared. The results indicated that the fatty acid composition had an important influence on the crystallization process. PS and PO both exhibited more multiple endotherms than exotherms which showed irregular peak shapes. An increasing in cooling rate, generally, was associated with an increase in peak size. Application of the Avaimi equation to isothermal crystallization of PS and PO revealed different nucleation and growth mechanisms based on the Avrami exponents. PS quickly reached the end of crystallization because of more saturated triacylglycerol (TAG. The Avrami index of PS were the same as PO under the same isothermal condition at lower temperatrue, indicating that the crystallization mechanism of the two samples based on super-cooling state were the same. According to the polarized light microscope (PLM images, crystal morphology of PS and PO was different. With the temperature increased, the structure of crystal network of both PS and PO gradually loosened.

  14. A Comparative Study of Material Flow Behavior in Friction Stir Welding Using Laminar and Turbulent Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadian, Arun Kumar; Biswas, Pankaj

    2015-10-01

    Friction stir welding has been quite successful in joining aluminum alloy which has gained importance in almost all industrial sectors over the past two decades. It is a newer technique and therefore needs more attention in many sectors, flow of material being one among them. The material flow pattern actually helps in deciding the parameters required for particular tool geometry. The knowledge of material flow is very significant in removing defects from the weldment. In the work presented in this paper, the flow behavior of AA6061 under a threaded tool has been studied. The convective heat loss has been considered from all the surfaces, and a comparative study has been made with and without the use of temperature-dependent properties and their significance in the finite volume method model. The two types of models that have been implemented are turbulent and laminar models. Their thermal histories have been studied for all the cases. The material flow velocity has been analyzed to predict the flow of material. A swirl inside the weld material has been observed in all the simulations.

  15. Comparing Self-Regulation-Associated Event Related Potentials in Preschool Children with and without High Levels of Disruptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabell, Adam S; Olson, Sheryl L; Tardif, Twila; Thompson, Meaghan C; Gehring, William J

    2016-11-28

    Deficient self-regulation plays a key role in the etiology of early onset disruptive behavior disorders and signals risk for chronic psychopathology. However, to date, there has been no research comparing preschool children with and without high levels of disruptive behavior using Event Related Potentials (ERPs) associated with specific self-regulation sub-processes. We examined 15 preschool children with high levels of disruptive behavior (35 % female) and 20 peers with low disruptive behavior (50 % female) who completed a Go/No-go task that provided emotionally valenced feedback. We tested whether 4 ERP components: the Error Related Negativity, the Error Positivity, the Feedback Related Negativity, and the No-go N2, differed in preschool children with and without high levels of disruptive behavior. Preschoolers with high levels of disruptive behavior showed less differentiation between the Error Positivity and corresponding waveforms following correct responses at posterior sites. Preschoolers with high and low disruptive behavior also showed differences in Go/No-go N2 waveform amplitudes across electrodes. These findings suggest that preschool children with high levels of disruptive behavior may show abnormal brain activity during certain self-regulation sub-processes, informing potential advances in conceptualizing and treating early disruptive behavior.

  16. Women’s health behaviors and selected determinants in breast cancer prevention / Zachowania zdrowotne kobiet i wybrane ich determinanty w profilaktyce raka piersi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ślusarska Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer in women in Poland. Health behaviors concerning lifestyle and breast self-examination (BSE constitute a significant element of early prevention.

  17. Determination comparative study of esophageal cancer treatments with helical tomotherapy; Determinacion estudio comparativo de tratamientos de cancer de esofago con tomoterapia helicoidal, IMRT dinamica y 3DCRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto Monedero, M.; Sanchez Rubio, P.; Rodriguez Romero, R.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of treatments dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy and helical tomotherapy in cases of esophageal cancer, in terms of PTV coverage and dose reduction in OARs compared to 3D conformal radiotherapy treatments. (Author)

  18. The comparative palliative care needs of those with heart failure and cancer patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Norma

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with heart failure seem particularly suited to palliative care having needs that fall within the prototypical palliative care domains. Despite this there is still much debate as to who should respond to these needs and when. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the early 1990s many studies have been published outlining the unmet needs of patients with heart failure. However, there have been limitations to these studies and they have not guided professionals as to how to respond. More recently comparative studies using cancer as the reference have explored similarities and highlighted differences in need between heart failure and cancer patients. These studies are useful for informing future service development. SUMMARY: Patients with heart failure have variable needs and variable disease trajectories. A targeted response to these needs is required. Palliative triggers or transitions should be recognized by professionals caring for patients with heart failure. It is unlikely that either specialist palliative care or medical specialists working in isolation will be sufficiently experienced to respond to these needs. Research is required to determine the effectiveness of different collaborative approaches; heart failure specialist care aligned with palliative care consultancy or heart failure-oriented palliative care services.

  19. A Comparative Study of Two Folate-Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles for Cancer Nanotechnology Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoori, G. Ali, E-mail: mansoori@uic.edu; Brandenburg, Kenneth S. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 851 S. Morgan St. (MC 063), Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Shakeri-Zadeh, Ali [Department of Medical Physics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-11-18

    We report a comparative study of synthesis, characteristics and in vitro tests of two folate-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNP) differing in linkers and AuNP sizes for selective targeting of folate-receptor positive cancerous cells. The linkers chosen were 4-aminothiophenol (4Atp) and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MH) with nanoconjugate products named Folate-4Atp-AuNP and Folate-MH-AuNP. We report the folate-receptor tissue distribution and its endocytosis for targeted nanotechnology. Comparison of the two nanoconjugates’ syntheses and characterization is also reported, including materials and methods of synthesis, UV-visible absorption spectroscopic measurements, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) measurements, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and size distributions, X-ray diffraction data, elemental analyses and chemical stability comparison. In addition to the analytical characterization of the nanoconjugates, the cell lethality was measured in HeLa (high level of folate receptor expression) and MCF-7 (low level of folate receptor expression) cells. The nanoconjugates themselves, as well as the intense pulsed light (IPL) were not harmful to cell viability. However, upon stimulation of the folate targeted nanoconjugates with the IPL, ~98% cell killing was found in HeLa cells and only ~9% in MCF-7 cells after four hours incubation with the nanoconjugate. This demonstrates that folate targeting is effective in selecting for specific cell populations. Considering the various comparisons made, we conclude that Folate-4Atp-AuNP is superior to Folate-MH-AuNP for cancer therapy.

  20. Comparative outcomes for three-dimensional conformal versus intensity-modulated radiation therapy for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, J; Hoffe, S E; Almhanna, K; Dinwoodie, W; Yue, B; Fulp, W; Meredith, K L; Shridhar, R

    2015-01-01

    Emerging data suggests a benefit for using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the management of esophageal cancer. We retrospectively reviewed patients treated at our institution who received definitive or preoperative chemoradiation with either IMRT or 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) between October 2000 and January 2012. Kaplan Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazard model were used to evaluate survival outcomes. We evaluated a total of 232 patients (138 IMRT, 94 3DCRT) who received a median dose of 50.4 Gy (range, 44-64.8) to gross disease. Median follow up for all patients, IMRT patients alone, and 3DCRT patients alone was 18.5 (range, 2.5-124.2), 16.5 (range, 3-59), and 25.9 months (range, 2.5-124.2), respectively. We observed no significant difference based on radiation technique (3DCRT vs. IMRT) with respect to median overall survival (OS) (median 29 vs. 32 months; P = 0.74) or median relapse free survival (median 20 vs. 25 months; P = 0.66). On multivariable analysis (MVA), surgical resection resulted in improved OS (HR 0.444; P 20% weight loss (OR 0.51; P = 0.050). Our data suggest that while IMRT-based chemoradiation for esophageal cancer does not impact survival there was significantly less toxicity. In the IMRT group there was significant decrease in weight loss and grade ≥3 toxicity compared to 3DCRT.

  1. A comparative study of the palliative care needs of heart failure and cancer patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Norma

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: Studies suggest that patients with advanced heart failure (HF) have unmet palliative care (PC) needs. However, many of these studies have been retrospective or based on patients receiving poorly coordinated ad hoc care. We aimed to demonstrate whether the PC needs of patients with advanced HF receiving specialist multidisciplinary coordinated care are similar to cancer patients deemed to have specialist PC needs; thereby justifying the extension of specialist PC services to HF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a cross-sectional comparative cohort study of 50 HF patients and 50 cancer patients, using quantitative and qualitative methods. Both patient cohorts were statistically indistinguishable in terms of symptom burden, emotional wellbeing, and quality-of-life scores. HF patients had good access to community and social support. HF patients particularly valued the close supervision, medication monitoring, ease of access to service, telephone support, and key worker provided at the HF unit. A small subset of patients had unmet PC needs. A palliative transition point is described. CONCLUSION: HF patients should not be excluded from specialist PC services. However, the majority of their needs can be met at a HF unit. Recognition of the palliative transition point may be key to ensuring that end-of-life issues are addressed. The palliative transition point needs further evaluation.

  2. Awareness of general public towards cancer prostate and screening practice in Arabic communities: a comparative multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Mostafa A; Rabah, Danny M; Wahdan, Iman H

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed at exploring the knowledge and beliefs of men aged forty years and over towards prostate cancer screening and early detection in three Arab countries. The field work was conducted in three countries; Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Jordan, during the period February through December 2011. Our target population were men aged 40 years and over. It was a population-based cross sectional study comprising 400 subjects at each site. In addition to socio-demographic data, history of the present and past medical illness, practice history of prostatic cancer examination, family history of cancer prostate; participants were inquired about their knowledge and attitude towards prostate cancer and screening behavior using two different likert scales. The percentage of participants who practiced regular prostate check up ranged from 8-30%. They had poor knowledge and fair attitude towards prostate cancer screening behavior, where the mean total knowledge score was 10.25±2.5, 10.76±3.39 and 11.24±3.39 whereas the mean total attitude score was 18.3±4.08, 20.68±6.4 and 17.96±5.3 for Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Jordan respectively. The respondents identified the physicians as the main sources of this information (62.4%), though they were not the main motives for regular checkup. Knowledge was the only significant predictor for participants' attitude in the multiple regression models. Participants' attitudes depends mainly on level of knowledge and quantity of information provided to the patients and their families. Such attitudes should rely on a solid background of proper information and motivation from physicians to enhance and empower behaviors towards prostate cancer screening practices.

  3. Skin Cancer Risk in Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplant Recipients Compared With Background Population and Renal Transplant Recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Gniadecki, Robert; Hædersdal, Merete

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: While a high risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer is well recognized in solid-organ transplant recipients, the risk of skin cancer in hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) recipients has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of cutaneous cancer in HSCT recipients...... and compare it with the risk in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and individuals who have not received any transplant. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A nationwide population-based cohort study from the Danish National Hospital Register including 3302 patients who underwent HSCT (1007 allogeneic, 2295...... cancer between transplant recipients and background population, we used a stratified proportional hazard regression model for hazard ratio (HR) estimations. By use of the cumulative incidence, we estimated 5- and 10-year risks of skin cancers. All RTR and HSCT recipients were treated and followed up...

  4. Behavioral and neurochemical analysis of ongoing bone cancer pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeniuk, Bethany; Sukhtankar, Devki; Okun, Alec; Navratilova, Edita; Xie, Jennifer Y; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain is described as dull, aching ongoing pain. Ongoing bone cancer pain was characterized after intratibial injection of breast cancer cells in rats. Cancer produced time-dependent bone remodeling and tactile hypersensitivity but no spontaneous flinching. Conditioned place preference (CPP) and enhanced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell was observed after peripheral nerve block (PNB) selectively in tumor-bearing rats revealing nociceptive-driven ongoing pain. Oral diclofenac reversed tumor-induced tactile hypersensitivity but did not block PNB-induced CPP or NAc DA release. Tumor-induced tactile hypersensitivity, and PNB-induced CPP and NAc DA release, was blocked by prior subcutaneous implantation of a morphine pellet. In sham rats, morphine produced a modest but sustained increase in NAc DA release. In contrast, morphine produced a transient 5-fold higher NAc DA release in tumor bearing rats compared with sham morphine rats. The possibility that this increased NAc DA release reflected the reward of pain relief was tested by irreversible blockade of rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) μ-opioid receptors (MORs). The rACC MOR blockade prevented the morphine-induced transient increased NAc DA release in tumor bearing rats but did not affect morphine-induced effects in sham-operated animals. Consistent with clinical experience, ongoing cancer pain was controlled by morphine but not by a dose of diclofenac that reversed evoked hypersensitivity. Additionally, the intrinsic reward of morphine can be dissociated from the reward of relief of cancer pain by blockade of rACC MOR. This approach allows mechanistic and therapeutic assessment of ongoing cancer pain with likely translation relevance.

  5. Comparative analysis of epigenetic markers in plasma and tissue of patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratov A. G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The work is devoted to the development of less invasive tools for the colorectal cancer (CRC screening. Methods. Q-PCR and methylation-specific PCR techniques were used in the current work. Results. We have shown that the levels of cell-free plasma DNA are higher in the CRC patients compared with the healthy donors (p < 0.01. Hypermethylation of APC, FHIT, LRRC3B and HIC1 genes was studied in the tumor and plasma samples of CRC patients. Two-stage verification for CRC screening was proposed. Conclusions. We proposed and tested a novel approach for CRC screening based on the determination of cell-free DNA and methylated DNA fragments in the plasma.

  6. Comparing benefits from many possible computed tomography lung cancer screening programs: extrapolating from the National Lung Screening Trial using comparative modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela M McMahon

    Full Text Available The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST demonstrated that in current and former smokers aged 55 to 74 years, with at least 30 pack-years of cigarette smoking history and who had quit smoking no more than 15 years ago, 3 annual computed tomography (CT screens reduced lung cancer-specific mortality by 20% relative to 3 annual chest X-ray screens. We compared the benefits achievable with 576 lung cancer screening programs that varied CT screen number and frequency, ages of screening, and eligibility based on smoking.We used five independent microsimulation models with lung cancer natural history parameters previously calibrated to the NLST to simulate life histories of the US cohort born in 1950 under all 576 programs. 'Efficient' (within model programs prevented the greatest number of lung cancer deaths, compared to no screening, for a given number of CT screens. Among 120 'consensus efficient' (identified as efficient across models programs, the average starting age was 55 years, the stopping age was 80 or 85 years, the average minimum pack-years was 27, and the maximum years since quitting was 20. Among consensus efficient programs, 11% to 40% of the cohort was screened, and 153 to 846 lung cancer deaths were averted per 100,000 people. In all models, annual screening based on age and smoking eligibility in NLST was not efficient; continuing screening to age 80 or 85 years was more efficient.Consensus results from five models identified a set of efficient screening programs that include annual CT lung cancer screening using criteria like NLST eligibility but extended to older ages. Guidelines for screening should also consider harms of screening and individual patient characteristics.

  7. LEARNING AS A TOOL FOR CANCER PREVENTION THROUGH THE ACQUISITION OF NEW DIETARY HABITS AND BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Brito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to promote knowledge of health entails, in part, by encouraging healthy eating habits. The creation of popular science materials, especially at schools, by promoting guidance for the eating habits is presented as an important tool. Foods that contain bioactive compounds are called nutraceutical foods and about 35% of various cancers occur due to inadequate diets. Conventional therapies are used in the treatment of cancer, even though they are efficient in fighting tumors, to cause many harmful effects to the patient, and therefore the researches for alternative therapies have increased. Especially those act strengthening the immunologic system. The mushrooms are able to modulate carcinogenesis in all stages of the disease through different mechanisms of action of the bioactive compounds, thus having an antitumor effect that is assigned to restore and improve the immune response through stimulation of cellular immunity which are present polysaccharides the composition of the mushrooms, such as beta-glucans that besides the anticancer effect, it still has activity as immunostimulant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, which are already used in Japan as drugs for treating cancer patients. The aim of this work was to use learning as a tool for acquiring habits and eating behaviors in the general community and ownership and acquisition of knowledge about the antitumor potential of bioactive compounds in foods which are applied in cancer prevention through the scientific dissemination / education. Because it is a popular science work using written material and the dissemination of the material make for yourself the methodology used for the dissemination of scientific knowledge. Thus, the inclusion of consumption of mushrooms in the diet may represent an important step in the cancer prevention as the best form of prevention, and therefore it shows the need for available information to everyone, as it has proposed this work, disclosure.

  8. Comparative performance of PET tracers in biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chung Yao; Desai, Bhushan; Ji, Lingyun; Groshen, Susan; Jadvar, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with a number of tracers targeted to particular biological features of cancer has been explored for the imaging evaluation of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after curative primary treatment. However, these reports are often heterogeneous in study design, patient cohorts, standards of reference for the imaging findings, data analysis, and data reporting. The aim of our study was to address these limitations by extracting and re-analyzing the PET detection data only from studies that satisfied pre-defined sets of patient selection criteria and verification standards. Our investigation analyzed the effects of 5 tracers ((18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), (11)C-acetate (ACET), (11)C- or (18)F-choline (CHOL), anti-1-amino-3-(18)F-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), and radiolabeled ligand targeted to prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)), 2 treatment types (radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy), and whether the detected disease was local or metastatic, including lesion type (bone, lymph node, soft tissue). FDG exhibited the lowest detection rate for any suspected disease. ACET tended to be advantageous over CHOL in detecting local recurrence and lymph node lesions, even though the difference was not statistically significant. FACBC had greater likelihood of detecting local recurrence, when compared to CHOL, though this difference was not statistically significant. PSMA tended to show a higher proportion of patients with suspected disease compared to the other four tracers. Patients treated with radiation therapy had greater odds of displaying local recurrence on PET than those treated with radical prostatectomy. We also provide suggestions for future investigations that facilitate communication and the impact of the findings.

  9. Differences in Health Behaviors of Overweight or Obese College Students Compared to Healthy Weight Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, M. Rachel; Ickes, Melinda J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity continues to be an epidemic in college students, yet research is warranted to determine whether obesity increases the likelihood of risky health behaviors in this population. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and health behaviors in college students. Methods: A…

  10. Comparing Main and Collateral Effects of Extinction and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petscher, Erin Seligson; Bailey, Jon S.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects and collateral effects of extinction (EXT) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) interventions with inappropriate vocalizations and work refusal. Both interventions have been used frequently to reduce problem behaviors. The benefits of these interventions have been established yet may be…

  11. A Comparative Study of Educational Leadership Behavior by Gender and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sonya B.

    2010-01-01

    The philosophies and behaviors of a leader constitute his or her leadership style. Historically, studies of educational leadership have focused on the philosophies and behaviors of white males. Over the past forty years, there have been a number of studies conducted that seek to identify differences between male and female leadership styles.…

  12. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in oral submucous fibrosis, oral leukoplakia, and oral cancer: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Gurudath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Present study was undertaken to estimate and compare erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (E-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx levels in oral submucous fibrosis, oral leukoplakia, oral cancer patients, and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: E-SOD and GPx levels were estimated in OSF, oral leukoplakia, and oral cancer patients with 25 subjects in each group. The results obtained were compared with the corresponding age-/sex- matched control groups. Results: Statistically significant ( P 0.05. Oral cancer group had the lowest levels amongst the study groups. Conclusion: Imbalance in antioxidant enzyme status may be considered as one of the factors responsible for the pathogenesis of cancer and may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target to reduce the malignant transformation in oral premalignant lesions/conditions.

  13. A study of molecular signals deregulating mismatch repair genes in prostate cancer compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanmitra; Majumder, Subhadipa; Bhowal, Ankur; Ghosh, Alip; Naskar, Sukla; Nandy, Sumit; Mukherjee, Subhabrata; Sinha, Rajan Kumar; Basu, Keya; Karmakar, Dilip; Banerjee, Soma; Sengupta, Sanghamitra

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality among aging males. There is an unmet requirement of clinically useful biomarkers for early detection of prostate cancer to reduce the liabilities of overtreatment and accompanying morbidity. The present population-based study investigates the factors disrupting expression of multiple functionally related genes of DNA mismatch repair pathway in prostate cancer patients to identify molecular attributes distinguishing adenocarcinoma from benign hyperplasia of prostate. Gene expression was compared between tissue samples from prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia using real-time-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Assessment of genotypes of seven single-nucleotide-polymorphisms of three MMR genes was conducted using PCR-coupled RFLP and sequencing. Promoter methylation was interrogated by methylation-specific-PCR and bisulfite-sequencing. Interaction between microRNAs and MMR genes was verified by 3'UTR-based dual luciferase assays. Concurrent reduction of three MMR genes namely hMLH1, hMSH6 and hMSH2 (34-85%, Pprostate cancer tissues. hMSH6 polymorphism rs1800932(Pro92Pro) conferred a borderline protection in cancer patients (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.15-0.75). Relative transcript level of hMLH1 was inversely related (r = -0.59, Pprostate cancer. This comparative study reflects that microRNA expression level, particularly hsa-miR-155, exhibits predictive signature of prostate adenocarcinoma.

  14. Coverage of Skin Cancer Risk Factors and UV Behaviors in Popular U.S. Magazines from 2000 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2016-06-01

    Mass media is an influential source of skin cancer and tanning information for the public, but we know little about its content or emphasis. The objective of this research was to describe the volume and nature of skin cancer and tanning messages in 20 popular U.S. men's and women's magazines (2000-2012). We used a directed content analysis to determine frequency information about risk factors and ultraviolet (UV) behaviors in 608 articles and 930 images. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests determined coverage differences based on content type (text vs. image) and target audience (women vs. men). UV exposure was the most common risk factor mentioned (37.7 %) and sunscreen use the most common behavior encouraged (60.0 %); information about other risk factors and protective behaviors was uncommon. Both articles (25.2 %) and images (36.9 %) promoted the tanned look as attractive. In most cases, images infrequently contained helpful information on skin cancer risk factors and prevention, except for high-SPF sunscreens. Women's magazines published more articles on skin cancer and tanning than men's magazines (456 vs. 159, χ(2) = 143.43, P Magazine skin cancer and tanning content may contribute to inaccurate public understanding of risks and prevention. These findings are relevant to cancer educators, who may wish to counter potentially harmful messages and enhance positive ones through cancer education efforts.

  15. Cancer-Related Constituents of Strawberry Jam as Compared with Fresh Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gema; Ruiz Del Castillo, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-14

    The health awareness recently shown by consumers has led to a demand for health beneficial products. In particular, researchers are currently focusing their studies on the search for foods for cancer prevention activity. In the present work, we study comparatively the effect of two different processing methods on the contents of phenolic compounds (i.e., ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) with antioxidant and antitumor properties in strawberry jams. In turn, the results obtained were compared with those of unprocessed fruit. Additionally carcinogenic heat-induced compounds formed by the two jam making methods were evaluated. Decreases of total ellagic acid from 138.4 µg/g to 86.5 µg/g were measured in jam as compared with the intact fruit. Even higher losses of up to 90% of total flavonols were found in strawberry after the jam-making process. A comparison between the two processing methods proved shorter heating periods (around 60 min) even at temperatures as high as 100 °C enabled losses of antioxidant phenolics to be minimized. Carcinogenic heat-induced volatile compounds, mainly Maillard reaction products, were formed as a result of thermal treatment during jam processing. However, shorter heating periods also helped reduce the formation of these harmful compounds. These results are deeply discussed. From a practical standpoint, the processing conditions here proposed can be used by industry to obtain strawberry jam with higher content of antioxidant flavonoids and, at the same time, reduced amounts of carcinogenic compounds.

  16. Comparative evaluation of genetic assays to identify oral pre-cancerous fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, J.F.; Braakhuis, B.J.; Brink, A.; Broeckaert, M.A.; Beliën, J.A.M.; Meijer, G.A.; Kuik, D.J.; Leemans, C.R.; Bloemena, E.; van der Waal, I.; Brakenhoff, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinomas often develop in a pre-cancerous field, defined as mucosal epithelium with cancer-related genetic alterations, and which may appear as a clinically visible lesion. The test characteristics of three genetic assays that were developed to detect pre-cancerous f

  17. Analysis of risk factors associated with precancerous lesion of gastric cancer in patients from eastern China: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Yanmin Wu; Yaofu Fan; Yangyang Jiang; Yao Wang; Hao Liu; Muxin Wei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association between various risk factors and precancerous lesion of gastric cancer (PLGC) in patients from eastern China. Materials and Methods: 501 cases of PLGC and 523 cases of superficial gastritis were included. A comparative study of the relation between different risk factors and PGLC was performed. Results: Statistical differences were noted in a series of indexes including Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, family history of esophageal cancer (EC), ...

  18. Comparative genetic approaches to the evolution of human brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallender, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    With advances in genomic technologies, the amount of genetic data available to scientists today is vast. Genomes are now available or planned for 14 different primate species and complete resequencing of numerous human individuals from numerous populations is underway. Moreover, high-throughput deep sequencing is quickly making whole genome efforts within the reach of single laboratories allowing for unprecedented studies. Comparative genetic approaches to the identification of the underlying basis of human brain, behavior, and cognitive ability are moving to the forefront. Two approaches predominate: inter-species divergence comparisons and intra-species polymorphism studies. These methodological differences are useful for different time scales of evolution and necessarily focus on different evolutionary events in the history of primate and hominin evolution. Inter-species divergence is more useful in studying large scale primate, or hominoid, evolution whereas intra-species polymorphism can be more illuminating of recent hominin evolution. These differences in methodological utility also extend to studies of differing genetic substrates; current divergence studies focus primarily on protein evolution whereas polymorphism studies are substrate ambivalent. Some of the issues inherent in these studies can be ameliorated by current sequencing capabilities whereas others remain intractable. New avenues are also being opened that allow for the incorporation of novel substrates and approaches. In the post-genomic era, the study of human evolution, specifically as it relates to the brain, is becoming more complete focusing increasingly on the totality of the system and better conceptualizing the entirety of the genetic changes that have lead to the human phenotype today.

  19. Behavioral, medical imaging and histopathological features of a new rat model of bone cancer pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Doré-Savard

    Full Text Available Pre-clinical bone cancer pain models mimicking the human condition are required to respond to clinical realities. Breast or prostate cancer patients coping with bone metastases experience intractable pain, which affects their quality of life. Advanced monitoring is thus required to clarify bone cancer pain mechanisms and refine treatments. In our model of rat femoral mammary carcinoma MRMT-1 cell implantation, pain onset and tumor growth were monitored for 21 days. The surgical procedure performed without arthrotomy allowed recording of incidental pain in free-moving rats. Along with the gradual development of mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia, behavioral signs of ambulatory pain were detected at day 14 by using a dynamic weight-bearing apparatus. Osteopenia was revealed from day 14 concomitantly with disorganization of the trabecular architecture (µCT. Bone metastases were visualized as early as day 8 by MRI (T(1-Gd-DTPA before pain detection. PET (Na(18F co-registration revealed intra-osseous activity, as determined by anatomical superimposition over MRI in accordance with osteoclastic hyperactivity (TRAP staining. Pain and bone destruction were aggravated with time. Bone remodeling was accompanied by c-Fos (spinal and ATF3 (DRG neuronal activation, sustained by astrocyte (GFAP and microglia (Iba1 reactivity in lumbar spinal cord. Our animal model demonstrates the importance of simultaneously recording pain and tumor progression and will allow us to better characterize therapeutic strategies in the future.

  20. Trends and variations in breast and colorectal cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011: a comparative study between Texas Cancer Registry and National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheyu; Zhang, Yefei; Franzin, Luisa; Cormier, Janice N; Chan, Wenyaw; Xu, Hua; Du, Xianglin L

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have examined the cancer incidence trends in the state of Texas, and no study has ever been conducted to compare the temporal trends of breast and colorectal cancer incidence in Texas with those of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) in the United States. This study aimed to conduct a parallel comparison between the Texas Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Institute's SEER on cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011. A total of 951,899 breast and colorectal cancer patients were included. Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence was 134.74 per 100,000 in Texas and 131.78 per 100,000 in SEER in 1995-2011, whereas age-adjusted colorectal cancer incidence was 50.52 per 100,000 in Texas and 49.44 per 100,000 in SEER. Breast cancer incidence increased from 1995 to 2001, decreased from 2002 to 2006, and then remained relatively stable from 2007 to 2011. For colorectal cancer, the incidence increased in 1995-1997, and then decreased continuously from 1998 to 2011 in Texas and SEER areas. Incidence rates and relative risks by age, gender and ethnicity were identical between Texas and SEER.

