For human engineering and improvement of the living environment, the evaluation technology of human behavior cognition was studied. For the future reformation and creation of economic structure, the following are required: establishment of safe and affluent communities, further improvement of the safety and harmonious balance of people, lives and society, and R & D close to people and social needs. Introduction of Product Liability law and a fail-safe concept are examples of such efforts. However, since many accidents are found in the human society, the relation between human errors and human characteristics should be studied in detail. The cognitive science of human behavior is an objective evaluation technology from the viewpoint of human being, object, environment and society. Based on these social and technological background, the feasibility of the evaluation technology is studied, and the future trend and skeleton of this project are clarified. The domestic and foreign trends of technologies concerned are thus surveyed, and the important points, features, skeleton and ripple effect of the technology are summarized. 500 refs., 70 figs., 5 tabs.
An, Hong; He, Ri-Hui; Zheng, Yun-Rong; Tao, Ran
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the main method of psychotherapy generally accepted in the field of substance addiction and non-substance addiction. This chapter mainly introduces the methods and technology of cognitive-behavior therapy of substance addiction, especially in order to prevent relapse. In the cognitive-behavior treatment of non-substance addiction, this chapter mainly introduces gambling addiction and food addiction.
Labanya Bhattacharya; Bhushan Chaudari; Daniel Saldanha; Preethi Menon
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most extensively researched psychotherapeutic modalities which is being used either in conjunction with psychotropic drugs or alone in various psychiatric disorders. CBT is a short-term psychotherapeutic approach that is designed to influence dysfunctional emotions, behaviors, and cognitions through a goal-oriented, systematic procedure. Recent advances in CBT suggest that there is a fresh look on a "third wave" CBT that has a greater impact and ...
Conard, Nicholas J; Serangeli, Jordi; Böhner, Utz; Starkovich, Britt M; Miller, Christopher E; Urban, Brigitte; Van Kolfschoten, Thijs
The exceptional preservation at Schöningen together with a mixture of perseverance, hard work, and sheer luck led to the recovery of unique finds in an exceptional context. The 1995 discovery of numerous wooden artifacts, most notably at least 10 carefully made spears together with the skeletons of at least 20 to 25 butchered horses, brought the debate about hunting versus scavenging among late archaic hominins and analogous arguments about the purportedly primitive behavior of Homo heidelbergensis and Neanderthals to an end. Work under H. Thieme's lead from 1992 to 2008 and results from the current team since 2008 demonstrate that late H. heidelbergensis or early Neanderthals used sophisticated artifacts made from floral and faunal materials, in addition to lithic artifacts more typically recovered at Lower Paleolithic sites. The finds from the famous Horse Butchery Site and two dozen other archaeological horizons from the edges of the open-cast mine at Schöningen provide many new insights into the technology and behavioral patterns of hominins about 300 ka BP during MIS 9 on the Northern European Plain. An analysis of the finds from Schöningen and their contexts shows that the inhabitants of the site were skilled hunters at the top of the food chain and exhibited a high level of planning depth. These hominins had command of effective means of communication about the here and now, and the past and the future, that allowed them to repeatedly execute well-coordinated and successful group activities that likely culminated in a division of labor and social and economic patterns radically different from those of all non-human primates. The unique preservation and high quality excavations have led to a major paradigm shift or "Schöningen Effect" that changed our views of human evolution during the late Lower Paleolithic. In this respect, we can view the behaviors documented at Schöningen as a plausible baseline for the behavioral sophistication of archaic hominins
Knell, S M
Discusses cognitive-behavioral play therapy (CBPT), a developmentally sensitive treatment for young children that relies on flexibility, decreased expectation for verbalizations by the child, and increased reliance on experiential approaches. The development of CBPT for preschool-age children provides a relatively unique adaptation of cognitive therapy as it was originally developed for adults. CBPT typically contains a modeling component through which adaptive coping skills are demonstrated. Through the use of play, cognitive change is communicated indirectly, and more adaptive behaviors can be introduced to the child. Modeling is tailored for use with many specific cognitive and behavioral interventions. Generalization and response prevention are important features of CBPT. With minor modifications, many of the principles of cognitive therapy, as delineated for use with adults, are applicable to young children. Case examples are presented to highlight the application of CBPT. Although CBPT has a sound therapeutic base and utilizes proven techniques, more rigorous empirical scrutiny is needed.
EMMELKAMP, PMG; VANOPPEN, P
In this report an overview is given of the contribution of cognitive approaches to behavioral medicine. The (possible) contribution of cognitive therapy is reviewed in the area of coronary heart disease, obesity, bulimia nervosa, chronic pain, benign headache, cancer, acquired immunodeficiency
Dolan, R. J.
Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.
Stahlschmidt, Mareike C; Miller, Christopher E; Ligouis, Bertrand; Goldberg, Paul; Berna, Francesco; Urban, Brigitte; Conard, Nicholas J
Geoarchaeological research at the Middle Pleistocene site of Schöningen 13 II-4, often referred to as the Speerhorizont, has focused on describing and evaluating the depositional contexts of the well-known wooden spears, butchered horses, and stone tools. These finds were recovered from the transitional contact between a lacustrine marl and an overlying organic mud, originally thought to be a peat that accumulated in place under variable moisture conditions. The original excavators proposed that hominin activity, including hunting and butchery, occurred on a dry lake shore and was followed by a rapid sedimentation of organic deposits that embedded and preserved the artifacts. Our geoarchaeological analysis challenges this model. Here, we present evidence that the sediments of Schöningen 13 II-4 were deposited in a constantly submerged area of a paleolake. Although we cannot exclude the possibility that the artifacts were deposited during a short, extreme drying event, there are no sedimentary features indicative of surface exposure in the sediments. Accordingly, this paper explores three main alternative models of site formation: anthropogenic disposal of materials into the lake, a geological relocation of the artifacts, and hunting or caching on lake-ice. These models have different behavioral ramifications concerning hominin knowledge and exploitation of the landscape and their subsistence strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Importance of the human behavior technology was paid attention to to get true safety and comfortableness of life through adaptability of products/systems to all humans. In consideration of the social and technological background, the human behavior recognition evaluation technology avoids economic/social losses caused by accidents and troubles and also provides the safe life environment for living people including the aged. Further, the gist of the project was proposed to make it clear that it can give a course of making things from a viewpoint of development of products dealing with individuals (personal fit) and can give new added values and contribute to heightening of international competitiveness at the same time. Development is made of technology of dividing concrete behavior patterns into types and also accumulating them in usable forms at the time of product design and in emergency and of technology of measuring all the time information on human behaviors in daily life without restrictions and on site. Supporting technology is developed for making the most of behavior information of users for product design and in emergency. Effects of the spread are also estimated. 76 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.
Epstein, Norman B; Zheng, Le
This article describes how cognitive-behavioral couple therapy (CBCT) provides a good fit for intervening with a range of stressors that couples experience from within and outside their relationship. It takes an ecological perspective in which a couple is influenced by multiple systemic levels. We provide an overview of assessment and intervention strategies used to modify negative behavioral interaction patterns, inappropriate or distorted cognitions, and problems with the experience and regulation of emotions. Next, we describe how CBCT can assist couples in coping with stressors involving (a) a partner's psychological disorder (e.g. depression), (b) physical health problems (e.g. cancer), (c) external stressors (e.g. financial strain), and (d) severe relational problems (e.g. partner aggression). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Corcoran, K J
Bandura (1995) suggests that a "crusade against the causal efficacy of human thought" exists. The present paper disputes that claim, suggesting that the quest which does exist involves an understanding of self-efficacy. Examined are Bandura's shifting definitions of self-efficacy, his misunderstandings of others' work, and implications of some of his attempts to defend the construct. In the remainder of the paper Rotter's Social Learning Theory is discussed as a model of human choice behavior which recognizes the contributions of both cognitive and behavioral traditions within psychology, and has proven to be of great heuristic value.
Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Damer. Bruce; Brodsky, Boris
The driving theme of cognitive modeling for many decades has been that knowledge affects how and which goals are accomplished by an intelligent being (Newell 1991). But when one examines groups of people living and working together, one is forced to recognize that whose knowledge is called into play, at a particular time and location, directly affects what the group accomplishes. Indeed, constraints on participation, including roles, procedures, and norms, affect whether an individual is able to act at all (Lave & Wenger 1991; Jordan 1992; Scribner & Sachs 1991). To understand both individual cognition and collective activity, perhaps the greatest opportunity today is to integrate the cognitive modeling approach (which stresses how beliefs are formed and drive behavior) with social studies (which stress how relationships and informal practices drive behavior). The crucial insight is that norms are conceptualized in the individual &nd as ways of carrying out activities (Clancey 1997a, 2002b). This requires for the psychologist a shift from only modeling goals and tasks - why people do what they do - to modeling behavioral patterns-what people do-as they are engaged in purposeful activities. Instead of a model that exclusively deduces actions from goals, behaviors are also, if not primarily, driven by broader patterns of chronological and located activities (akin to scripts). This analysis is particular inspired by activity theory (Leont ev 1979). While acknowledging that knowledge (relating goals and operations) is fundamental for intelligent behavior, activity theory claims that a broader driver is the person s motives and conceptualization of activities. Such understanding of human interaction is normative (i.e., viewed with respect to social standards), affecting how knowledge is called into play and applied in practice. Put another way, how problems are discovered and framed, what methods are chosen, and indeed who even cares or has the authority to act, are all
Full Text Available The psychological functioning of an individual includes well-being, cognitions, emotions and behaviors as a whole. In the current models of psychopathologies, as similar to well-being, reciprocal interaction between emotions, behaviors and cognitions is emphasized. Notwithstanding that the effects of these three components on cognitive behavior therapies can be mentioned too, it can be claimed that emotions were remained in the background by the behaviors and cognitions until the third wave of cognitive behavior therapies. Emotions have became prominent with the third wave approaches in the field of cognitive behavior therapy. In this review article, similarities and differences of third wave of cognitive behavior therapy with other waves, the constructs of emotion and emotion regulation in the third wave and the impacts of these on treatment were included. Additionally, throughout this perspective, treatment processes focusing on emotion regulation skills were discussed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(3.000: 190-203
Logan A. Berg; Kathleen E. Darbor; Heather C. Lench
This Editorial reviews the challenges and advantages posed by a functional perspective on the relationships among emotion, behavior, and cognition. We identify the core themes among the articles published as part of this Special Issue. The articles generally address two important questions: (1) are emotions functional and what is their impact on behavioral and cognitive processes, and (2) how do the interactions among emotion, cognition, and behavior play out in particular situations that pre...
Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto
When scaling neuroevolution to complex behaviors, cognitive capabilities such as learning, communication, and memory become increasingly important. However, successfully evolving such cognitive abilities remains difficult. This paper argues that a main cause for such difficulty is deception, i.......e. evolution converges to a behavior unrelated to the desired solution. More specifically, cognitive behaviors often require accumulating neural structure that provides no immediate fitness benefit, and evolution often thus converges to non-cognitive solutions. To investigate this hypothesis, a common...... evolutionary robotics T-Maze domain is adapted in three separate ways to require agents to communicate, remember, and learn. Indicative of deception, evolution driven by objective-based fitness often converges upon simple non- cognitive behaviors. In contrast, evolution driven to explore novel behaviors, i...
Full Text Available Louise Mewton,1 Gavin Andrews2 1National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Research Excellence in Mental Health and Substance Use, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, 2Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression (CRUfAD, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in reducing suicidal cognitions and behavior in the adult population. We identified 15 randomized controlled trials of CBT for adults (aged 18 years and older that included suicide-related cognitions or behaviors as an outcome measure. The studies were identified from PsycINFO searches, reference lists, and a publicly available database of psychosocial interventions for suicidal behaviors. This review identified some evidence of the use of CBT in the reduction of both suicidal cognitions and behaviors. There was not enough evidence from clinical trials to suggest that CBT focusing on mental illness reduces suicidal cognitions and behaviors. On the other hand, CBT focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors was found to be effective. Given the current evidence, clinicians should be trained in CBT techniques focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors that are independent of the treatment of mental illness. Keywords: suicidal behaviors, suicidal cognitions, CBT
Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; Keefe, John R; DeRubeis, Robert J
Since the introduction of Beck's cognitive theory of emotional disorders, and their treatment with psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral approaches have become the most extensively researched psychological treatment for a wide variety of disorders. Despite this, the relative contribution of cognitive to behavioral approaches to treatment are poorly understood and the mechanistic role of cognitive change in therapy is widely debated. We critically review this literature, focusing on the mechanistic role of cognitive change across cognitive and behavioral therapies for depressive and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Selim PİSTOF; Esat SANLI
Introduction: Cognitive therapy is a method of psychotherapy used to treat many psychological and psychiatric disorders and is based on cognitive model of emotional disorders. Throughout the therapy, it is important for the clients to be trained in their problems and to perceive the fact which is one of the fundamental actions of cognitive behavioral therapy, that the emotional state interacts not only with in the thoughts, but also physical functions and environment. . Besides employing cogn...
Markle, Susan M.; Tiemann, Philip W
The authors examine two prominent learning theories, Bruner's cognitive approach and Skinner's operant conditioning approach, hoping to "construct a 'mix' of the two traditions that really has something to say to educational practitioners. (Authors/LS)
M. Hakan Türkçapar
Full Text Available Cognitive behavioral therapies are one of the most leading theories between current psychotherapies. As a psychotherapy school, besides sharing the common points reached collectively by the humanity throughout the history, it also achieved in integrating scientific and ampirical experiences into the psychotherapy practice. Having included mainstreams like Stoicism, Kantian philosopy in its historical roots, this approach has similarities with eastern philosophies, budism and sufism. Apart from its historical and cultural roots, cognitive approach integrated with behaviorism which applied scientific method in human psychology for the first time, and also implemented the scientific method in the cognitive field. Cognitive behavioral approaches shall make important contributions in the pathway that psychotherapies will cover. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 7-14
M. Hakan Türkçapar
Full Text Available Cognitive behavioral therapies are one of the most leading theories between current psychotherapies. As a psychotherapy school, besides sharing the common points reached collectively by the humanity throughout the history, it also achieved in integrating scientific and ampirical experiences into the psychotherapy practice. Having included mainstreams like Stoicism, Kantian philosopy in its historical roots, this approach has similarities with eastern philosophies, budism and sufism. Apart from its historical and cultural roots, cognitive approach integrated with behaviorism which applied scientific method in human psychology for the first time, and also implemented the scientific method in the cognitive field. Cognitive behavioral approaches shall make important contributions in the pathway that psychotherapies will cover.
Full Text Available How has human information behavior evolved? Our paper explores this question in the form of notions, models and theories about the relationship between information behavior and human evolution. Alexander's Ecological Dominance and Social Competition/Cooperation (EDSC model currently provides the most comprehensive overview of human traits in the development of a theory of human evolution and sociality. His model provides a basis for explaining the evolution of human socio-cognitive abilities, including ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. Our paper examines the human trait of information behavior as a socio-cognitive ability related to ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. The paper first outlines what is meant by information behavior from various interdisciplinary perspectives. We propose that information behavior is a socio-cognitive ability that is related to and enables other socio-cognitive abilities such as human ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. The paper reviews the current state of evolutionary approaches to information behavior and future directions for this research
Mitchell, James E; Burgard, Melissa; Faber, Ron; Crosby, Ross D; de Zwaan, Martina
To our knowledge, no psychotherapy treatment studies for compulsive buying have been published. The authors conducted a pilot trial comparing the efficacy of a group cognitive behavioral intervention designed for the treatment of compulsive buying to a waiting list control. Twenty-eight subjects were assigned to receive active treatment and 11 to the waiting list control group. The results at the end of treatment showed significant advantages for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) over the waiting list in reductions in the number of compulsive buying episodes and time spent buying, as well as scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale--Shopping Version and the Compulsive Buying Scale. Improvement was well-maintained at 6-month follow-up. The pilot data suggests that a cognitive behavioral intervention can be quite effective in the treatment of compulsive buying disorder. This model requires further testing.
Logan A. Berg
Full Text Available This Editorial reviews the challenges and advantages posed by a functional perspective on the relationships among emotion, behavior, and cognition. We identify the core themes among the articles published as part of this Special Issue. The articles generally address two important questions: (1 are emotions functional and what is their impact on behavioral and cognitive processes, and (2 how do the interactions among emotion, cognition, and behavior play out in particular situations that present adaptive challenges? We also identify two core questions raised by the articles included in this Special Issue. Future research must address the extent to which emotions are best represented as discrete emotional constructs (e.g., anger, sadness, fear versus emotions that vary along dimensions, such as valence and arousal. Functional perspectives would also be facilitated by identification of situations or environments that are likely to elicit particular emotions and reactions.
Lench, Heather C; Darbor, Kathleen E; Berg, Logan A
This Editorial reviews the challenges and advantages posed by a functional perspective on the relationships among emotion, behavior, and cognition. We identify the core themes among the articles published as part of this Special Issue. The articles generally address two important questions: (1) are emotions functional and what is their impact on behavioral and cognitive processes, and (2) how do the interactions among emotion, cognition, and behavior play out in particular situations that present adaptive challenges? We also identify two core questions raised by the articles included in this Special Issue. Future research must address the extent to which emotions are best represented as discrete emotional constructs (e.g., anger, sadness, fear) versus emotions that vary along dimensions, such as valence and arousal. Functional perspectives would also be facilitated by identification of situations or environments that are likely to elicit particular emotions and reactions.
Full Text Available Cognitive behavioral therapy is one of the structured but flexible psychosocial interventions that could be applied to patients with cancer. In many studies the positive effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychological morbidity and improving the quality of life of cancer patients have been shown. In this article, the contents and techniques of adapted cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with cancer and its effectiveness in commonly seen psychiatric disorders have been reviewed. The aim of this article is to contribute positively to physicians and nurses in Turkey for early detection of psychological distress and referral to the therapist that would clearly increase the quality of life of cancer patients. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 257-270
Petry, Nancy M.; Ammerman, Yola; Bohl, Jaime; Doersch, Anne; Gay, Heather; Kadden, Ronald; Molina, Cheryl; Steinberg, Karen
Few studies have evaluated efficacy of psychotherapies for pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (N = 231) were randomly assigned to (a) referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA), (b) GA referral plus a cognitive-behavioral (CB) workbook, or (c) GA referral plus 8 sessions of individual CB therapy. Gambling and related problems were assessed…
The first purpose of this editorial is to indicate a parallel trend in two disparate areas of research: information processing and cognitive-behavior modification (CBM). The second purpose is to highlight the role that affect plays in intellectual functioning, noting implications following the assessment of intelligence. (Author/RD)
Many interventions are available for treating adolescent depression. This paper attempts to present a summary of cognitive behavioral therapies/techniques that might be useful for treating depression in Asian immigrant adolescents. Articles were selected by conducting a literature search on Psyc-Info. Prevalence ...
Lotufo Neto, Francisco
Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.
Harvey, Allison G; Dong, Lu; Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M
To examine the mediators and the potential of treatment matching to improve outcome for cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for insomnia. Participants were 188 adults (117 women; Mage = 47.4 years, SD = 12.6) meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000) diagnostic criteria for chronic insomnia (Mduration: 14.5 years, SD: 12.8). Participants were randomized to behavior therapy (BT; n = 63), cognitive therapy (CT; n = 65), or CBT (n = 60). The outcome measure was the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Hypothesized BT mediators were sleep-incompatible behaviors, bedtime variability (BTv), risetime variability (RTv) and time in bed (TIB). Hypothesized CT mediators were worry, unhelpful beliefs, and monitoring for sleep-related threat. The behavioral processes mediated outcome for BT but not CT. The cognitive processes mediated outcome in both BT and CT. The subgroup scoring high on both behavioral and cognitive processes had a marginally significant better outcome if they received CBT relative to BT or CT. The subgroup scoring relatively high on behavioral but low on cognitive processes and received BT or CBT did not differ from those who received CT. The subgroup scoring relatively high on cognitive but low on behavioral processes and received CT or CBT did not differ from those who received BT. The behavioral mediators were specific to BT relative to CT. The cognitive mediators were significant for both BT and CT outcomes. Patients exhibiting high levels of both behavioral and cognitive processes achieve better outcome if they receive CBT relative to BT or CT alone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
The effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing aggression in patients with ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on ...