  1. Reduction in neural activation to high-calorie food cues in obese endometrial cancer survivors after a behavioral lifestyle intervention: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nock Nora L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity increases the risk of endometrial cancer (EC and obese EC patients have the highest risk of death among all obesity-associated cancers. However, only two lifestyle interventions targeting this high-risk population have been conducted. In one trial, food disinhibition, as determined by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, decreased post-intervention compared to baseline, suggesting an increase in emotional eating and, potentially, an increase in food related reward. Therefore, we evaluated appetitive behavior using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and a visual food task in 8 obese, Stage I/II EC patients before and after a lifestyle intervention (Survivors in Uterine Cancer Empowered by Exercise and a Healthy Diet, SUCCEED, which aimed to improve nutritional and exercise behaviors over 16 group sessions in 6 months using social cognitive theory. Results Congruent to findings in the general obese population, we found that obese EC patients, at baseline, had increased activation in response to high- vs. low-calorie food cues after eating a meal in brain regions associated with food reward (insula, cingulate gyrus; precentral gyrus; whole brain cluster corrected, p  Conclusions Our preliminary results suggest behavioral lifestyle interventions may help to reduce high-calorie food reward in obese EC survivors who are at a high-risk of death. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate such changes.

  2. Ape Behavior in Two Alternating Environments: Comparing Exhibit and Short-Term Holding Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stephen R.; Wagner, Katherine E.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    In many facilities, primates are voluntarily transferred between different enclosures on a daily basis to facilitate animal husbandry and exhibit maintenance. This procedure is particularly relevant in the management of great apes living in zoos, where the requirements of functional management must...... behavior needs of captive great apes and demonstrate the importance of including all components of the captive enclosure in comprehensive analyses of great ape behavior and welfare...

  3. Comparative Analysis of Behavioral Models for Adaptive Learning in Changing Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Marković, Dimitrije; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2017-01-01

    Probabilistic models of decision making under various forms of uncertainty have been applied in recent years to numerous behavioral and model-based fMRI studies. These studies were highly successful in enabling a better understanding of behavior and delineating the functional properties of brain areas involved in decision making under uncertainty. However, as different studies considered different models of decision making under uncertainty, it is unclear which of these computational models p...

  4. A Comparative Study of Two Folate-Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles for Cancer Nanotechnology Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shakeri-Zadeh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a comparative study of synthesis, characteristics and in vitro tests of two folate-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNP differing in linkers and AuNP sizes for selective targeting of folate-receptor positive cancerous cells. The linkers chosen were 4-aminothiophenol (4Atp and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MH with nanoconjugate products named Folate-4Atp-AuNP and Folate-MH-AuNP. We report the folate-receptor tissue distribution and its endocytosis for targeted nanotechnology. Comparison of the two nanoconjugates’ syntheses and characterization is also reported, including materials and methods of synthesis, UV-visible absorption spectroscopic measurements, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR measurements, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM images and size distributions, X-ray diffraction data, elemental analyses and chemical stability comparison. In addition to the analytical characterization of the nanoconjugates, the cell lethality was measured in HeLa (high level of folate receptor expression and MCF-7 (low level of folate receptor expression cells. The nanoconjugates themselves, as well as the intense pulsed light (IPL were not harmful to cell viability. However, upon stimulation of the folate targeted nanoconjugates with the IPL, ~98% cell killing was found in HeLa cells and only ~9% in MCF-7 cells after four hours incubation with the nanoconjugate. This demonstrates that folate targeting is effective in selecting for specific cell populations. Considering the various comparisons made, we conclude that Folate-4Atp-AuNP is superior to Folate-MH-AuNP for cancer therapy.

  5. Comparing stochastic differential equations and agent-based modelling and simulation for early-stage cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazziela P Figueredo

    Full Text Available There is great potential to be explored regarding the use of agent-based modelling and simulation as an alternative paradigm to investigate early-stage cancer interactions with the immune system. It does not suffer from some limitations of ordinary differential equation models, such as the lack of stochasticity, representation of individual behaviours rather than aggregates and individual memory. In this paper we investigate the potential contribution of agent-based modelling and simulation when contrasted with stochastic versions of ODE models using early-stage cancer examples. We seek answers to the following questions: (1 Does this new stochastic formulation produce similar results to the agent-based version? (2 Can these methods be used interchangeably? (3 Do agent-based models outcomes reveal any benefit when compared to the Gillespie results? To answer these research questions we investigate three well-established mathematical models describing interactions between tumour cells and immune elements. These case studies were re-conceptualised under an agent-based perspective and also converted to the Gillespie algorithm formulation. Our interest in this work, therefore, is to establish a methodological discussion regarding the usability of different simulation approaches, rather than provide further biological insights into the investigated case studies. Our results show that it is possible to obtain equivalent models that implement the same mechanisms; however, the incapacity of the Gillespie algorithm to retain individual memory of past events affects the similarity of some results. Furthermore, the emergent behaviour of ABMS produces extra patters of behaviour in the system, which was not obtained by the Gillespie algorithm.

  6. Comparing stochastic differential equations and agent-based modelling and simulation for early-stage cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Grazziela P; Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Owen, Markus R; Reps, Jenna; Aickelin, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    There is great potential to be explored regarding the use of agent-based modelling and simulation as an alternative paradigm to investigate early-stage cancer interactions with the immune system. It does not suffer from some limitations of ordinary differential equation models, such as the lack of stochasticity, representation of individual behaviours rather than aggregates and individual memory. In this paper we investigate the potential contribution of agent-based modelling and simulation when contrasted with stochastic versions of ODE models using early-stage cancer examples. We seek answers to the following questions: (1) Does this new stochastic formulation produce similar results to the agent-based version? (2) Can these methods be used interchangeably? (3) Do agent-based models outcomes reveal any benefit when compared to the Gillespie results? To answer these research questions we investigate three well-established mathematical models describing interactions between tumour cells and immune elements. These case studies were re-conceptualised under an agent-based perspective and also converted to the Gillespie algorithm formulation. Our interest in this work, therefore, is to establish a methodological discussion regarding the usability of different simulation approaches, rather than provide further biological insights into the investigated case studies. Our results show that it is possible to obtain equivalent models that implement the same mechanisms; however, the incapacity of the Gillespie algorithm to retain individual memory of past events affects the similarity of some results. Furthermore, the emergent behaviour of ABMS produces extra patters of behaviour in the system, which was not obtained by the Gillespie algorithm.

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Debora; Raggi, Alberto; Ferri, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insomnia is a common sleep disorder in patients with breast cancer and studies show a higher frequency than in the general population but it appears to be understudied and the treatment seems to be a neglected problem. There is a growing body of evidence about the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in breast cancer survivors (BCS). The aim of this review is to examine the best available scientific evidence related to CBT-I and insomnia in patients with breast cancer and to assess the effect of CBT-I on their psychosocial functioning, sleep, quality of life, and mood. Methods: Empirical articles published in peer-reviewed journals from the earliest reports available until August 2015 were considered. The research on PubMed generated 18 papers, three of which did not meet the inclusion criteria. Another paper was retrieved by screening the reference list of the previously selected papers. Results: A total of 16 studies were found that evaluated the effects of CBT-I in breast cancer patients. CBT-I appears to be an effective therapy for insomnia in BCS, improving mood, general and physical fatigue, and global and cognitive dimensions of quality of life. CBT-I may also reduce menopausal symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweat problems, frequency of medicated nights, level of depression, and anxiety. Conclusions: CBT-I seems to be an eligible intervention for improving sleep in BCS. Improvements concerning insomnia and sleep quality are durable (usually up to 12 months) and statistically significant. PMID:27536265

  8. β-Catenin is required for the tumorigenic behavior of triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Xu

    Full Text Available Our previous data illustrated that activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway was enriched in triple-negative breast cancer and associated with reduced overall survival in all patients. To determine whether Wnt signaling may be a promising therapeutic target for triple-negative breast cancer, we investigated whether β-catenin was necessary for tumorigenic behaviors in vivo and in vitro. β-catenin expression level was significantly reduced in two human triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and HCC38, using lentiviral delivery of β-catenin-specific small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs. Upon implantation of the cells in the mammary fat pad of immunocompromised mice, we found that β-catenin shRNA HCC38 cells formed markedly smaller tumors than control cells and grew much more slowly. In in vitro assays, β-catenin silencing significantly reduced the percentage of Aldefluor-positive cells, a read-out of the stem-like cell population, as well as the expression of stem cell-related target genes including Bmi-1 and c-Myc. β-catenin-knockdown cells were also significantly impaired in their ability to migrate in wound-filling assays and form anchorage-independent colonies in soft agar. β-catenin-knockdown cells were more sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin and cisplatin. Collectively, these data suggest that β-catenin is required for triple-negative breast cancer development by controlling numerous tumor-associated properties, such as migration, stemness, anchorage-independent growth and chemosensitivity.

  9. β-Catenin is required for the tumorigenic behavior of triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinhua; Prosperi, Jenifer R; Choudhury, Noura; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Goss, Kathleen H

    2015-01-01

    Our previous data illustrated that activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway was enriched in triple-negative breast cancer and associated with reduced overall survival in all patients. To determine whether Wnt signaling may be a promising therapeutic target for triple-negative breast cancer, we investigated whether β-catenin was necessary for tumorigenic behaviors in vivo and in vitro. β-catenin expression level was significantly reduced in two human triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and HCC38, using lentiviral delivery of β-catenin-specific small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). Upon implantation of the cells in the mammary fat pad of immunocompromised mice, we found that β-catenin shRNA HCC38 cells formed markedly smaller tumors than control cells and grew much more slowly. In in vitro assays, β-catenin silencing significantly reduced the percentage of Aldefluor-positive cells, a read-out of the stem-like cell population, as well as the expression of stem cell-related target genes including Bmi-1 and c-Myc. β-catenin-knockdown cells were also significantly impaired in their ability to migrate in wound-filling assays and form anchorage-independent colonies in soft agar. β-catenin-knockdown cells were more sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin and cisplatin. Collectively, these data suggest that β-catenin is required for triple-negative breast cancer development by controlling numerous tumor-associated properties, such as migration, stemness, anchorage-independent growth and chemosensitivity.

  10. Scientific practices and social behaviors in managing landslide risks: comparing experiences between developing and developed countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    A successful landslide risk reduction program requires that the society is aware and understand the landslide problems within the geographic area involved. Central organizations that manage national landslide risks should: a) create and systematically applied natural hazard laws/national landslide strategies, where roles and limits of responsibilities of federal, state, provincial, municipal and private entities are well defined; c) establish fruitful multidisciplinary and interinstitutional collaboration among scientists; d) provide good risk assessments in which landslide experts report transparently what is really known and the limitations of methods and tools used; e) share and systematically communicate their knowledge more effectively with all private and public stakeholders involved, paying attention to providing balanced information about risks and addressing inevitable uncertainties; f) support the mass-media in spreading correct scientific information; g) perform serious risk and cost-benefit analyses before mitigation measures are realized; h) assist local authorities in the application of land-use planning policies and g) built trust and confidence by means of a continuous contact and communication with the public and local authorities. However, this is not yet achieved, not even in developed countries where, in theory, more economical resources are available and people are better educated then in developing countries. Herein I make some observations on how national landslide prevention efforts are being organized in two countries (Nicaragua and Norway), where I have been worked at governmental agencies as landslide expert in the last 10 years. I start describing similarities and differences between the countries and try to compare practices and experiences. The analysis was motivated by the following questions: Why after so many years of landslide mapping and investigations, landslide prevention is not good and effective as it should be? Is this

  11. Reaching rural women: breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors and interest in Internet, cell phone, and text use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan; Vilchis, Hugo

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women, the prevalence of Internet, cell, and text use, and interest to receive breast cancer prevention information cell and text messages. While growing literature for breast cancer information sources supports the use of the Internet, little is known about breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women and mobile technology. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected using a survey. McGuire's Input-Ouput Model was used as the framework. Self-reported data were obtained from a convenience sample of 157 women with a mean age of 60 (SD = 12.12) at a rural New Mexico imaging center. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, nurses, and friends and common channel information sources were television, magazines, and Internet. Overall, 87% used cell phones, 20% had an interest to receive cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 47% used text messaging, 36% had an interest to receive text breast cancer prevention messages, and 37% had an interest to receive mammogram reminder text messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between age, income, and race/ethnicity and use of cell phones or text messaging. There were no differences between age and receiving text messages or text mammogram reminders. Assessment of health information seeking behaviors is important for community health educators to target populations for program development. Future research may identify additional socio-cultural differences.

  12. Can a virtual supermarket bring realism into the lab? Comparing shopping behavior using virtual and pictorial store representations to behavior in a physical store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herpen, Erica; van den Broek, Eva; van Trijp, Hans C M; Yu, Tian

    2016-12-01

    Immersive virtual reality techniques present new opportunities for research into consumer behavior. The current study examines whether the increased realism of a virtual store compared to pictorial (2D) stimuli elicits consumer behavior that is more in line with behavior in a physical store. We examine the number, variety, and type of products selected, amount of money spent, and responses to price promotions and shelf display, in three product categories (fruit & vegetables, milk, and biscuits). We find that virtual reality elicits behavior that is more similar to behavior in the physical store compared to the picture condition for the number of products selected (Milk: Mstore = 1.19, Mvirtual = 1.53, Mpictures = 2.58) and amount of money spent (Milk: Mstore = 1.27, Mvirtual = 1.53, Mpictures = 2.60 Euro), and for the selection of products from different areas of the shelf, both vertically (purchases from top shelves, milk and biscuits: Pstore = 21.6%, Pvirtual = 33.4%, Ppictures = 50.0%) and horizontally (purchase from left shelf, biscuits: Pstore = 35.5%, Pvirtual = 53.3%, Ppictures = 66.7%). This indicates that virtual reality can improve realism in responses to shelf allocation. Virtual reality was not able to diminish other differences between lab and physical store: participants bought more products and spent more money (for biscuits and fruit & vegetables), bought more national brands, and responded more strongly to price promotions in both virtual reality and pictorial representations than in the physical store. Implications for the use of virtual reality in studies of consumer food choice behavior as well as for future improvement of virtual reality techniques are discussed.

  13. Metastasis-related plasma membrane proteins of human breast cancer cells identified by comparative quantitative mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Lund, Rikke; Hansen, Helle V

    2009-01-01

    The spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to form metastasis at distant sites is a complex multi-step process. The cancer cell proteins, and plasma membrane proteins in particular, involved in this process are poorly defined and a study of the very early events of the metastatic process using...... clinical samples or in vitro assays is not feasible. We have used a unique model system consisting of two isogenic human breast cancer cell lines that are equally tumorigenic in mice, but while one gives rise to metastasis, the other disseminates single cells that remain dormant at distant organs. Membrane...... by the two cell lines. The study demonstrates a quantitative and comparative proteomic strategy to identify clinically-relevant key molecules in the early events of metastasis, some of which may prove to be potential targets for cancer therapy....

  14. Genetic profiles of gastroesophageal cancer: combined analysis using expression array and tiling array--comparative genomic hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Mats; Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Johansson, Jan;

    2010-01-01

    /losses and gene expression profiles show strong similarity between cancers in the distal esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction with frequent upregulation of CDK6 and EGFR, whereas gastric cancer displays distinct genetic changes. These data suggest that molecular diagnostics and targeted therapies can......15, 13q34, and 12q13, whereas different profiles with gains at 5p15, 7p22, 2q35, and 13q34 characterized gastric cancers. CDK6 and EGFR were identified as putative target genes in cancers of the esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction, with upregulation in one quarter of the tumors. Gains......-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization and 27k oligo gene expression arrays, and putative target genes were validated in an extended series. Adenocarcinomas in the distal esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction showed strong similarities with the most common gains at 20q13, 8q24, 1q21-23, 5p...

  15. Decreased risk of surgery for small bowel obstruction after laparoscopic colon cancer surgery compared with open surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Erichsen, Rune; Scheike, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    . The HR for mortality after colonic resection was 2.54 (CI 1.91 to 3.38, P surgery as compared to those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic surgery for colonic cancer was associated with a decreased risk of subsequent SBO surgery compared with open...... surgery. Further, subsequent SBO surgery was associated with increased mortality after colonic cancer resection.......BACKGROUND: The impact of surgical approach on the incidence of small bowel obstruction (SBO) is unclear. The aim of the current study was to analyze the long-term risk of surgery for SBO after open and laparoscopic surgery and to assess how subsequent SBO surgery impacts on mortality after colonic...

  16. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Bojesen, Stig E; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne;

    2011-01-01

    We examined the associations between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism (rs1051730) on chromosome 15q25 marking the gene cluster CHRNA3-CHRNB4-CHRNA5, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases in the general population.......We examined the associations between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism (rs1051730) on chromosome 15q25 marking the gene cluster CHRNA3-CHRNB4-CHRNA5, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases in the general population....

  17. Comparative behavioral changes in postpubertal rats after neonatal excitotoxic lesions of the ventral hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gonzalo; Silva-Gómez, Adriana B; Ibáñez, Osvaldo; Quirion, Remi; Srivastava, Lalit K

    2005-06-01

    The neonatal ventral hippocampal (nVH) and the neonatal prefrontal cortex (nPFC) lesions in rats have been used as models to test the hypothesis that early neurodevelopmental abnormalities lead to behavioral changes putatively linked to schizophrenia. We investigated the role of the nVH and the nPFC lesions on behavioral characteristics related to locomotor behaviors, social interaction, and grooming. Bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of the VH, the PFC, or both were made in neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (postnatal day 7, P7) and their behaviors studied at P35 and P60. No significant differences in any of the behaviors were observed between sham animals and rats with ibotenic acid lesions at P35. Postpubertally (at P60), the spontaneous locomotor activity of nVH-lesioned rats was significantly enhanced compared to the sham controls; however, this hyperactivity was reversed by nVH and nPFC double lesions. Neonatal PFC lesion alone did not alter spontaneous activity, although a trend of increased activity was observed. The duration of grooming was significantly decreased in rats with neonatal lesions of the VH. Similar to the data on locomotion, nVH plus nPFC lesion normalized the grooming behavior. Lesion of the PFC alone was without any significant effect on grooming behavior. Neonatal VH-lesioned animals spent less time in active social interaction, and this effect persisted even in nVH plus nPFC-lesioned animals. By itself, nPFC lesion did not alter social behavior. These data suggest that subtle developmental aberrations within PFC caused by nVH lesions, rather than the lesion of PFC itself, may contribute to some of the behavioral changes seen in the nVH-lesioned rats.

  18. Awareness of cancer symptoms and anticipated patient interval for healthcare seeking. A comparative study of Denmark and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidberg, Line; Lagerlund, Magdalena; Pedersen, Anette F; Hajdarevic, Senada; Tishelman, Carol; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Background Recent epidemiologic data show that Denmark has considerably poorer survival from common cancers than Sweden. This may be related to a lower awareness of cancer symptoms and longer patient intervals in Denmark than in Sweden. The aims of this study were to: 1) compare population awareness of three possible symptoms of cancer (unexplained lump or swelling, unexplained bleeding and persistent cough or hoarseness); 2) compare anticipated patient interval when noticing any breast changes, rectal bleeding and persistent cough; and 3) examine whether potential differences were noticeable in particular age groups or at particular levels of education in a Danish and Swedish population sample. Method Data were derived from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure were conducted in 2011 among 3000 adults in Denmark and 3070 adults in Sweden. Results Danish respondents reported a higher awareness of two of three symptoms (i.e. unexplained lump or swelling and persistent cough or hoarseness) and a shorter anticipated patient interval for two of three symptoms studied (i.e. any breast changes and rectal bleeding) than Swedish respondents. Differences in symptom awareness and anticipated patient interval between these countries were most pronounced in highly educated respondents. Conclusion Somewhat paradoxically, the highest awareness of symptoms of cancer and the shortest anticipated patient intervals were found in Denmark, where cancer survival is lower than in Sweden. Thus, it appears that these differences in symptom awareness and anticipated patient interval do not help explain the cancer survival disparity between Denmark and Sweden.

  19. Trends in complementary/alternative medicine use by breast cancer survivors: Comparing survey data from 1998 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zick Suzanna M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM by women with breast cancer is often said to be increasing, yet few data exist to confirm this commonly held belief. The purpose of this paper is to compare overall patterns of CAM use, as well as use of specific products and therapies at two different points in time (1998 vs 2005 by women diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods Surveys were mailed to women randomly selected from the Ontario Cancer Registry (Canada in the spring of 1998 (n = 557 and again in the spring of 2005(n = 877. Results The response rates were 76.3% in 1998 and 63% in 2005. In 1998, 66.7% of women reported using either a CAM product/therapy or seeing a CAM therapist at some time in their lives as compared with 81.9% in 2005 (p = 0.0002. Increases were seen in both use of CAM products/therapies (62% in 1998 vs. 70.6% in 2005 and visits to CAM practitioners (39.4% of respondents in 1998 vs 57.4% of respondents in 2005. Women in 2005 reported that 41% used CAM for treating their breast cancer. The most commonly used products and practitioners for treating breast cancer as reported in 2005 were green tea, vitamin E, flaxseed, vitamin C, massage therapists and dietitians/nutritionists. Conclusion CAM use (both self-medication with products and visits to CAM practitioners increased significantly from 1998 to 2005. Now that more than 80% of all women with breast cancer report using CAM (41% in a specific attempt to management their breast cancer, CAM use can no longer be regarded as an "alternative" or unusual approach to managing breast cancer.

  20. [Comparative assessment of cognitive styles forming personal behavior in health and borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, N P

    2006-01-01

    The author suggests a cognitive-analytical concept of personality focusing on cognitively mediated processes of cyclic interaction of different levels of consciousness and subconsciousness represented in the form of emotional-behavioral potential and functional-dynamic system. A cognitive type (cognitype)--a type of personality-centered cognitive operations that determines the pattern of behavioral cycle and distinctive features of social adaptation--is singled out as an integrative basic individual and psychological component of personality. Presented is classification of personality cognitypes, their adaptive and maladaptive variants, correlations between cognitypes and anomalies of personality. The principles of psychotherapy of maladaptive behavior, borderline and addictive disorders (positive reintegration of personality) are substantiated.

  1. Mindfulness Meditation or Survivorship Education in Improving Behavioral Symptoms in Younger Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors (Pathways to Wellness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    Cancer Survivor; Early-Stage Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. Influence of taste disorders on dietary behaviors in cancer patients under chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laviano Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine the relationship between energy and nutrient consumption with chemosensory changes in cancer patients under chemotherapy. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study, enrolling 60 subjects. Cases were defined as patients with cancer diagnosis after their second chemotherapy cycle (n = 30, and controls were subjects without cancer (n = 30. Subjective changes of taste during treatment were assessed. Food consumption habits were obtained with a food frequency questionnaire validated for Mexican population. Five different concentrations of three basic flavors --sweet (sucrose, bitter (urea, and a novel basic taste, umami (sodium glutamate-- were used to measure detection thresholds and recognition thresholds (RT. We determine differences between energy and nutrient consumption in cases and controls and their association with taste DT and RT. Results No demographic differences were found between groups. Cases showed higher sweet DT (6.4 vs. 4.4 μmol/ml; p = 0.03 and a higher bitter RT (100 vs. 95 μmol/ml; p = 0.04 than controls. Cases with sweet DT above the median showed significant lower daily energy (2,043 vs.1,586 kcal; p = 0.02, proteins (81.4 vs. 54 g/day; p = 0.01, carbohydrates (246 vs.192 g/day; p = 0.05, and zinc consumption (19 vs.11 mg/day; p = 0.01 compared to cases without sweet DT alteration. Cases with sweet DT and RT above median were associated with lower completion of energy requirements and consequent weight loss. There was no association between flavors DT or RT and nutrient ingestion in the control group. Conclusion Changes of sweet DT and bitter RT in cancer patients under chemotherapy treatment were associated with lower energy and nutrient ingestion. Taste detection and recognition thresholds disorders could be important factors in malnutrition development on patients with cancer under chemotherapy treatment.

  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jillian A; Rash, Joshua A; Campbell, Tavis S; Savard, Josée; Gehrman, Philip R; Perlis, Michael; Carlson, Linda E; Garland, Sheila N

    2016-06-01

    This review examined the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in people diagnosed with cancer. Studies were identified through November 2014 using multiple databases, clinical trial records, and bibliography searches. Inclusion was limited to randomized controlled trials of CBT-I conducted in individuals with a cancer diagnosis who had clinically relevant insomnia. The primary outcome variable was sleep efficiency (SE) as measured by sleep diary. Eight studies including data from 752 cancer survivors met inclusion criteria. CBT-I resulted in a 15.5% improvement in SE relative to control conditions (6.1%) from pre- to post-intervention, with a medium effect size (ES: d = 0.53). Overall, sleep latency was reduced by 22 min with an ES of d = 0.43, compared to a reduction of 8 min in the control conditions. Wake after sleep onset was reduced by 30 min with an ES of d = 0.41, compared to 13 min in the control conditions. Large effect sizes were observed for self-reported insomnia severity (d = 0.77) for those patients who received CBT-I, representing a clinically relevant eight point reduction. Effects were durable up to 6 mo. The quality of the evidence supports a strong recommendation for the use of CBT-I among cancer survivors.

  4. Visual processing during recovery from vegetative state to consciousness: Comparing behavioral indices to brain responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, V.J.; Eilander, H.J.; Gelder, B. de; Boxtel, G.J. Van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Auditory stimulation is often used to evoke responses in unresponsive patients who have suffered severe brain injury. In order to investigate visual responses, we examined visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and behavioral responses to visual stimuli in vegetative patients during recovery to

  5. The Influence of Place-Based Communities on Information Behavior: A Comparative Grounded Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Amelia N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of experiential place and local community on information access and behavior for two communities of parents of children with Down syndrome. It uncovers substantive issues associated with health information seeking, government and education-related information access, and information overload and avoidance within the…

  6. Comparing Learner Community Behavior in Multiple Presentations of a Massive Open Online Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Silvia Elena; Savage, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) can create large scale communities of learners who collaborate, interact and discuss learning materials and activities. MOOCs are often delivered multiple times with similar content to different cohorts of learners. However, research into the differences of learner communication, behavior and expectation between…

  7. A Comparative Study of Two Different Teaching and Curricular Agreements in Human Behavior and Social Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, William C.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The use of social work faculty to teach human behavior and social environment content to undergraduate social work students vs using faculty from other departments is examined in this research study. The data suggest there were no significant differences between groups of students. (Author/MLW)

  8. Social Validation of Services for Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Kathleen M.; Knuth, Richard; Benner, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of 302 building administrators regarding their building level programs serving students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Comparisons were made between administrators of schools that housed self-contained programs and administrators from schools without self-contained programs on factors…

  9. Determining the Presence of a Problem: Comparing Two Approaches for Detecting Youth Behavioral Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphaus, R. W.; DiStefano, Christine; Dowdy, Erin; Eklund, Katie; Dunn, Alnita Rettig

    2010-01-01

    Universal screening has been routinely advised for determining the presence of problems for initiating problem-solving processes and models. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of two screener development methods on the validity of score inferences for two teacher screeners of child behavioral and emotional risk. The reliability and…

  10. Deformation Behaviors of HIPped Foil Compared with Those of Sheet Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Micromechanics-based modeling of composite material behaviors requires an accurate assessment of the constituent properties and behaviors. For the specific case of continuous-fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC's) manufactured from a foil/fiber/foil process, much emphasis has been placed on characterizing foil-based matrix materials that have been fabricated in the same way as the composite. Such materials are believed to yield mechanical properties and behaviors that are representative of the matrix constituent within the composite (in situ matrix). Therefore, these materials are desired for micromechanics modeling input. Unfortunately, such foils are extremely expensive to fabricate and procure because of the labor-intensive rolling process needed to produce them. As a potential solution to this problem that would maintain appropriately representative in situ properties, the matrix constituent could be characterized with sheet-based materials, which are considerably less expensive to manufacture than foils, are more readily procured, and result in fewer plies to obtain a desired panel thickness. The critical question is, however, does the consolidated sheet material exhibit the same properties and behaviors as do the consolidated foils? Researchers at NASA Lewis Research Center's Life Prediction Branch completed a detailed experimental investigation to answer this question for three titanium alloys commonly used in metal matrix composite form.

  11. Comparative Study of Several Behaviors in Caenorhabditis Elegans Following High-Let Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya

    Learning and behavioral impairments following ionizing radiation exposure are an important potential risk in manned space missions. We previously reported the effects of γ-ray exposure on olfactory adaptation [1], salt chemotaxis learning [2], and locomotion - learning behavior relationship [3] in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, little is known about the effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We investigated various behavioral responses of wellfed adult Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to accelerated carbon ions (1 2C, 18.3M eV /u, LET = 113.3keV /µm). Following carbon-ion irradiation, locomotion, basal slowing response and salt chemotaxis learning were not significantly affected, whereas chemosensation to NaCl of animals during learning was altered. These results suggest that sensitivity of the C. elegans nervous system to high-LET heavy ions differs with the types of behaviors. References: [1] Sakashita et al., Biol. Sci. Space 21, 117-20 (2007), [2] Sakashita et al., FASEB J 22, 713-20 (2008), [3] Sakashita et al., J. Radiat. Res. 49, in press (2008).

  12. A comparative study of oral health attitudes and behavior using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) between dental and civil engineering students in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Jorge A; Jaramillo, Fredy; Kador, Itzjak; Masuoka, David; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of dental and civil engineering students in Colombia. The HU-DBI's survey consisting of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding tooth brushing, was completed at University Antonio Narino for the dental students and the University of Cauca for the civil engineering students. The Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire was taken by 182 of 247 dental students and 411 of 762 engineering students. The data was-statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and backward logistic regression. Compared to the engineering students, the dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as "I am bothered by the color of my gums"(OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7),"I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste" (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-5.9), "I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are" (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.3), and "I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well" (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). The dental education curriculum in a dental school compared to a civil engineering school in Colombia indicated that a three-phase curriculum in didactics and clinics increased oral health attitudes and behavior from entry to graduation.

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Current Status, Own Body Perception and Positive Experience From Diagnosed Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornitza Ganeva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of the current status, own body perception and positive experience within a period of up to 1 year from diagnosing ofwomen with breast cancer (N = 41; mean age 35.25 in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd stages of the disease progress, of Bulgarian origin, was made.Reliability and validity of the scales were described. They were analysed with respect to: 1 medical characteristics (partial or total surgery,surgical removal of lymph nodes, presence or absence of metastases in them, 2 classical therapies (chemotherapy, radiation therapy andhormonal therapy administered or not and 3 application or not of alternative therapies (herbal medicine, physical load, administration ofmassage, lymph drainage, use of nutritional supplements, observance of diet. The results showed that the more therapies the personssurveyed were undergone the more unsatisfactory they assessed their current general status. The bigger the size of the surgery performedto remove the tumour the more positive idea of their own bodies they had. The more time after the surgical treatment passed the more thepositive experience accumulated from the oncologic diagnosis grew.

  14. Comparative study of peripheral blood leukocytes in healthy dogs and in dogs with cancer and inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sancho, Mercedes; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Sainz, Angel

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the peripheral blood lymphocyte subset distribution was compared between healthy dogs and dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease, dental and skin conditions, and cancer. The immunophenotype of the group with chronic gastrointestinal disease and the group with dental and skin conditions showed no statistically significant differences with other groups of healthy or diseased dogs. When compared with healthy dogs, animals with cancer showed significantly lower absolute values of T cytotoxic cells (CD3+, CD8+) and lymphocytes that express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (MHC-II+) in peripheral blood. The results suggest that peripheral blood immunophenotype is mainly altered in dogs with cancer but not in other diseases. Further studies are required to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings.

  15. The Genomic Grade Assay Compared With Ki67 to Determine Risk of Distant Breast Cancer Recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ignatiadis, Michail; Azim, Hatem A; Desmedt, Christine;

    2016-01-01

    Importance: The Genomic Grade Index (GGI) was previously developed, evaluated on frozen tissue, and shown to be prognostic in early breast cancer. To test the GGI in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer tumors, a quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay was de...

  16. High-resolution comparative genomic hybridization of inflammatory breast cancer and identification of candidate genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismahane Bekhouche

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC is an aggressive form of BC poorly defined at the molecular level. We compared the molecular portraits of 63 IBC and 134 non-IBC (nIBC clinical samples. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Genomic imbalances of 49 IBCs and 124 nIBCs were determined using high-resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization, and mRNA expression profiles of 197 samples using whole-genome microarrays. Genomic profiles of IBCs were as heterogeneous as those of nIBCs, and globally relatively close. However, IBCs showed more frequent "complex" patterns and a higher percentage of genes with CNAs per sample. The number of altered regions was similar in both types, although some regions were altered more frequently and/or with higher amplitude in IBCs. Many genes were similarly altered in both types; however, more genes displayed recurrent amplifications in IBCs. The percentage of genes whose mRNA expression correlated with CNAs was similar in both types for the gained genes, but ∼7-fold lower in IBCs for the lost genes. Integrated analysis identified 24 potential candidate IBC-specific genes. Their combined expression accurately distinguished IBCs and nIBCS in an independent validation set, and retained an independent prognostic value in a series of 1,781 nIBCs, reinforcing the hypothesis for a link with IBC aggressiveness. Consistent with the hyperproliferative and invasive phenotype of IBC these genes are notably involved in protein translation, cell cycle, RNA processing and transcription, metabolism, and cell migration. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a higher genomic instability of IBC. We established the first repertory of DNA copy number alterations in this tumor, and provided a list of genes that may contribute to its aggressiveness and represent novel therapeutic targets.

  17. MicroRNA-181b expression in prostate cancer tissues and its influence on the biological behavior of the prostate cancer cell line PC-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L; Yao, H; Fan, L H; Liu, L; Qiu, S; Li, X; Gao, J P; Hao, C Q

    2013-04-02

    We examined microRNA-181b (miRNA) expression in prostate cancer tissues and its effect on the prostate cancer cell line PC-3. Tissues from 27 cases of prostate cancer and 30 samples of normal human prostate were collected by surgical removal. Total miRNA was extracted, and the relative expression of miR-181b was quantified using RT-PCR. miR-181b ASO was transfected into prostate cancer PC-3 cells. miR-181b expression in transfected and non-transfected cells was measured using RT-PCR. Changes in cell apoptosis were measured using flow cytometry. MTT and cell growth curve methods were used to assess the influence of miR-181b expression on cell proliferation. The changes in cell invasive ability in vitro were detected using the Transwell chamber method. miR-181b was up-regulated in the prostate cancer tissues compared with the normal prostate samples. It was down-regulated after miR-181b ASO transfection into the prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Down-regulation of miR-181b in the PC-3 cell induced apoptosis, inhibited proliferation, and depressed invasion of PC-3 cells in vitro. As miR-181b is over-expressed in prostate cancer, its down-regulation could have potential as gene therapy for prostate cancer by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation and depressing invasion by cancer cells.

  18. Post-traumatic growth among elderly women with breast cancer compared to breast cancer-free women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Sofie Andersen; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Christensen, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Although breast cancer (BC) may have negative psychological sequelae, it may also be experienced as an existential challenge, which can derive personal growth. Only one study has been conducted, however, on whether women with BC experience more post-traumatic growth (PTG) than BC-free women. We...

  19. Incidence and survival from lung cancer in Greenland is comparable to survival in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelvan, Allan; Risum, Signe; Langer, Seppo W

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oncological treatment of lung cancer has been available in Greenland since 2004. We evaluated patient characteristics and survival rates for the first six years of local lung cancer treatment. METHODS: From September 2004 to August 2010, a total of 173 patients with lung cancer were...... referred to treatment at Queen Ingrid's Hospital. On 1 February 2014, treatment results, survival, and prognostic variables were analysed. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 63 years. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was diagnosed in 145 patients (84%); 56% had squamous cell carcinoma, 34% had...... adenocarcinoma, 2% had large cell carcinoma and 8% had NSCLC not otherwise specified (NOS). In all, 28 (16%) had small cell lung cancer. A total of 142 patients (82%) received treatment; 20 underwent surgery (ten stage Ib, one stage IIa, five stage IIb, four stage IIIa); palliative chemotherapy was given to 122...

  20. Relationship between exercise behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cognitive function in early breast cancer patients treated with doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowgey, Theresa; Peters, Katherine B; Hornsby, Whitney E; Lane, Amy; McSherry, Frances; Herndon, James E; West, Miranda J; Williams, Christina L; Jones, Lee W

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported exercise behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and cognitive function in early breast cancer patients. Thirty-seven breast cancer patients following completion of chemotherapy (median 16 months) and 14 controls were studied. Cognitive function was assessed using the Central Nervous System (CNS) Vital Signs software (CNS Vital Signs, LLC, Morrisville, N.C., USA), a computerized test battery consisting of 9 cognitive subtests. Exercise behavior was evaluated using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, and CRF was assessed via a cardiopulmonary exercise test to assess peak oxygen consumption. Patients' mean total exercise was 184 ± 141 min·week(-1) compared with 442 ± 315 min·week(-1) in controls (p exercise guidelines (i.e., ≥150 min of moderate-intensity or vigorous exercise per week) compared with 57% of controls (p = 0.014). Patients' peak oxygen consumption averaged 23.5 ± 6.3 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) compared with 30.6 ± 7.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) in controls (p exercise, peak oxygen consumption, and the majority of cognitive subdomain scores; however, there was a significant positive correlation between exercise and visual memory (r = 0.47, p = 0.004). In conclusion, breast cancer patients following the completion of primary adjuvant chemotherapy exhibit, in general, worse cognitive performance than healthy women from the general population, and such performance may be related to their level of exercise behavior.

  1. Evaluation of the Impact of Nurses’ Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors on Utilization from Breast Cancer Early Diagnosis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha; Çelebi, Pınar; Memiş, Ayşegül; Sağlam, Zeynep; Beyhan, Figen

    2014-01-01

    Objective This descriptive study was designed to determine the impact of nurses’ healthy lifestyle behaviors on utilization from breast cancer early diagnosis methods. Materials and Methods The study was carried out with 236 (41.7%) nurses who agreed to participate out of 565 nurses who work in a university hospital from February 12th to February 15th 2011. Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale was collected by using a questionnaire consisting of 41 questions. The Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale was improved by Walker, Sechrist and Pender (1987) and was adapted to Turkish by Esin (1997). The data was evaluated by percentage calculation, one -way ANOVA, t-test and Tukey’s test. Results The mean Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale score was 129.09±19.82, the mean scores subscale scores of self-actualization, health responsibility, exercise, nutrition, interpersonal support and stress management were 38.52±6.28, 24.95±5.39, 9.41±3.24, 16.99±3.29, 21.22±3.39 and 17.99±3.66 respectively. It was found that Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale total score was higher in nurses with sufficient level of breast cancer knowledge (F=13.115, p=0.000), who perform regular BSE (t=3.191, p=0.002) and who attended training on breast cancer (t=3030, p=0.003). Conclusion It was determined that although the mean total score of nurse’s Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale and their information on breast cancer prevention were above average, the utilization of breast cancer early detection services was not at the expected levels.

  2. Comparative immunohistochemical characteristics of hepatocellular, cholangiocellular cancer and liver metastases of pancreatic cancer in puncture trephine biopsy of the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tumanskiy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Differential immunohistochemical parameters of primary liver cancer and liver metastases of ductal pancreatic cancer (DPC were studied in puncture trephine biopsy of the liver of 23 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, 2 patients combined hepato-cholangiocellular cancer (CHCC, 15 patients cholangiocellular cancer (CCC and 12 patients with metastatic DPC. Results. It was found that HCC liver is characterized by high levels of expression of HepPar 1 and alpha-fetoprotein, the lack of expression of MUC1 mucins, MUC5AC and CA125, and variable expression of CK8, CK7, SK19 and CK20, which depends on the degree of tumor differentiation and embodiment. Cholangiocellular liver cancer differs from others expressed desmoplastic stroma, high levels of expression of cytokeratins 7 and 19, MUC1 and MUC5AC, lack expression of HepPar 1 and variable expression of alpha-fetoprotein, cytokeratin 8 and20. Insolid and trabecular patterns of CHCC expression of HepRar 1, AFP and CK20 were determined, and in ductual patterne- CK7 and CK19 were determined. CCC and liver metastases of DPC which have the similar microstructure were characterized with the same spectrum characteristic of expressed cytokeratin (SK7, + 19, + 20, + and mucin (MUC1 + MUC5AC +, and variable expression of CA125 and CA19-9. Conclusion. Therefore, the differential diagnosis in immunohistochemistry of liver trepanobioptate between CCC and liver metastases of DPC is only possible based on the data of computed tomography or ultrasound examination of the liver and pancreas.

  3. Open comparative trial of formestane versus megestrol acetate in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer previously treated with tamoxifen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freue, M; Kjaer, M; Boni, C; Joliver, J; Janicke, F; Willemse, PHB; Coombes, RC; Van Belle, S; Perez-Carrion, R; Zieschang, J; de Palacios, PI; Rose, C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the trial was to compare efficacy and safety of the aromatase inhibitor formestane (250 mg i.m. given every 2 weeks) with the progestin megestrol acetate (160 mg administered orally once daily), as second-line therapy in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer previously treat

  4. One year of adjuvant tamoxifen compared with chemotherapy and tamoxifen in postmenopausal patients with stage II breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Elversang, Johanna;

    2013-01-01

    We report the long-term results of a randomised trial comparing tamoxifen with tamoxifen plus cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF) in postmenopausal high-risk breast cancer patients. In addition, we analyse the prognostic and predictive value of centrally assessed subtypes....

  5. A cost-utility analysis comparing second-line chemotherapy schemes in patients with metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, N; van Agthoven, M; Willemse, PHB; Uyl-de Groot, CA

    2001-01-01

    A cost-utility analysis has been performed comparing taxanes, vinorelbine and standard therapy for metastatic breast cancer considering clinical efficacy, quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs) and costs, A decision model has been built, Clinical efficacy data were collected by literature review. Utili

  6. 1-Mb resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization using a BAC clone set optimized for cancer gene analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greshock, J; Naylor, TL; Margolin, A; Diskin, S; Cleaver, SH; Futreal, PA; deJong, PJ; Zhao, SY; Liebman, M; Weber, BL

    2004-01-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a recently developed tool for genome-wide determination of DNA copy number alterations. This technology has tremendous potential for disease-gene discovery in cancer and developmental disorders as well as numerous other applications. However, w

  7. Angiogenesis in breast cancer: a comparative study of the observer variability of methods for determining microvessel density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Rose, C;

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of different methods for estimating neovascularization in breast cancer and to compare them in terms of observer variability. The microvessel endothelium was stained immunohistochemically by antibodies against CD34. The investigated method...

  8. Is quality of colorectal cancer care good enough? Core measures development and its application for comparing hospitals in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Skye H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although performance measurement for assessing care quality is an emerging area, a system for measuring the quality of cancer care at the hospital level has not been well developed. The purpose of this study was to develop organization-based core measures for colorectal cancer patient care and apply these measures to compare hospital performance. Methods The development of core measures for colorectal cancer has undergone three stages including a modified Delphi method. The study sample originated from 2004 data in the Taiwan Cancer Database, a national cancer data registry. Eighteen hospitals and 5585 newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients were enrolled in this study. We used indicator-based and case-based approaches to examine adherences simultaneously. Results The final core measure set included seventeen indicators (1 pre-treatment, 11 treatment-related and 5 monitoring-related. There were data available for ten indicators. Indicator-based adherence possesses more meaningful application than case-based adherence for hospital comparisons. Mean adherence was 85.8% (79.8% to 91% for indicator-based and 82.8% (77.6% to 88.9% for case-based approaches. Hospitals performed well (>90% for five out of eleven indicators. Still, the performance across hospitals varied for many indicators. The best and poorest system performance was reflected in indicators T5-negative surgical margin (99.3%, 97.2% - 100.0% and T7-lymph nodes harvest more than twelve(62.7%, 27.6% - 92.2%, both of which related to surgical specimens. Conclusions In this nationwide study, quality of colorectal cancer care still shows room for improvement. These preliminary results indicate that core measures for cancer can be developed systematically and applied for internal quality improvement.

  9. Comparative Study on Cancer Cell Apoptosis between Gastric and Intestinal-type Human Gastric Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis of cancer cells between the gastric and intestinal-type human gastric carcinoma were compared in terms of the expression of oncogene MDM2 and CD68, the histological types, the infiltration depth, and lymph node metastasis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay was employed to stain apoptotic cells.Histochemical method(AB-PAS) was applied to stain mucus that is neutral or acidic in nature. Immunohistochemical method (SABC) was used to detect expression of MDM2 and CD6. The results showed that the mean apoptosis index (AI) of total 48 cases was 8.60±2.60. AI in the 30 intestinal type cases was significantly higher than that in the 18 gastric type cases (t=4.67, P<0.01). In the 30intestinal type cases, the spontaneous apoptosis index of MDM2 negative cases was significantly higher than that of the positive cases (t=7.16, P<0.01). And in the 18 gastric type cases, the same result was found. (t=11.39, P<0.01). The MDM2 positive ratio in gastric type cases was higher than that in intestinal type cases (x2=4.68, P<0.05). There is no significant difference in AI between cases of lymph node metastasis and non-metastasis cases in intestinal type cases (t=0.26, P>0.05). But in the gastric type cases, a significant difference existed (t=5.87, P<0.01). A significant difference in lymph node metastasis ratio was found between the two gastric carcinoma types (x2=4.48, P<0.05).The CD68 expression ratio in the 30 intestinal type cases was much lower than that in the 18 gastric type cases (t=4.29, P<0.01). AI of 25 MDM2-positive cases was much lower than that of the 23MDM2-negative cases (t=7.80, P<0.01). CD68 positive ratio in the 25 MDM2-negative cases was much lower than that in the 23 negative cases. The difference was statistically significant (t=10.90,P<0.01). Except for few cells scattering within the cancer nest, most CD68 positive cells infiltrated in the interstitium around the cancer

  10. Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiujias, Marina; Kelley, Elizabeth; Hall, Layla

    2017-03-09

    This review paper critically examines literature regarding restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The similar behavioral profiles of these disorders presents the potential for confusion regarding diagnoses and intervention efforts. As such, this review highlights the similarities and differences between RRBs in ASD and OCD. The developmental trajectories of RRBs are presented, followed by an exploration of three constructs implicated in RRB manifestation: anxiety, executive functioning, and sensory phenomena. While RRBs tend to develop with some similarity in both disorders, the differing role of anxiety highlights important distinctions between ASD and OCD. We urge researchers and clinicians to think critically about the dimensions that affect RRB presentation. Future research should use this review as a starting point to further elucidate the differences between RRBs in these two populations.

  11. Expected Survival Using Models of Life Table Compared with Survival of Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer Patients in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zeraati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Northern regions of Iran have been encountered to dominate malignancies of gastrointestinal (GI tract. We came to examine the total excess mortality due to the GI cancer in Mazandaran province.Methods: Socio-demographic and clinical data of 484 patients with GI cancer collected during the years 1990-1991were available from Babol Cancer Registry. Patients were followed up for 15 years by the year 2006. Using the West Coale-De­meny life table model, a number of five life tables for men and four for women, corresponding to each birth cohort, were constructed. Observed survival was obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the Expected survival cal­culated using the direct adjusted method represented by STEIN et al.Results: The sample of subjects encompassed 66.3% men and 33.7% women with mean age 58.26 ± 10.90, and endoscopy was the general method for cancer detection. Esophagus accounted for 74.2%, and stomach and colorectal accounted for 22.7% and 3.1% of GI cancers, respectively. Survival rate in 15 years following diagnosis was nearly 6%. Comparing pa­tient and expected survival curves showed a significantly reduced survival for patients of each GI cancer over the whole period and especially during the first two years after diagnosis.Conclusion: Patients experienced reduced survival associated with the development of GI cancers. Considering individuals in a population come from different cohorts, adjustment by constructing distinct life tables for different birth cohorts is rec­ommended. The West model is recommended as a first choice to represent mortality in countries whose registration systems are exposed to various errors.

  12. EFFECT OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY AS COMPARED TO MYOFASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE IN FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur kusumpreet; Armugam Narkeesh; Khurana Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background and introduction:Fibromyalgia or fibromyalgic syndrome is a common form of non-articularrheumatism characterized by variety of non-specific symptoms including diffuse widespread musculoskeletalaching associated with fatigue, morning stiffness and sleep disturbances (Bennett, 1997). The current study willcompare the beneficial effects of Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and Myofascial release (MFR) along withconventional treatment. This study tries to find out new effective method f...

  13. The Assessment of Protective Behavioral Strategies: Comparing the Absolute Frequency and Contingent Frequency Response Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Kite, Benjamin A.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Henson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to examine the effects of response scale on the observed relationships between protective behavioral strategies (PBS) measures and alcohol-related outcomes. We reasoned that an ‘absolute frequency’ scale (stem: “how many times…”; response scale: 0 times to 11+ times) conflates the frequency of using PBS with the frequency of consuming alcohol; thus, we hypothesized that the use of an absolute frequency response scale would result in positive relationship...

  14. A Comparative Study on the Hot Working Behavior of Inconel 718 and ALLVAC 718 Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Amir; Abbasi, Seyed Mehdi; Morakabati, Maryam; Badri, Hasan

    2017-03-01

    Hot compression tests were performed on Inconel 718 and ALLVAC 718 PLUS (718+) at temperatures and strain rates in ranges of 1223 K to 1373 K (950 °C to 1100 °C) and 0.001-1 s-1, respectively. Discontinuous yield behavior was observed in the flow curves of both alloys. For both alloys, the drop in stress at the yield point (yield drop) was maximized at 0.01 to 1 s-1. The alloy 718+ showed larger yield drop than 718 over the studied deformation conditions. The different yield behaviors were attributed to the various chemical compositions. The peak strain for both alloys increased in temperature range of 1223 K to 1273 K (950 to 1000 °C) and strain rates of 0.01 to 1 s-1. This uncommon behavior was ascribed to the change in the mechanism of microstructural evolution from continuous to discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The kinetics of DRX was described by the Avrami equation and the exponent was determined at different deformation conditions. The Avrami exponent increased in the middle values of Zener-Hollomon ( Z) parameters, i. e., 29.3 < ln Z < 32.9 for 718 and 31.4 < ln Z < 34.5 for 718+. The unusual variation of the Avrami exponent was attributed to the change in the mechanism of DRX.

  15. A Comparative Study on the Hot Working Behavior of Inconel 718 and ALLVAC 718 Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Amir; Abbasi, Seyed Mehdi; Morakabati, Maryam; Badri, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Hot compression tests were performed on Inconel 718 and ALLVAC 718 PLUS (718+) at temperatures and strain rates in ranges of 1223 K to 1373 K (950 °C to 1100 °C) and 0.001-1 s-1, respectively. Discontinuous yield behavior was observed in the flow curves of both alloys. For both alloys, the drop in stress at the yield point (yield drop) was maximized at 0.01 to 1 s-1. The alloy 718+ showed larger yield drop than 718 over the studied deformation conditions. The different yield behaviors were attributed to the various chemical compositions. The peak strain for both alloys increased in temperature range of 1223 K to 1273 K (950 to 1000 °C) and strain rates of 0.01 to 1 s-1. This uncommon behavior was ascribed to the change in the mechanism of microstructural evolution from continuous to discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The kinetics of DRX was described by the Avrami equation and the exponent was determined at different deformation conditions. The Avrami exponent increased in the middle values of Zener-Hollomon (Z) parameters, i.e., 29.3 < lnZ < 32.9 for 718 and 31.4 < lnZ < 34.5 for 718+. The unusual variation of the Avrami exponent was attributed to the change in the mechanism of DRX.

  16. Analyses of pedestrian behavior on mid-block unsignalized crosswalk comparing Chinese and German cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobei Jiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of pedestrian fatalities are caused by the vehicle-pedestrian accidents. The application of new theory and technological approaches may hold great potential to reduce the accident frequency and severity for pedestrians. Considered the different driving cultures between China and Germany, the adaptation of such application in new market triggers an “intercultural comparison” related to the road user behavior and traffic safety. Field traffic data have been collected by video recording and image processing at unsignalized mid-block crosswalks both in Beijing, China and Munich, Germany. Centered Vehicle-Pedestrian conflict situation, pedestrian speed performance in different pedestrian categories and walking phases, pedestrian waiting behavior related to waiting decision choice and waiting time, pedestrian gap acceptance were statistically analyzed for understanding the pedestrian behavior in the conflict process. Intercultural comparisons were made between China and Germany. The research results addressed how the conflict participants (pedestrians only behave differently and would hopefully be the impetus for further intercultural analyses from urban traffic side.

  17. Sexual Knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among unmarried migrant female workers in China: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, many studies have focused on adolescent's sex-related issues in China. However, there have been few studies of unmarried migrant females' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, which is important for sexual health education and promotion. Methods A sample of 5156 unmarried migrant female workers was selected from three manufacturing factories, two located in Shenzhen and one in Guangzhou, China. Demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the factors associated with premarital sexual intercourse. Results The average age of the unmarried female workers included in the sample was 20.2 years, and majority of them showed a low level of sex-related knowledge. Females from the west of China demonstrated a significant lower level of sex-related knowledge than those from the eastern or central provinces (p p p Conclusion The unmarried migrant female workers lack sexual knowledge and a substantial proportion of them are engaged in premarital sexual behaviors. Interventions aimed at improving their sexual knowledge and related skills are needed.

  18. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Zimmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI. Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings.

  19. Society of behavioral medicine supports increasing HPV vaccination uptake: an urgent opportunity for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Caryn E; Dykens, J Andrew; Brewer, Noel T; Buscemi, Joanna; Watson, Karriem; Comer-Hagans, DeLawnia; Ramamonjiarivelo, Zo; Fitzgibbon, Marian

    2016-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage remains low in the USA. The Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) supports the goals outlined by Healthy People 2020, the President's Cancer Panel, and the National Vaccine Advisory Committee to increase vaccination coverage among both males and females. SBM makes the following recommendations in support of efforts to reduce structural and other barriers to HPV vaccination services in order to increase rates of series completion. We encourage legislators and other policymakers to improve administration authority, insurance coverage, and reimbursement rates to healthcare providers who make the HPV vaccine available to adolescents; provide instrumental support to fund the development of school curricula on HPV vaccination; and increase public awareness that HPV vaccination can prevent cancer. We urge healthcare providers and healthcare systems to increase the strength, quality, and consistency of HPV vaccination recommendations for all eligible patients; to treat HPV vaccination as a routine preventive service; employ culturally appropriate communication strategies in clinical settings to educate eligible patients, parents, and guardians about the importance, effectiveness, and safety of HPV vaccination; and to strengthen and better coordinate the use of electronic medical records and immunization information systems.

  20. A Comparative Study on Cancer Prevention Principles Between Iranian Traditional Medicine and Classic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinalian, Mehrdad; Eshaghi, Mehdi; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza; Naji, Homayoun; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad Masoud; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the three main causes of mortality in most human communities whose prevalence is being increased. A significant part of health budget in all countries has been allocated to treat the cancer, which is incurable in many cases. It has led the global health attitude to cancer prevention. Many cancer-related risk factors have been identified for which preventive recommendations have been offered by international organizations such as World Health Organization. Some of the most important of these risk factors are smoking and alcohol consumption, hypercaloric and low-fiber diet, obesity, inactivity, environmental and industrial pollution, some viral infections, and hereditary factors. Exact reviewing of Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine (IITM) resources determines that preventive rules, which named as six essential rules (Sitteh-e-Zarurieah) are abundantly found, including all identified cancer-related risk factors. These preventive rules are: Air (Hava), body movement and repose, sleep and wakefulness, food and drink, evacuation and retention, and mental movement and repose (A'raz-e-Nafsani). The associated risk factors in classic medicine are: Smoking and air pollution, sedentary life, sleep disturbance, improper nutrition and alcohol, chronic constipation, and psychoneurotic stresses. Moreover, these rules are comprehensive enough to include many of the other harmful health-related factors whose roles have been confirmed in the occurrence of different diseases, except cancer. Apparently, cancer prevention in Iran would be more successful if the sextet necessary rules of IITM are promoted among the populations and health policy makers.