An approach focusing on behavioral activation (BA) was adopted in the cognitive therapy of A. T. Beck, and it came to be considered that BA can play an important role in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Therefore, in recent years, BA based on clinical behavior analysis has been developed as a new treatment (Martell, et al.). The core characteristics are as follows: 1) focusing attention on context in daily life to promote the behavior control of patients and avoidance of a hatred experience ; 2) breaking the vicious circle; 3) promoting the behavior according to the purpose that the patients originally expect; 4) recognizing a relationship between behavior and the situation (contingency), thereby recovering self-efficacy tied to the long-term results that one originally expects. This does not increase pleasant activity at random when the patient is inactive, or give a sense of accomplishment. We know that depression is maintained by conducting functional analysis of detailed life behavior, and encourage the patients to have healthy behavior according to individual values. We help them to complete schedules regardless of mood and reflect on the results patiently. It is considered that those processes are important. BA may be easy to apply in clinical practice and effective for the chronic cases, or the patients in a convalescent stage. Also, in principle in the CBT for major depression, it may be effective that behavioral activation is provided in an early stage, and cognitive reconstruction in a latter stage. However, an approach to carry out functional analysis by small steps with careful activity monitoring is essential when the symptoms are severe. Furthermore, it should be considered that the way of psychoeducation requires caution because we encourage rest in the treatment of depression in our country. In particular, we must be careful not to take an attitude that an inactive behavior pattern is unproductive only based model cases.
This paper aims to do three things: First, to provide a review of John Staddon's book Adaptive dynamics: The theoretical analysis of behavior. Second, to compare Staddon's behaviorist view with current ideas on embodied cognition. Third, to use this comparison to explicate some outlines for a
Full Text Available Carol Dillon,1 Cecilia M Serrano,1 Diego Castro,1 Patricio Perez Leguizamón,1 Silvina L Heisecke,1,2 Fernando E Taragano1 1CEMIC (Centro de Educación Médica e Investigaciones Clínicas University Institute, 2CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS are core features of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. On one hand, behavioral symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI can indicate an increased risk of progressing to dementia. On the other hand, mild behavioral impairment (MBI in patients who usually have normal cognition indicates an increased risk of developing dementia. Whatever the cause, all dementias carry a high rate of NPI. These symptoms can be observed at any stage of the disease, may fluctuate over its course, are a leading cause of stress and overload for caregivers, and increase rates of hospitalization and early institutionalization for patients with dementia. The clinician should be able to promptly recognize NPI through the use of instruments capable of measuring their frequency and severity to support diagnosis, and to help monitor the treatment of behavioral symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe and update the construct ‘MBI’ and to revise the reported NPS related to prodromal stages of dementia (MCI and MBI and dementia stages of Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Keywords: behavioral or neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive impairment, dementia
Luiz F.L. Pegoraro
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study aimed to investigate the cognitive and behavioral profiles, as well as the psychiatric symptoms and disorders in children with three different genetic syndromes with similar sociocultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. METHODS: thirty-four children aged 6 to 16 years, with Williams-Beuren syndrome (n = 10, Prader-Willi syndrome (n = 11, and Fragile X syndrome (n = 13 from the outpatient clinics of Child Psychiatry and Medical Genetics Department were cognitively assessed through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. Afterwards, a full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ, verbal IQ, performance IQ, standard subtest scores, as well as frequency of psychiatric symptoms and disorders were compared among the three syndromes. RESULTS: significant differences were found among the syndromes concerning verbal IQ and verbal and performance subtests. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that vocabulary and comprehension subtest scores were significantly higher in Williams-Beuren syndrome in comparison with Prader-Willi and Fragile X syndromes, and block design and object assembly scores were significantly higher in Prader-Willi syndrome compared with Williams-Beuren and Fragile X syndromes. Additionally, there were significant differences between the syndromes concerning behavioral features and psychiatric symptoms. The Prader-Willi syndrome group presented a higher frequency of hyperphagia and self-injurious behaviors. The Fragile X syndrome group showed a higher frequency of social interaction deficits; such difference nearly reached statistical significance. CONCLUSION: the three genetic syndromes exhibited distinctive cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric patterns.
Shaffer, Carolyn S.; And Others
The relative efficacy of both group and individual cognitive behavior therapeutic approaches in treating anxiety and depression are evaluated and then compared to an interpersonal group therapy approach. The two major hypotheses are that group cognitive behavior therapy is at least as effective as individual cognitive behavior therapy, and that…
Dóci, Edina; Stouten, Jeroen; Hofmans, Joeri
In the present paper, we propose a cognitive-behavioral understanding of active and passive leadership. Building on core evaluations theory, we offer a model that explains the emergence of leaders’ active and passive behaviors, thereby predicting stable, inter-individual, as well as variable, intra-individual differences in both types of leadership behavior. We explain leaders’ stable behavioral tendencies by their fundamental beliefs about themselves, others, and the world (core evaluations), while their variable, momentary behaviors are explained by the leaders’ momentary appraisals of themselves, others, and the world (specific evaluations). By introducing interactions between the situation the leader enters, the leader’s beliefs, appraisals, and behavior, we propose a comprehensive system of cognitive mechanisms that underlie active and passive leadership behavior. PMID:26441721
Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per
Internet-assisted cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) is a way to deliver cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) that has been found to generate similar effects as face-to-face CBT in some studies. Results have been replicated by different research groups. This article presents the treatment format and reviews evidence for mood and anxiety disorders. Future developments are discussed, including the lack of theories specific for the treatment format and ways to handle comorbidity. Although some programs have been implemented there is a need for further studies in clinical settings. Overall, clinician-assisted ICBT is becoming one of the most evidence-based forms of psychological treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Murphy, Rebecca; Straebler, Suzanne; Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the leading evidence-based treatment for bulimia nervosa. A new ?enhanced? version of the treatment appears to be more potent and has the added advantage of being suitable for all eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified. This article reviews the evidence supporting CBT in the treatment of eating disorders and provides an account of the ?transdiagnostic? theory that underpins the enhanced form of the treatme...
Zhang, Li; Zhu, Zhipei; Fang, Fang; Shen, Yuan; Liu, Na; Li, Chunbo
We have developed a structured cognitive behavioral therapy manual for anxiety disorder in China, and the present study evaluated the applicability of simplified cognitive behavioral therapy based on our previous research. To evaluate the applicability of simplified cognitive behavioral therapy (SCBT) on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by conducting a multi-center controlled clinical trial. A multi-center controlled clinical trial of SCBT was conducted on patients with GAD, including institutions specializing in mental health and psychiatry units in general hospitals. The participants were divided into 3 groups: SCBT group, SCBT with medication group and medication group. The drop-out rates of these three groups, the therapy satisfaction of patients who received SCBT and the evaluation of SCBT from therapists were compared. (1) There was no significant difference among the drop-out rates in the three groups. (2) Only the duration and times of therapy were significantly different between the two groups of patients who received the SCBT, and the therapy satisfaction of the SCBT group was higher than that of the SCBT with medication group. (3) Eighteen therapists who conducted the SCBT indicated that the manual was easy to comprehend and operate, and this therapy could achieve the therapy goals. The applicability of SCBT for patients with GAD is relatively high, and it is hopeful that SCBT can become a psychological treatment which can be applied in medical institutions of various levels.
Dalle Grave R
Full Text Available Riccardo Dalle Grave, Massimiliano Sartirana, Marwan El Ghoch, Simona Calugi Department of Eating and Weight Disorders, Villa Garda Hospital, Verona, Italy Abstract: Multistep cognitive behavioral therapy for obesity (CBT-OB is a treatment that may be delivered at three levels of care (outpatient, day hospital, and residential. In a stepped-care approach, CBT-OB associates the traditional procedures of weight-loss lifestyle modification, ie, physical activity and dietary recommendations, with specific cognitive behavioral strategies that have been indicated by recent research to influence weight loss and maintenance by addressing specific cognitive processes. The treatment program as a whole is delivered in six modules. These are introduced according to the individual patient’s needs in a flexible and personalized fashion. A recent randomized controlled trial has found that 88 patients suffering from morbid obesity treated with multistep residential CBT-OB achieved a mean weight loss of 15% after 12 months, with no tendency to regain weight between months 6 and 12. The treatment has also shown promising long-term results in the management of obesity associated with binge-eating disorder. If these encouraging findings are confirmed by the two ongoing outpatient studies (one delivered individually and one in a group setting, this will provide evidence-based support for the potential of multistep CBT-OB to provide a more effective alternative to standard weight-loss lifestyle-modification programs. Keywords: obesity, cognitive behavioral therapy, lifestyle modification, weight loss, weight maintenance, outcome
Although a common disease, conversion disorder still calls attention in the clinical practice. A case of conversion disorder, diagnosed as a psychogenic aphonia that persisted for a week, was reported in this paper. A 21-year-old woman developed symptoms after breaking off a long-lasting relationship with her boy-friend. History revealed that she was introvert with high neuroticism and communication problems. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was used. After the positive reinforcement in the therapy of her aphonia, assertion training for the development of communication skills was performed. In the end, cognitive restructuring was used to prevent relapse in regard to her actual life situation of being a refugee preparing for immigration to Australia.
Full Text Available Although a common disease, conversion disorder still calls attention in the clinical practice. A case of conversion disorder, diagnosed as a psychogenic aphonia that persisted for a week, was reported in this paper. A 21-year-old woman developed symptoms after breaking off a long-lasting relationship with her boy-friend. History revealed that she was introvert with high neuroticism and communication problems. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was used. After the positive reinforcement in the therapy of her aphonia, assertion training for the development of communication skills was performed. In the end, cognitive restructuring was used to prevent relapse in regard to her actual life situation of being a refugee preparing for immigration to Australia.
Craske, Michelle G.
In this revised edition of "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy," Michelle G. Craske discusses the history, theory, and practice of this commonly practiced therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) originated in the science and theory of classical and instrumental conditioning when cognitive principles were adopted following dissatisfaction…
Dillon, Carol; Serrano, Cecilia M; Castro, Diego; Leguizamón, Patricio Perez; Heisecke, Silvina L; Taragano, Fernando E
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are core features of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. On one hand, behavioral symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can indicate an increased risk of progressing to dementia. On the other hand, mild behavioral impairment (MBI) in patients who usually have normal cognition indicates an increased risk of developing dementia. Whatever the cause, all dementias carry a high rate of NPI. These symptoms can be observed at any stage of the disease, may fluctuate over its course, are a leading cause of stress and overload for caregivers, and increase rates of hospitalization and early institutionalization for patients with dementia. The clinician should be able to promptly recognize NPI through the use of instruments capable of measuring their frequency and severity to support diagnosis, and to help monitor the treatment of behavioral symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe and update the construct 'MBI' and to revise the reported NPS related to prodromal stages of dementia (MCI and MBI) and dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.
Chongtay, Rocio A.; Hansen, John Paulin; Decker, Lone
. One of the most common and successfully used treatments for phobic conditions has been Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), which helps people learn to detect thinking patterns that trigger the irrational fear and to replace them with more realistic ideas. The health and financial impacts in society...... presented here is being designed in a modular and scalable fashion. The web-based module can be accessed anywhere any time from a PC connected to the internet and can be used alone or as supplement for a location-based module for in situ gradual exposure therapy....
Márcia L.F. Chaves
Full Text Available Abstract A review of the evidence on cognitive, functional and behavioral assessment for the diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD is presented with revision and broadening of the recommendations on the use of tests and batteries in Brazil for the diagnosis of dementia due to AD. A systematic review of the literature (MEDLINE, LILACS and SCIELO database was carried out by a panel of experts. Studies on the validation and/or adaptation of tests, scales and batteries for the Brazilian population were analyzed and classified according to level of evidence. There were sufficient data to recommend the IQCODE, DAFS-R, DAD, ADL-Q and Bayer scale for the evaluation of instrumental activities of daily living, and the Katz scale for the assessment of basic activities of daily living. For the evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptoms, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI and the CAMDEX were found to be useful, as was the Cornell scale for depression in dementia. The Mini-Mental State Examination has clinical utility as a screening test, as do the multifunctional batteries (CAMCOG-R, ADAS-COG, CERAD and MDRS for brief evaluations of several cognitive domains. There was sufficient evidence to recommend the CDR scale for clinical and severity assessment of dementia. Tests for Brazilian Portuguese are recommended by cognitive domain based on available data.
Berg, Anne T.
Although epilepsy is defined by the occurrence of spontaneous epileptic seizures, a large body of evidence indicates that epilepsy is linked to a spectrum behavioral, psychiatric, and cognitive disorders as well as to sudden death. Explanations for these associations include: (1) The effects of structural lesions which may impair the functions subserved by the regions of the brain involved in the lesion. (2) The effects of seizure activity which may begin well before a clinical seizure occurs and may persist long after it is over raising questions about what truly constitutes “interictal.” In addition, encephalopathic effects of epilepsy in infancy during critical periods in development may be particularly severe and potentially irreversible. (3) Shared mechanisms underlying seizures as well as these other disorders in the absence of structural lesions or separate diseases of the CNS. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate the elevated risk of cognitive, psychiatric, and behavioral disorders not just during but also prior to the onset of epilepsy (seizures) itself. These may outlast the active phase of epilepsy as well. The mounting evidence argues strongly for the recognition of epilepsy as part of a spectrum of disorders and against the notion that even uncomplicated epilepsy can a priori be considered benign. PMID:21214534
Safren, Steven A.; Hendriksen, Ellen S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Pickard, Robert; Otto, Michael W.
For patients with HIV, depression is a common, distressing condition that can interfere with a critical self-care behavior--adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The present study describes a cognitive-behavioral treatment designed to integrate cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression with our previously tested approach to improving adherence to…
Starkovich, Britt M; Conard, Nicholas J
This paper presents the faunal remains from the new excavation area at the Lower Paleolithic site of Schöningen. The focus of the study is on the southern extension of the main find horizon (Spear Horizon South), which includes the layer that yielded the famous Schöningen spears (13 II-4). Taxonomic data corroborate previous studies, that hominins primarily hunted Equus mosbachensis, a large Pleistocene horse. Equid body part representation at the site suggests that the animals were hunted and butchered locally. There is no evidence for density-mediated attrition in the assemblage. Weathering damage is uncommon, though there is ample evidence that carnivores had access to the bone. Carnivore bite sizes were measured and compared to experimental data provided by previous authors. Based on relationships between bite size and carnivore behavior and body size, we conclude that the primary modifying agents were large carnivores (i.e., wolves or saber-toothed cats). Previous studies show that carnivores often had secondary access to the remains, after hominins. Cut marks are commonly arranged haphazardly on the bones. This may indicate that multiple hominins participated in the butchery of horse skeletons, or that they were butchered over the course of hours or days. Cut marks on axial elements are more "orderly," which probably reflects the physical logistics of orienting one's body in relation to a large carcass. These data differ from sites formed by Middle and Upper Paleolithic hominins, which might suggest that in later times, a system of organized meat provisioning was already in place. Taken together, the faunal evidence from the Spear Horizon South indicates that late Lower Paleolithic hominins using the site understood the behaviors of different prey species, hunted socially to take down large game, and successfully competed with large carnivores on the landscape for primary access to ungulate remains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Engle, Patrice L; Fernández, Patricia D
The Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) has made major contributions to the study of the effects of malnutrition on learning. This report summarizes work on the relationship of nutrition to children's learning and development from the 1960's through 1998. The Oriente Longitudinal Study examined the effects of two types of supplementation for mothers and young children on their growth and development (an energy-only drink compared with a protein-energy drink) using a quasi-experimental design. Both drinks were supplemented with micronutrients, and were offered daily. As a result of the research on malnutrition and mental development, researchers could conclude by 1993 that supplementary feeding of infants and young children resulted in significant increases cognitive development and school performance through adolescence. The research also suggested that the pathways that link malnutrition with later development are not only through the neurological system but also operate through changes in child behavior which affect the kinds of care children receive. Other research on learning and development showed that families understood the concept of intelligence, demonstrated the link between micronutrients and cognitive development, and documented the amount of wastage or repetition and drop-out that occurs in Guatemalan schools.
Ana Moreno Coutiño
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review mindfulness, which is a so-called third generation cognitive behavioral therapy (TGT. Contributions of these specific therapies are appreciated in their techniques, which have as therapeutic principle abandoning the battle against the symptoms and redirecting life instead. TGT have recently begun to be studied in major universities around the world, and have been successfully used in various clinical settings, as well as in various Western countries. This kind of therapy has also been evaluated in Latin America, but its introduction in the clinical and academic fields has been slower, perhaps because the general principles of mindfulness have not yet been sufficiently widespread. This paper summarizes the basis of TGT, describes its therapeutic approach, exposes the links between the main Buddhist precepts and mindfulness, and summarizes the current status of its research in the world.
Stahlschmidt, Mareike C; Miller, Christopher E; Ligouis, Bertrand; Hambach, Ulrich; Goldberg, Paul; Berna, Francesco; Richter, Daniel; Urban, Brigitte; Serangeli, Jordi; Conard, Nicholas J
When and how humans began to control fire has been a central debate in Paleolithic archaeology for decades. Fire plays an important role in technology, social organization, subsistence, and manipulation of the environment and is widely seen as a necessary adaptation for the colonization of northern latitudes. Many researchers view purported hearths, burnt wooden implements, and heated flints from Schöningen as providing the best evidence for the control of fire in the Lower Paleolithic of Northern Europe. Here we present results of a multianalytical study of the purported hearths along with a critical examination of other possible evidence of human use or control of fire at Schöningen. We conclude that the analyzed features and artifacts present no convincing evidence for human use or control of fire. Our study also shows that a multianalytical, micro-contextual approach is the best methodology for evaluating claims of early evidence of human-controlled fire. We advise caution with macroscopic, qualitative identification of combustion features, burnt flint, and burnt wood without the application of such techniques as micromorphology, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, organic petrology, luminescence, and analysis of mineral magnetic parameters. The lack of evidence for the human control of fire at Schöningen raises the possibility that fire control was not a necessary adaptation for the human settlement of northern latitudes in the Lower Paleolithic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Antshel, Kevin M; Faraone, Stephen V; Gordon, Michael
To assess the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for managing adolescent ADHD. A total of 68 adolescents with ADHD and associated psychiatric comorbidities completed a manualized CBT treatment protocol. The intervention used in the study was a downward extension of the Safren et al. program for adults with ADHD who have symptoms unresolved by medication. Outcome variables consisted of narrow band (ADHD) and broadband (e.g., mood, anxiety, conduct) symptom measures (Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd edition and ADHD-Rating Scales) as well as functioning measures (parent/teacher ratings and several ecologically real-world measures). Treatment effects emerged on the medication dosage, parent rating of pharmacotherapy adherence, adolescent self-report of personal adjustment (e.g., self-esteem), parent and teacher ratings of inattentive symptoms, school attendance, school tardiness, parent report of peer, family and academic functioning and teacher report of adolescent relationship with teacher, academic progress, and adolescent self-esteem. Adolescents with ADHD with oppositional defiant disorder were rated by parents and teachers as benefiting less from the CBT intervention. Adolescents with ADHD and comorbid anxiety/depression were rated by parents and teachers as benefiting more from the CBT intervention. A downward extension of an empirically validated adult ADHD CBT protocol can benefit some adolescents with ADHD. © 2012 SAGE Publications.