  1. A comparative study on cancer prevention principles between Iranian traditional medicine and classic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Zeinalian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the three main causes of mortality in most human communities whose prevalence is being increased. A significant part of health budget in all countries has been allocated to treat the cancer, which is incurable in many cases. It has led the global health attitude to cancer prevention. Many cancer-related risk factors have been identified for which preventive recommendations have been offered by international organizations such as World Health Organization. Some of the most important of these risk factors are smoking and alcohol consumption, hypercaloric and low-fiber diet, obesity, inactivity, environmental and industrial pollution, some viral infections, and hereditary factors. Exact reviewing of Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine (IITM resources determines that preventive rules, which named as six essential rules (Sitteh-e-Zarurieah are abundantly found, including all identified cancer-related risk factors. These preventive rules are: Air (Hava, body movement and repose, sleep and wakefulness, food and drink, evacuation and retention, and mental movement and repose (A′raz-e-Nafsani. The associated risk factors in classic medicine are: Smoking and air pollution, sedentary life, sleep disturbance, improper nutrition and alcohol, chronic constipation, and psychoneurotic stresses. Moreover, these rules are comprehensive enough to include many of the other harmful health-related factors whose roles have been confirmed in the occurrence of different diseases, except cancer. Apparently, cancer prevention in Iran would be more successful if the sextet necessary rules of IITM are promoted among the populations and health policy makers.

  2. An Internationally Comparative Study of Immigration and Adolescent Emotional and Behavioral Problems:Effects of Generation and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents' emotional and behavioral...... symptoms than native boys. Furthermore, both second-generation immigrant boys and girls reported higher levels of physical fighting than their native peers, but differences were more pronounced for boys than for girls. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results of this study support a risk perspective on the impact...... problems in 10 countries, taking into account gender and immigrant generation as moderating factors. METHODS: Analyses were based on data from 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old adolescents participating in the Health Behavior in School-aged Children study in Denmark, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy...

  3. Effects of 5-FU combined compound Ginseng and Astragalus on biological behavior of human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦尉元

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the in vitro effects of 5-fluorouracil(5-FU) combined Compound Ginseng and Astragalus(CGA) on the biological behaviors such as the proliferation,the cloning,apoptosis and migration of human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells. Methods The cell proliferation inhibition rate was detected by MTT assay,

  4. Kaempferol, a phytoestrogen, suppressed triclosan-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastatic-related behaviors of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geum-A; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2017-01-01

    As a phytoestrogen, kaempferol is known to play a chemopreventive role inhibiting carcinogenesis and cancer progression. In this study, the influences of triclosan, an anti-bacterial agent recently known for an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), and kaempferol on breast cancer progression were examined by measuring their effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastatic-related behaviors of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Morphological changes of MCF-7 cells were observed, and a wound-healing assay was performed after the treatment of triclosan and kaempferol. The effects of triclosan and kaempferol on protein expression of EMT-related markers such as E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail, and Slug and metastasis-related markers such as cathepsin B, D, MMP-2 and -9 were investigated by Western blot assay. In microscopic observations, triclosan (10(-6)M) or E2 (10(-9)M) induced transition to mesenchymal phenotype of MCF-7 cells compared with the control. Co-treatment of ICI 182,780 (10(-8)M), an ER antagonist, or kaempferol (25μM) with E2 or triclosan restored the cellular morphology to an epithelial phenotype. In a wound-healing scratch and a transwell migration assay, triclosan enhanced migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells, but co-treatment of kaempferol or ICI 182,780 reduced the migration and invasion ability of MCF-7 cells to the control level. In addition, kaempferol effectively suppressed E2 or triclosan-induced protein expressions of EMT and metastasis promoting markers. Taken together, triclosan may be a distinct xenoestrogenic EDC to promote EMT, migration, and invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through ER. On the other hand, kaempferol can be an alternative chemopreventive agent to effectively suppress the metastatic behavior of breast cancer induced by an endogenous estrogen as well as exogenous xenoestrogenic compounds including triclosan.

  5. Psychological and behavioral intervention improves the quality of life and mental health of patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer treated with postoperative radioactive iodine-131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu HX

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Xia Wu,1,* Hua Zhong,2,3,* Yue-Dong Xu,1 Cui-Ping Xu,4 Ying Zhang,5 Wei Zhang1 1Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, 2Department of Oncology, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 3Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, 4Department of Nursing, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 5Department of Nursing, Tianjin Chest Hospital, Tianjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: We examined the effects of psychological and behavioral intervention on health-related quality of life and mental health among patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC treated with postoperative radioactive iodine-131 (RAI.Methods: Sixty patients with DTC, undergoing RAI, were randomly assigned to receive either conventional nursing (n=30 or a 1-year psychological and behavioral intervention based on conventional nursing (n=30. Health-related quality of life and mental health issues, depression, and anxiety were measured using the Quality of Life Core Questionnaire, Self-rating Depression Scale, and Self-rating Anxiety Score, respectively.Results: After RAI treatment, patients in both groups showed improved functional capacities (ie, physical, role, cognitive, emotional, and social and global quality of life, along with reduced depression and anxiety (P<0.05. At 1-year follow-up, compared with patients in the routine nursing group, those in the psychological and behavioral intervention group demonstrated greater improvements in functional capacities, global quality of life, and depression and anxiety symptoms (P<0.05.Conclusion: Psychological and behavioral interventions for patients with DTC undergoing RAI facilitated positive outcomes, suggesting that nursing care models that include psychological and behavioral interventions

  6. Risk of cancer among HIV-infected individuals compared to the background population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Gerstoft, Jan; Afzal, Shoaib;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relative impact of immune deficiency and lifestyle-related factors on risk of cancer in the HIV-infected population is controversial. We aimed to estimate the population-attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with smoking, being HIV-infected and with immune deficiency. METHODS...... to the background population. In absence of smoking, the increase in risk is confined to cancers related to viral infections, whereas the risk of other cancers is not elevated and does not seem to be associated with immune deficiency....

  7. A Comparative Study Environmental and Radiological Causes Of Cancer In River Nile State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Eyad; Khair, Hatim

    The causes of cancer in River Nile state are differ between environmental and radiological, this paper tried to make comparison between the two causes, to determine the real cause behind the large rising of cancer cases in this state, considering the daily habits for the patients and the possible contamination in the natural resources around them. The noticeable thing that most of cancer cases are might be due to the high concentration of nitrate pollutant detected in natural resources such as drinking water; also by looking to the radioactive elements we see there's high concentration of some radioactive elements specially the K-40 which found in Portulaca Oleracea.

  8. Comparing an Emotion- and a Behavior-Focused Parenting Program as Part of a Multsystemic Intervention for Child Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Melissa E; Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Holland, Kerry A; Frankling, Emma J; Stargatt, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a multisystemic early intervention that included a comparison of an emotion- and behavior-focused parenting program for children with emerging conduct problems. The processes that moderated positive child outcomes were also explored. A repeated measures cluster randomized group design methodology was employed with three conditions (Tuning in to Kids, Positive Parenting Program, and waitlist control) and two periods (preintervention and 6-month follow-up). The sample consisted of 320 predominantly Caucasian 4- to 9-year-old children who were screened for disruptive behavior problems. Three outcome measures of child conduct problems were evaluated using a parent (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory) and teacher (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) rating scale and a structured child interview (Home Interview With Child). Six moderators were assessed using family demographic information and a parent-rated measure of psychological well-being (Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales short form). The results indicated that the multisystemic intervention was effective compared to a control group and that, despite different theoretical orientations, the emotion- and behavior-focused parenting programs were equally effective in reducing child conduct problems. Child age and parent psychological well-being moderated intervention response. This effectiveness trial supports the use of either emotion- or behavior-focused parenting programs in a multisystemic early intervention and provides greater choice for practitioners in the selection of specific programs.

  9. Addition of gemcitabine to standard therapy in locally advanced cervical cancer: A randomized comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Roy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer treatment is well accepted since 1999. This randomized, phase III trial aimed to observe if any improved outcome could be obtained capitalizing on the synergistic activity of gemcitabine, cisplatin, XRT. Materials and Methods: Stage IIB-IIIB, 18-70 years of age, KPS score ≥70, were randomized to control group and study group. Control group received cisplatin 40 mg/m 2 weekly with concurrent XRT, followed by brachytherapy and study group received gemcitabine 125 mg/m 2 weekly top of the same control group treatment. The primary end point was pathological response and toxicities along with patient compliance to treatment, late reactions, DFS and OS. Fifty patients were randomized between two arms. Results: The complete response in study and control arm was 96% and 88% respectively. Toxicities was significantly high in the study group compared to control group [leucopenia (P=0.015, skin reaction (P=0.03 and bleeding (P=0.019]. Local recurrence rate: 8% in study arm, none in control arm. The distant failure prevailed in control arm (20% vs. 8%. On a median follow up of 21 months in control arm, the DFS was 73% whereas 83% in study arm in 16 months (P=0.69. OS in the study arm was 100% and 84.5% in the control arm (P=0.14. Conclusions: If the toxicity can be managed adequately in the combination chemo radiation group, it may produce an improvement in response. Survival benefit can also be obtained by introducing gemcitabine to cisplatin as radio sensitizer.

  10. Forward versus inverse planning in oropharyngeal cancer: A comparative study using physical and biological indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sundaram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Possible benefits of inverse planning. Aims: To analyze possible benefits of inverse planning intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT over field-in-field 3D conformal radiation therapy (FIF-3DCRT and to evaluate the differences if any, between low (6 Million Volts and high energy (15 Million Volts IMRT plans. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with squamous cell carcinoma of oropharynx, previously treated with 6 MV step and shoot IMRT were studied. V 100 , V 33 , V 66 , mean dose and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP were evaluated for parotid glands. Maximum dose and NTCP were the parameters for spinal cord. Statistical Analysis Used: A two-tailed t-test was applied to analyze statistical significance between the different techniques. Results: For combined parotid gland, a reduction of 4.374 Gy, 9.343 Gy and 7.883 Gy were achieved for D 100 , D 66 and D 33 , respectively in 6 MV-IMRT when compared with FIF-3DCRT. Spinal cord sparing was better in 6 MV-IMRT (40.963 ± 2.650, with an average reduction of maximum spinal cord dose by 7.355 Gy from that using the FIF-3DCRT technique. The uncomplicated tumor control probabilities values were higher in IMRT plans thus leading to a possibility of dose escalation. Conclusions: Though low-energy IMRT is the preferred choice for treatment of oropharyngeal cancers, FIF-3DCRT must be given due consideration as a second choice for its well established advantages over traditional conventioan technique.

  11. SnoN expression is differently regulated in microsatellite unstable compared with microsatellite stable colorectal cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leggett Barbara A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SnoN is an important regulator of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signalling pathway and has been shown to exhibit both tumour promotion and suppression activity. Methods To further explore the role of this complex molecule in colorectal tumorigenesis, we examined 52 paired normal and tumour colorectal specimens stratified by level of microsatellite instability; 18 with high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H and 34 microsatellite stable (MSS. SnoN transcript expression was quantitated by real-time PCR and analysed with respect to clinical indicators of prognosis. Results Within the MSI-H subgroup, SnoN was commonly either up-regulated (6/18, 33% or down-regulated (7/18, 39%. A significantly different distribution of SnoN expression was observed in MSS cancers compared with MSI-H (P ≤ 0.001. Whilst 17/34 (50% of MSS tumours demonstrated up-regulation, none showed down-regulated expression. Within the MSI-H subgroup, up-regulation was significantly correlated with lack of repeat tract mutation in the TGFβRII gene (P ≤ 0.025, suggesting that SnoN is more frequently up-regulated in the presence of functional TGFβ signalling. Conclusion Together these data support the notion that SnoN has both oncogenic and tumour suppressive properties depending on other genetic changes within the tumour, and that the MSI-H pathway of colorectal tumorigenesis presents an excellent model for the study of these opposing functions.

  12. [Childhood cancer: a comparative analysis of incidence, mortality, and survival in Goiania (Brazil) and other countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Patrícia Emília; Latorre Md, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Curado, Maria Paula

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates can yield geographic and temporal trends that are useful for planning and evaluating health interventions. This article reviews cancer incidence and mortality rates and respective trends around the world in children under 15 years old, as well as their 5-year survival rates in developed and developing countries. We conclude that even though increasing or stable childhood cancer incidence rates and decreasing mortality rates have been observed in developed countries, the trends remain unknown in developing countries. Data from the city of Goiania, Brazil, show stable childhood cancer incidence and mortality rates. Five-year survival rates (48%) in Goiania are similar to those seen in underdeveloped regions and lower than those reported in developed countries (64-70%).

  13. Incidence and survival from lung cancer in Greenland is comparable to survival in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelvan, Allan; Risum, Signe; Langer, Seppo W

    2015-01-01

    referred to treatment at Queen Ingrid's Hospital. On 1 February 2014, treatment results, survival, and prognostic variables were analysed. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 63 years. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was diagnosed in 145 patients (84%); 56% had squamous cell carcinoma, 34% had......INTRODUCTION: Oncological treatment of lung cancer has been available in Greenland since 2004. We evaluated patient characteristics and survival rates for the first six years of local lung cancer treatment. METHODS: From September 2004 to August 2010, a total of 173 patients with lung cancer were...... of the 142 treated patients (86%). Of these, 36 patients (30%) received second-line chemotherapy.The median survival of patients undergoing primary lobectomy/pneumonectomy, palliative chemotherapy, and no treatment was 76.3 months, 11.8 months, and 2.0 months, respectively (p

  14. Breast cancer mortality in organised mammography screening in Denmark: comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up....

  15. Risky riding: Naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Brian Casey; Chen, Jiaoli; Cherry, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    As electric bicycles (e-bikes) have emerged as a new transportation mode, their role in transportation systems and their impact on users have become important issues for policy makers and engineers. Little safety-related research has been conducted in North America or Europe because of their relatively small numbers. This work describes the results of a naturalistic GPS-based safety study between regular bicycle (i.e., standard bicycle) and e-bike riders in the context of a unique bikesharing system that allows comparisons between instrumented bike technologies. We focus on rider safety behavior under four situations: (1) riding in the correct direction on directional roadway segments, (2) speed on on-road and shared use paths, (3) stopping behavior at stop-controlled intersections, and (4) stopping behavior at signalized intersections. We find that, with few exceptions, riders of e-bike behave very similarly to riders of bicycles. Violation rates were very high for both vehicles. Riders of regular bicycles and e-bikes both ride wrong-way on 45% and 44% of segments, respectively. We find that average on-road speeds of e-bike riders (13.3kph) were higher than regular bicyclists (10.4kph) but shared use path (greenway) speeds of e-bike riders (11.0kph) were lower than regular bicyclists (12.6kph); both significantly different at >95% confidence. At stop control intersections, both bicycle and e-bike riders violate the stop signs at the similar rate with bicycles violating stop signs at a slightly higher rate at low speed thresholds (∼80% violations at 6kph, 40% violations at 11kph). Bicycles and e-bikes violate traffic signals at similar rates (70% violation rate). These findings suggest that, among the same population of users, e-bike riders exhibit nearly identical safety behavior as regular bike riders and should be regulated in similar ways. Users of both technologies have very high violation rates of traffic control devices and interventions should occur to

  16. Breast cancer mortality in organised mammography screening in Denmark: comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up.......To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up....

  17. Understanding the Health Behaviors of Survivors of Childhood and Young-Adult Cancer: Preliminary Analysis and Model Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie C. Vuotto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents preliminary correlational data used to develop a model depicting the psychosocial pathways that lead to the health behaviors of survivors of childhood and young-adult cancer. Data collected from a sample of 18- to 30-year-old cancer survivors (n = 125 was used to examine the relations among interpersonal support and nonsupport, personal agency, avoidance, depressive symptoms and self-efficacy as they related to health behaviors. The outcome measures examined included tobacco and alcohol use, diet, exercise, sunscreen use, medication compliance and follow-up/screening practices. Correlational analyses revealed a number of significant associations among variables. Results are used to inform the development of a health behavior model. Implications for health promotion and survivorship programming are discussed, as well as directions for future research.

  18. The assessment of protective behavioral strategies: comparing the absolute frequency and contingent frequency response scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Benjamin A; Pearson, Matthew R; Henson, James M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to examine the effects of response scale on the observed relationships between protective behavioral strategies (PBS) measures and alcohol-related outcomes. We reasoned that an "absolute frequency" scale (stem: "how many times …"; response scale: 0 times to 11+ times) conflates the frequency of using PBS with the frequency of consuming alcohol; thus, we hypothesized that the use of an absolute frequency response scale would result in positive relationships between types of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Alternatively, a "contingent frequency" scale (stem: "When drinking … how often …"; response scale: never to always) does not conflate frequency of alcohol use with use of PBS; therefore, we hypothesized that use of a contingent frequency scale would result in negative relationships between use of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Two published measures of PBS were used across studies: the Protective Behavioral Strategies Survey (PBSS) and the Strategy Questionnaire (SQ). Across three studies, we demonstrate that when measured using a contingent frequency response scale, PBS measures relate negatively to alcohol-related outcomes in a theoretically consistent manner; however, when PBS measures were measured on an absolute frequency response scale, they were nonsignificantly or positively related to alcohol-related outcomes. We discuss the implications of these findings for the assessment of PBS.

  19. Laparoscopic hepatectomy versus open hepatectomy for colorectal cancer liver metastases: comparative study with propensity score matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untereiner, Xavier; Cagniet, Audrey; Memeo, Riccardo; Tzedakis, Stylianos; Piardi, Tullio; Severac, François; Mutter, Didier; Kianmanesh, Reza; Marescaux, Jacques; Sommacale, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to compare the results of laparoscopic hepatectomy with those of open hepatectomy for colorectal cancer liver metastases (CCLM) using a propensity score matching (PSM) in two university hospital settings. Methods A patient in the laparoscopic approach (LA) surgery group was randomly matched with another patient in the open approach (OA) group using a 1:1 allocated ratio with the nearest estimated propensity score. No patients of the LA group were excluded for the matching. Matching criteria included age, gender, body mass index (BMI), American society anesthesiologists score, potential co-morbidities, hepatopathies, synchronous or metachronous lesions, size and number of CCLM, preoperative chemotherapy, minor or major liver resections. Intraoperative, postoperative data, and survival were compared in both groups. Results From January 2012 to January 2015, a total of 242 hepatectomies were consecutively performed, of which 119 for CCLM, namely 101 in the OA group (84.9%) and 18 in the LA group (15.1%). The conversion rate was 5.6% (n=1). The mortality rate was 1% in the OA group and 0% in the LA group. Prior to PSM, there was a statistically significant difference favorable to the LA group regarding operative time, blood loss, length of hospital stay and the rate of medical complications. After PSM, there was no difference regarding operative time or length of hospital stay. However, there was a trend towards less blood loss (P=0.066) and fewer medical complications (44.4% vs.16.7%, P=0.07). The R0 resection rate was 94.4% (n=17) in the two groups. In addition, there was no difference regarding overall survival (P=0.358) and recurrence-free survival [HR =0.99 (0.1–12.7); P=0.99]. Conclusions Laparoscopic liver resections for CCLM seem to yield short- and long-term results, which are similar to open hepatectomies, and could well be considered an alternative to open surgery and become the gold standard in carefully selected

  20. The Implications of Endoscopic Ulcer in Early Gastric Cancer: Can We Predict Clinical Behaviors from Endoscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Park, Jae Jun; Youn, Young Hoon; Park, Hyojin; Kim, Jong Won; Choi, Seung Ho; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The presence of ulcer in early gastric cancer (EGC) is important for the feasibility of endoscopic resection, only a few studies have examined the clinicopathological implications of endoscopic ulcer in EGC. Objectives To determine the role of endoscopic ulcer as a predictor of clinical behaviors in EGC. Methods Data of 3,270 patients with EGC who underwent surgery between January 2005 and December 2012 were reviewed. Clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed in relation to the presence and stage of ulcer in EGC. Based on endoscopic findings, the stage of ulcer was categorized as active, healing, or scar. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze factors associated with lymph node metastasis (LNM). Results 2,343 (71.7%) patients had endoscopic findings of ulceration in EGC. Submucosal (SM) invasion, LNM, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), perineural invasion, and undifferentiated-type histology were significantly higher in ulcerative than non-ulcerative EGC. Comparison across different stages of ulcer revealed that SM invasion, LNM, and LVI were significantly associated with the active stage, and that these features exhibited significant stage-based differences, being most common at the active stage, and least common at the scar stage. The presence of endoscopic ulcer and active status of the ulcer were identified as independent risk factors for LNM. Conclusions Ulcerative EGC detected by endoscopy exhibited more aggressive behaviors than non-ulcerative EGC. Additionally, the endoscopic stage of ulcer may predict the clinicopathological behaviors of EGC. Therefore, the appearance of ulcers should be carefully evaluated to determine an adequate treatment strategy for EGC. PMID:27741275

  1. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. METHODS A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18–70 years) who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. RESULTS Data were analyzed in three major themes: i) knowledge and perception about BC; ii) barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii) healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. CONCLUSIONS Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women’s ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  2. Two-photon spectroscopic behaviors and photodynamic effect on the BEL-7402 cancer cells of the new chlorophyll photosensitizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of a new chlorophyll derivate photosensitizer(CDP) are studied under the excitation wavelengths at 800 and 400 nm using femtosecond pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser.The damaging effect of CDP on the BEL-7402 cancer cells is also investigated upon two-photon illumination at 800 nm.The normalized fluorescence spectra of CDP in tetrahydrofuran(THF) show that two-photon and one-photon spectra have the same distributions and the same emission bands(675 nm).The life-times of two-and one-photon induced fluorescence of this molecule are of the order of 5.0 ns.By comparing the data it is shown that there is some difference between the two lifetimes,but the differ-ence is less than one nanosecond.The two-photon absorption cross section of the molecule is also measured at 800 nm and estimated as about σ′2 ≈ 31.5×10-50 cm4·s·photon-1.The results of two-photon photodynamic therapy(TPPDT) tests show that CDP can kill all of the tested cancer cells according to the usual Eosine assessment.Our results indicate that the two-photon-induced photophysical,photo-chemical and photosensitizing processes of CDP may be basically similar to those of one-photon ex-citation.These behaviors of the sample suggest that one may find other possible methods to estimate some photosensitizers’ effects in details such as their distribution in cells and the reactive targets of the sub-cellular parts of some tumor cells via two-photon excitation techniques.

  3. Two-photon spectroscopic behaviors and photodynamic effect on the BEL-7402 cancer cells of the new chlorophyll photosensitizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO PeiDe; ZHANG GuiLan; CHEN WenJu; CHEN Ping; TANG GuoQing; LIU JinWei; LIN Lie; GUO Peng; YU Qing; YAO JianZhong; MA DongMing

    2008-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of a new chlorophyll derivate photosensitizer (CDP) are studied under the excitation wavelengths at 800 and 400 nm using femtosecond pulses from a Ti: sapphire laser. The damaging effect of CDP on the BEL-7402 cancer cells is also investigated upon two-photon illumination at 800 nm. The normalized fluorescence spectra of CDP in tetrahydrofuran (THF) show that two-photon and one-photon spectra have the same distributions and the same emission bands (675 nm). The life-times of two- and one-photon induced fluorescence of this molecule are of the order of 5.0 ns. By comparing the data it is shown that there is some difference between the two lifetimes, but the differ-ence is less than one nanosecond. The two-photon absorption cross section of the molecule is also measured at 800 nm and estimated as about σ'2≈31.5×10-50 cm4·s·photon-1. The results of two-photon photodynamic therapy (TPPDT) tests show that CDP can kill all of the tested cancer cells according to the usual Eosine assessment. Our results indicate that the two-photon-induced photophysical, photochemical and photosensitizing processes of CDP may be basically similar to those of one-photon excitation. These behaviors of the sample suggest that one may find other possible methods to estimate some photosensitizers' effects in details such as their distribution in cells and the reactive targets of the sub-cellular parts of some tumor cells via two-photon excitation techniques.

  4. Cognitive and behavioral interventions : a comparative evaluation with clinically distressed couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, P.; van Linden van den Heuvell, C.; Rüphan, M.; Sanderman, R.

    1988-01-01

    Compared the effects of communication skills training (CST) and cognitive therapy (CGT) in 32 severely distressed couples. Ss receiving CST showed significant improvement on main targets, the Communication Questionnaire, and a relationship beliefs inventory. CGT resulted also in significant improvem

  5. The Effect of Health Belief Model-Based Education on Knowledge and Prostate Cancer Screening Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer has been reported as the second leading cause of cancer death among men in 2013. Prevention and early detection of cancer are considered as critical factors in controlling the disease and increasing the survival of patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of Health Belief Model (HBM-based education onknowledge and prostate cancer screening behaviors in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: This study was a non-blinded randomized controlled trial. We enrolled 210 men aged 50-70. Balanced block randomization method was used to randomize the final participants who had inclusion criteria into intervention (n=93 and control (n=87 groups. The participants of the intervention group attended training workshops based on HBM. Data were collected using three questionnaires, i.e. demographic questionnaire, Prostate Cancer Screening-Health Belief Model Scale (PCS-HBMS, and the Knowledge about Prostate Cancer Screening questionnaire, all given before and immediately one month after the intervention. Results: The mean scores of the perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits increased significantly after the intervention (P>0.05 in the intervention group. In the control group, such a difference was reported only for perceived susceptibility (P>0.05. The rate of participation in prostate cancer screening in the intervention group increased from 7.5% to 24% and 43.3% one month and three months after the intervention, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed that the health education programs designed based on HBM could positively affect prostate cancer preventive behaviors of individuals by improving their knowledge level and leaving positive effects on perceived susceptibility and severity as well as considering the perceived barriers, benefits and health motivations.

  6. A Prefrontal-Hippocampal Comparator for Goal-Directed Behavior: The Intentional Self and Episodic Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Robert eNuman

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this article is that the interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus play a critical role in the modulation of goal-directed self-action and the strengthening of episodic memories. We describe various theories that model a comparator function for the hippocampus, and then elaborate the empirical evidence that supports these theories. One theory which describes a prefrontal-hippocampal comparator for voluntary action is emphasized. Action plans are essentia...

  7. The comparative and cost-effectiveness of HPV-based cervical cancer screening algorithms in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Nicole G; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Gage, Julia C; Castle, Philip E; Felix, Juan C; Cremer, Miriam L; Kim, Jane J

    2015-08-15

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in El Salvador. Utilizing data from the Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador (CAPE) demonstration project, we assessed the health and economic impact of HPV-based screening and two different algorithms for the management of women who test HPV-positive, relative to existing Pap-based screening. We calibrated a mathematical model of cervical cancer to epidemiologic data from El Salvador and compared three screening algorithms for women aged 30-65 years: (i) HPV screening every 5 years followed by referral to colposcopy for HPV-positive women (Colposcopy Management [CM]); (ii) HPV screening every 5 years followed by treatment with cryotherapy for eligible HPV-positive women (Screen and Treat [ST]); and (iii) Pap screening every 2 years followed by referral to colposcopy for Pap-positive women (Pap). Potential harms and complications associated with overtreatment were not assessed. Under base case assumptions of 65% screening coverage, HPV-based screening was more effective than Pap, reducing cancer risk by ∼ 60% (Pap: 50%). ST was the least costly strategy, and cost $2,040 per year of life saved. ST remained the most attractive strategy as visit compliance, costs, coverage, and test performance were varied. We conclude that a screen-and-treat algorithm within an HPV-based screening program is very cost-effective in El Salvador, with a cost-effectiveness ratio below per capita GDP.