Wilhelm, Sabine; Buhlmann, Ulrike; Hayward, Laura C.; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Dimaite, Ruta
Although body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) has been described in the literature for more than a century, there has been only a limited focus on the development of cognitive behavioral treatments for BDD. Our case report provides a detailed description of a course of cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for an individual with BDD. The patient was…
Hart, Trevor A.; Schwartz, Danielle R.
The purpose of the present paper is to assist cognitive-behavioral therapists who are treating erectile dysfunction among gay men. Little information is available to cognitive-behavioral therapists about the psychological and social effects of erectile dysfunction in this population, or how to incorporate the concerns of gay men with erectile…
Luiz F.L. Pegoraro
Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to investigate the cognitive and behavioral profiles, as well as the psychiatric symptoms and disorders in children with three different genetic syndromes with similar sociocultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods: thirty-four children aged 6 to 16 years, with Williams-Beuren syndrome (n = 10, Prader-Willi syndrome (n = 11, and Fragile X syndrome (n = 13 from the outpatient clinics of Child Psychiatry and Medical Genetics Department were cognitively assessed through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. Afterwards, a full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ, verbal IQ, performance IQ, standard subtest scores, as well as frequency of psychiatric symptoms and disorders were compared among the three syndromes. Results: significant differences were found among the syndromes concerning verbal IQ and verbal and performance subtests. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that vocabulary and comprehension subtest scores were significantly higher in Williams-Beuren syndrome in comparison with Prader-Willi and Fragile X syndromes, and block design and object assembly scores were significantly higher in Prader-Willi syndrome compared with Williams-Beuren and Fragile X syndromes. Additionally, there were significant differences between the syndromes concerning behavioral features and psychiatric symptoms. The Prader-Willi syndrome group presented a higher frequency of hyperphagia and self-injurious behaviors. The Fragile X syndrome group showed a higher frequency of social interaction deficits; such difference nearly reached statistical significance. Conclusion: the three genetic syndromes exhibited distinctive cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric patterns. Resumo: Objetivo: investigar o perfil cognitivo e comportamental, sintomas e transtornos psiquiátricos em crianças com três diferentes síndromes genéticas, com antecedentes socioculturais e socioeconômicos semelhantes. Métodos: trinta e quatro
assessing behavioral and cognitive markers of risk for suicide among U.S. Army National Guard personnel. Journal of Environmental Research and Public Policy...effective ways to prevent injury and death from suicide • No reliable method for predicting suicide risk in military personnel • Behavioral (e.g...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0632 TITLE: Technologies for Assessing Behavioral and Cognitive Markers of Suicide Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Brian
Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Rotella, Carlo M.; Faravelli, Carlo
Objective. Binge eating disorder is a serious, prevalent eating disorder that is associated with overweight. Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug that can promote weight loss. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of zonisamide as augmentation to individual cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of binge eating disorder patients. Design: controlled open study. Participants: Twenty four threshold and subthreshold binge eating disorder patients were enrolled in the cognitive behavioral therapy treatment group, and 28 patients in the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group. Measurements: At the beginning (T0), at the end (T1) of treatment, and one year after the end of treatment (T2), body mass index was measured and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Binge Eating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered. Results. At T1 the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group showed a higher mean reduction of body mass index, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Binge Eating Scale scores. At T2, the cognitive behavior therapy group regained weight, while the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group reduced their body mass and showed a higher reduction in binge eating frequency and Binge Eating Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Restraint, and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory scores. Conclusion. The zonisamide augmentation to individual cognitive behavior therapy can improve the treatment of binge eating disorder patients, reducing body weight and the number of binge eating episodes. These results are maintained one year after the end of treatment. PMID:20049147
Orr, Mark G; Plaut, David C
To provide proof-of-concept that quantum health behavior can be instantiated as a computational model that is informed by cognitive science, the Theory of Reasoned Action, and quantum health behavior theory. We conducted a synthetic review of the intersection of quantum health behavior change and cognitive science. We conducted simulations, using a computational model of quantum health behavior (a constraint satisfaction artificial neural network) and tested whether the model exhibited quantum-like behavior. The model exhibited clear signs of quantum-like behavior. Quantum health behavior can be conceptualized as constraint satisfaction: a mitigation between current behavioral state and the social contexts in which it operates. We outlined implications for moving forward with computational models of both quantum health behavior and health behavior in general.
Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam
Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…
Thackwray, Donna E.; And Others
Examined the relative efficacy of different treatment approaches for bulimia nervosa. Follow-up of a study using cognitive-behavioral, behavioral, and placebo groups show six-month abstinence highest in the cognitive behavioral group. Results support conceptualization of bulimia nervosa as a multifaceted disorder best treated with an approach that…
Effects of Cognitive Versus Cognitive-Behavioral Divorce-Parenting Programs on Parental Conflict, Intimate Violence, Parental Communication, Divorce-Related Parental Behaviors and Children's Behavioral Problems
This study examines the effects of two State of Florida mandated divorce- parenting classes, one cognitive-based and the other cognitive-behavioral based, on several individual and family variables...
Raylu, Namrata; Oei, Tian Po S; Loo, Jasmine M Y; Tsai, Jung-Shun
Currently, cognitive behavioral therapies appear to be one of the most studied treatments for gambling problems and studies show it is effective in treating gambling problems. However, cognitive behavior models have not been widely tested using statistical means. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the validity of the pathways postulated in the cognitive behavioral theory of gambling behavior using structural equation modeling (AMOS 20). Several questionnaires assessing a range of gambling specific variables (e.g., gambling urges, cognitions and behaviors) and gambling correlates (e.g., psychological states, and coping styles) were distributed to 969 participants from the community. Results showed that negative psychological states (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress) only directly predicted gambling behavior, whereas gambling urges predicted gambling behavior directly as well as indirectly via gambling cognitions. Avoidance coping predicted gambling behavior only indirectly via gambling cognitions. Negative psychological states were significantly related to gambling cognitions as well as avoidance coping. In addition, significant gender differences were also found. The results provided confirmation for the validity of the pathways postulated in the cognitive behavioral theory of gambling behavior. It also highlighted the importance of gender differences in conceptualizing gambling behavior.
Among other mechanisms, behavioral and cognitive development entail, on the one hand, contextual scaffolding and, on the other hand, neuromodulation of adaptive neurocognitive representations across the life span. Key brain networks underlying cognition, emotion, and motivation are innervated by major transmitter systems (e.g., the catecholamines…
Wood, Jeffrey J.; Piacentini, John C.; Southam-Gerow, Michael; Chu, Brian C.; Sigman, Marian
Objective: This study compared family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT: the Building Confidence Program) with traditional child-focused CBT with minimal family involvement for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Forty clinically anxious youth (6-13 years old) were randomly assigned to a family- or child-focused cognitive-behavioral…
Butters, Jonathan W.; Cash, Thomas F.
Assigned college women with a significant level of body-image dissatisfaction to a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) program or to a waiting-list control group. The CBT program successfully improved affective body image, weakened maladaptive body-image cognitions, and enhanced social self-esteem and feelings about physical fitness and…
Barriga, Alvaro Q.; Morrison, Elizabeth M.; Liau, Albert K.; Gibbs, John C.
Examined whether gender discrepancy in late adolescents' antisocial behavior may be attributed to gender differences in other moral cognitive variables. Found that mature moral judgment and higher moral self-relevance were associated with lower self-serving cognitive distortion, partially mediating the relationship between those variables and…
This thesis analyses the concept of the 'human being' (ningen) in the philosophies of the two modern Japanese intellectuals Miki Kiyoshi and Watsuji Tetsuro. I demonstrate that their philosophical systems, based on the idea that the creation of a new Japanese human being should have coincided with
Judd, L.L.; Schettler, P.J.; Brown, E.S.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Sternberg, E.M.; Bender, B.G.; Bulloch, K.; Cidlowski, J.A.; Kloet, E.R. de; Fardet, L.; Joels, M.; Leung, D.Y.; McEwen, B.S.; Roozendaal, B.; Rossum, E.F. van; Ahn, J.; Brown, D.W.; Plitt, A.; Singh, G.
Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as
Full Text Available Asperger syndrome (AS is a subtype of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD characterized by major problems in social and nonverbal communication, together with limited and repetitive forms of behavior and interests. The linguistic and cognitive development in AS is preserved which help us to differentiate it from other subtypes of ASD. However, significant effects of AS on cognitive abilities and brain functions still need to be researched. Although a clear cut pathology for Asperger has not been identified yet, recent studies have largely focused on brain imaging techniques to investigate AS. In this regard, we carried out a systematic review on behavioral, cognitive, and neural markers (specifically using MRI and fMRI studies on AS. In this paper, behavior, motor skills and language capabilities of individuals with Asperger are compared to those in healthy controls. In addition, common findings across MRI and fMRI based studies associated with behavior and cognitive disabilities are highlighted.
Judd, Lewis L.; Schettler, Pamela J.; Brown, E. Sherwood; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Sternberg, Esther M.; Bender, Bruce G.; Bulloch, Karen; Cidlowski, John A.; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Fardet, Laurence; Joëls, Marian; Leung, Donald Y. M.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Roozendaal, Benno; Van Rossum, Elisabeth F. C.; Ahn, Junyoung; Brown, David W.; Plitt, Aaron; Singh, Gagandeep
Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as
Natália Araújo Pacheco
Given the pervasive nature of service failures and their harmful consequences, it is important to understand how customers react to them. This doctoral dissertation addresses some of the customers’ cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions to service failures. More specifically, it investigates customers’ causal attributions, appraisals, and perceived control as cognitive reactions, as well as a wide range of emotional (e.g., regret, anger, disappointment, etc.) and behavioral reactions ...
Walf, Alicia A.; Frye, Cheryl A.
The ovarian hormone, 17β-estradiol (E2), has numerous targets in the body and brain, and can influence cognitive, affective, and social behavior. However, functional effects of commonly prescribed E2-based hormone therapies are less known. The effects of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) on middle-aged female rats for cognitive (object recognition), anxiety (open field, plus maze), and social (social interaction, lordosis) behavior were compared-with vehicle. Our hypothesis that CEE would enha...
Richter, Kneginja; Miloseva, Lence; Niklewski, Günter; Piehl, Anja
Introduction: Insomnia is a most common in elderly patients. World wide experience showed that Cognitive behavioral program in treating insomnia is one of the best effective model. Objectives: The present study aim to present clinical experience from University Clinic Nuremberg, Centre for Sleeping Medicine with application of Cognitive behavioral program in treating insomnia among elderly. Material and Methods: The sample consists of 22 patients with chronic insomnia (10 primary insom...
Alhammad, Muna; Gulliver, Stephen; Wiafe, Isaac; Nakata, Keiichi
Existing research has given little attention to the relationship between culture characteristics and consumer’s internal beliefs particularly in the pre-purchase stage, and how this relationship affects consumer’s purchase decision. This paper considers the theory of cognitive dissonance and its extended model (the 3D-RAB), as a means to study the current distribution of consumer’s pre-purchase cognitive dissonance, which allows us to investigate the effects of culture characteristics on this...
Södersten, P; Bergh, C; Leon, M; Brodin, U; Zandian, M
We examine the science and evidence supporting cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for the treatment of bulimia nervosa and other eating disorders. Recent trials focusing on the abnormal cognitive and emotional aspects of bulimia have reported a remission rate of about 45%, and a relapse rate of about 30% within one year. However, an early CBT trial that emphasized the normalization of eating behavior had a better outcome than treatment that focused on cognitive intervention. In support of this finding, another treatment, that restores a normal eating behavior using mealtime feedback, has an estimated remission rate of about 75% and a relapse rate of about 10% over five years. Moreover, when eating behavior was normalized, cognitive and emotional abnormalities were resolved at remission without cognitive therapy. The critical aspect of the CBT treatment of bulimia nervosa therefore may actually have been the normalization of eating behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Frank M. Dattilio
Full Text Available This article addresses the efficacy of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and the increasing global popularity of the approach among various cultures with a broad range of emotional and behavioral disorders. The article specifically discusses future direction in the field and implications for practitioners in various cultures.
Tashiro, Ty; Frazier, Patricia
The authors conducted 2 translational studies that assessed the causal effects of emotion on maladaptive cognitions and behaviors in couples. Specifically, the authors examined whether negative emotions increased and positive emotions decreased partner attributions and demand-withdraw behaviors. Study 1 (N=164) used video clips to assess the…
Ryan, Tracey Ellen; Blau, Shawn; Grozeva, Dima
This article describes an experimental undergraduate psychology course that ran for two semesters during the 2009 academic year at a private, urban university in the United States. Students learned the techniques and strategies of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) with a focus on the practical elements…
Sharpanskykh, A.; Treur, J.
In cognitive systems the behavior of an actor (an agent) can be considered from both an external and an internal perspective. This paper contributes an automated procedure for translating a given external behavioral specification into an executable specification of internal dynamics, by which the
Kable, Joseph W; Caulfield, M Kathleen; Falcone, Mary; McConnell, Mairead; Bernardo, Leah; Parthasarathi, Trishala; Cooper, Nicole; Ashare, Rebecca; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Hornik, Robert; Diefenbach, Paul; Lee, Frank J; Lerman, Caryn
Increased preference for immediate over delayed rewards and for risky over certain rewards has been associated with unhealthy behavioral choices. Motivated by evidence that enhanced cognitive control can shift choice behavior away from immediate and risky rewards, we tested whether training executive cognitive function could influence choice behavior and brain responses. In this randomized controlled trial, 128 young adults (71 male, 57 female) participated in 10 weeks of training with either a commercial web-based cognitive training program or web-based video games that do not specifically target executive function or adapt the level of difficulty throughout training. Pretraining and post-training, participants completed cognitive assessments and functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of the following validated decision-making tasks: delay discounting (choices between smaller rewards now vs larger rewards in the future) and risk sensitivity (choices between larger riskier rewards vs smaller certain rewards). Contrary to our hypothesis, we found no evidence that cognitive training influences neural activity during decision-making; nor did we find effects of cognitive training on measures of delay discounting or risk sensitivity. Participants in the commercial training condition improved with practice on the specific tasks they performed during training, but participants in both conditions showed similar improvement on standardized cognitive measures over time. Moreover, the degree of improvement was comparable to that observed in individuals who were reassessed without any training whatsoever. Commercial adaptive cognitive training appears to have no benefits in healthy young adults above those of standard video games for measures of brain activity, choice behavior, or cognitive performance. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Engagement of neural regions and circuits important in executive cognitive function can bias behavioral choices away from immediate
Brand, Alice G.
Although contemporary psychologists generally acknowledge the significance of affect in human experience, few have attempted to understand its role in cognitive processes. The same can be said of writing specialists. In fact, New Criticism, so long dominant in American literary thinking, still continues to influence the emotions writers disclose…
Full Text Available There is an increasing recognition that cyber warfare is an important area of development for targeting and weaponeering, with far-reaching effects in national defense and economic security. The ability to conduct effective operations in cyberspace relies on a robust situational awareness of events occurring in both the physical and information domains, with an understanding of how they affect the cognitive domain of friendly, neutral, and adversary population sets. The dynamic nature of the battlefield complicates efforts to understand shifting adversary motivations and intentions. There are very few approaches, to date, that systematically evaluate the effects of the repertoire of cyber weapons on the cognitive, perceptual, and behavioral characteristics of the adversary. In this paper, we describe a software environment called Cognitive Cyber Weapon Selection Tool (CCWST that simulates a scenario involving cyber weaponry.This tool provides the capabilities to test weapons which may induce behavioral state changes in the adversaries. CCWST provides the required situational awareness to the Cyber Information Operations (IO planner to conduct intelligent weapon selection during weapon activation in order to induce the desired behavioral change in the perception of the adversary. Weapons designed to induce the cognitive state changes of deception, distraction, distrust and confusion were then tested empirically to evaluate the capabilities and expected cognitive state changes induced by these weapons. The results demonstrated that CCWST is a powerful environment within which to test and evaluate the impact of cyber weapons on influencing cognitive behavioral states during information processing.
den Boer, Larissa; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; Vincken, Koen L; Mol, Chris P; Stuijfzand, Bobby G; van der Gijp, Anouk
The interpretation of medical images is a primary task for radiologists. Besides two-dimensional (2D) images, current imaging technologies allow for volumetric display of medical images. Whereas current radiology practice increasingly uses volumetric images, the majority of studies on medical image interpretation is conducted on 2D images. The current study aimed to gain deeper insight into the volumetric image interpretation process by examining this process in twenty radiology trainees who all completed four volumetric image cases. Two types of data were obtained concerning scroll behaviors and think-aloud data. Types of scroll behavior concerned oscillations, half runs, full runs, image manipulations, and interruptions. Think-aloud data were coded by a framework of knowledge and skills in radiology including three cognitive processes: perception, analysis, and synthesis. Relating scroll behavior to cognitive processes showed that oscillations and half runs coincided more often with analysis and synthesis than full runs, whereas full runs coincided more often with perception than oscillations and half runs. Interruptions were characterized by synthesis and image manipulations by perception. In addition, we investigated relations between cognitive processes and found an overall bottom-up way of reasoning with dynamic interactions between cognitive processes, especially between perception and analysis. In sum, our results highlight the dynamic interactions between these processes and the grounding of cognitive processes in scroll behavior. It suggests, that the types of scroll behavior are relevant to describe how radiologists interact with and manipulate volumetric images.
Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus; Norell-Clarke, Annika
Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been an increased focus on developing and testing cognitive components and therapies for insomnia disorder. The aim of the current review was thus to describe and review the efficacy of cognitive components and therapies for insomnia. A systematic review was conducted on 32 studies (N = 1455 subjects) identified through database searches. Criteria for inclusion required that each study constituted a report of outcome from a cognitive component or therapy, that the study had a group protocol, adult participants with diagnosed insomnia or undiagnosed insomnia symptoms or reported poor sleep, and that the study was published until and including 2016 in English. Each study was systematically reviewed with a standard coding sheet. Several cognitive components, a multi-component cognitive program, and cognitive therapy were identified. It is concluded that there is support for paradoxical intention and cognitive therapy. There are also other cognitive interventions that appears promising, such as cognitive refocusing and behavioral experiments. For most interventions, the study quality was rated as low to moderate. We conclude that several cognitive treatment components and therapies can be viewed as efficacious or promising interventions for patients with insomnia disorder. Methodologically stronger studies are, however, warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Froján Parga, María X; Núñez de Prado Gordillo, Miguel; de Pascual Verdú, Ricardo
the main purpose of this study is to offer an alternative explanatory account of the functioning of cognitive techniques that is based on the principles of associative learning and highlights their verbal nature. The traditional accounts are questioned and analyzed in the light of the situation of psychology in the 1970s. conceptual analysis is employed to revise the concepts of language, cognition and behavior. Several operant- and Pavlovian-based approaches to these phenomena are presented, while particular emphasis is given to Mowrer’s (1954) approach and Ryle (1949) and Wittgenstein’s (1953) philosophical contributions to the field. several logical problems are found in regard to the theoretical foundations of cognitive techniques. A combination of both operant and Pavlovian paradigms based on the above-mentioned approaches is offered as an alternative explanatory account of cognitive techniques. This new approach could overcome the conceptual fragilities of the cognitive standpoint and its dependence upon constructs of dubious logical and scientific validity.
Robert J. Taormina; Blair K. H. Chong
This study examined the extent to which cognitive dissonance exists among Chinese gamblers as a consequence of gambling while holding negative attitudes toward gambling, which are inherent in China’s traditional cultural values. Using the behavioral variable of actual gambling and an attitudinal variable of negative beliefs about gambling, a third, practical measure of cognitive dissonance was developed. By using questionnaires completed by 200 adult Chinese respondents, these measures were e...
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the main approaches in psychotherapy. It teaches the patient to examine the link between dysfunctional thoughts and maladaptive behaviors and to re- evaluate the cognitive biases involved in the maintenance of symptoms by using strategies such as guided discovery. CBT is constantly evolving in part to improve its' effectiveness and accessibility. Thus in the last decade, increasingly popular approaches based on mindfulness and acceptance have emerged. These therapies do not attempt to modify cognitions even when they are biased and dysfunctional but rather seek a change in the relationship between the individual and the symptoms. This article aims to present the historical context that has allowed the emergence of this trend, the points of convergence and divergence with traditional CBT as well as a brief presentation of the different therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. Hayes (2004) described three successive waves in behavior therapy, each characterized by "dominant assumptions, methods and goals": traditional behavior therapy, cognitive therapy and therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. The latter consider that human suffering occurs when the individual lives a restricted life in order avoid pain and immediate discomfort to the detriment of his global wellbeing. These therapies combine mindfulness, experiential, acceptance strategies with traditional behavior principles in order to attain lasting results. There are significant points of convergence between traditional CBT and therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. They are both empirically validated, based upon a theoretical model postulating that avoidance is key in the maintenance of psychopathology and they recommend an approach strategy in order to overcome the identified problem. They both use behavioral techniques in the context of a collaborative relationship in order to identify precise problems and to
Lábadi, Beatrix; Beke, Anna Maria
Agenesis of corpus callosum is a relatively frequent congenital cerebral malformation including dysplasia, total or partial absence of corpus callosum. The agenesis of corpus callosum can be occured in isolated form without accompanying somatic or central nervous system abnormalities and it can be associated with other central nervus system malformations. The behavioral and cognitive outcome is more favorable for patients with isolated agenesis of corpus callous than syndromic form of corpus callosum. The aim of this study is to review recent research on behavioral and social-cognitive functions in individuals with agenesis of corpus callosum. Developmental delay is common especially in higher-order cognitive and social functions. An internet database search was performed to identify publications on the subject. Fifty-five publications in English corresponded to the criteria. These studies reported deficits in language, social cognition and emotions in individuals with agenesis of corpus callosum which is known as primary corpus callous syndrome. The results indicate that individuals with agenesis of corpus callosum have deficiency in social-cognitive domain (recognition of emotions, weakness in paralinguistic aspects of language and mentalizing abilities). The impaired social cognition can be manifested in behavioral problems like autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Cristiane Figueiredo Araújo
Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of cognitive-behavior therapy is that it is based on a specific clinical formulation of the case. This means that the therapist, using interviews and inventories, in a particular way, needs to understand and integrate the history of his/her client and his/her current problems. Clinical strategies can be then tailored to deal with the clients difficulties. The establishment of adequate and warm interpersonal and therapeutical relationship depends greatly on this empathic and accurate understanding of the clients problems. The present article intends to present this approach to case formulation based on a cognitive behavior perspective. It also includes a brief review of theoretic-clinical aspects, assessment tools and suggested procedures. The conclusion is that an adequate formulation is essential to success in psychotherapy. Keywords: cognitive-behavior therapy; case formulation; psychodiagnosis.
Berardelli, Isabella; Bloise, Maria Carmela; Bologna, Matteo; Conte, Antonella; Pompili, Maurizio; Lamis, Dorian A; Pasquini, Massimo; Fabbrini, Giovanni
The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether cognitive behavioral group therapy has a positive impact on psychiatric, and motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). We assigned 20 PD patients with a diagnosis of psychiatric disorder to either a 12-week cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group or a psychoeducational protocol. For the neurological examination, we administered the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the non-motor symptoms scale. The severity of psychiatric symptoms was assessed by means of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and the Clinical Global Impressions. Cognitive behavioral group therapy was effective in treating depression and anxiety symptoms as well as reducing the severity of non-motor symptoms in PD patients; whereas, no changes were observed in PD patients treated with the psychoeducational protocol. CBT offered in a group format should be considered in addition to standard drug therapy in PD patients.
Alban, Michael W; Pocknell, Victoria
Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions. Study 3 tested if individual differences in motivational orientation affect preference for a "freeze" option when the efficacy of options is held constant. A trend in the predicted direction suggested that naturally occurring cognitions led loss-avoiders to select "freeze" more often than reward-seekers. In combination, our attention to the cognitive factors affecting freeze-like behavior in humans represents a preliminary step in addressing an important but neglected research area.
Full Text Available The sample included 712 preschool boys and girls at the age of 4 to 7 years (mean 5.96 decimal years and standard deviation .96 from preschool institutions in Novi Sad, Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica and Bačka Palanka. Information concerning 36 indicators of aberrant behavior of the children were supplied by their parents, whereas their cognitive ability was tested by Raven’s progressive colored matrices. Based on factor analysis (promax method, four factors i.e. generators of aberrant behavior in children were singled out: aggression, anxiousness, dissociation, and hysteria, whose relations with cognitive functioning and age were also analyzed by factor analysis. Aberrant behavior and cognitive abilities show significant interrelatedness. Owing to orderly developed cognitive abilities, a child understands essence and reality of problems, realizes possibilities and manners of solving them, and succeeds in realizing successful psycho-social functioning. Developed cognitive abilities enable a child to recognize and understand her/his own reactions in different situations and develop manners of reacting, which leads to strengthening psycho-social safety and adapting behavior in accordance with her/his age and abilities.
Callender, Kevin A
In general, United States citizens have become increasingly more accepting of lesbians and gay men over the past few decades. Despite this shift in public attitudes, antigay bias remains openly tolerated, accepted, practiced, and even defended by a substantial portion of the population. This article reviews why and how antigay bias persists using a cognitive-affective-behavioral perspective that touches on sociocognitive factors such as prejudice and stereotyping, as well as features unique to antigay bias, such as its concealable nature. The article concludes with a discussion of how understanding modern antigay bias through a cognitive-affective-behavioral lens can be applied to reduce discrimination against gays and lesbians.
Priyamvada, Richa; Kumari, Sapna; Prakash, Jai; Chaudhury, Suprakash
Cognitive behavior therapy is probably the most well-known and the most practiced form of modern psychotherapy and has been integrated into highly structured package for the treatment of patients suffering from social phobia. The present case study is an attempt to provide therapeutic intervention program to a 27-year-old, unmarried Christian man suffering from social phobia. The patient was treated by using cognitive behavioral techniques. After 17 sessions of therapeutic intervention program, significant improvement was found. He was under follow-up for a period of 6 months and recovered to the premorbid level of functioning. PMID:21234166
Mehrangiz Shoaa Kazemi
Full Text Available Infidelity is the most frequently cited cause of divorce and is described by couple therapists as among the most difficult problems to treat.im of this study was effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy for betrayed women in Tehran city Method was pre experimental. Sampling was purposeful in which 15 wives (20-35 years old were selected. They had experienced betrayals that were participating in cognitive- behavioral therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy sessions at three stages sessions after preliminary interview they were assessed by the spouse betrayal examination questionnaire and general health questionnaire-28 in pre-training. Then they had every week 1 session of 90 minutes. After the end of session again assessed by post-test. Mean and standard deviation of mental health showed significantly difference after sessions at post-test stage. There was significant effect in cognitive -behavioral therapy of sessions for improving mental health of betrayed women. We recommend behavioral technique in similar situations for betrayed women.
Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function
Ruiter Robert AC
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Method Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446 filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions, accident experience, and social-cognitive determinants as suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Results Regression analysis revealed that the proximal variables (i.e., self-efficacy, attitudes towards drunk driving, personal norm regarding safekeeping of self and others, and compared risk were able to predict 17% of the variance of risky behavior and 23% of the variance of risky intentions. The full model explained respectively 29% and 37% of the variance in risky behavior and risky intentions. Adolescents with positive attitudes towards risky behavior and low sense of responsibility report risky behavior, even when having been (close to an accident. Conclusions Adolescents realize whether they are risk takers or not. This implies that the focus of education programs should not be on risk perceptions, but on decreasing positive attitudes towards alcohol in traffic and increasing sense of responsibility instead. Cognitions regarding near accidents should be studied, the role of safe cycling self-efficacy is unclear.
Paulsen, Jane S; Miller, Amanda C; Hayes, Terry; Shaw, Emily
Phenotypic manifestations of Huntington disease (HD) can be detected at least 15 years prior to the time when a motor diagnosis is given. Advances in clinical care and future research will require consistent use of HD definitions and HD premanifest (prodromal) stages being used across clinics, sites, and countries. Cognitive and behavioral (psychiatric) changes in HD are summarized and implications for ongoing advancement in our knowledge of prodromal HD are suggested. The earliest detected cognitive changes are observed in the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Stroop Interference, Stroop Color and Word Test-interference condition, and Trail Making Test. Cognitive changes in the middle and near motor diagnostic stages of prodromal HD involve nearly every cognitive test administered and the greatest changes over time (i.e., slopes) are found in those prodromal HD participants who are nearest to motor diagnosis. Psychiatric changes demonstrate significant worsening over time and remain elevated compared with healthy controls throughout the prodromal disease course. Psychiatric and behavior changes in prodromal HD are much lower than that obtained using cognitive assessment, although the psychiatric and behavioral changes represent symptoms most debilitating to independent capacity and wellness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Williams, T. J.; Norsk, P.; Zwart, S.; Crucian, B.; Simonsen, L. C.; Antonsen, E.
Deep Space Gateway missions provide testing grounds to identify the risk of both behavioral performance and cognitive perturbations caused by stressors of spaceflight such as radiation, fluid shifts, sleep deprivation, chronic stress, and others.
Rangé, Bernard P; Marlatt, G Alan
Cognitive-behavioral therapies have been successfully used to treat addiction. This article is in part a review on addiction models such as relapse prevention by Marlatt & Gordon, stages of change by Prochaska, DiClemente & Norcross, deriving from motivational interview, developed by Miller & Rollnick, as well as the cognitive models by Beck et al. Based on literature evidence for the development of effective treatment programs, we report on a group treatment model used in a group of alcoholics referred by the Department of Worker's Health Surveillance at Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro to the Alcoholism Rehabilitation and Research Center. Results are presented indicating that this type of treatment could be one alternative to others treatments in use. New research is needed to better validate cognitive-behavioral approach to alcohol and drug problems.
Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum.
Aharonovich, Efrat; Brooks, Adam C; Nunes, Edward V; Hasin, Deborah S
Clinical variables that affect treatment outcome for marijuana dependent individuals are not yet well understood, including the effects of cognitive functioning. To address this, level of cognitive functioning and treatment outcome were investigated. Twenty marijuana-dependent outpatients were administered a neuropsychological battery at treatment entry. All patients received 12 weekly individual sessions of combined motivational enhancement therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The Wilcoxon Exact Test was used to compare cognitive functioning test scores between completers and dropouts, and the Fisher Exact Test was used to compare proportion of negative urines between those with higher and lower scores on the cognitive tests. Marijuana abstinence was unrelated to cognitive functioning. However, dropouts scored significantly lower than completers on measures of abstract reasoning and processing accuracy, providing initial evidence that cognitive functioning plays a role in treatment retention of adult marijuana dependent patients. If supported by further studies, the findings may help inform the development of interventions tailored for cognitively impaired marijuana dependent patients. PMID:18329188
Nagata, Shinobu; Seki, Yoichi; Shibuya, Takayuki; Yokoo, Mizue; Murata, Tomokazu; Hiramatsu, Yoichi; Yamada, Fuminori; Ibuki, Hanae; Minamitani, Noriko; Yoshinaga, Naoki; Kusunoki, Muga; Inada, Yasushi; Kawasoe, Nobuko; Adachi, Soichiro; Oshiro, Keiko; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yoshimura, Kensuke; Nakazato, Michiko; Iyo, Masaomi; Nakagawa, Akiko; Shimizu, Eiji
Mental defeat and cognitive flexibility have been studied as explanatory factors for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. This study examined mental defeat and cognitive flexibility scores in patients with panic disorder (PD) before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and compared them to those of a gender- and age-matched healthy control group. Patients with PD (n = 15) received 16 weekly individual CBT sessions, and the control group (n = 35) received no treatment. Patients completed the Mental Defeat Scale and the Cognitive Flexibility Scale before the intervention, following eight CBT sessions, and following 16 CBT sessions, while the control group did so only prior to receiving CBT (baseline). The patients' pre-CBT Mental Defeat and Cognitive Flexibility Scale scores were significantly higher on the Mental Defeat Scale and lower on the Cognitive Flexibility Scale than those of the control group participants were. In addition, the average Mental Defeat Scale scores of the patients decreased significantly, from 22.2 to 12.4, while their average Cognitive Flexibility Scale scores increased significantly, from 42.8 to 49.5. These results suggest that CBT can reduce mental defeat and increase cognitive flexibility in patients with PD Trial registration The study was registered retrospectively in the national UMIN Clinical Trials Registry on June 10, 2016 (registration ID: UMIN000022693).
Baiyewu, Olusegun; Unverzagt, Fred W; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Smith-Gamble, Valerie; Gureje, Oye; Lane, Kathleen A; Gao, Sujuan; Hall, Kathleen S; Hendrie, Hugh C
Few studies have examined the neuropsychiatric status of patients with dementia and cognitive impairment in the developing world despite the fact that current demographic trends suggest an urgent need for such studies. To assess the level of neuropsychiatric symptoms in community-dwelling individuals with dementia, cognitive impairment no dementia and normal cognition. Subjects were from the Ibadan site of Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project with stable diagnoses of normal cognition, cognitive impairment, no dementia/mild cognitive impairment (CIND/MCI), and dementia. Informants of subjects made ratings on the neuropsychiatric inventory and blessed dementia scale; subjects were tested with the mini mental state examination. One hundred and eight subjects were included in the analytic sample, 21 were cognitively normal, 34 were demented, and 53 were CIND/MCI. The diagnostic groups did not differ in age, per cent female, or per cent with any formal education. The most frequent symptoms among subjects with CIND/MCI were depression (45.3%), apathy (37.7%), night time behavior (28.3%), appetite change (24.5%), irritability (22.6%), delusions (22.6%), anxiety (18.9%), and agitation (17.0%). Depression was significantly more frequent among the CIND/MCI and dementia (44.1%) groups compared with the normal cognition group (9.5%). Distress scores were highest for the dementia group, lowest for the normal cognition group, and intermediate for the CIND/MCI group. Significant neuropsychiatric symptomatology and distress are present among cognitively impaired persons in this community-based study of older adults in this sub-Saharan African country. Programs to assist family members of cognitively impaired and demented persons should be created or adapted for use in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hall, Matthew; Farkas, George
We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to estimate the effects of cognitive skills (measured by the Armed Forces Qualification Test) and attitudinal/behavioral traits (a latent factor based on self-reported self-esteem, locus of control, educational aspirations and educational expectations) on career wage…
Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Markowitz, Sarah; Petronko, Michael R.; Taylor, Caitlin E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Wilson, G. Terence
The onset of appearance-related concerns associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically occurs in adolescence, and these concerns are often severe enough to interfere with normal development and psychosocial functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for adults with BDD. However, no treatment studies…
Rosen, James C.; And Others
Randomly assigned 54 body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) subjects to cognitive behavior therapy or no treatment. BDD symptoms were significantly decreased in therapy subjects and the disorder was eliminated in 82 percent of cases at posttreatment and 77 percent at follow-up. Subjects' overall psychological symptoms and self-esteem also improved. (RJM)
Petry, Nancy M
Numerous types of treatments for pathological gambling have been described, but two of the most common are Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and cognitive-behavioral therapy. This paper describes some outcome data associated with the two approaches. It also reviews evidence suggesting that a combined intervention may enhance therapy engagement and reduce relapse rates.
Han, Q.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.; Lo, H.P.; Leung, Stephen C.H.; Tan, Susanna M.L.
Activity-based analysis has slowly shifted gear from analysis of daily activity patterns to analysis and modeling of dynamic activity-travel patterns. In this paper, we describe a dynamic model that is concerned with simulating cognitive and affective responses in spatial learning behavior for a
Ordman, Arnold M.; Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.
Examined the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia. Assigned 20 bulimic women to full- or brief-intervention therapy programs. Results indicated that full-intervention clients, relative to brief-intervention clients, substantially reduced the frequency of their bingeing-vomiting; improved their psychological adjustment; and…
Kendall, Philip C., Ed.
Widely regarded as the definitive clinical reference and text in the field, this authoritative volume presents effective cognitive-behavioral approaches for treating frequently encountered child and adolescent disorders. The editor and contributors are leading experts who provide hands-on, how-to-do-it descriptions illustrated with clinical…
Reports that expand the understanding of the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder by using exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in the age group of 5 to 8-year-olds are presented. A model for collecting the common core elements of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for childhood disorders is also presented.
Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.
This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…
Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; DeBar, Lynn L.; Firemark, Alison; Leung, Sue; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wilson, G. Terence
Whereas effective treatments exist for adults with recurrent binge eating, developmental factors specific to adolescents point to the need for a modified treatment approach for youth. We adapted an existing cognitive behavioral therapy treatment manual for adults with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (Fairburn, 2008) for use with…
The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…
Morin, Charles M.; And Others
Assigned 24 older adults with persistent psychophysiological insomnia to immediate or delayed cognitive-behavioral intervention in waiting-list control group design. Treatment was effective in reducing sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, and early morning awakening, and in increasing sleep efficiency. Sleep improvements obtained by…
Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Cohen, Judith A.
Schools are ideal settings for identifying children and adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic events. They are also ideal for providing evidence-based mental health services, such as trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, to students affected by childhood posttraumatic stress disorder and co-occurring mental health and behavioral…
Neu, Wayne A.
Pedagogical strategies can be thought of as a set of stimuli placed in students' environment to influence their cognition, affect, and behavior. The design of strategies such as group assignments and a comprehensive understanding of their consequences for students should then include an analysis of all three of these elements and the…
Cognitive behavioral-training (CBT) is an evidence-based practice commonly used to help treat insomnia, and is part of NASA's countermeasure regimen for Fatigue Management. CBT addresses the life style and habits of individuals that are maladaptive to managing stress and fatigue. This includes addressing learned behavioral responses that may cause stress and lead to an increased sense of fatigue. While the initial cause of onset of fatigue in the individual may be no longer present, the perception and engrained anticipation of fatigue persist and cause an exaggerated state of tension. CBT combined with relaxation training allows the individual to unlearn the maladaptive beliefs and behaviors and replace them with routines and techniques that allow cognitive restructuring and resultant relief from stress. CBT allows for elimination in individuals of unwanted ruminating thoughts and anticipatory anxiety by, for example, training the individuals to practice stressful situations in a relaxed state. As a result of CBT, relaxation can be accomplished in many ways, such as progressive muscle relaxation, meditation and guided imagery. CBT is not therapy, but rather the synthesis of behavioral countermeasures. CBT utilizes progressive relaxation as a means of reinforcing educational and cognitive countermeasures. These countermeasures include: masking, elimination of distracting thoughts, anxiety control, split attention, cognitive restructuring and other advanced psychological techniques.
Wilhelm, Sabine; Phillips, Katharine A.; Fama, Jeanne M.; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Steketee, Gail
This study pilot tested a newly developed modular cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment manual for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome in a sample of 12 adults with primary BDD. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 18 or 22 weeks. Standardized clinician ratings…
Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most prevalent psychotic disorder. In order to cure and prevent the recurrence of this disease, it is necessary to gain more information about remedial methods like Group Cognitive- Behavior Therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the amount of depression on the patients. Methods: This study was experimental and it included both experimental and control group with a pre test. The subjects were selected from patients with mild depression. Their Beck inventory score ranged between 17-20. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. The subjects of experimental group received eight sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. The Beck depression test was completed by the subjects in three phases before the intervention, after the intervention and one month after that. The data was transferred to SPSS program and analyzed. Results: The results indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control group after the intervention at Beck tests (P=0.043. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the experimental group between the depression score in patients before and after the intervention (p=0.033 and the score of patients before and one month after the intervention (p=0.492. Conclusion: Group Cognitive-Behavioral therapy decreases depression in patients who suffer from mild depression.
Solomon, Laura J.; Rothblum, Esther D.