  8. Comparative study on antiproliferation properties and cellular antioxidant activities of commonly consumed food legumes against nine human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2012-10-01

    The aims of this work were to compare health promoting effects of commonly consumed food legumes in terms of cancer cell proliferation inhibitory effects and cellular antioxidant activities (CAA). The CAA was evaluated by fluorescence microplate reader based on in vitro animal cell cultivation. Antiproliferative properties were assayed by MTT method using in vitro cell culture system. Phytochemicals (including total phenolic, procyanidin, saponin and phytic acid) and chemical antioxidant activities (including DPPH free radical scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PRSC)) were also determined for comparison purposes. The results showed that different types of legumes possessed considerable variations in their phytochemicals, as well as chemical and cellular antioxidant activities. Adzuki bean exhibited the strongest antiproliferative properties in a dose-dependent manner against all digestive system cancer cell lines (CAL27, AGS, HepG2, SW480 and Caco-2), ovary cancer cell SK-OV-3 and breast cancer cell MCF-7 among all legumes tested. Black soybean exhibited the highest saponin, phytic acid content, PRSC values, and the strongest CAA values. These results indicate that commonly consumed food legumes may serve as an excellent dietary source of natural antioxidants for health promotion and cancer prevention.

  9. Comparing slip behavior and hydromechanical properties of fault systems in the Nankai subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikari, M.; Saffer, D. M.; Marone, C.; Knuth, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    At subduction zones, the plate boundary system includes several active faults, including the master décollement and splay faults that branch from it and cut the overriding margin wedge. The partitioning of strain accumulation and slip on these structures may provide important information about the mechanical behavior of the plate boundary, and for earthquake rupture and tsunamigenesis. We conducted laboratory experiments to measure the frictional and hydrologic properties of fault and wall rock from three distinct fault zone systems sampled during IODP Expedition 316 and ODP Leg 190 to the Nankai Trough offshore Japan. These fault zones are: (1) a major out-of-sequence thrust fault that terminates ~25 km landward of the trench and extends for >120 km along-strike, termed the “megasplay”; (2) the frontal thrust, comprising a region of diffuse thrust faulting near the trench; and (3) the décollement zone sampled 2 km from the trench. We observe predominantly low friction (µ ≤ 0.46), and low permeability (k ≤ 7.00x10-19 m2) consistent with the clay-rich composition of the samples. Samples from the décollement zone are both consistently weaker (µ ≤ 0.30) and less permeable than those from the megasplay area and the frontal thrust system. Fault zone material from the megasplay is both significantly weaker and less permeable than the surrounding wall rocks, a pattern not observed in the frontal thrust and décollement. All samples exhibit velocity-strengthening frictional behavior over most of the experimental conditions we explored, consistent with aseismic slip at shallow depths. Slip stability does not vary between fault zone and wall rock in any of the three settings. A previously observed minimum in the friction rate parameter a-b at sliding velocities of ~1-3 µm/s (~0.1-0.3 m/d) for samples from the megasplay fault zone is also observed for both the frontal thrust and décollement, and our data suggests that this phenomenon may be controlled

  10. A comparative study of process mediator components that support behavioral incompatibility

    CERN Document Server

    Munusamy, Kanmani; Ibrahim, Suhaimi; Baba, Mohd Sapiyan

    2011-01-01

    Most businesses these days use the web services technology as a medium to allow interaction between a service provider and a service requestor. However, both the service provider and the requestor would be unable to achieve their business goals when there are miscommunications between their processes. This research focuses on the process incompatibility between the web services and the way to automatically resolve them by using a process mediator. This paper presents an overview of the behavioral incompatibility between web services and the overview of process mediation in order to resolve the complications faced due to the incompatibility. Several state-of the-art approaches have been selected and analyzed to understand the existing process mediation components. This paper aims to provide a valuable gap analysis that identifies the important research areas in process mediation that have yet to be fully explored.

  11. A Comparative Study of Chromatographic Behavior and Lipophilicity of Selected Imidazoline Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipic, Slavica; Antic, Aleksandra; Vujovic, Milena; Nikolic, Katarina; Agbaba, Danica

    2016-08-01

    Chromatographic behavior and lipophilicity of 20 selected imidazoline derivatives were examined by thin-layer chromatography using CN, RP-2, RP-8 and RP-18 as the stationary phases and a mixture of methanol, water and ammonia as the mobile phase. In all examined chromatographic systems, linear relationships were established between retention parameters and the volume fraction of methanol in the mobile phase (r > 0.985, 0.978, 0.981, 0.988 for the CN, RP-2, RP-8 and RP-18, respectively). The highest correlation between the obtained [Formula: see text] values was observed for RP-2 and RP-8 stationary phases. The experimental lipophilicity indices ([Formula: see text], m and C0) obtained from the retention data were used in correlation study with the calculated logP values. Experimentally determined [Formula: see text] values for all investigated chromatographic systems exhibited the highest correlation with the calculated ClogP values (r: 0.880, 0.872, 0.897 and 0.889 for the CN, RP-2, RP-8 and RP-18 stationary phases, respectively). In addition, principal component analysis enables new information about similarity and differences between tested compounds as well as experimental lipophilicity indices and calculated logP values. Performed QSRR analysis showed that the frequency of C-C at topological distance 1 and CATS2D Lipophilic-Lipophilic at lag 01 were important descriptors with influence on the [Formula: see text] values in all the examined chromatographic systems, while the differences in the retention behavior of compounds on the examined stationary phases can be distinguished based on their specific geometrical, electronic and constitutional properties.

  12. Inhibitory behavioral control: A stochastic dynamic causal modeling study comparing cocaine dependent subjects and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangsuo Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine dependence is associated with increased impulsivity in humans. Both cocaine dependence and impulsive behavior are under the regulatory control of cortico-striatal networks. One behavioral laboratory measure of impulsivity is response inhibition (ability to withhold a prepotent response in which altered patterns of regional brain activation during executive tasks in service of normal performance are frequently found in cocaine dependent (CD subjects studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. However, little is known about aberrations in specific directional neuronal connectivity in CD subjects. The present study employed fMRI-based dynamic causal modeling (DCM to study the effective (directional neuronal connectivity associated with response inhibition in CD subjects, elicited under performance of a Go/NoGo task with two levels of NoGo difficulty (Easy and Hard. The performance on the Go/NoGo task was not significantly different between CD subjects and controls. The DCM analysis revealed that prefrontal–striatal connectivity was modulated (influenced during the NoGo conditions for both groups. The effective connectivity from left (L anterior cingulate cortex (ACC to L caudate was similarly modulated during the Easy NoGo condition for both groups. During the Hard NoGo condition in controls, the effective connectivity from right (R dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC to L caudate became more positive, and the effective connectivity from R ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC to L caudate became more negative. In CD subjects, the effective connectivity from L ACC to L caudate became more negative during the Hard NoGo conditions. These results indicate that during Hard NoGo trials in CD subjects, the ACC rather than DLPFC or VLPFC influenced caudate during response inhibition.

  13. Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors among African American women: the Black cosmetologists promoting health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldon Rai-nesha

    2007-04-01

    demonstrated a lack of basic knowledge about breast cancer. The Health Belief Model postulates that access to such information is an essential element in the progression toward engaging in screening behaviors. Conclusion Data from this study reflect a continuing need for increased breast cancer education for African American women. In light of the considerable mainstream information available related to breast cancer, these data reinforce the need for more breast cancer education programs that are clearly intended to attract the attention of African American women.

  14. Health Characteristics of Solo Grandparent Caregivers and Single Parents: A Comparative Profile Using the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Deborah M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis). Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents' physical and emotional capacities.

  15. Comparative Gene Expression Analyses Identify Luminal and Basal Subtypes of Canine Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma That Mimic Patterns in Human Invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Deepika; Paoloni, Melissa; Shukradas, Shweta; Choudhury, Dipanwita Roy; Craig, Bruce A; Ramos-Vara, José A; Hahn, Noah; Bonney, Patty L; Khanna, Chand; Knapp, Deborah W

    2015-01-01

    More than 160,000 people are expected to die from invasive urothelial carcinoma (iUC) this year worldwide. Research in relevant animal models is essential to improving iUC management. Naturally-occurring canine iUC closely resembles human iUC in histopathology, metastatic behavior, and treatment response, and could provide a relevant model for human iUC. The molecular characterization of canine iUC, however, has been limited. Work was conducted to compare gene expression array results between tissue samples from iUC and normal bladder in dogs, with comparison to similar expression array data from human iUC and normal bladder in the literature. Considerable similarities between enrichment patterns of genes in canine and human iUC were observed. These included patterns mirroring basal and luminal subtypes initially observed in human breast cancer and more recently noted in human iUC. Canine iUC samples also exhibited enrichment for genes involved in P53 pathways, as has been reported in human iUC. This is particularly relevant as drugs targeting these genes/pathways in other cancers could be repurposed to treat iUC, with dogs providing a model to optimize therapy. As part of the validation of the results and proof of principal for evaluating individualized targeted therapy, the overexpression of EGFR in canine bladder iUC was confirmed. The similarities in gene expression patterns between dogs and humans add considerably to the value of naturally-occurring canine iUC as a relevant and much needed animal model for human iUC. Furthermore, the finding of expression patterns that cross different pathologically-defined cancers could allow studies of dogs with iUC to help optimize cancer management across multiple cancer types. The work is also expected to lead to a better understanding of the biological importance of the gene expression patterns, and the potential application of the cross-species comparisons approach to other cancer types as well.

  16. Comparative Gene Expression Analyses Identify Luminal and Basal Subtypes of Canine Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma That Mimic Patterns in Human Invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Dhawan

    Full Text Available More than 160,000 people are expected to die from invasive urothelial carcinoma (iUC this year worldwide. Research in relevant animal models is essential to improving iUC management. Naturally-occurring canine iUC closely resembles human iUC in histopathology, metastatic behavior, and treatment response, and could provide a relevant model for human iUC. The molecular characterization of canine iUC, however, has been limited. Work was conducted to compare gene expression array results between tissue samples from iUC and normal bladder in dogs, with comparison to similar expression array data from human iUC and normal bladder in the literature. Considerable similarities between enrichment patterns of genes in canine and human iUC were observed. These included patterns mirroring basal and luminal subtypes initially observed in human breast cancer and more recently noted in human iUC. Canine iUC samples also exhibited enrichment for genes involved in P53 pathways, as has been reported in human iUC. This is particularly relevant as drugs targeting these genes/pathways in other cancers could be repurposed to treat iUC, with dogs providing a model to optimize therapy. As part of the validation of the results and proof of principal for evaluating individualized targeted therapy, the overexpression of EGFR in canine bladder iUC was confirmed. The similarities in gene expression patterns between dogs and humans add considerably to the value of naturally-occurring canine iUC as a relevant and much needed animal model for human iUC. Furthermore, the finding of expression patterns that cross different pathologically-defined cancers could allow studies of dogs with iUC to help optimize cancer management across multiple cancer types. The work is also expected to lead to a better understanding of the biological importance of the gene expression patterns, and the potential application of the cross-species comparisons approach to other cancer types as well.

  17. Variations of physical activity and sedentary behavior between before and after cancer diagnosis: Results from the prospective population-based NutriNet-Santé cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassier, Philippine; Zelek, Laurent; Partula, Valentin; Srour, Bernard; Bachmann, Patrick; Touillaud, Marina; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Galan, Pilar; Cohen, Patrice; Hoarau, Hélène; Latino-Martel, Paule; Menai, Mehdi; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Hercberg, Serge; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Touvier, Mathilde

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) but also reduced sedentary behavior may be associated with better prognosis and lower risk of recurrence in cancer patients. Our aim was to quantify the variations in PA and time spent sedentary between before and after diagnosis, relying on prospective data in French adults. We also investigated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with these variations.Subjects (n = 942) were incident cancer cases diagnosed in the NutriNet-Santé cohort between 2009 and 2015. PA and sedentary behavior were prospectively collected with the 7-day short version of the IPAQ questionnaire every year since subjects' inclusion (i.e., an average of 2 year before diagnosis). All PA and sitting time points before and after diagnosis was compared by mixed model. Factors associated with decrease in PA and increase in sitting time were investigated using logistic regressions.Overall and vigorous PA decreased after diagnosis (P = 0.006, -32.8 ± 36.8 MET-hour/week on average, in those who decreased their overall PA and P = 0.005, -21.1 ± 36.8 MET-hour/week for vigorous PA, respectively), especially in prostate (-39.5 ± 36.3 MET-hour/week) and skin (-35.9 ± 38 MET-hour/week) cancers, in men (-40.8 ± 46.3MET-hour/week), and in those professionally inactive (-34.2 ± 37.1 MET-hour/week) (all P diagnosis were more likely to decrease their PA (odds ratio [OR]: 4.67 [3.21-6.81], P diagnosis were more likely to increase their sitting time (OR: 3.29 [2.45-4.42], P cancer diagnosis is a key period for change in PA and sedentary behavior. It provides insights to target the subgroups of patients who are at higher risk of decreasing PA and increasing sedentary behavior after cancer diagnosis.

  18. A Comparative Approach of Tumor-Associated Inflammation in Mammary Cancer between Humans and Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infiltrating cells of the immune system are widely accepted to be generic constituents of tumor microenvironment. It has been well established that the development of mammary cancer, both in humans and in dogs, is associated with alterations in numbers and functions of immune cells at the sites of tumor progression. These tumor infiltrating immune cells seem to exhibit exclusive phenotypic and functional characteristics and mammary cancer cells can take advantage of signaling molecules released by them. Cancer related inflammation has an important role in mammary carcinogenesis, contributing to the acquisition of core hallmark capabilities that allow cancer cells to survive, proliferate, and disseminate. Indeed, recent studies in human breast cancer and in canine mammary tumors have identified a growing list of signaling molecules released by inflammatory cells that serve as effectors of their tumor-promoting actions. These include the COX-2, the tumor EGF, the angiogenic VEGF, other proangiogenic factors, and a large variety of chemokines and cytokines that amplify the inflammatory state. This review describes the intertwined signaling pathways shared by T-lymphocytic/macrophage infiltrates and important tissue biomarkers in both human and dog mammary carcinogenesis.

  19. A Comparative Approach of Tumor-Associated Inflammation in Mammary Cancer between Humans and Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria Isabel; Silva-Carvalho, Ricardo; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Bianchini, Rodolfo; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Queiroga, Felisbina L

    2016-01-01

    Infiltrating cells of the immune system are widely accepted to be generic constituents of tumor microenvironment. It has been well established that the development of mammary cancer, both in humans and in dogs, is associated with alterations in numbers and functions of immune cells at the sites of tumor progression. These tumor infiltrating immune cells seem to exhibit exclusive phenotypic and functional characteristics and mammary cancer cells can take advantage of signaling molecules released by them. Cancer related inflammation has an important role in mammary carcinogenesis, contributing to the acquisition of core hallmark capabilities that allow cancer cells to survive, proliferate, and disseminate. Indeed, recent studies in human breast cancer and in canine mammary tumors have identified a growing list of signaling molecules released by inflammatory cells that serve as effectors of their tumor-promoting actions. These include the COX-2, the tumor EGF, the angiogenic VEGF, other proangiogenic factors, and a large variety of chemokines and cytokines that amplify the inflammatory state. This review describes the intertwined signaling pathways shared by T-lymphocytic/macrophage infiltrates and important tissue biomarkers in both human and dog mammary carcinogenesis.

  20. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Breast Cancer and Adjacent Normal Breast Tissues in Human

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Shan Deng; Tian-Yong Xing; Hong-Ying Zhou; Ruo-Hong Xiong; You-Guang Lu; Bin Wen; Shang-Qing Liu; Hui-Jun Yang

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacryiamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS), incorporated with online database searching, were performed to investigate differential proteins of breast cancer and adjacent normal breast tissues. Considering that serum albumin is abundantly presented in normal control samples, 15 differential spots detected in 11 out of 12 (91.7%) breast cancer samples were identified by online SIENA-2DPAGE database searching and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis. The results indicate that pathological changes of breast cancer are concerned with augmentation of substance metabolism, promotion of proteolytic activity, decline of activity of some inhibitors of enzymes, and so on. Some important proteins involved in the pathological process of breast cancer with changed expression may be useful biomarkers, such as alpha-1-antitrypsin, EF1-beta, cathepsin D, TCTP, SMT3A, RPS12, and PSMA1, among which SMT3A,RPS12, and PSMA1 were first reported for breast cancer in this study.

  1. Multistate models for comparing trends in hospitalizations among young adult survivors of colorectal cancer and matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutradhar Rinku

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past years, the incidence of colorectal cancer has been increasing among young adults. A large percentage of these patients live at least 5 years after diagnosis, but it is unknown whether their rate of hospitalizations after this 5-year mark is comparable to the general population. Methods This is a population-based cohort consisting of 917 young adult survivors diagnosed with colorectal cancer in Ontario from 1992–1999 and 4585 matched cancer-free controls. A multistate model is presented to reflect and compare trends in the hospitalization process among survivors and their matched controls. Results Analyses under a multistate model indicate that the risk of a subsequent hospital admission increases as the number of prior hospitalizations increases. Among patients who are yet to experience a hospitalization, the rate of admission is 3.47 times higher for YAS than controls (95% CI (2.79, 4.31. However, among patients that have experienced one and two hospitalizations, the relative rate of a subsequent admission decreases to 3.03 (95% CI (2.01, 4.56 and 1.90 (95% CI (1.19, 3.03, respectively. Conclusions Young adult survivors of colorectal cancer have an increased risk of experiencing hospitalizations compared to cancer-free controls. However this relative risk decreases as the number of prior hospitalizations increases. The multistate approach is able to use information on the timing of hospitalizations and answer questions that standard Poisson and Negative Binomial models are unable to address.

  2. Dosimetric study comparing intensity modulated and conformal pelvic radiotherapy boost plans in locally advanced cancer cervix in NCI-Cairo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Mahmoud; Hesham A. EL-Hossiny; Nashaat A. Diab; Mahmoud Shosha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was to compare 5 field conformal technique to the intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) 8 fields technique in boosting locally advanced cancer cervix cases after external beam radiotherapy with respect to target volume coverage and dose to normal tissues. Methods: We conducted a single institutional comparative dosimetric analysis of 10 patients with cancer cervix who was presented to radiotherapy department in National Cancer Institute, Cairo in period between June 2012 to September 2012 and received a CRT boost in the place of planned brachytherapy after large field pelvic radiotherapy (PRT) with concurrent chemotherapy were retrospectively identified. All tumors were situated in the low central pelvis. Two plans were done for every patient; one using the 8 fields IMRT and the second one using 5 fields' 3DCRT the two techniques were then compared using dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis for the PTV, bladder, rectum and both femoral heads. Results: Comparing different DVHs, it was found that the planning target volume (PTV) was adequately covered in both plans while it was demonstrates that the 8 fields IMRT technique carried less doses reaching OARs (rectum, bladder, both femoral heads). Conclusion: From the present study, it is concluded that IMRT technique spared more efficiently OARs than CRT technique but both techniques covered the PTV adequately so whenever possible IMRT technique should be used.

  3. Do Active Duty Cancer Survivors with a Concurrent Behavioral Health Diagnosis Have Distinct Survivorship Care Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-23

    cancers (n = 86); genitourinary/gastrointestinal (n = 118); and other cancers (breast, reproductive , blood, bone, unspecified/unknown) (n = 118) (see...overdispersed Poisson, and negative binomial models. Psychol Bull 118:392-404 60. Glass AS, Cary KC, Cooperberg MR. 2013. Risk-based prostate cancer... Reproductive , Other/Unknown) 118 30.0 63 Table 4. Length of Cancer Survivorship Survival Time from Cancer Diagnosis (months) Survival

  4. Comparing the Strategic Behavior of More Successful vs. Less Successful Readers of Multiple Technical Reading Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Nabi; Shabani, Mohammad Bagher

    2013-01-01

    Recently, reading researchers have come to assume that the ability to synthesize units of information across multiple texts on a topic by comparing, contrasting, synthesizing, integrating, and building a mental representation of them--referred to as multiple-documents literacy--is a far more required literacy in the present knowledge societies…

  5. A Comparative Study of the Sintering Behavior of Pure and Manganese-Substituted Hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zilm

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA is a widely studied biomaterial for its similar chemical composition to bone and its osteoconductive properties. The crystal structure of HA is flexible, allowing for a wide range of substitutions which can alter bioactivity, biodegradation, and mechanical properties of the substituted apatite. The thermal stability of a substituted apatite is an indication of its biodegradation in vivo. In this study, we investigated the thermal stability and mechanical properties of manganese-substituted hydroxyapatite (MnHA as it is reported that manganese can enhance cell attachment compared to pure HA. Pure HA and MnHA pellets were sintered over the following temperature ranges: 900 to 1300 °C and 700 to 1300 °C respectively. The sintered pellets were characterized via density measurements, mechanical testing, X-ray diffraction, and field emission electron microscopy. It was found that MnHA was less stable than HA decomposing around 800 °C compared to 1200 °C for HA. The flexural strength of MnHA was weaker than HA due to the decomposition of MnHA at a significantly lower temperature of 800 °C compared to 1100 °C for HA. The low thermal stability of MnHA suggests that a faster in vivo dissolution rate compared to pure HA is expected.

  6. Effectiveness of community-based football compared to usual care in men with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Eik; Bruun, Ditte Marie; Tolver, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    . The intervention period will be six months. The primary outcome is quality of life assessed after 12 weeks based on the change from baseline in the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are change from baseline to six months in quality of life, lean body mass, fat mass...... has been suggested and previously studies have shown improvements of disease specific quality of life and a reduction in treatment-related toxicity. Cohort studies with long term follow up have suggested that physical activity is associated with improved survival in prostate cancer patients....... Previously one randomised controlled trial has examined the efficacy of football in prostate cancer patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy to usual care and reported positive effects on lean body mass and bone markers. Against this background, we wish to examine the effectiveness of community...

  7. Disease-free survival after complete mesocolic excision compared with conventional colon cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus Anders; Neuenschwander, Anders Ulrich; Jansen, Jens Erik

    2015-01-01

    consisted of patients who underwent CME surgery in a centre validated to perform such surgery; the control group consisted of patients undergoing conventional colon resection in three other hospitals. Data were collected from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) database and medical charts. Patients......, irrespective of UICC stage, with 4-year disease-free survival of 85·8% (95% CI 81·4-90·1) after CME and 73·4% (66·2-80·6) after non-CME (log-rank p=0·0014). INTERPRETATION: Our data indicate that CME surgery is associated with better disease-free survival than is conventional colon cancer resection...... for patients with stage I-III colon adenocarcinoma. Implementation of CME surgery might improve outcomes for patients with colon cancer. FUNDING: Tvergaards Fund and Edgar and Hustru Gilberte Schnohrs Fund....

  8. Various functions of PBMC from colon cancer patients are not decreased compared to healthy blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    by inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and induction of IL-2 mRNA expression. We have therefore studied the proliferative responses of PBMC from colon cancer patients to PWM and tested the effect of immune modulating agents, such as Serotonin, Sumatriptan, and Buspirone on these PBMC. We found......The immune surveillance hypothesis suggests impaired immune responses to participate in development of cancer. This may partly be due to increased amounts of PGE2 and histamine, which inhibit cellular immunity. These effects are mediated by cAMP, which is increased and thereby may down-regulate IL......-2 and its receptor proteins in T helper cells. The proliferative responses and IL-2 synthesis of PBMC have earlier been shown to be reduced in patients with colon cancer. Recently immune modulating agents have been demonstrated to increase the proliferative response of PBMC in vitro, probably...

  9. A study of molecular signals deregulating mismatch repair genes in prostate cancer compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmitra Basu

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality among aging males. There is an unmet requirement of clinically useful biomarkers for early detection of prostate cancer to reduce the liabilities of overtreatment and accompanying morbidity. The present population-based study investigates the factors disrupting expression of multiple functionally related genes of DNA mismatch repair pathway in prostate cancer patients to identify molecular attributes distinguishing adenocarcinoma from benign hyperplasia of prostate. Gene expression was compared between tissue samples from prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia using real-time-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Assessment of genotypes of seven single-nucleotide-polymorphisms of three MMR genes was conducted using PCR-coupled RFLP and sequencing. Promoter methylation was interrogated by methylation-specific-PCR and bisulfite-sequencing. Interaction between microRNAs and MMR genes was verified by 3'UTR-based dual luciferase assays. Concurrent reduction of three MMR genes namely hMLH1, hMSH6 and hMSH2 (34-85%, P<0.05 was observed in prostate cancer tissues. hMSH6 polymorphism rs1800932(Pro92Pro conferred a borderline protection in cancer patients (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.15-0.75. Relative transcript level of hMLH1 was inversely related (r = -0.59, P<0.05 with methylation quotient of its promoter which showed a significantly higher methylation density (P = 0.008, Z = -2.649 in cancer patients. hsa-miR-155, hsa-miR-141 and hsa-miR-21 gene expressions were significantly elevated (66-85%, P<0.05 in tumor specimens and negatively correlated (r = -0.602 to -0.527, P<0.05 with that of MMR genes. hsa-miR-155 & hsa-miR-141 and hsa-miR-155 & hsa-miR-21 were demonstrated to bind to their putative seed sequences in hMLH1 and hMSH6 3'UTRs respectively. Relatively higher expression of DNA methyl-transferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3b and HIF-1α genes (34-50%, P<0.05 were also detected in tumor

  10. Comparative study of CEA and CA19-9 in esophageal, gastric and colon cancers individually and in combination (ROC curve analysis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhawna Bagaria; Sadhna Sood; Rameshwaram Sharma; Soniya Lalwani

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine the clinical serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), individually and in combination, for the diagnosis of 50 healthy subjects and 150 cases of esophageal, gastric, and colon cancers. Methods:The sensitivities of the two markers were compared individually and in combination, with specificity set at 100%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. Results:Serum CEA levels were significantly higher in cancer patients than in the control group. The sensitivity of CEA was determined:in esophageal cancer, sensitivity=28%, negative predictive value (NPV)=61.72%, and AUC=0.742 (SE=0.05), with a significance level of P Conclusion:CEA exhibited the highest sensitivity for colon cancer, and CA19-9 exhibited the highest sensitivity for gastric cancer. Combined analysis indicated an increase in diagnostic sensitivity in esophageal and gastric cancer compared with that in colon cancer.

  11. Down-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 suppresses malignant biological behavior of triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Chang, Miaomiao; Shi, Yonghong; Jiang, Lili; Zhao, Jing; Hai, Ling; Sharen, Gaowa; Du, Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effect and mechanism of reduced hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1a expression on malignant behavior of MDA-MB-231 cells. HIF-1α expression was interfered by siRNA. Western blot was used to detect protein expression of HIF-1α, active fragments of caspase 3 and vimentin. Cell count, flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to evaluate cell growth and apoptosis. Matrigel invasion and wound scratch assay were performed to measure the ability of cell invasion and migration. After MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with HIF-1α-targeted siRNA, HIF-1α protein expression was successfully interrupted and cell growth was retarded. Compared with random siRNA group, reduced HIF-1α protein expression in HIF-1α-targeted siRNA group facilitated cell apoptosis but had no effect on cell cycle. In addition, cells treated with HIF-1α-targeted siRNA expressed active fragments of caspase 3 (17 and 12 kD) after serum starvation for 0 to 60 h. Caspase 3 activity assay further confirmed the above finding. Reduced HIF-1α expression impaired the migration and invasiveness with a reduction in the expression of vimentin and CK18 protein. Inhibition of HIF-1α protein synthesis or enhancement of its degradation reversed its malignant phenotypes and could probably be a potential means for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.

  12. Physical activity and sedentary behavior among adults 60 years and older: New York City residents compared with a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Morland, Kimberly B; Wen, Fang; Scanlin, Kathleen

    2014-10-01

    This study describes moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior among New York City (NYC) residents 60 years and older and compared with national United States' estimates. Adults aged 60 or older living in NYC (n = 760) were compared with similar aged adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 2,451 adults). Both groups wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for one week. The NYC sample recorded 13.2, 23.8, and 37.8 mean min/day of MVPA and the NHANES sample recorded 10.6, 21.1, and 39.3, depending on the definition. Sedentary behavior averaged 9.6 hr/day for the NYC sample and 9.3 hr/day for the NHANES sample. The NYC sample spent a longer proportion of time in sedentary behavior and light activities, but more time in MVPA than the NHANES sample. Urbanicity may explain some of the differences between the two samples.