Investigated the frequency of and reasons for college students' (N=342) procrastination on academic tasks. A high percentage of students reported problems with procrastination. Results indicated that procrastination is not solely a deficit in study habits or time management but involves a complex interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and affective…
Jozwiak, Natalia; Postuma, Ronald B; Montplaisir, Jacques; Latreille, Véronique; Panisset, Michel; Chouinard, Sylvain; Bourgouin, Pierre-Alexandre; Gagnon, Jean-François
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia affecting 33% to 46% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The existence of a unique and specific impaired cognitive profile in PD patients with RBD is still controversial. We extensively assessed cognitive functions to identify whether RBD is associated with more severe cognitive deficits in nondemented patients with PD. One hundred sixty-two participants, including 53 PD patients with RBD, 40 PD patients without RBD, and 69 healthy subjects, underwent polysomnography, a neurological assessment and an extensive neuropsychological exam to assess attention, executive functions, episodic learning and memory, visuospatial abilities, and language. PD patients with RBD had poorer and clinically impaired performance in several cognitive tests compared to PD patients without RBD and healthy subjects. These two latter groups were similar on all cognitive measures. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosis frequency was almost threefold higher in PD patients with RBD compared to PD patients without RBD (66% vs. 23%, p < .001). Moreover, subjective cognitive decline was reported in 89% of PD patients with RBD compared to 58% of PD patients without RBD (p = .024). RBD in PD is associated with a more impaired cognitive profile and higher MCI diagnosis frequency, suggesting more severe and widespread neurodegeneration. This patient subgroup and their caregivers should receive targeted medical attention to better detect and monitor impairment and to enable the development of management interventions for cognitive decline and its consequences. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail email@example.com.
Serangeli, Jordi; Van Kolfschoten, Thijs; Starkovich, Britt M; Verheijen, Ivo
The 300,000 year old Lower Paleolithic site Schöningen 13 II-4 became world famous with the discovery of the oldest well-preserved and complete wooden spears. Through ongoing excavations, new archaeological discoveries of scientific importance are still being made from the same archaeological layer where the spears were found. In this context, remains of a rare carnivore species, the European saber-toothed cat (Homotherium latidens), were recovered. Here we present five teeth and one humerus fragment that are unambiguously from two individual saber-toothed cats. The humerus is a unique specimen; it shows evidence of hominin impacts and use as a percussor. The Homotherium remains from Schöningen are the best documented finds of this species in an archaeological setting and they are amongst the youngest specimens of Homotherium in Europe. The presence of this species as a carnivore competitor would certainly have impacted the lives of late Middle Pleistocene hominins. The discovery illustrates the possible day-to-day challenges that the Schöningen hominins would have faced and suggests that the wooden spears were not necessarily only used for hunting, but possibly also as a weapon for self-defense. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study examined the association between smoking, physical activity and dietary choice at 36 and 43 years, and change in these lifestyle behaviors between these ages, and decline in verbal memory and visual search speed between 43 and 60–64 years in 1018 participants from MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD, the British 1946 birth cohort. ANCOVA models were adjusted for sex, social class of origin, childhood cognition, educational attainment, adult social class, and depression; then the lifestyle behaviors were additionally mutually adjusted. Results showed that healthy dietary choice and physical activity were associated, respectively, with slower memory and visual search speed decline over 20 years, with evidence that increasing physical activity was important. Adopting positive health behaviors from early midlife may be beneficial in reducing the rate of cognitive decline and ultimately reducing the risk of dementia.
Waller, Glenn; Stringer, Hannah; Meyer, Caroline
Objective: Clinicians commonly "drift" away from using proven therapeutic techniques. This study examined the degree to which such drift occurs among cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clinicians working with a specific clinical population--adults with eating disorders. Method: The study used a correlational design. The participants were…
Full Text Available The aim of this review article is to provide an integrative perspective by combining basic assumptions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT with neuroscience research results. In recent years, interdisciplinary research in the field of neuroscience has expanded our knowledge about neurobiological correlates of mental processes and changes occurring in the brain due to therapeutic interventions. The studies are largely based on non-invasive brain imaging techniques, such as functional neuroimaging technologies of positron emission tomography (PET and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The neuroscientific investigations of basic CBT hypotheses have shown that (i functional and non-functional behavior and experiences may be learned through lifelong learning, due to brain neuroplasticity that continues across the entire lifespan; (ii cognitive activity contributes to dysfunctional behavior and emotional experience through focusing, selective perception, memory and recall, and characteristic cognitive distortion; on a neurobiological level, there is a relationship between top-down and bottom-up regulation of unpleasant emotional states; and (iii cognitive activity may be changed, as shown by therapeutic success achieved by metacognitive and mindfulness techniques, which also have their neurobiological correlates in the changes occurring in the cortical and subcortical structures and endocrine and immune systems. The empirical research also shows that neurobiological changes occur after CBT in patients with arachnophobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, major depressive disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome.disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome.
Robert J. Taormina
Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which cognitive dissonance exists among Chinese gamblers as a consequence of gambling while holding negative attitudes toward gambling, which are inherent in China’s traditional cultural values. Using the behavioral variable of actual gambling and an attitudinal variable of negative beliefs about gambling, a third, practical measure of cognitive dissonance was developed. By using questionnaires completed by 200 adult Chinese respondents, these measures were examined in relation to a set of relevant independent variables frequently tested in the gambling literature. Cognitive dissonance was expected to have significant negative correlations with traditional Chinese values and family support, and a significant positive correlation with neuroticism. Cognitive dissonance was also expected to be negatively correlated with two personal outcomes, i.e. self-actualization and life satisfaction. The results supported these hypotheses, which confirmed the validity of the new measures, and that cognitive dissonance does indeed exist among Chinese gamblers. The results also found that Chinese gamblers, even though they do gamble, also hold negative attitudes toward gambling, with more cognitive dissonance strongly associated with higher levels of gambling. This provides a new perspective on studying Chinese gambling, and offers a possible strategy to help pathological gamblers, for example, by advising them that their negative beliefs about gambling reflect the positive moral values of their society’s traditional culture, an approach that may be effective in reducing excessive gambling.
McEvoy, Peter M; Burgess, Melissa M; Nathan, Paula
Interpersonal functioning is a key determinant of psychological well-being, and interpersonal problems (IPs) are common among individuals with psychiatric disorders. However, IPs are rarely formally assessed in clinical practice or within cognitive behavior therapy research trials as predictors of treatment attrition and outcome. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IPs, depressogenic cognitions, and treatment outcome in a large clinical sample receiving cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for depression in a community clinic. Patients (N=144) referred for treatment completed measures of IPs, negative cognitions, depression symptoms, and quality of life (QoL) before and at the completion of a 12-week manualized CBGT protocol. Two IPs at pre-treatment, 'finding it hard to be supportive of others' and 'not being open about problems,' were associated with higher attrition. Pre-treatment IPs also predicted higher post-treatment depression symptoms (but not QoL) after controlling for pre-treatment symptoms, negative cognitions, demographics, and comorbidity. In particular, 'difficulty being assertive' and a 'tendency to subjugate one's needs' were associated with higher post-treatment depression symptoms. Changes in IPs did not predict post-treatment depression symptoms or QoL when controlling for changes in negative cognitions, pre-treatment symptoms, demographics, and comorbidity. In contrast, changes in negative cognitions predicted both post-treatment depression and QoL, even after controlling for changes in IPs and the other covariates. Correlational design, potential attrition bias, generalizability to other disorders and treatments needs to be evaluated. Pre-treatment IPs may increase risk of dropout and predict poorer outcomes, but changes in negative cognitions during treatment were most strongly associated with improvement in symptoms and QoL during CBGT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: This study was aimed to find out the effect of CBT on the behaviors i.e. depressive, agressive and antisocial behaviors as well as cognitive functions of patients who were treated in rehabilitation unit at a drug addiction hospital (Rumah Sakit Ketergantungan Obat in Jakarta. Method: The research design was Quasi experimental pre-post test without control group by providing intervention: CBT for 6 sessions (10–12 times intervention. The population was all patients in the rehabilitation unit with a nursing diagnosis: low self esteem and/or inffective coping strategies. There were 23 participants who involved in this investigation. The data was analized by using dependent and independent sample t, and anova tests. Result: The results showed that p value for depressive behaviours, agressive behaviurs, antisocial behaviors, and cognitive functions were 0.914; 0.001; 0.039; 0.003 respectively. The outcomes indicated that there was significant impact of CBT on agressive behaviors, antisocial behaviors, and cognitive functions (α = 0.05, p value 0.05. Discussion: It is argued that depressive symptoms might not be apparent for the users in rehabilitative phase. The findings also showed that there was significant relation between antisocial behaviors and the length of drug usage. This affirms exsiting concepts in that long drug usage brings about serious damage in the users' behaviors and cognitive functions. It is recommended, therefore, to include CBT as an important intervention for clients with drug abuse problems who are cared in rehabilitation center.
Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit
This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…
The article briefly reviews the changes that occurred in the field of grief and bereavement, viewing it as a process of searching for a "rational" meaning to life without the deceased in line with the concept of continuing bonds and thus replacing that of Fred’s concept of decathexis. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) evidenced-based studies for PTSD and complicated grief and the Cognitive-behavioral therapy − Rational-emotion behavior therapy (CBT-REBT) model for grief are reviewed. The foc...
Johansson, C; Dahl, J; Jannert, M; Melin, L; Andersson, G
A cognitive behavioral multidisciplinary pain management program was evaluated in two separate outcome studies; one controlled study (study I) and one study conducted on a consecutive sample with a long-term follow-up (study II). The 4-week inpatient treatment program included education sessions, goal setting, graded activity training, pacing, applied relaxation, cognitive techniques, social skills training, drug reduction methods, contingency management of pain behaviors, and planning of work return. The outcome of study I showed significant between-group differences in favor of the treatment group on measures of occupational training at 1-month follow-up, activity level in the sparetime at post-treatment and at follow-up, and decreased catastrophizing and pain behaviors at post-treatment. In study II significant improvements over time were found on measures of sick leave, pain intensity, pain interference, life control, affective distress, activity level in the sparetime, physical fitness and use of analgetics at 2-month follow-up and at 1-year follow-up. The results of the two outcome studies reported show that cognitive behavioral multidisciplinary pain management programs can successfully be applied to Swedish musculoskeletal pain patients.
Full Text Available The current article reviews the cognitive-behavioral (CB and operant-behavioral perspectives on chronic pain and suggests an answer to the question why changes in behaviors, attitudes, and emotions are associated with decreases in pain severity and impact discussing potential psychobiological mechanisms that may underlie cognitive and behavioral techniques. The impact of learning such as classical and operant conditioning in behaviors and physical responses including baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, as well as the influence of cognitions on pain perception and impact will be presented to explain general efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT and operant-behavioral therapy (OBT in the treatment of people with fibromyalgia (FM describing some of the limitations of published outcome studies. We discuss advances in moderation and mediation of treatment outcomes. Lastly, we will discuss the need for research that takes into account evidence-based medicine, methods that address treatment responders and non-responders, individual trajectories, how we might advance and refine CBT and OBT, and strategies related to relapse prevention, maintenance, and adherence-enhancement taking advantage of evolving, technological methods of service delivery. We provide recommendations of how to move forward in approaching studies of CBT and OBT efficacy as a function of better understanding of patient characteristics and contextual factors. We advocate for the potential of the CB perspective and principle of learning for all health care providers regardless of discipline or training and will give examples for making more effective the patient-rheumatologist-relationship by using the principles discussed.
Ina Saraswati; Dyah T Indirasari; Dewi Maulina; Guritnaningsih A Santoso
This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of three intervention programs, i.e. CBT (Cognitive Behavior Therapy), humor appeal advertisements (positive ads), and fear appeal advertisements (negative ads) in reducing aggressive driving behavior. 196 young adults age between 18–35 years old, who are considered to be at risk in performing aggressive driving behavior had completed four self report inventories. The four inventories measures perception on traffic conditions, degree of fr...
Narges Zamani; Mehran Farhadi; Hosein Jenaabadi
Balsimelli S, Mendes MF, Bertolucci PH, Tilbery CP. Attention impairment associated with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with mild incapacity. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2007;65(2A):262-7. Zamani N, Ahmadi V, Ataie Moghanloo V, Mirshekar S. Comparing the effectiveness of two therapeutic methods of dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy on the improvement of impulsive behavior in the patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) showing a t...
Full Text Available Background. Essential palatal tremor is a disorder of unknown etiology involving involuntary movement of the uvula and soft palate. Treatment attempts including drugs or surgery have been conducted to cease the rhythmical movement. Case Report. A 55-year-old female visited our department complaining of a sudden, noticeable, intermittent, and rhythmical clicking noise in her throat for five years. Oral examination revealed rhythmical contractions of the soft palate with clicking at the frequency of 120 per min. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination of the brain performed after consulting with the department of neuropathic internal medicine showed no abnormalities. Thus, essential palatal tremor was diagnosed. The symptoms improved with cognitive behavioral therapy without drugs or surgical treatments. The patient is now able to stop the rhythmical movement voluntarily. Discussion. Cognitive behavioral therapy might be suitable as first-line therapy for essential palatal tremor because the therapy is noninvasive.
Pellegrini, Anthony D; Van Ryzin, Mark J; Roseth, Cary; Bohn-Gettler, Catherine; Dupuis, Danielle; Hickey, Meghan; Peshkam, Annie
This longitudinal, naturalistic study addressed behavioral and social cognitive processes implicated in preschool children's social dominance. In the first objective, we examined the degree to which peer aggression, affiliation, and postaggression reconciliation predicted social dominance across a school year. Consistent with predictions, all three predicted dominance early in the year while only affiliation predicted dominance later in the year, suggesting that aggression, affiliation, and reconciliation were used to establish social dominance where affiliation was used to maintain it. In the second, exploratory, objective we tested the relative importance of social dominance and reconciliation (the Machiavellian and Vygotskian intelligence hypotheses, respectively) in predicting theory of mind/false belief. Results indicated that social dominance accounted for significant variance, beyond that related to reconciliation and affiliation, in predicting theory of mind/false belief status. Results are discussed in terms of specific behavioral and social cognitive processes employed in establishing and maintaining social dominance. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
The theory of rational-emotive therapy (RET) and of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is briefly explained and is applied to group therapy. It is shown how RET and CBT therapy groups deal with transference, countertransference, levels of group intervention, process versus content orientation, identifying underlying group process themes, here-and-now activation, working with difficult group members, activity levels of therapist and group members, and other group problems. Although they particularly concentrate on people's tendencies to construct and create their own "emotional" difficulties, RET and CBT group procedures fully acknowledge the interactions of human thoughts, feelings, and actions and active-directively employ a variety of cognitive, emotive, and behavioral group therapy techniques.
Matthews, Ellyn E.; Arnedt, J. Todd; McCarthy, Michaela S.; Cuddihy, Leisha J.; Aloia, Mark S.
Chronic insomnia is a significant public health problem worldwide, and insomnia has considerable personal and social costs associated with serious health conditions, greater healthcare utilization, work absenteeism, and motor-vehicle accidents. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBTI) is an efficacious treatment, yet attrition and suboptimal adherence may diminish its impact. Despite the increasing use of CBTI, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to understanding the role o...
Martha Milade Torres Nupan
Full Text Available AimThe last systematic review of research on the behavior of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 was in 2012. Since then, several important findings have been published. Therefore, the study aim was to synthesize recent relevant work related to this issue.MethodWe conducted a systematic review of the literature. Relevant articles were identified using the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus and a manual search of references lists. Thirty of 156 articles identified met the inclusion criteria. A quality evaluation of the articles was performed and the information was synthesized using a narrative approach.ResultsCompared with controls, children and adolescents with NF1 present significant alterations in language, reading, visuospatial skills, motor function, executive function, attention, behavior, emotion, and social skills. The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is important and can affect cognition and executive function variables. A high prevalence of autistic traits and autistic spectrum disorder were reported. The benefits of using statins to treat cognitive deficits are unclear. However, children with NF1 and ADHD seem to benefit from methylphenidate treatment. The presence of hyperintensities in brain magnetic resonance imaging data seem to be related to poor cognitive performance. Analysis of these lesions could help to predict cognitive alterations in children with NF1.InterpretationThere has been important progress to evaluate cognitive characteristics of children with NF1 and to determine the physiological mechanisms of the concomitant disorders. However, discrepancies in relation to intelligence, learning disabilities, attention deficits, and treatment remain. Further investigations on this topic are recommended.
Torres Nupan, Martha Milade; Velez Van Meerbeke, Alberto; López Cabra, Claudia Alejandra; Herrera Gomez, Paula Marcela
The last systematic review of research on the behavior of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was in 2012. Since then, several important findings have been published. Therefore, the study aim was to synthesize recent relevant work related to this issue. We conducted a systematic review of the literature. Relevant articles were identified using the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus and a manual search of references lists. Thirty of 156 articles identified met the inclusion criteria. A quality evaluation of the articles was performed and the information was synthesized using a narrative approach. Compared with controls, children and adolescents with NF1 present significant alterations in language, reading, visuospatial skills, motor function, executive function, attention, behavior, emotion, and social skills. The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is important and can affect cognition and executive function variables. A high prevalence of autistic traits and autistic spectrum disorder were reported. The benefits of using statins to treat cognitive deficits are unclear. However, children with NF1 and ADHD seem to benefit from methylphenidate treatment. The presence of hyperintensities in brain magnetic resonance imaging data seem to be related to poor cognitive performance. Analysis of these lesions could help to predict cognitive alterations in children with NF1. There has been important progress to evaluate cognitive characteristics of children with NF1 and to determine the physiological mechanisms of the concomitant disorders. However, discrepancies in relation to intelligence, learning disabilities, attention deficits, and treatment remain. Further investigations on this topic are recommended.
Munsch, Simone; Roth, Binia; Michael, Tanja; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Biedert, Esther; Roth, Sandra; Speck, Vanessa; Zumsteg, Urs; Isler, Emanuel; Margraf, Jürgen
BACKGROUND: Parent-child treatments have been shown to be superior to child-focused treatments of childhood obesity. Yet until now, the comparative effectiveness of parent-only and parent-child approaches has been little studied. METHOD: Fifty-six obese children and their families were randomly assigned to a 16-session cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the parents only or for a combined treatment of parents and children. Children's percent overweight, the body mass index of their mothers...
Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa; Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul
Psychosis used to be thought of as essentially a biological condition unamenable to psychological interventions. However, more recent research has shown that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are on a continuum with normality and therefore might also be susceptible to adaptations of the cognitive behavioral therapies found useful for anxiety and depression. In the context of a model of cognitive, emotional, and social processes in psychosis, the latest evidence for the putative psychological mechanisms that elicit and maintain symptoms is reviewed. There is now good support for emotional processes in psychosis, for the role of cognitive processes including reasoning biases, for the central role of appraisal, and for the effects of the social environment, including stress and trauma. We have also used virtual environments to test our hypotheses. These developments have improved our understanding of symptom dimensions such as distress and conviction and also provide a rationale for interventions, which have some evidence of efficacy. Therapeutic approaches are described as follows: a collaborative therapeutic relationship, managing dysphoria, helping service users reappraise their beliefs to reduce distress, working on negative schemas, managing and reducing stressful environments if possible, compensating for reasoning biases by using disconfirmation strategies, and considering the full range of evidence in order to reduce high conviction. Theoretical ideas supported by experimental evidence can inform the development of cognitive behavior therapy for persistent positive symptoms of psychosis. PMID:16885206
Kwok, Sylvia Lai Yuk Ching; Shek, Daniel Tan Lei
Utilizing Daniel Goleman's theory of emotional competence, Beck's cognitive theory, and Rudd's cognitive-behavioral theory of suicidality, the relationships between hopelessness (cognitive component), social problem solving (cognitive-behavioral component), emotional competence (emotive component), and adolescent suicidal ideation were examined. Based on the responses of 5,557 Secondary 1 to Secondary 4 students from 42 secondary schools in Hong Kong, results showed that suicidal ideation was positively related to adolescent hopelessness, but negatively related to emotional competence and social problem solving. While standard regression analyses showed that all the above variables were significant predictors of suicidal ideation, hierarchical regression analyses showed that hopelessness was the most important predictor of suicidal ideation, followed by social problem solving and emotional competence. Further regression analyses found that all four subscales of emotional competence, i.e., empathy, social skills, self-management of emotions, and utilization of emotions, were important predictors of male adolescent suicidal ideation. However, the subscale of social skills was not a significant predictor of female adolescent suicidal ideation. Standard regression analysis also revealed that all three subscales of social problem solving, i.e., negative problem orientation, rational problem solving, and impulsiveness/carelessness style, were important predictors of suicidal ideation. Theoretical and practice implications of the findings are discussed.