  13. Consumer Travel Behaviors and Transport Carbon Emissions: A Comparative Study of Commercial Centers in Shenyang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current literature highlights the role of commercial centers in cities in generating shopping trips and transport carbon emissions. However, the influence of the characteristics of commercial centers on consumer travel behavior and transport carbon emissions is not well understood. This study addresses this knowledge gap by examining shopping trips to eight commercial centers in Shenyang, China, and the CO2 emissions of these trips. We found that the locations and types of commercial centers strongly influence CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions per trip to commercial centers in the suburbs of Shenyang were on average 6.94% and 26.92% higher than those to commercial centers in the urban core and the inner city, respectively. CO2 emissions induced by wholesale centers were nearly three times higher than the lowest CO2 emissions of commercial centers in the inner city. These empirical results enhance our understanding of shopping-related transport carbon emissions and highlight the importance of optimizing urban space structure, in particular, the layout of commercial centers.

  14. Screening and managing cannabis use: comparing GP’s and nurses’ knowledge, beliefs, and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberg Melissa M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GPs and nurses are ideally placed to address the significant unmet demand for the treatment of cannabis-related problems given the numbers of people who regularly seek their care. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between GPs and nurses’ perceived knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors toward cannabis use and its screening and management. Methods This study involved 161 nurses and 503 GPs who completed a survey distributed via conference satchels to delegates of Healthed seminars focused on topics relevant to women and children’s health. Differences between GPs and nurses were analyzed using χ2- tests and two-sample t-tests, while logistic regression examined predictors of service provision. Results GPs were more likely than nurses to have engaged in cannabis-related service provision, but also more frequently reported barriers related to time, interest, and having more important issues to address. Nurses reported less knowledge, skills, and role legitimacy. Perceived screening skills predicted screening and referral to alcohol and other drug (AOD services, while knowing a regular user increased the likelihood of referrals only. Conclusions Approaches to increase cannabis-related screening and intervention may be improved by involving nurses, and by leveraging the relationship between nurses and doctors, in primary care.

  15. Sensory dynamics of intense microwave irradiation: A comparative study of aversive behaviors by mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justesen, D.R.

    1981-10-01

    The results of two experiments are reported, the first on 24 mice and 14 rats, all experimentally naive, that were observed for evidence of adventitious escape from faradic shock or from a potentially lethal, 2450-MHz microwave field in a multi-mode cavity. All of ten rats irradiated at a whole-body-averaged dose rate of 60 mW/g convulsed and expired, presumably from radiation-induced hyperpyrexia. Eight of ten mice irradiated at 60 mW/g survived the four sessions of irradiation, but reliable evidence of escape learning was not observed. The data of the second experiment, which was a pilot study of four rats with an extensive history of exposure to intense but intermittently applied microwave fields, revealed that the animals learned to thermoregulate behaviorally by locomoting in and out of the safe-area circle. A strong relation between dose rate (30, 60, and 120 mW/g) and proportion of time spent in the safe area was observed (r = .97). Post-exposure means of colonic temperature during three sets of sessions under the different rates of energy dosing were highly stable and averaged 39.6 deg C.

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF CONTINUOUS AND INTERMITTENT HORMONE THERAPY FOR DISSEMINATED PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Babaev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare the results of continuous and intermittent hormone therapy (HT in unselected patients with disseminated prostate cancer (PC.Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 113 patients with verified stage cT2b–4N0–1M0–1 PC. The median age of the patients was 70 ± 7.3 years. The median pretreatment concentration of prostate-specific antigen (PSA was 309.8 ng/ml. The cT2 category was diagnosed in 12 (10.6 % patients, сТ3 in 85 (75.2 %, сТ4 in 16 (14.2 %, сN+ in 32 (28.3 %, and М+ in 74 (65.5 %. At baseline, the median Gleason grade was (3.0 ± 0.8 + (4.0 ± 0.9 = 7.0 ± 1.7. All the patients received immediate HT: castration therapy was performed in 2 (1.8 % patients, maximal androgen blockade in 96 (85 %, and antiandrogen monotherapy in 15 (13.3 %. Continuous and intermittent treatment regimens were used in 100 (70.8 % and 33 (29.2 % cases, respectively. The median follow-up was 31.9 ± 17.7 months.Results. The intermittent HT regimen was associated with a significant increase in overall survival versus that during continuous treatment (medians 57.8 ± 11.6 and 25.2 ± 2.8 months, respectively; p = 0.031. Overall survival benefit remained in the poor prognosis (bone pain and/or a PSA of  100 ng/ml and/or сТ4 and/or М+ group. The HT regimen failed to affect survival in the good prognosis (no bone pain, a PSA of < 100 ng/ml, сТ < T4, М0 group. Impotence was less common during intermittent treatment than during continuous ablation (68.2 and 96.2 %, respectively; p = 0.002. No relationship was found between the incidence of other complications and the HT regimen. There was no significant difference between the groups in quality-of-life indicators before and during treatment. The average cost of an intermittent course of therapy per year was significantly lower than that of a continuous course (50586.7 and 72996.0 rubles, respectively; p < 0.0001.Conclusions. Intermittent HT fails to result in a clinically relevant

  17. Comparative investigation on spindle behavior and MPF activity changes during oocyte maturation between gynogenetic and amphimictic crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGZHONGAN; QUNHUALI; 等

    1999-01-01

    The spindle behavior and MPF activity changes in the progression of oocyte maturation were investigated and compared with cytological observation and kinase assay between gynogenetic silver crucian carp and amphimictic colored crucian carp.MPF activity was measured by using histone H1 as phosphorylation substrate.There were two similar oscillatory MPF kinase activity changes during oocyte maturation in two kinds of fishes with different reproductive modes,but there existed some subtle difference between them.The subtle difference was that the first peak of MPF kinase activity was kept to a longerlasting time in the gynogenetic silver crucian carp than in the amphimictic colored crucian carp.It was suggested that the difference may be related to the spindle behavior changes,such as tripolar spindle formation and spindle rearrangement in the gynogenetic crucian carp.

  18. Bicalutamide monotherapy compared with castration in patients with nonmetastatic locally advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Tyrrell, C J; Kaisary, A V

    2000-01-01

    Nonsteroidal antiandrogen monotherapy may be a treatment option for some patients with advanced prostate cancer. We report a survival and safety update from an analysis of 2 studies in which patients with nonmetastatic (M0) locally advanced disease were treated with either 150 mg. bicalutamide...

  19. Cell migration towards CXCL12 in leukemic cells compared to breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Shirley C; Goh, Poh Hui; Kudatsih, Jossie; Ncube, Sithembile; Gurung, Renu; Maxwell, Will; Mueller, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Chemotaxis or directed cell migration is mediated by signalling events initiated by binding of chemokines to their cognate receptors and the activation of a complex signalling cascade. The molecular signalling pathways involved in cell migration are important to understand cancer cell metastasis. Therefore, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of CXCL12 induced cell migration and the importance of different signalling cascades that become activated by CXCR4 in leukemic cells versus breast cancer cells. We identified Src kinase as being essential for cell migration in both cancer types, with strong involvement of the Raf/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway. We did not detect any involvement of Ras or JAK2/STAT3 in CXCL12 induced migration in Jurkat cells. Preventing PKC activation with inhibitors does not affect migration in Jurkat cells at all, unlike in the adherent breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells. However, in both cell lines, knock down of PKCα prevents migration towards CXCL12, whereas the expression of PKCζ is less crucial for migration. PI3K activation is essential in both cell types, however LY294002 usage in MCF-7 cells does not block migration significantly. These results highlight the importance of verifying specific signalling pathways in different cell settings and with different approaches.

  20. LYMPHO-VASCULAR INVASION IN BRCA RELATED BREAST CANCER COMPARED TO SPORADIC CONTROLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voss, M. Heerma; van der Groep, P.; Bart, J.; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Germline mutations in the BRCA1 gene predispose to the development of breast cancer, exhibiting a specific histological phenotype. Identification of possible hallmarks of these tumors is important for selecting patients for genetic screening and provides inside in carcinogenetic pathways

  1. Comparing three different approaches to the measurement of needs concerning fatigue in patients with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla Riis; Groenvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    -sectional nationwide survey, patients were asked about their needs concerning fatigue in three different ways: Fatigue intensity was measured with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire, fatigue burden (the extent fatigue was a problem) and fatigue felt need...

  2. Prediction of "BRCAness" in breast cancer by array comparative genomic hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, Simon Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the likelihood that an individual is a BRCA mutation carrier is the first step to genetic counseling, followed by germ-line mutation testing in many family cancer clinics. Individuals who have been diagnosed as BRCA mutation-positive are offered special medical care; however, clinical man

  3. Targeting of miR9/NOTCH1 interaction reduces metastatic behavior in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Yeganeh, Samira; Mansouri, Ardalan; Paryan, Mahdi

    2015-11-01

    Many reports have indicated deregulation of a variety of microRNAs (miRNAs) in human cancers. In this study, we appraised miR-9 correlation with NOTCH1 involved in Notch signaling in metastatic breast cancer. The Notch signaling pathway has been approved to be associated with the development and progression of many human cancers, including breast cancer, but the precise mechanism has remained unknown. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that introduces miR-9 and NOTCH1 correlation as an effective factor in breast cancer. We found that miR-9 expression was decreased in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells compared with MCF-10A normal breast cell line. However, NOTCH1 was upregulated in the metastatic breast cancer cells. Furthermore, luciferase assay revealed a significant inverse correlation between miR-9 and NOTCH1. Overexpression of Notch signaling via Notch1 intracellular domain in MDA-MB-231 cell line was suppressed by lentiviruses expressing miR-9. Taken together, the results obtained by MTT, flow cytometry, migration, and wound healing assays showed that it is possible to inhibit metastasis and induce pro-apoptotic state by induction of miR-9 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells but with no effect on cell proliferation. These results shows that miR-9, by direct targeting of NOTCH1, can reveal a suppressor-like activity in metastatic breast cancer cells.

  4. Unique proteomic signature for radiation sensitive patients; a comparative study between normo-sensitive and radiation sensitive breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiöld, Sara [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Azimzadeh, Omid [Institute of Radiation Biology, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München (Germany); Merl-Pham, Juliane [Research Unit Protein Science, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); Naslund, Ingemar; Wersall, Peter; Lidbrink, Elisabet [Division of Radiotherapy, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Tapio, Soile [Institute of Radiation Biology, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München (Germany); Harms-Ringdahl, Mats [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Haghdoost, Siamak, E-mail: Siamak.Haghdoost@su.se [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The unique protein expression profiles were found that separate radiosensitive from normal sensitive breast cancer patients. • The oxidative stress response, coagulation properties and acute phase response suggested to be the hallmarks of radiation sensitivity. - Abstract: Radiation therapy is a cornerstone of modern cancer treatment. Understanding the mechanisms behind normal tissue sensitivity is essential in order to minimize adverse side effects and yet to prevent local cancer reoccurrence. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers of radiation sensitivity to enable personalized cancer treatment. To investigate the mechanisms behind radiation sensitivity a pilot study was made where eight radiation-sensitive and nine normo-sensitive patients were selected from a cohort of 2914 breast cancer patients, based on acute tissue reactions after radiation therapy. Whole blood was sampled and irradiated in vitro with 0, 1, or 150 mGy followed by 3 h incubation at 37 °C. The leukocytes of the two groups were isolated, pooled and protein expression profiles were investigated using isotope-coded protein labeling method (ICPL). First, leukocytes from the in vitro irradiated whole blood from normo-sensitive and extremely sensitive patients were compared to the non-irradiated controls. To validate this first study a second ICPL analysis comparing only the non-irradiated samples was conducted. Both approaches showed unique proteomic signatures separating the two groups at the basal level and after doses of 1 and 150 mGy. Pathway analyses of both proteomic approaches suggest that oxidative stress response, coagulation properties and acute phase response are hallmarks of radiation sensitivity supporting our previous study on oxidative stress response. This investigation provides unique characteristics of radiation sensitivity essential for individualized radiation therapy.

  5. Colorectal cancer screening behavior and willingness: An outpatient survey in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-Xin Deng; Jie Gao; Wei An; Jie Yin; Quan-Cai Cai; Hua Yang; Zhao-Shen Li

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To identity the factors influencing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening behavior and willingness among Chinese outpatients. METHODS: An outpatient-based face-to-face survey was conducted from August 18 to September 7, 2010 in Changhai Hospital. A total of 1200 consecutive patients aged ≥ 18 years were recruited for interview. The patient's knowledge about CRC and screening was pre-measured as a predictor variable, and other predictors included age, gender, educational level, monthly household income and health insurance status. The relationship between these predictors and screening behavior, screening willingness and screening approach were examined using Pearson's χ2 test and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Of these outpatients, 22.5% had undergone CRC screening prior to this study. Patients who had participated in the screening were more likely to have good knowledge about CRC and screening (OR: 5.299, 95% CI: 3.415-8.223), have health insurance (OR: 1.996, 95% CI: 1.426-2.794) and older in age. Higher income, however, was found to be a barrier to the screening (OR: 0.633, 95% CI: 0.467-0.858). An analysis of screening willingness showed that 37.5% of the patients would voluntarily participated in a screen at the recommended age, but 41.3% would do so under doctor's advice. Screening willingness was positively correlated with the patient's knowledge status. Patients with higher knowledge levels would like to participate in the screening (OR: 4.352, 95% CI: 3.008-6.298), and they would select colonoscopy as a screening approach (OR: 3.513, 95% CI: 2.290-5.389). However, higher income level was, again, a barrier to colonoscopic screening (OR: 0.667, 95% CI: 0.505-0.908). CONCLUSION: Patient's level of knowledge and income should be taken into consideration when conducting a feasible CRC screening.

  6. Eating behavior: do adolescents with diabetes eat differently compared to healthy adolescent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaufort, C d; Damsgaard, M T; Ahluwalia, N

    2010-01-01

    the two populations. Results: In absolute numbers, 94387 healthy and 1483 adolescents with T1DM provided answers to the HBSC questions. Significant differences were observed between the countries as well between the healthy and the population with T1DM with respect to the frequency of breakfast, fruit...... intake, sweets and soft drinks. Vegetables intake was not significantly different between adolescents with and without diabetes, however between countries important differences were reported. Conclusion: Within countries, adolescents with T1DM report a healthier approach towards food intake compared...... with their non diabetic peers. Between countries very important...

  7. Lymphadenectomy in locally advanced cervical cancer study (LiLACS): Phase III clinical trial comparing surgical with radiologic staging in patients with stages IB2-IVA cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumovitz, Michael; Querleu, Denis; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Morice, Philippe; Jhingran, Anuja; Munsell, Mark F; Macapinlac, Homer A; Leblanc, Eric; Martinez, Alejandra; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2014-01-01

    Radiation treatment planning for women with locally advanced cervical cancer (stages IB2-IVA) is often based on positron emission tomography (PET). PET, however, has poor sensitivity in detecting metastases in aortocaval nodes. We have initiated a study with the objective of determining whether pre-therapeutic laparoscopic surgical staging followed by tailored chemoradiation improves survival as compared with PET/computed tomography (CT) radiologic staging alone followed by chemoradiation. This international, multicenter phase III trial will enroll 600 women with stages IB2-IVA cervical cancer and PET/CT findings showing fluorodeoxyglucose-avid pelvic nodes and fluorodeoxyglucose-negative para-aortic nodes. Eligible patients will be randomized to undergo either pelvic radiotherapy with chemotherapy (standard-of-care arm) or surgical staging via a minimally invasive extraperitoneal approach followed by tailored radiotherapy with chemotherapy (experimental arm). The primary end point is overall survival. Secondary end points are disease-free survival, short- and long-term morbidity with pre-therapeutic surgical staging, and determination of anatomic locations of metastatic para-aortic nodes in relationship to the inferior mesenteric artery. We believe this study will show that tailored chemoradiation after pre-therapeutic surgical staging improves survival as compared with chemoradiation based on PET/CT in women with stages IB2-IVA cervical cancer.

  8. Comparative Perspective of Human Behavior Patterns to Uncover Ownership Bias among Mobile Phone Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Arai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid spread of mobile devices, call detail records (CDRs from mobile phones provide more opportunities to incorporate dynamic aspects of human mobility in addressing societal issues. However, it has been increasingly observed that CDR data are not always representative of the population under study because it only includes device users alone. To understand the discrepancy between the population captured by CDRs and the general population, we profile principal populations of CDRs by analyzing routines based on time spent at key locations and compare these data with those of the general population. We employ a topic model to estimate typical routines of mobile phone users using CDRs as topics. The routines are extracted from field survey data and compared between those of the general population and mobile phone users. We found that there are two main population groups of mobile phone users in Dhaka: males engaged in an income-generating activity at a specific location other than home and females performing household tasks and spending most of their time at home. We determine that CDRs tend to omit students, who form a significant component of the Dhaka population.

  9. Comparing 3 dietary pattern methods--cluster analysis, factor analysis, and index analysis--With colorectal cancer risk: The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Jill; Wirfält, Elisabet; Flood, Andrew; Mitrou, Panagiota N; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Leitzmann, Michael; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Subar, Amy F

    2010-02-15

    The authors compared dietary pattern methods-cluster analysis, factor analysis, and index analysis-with colorectal cancer risk in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 492,306). Data from a 124-item food frequency questionnaire (1995-1996) were used to identify 4 clusters for men (3 clusters for women), 3 factors, and 4 indexes. Comparisons were made with adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, distributions of individuals in clusters by quintile of factor and index scores, and health behavior characteristics. During 5 years of follow-up through 2000, 3,110 colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. In men, the vegetables and fruits cluster, the fruits and vegetables factor, the fat-reduced/diet foods factor, and all indexes were associated with reduced risk; the meat and potatoes factor was associated with increased risk. In women, reduced risk was found with the Healthy Eating Index-2005 and increased risk with the meat and potatoes factor. For men, beneficial health characteristics were seen with all fruit/vegetable patterns, diet foods patterns, and indexes, while poorer health characteristics were found with meat patterns. For women, findings were similar except that poorer health characteristics were seen with diet foods patterns. Similarities were found across methods, suggesting basic qualities of healthy diets. Nonetheless, findings vary because each method answers a different question.

  10. Comparative study of 18F-FLT PET and 18F-FDG PET of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi LIU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current paper aims to investigate the value of 18F-FLT PET in the diagnosis of lung cancer and the monitoring of tumor proliferation.Methods A total of 36 patients received and cured by the General Hospital of Chinese PLA from September 2005 to October 2008(27 males and 9 females,aged 38 years to 74 years with chest CT suspected lung cancer were examined with 18F-FLT PET.Up to 42 patients(29 males and 13 females,aged 37 years to 75 years received and cured at the same time also underwent 18F-FDG PET.The current experimental results were compared with that of the tumor pathology.Immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expression of cell nuclear antigen of excisional disease tissues Ki-67.Results The 18F-FDG PET standardize uptake value(SUV of lung cancer(SUV,5.2±2.9 was higher than that of the 18F-FLT PET SUV(3.2±1.3(P < 0.05.The sensitivity of 18F-FLT PET for the detection of primary lung cancer was 77%,the specificity was 86%,and the accuracy was 78%.The sensitivity,specificity,and accuracy of 18F-FDG PET were 88%,50%,and 79%,respectively.The sensitivity,specificity,and accuracy for the lymph node staging with 18F-FLT PET were 47%,88% and 75%,respectively,compared with the 68%,84%,and 79% for 18F-FDG PET,respectively.18F-FLT SUV of lung cancer was positively correlated with the Ki-67 index(r=0.8278,P < 0.001 than that of 18F-FDG SUV(r=0.0079,P=0.968.Conclusions 18F-FLT can be made to uptake by specificity of lung cancer tissue,and its uptake value is correlated significantly with the proliferation of lung cancer.Therefore,18F-FLT PET can be applied to assist the diagnosis of lung tumor,and is expected to be a tool to determine the proliferation activity of tumor cells.

  11. Comparative analysis of autistic traits and behavioral disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome and Asperger disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dae Kwang; Sawada, Masayuki; Yokota, Shingo; Kuroda, Kenji; Uenishi, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Hiroshi; Nagai, Toshiro; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neuro-genetic disorder caused by the absence/loss of expression of one or more paternally expressed genes on chromosome 15 (q11-13). In this study, a comparative analysis of intelligence level and autistic traits was conducted between children with PWS (n = 30; 18 males, 12 females; age = 10.6 ± 2.8 years) and those with Asperger disorder (AD; n = 31; 24 males, 7 females; age = 10.5 ± 3.1 years). The children were compared by age group: lower elementary school age (6-8 years), upper elementary school age (9-12 years), and middle school age (13-15 years). As results, the intelligence levels of children with PWS were significantly lower than those with AD across all age groups. Autistic traits, assessed using the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), revealed that among elementary school age children, those with PWS had less prominent autistic traits than those with AD, however, among middle school age children, those with PWS and AD showed similar prominence. An analysis of the PARS subscale scores by age group showed that while the profiles of autistic traits for children with PWS differed from those of children with AD at elementary school age, the profiles showed no significant differences between the groups at middle school age. The findings suggest that autistic traits in PWS become gradually more prominent with increasing of age and that these autistic traits differ in their fundamental nature from those observed in AD.

  12. Neural Changes following Behavioral Activation for a Depressed Breast Cancer Patient: A Functional MRI Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Gawrysiak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging is an innovative but at this stage underutilized method to assess the efficacy of psychotherapy for depression. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used in this case study to examine changes in brain activity in a depressed breast cancer patient receiving an 8-session Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD, based on the work of Hopko and Lejuez (2007. A music listening paradigm was used during fMRI brain scans to assess reward responsiveness at pre- and posttreatment. Following treatment, the patient exhibited attenuated depression and changes in blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD response in regions of the prefrontal cortex and the subgenual cingulate cortex. These preliminary findings outline a novel means to assess psychotherapy efficacy and suggest that BATD elicits functional brain changes in areas implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Further research is necessary to explore neurobiological mechanisms of change in BATD, particularly the potential mediating effects of reward responsiveness and associated brain functioning.

  13. Comparative anatomical analyses of the forearm muscles of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al. 2000: manipulatory behavior and tool use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira

    Full Text Available The present study describes the flexor and extensor muscles in Cebus libidinosus' forearm and compares them with those from humans, chimpanzees and baboons. The data is presented in quantitative anatomical indices for similarity. The capuchin forearm muscles showed important similarities with chimpanzees and humans, particularly those that act on thumb motion and allow certain degree of independence from other hand structures, even though their configuration does not enable a true opposable thumb. The characteristics of Cebus' forearm muscles corroborate the evolutionary convergence towards an adaptive behavior (tool use between Cebus genus and apes.

  14. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  15. Comparing of the Epidemiology of Skin Cancer in the Kurdistan and Yazd in 2012

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    M Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Results: The mean age of Kurdistan patients was 64.4±12.5 and the mean age of Yazd patients was 61.5± 15. Age-adjusted prevalence of skin cancer in Kurdistan and Yazd was reported respectively 7.07 and 7.60 per 100,000. Age-adjusted incidence was observed as 3.66 and 5.02 per 100,000 respectively in Yazd and Kurdistan in the second half of 2012. Conclusions: The study results revealed that the cancer prevalence was higher in Yazd province, which could be due such factors as continuous contact with sunlight and pollution caused by industries of Yazd Province. It is recommended to take the development of health promotion activities in to account simultaneously with the urban development.

  16. A comparative study of two preoperative radiation regimens with cystectomy for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, W F; Batata, M A; Hilaris, B S; Reddy, G N; Unal, A; Ghoneim, M A; Grabstald, H; Chu, F

    1977-09-01

    This report surveys the results of two programs of preoperative irradiation with radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in 205 patients. Irradiating the true pelvis to 4000 rads in 4 weeks with radical cystectomy after 6 weeks was implemented in 119 patients (Group 1) from 1959 to 1965; 2000 rads given in 1 week to the true pelvis and radical cystectomy within the following week was implemented in 86 patients (Group 2) from 1966 to 1970. Determinate survival without evidence of recurrence at 5 years was 43% in Group 1 and 42% in Group 2. Mortality with recurrence of bladder cancer in 5 or more years was 44% in group 1 and 42% in group 2. Pelvic complications occurred in 13% of group 1 and 9% of group 2.

  17. Comparative results of end colostomy for low rectal cancer using alloplastic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Gataullin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research on the causes affecting in the development of para-colostomy complications after abdomino-perineal extirpation of the rectum for cancer patients, who were treated by us from 2005 to 2012 found that the development of complications para-colostomy affects in the age of patient, comorbidity, severity of anemia, and obesity. Allocation of risk and patient groups at increased risk for complications allows differentiated approach to their prevention.

  18. Planning study to compare dynamic and rapid arc techniques for postprostatectomy radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambria, R.; Cattani, F.; Pansini, F.; Vigorito, S.; Russo, S. [Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Department of Medical Physics, Milan (Italy); Jereczek-Fossa, B.A.; Orecchia, R. [Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Department of Radiation Oncology, Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); Ciardo, D.; Zerini, D. [Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Department of Radiation Oncology, Milan (Italy); Cozzi, L. [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    To compare our standard technique for postprostatectomy radiotherapy of prostate cancer, i.e. using two lateral conformal dynamic arcs with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) performed with the RapidArc {sup registered} (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA). The plans were referred to as DA and RA, respectively. The treatment plans of 44 patients receiving adjuvant/salvage radiotherapy in the first months of 2010 were compared. In all cases, the prescribed total dose was 66-68.2 Gy (2.2 Gy per fraction). Both DA and RA plans were optimized in terms of dose coverage and constraints. Small differences between the techniques were observed for planning target volume (PTV) dose distribution, whereas significant differences in sparing of organs at risk (OARs) were recorded (p < 0.0001). The OAR values (median; 95 % confidence interval, CI) were: rectum: D{sub 30} {sub %} = 60.7 Gy (59.40-62.04 Gy) and 48.2 Gy (46.40-52.72 Gy), D{sub 60} {sub %} = 34.1 Gy (28.50-38.92 Gy) and 27.7 Gy (21.80-31.51 Gy); bladder: D{sub 30} {sub %} = 57.3 Gy (45.83-64.53 Gy) and 46.4 Gy (33.23-61.48 Gy), D{sub 50} {sub %} = 16.4 Gy (11.89-42.38 Gy) and 17.2 Gy (10.97-27.90 Gy), for DA and RA, respectively. Treatment times were very similar, whereas the monitor units (MU) were 550 ± 29 versus 277 ± 3 for RA and DA, respectively. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) show improvements in OAR sparing with RA. However, the RA technique is associated with almost double the number of MUs compared to DA. Regarding the PTV, DA is slightly superior in terms of D{sub 2} {sub %} and dose homogeneity. On the whole, the results suggest that RA be the favorable technique. (orig.) [German] Vergleich unserer Standardtechnik bei der Strahlentherapie nach Prostatektomie bei Prostatakrebs, ausgefuehrt mit zwei lateral dynamischen Rotationsbestrahlungen, der volumenmodulierten Arc-Therapie (VMAT, DA) und der RapidArc {sup registered} (RA, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA). Es wurden die

  19. Pain in long-term breast cancer survivors: the role of body mass index, physical activity, and sedentary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Laura P; Alfano, Catherine M; George, Stephanie M; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Bernstein, Leslie; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Although pain is common among post-treatment breast cancer survivors, studies that are longitudinal, identify a case definition of clinically meaningful pain, or examine factors contributing to pain in survivors are limited. This study describes longitudinal patterns of pain in long-term breast cancer survivors, evaluating associations of body mass index (BMI), physical activity, sedentary behavior with mean pain severity and above-average pain. Women newly diagnosed with stages 0-IIIA breast cancer (N = 1183) were assessed, on average, 6 months (demographic/clinical characteristics), 30 months (demographics), 40 months (demographics, pain), 5 years (BMI, physical activity, and sedentary behavior), and 10 years (demographics, pain, BMI, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) post-diagnosis. This analysis includes survivors who completed pain assessments 40 months post-diagnosis (N = 801), 10 years post-diagnosis (N = 563), or both (N = 522). Above-average pain was defined by SF-36 bodily pain scores ≥1/2 standard deviation worse than age-specific population norms. We used multiple regression models to test unique associations of BMI, physical activity, and sedentary behavior with pain adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. The proportion of survivors reporting above-average pain was higher at 10 years than at 40 months (32.3 vs. 27.8 %, p 5 %) was positively associated, while meeting physical activity guidelines was inversely associated, with above-average pain (OR, 95 % CI = 1.76, 1.03-3.01 and 0.40, 0.20-0.84, respectively) (p < 0.05). Weight gain and lack of physical activity place breast cancer survivors at risk for pain long after treatment ends. Weight control and exercise interventions should be tested for effects on long-term pain in these women.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Battery Behavior with Different Modes of Discharge for Optimal Capacity Sizing and BMS Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Battery-operated systems are always concerned about the proper management and sizing of a battery. A Traditional Battery Management System (BMS only includes battery-aware task scheduling based on the discharge characteristics of a whole battery pack and do not take into account the mode of the load being served by the battery. On the other hand, an efficient and intelligent BMS should monitor the battery at a cell level and track the load with significant consideration of the load mode. Depending upon the load modes, the common modes of discharge (MOD of a battery identified so far are Constant Power Mode (CPM, Constant Current Mode (CCM and Constant Impedance Mode (CIM. This paper comparatively analyzes the discharging behavior of batteries at an individual cell level for different load modes. The difference in discharging behavior from mode to mode represents the study of the mode-dependent behavior of the battery before its deployment in some application. Based on simulation results, optimal capacity sizing and BMS operation of battery for an assumed situation in a remote microgrid has been proposed.

  1. Development of a novel mindfulness and cognitive behavioral intervention for stress-eating: a comparative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsica, Joyce; Hood, Megan M; Katterman, Shawn; Kleinman, Brighid; Ivan, Iulia

    2014-12-01

    Stress-related eating is increasingly cited as a difficulty in managing healthy eating behaviors and weight. However few interventions have been designed to specifically target stress-related eating. In addition, the optimal target of such an intervention is unclear, as the target might be conceptualized as overall stress reduction or changing emotional eating-related thoughts and behaviors. This pilot study compared the effects of three interventions targeting those components individually and in combination on stress-related eating, perceived stress, and weight loss to determine whether the two intervention components are effective alone or are more effective when combined. Fifty-three overweight participants (98% female) who reported elevated levels of stress and stress-eating and were at risk for obesity were randomly assigned to one of three six-week interventions: a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention, a cognitive behavioral stress-eating intervention (SEI), and a combined intervention that included all MBSR and SEI components. All three interventions significantly reduced perceived stress and stress-eating, but the combination intervention resulted in greater reductions and also produced a moderate effect on short term weight loss. Benefits persisted at six week follow-up.The pattern of results preliminarily suggests that the combination intervention (MBSR+SEI) may yield promise in the treatment of stress-related eating.

  2. Comparative study of the behavior of wind-turbines in a wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migoya, Emilio; Crespo, Antonio; Garcia, Javier; Manuel, Fernando; Jimenez, Angel [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Laboratorio de Mecanica de Fluidos; Moreno, Fermin [Comision Nacional de la Energia, Madrid (Spain); Costa, Alexandre [Energia Eolica, Division de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    The Sotavento wind farm is an experimental wind farm which has different types of wind turbines. It is located in an area whose topography is moderately complex, and where wake effects can be significant. One of the objectives of Sotavento wind farm is to compare the performances of the different machines; particularly regarding power production, maintenance and failures. However, because of wakes and topography, the different machines are not working under identical conditions. Two linearized codes have been used to estimate topography effects: UPMORO and WAsP. For wind directions in which topography is abrupt, the non-linear flow equations have been solved with the commercial code FLUENT, although the results are only qualitatively used. For wake effects, the UPMPARK code has been applied. As a result, the incident velocity over each wind turbine is obtained, and the power production is estimated by means of the power curve of each machine. Experimental measurements give simultaneously the wind characteristics at the measuring stations, the wind velocity, at the nacelle anemometer, and the power production of each wind turbine. These experimental results are employed to validate the numerical predictions. The main objective of this work is to deduce and validate a relationship between the wind characteristics measured in the anemometers and the wind velocity and the power output in each machine. (author)

  3. Comparative Efficacy of Cisplatin vs. Gemcitabine as Concurrent Chemotherapy for Untreated Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: A Randomized Trail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Manoj Srivastava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin based chemo-radiation is considered the standard of care for most patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. Gemcitabine is a new pyrimidire analogue with high radio sensitizing potency in vitro. This study was undertaken to compare the anti-tumor activity and toxicity of the two drugs. It is a prospective randomized study of 60 patients histologically confirmed locally advanced cervical cancer, FIGO stage IIB - IIIB with no previous treatment. Patients were randomized to receive either weekly Cisplatin 40mg/m2 intravenously or Gemcitabine 100mg/m2 intravenously for 5 cycles concurrent with external beam radiation therapy 50Gy/25# as 5# / weeks, followed by single application of medium does rate intracavitory brachytherapy to deliver 20 Gy at point A, 2 weeks after completion of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT. Toxicity was graded according to WHO criteria. Both subjective and objective responses were measured six weeks after completion of treatment. In Cisplatin arm 28/30 (93.33% patients showed complete clinical regression of tumor whereas in Gemcitabine arm only 21/30 (70% patients showed complete clinical response. Thus immediate response was significantly higher in the cisplatin group as compared to the gemcitabine group (p=0.01. All toxicities except nausea and vomiting were more common and severe in patients receiving Gemcitabine with radiation. To conclude, Cisplatin appears to be better than Gemcitabine when used as a radio sensitizer for untreated locally advanced cervical cancer in terms of response and toxicity.

  4. A comparative study of scalpel and surgical diathermy incision in elective operations of head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the outcome of patients following use of scalpel or surgical diathermy in elective skin incision of head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: 80 patients undergoing surgery for various head and neck cancers were analyzed retrospectively from Jan 2002 to May 2005 and divided into two groups, matched for age, sex, stage and histopathology according to the method used to perform incision, i.e., scalpel or surgical diathermy. Blood loss, total operative time, blood transfusions, wound related complications and cosmetic assessments of the scar were compared. Results: The two groups did not differ significantly in relation to patients or wound characteristics in terms of total operative time and quantity of blood transfusions. There was significantly less blood loss in the diathermy group compared with the scalpel group. There was no difference between the groups in wound complications and cosmetic results before discharge and at 1-month follow-up. Conclusions: There is no change in wound complication rate and scar formation even after application of heat during use of surgical diathermy. Therefore, surgical diathermy is safe and as effective as scalpel during elective skin incision of head and neck cancer.

  5. Comparing paraffined and deparaffinized breast cancer tissue samples and an analysis of Raman spectroscopy and infrared methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depciuch, J.; Kaznowska, E.; Szmuc, K.; Zawlik, I.; Cholewa, M.; Heraud, P.; Cebulski, J.

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer makes up a quarter of all cancer in women, which is why research into new diagnostic methods and sample preparations need to be developed at an accelerated pace. Researchers are looking for diagnostic tools to detect when an individual has cancer cells and use that information to see what measurements and approaches can be used to take further diagnostic steps. The most common method of sample preparation is the imbibing of tumor tissue in paraffin, which can produce a background for spectroscopic measurements in the range of 500-3500 cm-1. In this study we demonstrated that proper preparation of paraffin-embedded specimens and the measurement methodology can eliminate paraffin vibration, as was done in the work Depciuch et al. 2015. Thanks to this spectroscopic technique there may become a reliable and accurate method of diagnosing breast cancer based on the evidence found from the prepared samples. The study compared the results obtained through Raman spectroscopy and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) measurements of healthy and cancerous breast tissues that were either embedded in paraffin or deparaffinized. The resulting spectrum and accurate analysis led to the conclusion that the appropriate measurement of the background and the elimination of peaks from the paraffin had the greatest impact on the reliability of results. Furthermore, after the accurate, detailed studies FTIR and Raman spectroscopy on samples of breast tissue that were deparaffinized or embedded in paraffin, including a complete analysis of the peak after transformation Kramers-Kröning (KK), it was found that sample preparation did not affect the result obtained by measuring the reflectance in the mid-infrared range, and that this only had a minimal effect relating to the intensity obtained by the measurement of the Raman peak. Only in special cases, when Raman spectroscopic methods are used for research to find the peculiarities of the spectra, are deparaffinization recommended

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE BEHAVIOR OF COAXIAL AND FRONTAL COUPLINGS – WITH PERMANENT MAGNETS – IN HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Oanca

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the behavior of coaxial and frontal couplings – with permanent magnets – in high temperature environments specific to iron and steel industry. The comparative analysis is made at the level of the specific forces developed in the most difficult environments. The maximum temperature was limited for reasons of thermal stability of the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. In this context it was studied, by the help of the PDE-ase soft that uses the finite element method, the way magnetic induction modifies, the specific forces developed and the distribution of temperature within the coaxial and frontal couplers with permanent magnets, for variations of the distance between the magnets (air gap within the limits 2-20 mm.

  7. Monotherapy of androgen deprivation therapy versus radical prostatectomy among veterans with localized prostate cancer: comparative effectiveness analysis of retrospective cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jinan Liu1,2, Lizheng Shi1,2,3, Oliver Sartor31Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 2Southeast Louisiana Veterans Health Care System, Tulane University, 3School of Medicine and Tulane Cancer Center, New Orleans, LA, USABackground: This retrospective cohort study aimed to examine the comparative effectiveness of monotherapy of primary androgen deprivation therapy or radical prostatectomy.Methods: Male patients with localized prostate cancer (T1-T2, N0, M0 were identified in the Veterans Affairs Veterans Integrated Service Network 16 data warehouse (January 2003 to June 2006, with one-year baseline and at least three-year follow-up data (until June 2009. Patients were required to be 18–75 years old and without other recorded cancer history. The initiation of primary androgen deprivation therapy or monotherapy of radical prostatectomy within six months after the first diagnosis of prostate cancer was used as the index date. Primary androgen deprivation therapy patients were matched to the radical prostatectomy patients via propensity score, which was predicted from a logistic regression of treatment selection (primary androgen deprivation therapy versus radical prostatectomy on age, race, marital status, insurance type, cancer stage, Charlson comorbidity index, and alcohol and tobacco use. The overall survival from initiation of index treatment was then analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards model.Results: The two cohorts were well matched at baseline (all P > 0.05. During a median follow-up of 4.3 years, the cumulative incidence of death was 13 (10.57% among 123 primary androgen deprivation therapy patients and four (3.25% among 123 radical prostatectomy patients (P < 0.05. The overall three-year survival rate was 92.68% for primary androgen deprivation therapy and 98.37% for radical prostatectomy (P < 0.05. Patients who received primary androgen deprivation therapy had almost three times as

  8. Cancer gene prioritization by integrative analysis of mRNA expression and DNA copy number data: a comparative review

    CERN Document Server

    Lahti, Leo; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Bicciato, Silvio; Dugas, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A variety of genome-wide profiling techniques are available to probe complementary aspects of genome structure and function. Integrative analysis of heterogeneous data sources can reveal higher-level interactions that cannot be detected based on individual observations. A standard integration task in cancer studies is to identify altered genomic regions that induce changes in the expression of the associated genes based on joint analysis of genome-wide gene expression and copy number profiling measurements. In this review, we provide a comparison among various modeling procedures for integrating genome-wide profiling data of gene copy number and transcriptional alterations and highlight common approaches to genomic data integration. A transparent benchmarking procedure is introduced to quantitatively compare the cancer gene prioritization performance of the alternative methods. The benchmarking algorithms and data sets are available at http://intcomp.r-forge.r-project.org

  9. Short-term outcome in patients treated with cytoreduction and HIPEC compared to conventional colon cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simkens, Geert A; Verwaal, Victor Jilbert; Lemmens, Valery E;

    2016-01-01

    peritoneally metastasized (PM) colon cancer patients treated with CRS + HIPEC and patients undergoing conventional colon surgery. Furthermore, the impact of CRS + HIPEC on the risk of postoperative complications will be assessed, probably leading to better insight into how to report on postoperative outcomes...... in this distinct group of patients undergoing extensive colon surgery.All patients with primary colon cancer who underwent segmental colon resection in a tertiary referral hospital between 2011 and 2014 were included in this prospective cohort study. Outcome after surgery was compared between patients who......-related mortality.Although patients with colonic PM undergoing CRS + HIPEC treatment were younger and healthier, the postoperative outcome was worse. This is most probably due to less favorable tumor characteristics and more extensive surgery. Nevertheless, CRS + HIPEC treatment was not associated with severe...

  10. Waiting times for diagnosis and treatment of head and neck cancer in Denmark in 2010 compared to 1992 and 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, N M; Christensen, A; Alanin, M C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Significant tumour progression was observed during waiting time for treatment of head and neck cancer. To reduce waiting times, a Danish national policy of fast track accelerated clinical pathways was introduced in 2007. This study describes changes in waiting time and the pot......BACKGROUND AND AIM: Significant tumour progression was observed during waiting time for treatment of head and neck cancer. To reduce waiting times, a Danish national policy of fast track accelerated clinical pathways was introduced in 2007. This study describes changes in waiting time...... and the potential influence of fast track by comparing waiting times in 2010 to 2002 and 1992. METHODS: Charts of all new patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx at the five Danish head and neck oncology centres from January to April 2010 (n=253) were reviewed...

  11. The effects of an intensive behavior and nutrition intervention compared to standard of care on weight outcomes in CF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Lori J; Opipari-Arrigan, Lisa; Quittner, Alexandra L; Bean, Judy; Powers, Scott W

    2011-01-01

    Inadequate intake and suboptimal growth are common problems for patients with CF and a critical target for intervention. The purpose of this study was to compare the growth outcomes of children with CF who participated in a randomized clinical trial to improve energy intake and weight to children with CF receiving standard of care during the same time period. Our primary outcome was change in body mass index z-score (BMI z-score) over 2 years. An exploratory outcome was forced expiratory volume at 1-sec (FEV(1) ) over 2 years. Participants were children ages 4-12 with CF, who participated in a randomized clinical trial of behavior plus nutrition intervention versus nutrition education alone, and a matched Comparison Sample receiving standard of care drawn from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) Registry. Children in the Clinical Trial Group (N=67) participated in a 9-week, nutrition intervention and were followed at regular intervals (3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months) for 2 years post-treatment to obtain anthropometric and pulmonary function data. For each child in the Comparison Sample (N=346), these measures were obtained from the CFF Registry at matching intervals for the 27-month period corresponding to the clinical trial. Over 27 months, children in the Clinical Trial Group (the combined sample of the behavior plus nutrition and the nutrition alone) demonstrated significantly less decline in BMI z-score, -0.05 (SD=0.68, CI= -0.23 to 0.13), as compared to children in the Comparison Sample, -0.21 (SD=0.67, CI= -0.31 to -0.11). No statistically significant differences were found for decline in FEV(1) between children in the Clinical Trial Group and the Comparison Sample. The key implication of these findings is that intensive behavioral and nutritional intervention is effective and needs to be adapted so that it can be broadly disseminated into clinical practice.

  12. Does the macaque monkey provide a good model for studying human executive control? A comparative behavioral study of task switching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Caselli

    Full Text Available The ability to swiftly and smoothly switch from one task set to another is central to intelligent behavior, because it allows an organism to flexibly adapt to ever changing environmental conditions and internal needs. For this reason, researchers interested in executive control processes have often relied on task-switching paradigms as powerful tools to uncover the underlying cognitive and brain architecture. In order to gather fundamental information at the single-cell level, it would be greatly helpful to demonstrate that non-human primates, especially the macaque monkey, share with us similar behavioral manifestations of task-switching and therefore, in all likelihood, similar underlying brain mechanisms. Unfortunately, prior attempts have provided negative results (e.g., Stoet & Snyder, 2003b, in that it was reported that macaques do not show the typical signature of task-switching operations at the behavioral level, represented by switch costs. If confirmed, this would indicate that the macaque cannot be used as a model approach to explore human executive control mechanisms by means of task-switching paradigms. We have therefore decided to re-explore this issue, by conducting a comparative experiment on a group of human participants and two macaque monkeys, whereby we measured and compared performance costs linked to task switching and resistance to interference across the two species. Contrary to what previously reported, we found that both species display robust task switching costs, thus supporting the claim that macaque monkeys provide an exquisitely suitable model to study the brain mechanisms responsible for maintaining and switching task sets.

  13. Does the macaque monkey provide a good model for studying human executive control? A comparative behavioral study of task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Luana; Chelazzi, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    The ability to swiftly and smoothly switch from one task set to another is central to intelligent behavior, because it allows an organism to flexibly adapt to ever changing environmental conditions and internal needs. For this reason, researchers interested in executive control processes have often relied on task-switching paradigms as powerful tools to uncover the underlying cognitive and brain architecture. In order to gather fundamental information at the single-cell level, it would be greatly helpful to demonstrate that non-human primates, especially the macaque monkey, share with us similar behavioral manifestations of task-switching and therefore, in all likelihood, similar underlying brain mechanisms. Unfortunately, prior attempts have provided negative results (e.g., Stoet & Snyder, 2003b), in that it was reported that macaques do not show the typical signature of task-switching operations at the behavioral level, represented by switch costs. If confirmed, this would indicate that the macaque cannot be used as a model approach to explore human executive control mechanisms by means of task-switching paradigms. We have therefore decided to re-explore this issue, by conducting a comparative experiment on a group of human participants and two macaque monkeys, whereby we measured and compared performance costs linked to task switching and resistance to interference across the two species. Contrary to what previously reported, we found that both species display robust task switching costs, thus supporting the claim that macaque monkeys provide an exquisitely suitable model to study the brain mechanisms responsible for maintaining and switching task sets.

  14. Evidence for superior neurobiological and behavioral inhibitory control abilities in non-offending as compared to offending pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärgel, Christian; Massau, Claudia; Weiß, Simone; Walter, Martin; Borchardt, Viola; Krueger, Tillmann H C; Tenbergen, Gilian; Kneer, Jonas; Wittfoth, Matthias; Pohl, Alexander; Gerwinn, Hannah; Ponseti, Jorge; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M; Mohnke, Sebastian; Walter, Henrik; Schiffer, Boris

    2017-02-01

    Neurobehavioral models of pedophilia and child sexual offending suggest a pattern of temporal and in particular prefrontal disturbances leading to inappropriate behavioral control and subsequently an increased propensity to sexually offend against children. However, clear empirical evidence for such mechanisms is still missing. Using a go/nogo paradigm in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we compared behavioral performance and neural response patterns among three groups of men matched for age and IQ: pedophiles with (N = 40) and without (N = 37) a history of hands-on sexual offences against children as well as healthy non-offending controls (N = 40). As compared to offending pedophiles, non-offending pedophiles exhibited superior inhibitory control as reflected by significantly lower rate of commission errors. Group-by-condition interaction analysis also revealed inhibition-related activation in the left posterior cingulate and the left superior frontal cortex that distinguished between offending and non-offending pedophiles, while no significant differences were found between pedophiles and healthy controls. Both areas showing distinct activation pattern among pedophiles play a critical role in linking neural networks that relate to effective cognitive functioning. Data therefore suggest that heightened inhibition-related recruitment of these areas as well as decreased amount of commission errors is related to better inhibitory control in pedophiles who successfully avoid committing hands-on sexual offences against children. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1092-1104, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Comparative Studies on the Stenogamous and Eurygamous Behavior of Eight Anopheles Species of the Hyrcanus Group (Diptera: Culicidae in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adulsak Wijit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of laboratory colony is essential for mosquito-borne-disease research. Mating behavior of stenogamous Anopheles peditaeniatus and seven eurygamous species (Anopheles argyropus, Anopheles crawfordi, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles nitidus, Anopheles paraliae (=An. lesteri, Anopheles pursati and Anopheles sinensis, were investigated and compared in this study. The self-mating success of adult mosquitoes in different size cages at two density resting surface (DRS values, 3.6 and 7.2, was statistically significant between stenogamous and eurygamous species. The results obtained from comparative measurements of specific characters in adult females (maxillary palpomere and antennal sensilla characters and males (wing and genitalia indicate those characters might influence the mating success of An. peditaeniatus in a small cage. The gonostylus of An. peditaeniatus was shorter than the eurygamous species. Additionally, the lower frequency of clasper movement and shorter mating time could be important mechanisms that control the stenogamous behavior of An. peditaeniatus. Interestingly, for the first time, a cluster of large sensilla coeloconica was recorded on the antenna of An. argyropus and An. peditaeniatus females. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean number per female of those large antennal sensilla coeloconica among six of the eurygamous species.

  16. Comparative behavioral pharmacology and toxicology of cocaine and its ethanol-derived metabolite, cocaine ethyl-ester (cocaethylene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, J.L.; Terry, P.; Witkin, J.M. (NIDA Addiction Research Center, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The present study compared the behavioral and toxic effects of cocaine and its ethanol derived metabolite, cocaine ethyl-ester (cocaethylene). Both drugs produced qualitatively similar psychomoter stimulant effects. Cocaine and cocaethylene increased locomotor activity in mice, with cocaine approximately four times more potent than cocaethylene. The durations of action of ED{sub 75} doses of each of the drugs were comparable. Each of the drugs also produced stimulation of operant responding in rats. In rats and squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine injections from saline, cocaine was approximately three to five times more potent than cocaethylene in producing these cocaine-like interoceptive effects. In contrast to the behavioral effects, cocaine and cocaethylene were equipotent in producing convulsions, and cocaethylene was more potent than cocaine in producing lethality. These results suggest that the conversion of cocaine to cocaethylene with simultaneous cocaine and alcohol use may produce an increased risk of toxicity due to a decrease in the potency of cocaethylene in producing psychomotor stimulant effects, and its increased potency in producing toxicity.

  17. Longitudinal Study of Social-environmental Predictors of Behavior: Children of Adolescent and Older Mothers Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letourneau, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishCompared to older, more educated mothers, adolescent mothers are more prone to less than optimal parenting interactions with their children. Moreover, adolescents' children are more likely to experience developmental challenges. In this study, effects of social-environmental factors in the first two years of life on children's anxiety and hyperactivity from age 2 to 8 were examined by analyzing Canadian longitudinal data. Initial levels of anxiety and hyperactivity were higher for children of adolescent mothers, and anxiety increased with age for all children. Female children displayed lower initial levels of hyperactivity than males, and females of adolescent mothers showed a steeper decrease in hyperactivity while males of adolescent mothers showed a steeper increase in hyperactivity than their counterparts parented by older mothers. Parenting,social support and other demographic factors were controlled for and the effects of these predictor variables on trajectories of anxiety and hyperactivity are discussed.FrenchEn comparaison aux mères plus âgées et ayant reçu une meilleure éducation, lesmères adolescentes ont tendance à avoir des interactions parentales moinsqu’idéales. De plus, les enfants d’adolescentes souffrent plus souvent detroubles de développement. Dans cette étude, les facteurs socioenvironnementauxpendant les deux premières années de vie ainsi que leurseffets sur l’anxiété et l’hyperactivité entre 2 et 8 ans ont été étudiés en analysantdes données longitudinales canadiennes. Il a été trouvé que les niveaux initiauxd’anxiété et d’hyperactivité sont plus élevés chez les enfants de mèresadolescentes et cette anxiété accroît avec l’âge pour tous les enfants. Le niveaud’hyperactivité chez les filles était moins élevé initialement que chez les garçonset il diminuait rapidement chez les filles de mères adolescentes alors qu’ilaugmentait rapidement avec l’âge chez les

  18. How specific Raman spectroscopic models are: a comparative study between different cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Kumar, K. Kalyan; Chowdary, M. V. P.; Maheedhar, K.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2010-02-01

    Optical spectroscopic methods are being contemplated as adjunct/ alternative to existing 'Gold standard' of cancer diagnosis, histopathological examination. Several groups are actively pursuing diagnostic applications of Ramanspectroscopy in cancers. We have developed Raman spectroscopic models for diagnosis of breast, oral, stomach, colon and larynx cancers. So far, specificity and applicability of spectral- models has been limited to particular tissue origin. In this study we have evaluated explicitly of spectroscopic-models by analyzing spectra from already developed spectralmodels representing normal and malignant tissues of breast (46), cervix (52), colon (25), larynx (53), and oral (47). Spectral data was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using scores of factor, Mahalanobis distance and Spectral residuals as discriminating parameters. Multiparametric limit test approach was also explored. The preliminary unsupervised PCA of pooled data indicates that normal tissue types were always exclusive from their malignant counterparts. But when we consider tissue of different origin, large overlap among clusters was found. Supervised analysis by Mahalanobis distance and spectral residuals gave similar results. The 'limit test' approach where classification is based on match / mis-match of the given spectrum against all the available spectra has revealed that spectral models are very exclusive and specific. For example breast normal spectral model show matches only with breast normal spectra and mismatch to rest of the spectra. Same pattern was seen for most of spectral models. Therefore, results of the study indicate the exclusiveness and efficacy of Raman spectroscopic-models. Prospectively, these findings might open new application of Raman spectroscopic models in identifying a tumor as primary or metastatic.

  19. The Skin Cancer and Sun Knowledge (SCSK) Scale: Validity, Reliability, and Relationship to Sun-Related Behaviors among Young Western Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ashley K.; Wilson, Carlene; Roberts, Rachel M.; Hutchinson, Amanda D.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing public knowledge remains one of the key aims of skin cancer awareness campaigns, yet diagnosis rates continue to rise. It is essential we measure skin cancer knowledge adequately so as to determine the nature of its relationship to sun-related behaviors. This study investigated the psychometric properties of a new measure of skin cancer…

  20. Treatment and Survival of Medicare Beneficiaries with Colorectal Cancer: A Comparative Analysis Between a Rural State Cancer Registry and National Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Pallavi B; Madhavan, S Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Sita, Kalidindi; Kurian, Sobha; Pan, Xiaoyun

    2017-02-01

    The aim was to examine and compare with "national" estimates, receipt of colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment in the initial phase of care and survival following a CRC diagnosis in rural Medicare beneficiaries. A retrospective study was conducted on fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with CRC in 2003-2006, identified from West Virginia Cancer Registry (WVCR)-Medicare linked database (N = 2119). A comparative cohort was identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare (N = 38,168). CRC treatment received was ascertained from beneficiaries' Medicare claims in the 12 months post CRC diagnosis or until death, whichever happened first. Receipt of minimally appropriate CRC treatment (MACT) was defined using recommended CRC treatment guidelines. All-cause and CRC-specific mortality in the 36-month period post CRC diagnosis were examined. Differences in usage of CRC surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation were observed between the 2 populations, with those from WVCR-Medicare being less likely to receive any type of CRC surgery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.73-0.93]). Overall, those from WVCR-Medicare had a lower likelihood of receiving MACT, (AOR = 0.85; 95% CI = [0.76-0.96]) compared to their national counterparts. Higher hazard of CRC mortality was observed in the WVCR-Medicare cohort (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.26; 95% CI = [1.20-1.32]) compared to the SEER-Medicare cohort. Although more beneficiaries from WVCR-Medicare were diagnosed in early-stage CRC compared to their SEER-Medicare counterparts, they had a lower likelihood of receiving MACT and a higher hazard of CRC mortality. This study highlights the need for an increased focus on improving access to care at every phase of the CRC care continuum, especially for those from rural settings.