Sylvia Y.C.L. Kwok
Full Text Available Utilizing Daniel Goleman's theory of emotional competence, Beck's cognitive theory, and Rudd's cognitive-behavioral theory of suicidality, the relationships between hopelessness (cognitive component, social problem solving (cognitive-behavioral component, emotional competence (emotive component, and adolescent suicidal ideation were examined. Based on the responses of 5,557 Secondary 1 to Secondary 4 students from 42 secondary schools in Hong Kong, results showed that suicidal ideation was positively related to adolescent hopelessness, but negatively related to emotional competence and social problem solving. While standard regression analyses showed that all the above variables were significant predictors of suicidal ideation, hierarchical regression analyses showed that hopelessness was the most important predictor of suicidal ideation, followed by social problem solving and emotional competence. Further regression analyses found that all four subscales of emotional competence, i.e., empathy, social skills, self-management of emotions, and utilization of emotions, were important predictors of male adolescent suicidal ideation. However, the subscale of social skills was not a significant predictor of female adolescent suicidal ideation. Standard regression analysis also revealed that all three subscales of social problem solving, i.e., negative problem orientation, rational problem solving, and impulsiveness/carelessness style, were important predictors of suicidal ideation. Theoretical and practice implications of the findings are discussed.
The Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 2.
Webb, Charles; Scudder, Meleney; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kaden, Ron
This manual, a supplement to "Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1", presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) approach designed especially for adolescent cannabis users. It addresses the implementation and…
Guidelines for Cognitive Behavioral Training within Doctoral Psychology Programs in the United States: Report of the Inter-Organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education
Klepac, Robert K.; Ronan, George F.; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D.; Belar, Cynthia D.; Berry, Sharon L.; Christofff, Karen A.; Craighead, Linda W.; Dougher, Michael J.; Dowd, E. Thomas; Herbert, James D.; McFarr, Lynn M.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Sauer, Eric M.; Strauman, Timothy J.
The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a yearlong series of…
van Langen, M.A.M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Van Vugt, E.S.; Wissink, I.B.; Asscher, J.J.
The aim of the present study was threefold: to examine (1) the relation between both cognitive and affective empathy and prosocial behavior; (2) the relation between both cognitive and affective empathy and offending; and (3) the role of cognitive distortions in the relation between cognitive
Emotion tunes cognition, such that approach-motivated positive states promote verbal cognition, whereas withdrawal-motivated negative states promote spatial cognition (Gray, 2001). The current research examined whether self-control resources become depleted and influence subsequent behavior when emotion tunes an inappropriate cognitive tendency.…
Devlin, Renee S.; Gibbs, John C.
This article examined cognitive and behavioral changes among participants in Responsible Adult Culture (RAC), a cognitive-behavioral (especially, cognitive restructuring) treatment program in use at the Franklin County Community-Based Correctional Facility (CBCF). Participants were adult felony offenders (approximately three-fourths male). A…
Full Text Available The present study serves to test whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation are affected by cognitive load. Participants interacted with trustworthy-looking and untrustworthy-looking partners in a sequential Prisoner’s Dilemma Game. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated to stimulate expectations about the future behavior of the partners which were either violated or confirmed by the partners’ cheating or cooperation during the game. In a source memory test, participants were required to recognize the partners and to classify them as cheaters or cooperators. A multinomial model was used to disentangle item memory, source memory and guessing processes. We found an expectancy-congruent bias towards guessing that trustworthy-looking partners were more likely to be associated with cooperation than untrustworthy-looking partners. Source memory was enhanced for cheating that violated the participants’ positive expectations about trustworthy-looking partners. We were interested in whether or not this expectancy-violation effect—that helps to revise unjustified expectations about trustworthy-looking partners—depends on cognitive load induced via a secondary continuous reaction time task. Although this secondary task interfered with working memory processes in a validation study, both the expectancy-congruent guessing bias as well as the expectancy-violation effect were obtained with and without cognitive load. These findings support the hypothesis that the expectancy-violation effect is due to a simple mechanism that does not rely on demanding elaborative processes. We conclude that most cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation presumably operate automatically so that they remain unaffected by cognitive load.□
Mieth, Laura; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel
The present study serves to test whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation are affected by cognitive load. Participants interacted with trustworthy-looking and untrustworthy-looking partners in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated to stimulate expectations about the future behavior of the partners which were either violated or confirmed by the partners' cheating or cooperation during the game. In a source memory test, participants were required to recognize the partners and to classify them as cheaters or cooperators. A multinomial model was used to disentangle item memory, source memory and guessing processes. We found an expectancy-congruent bias toward guessing that trustworthy-looking partners were more likely to be associated with cooperation than untrustworthy-looking partners. Source memory was enhanced for cheating that violated the participants' positive expectations about trustworthy-looking partners. We were interested in whether or not this expectancy-violation effect-that helps to revise unjustified expectations about trustworthy-looking partners-depends on cognitive load induced via a secondary continuous reaction time task. Although this secondary task interfered with working memory processes in a validation study, both the expectancy-congruent guessing bias as well as the expectancy-violation effect were obtained with and without cognitive load. These findings support the hypothesis that the expectancy-violation effect is due to a simple mechanism that does not rely on demanding elaborative processes. We conclude that most cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation presumably operate automatically so that they remain unaffected by cognitive load.
The prevailing cognitive-psychological accounts of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) assume that ERP components manifest information processing operations leading from stimulus to response. Since this view encounters numerous difficulties already analyzed in previous studies, an alternative view is presented here that regards cortical control of behavior as a repetitive sensorimotor cycle consisting of two phases: (i) feedforward anticipation and (ii) feedback cortical performance. This view allows us to interpret in an integrative manner numerous data obtained from very different domains of ERP studies: from biophysics of ERP waves to their relationship to the processing of language, in which verbal behavior is viewed as likewise controlled by the same two basic control processes: feedforward (hypothesis building) and feedback (hypothesis checking). The proposed approach is intentionally simplified, explaining numerous effects on the basis of few assumptions and relating several levels of analysis: neurophysiology, macroelectrical processes (i.e. ERPs), cognition and behavior. It can, therefore, be regarded as a first approximation to a general theory of ERPs.
Giner, Lucas; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; De La Vega, Diego; Courtet, Philippe
Suicide is one of the leading causes of violent death in many countries and its prevention is included in worldwide health objectives. Currently, the DSM-5 considers suicidal behavior as an entity that requires further study. Among the three validators required for considering a psychiatric disorder, there is one based on psychological correlates, biological markers, and patterns of comorbidity. This review includes the most important and recent studies on psychological factors: cognitive, emotional, temperament, and personality correlates (unrelated to diagnostic criteria). We included classic factors related to suicidal behavior such as cognitive, inflexibility, problem-solving, coping, rumination, thought suppression, decision-making, autobiographical memory, working memory, language fluency, burdensomeness, belongingness, fearless, pain insensitivity, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, and hopelessness. The personality correlates reported are mainly based on the personality theories of Cloninger, Costa and McCrae, and Eysenck. Moreover, it explores conceptual links to other new pathways in psychological factors, emptiness, and psychological pain as a possible origin and common end path for a portion of suicidal behaviors.
Eidelman, Polina; Talbot, Lisa; Ivers, Hans; Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M; Harvey, Allison G
As part of a larger randomized controlled trial, 188 participants were randomized to behavior therapy (BT), cognitive therapy (CT), or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. The aims of this study were threefold: (a) to determine whether change in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep was related to change in sleep, insomnia symptoms, and impairment following treatment; (b) to determine whether BT, CT, and CBT differ in their effects on dysfunctional beliefs; and (c) to determine whether the treatments differ in their effects on particular kinds of dysfunctional beliefs. Beliefs, sleep, insomnia symptoms, and sleep-related psychosocial impairment were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up. Greater change in dysfunctional beliefs occurring over the course of BT, CT, or CBT was associated with greater improvement in insomnia symptoms and impairment at posttreatment and both follow-ups. All groups experienced a significant decrease in dysfunctional beliefs during treatment, which were sustained through 6- and 12-month follow-up. Compared with the BT group, a greater proportion of participants in the CT and/or CBT groups endorsed dysfunctional beliefs below a level considered clinically significant at posttreatment and 12-month follow-up. The results demonstrate the importance of targeting dysfunctional beliefs in insomnia treatment, suggest that beliefs may be significantly modified with BT alone, and indicate that cognitive interventions may be particularly powerful in enhancing belief change. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Grieco, Julie; Pulsifer, Margaret; Seligsohn, Karen; Skotko, Brian; Schwartz, Alison
Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) commonly possess unique neurocognitive and neurobehavioral profiles that emerge within specific developmental periods. These profiles are distinct relative to others with similar intellectual disability (ID) and reflect underlying neuroanatomic findings, providing support for a distinctive phenotypic profile. This review updates what is known about the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes associated with DS across the lifespan. In early childhood, mild deviations from neurotypically developing trajectories emerge. By school-age, delays become pronounced. Nonverbal skills remain on trajectory for mental age, whereas verbal deficits emerge and persist. Nonverbal learning and memory are strengths relative to verbal skills. Expressive language is delayed relative to comprehension. Aspects of language skills continue to develop throughout adolescence, although language skills remain compromised in adulthood. Deficits in attention/executive functions are present in childhood and become more pronounced with age. Characteristic features associated with DS (cheerful, social nature) are personality assets. Children are at a lower risk for psychopathology compared to other children with ID; families report lower levels of stress and a more positive outlook. In youth, externalizing behaviors may be problematic, whereas a shift toward internalizing behaviors emerges with maturity. Changes in emotional/behavioral functioning in adulthood are typically associated with neurodegeneration and individuals with DS are higher risk for dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Individuals with DS possess many unique strengths and weaknesses that should be appreciated as they develop across the lifespan. Awareness of this profile by professionals and caregivers can promote early detection and support cognitive and behavioral development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hart, K E; Chiovari, P
This study tested the hypothesis that dieters would score higher than nondieters in terms of food rumination. Two hundred and thirty one college undergraduates completed the Eating Obsessive-Compulsiveness Scale (EOCS) and responded to a questionnaire that inquired about dieting status. Subjects also completed measures that tapped neuroticism and social desirability. Results showed that current dieters were significantly more obsessed with thoughts of eating and food than were nondieters. Neither dieting status nor EOCS scale scores were related to neuroticism or social desirability. These results are consistent with previous theory and research suggesting that inhibition of appetitive behaviors can have negative cognitive effects. Moreover, they indicate a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
Dawood, Sindes; Pincus, Aaron L
The interpersonal paradigm of personality assessment provides a rich nomological net for describing and assessing constructs of interpersonal functioning. The aim of this article is to demonstrate for clinicians how the use of a multisurface interpersonal assessment (MSIA) battery can augment psychotherapy (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy). We present 2 clinical case examples and specify interpretative guidelines for MSIA that integrate multiple circumplex profiles (e.g., problems, traits, sensitivities, strengths, values, and efficacies) for each patient. Subsequently, we demonstrate how this approach provides a context to better understand patient symptoms and difficulties, and discuss how it can inform case conceptualization, treatment planning, and intervention.
Austin, Ashley; Craig, Shelley L; Alessi, Edward J
Although there is growing awareness in contemporary society regarding transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) identities, transgender people continue to be highly marginalized and subject to transphobic discrimination and victimization. As a result, authentically expressing and navigating a TGNC identity can be difficult. Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals can play a key role in supporting TGNC client health and well-being through the use of trans-affirmative approaches. Trans-affirmative practice recognizes all experiences of gender as equally healthy and valuable This article focuses on transgender affirmative cognitive behavior therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eric S. Zhou
Full Text Available Insomnia disorder is common in patients undergoing cancer treatment. There is compelling evidence demonstrating that cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I should be the initial treatment, but there has been insufficient research has been conducted among cancer patients. This population presents with unique physical and psychosocial health issues that may interfere with standard CBT-I and addressing these issues can play a role in improving treatment adherence and efficacy. We explore potential adaptations that can be made to standard CBT-I for cancer patients. Further research for this growing population is essential.
Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Nielsen, Sara Kerstine
OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD: Chi......-reported maternal autonomy-granting (non-involved mothers showed a greater increase). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that child anxiety significantly influences parental behaviors and cognitions. Child therapy may successfully change the family system.......OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD......: Children (N=54, 7-12 years) and parents were randomly allocated to different treatment groups (involved, not involved). Observed behavior, self-reported behavior and cognitions were assessed separately for mothers and fathers at pre-, posttreatment and follow-up. RESULTS: There were no differences over...
Flessner, Christopher A
This article provides an overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for repetitive behavior disorders. Because tic disorders and trichotillomania are the most often studied and most debilitating of these conditions, this article focuses on the efficacy of CBT for these 2 conditions. An overview of CBT for children presenting with these concerns is provided. This review focuses particularly on habit reversal training, which is at the core of most CBT-based interventions. Two recent empirical studies on the immense potential of CBT in treating childhood repetitive behavior disorders and future areas of research are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article briefly reviews the changes that occurred in the field of grief and bereavement, viewing it as a process of searching for a "rational" meaning to life without the deceased in line with the concept of continuing bonds and thus replacing that of Fred’s concept of decathexis. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT evidenced-based studies for PTSD and complicated grief and the Cognitive-behavioral therapy − Rational-emotion behavior therapy (CBT-REBT model for grief are reviewed. The focus of intervention based on CBT-REBT is to facilitate a healthy adaptation to loss following death. A distinction is made between rational (adaptive and irrational (maladaptive grief processes. Case example illustrating the application of the model specifically a dialogue with repetitive thoughts, are presented.
Giraldo, Diana L.; Sijbers, Jan; Romero, Eduardo
The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is based on neuropsychological evaluation of the patient. Different cognitive and memory functions are assessed by a battery of tests that are composed of items devised to specifically evaluate such upper functions. This work aims to identify and quantify the factors that determine the performance in neuropsychological evaluation by conducting an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). For this purpose, using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), EFA was applied to 67 item scores taken from the baseline neuropsychological battery of the three phases of ADNI study. The found factors are directly related to specific brain functions such as memory, behavior, orientation, or verbal fluency. The identification of factors is followed by the calculation of factor scores given by weighted linear combinations of the items scores.
Claudi L.H. Bockting
Full Text Available A crucial part of the treatment of depression is the prevention of relapse and recurrence. Psychological interventions, especially cognitive behavior therapy (CBT are helpful in preventing relapse and recurrence in depression. The effectivity of four types of relapse prevention cognitive behavior therapy strategies will be addressed, i.e. acute prophylactic cognitive behavior therapy, continuation cognitive behavior therapy, sequential cognitive behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in partial remission.Specific ingredients of three sequential cognitive behavior therapy programs (well-being cognitive therapy, preventive cognitive therapy, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy will be discussed as applied after remission in patients that experienced previous depressive episodes. Sequential preventive cognitive behavior therapy after acute treatment may be an attractive alternative treatment for many patients who currently use antidepressants for years and years to prevent relapse and recurrence. This is an extremely challenging issue to research thoroughly. Future studies must rule out what intervention for whom is the best protection against relapse and recurrence in depression.
Full Text Available Imaging studies have implicated altered functional connectivity in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD. Whether similar dysfunction is present in adolescent patients is unclear. The degree of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC may reflect abnormalities within emotional (‘hot’ and cognitive control (‘cold’ neural systems. Here, we investigate rsFC of these systems in adolescent patients and changes following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI was acquired from adolescent patients before CBT, and 24-weeks later following completed therapy. Similar data were obtained from control participants. Cross-sectional Cohort: From 82 patients and 34 controls at baseline, rsFC of the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and pre-frontal cortex (PFC was calculated for comparison. Longitudinal Cohort: From 17 patients and 30 controls with longitudinal data, treatment effects were tested on rsFC. Patients demonstrated significantly greater rsFC to left amygdala, bilateral supragenual ACC, but not with PFC. Treatment effects were observed in right insula connected to left supragenual ACC, with baseline case-control differences reduced. rsFC changes were significantly correlated with changes in depression severity. Depressed adolescents exhibited heightened connectivity in regions of ‘hot’ emotional processing, known to be associated with depression, where treatment exposure exerted positive effects, without concomitant differences in areas of ‘cold’ cognition.
Ramirez de Arellano, Michael A.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; George, Preethy; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Huang, Larke; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E.
Objective Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a conjoint parent-child treatment developed by Cohen, Mannarino, and Deblinger that uses cognitive-behavioral principles and exposure techniques to prevent and treat posttraumatic stress, depression, and behavioral problems. This review defined TF-CBT, differentiated it from other models, and assessed the evidence base. Methods Authors reviewed meta-analyses, reviews, and individual studies (1995 to 2013). Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, PILOTS, the ERIC, and the CINAHL. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) on the basis of benchmarks for number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of effectiveness. Results The level of evidence for TF-CBT was rated as high on the basis of ten RCTs, three of which were conducted independently (not by TF-CBT developers). TF-CBT has demonstrated positive outcomes in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, although it is less clear whether TF-CBT is effective in reducing behavior problems or symptoms of depression. Limitations of the studies include concerns about investigator bias and exclusion of vulnerable populations. Conclusions TF-CBT is a viable treatment for reducing trauma-related symptoms among some children who have experienced trauma and their nonoffending caregivers. Based on this evidence, TF-CBT should be available as a covered service in health plans. Ongoing research is needed to further identify best practices for TF-CBT in various settings and with individuals from various racial and ethnic backgrounds and with varied trauma histories, symptoms, and stages of intellectual, social, and emotional development. PMID:24638076
Igor Lins Lemos
Full Text Available Background While several benefits are attributed to the Internet and video games, an important proportion of the population presents symptoms related to possible new technological addictions and there has been little discussion of treatment of problematic technology use. Although demand for knowledge is growing, only a small number of treatments have been described. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature, to establish Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT as a possible strategy for treating Internet and video game addictions. Method The review was conducted in the following databases: Science Direct on Line, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Clinical Trials Library, BVS and SciELO. The keywords used were: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; therapy; treatment; with association to the terms Internet addiction and video game addiction. Given the scarcity of studies in the field, no restrictions to the minimum period of publication were made, so that articles found until October 2013 were accounted. Results Out of 72 articles found, 23 described CBT as a psychotherapy for Internet and video game addiction. The manuscripts showed the existence of case studies and protocols with satisfactory efficacy. Discussion Despite the novelty of technological dependencies, CBT seems to be applicable and allows an effective treatment for this population.
Elvira A. Baranova
Full Text Available Children’s questions are an indicator of active cognitive perception of reality. Questions but not answers are relevant in revealing a child’s mental life, consciousness and thinking. The lack of question-asking skills can hinder learning, searching and exploration in children. To determine in 7- and 8-year-old school children the common and variable peculiarities of designing a search process for necessary information concerning an unknown object by volitionally formulated questions, as well as the dynamics of the questioning process throughout a school year. The study was based on an experimental methodology, codenamed Guess what there is in the box, and was conducted in four schools in Cheboksary. The sample comprised 158 primary school first-graders who took part in a confirmatory experiment twice, once in September and once in May. The research showed that 96.3% of the questions asked were search questions. Only 30% of the first-graders initiated their searching activities of their own will without having to resort to the given search algorithm, while 70% did not begin asking questions without outside stimulation. The analysis of the dynamics of children’s question-asking behavior exhibited a tendency to decrease in a number of questions asked over the course of the school year. Primary school children need psychological and pedagogical scaffolding aimed at developing a question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity to achieve a possible age potential in development.
Petrik, Alexandra M; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Hofmann, Stefan G
In psychotherapy research, practice, and training, there remains marked controversy about the merits of theoretical purism (i.e., model specific), versus integration, as well as how such principles may be represented in practice. Adding to the confusion is that many attributes of the therapeutic relationship, processes in therapy, and techniques have been popularized in the context of one or two theoretical approaches, but are incorporated into the practice of many approaches. This article demonstrates the various ways in which three core interventions (i.e., activity scheduling, self-monitoring, and identification, evaluation, and modification of thoughts) can be applied within the context of different cognitive and behavioral therapeutic models. It also demonstrates the role of in-session therapist language in describing the theoretical basis and processes underpinning therapeutic interventions. Case examples are presented to illustrate therapy provided by two hypothetical clinicians, Therapist A and Therapist B. Whether or not a practitioner elects to practice integrative psychotherapy, we advocate for consistency in the theoretical approach through the course of a service for a particular patient. Implications are outlined and discussed within the context of the current state of cognitive and behaviorally focused psychotherapies and integrative psychotherapy. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Jay, Susan M.; And Others
Evaluated efficacy of cognitive-behavioral intervention package and low-risk pharmacologic intervention (oral Valium) as compared with minimal treatment-attention control condition, in reducing children leukemia patients' distress during bone marrow aspirations. The cognitive-behavioral therapy reduced behavioral distress, pain ratings and pulse…
Davis, Thompson E., III; Kurtz, Patricia F.; Gardner, Andrew W.; Carman, Nicole B.
Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and…
Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Werner, Kelly; Kraemer, Helena; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.
Objective: To examine whether changes in cognitive reappraisal self-efficacy (CR-SE) mediate the effects of individually administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (I-CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on severity of social anxiety symptoms. Method: A randomized controlled trial in which 75 adult patients (21-55 years of age; 53% male; 57%…
Coffey, Scott F; Banducci, Anne N; Vinci, Christine
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a time-limited, goal-oriented psychotherapy that has been extensively researched and has benefits in a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, and insomnia. CBT uses targeted strategies to help patients adopt more adaptive patterns of thinking and behaving, which leads to positive changes in emotions and decreased functional impairments. Strategies include identifying and challenging problematic thoughts and beliefs, scheduling pleasant activities to increase environmental reinforcement, and extended exposure to unpleasant thoughts, situations, or physiologic sensations to decrease avoidance and arousal associated with anxiety-eliciting stimuli. CBT can be helpful in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by emphasizing safety, trust, control, esteem, and intimacy. Prolonged exposure therapy is a CBT technique that includes a variety of strategies, such as repeated recounting of the trauma and exposure to feared real-world situations. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, CBT focuses on establishing structures and routines, and clear rules and expectations within the home and classroom. Early intensive behavioral interventions should be initiated in children with autism before three years of age; therapy consists of 12 to 40 hours of intensive treatment per week, for at least one year. In many disorders, CBT can be used alone or in combination with medications. However, CBT requires a significant commitment from patients. Family physicians are well suited to provide collaborative care for patients with psychiatric disorders, in concert with cognitive behavior therapists.
Gonçalves, Cinara L; Furlanetto, Camila B; Valvassori, Samira S; Bavaresco, Daniela V; Varela, Roger B; Budni, Josiane; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L
Fenproporex (Fen) is an amphetamine-based anorectic; amphetamine use causes a broad range of severe cognitive deficits and anxiogenic-like effects. In this study we evaluated pharmacological effects of the chronic administration of Fen on cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors. Male adult Wistar rats received intraperitoneal administration of vehicle (control group) or Fen (6.25, 12.5 or 25 mg/kg) for 14 days; the animals were then subjected to habituation and object recognition tasks in open-field apparatus, and elevated plus-maze task. The administration of Fen (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) impaired habituation during the second exposure to the habituation task. In addition, the same doses of Fen also impaired the performance in object recognition task. In elevated plus-maze task, the administration of Fen (in all doses tested) induced anxiogenic-like effects in rats. Our results suggest that chronic Fen administration alters memory and induces anxiogenic-like effects in rats.
Goldstein, L.H.; Chalder, T.; Chigwedere, C.; Khondoker, M.R.; Moriarty, J.; Toone, B.K.; Mellers, J.D.C.
Objective: To compare cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and standard medical care (SMC) as treatments for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Methods: Our randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared CBT with SMC in an outpatient neuropsychiatric setting. Sixty-six PNES patients were randomized to either CBT (plus SMC) or SMC alone, scheduled to occur over 4 months. PNES diagnosis was established by video-EEG telemetry for most patients. Exclusion criteria included comorbid history of epilepsy, <2 PNES/month, and IQ <70. The primary outcome was seizure frequency at end of treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included 3 months of seizure freedom at 6-month follow-up, measures of psychosocial functioning, health service use, and employment. Results: In an intention-to-treat analysis, seizure reduction following CBT was superior at treatment end (group × time interaction p < 0.0001; large to medium effect sizes). At follow-up, the CBT group tended to be more likely to have experienced 3 months of seizure freedom (odds ratio 3.125, p = 0.086). Both groups improved in some health service use measures and on the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Mood and employment status showed no change. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that cognitive-behavioral therapy is more effective than standard medical care alone in reducing seizure frequency in PNES patients. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that CBT in addition to SMC, as compared to SMC alone, significantly reduces seizure frequency in patients with PNES (change in median monthly seizure frequency: baseline to 6 months follow-up, CBT group, 12 to 1.5; SMC alone group, 8 to 5). GLOSSARY AED = antiepileptic drug; CBT = cognitive-behavioral therapy; CI = confidence interval; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; HADS = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; IQR = interquartile range; ITT = intention-to-treat; OR = odds ratio; PNES
Berga, Sarah L; Loucks, Tammy L
address problematic behaviors and attitudes, such as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), have the potential to permit resumption of full ovarian function along with recovery of the adrenal, thyroidal, and other neuroendocrine aberrations. Full endocrine recovery potentially offers better individual, maternal, and child health.
Simpson, Elizabeth A; Sclafani, Valentina; Paukner, Annika; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Suomi, Stephen J; Ferrari, Pier F
Touch is one of the first senses to develop and one of the earliest modalities for infant-caregiver communication. While studies have explored the benefits of infant touch in terms of physical health and growth, the effects of social touch on infant behavior are relatively unexplored. Here, we investigated the influence of neonatal handling on a variety of domains, including memory, novelty seeking, and social interest, in infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n=48) from 2 to 12 weeks of age. Neonates were randomly assigned to receive extra holding, with or without accompanying face-to-face interactions. Extra-handled infants, compared to standard-reared infants, exhibited less stress-related behavior and more locomotion around a novel environment, faster approach of novel objects, better working memory, and less fear towards a novel social partner. In sum, infants who received more tactile stimulation in the neonatal period subsequently demonstrated more advanced motor, social, and cognitive skills-particularly in contexts involving exploration of novelty-in the first three months of life. These data suggest that social touch may support behavioral development, offering promising possibilities for designing future early interventions, particularly for infants who are at heightened risk for social disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bach, Dominik R
The combination of reward and potential threat is termed approach/avoidance conflict and elicits specific behaviors, including passive avoidance and behavioral inhibition (BI). Anxiety-relieving drugs reduce these behaviors, and a rich psychological literature has addressed how personality traits dominated by BI predispose for anxiety disorders. Yet, a formal understanding of the cognitive inference and planning processes underlying anxiety-like BI is lacking. Here, we present and empirically test such formalization in the terminology of reinforcement learning. We capitalize on a human computer game in which participants collect sequentially appearing monetary tokens while under threat of virtual "predation." First, we demonstrate that humans modulate BI according to experienced consequences. This suggests an instrumental implementation of BI generation rather than a Pavlovian mechanism that is agnostic about action outcomes. Second, an internal model that would make BI adaptive is expressed in an independent task that involves no threat. The existence of such internal model is a necessary condition to conclude that BI is under model-based control. These findings relate a plethora of human and nonhuman observations on BI to reinforcement learning theory, and crucially constrain the quest for its neural implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Ng, Ting Kin; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung
Over the past decade, cognitive behavioral therapy has been applied to an increasingly wider range of disorders and problems in Chinese societies. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the studies on cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese clients. The purpose of this meta-analytic study was to examine the overall efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese people. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases, including Web of Science, PsycINFO and PubMed. Pooled mean effect sizes were calculated using the random-effects model. The literature search identified 55 studies with 6763 Chinese participants. The overall short-term effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on the primary outcome was medium in size. Effect sizes were medium for anxiety, depression/well-being and caregiving stress and small for psychotic symptoms and addictive behaviors. The effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on process variables, dysfunctional thoughts and coping, were in the small range. The overall longer-term effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on the primary outcome was medium in size. Moderator analyses showed that the short-term effect was stronger for culturally adapted cognitive behavioral therapy than for unadapted cognitive behavioral therapy. Type of primary outcome, type of control group, recruitment method, study design, the format of delivery and region were found to moderate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy. The findings of this study provide evidence for the overall efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese people and the benefit of cultural adaptation of cognitive behavioral therapy to Chinese culture.
Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás
At the research of the personality of politicians, the task is not psychopathology and thereby the diagnose of a certain illness, but the identification of those features, characteristic marks and the examination of those cognitive functions, attitudes that might affect the ability to lead, might influence the managerial and negotiating style as well as the decisions made during an eventual crisis. Basically, there are two approaches considering the role of personality in politics. The first one regards political events as a projection of the personality of the leading politician; the other one denies entirely the significance of the personality. With reference to the first school, the aim of the present essay is, from among the examinations of the personality of the politician by indirect and direct methods, the determination of the cognitive and behavioral marks connected to the last method. Among the indirect examinations are the analysis of speeches and interviews (psycholinguistics), the reflection of the metacommunicative marks and the psychological elaboration of biographical data (psychobiography). The character of the leading politician is important with respect to image building, campaign work and party competition, "survival".
Didem Behice ÖZTOP
Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Prioritygoal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By “now and here”fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, whichcause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills duringtherapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training,cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking child’s problems into consideration. Scalesspecific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should beparticularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality.
Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However, use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effective method for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhood and adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders of the children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Priority goal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By now and here fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, which cause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills during therapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training, cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking childs problems into consideration. Scales specific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should be particularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality [JCBPR 2013; 2(1.000: 10-24
Full Text Available While spirituality/religion has a healing effect for some individuals, for others it may have the opposite effect of enhancing psychological symptoms. For this reason, efforts are being made to address spirituality as a therapeutic or accelerating factor and reduce the potential negative effects of spirituality in the therapy process. The effectiveness of these applications is investigated in various studies. A comprehensive literature is being formed out of the studies conducted worldwide. Newly started studies in Turkey and similar countries are promising, but there are few coherent examples of how to address spirituality in therapy. In this article, the techniques and applications used in spiritually oriented cognitive behavioral therapy have been compiled and therapeutic applications are proposed. Ethical practices and applications specific to Muslim clients are also discussed.
Ramsawh, Holly J; Bomyea, Jessica; Stein, Murray B; Cissell, Shadha H; Lang, Ariel J
Despite the ubiquity of sleep complaints among individuals with anxiety disorders, few prior studies have examined whether sleep quality improves during anxiety treatment. The current study examined pre- to posttreatment sleep quality improvement during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder (PD; n = 26) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 24). Among sleep quality indices, only global sleep quality and sleep latency improved significantly (but modestly) during CBT. Sleep quality improvement was greater for treatment responders, but did not vary by diagnosis. Additionally, poor baseline sleep quality was independently associated with worse anxiety treatment outcome, as measured by higher intolerance of uncertainty. Additional intervention targeting sleep prior to or during CBT for anxiety may be beneficial for poor sleepers.
Brunetti, Valerio; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Lapenta, Leonardo; Mariotti, Paolo; Marra, Camillo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Della Marca, Giacomo
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and REM Behavior Disorder (RBD) are both associated with a degeneration of ponto-medullary cholinergic pathways. We conducted a placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot trial of Rivastigmine (RVT) in 25 consecutive patients with MCI, who presented RBD refractory to conventional first-line treatments (melatonin up to 5 mg/day and clonazepam up to 2 mg/day). RVT treatment was followed by a significant reduction of RBD episodes when compared with placebo. Our data suggest that, in MCI patients with RBD resistant to conventional therapies (muscle relaxants benzodiazepines or melatonin,) treatment with RVT may induce a reduction in the frequency of RBD episodes compared to placebo.
McMahon, Susan D; Todd, Nathan R; Martinez, Andrew; Coker, Crystal; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Washburn, Jason; Shah, Seema
We use longitudinal multilevel modeling to test how exposure to community violence and cognitive and behavioral factors contribute to the development of aggressive and prosocial behaviors. Specifically, we examine predictors of self-, peer-, and teacher-reported aggressive and prosocial behavior among 266 urban, African American early adolescents. We examine lagged, within-person, between-person, and protective effects across 2 years. In general, results suggest that higher levels of violence exposure and aggressive beliefs are associated with more aggressive and less prosocial peer-reported behavior, whereas greater self-efficacy to resolve conflict peacefully is associated with less aggression across reporters and more teacher-reported prosocial behavior. Greater knowledge and violence prevention skills are associated with fewer aggressive and more prosocial teacher-reported behaviors. Results also suggest that greater self-efficacy and lower impulsivity have protective effects for youth reporting higher levels of exposure to community violence, in terms of teacher-reported aggressive behavior and peer-reported prosocial behavior. Differences among reporters and models are discussed, as well as implications for intervention.
Guidelines for cognitive behavioral training within doctoral psychology programs in the United States: report of the Inter-organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education.
Klepac, Robert K; Ronan, George F; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D; Belar, Cynthia D; Berry, Sharon L; Christofff, Karen A; Craighead, Linda W; Dougher, Michael J; Dowd, E Thomas; Herbert, James D; McFarr, Lynn M; Rizvi, Shireen L; Sauer, Eric M; Strauman, Timothy J
The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a year-long series of conferences, and developed a consensus on optimal doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology. The recommendations assume solid foundational training that is typical within applied psychology areas such as clinical and counseling psychology programs located in the United States. This article details the background, assumptions, and resulting recommendations specific to doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology, including competencies expected in the areas of ethics, research, and practice. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hartmans, C.; Comijs, H.; Jonker, C.
Objective Motivational aspects, emotional factors, and cognition, all of which require intact cognitive functioning may be essential in sexual functioning. However, little is known about the association between cognitive functioning and sexual behavior. The aim of this article is to review the
Granero, R; Fernández-Aranda, F; Mestre-Bach, G; Steward, T; Baño, M; Agüera, Z; Mallorquí-Bagué, N; Aymamí, N; Gómez-Peña, M; Sancho, M; Sánchez, I; Menchón, J M; Martín-Romera, V; Jiménez-Murcia, S
Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) is receiving increasing consideration in both consumer and psychiatric-epidemiological research, yet empirical evidence on treatment interventions is scarce and mostly from small homogeneous clinical samples. To estimate the short-term effectiveness of a standardized, individual cognitive behavioral therapy intervention (CBT) in a sample of n=97 treatment-seeking patients diagnosed with CBB, and to identify the most relevant predictors of therapy outcome. The intervention consisted of 12 individual CBT weekly sessions, lasting approximately 45minutes each. Data on patients' personality traits, psychopathology, sociodemographic factors, and compulsive buying behavior were used in our analysis. The risk (cumulative incidence) of poor adherence to the CBT program was 27.8%. The presence of relapses during the CBT program was 47.4% and the dropout rate was 46.4%. Significant predictors of poor therapy adherence were being male, high levels of depression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, low anxiety levels, high persistence, high harm avoidance and low self-transcendence. Cognitive behavioral models show promise in treating CBB, however future interventions for CBB should be designed via a multidimensional approach in which patients' sex, comorbid symptom levels and the personality-trait profiles play a central role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Murphy, Jennifer; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Goetz, Raymond; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Nagy, Peter L; Hupf, Jonathan; Singleton, Jessica; Woolley, Susan; Andrews, Howard; Heitzman, Daragh; Bedlack, Richard S; Katz, Jonathan S; Barohn, Richard J; Sorenson, Eric J; Oskarsson, Björn; Fernandes Filho, J Americo M; Kasarskis, Edward J; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Rollins, Yvonne D; Nations, Sharon P; Swenson, Andrea J; Koczon-Jaremko, Boguslawa A; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi
To characterize the prevalence of cognitive and behavioral symptoms using a cognitive/behavioral screening battery in a large prospective multicenter study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Two hundred seventy-four patients with ALS completed 2 validated cognitive screening tests and 2 validated behavioral interviews with accompanying caregivers. We examined the associations between cognitive and behavioral performance, demographic and clinical data, and C9orf72 mutation data. Based on the ALS Cognitive Behavioral Screen cognitive score, 6.5% of the sample scored below the cutoff score for frontotemporal lobar dementia, 54.2% scored in a range consistent with ALS with mild cognitive impairment, and 39.2% scored in the normal range. The ALS Cognitive Behavioral Screen behavioral subscale identified 16.5% of the sample scoring below the dementia cutoff score, with an additional 14.1% scoring in the ALS behavioral impairment range, and 69.4% scoring in the normal range. This investigation revealed high levels of cognitive and behavioral impairment in patients with ALS within 18 months of symptom onset, comparable to prior investigations. This investigation illustrates the successful use and scientific value of adding a cognitive-behavioral screening tool in studies of motor neuron diseases, to provide neurologists with an efficient method to measure these common deficits and to understand how they relate to key clinical variables, when extensive neuropsychological examinations are unavailable. These tools, developed specifically for patients with motor impairment, may be particularly useful in patient populations with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson disease, who are known to have comorbid cognitive decline. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
Hasking, Penelope; Boyes, Mark; Mullan, Barbara
Both Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and Social Cognitive Theory have been applied to understanding drinking behavior. We propose that theoretical relationships between these models support an integrated approach to understanding alcohol use and misuse. We aimed to test an integrated model in which the relationships between reward sensitivity and drinking behavior (alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and symptoms of dependence) were mediated by alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy. Online questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest were completed by 443 Australian adults (M age = 26.40, sd = 1.83) in 2013 and 2014. Path analysis revealed both direct and indirect effects and implicated two pathways to drinking behavior with differential outcomes. Drinking refusal self-efficacy both in social situations and for emotional relief was related to alcohol consumption. Sensitivity to reward was associated with alcohol-related problems, but operated through expectations of increased confidence and personal belief in the ability to limit drinking in social situations. Conversely, sensitivity to punishment operated through negative expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy for emotional relief to predict symptoms of dependence. Two pathways relating reward sensitivity, alcohol expectancies, and drinking refusal self-efficacy may underlie social and dependent drinking, which has implications for development of intervention to limit harmful drinking.
René García Roche
Full Text Available Background: aging-associated diseases contribute to morbidity and mortality in the population; therefore, it is necessary to develop intervention strategies to prevent and/or minimize their consequences. Objectives: to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at older hypertensive patients treated in primary care in Cardenas and Santiago de Cuba municipalities during 2011-2013. Methods: an intervention study of older adults with hypertension was conducted in two municipalities: Santiago de Cuba and Cárdenas. The intervention group was composed of 399 older patients living in the catchment areas of the Carlos Juan Finlay and Héroes del Moncada polyclinics while the control group included 377 older adults served by the Julian Grimau and Jose Antonio Echeverría polyclinics. The intervention consisted of a systematic strategy to increase knowledge of the disease in order to change lifestyles. Results: in the intervention group, there were more patients with sufficient knowledge of the disease (OR: 1.82, greater control of hypertension (OR: 1.51 and better adherence to treatment (OR: 1.70. By modeling the explanatory variables with hypertension control, being in the intervention group (OR: 0.695 and adhering to treatment (OR: 0.543 were found to be health protective factors. Conclusion: the congnitive-behavioral intervention for older adults treated in primary care of the municipalities studied was effective in improving blood pressure control since it contributed to a greater adherence to treatment.