  1. Comparative evaluation of cancer stem cell markers in normal pancreas and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizio, Barbara; Mauri, Francesco A; Prati, Adriana; Trivedi, Pritesh; Giacobino, Alice; Novarino, Anna; Satolli, Maria Antonietta; Ciuffreda, Libero; Camandona, Michele; Gasparri, Guido; Bellone, Graziella

    2012-01-01

    Chemoresistance and self-renewal of cancer stem cells (CSC), found in many tumors including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), are believed to underlie tumor mass regrowth. The distribution of cells carrying the putative stem-cell markers CD133, Nestin, Notch1-4, Jagged1 and 2, ABCG2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1) was assessed immunohistochemically using PDAC and normal pancreas tissue microarrays. The immunoreactivity was semi-quantitatively graded against the normal pancreas and was correlated with the differentiation grade and disease stage. No statistical significant differences were found between normal pancreas and PDAC in the expression of Nestin, Notch1, 3 and 4, ABCG2 or ALDH1. Notch2 and Jagged1 and 2 expression were increased in PDAC. CD133-positive cells were above-normal in PDAC, but the difference was not statistically significant. Nestin, Notch1-4, Jagged1, ABCG2 and ALDH1 immunostaining scores were not correlated with tumor grade or disease stage. CD133 and Notch2 expression was significantly inversely correlated with tumor grade, but not disease stage. Notch3 immunostaining positively correlated with tumor stage, but not with differentiation grade. Jagged2 protein expression correlated inversely with disease stage, but not with tumor grade. From the clinical standpoint, improved delineation of the tumor CSC signature, putatively responsible for tumor initiation and recurrence after initial response to chemotherapy, may offer novel therapeutic targets for this highly lethal cancer.

  2. Comparative BAC-based mapping in the white-throated sparrow, a novel behavioral genomics model, using interspecies overgo hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonser Rusty A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomics era has produced an arsenal of resources from sequenced organisms allowing researchers to target species that do not have comparable mapping and sequence information. These new "non-model" organisms offer unique opportunities to examine environmental effects on genomic patterns and processes. Here we use comparative mapping as a first step in characterizing the genome organization of a novel animal model, the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis, which occurs as white or tan morphs that exhibit alternative behaviors and physiology. Morph is determined by the presence or absence of a complex chromosomal rearrangement. This species is an ideal model for behavioral genomics because the association between genotype and phenotype is absolute, making it possible to identify the genomic bases of phenotypic variation. Findings We initiated a genomic study in this species by characterizing the white-throated sparrow BAC library via filter hybridization with overgo probes designed for the chicken, turkey, and zebra finch. Cross-species hybridization resulted in 640 positive sparrow BACs assigned to 77 chicken loci across almost all macro-and microchromosomes, with a focus on the chromosomes associated with morph. Out of 216 overgos, 36% of the probes hybridized successfully, with an average number of 3.0 positive sparrow BACs per overgo. Conclusions These data will be utilized for determining chromosomal architecture and for fine-scale mapping of candidate genes associated with phenotypic differences. Our research confirms the utility of interspecies hybridization for developing comparative maps in other non-model organisms.

  3. An open multicentre comparative study of the efficacy, safety and tolerance of fluconazole and itraconazole in the treatment of cancer patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lashof, A.M.L.; Bock, R. de; Herbrecht, R.; Pauw, B.E. de; Krcmery, V.; Aoun, M.; Akova, M.; Cohen, J.; Siffnerova, H.; Egyed, M.; Ellis, M.; Marinus, A.; Sylvester, R.J.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a frequent infection in cancer patients who receive cytotoxic drugs. In this study, the efficacy, safety and tolerance of fluconazole and itraconazole were compared in non-neutropenic cancer patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. Of 279 patients who were randomised bet

  4. Computerized whole slide quantification shows increased microvascular density in pT2 prostate cancer as compared to normal prostate tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, G.C. van; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Borger, E.; Huisman, H.J.; Witjes, J.A.; Barentsz, J.O.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contrast enhanced imaging enables powerful, non-invasive diagnostics, important for detection and staging of early prostate cancer. The uptake of contrast agent is increased in prostate cancer as compared to normal prostate tissue. To reveal the underlying physiological mechanisms, quant

  5. 10 year survival after breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy compared with mastectomy in early breast cancer in the Netherlands : a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maaren, Marissa C.; de Munck, Linda; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Jobsen, Jan J.; van Dalen, Thijs; Linn, Sabine C.; Poortmans, Philip; Strobbe, Luc J. A.; Siesling, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Background Investigators of registry-based studies report improved survival for breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy compared with mastectomy in early breast cancer. As these studies did not present long-term overall and breast cancer-specific survival, the effect of breast-conserving surgery

  6. A Population-Based Comparative Effectiveness Study of Radiation Therapy Techniques in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jeremy P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Murphy, James D. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Science, University of California– San Diego, Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, California (United States); Hanlon, Alexandra L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Concerns have been raised about the potential for worse treatment outcomes because of dosimetric inaccuracies related to tumor motion and increased toxicity caused by the spread of low-dose radiation to normal tissues in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We therefore performed a population-based comparative effectiveness analysis of IMRT, conventional 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), and 2-dimensional radiation therapy (2D-RT) in stage III NSCLC. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database to identify a cohort of patients diagnosed with stage III NSCLC from 2002 to 2009 treated with IMRT, 3D-CRT, or 2D-RT. Using Cox regression and propensity score matching, we compared survival and toxicities of these treatments. Results: The proportion of patients treated with IMRT increased from 2% in 2002 to 25% in 2009, and the use of 2D-RT decreased from 32% to 3%. In univariate analysis, IMRT was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.90, P=.02) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR 0.89, P=.02). After controlling for confounders, IMRT was associated with similar OS (HR 0.94, P=.23) and CSS (HR 0.94, P=.28) compared with 3D-CRT. Both techniques had superior OS compared with 2D-RT. IMRT was associated with similar toxicity risks on multivariate analysis compared with 3D-CRT. Propensity score matched model results were similar to those from adjusted models. Conclusions: In this population-based analysis, IMRT for stage III NSCLC was associated with similar OS and CSS and maintained similar toxicity risks compared with 3D-CRT.

  7. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8, with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5, females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5, White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4

  8. Simple DVH parameter addition as compared to deformable registration for bladder dose accumulation in cervix cancer brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Else Stougård; Noe, Karsten Østergaaard; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2013-01-01

    called "the worst case assumption") in fractionated BT. Materials and methods: Forty-seven patients treated for locally advanced cervical cancer were included. All patients received EBRT combined with two individually planned 3D image-guided adaptive BT fractions. D2 and D0.1 were estimated by DVH...... parameter addition and compared to dose accumulations based on an in-house developed biomechanical deformable image registration (DIR) algorithm. Results: DIR-based DVH analysis was possible in 42/47 patients. DVH parameter addition resulted in mean dose deviations relative to DIR of 0.4 ± 0.3 Gy (1.5 ± 1...

  9. A comparative analysis of clinical and molecular factors with the stage of cervical cancer in a Brazilian cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M Amaro-Filho

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Cell cycle protein expression plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cervical cancer. However, few studies have attempted to correlate the use of these biomarkers with the clinical progression of the tumor. OBJECTIVES: 1 To analyze the expression of Ki-67, p53 and p16(INK4a in cervical cancer, 2 to correlate the relative expression of these proteins as well as clinical parameters with the stage of disease, and 3 to determine the HPV DNA prevalence and subtype distribution. METHODS: Tissue Micro-Arrays (TMA from patients with invasive cervical cancer (ICC and controls were analyzed. HPV DNA detection was done by PCR and in situ hybridization. Ki-67, p53 and p16(INK4a were analyzed by immunohistochemistry; clinical data was derived from the chart review. RESULTS: Advanced tumor stage (III and IV was strongly associated (p55 years old, with more than four pregnancies and with the lack of formal education. HPV DNA was found in 94.3% of cases with the most prevalent types being HPV16 (67.5%, followed by HPV33 (12.0% and HPV35 (3.6%. High expression of Ki-67 and p16 was more common in the advanced FIGO stages (p = 0.023. Women with HPV16 tended to be younger (50.9 years; SE 1.9 compared to women with other types (59.9 years; SE 2.8. CONCLUSION: We found that Ki-67 and p16 expression were independently associated with the tumor stage. We also noted that about 1/3 of the cervical cancers in this Brazilian cohort were not associated with HPV types directly targeted by the current HPV vaccines.

  10. Comparative uptake of polyamines by prostate and non-prostate cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinath, P.; McQuarrie, S.A.; Suresh, M.R. E-mail: msuresh@pharmacy.ualberta.ca

    2002-05-01

    The Km and Vmax of [{sup 14}C]-radiolabeled polyamines were determined for PC-3 and AT3B-1 cell lines. With PC-3 Km values are in the following order: ornithine> spermidine> spermine> putrescine, while with AT3B-1 it was spermidine> ornithine> spermine> putrescine. To determine which of these polyamines exhibit higher accumulation, the relative uptake of all the four amines was studied with prostate (PC-3, AT3B-1, LNCaP) and non-prostate (MCF-7, KLN-205, OVCAR) cell lines at 10 and 20 {mu}M after 1 hour. Spermine and spermidine accumulated at higher levels in prostate (AT3B-1 and LNCaP) over non-prostate cell lines (p<0.01). Putrescine accumulated more in PC-3 and LNCaP than the non-prostate cancer cells.

  11. COLOR II. A randomized clinical trial comparing laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic resection of rectal cancer has been proven efficacious but morbidity and oncological outcome need to be investigated in a randomized clinical trial. Trial design: Non-inferiority randomized clinical trial. METHODS: The COLOR II trial is an ongoing international randomized...... clinical trial. Currently 27 hospitals from Europe, South Korea and Canada are including patients. The primary endpoint is loco-regional recurrence rate three years post-operatively. Secondary endpoints cover quality of life, overall and disease free survival, post-operative morbidity and health economy...... analysis. RESULTS: By July 2008, 27 hospitals from the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Sweden, Spain, Denmark, South Korea and Canada had included 739 patients. The intra-operative conversion rate in the laparoscopic group was 17%. Distribution of age, location of the tumor and radiotherapy were equal...

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE BACTERIAL POPULATION OF THE PROSTATE IN ITS CANCER AND BENIGN HYPERPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kogan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacteriological study of prostate biopsy specimens was conducted in patients with prostate benign hyperplasia (PBH and in those with prostate cancer (PC. It revealed a wide range of aerobic (Corynebacterium sp., Enterococcus sp., E. coli, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis and nonclostridial anaerobic (Bacteroides sp., Bifidobacterium sp., Eubacterium sp., Propionibacterium sp., Рeptococcus niger, Peptostreptococcus sp., Prevotella sp., Veilonella sp., Fusobacterium sp., Capnocytophaga ochracea, Streptococcus parvulus bacteria. Differences were seen in the detection rate of these microorganisms and in the level of tissue infectivity in PBH and PC. The average seeding of the prostate biopsy specimens and the detection rate of different types of bacteria in PBH were greater than those in PC; moreover, some bacteria were undetectable in PC at all.

  13. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE BACTERIAL POPULATION OF THE PROSTATE IN ITS CANCER AND BENIGN HYPERPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kogan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A bacteriological study of prostate biopsy specimens was conducted in patients with prostate benign hyperplasia (PBH and in those with prostate cancer (PC. It revealed a wide range of aerobic (Corynebacterium sp., Enterococcus sp., E. coli, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis and nonclostridial anaerobic (Bacteroides sp., Bifidobacterium sp., Eubacterium sp., Propionibacterium sp., Рeptococcus niger, Peptostreptococcus sp., Prevotella sp., Veilonella sp., Fusobacterium sp., Capnocytophaga ochracea, Streptococcus parvulus bacteria. Differences were seen in the detection rate of these microorganisms and in the level of tissue infectivity in PBH and PC. The average seeding of the prostate biopsy specimens and the detection rate of different types of bacteria in PBH were greater than those in PC; moreover, some bacteria were undetectable in PC at all.

  14. Comparative Foraging Behavior of Apis Cerana F. and Apis Mellifera L. in Rapeseed under Cage Condition in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameshwor Pudasaini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the foraging behavior of Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. in rapeseed under cage condition in Chitwan, Nepal during 2012-2013. This experiment showed that Apis cerana F. foraged extra 42 minute per day as compared to Apis mellifera L. Apis cerana F. were more attracted to nectar, whereas Apis mellifera L. were more attracted to pollen collection throughout the day. The activities, in into hives and out from hives, for both species were recorded more at 2:00 pm and least at 8:00 am. The highest in-out were observed at 2:00 pm on both species as Apis mellifera L. 44.33 bees entered into hives and 49.66 bees went out of hives, whereas lower number of Apis cerana F. 43.66 bees entered into hives and 48.16 bees were out of hives. Apis mellifera L. collect 1.22:1 and 0.41:1 pollen nectar ratio at 10:00 am and 4:00 am whereas at same hours Apis cerana collect 1.16:1 and 0.30:1 pollen nectar ratio. Apis cerana F. foraged significantly higher number of rapeseed flowers and plants as compared to Apis mellifera L. under caged condition. It shows that Apis cerana F. was more efficient pollinator as compared to Apis mellifera L. under caged condition.

  15. Diet, exercise, obesity, smoking and alcohol consumption in cancer survivors and the general population: a comparative study of 16 282 individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; McLoone, P; Morrison, D S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer survivors may be particularly motivated to improve their health behaviours. Methods: We compared health behaviours and obesity in cancer survivors with the general population, using household survey and cancer registry data. Results: Cancer survivors were more likely than those with no history of cancer to eat fruit and vegetables (ORadj 1.41, 95% CI 1.19–1.66), less likely to engage in physical activity (ORadj 0.79, 95% CI 0.67–0.93) and more likely to have stopped smoking (ORadj 1.25, 95% CI 1.09–1.44). Conclusions: Most health-related behaviours were better in cancer survivors than the general population, but low physical activity levels may be amenable to health promotion interventions. PMID:25429527

  16. Corrosion behavior of tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks compared to titanium modular necks in a simulator test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Ulrich; Neumann, Daniel; Frank, Mario

    2014-04-01

    This study compared the corrosion behavior of tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks with that of titanium alloy modular necks at their junction to titanium-alloy femoral stem. Tests were performed in a dry assembly and two wet assemblies, one contaminated with calf serum and the other contaminated with calf serum and bone particles. Whereas the titanium modular neck tested in the dry assembly showed no signs of corrosion, the titanium modular necks tested in both wet assemblies showed marked depositions and corrosive attacks. By contrast, the tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks showed no traces of corrosion or chemical attack in any of the three assemblies. This study confirms the protective effect of tantalum coating the taper region of cobalt-chromium modular neck components, suggesting that the use of tantalum may reduce the risk of implant failure due to corrosion.

  17. Effects of quetiapine and olanzapine in patients with psychosis and violent behavior: a pilot randomized, open-label, comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobbi G

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gabriella Gobbi,1,2 Stefano Comai,1 Guy Debonnel1,2,† 1Neurobiological Psychiatric Unit, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University and McGill University Health Center, 2Institut Philippe Pinel, Department of Psychiatry, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada †Guy Debonnel passed away on November 4, 2006 Objective: Patients suffering from psychosis are more likely than the general population to commit aggressive acts, but the therapeutics of aggressive behavior are still a matter of debate. Methods: This pilot randomized, open-label study compared the efficacy of quetiapine versus olanzapine in reducing impulsive and aggressive behaviors (primary endpoints and psychotic symptoms (secondary endpoints from baseline to days 1, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70, in 15 violent schizophrenic patients hospitalized in a maximum-security psychiatric hospital. Results: Quetiapine (525±45 mg and olanzapine (18.5±4.8 mg were both efficacious in reducing Impulsivity Rating Scale from baseline to day 70. In addition, both treatments reduced the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Clinical Global Impression Scale scores at day 70 compared to baseline, and no differences were observed between treatments. Moreover, quetiapine, but not olanzapine, yielded an improvement of depressive symptoms in the items “depression” in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and “blunted affect” in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Modified Overt Aggression Scale scores were also decreased from baseline to the endpoint, but due to the limited number of patients, it was not possible to detect a significant difference. Conclusion: In this pilot study, quetiapine and olanzapine equally decreased impulsive and psychotic symptoms after 8 weeks of treatment. Double-blind, large studies are needed to confirm the validity of these two treatments in highly aggressive and violent schizophrenic patients. Keywords: schizophrenia, aggression

  18. Comparative cost-effectiveness of focal and total salvage 125I brachytherapy for recurrent prostate cancer after primary radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piena, Marjanne A.; Steuten, Lotte M.G.; van der Voort van Zyp, Jochem R.N.; Moerland, Marinus A.; van Vulpen, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Focal salvage (FS) iodine 125 (125I) brachytherapy could be an effective treatment for locally radiorecurrent prostate cancer (PCa). Toxicity is often reduced compared to total salvage (TS) while cancer control can be maintained, which could increase cost-effectiveness. The current study estimates the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of FS compared to TS. Material and methods A decision analytic Markov model was developed, which compares costs and QALYs associated with FS and TS. A 3-year time horizon was adopted with six month cycles, with a hospital perspective on costs. Probabilities for genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity and their impact on health-related quality of life (SF-36) were derived from clinical studies in the University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis, using 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations, was performed to quantify the joint decision uncertainty up to the recommended maximum willingness-to-pay threshold of €80,000/QALY. Results Focal salvage dominates TS as it results in less severe toxicity and lower treatment costs. Decision uncertainty is small, with a 97-100% probability for FS to be cost-effective compared to TS (€0-€80,000/QALY). Half of the difference in costs between FS and TS was explained by higher treatment costs of TS, the other half by higher incidence of severe toxicity. One-way sensitivity analyses show that model outcomes are most sensitive to utilities and probabilities for severe toxicity. Conclusions Focal salvage 125I brachytherapy dominates TS, as it has lower treatment costs and leads to less toxicity in our center. Larger comparative studies with longer follow-up are necessary to assess the exact influence on (biochemical disease free) survival and toxicity. PMID:28115953

  19. Low subjective health literacy is associated with adverse health behaviors and worse health-related quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors: results from the profiles registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, O.; Mols, F.; Fransen, M.P.; Poll-Franse, L.V. van de; Ezendam, N.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objectives of the study were to examine the prevalence of health literacy (HL) among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors and the relation between HL and health behaviors and to explore whether or not HL and health behaviors are independently associated with health-related quality of li

  20. Analysis of the Relationship Between Diet and Exercise Beliefs and Actual Behaviors Among Breast Cancer Survivors in Northwest Ohio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G. Weiner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have shown that a diet high in fruit and vegetable intake, as well as a routine including daily exercise or physical activity, can independently affect relapse rates and survivorship in breast cancer patients. Fruits and vegetables contain powerful anti-oxidant molecules, capable of preventing tumor formation and proliferation. Exercise can lower circulating levels of estrogen, the female hormone responsible for tumor proliferation in the estrogen-sensitive form of the disease. The most beneficial results have been shown in women who exercise and consume a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. We studied the attitudes towards and behaviors related to fruit and vegetable intake and exercise in a cohort of breast cancer survivors in northwest Ohio. Materials and Methods: Data were gathered from a survey sent out by the Northwest Ohio Branch of the Susan G. Komen For the Cure Foundation. We assessed and evaluated survivors’ self-reported beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors regarding exercise and fruit and vegetable intake. Results: Nearly half of the survivors (46.5% reported being unsure or in disagreement with the statement “Eating at least 5 servings of fruits and/or vegetables per day will reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence.” Only 46.8% of those in agreement with the previous statement actually report eating at least 5 fruits and/or vegetables per day. With respect to exercise, 32.9% reported being unsure or in disagreement with the statement “Engaging in regular physical activity will reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence.” Only 68.5% of those in agreement with the previous statement report any physical activity in the past 30 days. Conclusions: Many breast cancer survivors do not appear to be aware of the benefits of diet and exercise. Further, a large proportion of those who are aware of the benefits do not adapt a healthy diet and exercise as part of their lifestyle. A majority of these survivors

  1. The Ehrlich Tumor Induces Pain-Like Behavior in Mice: A Novel Model of Cancer Pain for Pathophysiological Studies and Pharmacological Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia Calixto-Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ehrlich tumor is a mammary adenocarcinoma of mice that can be developed in solid and ascitic forms depending on its administration in tissues or cavities, respectively. The present study investigates whether the subcutaneous plantar administration of the Ehrlich tumor cells induces pain-like behavior and initial pharmacological susceptibility characteristics. The Ehrlich tumor cells (1 × 104–107 cells induced dose-dependent mechanical hyperalgesia (electronic version of the von Frey filaments, paw edema/tumor growth (caliper, and flinches compared with the saline group between days 2 and 12. There was no difference between doses of cells regarding thermal hyperalgesia in the hot-plate test. Indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor and amitriptyline hydrochloride (a tricyclic antidepressant treatments did not affect flinches or thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. On the other hand, morphine (an opioid inhibited the flinch behavior and the thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. These effects of morphine on pain-like behavior were prevented by naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist treatment. None of the treatments affected paw edema/tumor growth. The results showed that, in addition to tumor growth, administration of the Ehrlich tumor cells may represent a novel model for the study of cancer pain, specially the pain that is susceptible to treatment with opioids, but not to cyclooxygenase inhibitor or to tricyclic antidepressant.

  2. The Ehrlich tumor induces pain-like behavior in mice: a novel model of cancer pain for pathophysiological studies and pharmacological screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto-Campos, Cassia; Zarpelon, Ana C; Corrêa, Mab; Cardoso, Renato D R; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Cecchini, Rubens; Moreira, Estefania G; Crespigio, Jefferson; Bernardy, Catia C F; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2013-01-01

    The Ehrlich tumor is a mammary adenocarcinoma of mice that can be developed in solid and ascitic forms depending on its administration in tissues or cavities, respectively. The present study investigates whether the subcutaneous plantar administration of the Ehrlich tumor cells induces pain-like behavior and initial pharmacological susceptibility characteristics. The Ehrlich tumor cells (1 × 10(4)-10(7) cells) induced dose-dependent mechanical hyperalgesia (electronic version of the von Frey filaments), paw edema/tumor growth (caliper), and flinches compared with the saline group between days 2 and 12. There was no difference between doses of cells regarding thermal hyperalgesia in the hot-plate test. Indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) and amitriptyline hydrochloride (a tricyclic antidepressant) treatments did not affect flinches or thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. On the other hand, morphine (an opioid) inhibited the flinch behavior and the thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. These effects of morphine on pain-like behavior were prevented by naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) treatment. None of the treatments affected paw edema/tumor growth. The results showed that, in addition to tumor growth, administration of the Ehrlich tumor cells may represent a novel model for the study of cancer pain, specially the pain that is susceptible to treatment with opioids, but not to cyclooxygenase inhibitor or to tricyclic antidepressant.

  3. Memories of Parent Behaviors and Adult Attachment in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Keim, Madelaine C; Guthrie, Lory; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Childhood cancer is stressful for the entire family. Preoccupation and anxiety surrounding the child's illness may result in parents of children with cancer being overprotective or less emotionally responsive toward their children. Such parenting in response to a negative life event like ch

  4. Phase III trial comparing vinflunine with docetaxel in second-line advanced non-small-cell lung cancer previously treated with platinum-containing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krzakowski, Maciej; Ramlau, Rodryg; Jassem, Jacek;

    2010-01-01

    To compare vinflunine (VFL) to docetaxel in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have experienced treatment failure with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.......To compare vinflunine (VFL) to docetaxel in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have experienced treatment failure with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy....

  5. Randomized phase III study comparing paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) to standard BEP in intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Wit, Ronald; Skoneczna, Iwona; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of four cycles of paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (T-BEP) to four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) in previously untreated patients with intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC).......To compare the efficacy of four cycles of paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (T-BEP) to four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) in previously untreated patients with intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC)....

  6. A novel method to quantify and compare anatomical shape: application in cervix cancer radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seungjong; Jaffray, David; Cho, Young-Bin

    2014-06-01

    Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) had been proposed to restore dosimetric deficiencies during treatment delivery. In this paper, we developed a technique of Geometric reLocation for analyzing anatomical OBjects' Evolution (GLOBE) for a numerical model of tumor evolution under radiation therapy and characterized geometric changes of the target using GLOBE. A total of 174 clinical target volumes (CTVs) obtained from 32 cervical cancer patients were analyzed. GLOBE consists of three main steps; step (1) deforming a 3D surface object to a sphere by parametric active contour (PAC), step (2) sampling a deformed PAC on 642 nodes of icosahedron geodesic dome for reference frame, and step (3) unfolding 3D data to 2D plane for convenient visualization and analysis. The performance was evaluated with respect to (1) convergence of deformation (iteration number and computation time) and (2) accuracy of deformation (residual deformation). Based on deformation vectors from planning CTV to weekly CTVs, target specific (TS) margins were calculated on each sampled node of GLOBE and the systematic (Σ) and random (σ) variations of the vectors were calculated. Population based anisotropic (PBA) margins were generated using van Herk's margin recipe. GLOBE successfully modeled 152 CTVs from 28 patients. Fast convergence was observed for most cases (137/152) with the iteration number of 65 ± 74 (average ± STD) and the computation time of 13.7 ± 18.6 min. Residual deformation of PAC was 0.9 ± 0.7 mm and more than 97% was less than 3 mm. Margin analysis showed random nature of TS-margin. As a consequence, PBA-margins perform similarly to ISO-margins. For example, PBA-margins for 90% patients' coverage with 95% dose level is close to 13 mm ISO-margins in the aspect of target coverage and OAR sparing. GLOBE demonstrates a systematic analysis of tumor motion and deformation of patients with cervix cancer during radiation therapy and numerical modeling of PBA-margin on 642 locations of CTV

  7. Psychological treatment for pain among cancer patients by rational-emotive behavior therapy--efficacy in both India and Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahigir, Foroogh; Khanehkeshi, Ali; Karimi, Ayatollah

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to find out the influence of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) on pain intensity among cancer patients in India and Iran. The study followed a quasi-experimental, pre-post test, carried out with a sample of 88 cancer patients, aged 21-52 years, referred to the Baharat cancer hospital of Mysore in India and Shahidzade hospital of Behbahan in Iran. They were randomly assigned to the experimental (n=India 21; Iran 22) and control (n=India 22; Iran 23) groups. Pain was measured with the McGill Pain Questionnaire- MPQ (1975), the intervention by REBT has given to the experimental group for 45 days (ten sessions) and at the end of intervention, the pain of patients was again evaluated. Concerning to hypothesis of the study, two independent sample T test and three ways mixed ANOVA is used to analyze the data. Results showed that the experimental group in post test had less pain than the control group, but there were no statistically significant differences between Indian and Iranian patients in pain perception. With respect the outcome of study, it has realized that REBT can be used in hospitals and other psychological clinics to reduce the pain of cancer patients.

  8. Effect of health education on the cognition of two major cancers and screening behaviors of women%健康教育对女性两癌认知水平及筛查行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李银平; 郑之敏; 王淑珍

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of health education on cognition for breast and cervical cancer and cancer screening behaviors of female subjects. Method 136 women area were included in the study, a customized questionnaire of Investigation on Cognition of Two Major Cancers and Screening Behaviors was utilized, and specific health education intervention program was established based on the findings;After two years of investigation, the subjects’cognition on health care, and screening behavior regarding breast cancer and cervical cancer before and after health education were compared. Result After intervention, the overall cognition on cancer prevention, and awareness of breast cancer and cer-vical cancer of the 136 subjects were significantly improved as compared with that before health education (χ2=3.866-6.259, P<0.05);After the health education, all subjects’knowledge on cancer prevention, regular breast self-exam, fre-quency of breast cancer screening, vaginal secretions self-exam, and the frequency of cervical cancer screening were im-proved as well (t=7.264-12.183, P<0.05). Conclusion Health education improves women's awareness on the two major cancers and help them to focus on health care, promoting screening behavior, and thus facilitating the implementation of cancer screening for the two cancers.%目的:探讨健康教育对女性两癌认知水平及筛查行为的影响。方法选取136例女性为调查对象,采用自拟“两癌认知水平及筛查行为”调查表进行调查分析,根据调查结果制定具有针对性的健康教育干预方案,经过2年的调查研究,比较健康教育前后女性健康知识知晓情况及乳腺癌、宫颈癌筛查行为改善情况。结果健康教育前后,136例调查对象的癌症