Emine Gül Kapçı
Full Text Available Objective: The study examined the effectiveness of a school-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT program for school aged children with high levels of anxiety symptoms. Method: The study design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT comparing CBT to a waitlist-control condition. A total of 61 children (37 girls and 24 boys; age range 8-13 with high scores on either self-report or parental reports of anxiety participated in the study. The treatment group received 10 weekly sessions over three months that was administered using the Cool Kids treatment manual (Lyneham 2003. Outcome measures included parent-rated scales of anxiety and anxiety interference, and child self-report scales of anxiety, anxiety interference, depression and self-esteem. Both study groups were comparable at baseline for clinical and demographic variables. A mixed design ANOVA with pre-post treatment as within and CBT vs waitlist groups as between group variable was used for statistical analysis. Results: At post-test, CBT group had lower scores on anxiety, interference of anxiety and depression scales and higher scores on self-esteem scales of scholastic competence, social acceptance and behavioral conduct, but not physical appearance and athletic ability compared to the waitlist control group. Conclusions: The study presents empirical evidence for the effectiveness of a school based CBT Cool Kids program for reducing anxiety symptoms and increasing self-esteem in elementary school children. Future studies may examine the durability of treatment gains
Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.
Matthews, Ellyn E; Arnedt, J Todd; McCarthy, Michaela S; Cuddihy, Leisha J; Aloia, Mark S
Chronic insomnia is a significant public health problem worldwide, and insomnia has considerable personal and social costs associated with serious health conditions, greater healthcare utilization, work absenteeism, and motor-vehicle accidents. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) is an efficacious treatment, yet attrition and suboptimal adherence may diminish its impact. Despite the increasing use of CBTI, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to understanding the role of adherence. This review describes a comprehensive literature search of adherence to CBTI. The search revealed 15 studies that evaluated adherence to CBTI in adults using valid and reliable measures of sleep, and measure of adherence other than study withdrawals. The primary purposes of this review were to 1) synthesize current study characteristics, methodology, adherence rates, contributing factors, and impact on outcomes, 2) discuss measurement issues, and 3) identify future practice and research directions that may lead to improved outcomes. Strong patterns and inconsistencies were identified among the studies, which complicate an evaluation of the role of adherence as a factor and outcome of CBTI success. The importance of standardized adherence and outcome measures is discussed. In light of the importance of adherence to behavior change, this systematic review may better inform future intervention efforts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff
Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers'…
Gillen, Mark C.
Adventure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy share elements, including transformation of distorted thinking patterns, a focus on current and future functioning, consideration of the counselor-client relationship, and the use of stress in the change process. Recognizing cognitive behavioral therapy as an empirically sound theory underlying…
Andrews, Gavin; Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D
Anxiety disorders are common and disabling. Cognitive behavior therapy is the treatment of choice but is often difficult to obtain. Automated, internet-delivered, cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) courses may be an answer. There are three recent systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials
Felmingham, Kim L.; Bryant, Richard A.
Objective: To examine potential differential responses in men and women to cognitive behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Fifty-two men and 56 women diagnosed with PTSD participated in randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy for PTSD. Participants were randomly allocated to either (a) exposure-only…
Davis, Gay R.; And Others
Evaluated a program where cognitive-behavioral methods were utilized in a structured learning format with clinically depressed epileptics (N=13). Results indicated that cognitive behavioral interventions result in significant decreases in depression and increases in related areas of psychosocial functioning that are maintained over time. (LLL)
Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.
In recent years there has been widespread acceptance that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa. The cognitive behavioral treatment of bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) was first described in 1981. Over the past decades the theory and treatment have evolved in response to a variety of challenges. The treatment has…
Holroyd, Kenneth A.; And Others
Randomly assigned 41 recurrent tension headache sufferers to either cognitive-behavioral therapy or to amitriptyline therapy. Both therapies yielded clinically significant improvements in headache activity. In instances where differences in treatment effectiveness were observed, cognitive-behavioral therapy yielded somewhat more positive outcomes…
Bockting, Claudi L.H.
A crucial part of the treatment of depression is the prevention of relapse and recurrence. Psychological interventions, especially cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) are helpful in preventing relapse and recurrence in depression. The effectivity of four types of relapse prevention cognitive behavior
Kraaimaat, F. W.; Brons, M. R.; Geenen, R.; Bijlsma, J. W.
In order to examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) three patients groups were studied: a cognitive behavioral therapy group (CBT), an occupational therapy group (OT), and a waiting-list control group. The CBT received a comprehensive,
Two case studies are reported to illustrate the use of a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral approach to treat claustrophobia in cancer patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy. Hypnosis was an essential component of the cognitive-behavioral approach. Both patients responded favorably to the psychological intervention and completed the required external beam radiation therapy.
Tjeerd C Andringa
Full Text Available We argue that the capacity to live life to the benefit of self and others originates in the defining properties of life. These lead to two modes of cognition; the coping mode that is preoccupied with the satisfaction of pressing needs and the co-creation mode that aims at the realization of a world where pressing needs occur less frequently. We have used the Rule of Conservative Changes – stating that new functions can only scaffold on evolutionary older, yet highly stable functions – to predict that the interplay of these two modes define a number of core functions in psychology associated with moral behavior. We explore this prediction with five examples reflecting different theoretical approaches to human cognition and action selection. We conclude the paper with the observation that science is currently dominated by the coping mode and that the benefits of the co-creation mode may be necessary to generate realistic prospects for a modern synthesis in the sciences of the mind.
Andringa, Tjeerd C; Bosch, Kirsten A Van Den; Wijermans, Nanda
We argue that the capacity to live life to the benefit of self and others originates in the defining properties of life. These lead to two modes of cognition; the coping mode that is preoccupied with the satisfaction of pressing needs and the co-creation mode that aims at the realization of a world where pressing needs occur less frequently. We have used the Rule of Conservative Changes - stating that new functions can only scaffold on evolutionary older, yet highly stable functions - to predict that the interplay of these two modes define a number of core functions in psychology associated with moral behavior. We explore this prediction with five examples reflecting different theoretical approaches to human cognition and action selection. We conclude the paper with the observation that science is currently dominated by the coping mode and that the benefits of the co-creation mode may be necessary to generate realistic prospects for a modern synthesis in the sciences of the mind.
In this study, it is aimed to review efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) on childhood and adolescence in mood and anxiety disorders. Many researches have shown that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can be effective in the treatment of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents. Child and adolescent depression and anxiety are frequent disorders which may have a recurring and chronic course. PsycINFO, Medline and the Turkish P...
Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping
This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P behavior in young male violent offenders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kaplan, Robert M.; And Others
Test-anxious subjects were assigned to condition groups: (1) desensitization only; (2) cognitive only; (3) cognitive plus desensitization; and (4) neither cognitive nor desensitization. On test anxiety and self-rating measures, combined treatment and desensitization were less effective than the cognitive-only treatment. Results are consistent with…
Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Quick, Virginia; Koenings, Mallory; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Kattelmann, Kendra K
Little is known about the relationship between weight-related behaviors and cognitive load (working memory available to complete mental activities like those required for planning meals, selecting foods, and other health-related decisions). Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore associations between cognitive load and eating behaviors, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference of college students. College students (n=1018) from 13 institutions completed an online survey assessing eating behaviors (e.g., routine and compensatory restraint, emotional eating, and fruit/vegetable intake), stress level, and physical activity level. BMI and waist circumference were measured by trained researchers. A cognitive load score was derived from stress level, time pressure/income needs, race and nationality. High cognitive load participants (n=425) were significantly (Pcognitive loads (n=593). Compared to low cognitive load participants, high cognitive load participants were significantly more likely to eat cognitive load scores had a non-significant trend toward higher BMIs, waist circumferences, and drinking more alcohol than low cognitive load counterparts. In conclusion, cognitive load may be an important contributor to health behaviors. Understanding how cognitive load may affect eating and other weight-related behaviors could potentially lead to improvements in the effectiveness of obesity prevention and intervention programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Servet Kacar Basaran
Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that evaluate effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for treatment for panic disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in the national and international databases. The articles that were not therapy effectiveness studies, and group therapies that not based on cognitive behavioral approach were eliminated. The remaining 19 studies that were met the criteria were introduced in terms of method, therapy characteristics and results. The results of the studies showed that cognitive behavioral group therapies have similar efficacy with individual cognitive behavioral therapy on panic disorder symptoms (panic attacks frequency, the level of agoraphobia etc. and comorbid disorders (depression, anxiety sensitivity. However, cognitive behavioral group therapy is more cost-effective. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 79-94
Discussion: It seems that one of the effective ways to lessen externalizing behavior problems among street and working children is cognitive-behavioral play therapy; therefore, coaches and teachers of such children are recommended to make use of this method to lower their behavioral problems.
Hartmans, Carien; Comijs, Hannie; Jonker, Cees
Motivational aspects, emotional factors, and cognition, all of which require intact cognitive functioning may be essential in sexual functioning. However, little is known about the association between cognitive functioning and sexual behavior. The aim of this article is to review the current evidence for the influence of cognitive functioning on sexual behavior in normal aging and dementia. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane, and PsycINFO databases. The databases were searched for English language papers focusing on human studies published relating cognitive functioning to sexual behavior in the aging population. Keywords included sexual behavior, sexuality, cognitive functioning, healthy elderly, elderly, aging and dementia. Eight studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Of these studies, five included dementia patients and/or their partners, whereas only three studies included healthy older persons. Although not consistently, results indicated a trend that older people who are not demented and continue to engage in sexual activity have better overall cognitive functioning. Cognitive decline and dementia seem to be associated with diminished sexual behavior in older persons. The association between cognitive functioning and sexual behavior in the aging population is understudied. The results found are inconclusive. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Psychotherapy is a general name for the problem solving techniques to address mental disorders or struggles through verbal interaction. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT is one of the leading approaches in psychotherapy field. The first aim of this study; to evaluate the contribution of theoretical and supervision trainings perceived by mental health professionals to their CBT skills and personal development. The second one was to evaluate the CBT training process in psychotherapy training. To this end, 54 mental health professionals who agree to participate the study were given questionnaires each consisting of 18 items. This questionnaire was created by three supervisors who have been certified by the Academy of Cognitive Therapy (ACT. Mean duration of work as a mental health professional were 7.6 years. Mean duration of using psychotherapy in their clinical practice were 4,8 years. Mean duration of application of CBT as a psychotherapy modality were 3,2 years. Mean durations of theoretical and supervision trainings the participants had participated were 55,4 hours and 69,1 respectively. Seventy-nine point six of the participants reported that the theoretical training had contributed to their CBT practice at quite to too much levels. Fifty-nine point two of the participants reported that the same training contributed to their personal development at quiet to too much levels. For the supervision traning these perceived contributions were 92,6 % and 70,4% respectively. That the therapists reported high degree of satisfaction with the theoretical and supervision trainings they need to accomplish is promising about the psychotherapy training in Turkey. Besides, results of this study suggests that although theoretical training is of perceived value, supervision has been perceived as had given extra contribution. [JCBPR 2016; 5(3.000: 119-124
Li, Yu-Chen; Meng, Ya-Jing; Yuan, Min-Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ru; Ren, Zheng-Jia; Qiu, Chang-Jian; Zhang, Wei
To evaluate the effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) on social anxiety disorders (SAD). A total of 50 patients with SAD were recruited in this study. A survey containing the Liebowitz social anxiety scale (LSAS),the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ),the fear of negative evaluation questionnaire (FNE),the social support rating scale (SSRS),the tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ),and the egna minnen barndoms uppfostran (EMBU) was administered before and (one week) after the GCBT,including in the 50 healthy controls. About 21 patients completed the eight-week GCBT (once a week,2 h a session). Follow-up surveys were conducted on 40 patients (22 patients treated with GCBT and 18 untreated) over a 1-5 year period. Significant differences were found between the SAD patients and healthy controls in thinking mode,personality characteristics,social support,parental rearing styles,and social anxiety symptoms. Significant decrease in social anxiety symptom ( t =4.06, P =0.000) , negative automatic thoughts ( t =4.58, P =0.000) and fear for rejection ( t =3.85, P =0.000) were observed after the GCBT therapy. Such improvement was positively correlated with subjective social support ( r =0.361, P =0.022) ,and negatively correlated with rejection of father ( r =-0.431, P =0.005) . There was also statistical difference between the patients with and without the GCBT therapy ( P =0.033) . GCBT treatment can relieve SAD symptoms by changing the negative cognitive of SAD patients. Social support and rejection of father affects the prognosis of SAD.
He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan; Chen Yulong
Nuclear power plant is a complex human-machine system integrated with many advanced machines, electron devices and automatic controls. It demands operators to have high cognitive ability and correct analysis skill. The author divides operator's cognitive process into five stages to analysis. With this cognitive model, operator's cognitive error is analysed to get the root causes and stages that error happens. The results of the analysis serve as a basis in design of control rooms and training and evaluation of operators
Bigga, Gerlinde; Schoch, Werner H; Urban, Brigitte
Plant use is an elusive issue in Paleolithic archaeology. Due to poor organic preservation in many sites, botanical material is not always present. The sediments in Schöningen, however, contain abundant botanical macro-remains like wood, fruits, seeds, and other parts of plants which offer the opportunity to reconstruct the local vegetation. Combined with palynological results, it is possible to reveal the full potential of this environment to hominins. Ethnobotanical studies of hunter-gatherer societies living in similar environments illustrate the importance of plants for subsistence purposes. The identified taxa from the archaeological horizons at Schöningen include a broad spectrum of potentially exploitable species that could be sources of food, raw material, and firewood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Balsimelli S, Mendes MF, Bertolucci PH, Tilbery CP. Attention impairment associated with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with mild incapacity. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2007;65(2A:262-7. Zamani N, Ahmadi V, Ataie Moghanloo V, Mirshekar S. Comparing the effectiveness of two therapeutic methods of dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy on the improvement of impulsive behavior in the patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD showing a tendency to suicide. J Ilam Univ Med Sci 2014;22(5:45-54. [Full Text in Persian] Sadovnick AD. European charcot foundation lecture: The natural history of multiple sclerosis and gender. J Neurol Sci 2009;286(1-2:1-5. Robins LN. Psychiatric epidemiology. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984;41(10:931-33. Amato MP, Ponziani G, Siracusa G, Sorbi S. Cognitive dysfunction in early-onset multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 2001;58(10:1602-6. Polman CH, Reingold SC, Banwell B, Michel Clanet M, Cohen JA, Filippi M, et al. Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: Revisions to the McDonald Criteria. Ann Neurol 2011;69(2:292–302. Zamani N, Farhadi M, Jamilian HR, Habibi M. Effectiveness of dialectical behavior group therapy on expulsive anger. J Arak Univ Med Sci 2015;8(101:35-44. [Full Text in Persian] Young JE, Klosko JS, Weishaar ME. Schema therapy: A Practitioner’s guide. Translated by: Hamidpoor H. New York: Guilford Press; 2003. Linehan M. Dialectical Behavior therapy frequently Asked Questions. Avalaible From: http://behavioraltech.org/downloads/dbtFaq_Cons.pdf. Accessed Sep, 2008. Zamani N, Habibi M, Darvishi M. To compare the effectiveness dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive-behavioral group therapy in reducing depression in mothers of children with disabilities. Arak Med Univ J 2015;18(94:32-42. [Full Text in Persian] Hawton K, Salkous K, Clarck. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for psychiatric problems, a practical guide. Translated by: Ghasemzadeh H. Tehran: Arjomand Pub; 2002
Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.
The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism
Bock, Meredith; Duong, Y-Nhy; Kim, Anthony; Allen, Isabel; Murphy, Jennifer; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine
To prospectively evaluate the progression of cognitive-behavioral function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and examine the association of cognitive-behavioral deficits with disease progression, patient quality of life (QOL), and caregiver burden. We evaluated cognitive-behavioral function using the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Cognitive Behavioral Screen at enrollment and after 7 months in a cohort of patients with ALS. Paired t tests were used to evaluate the change in the 2 assessments. Linear regression and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to investigate how initial cognitive or behavioral status related to outcomes. The mean test-retest interval was 6.8 months (SD 1.6). Cognitive status of the study population (n = 49) overall did not change over the study period ( p = 0.06) despite progression of motor weakness ( p cognitive change. Patients initially classified as behaviorally normal showed increased behavioral problems over time ( t = -2.8, p = 0.009). Decline in cognitive (β = -1.3, p = 0.03) and behavioral (β = -0.76, p = 0.002) status predicted increasing caregiver burden. Behavioral abnormalities predicted decline in forced vital capacity and ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised score ( p = 0.008, 0.012) in the study population and patient QOL in the most severely affected group ( t = 4.3, p = 0.003). Cognitive-behavioral change is a key aspect of disease heterogeneity in ALS. Executive function in ALS overall remains stable over 7 months as detected by an administered screening tool. However, patients may develop caregiver-reported behavioral symptoms in that time period. Screening for caregiver-reported symptoms has a particular utility in predicting future clinical decline, increased caregiver burden, and worsening patient QOL.
Nauta, MH; Scholing, A; Emmelkamp, PMG; Minderaa, RB
To evaluate a 12-week cognitive-behavioral treatment program for children with anxiety disorders and the additional value of a seven-session cognitive parent training program. Method: Seventy-nine children with an anxiety disorder (aged 7-18 years) were randomly assigned to a cognitive behavioral
金, 奎卓; 野島, 一彦
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Behavioral Assertiveness Training (BAT), and those of Cognitive Assertiveness Training (CAT), also to compare the effects of these trainings accoiding to the distinction of sex. The subjects were thirty two elementary school students who voluntarily participated in this study. These thirty two subjects were randomly divided into two groups, behavioral assertiveness training group and cognitive assertiveness training group, and each group...
Shrigley, Tina L.; Dawson, Kimberley A.
The first purpose of the present study examined whether individuals with different exercise behaviors (classified by attendance) experienced different or similar cognitive patterns. It was hypothesized that different behavior would lead to different cognitive appraisals. It was predicted that there would be a difference between the three behavioral frequency groups with regard to self-efficacy measures and goal measures. The second purpose of the study was to describe, evaluate and observe wh...
Marques, Sofia; Barrocas, Daniel; Rijo, Daniel
Borderline personality disorder is the most common personality disorder, with a global prevalence rate between 1.6% and 6%. It is characterized by affective disturbance and impulsivity, which lead to a high number of self-harm behaviors and great amount of health services use. International guidelines recommend psychotherapy as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder. This paper reviews evidence about the effects and efficacy of cognitive-behavioral oriented psychological treatments for borderline personality disorder. A literature review was conducted in Medline and PubMed databases, using the following keywords: borderline personality disorder, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and efficacy. Sixteen randomized clinical trials were evaluate in this review, which analyzed the effects of several cognitive-behavioral oriented psychotherapeutic interventions, namely dialectical behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, schema-focused therapy and manual-assisted cognitive therapy. All above stated treatments showed clinical beneficial effects, by reducing borderline personality disorder core pathology and associated general psychopathology, as well as by reducing the severity and frequency of self-harm behaviors, and by improving the overall social, interpersonal and global adjustment. Dialectical behavioral therapy and schema-focused therapy also caused a soaring remission rate of diagnostic borderline personality disorder criteria of 57% and 94%, respectively. Although there were differences between the psychotherapeutic interventions analysed in this review, all showed clinical benefits in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Dialectical behavioral therapy and schema-focused therapy presented the strongest scientific data documenting their efficacy, but both interventions are integrative cognitive-behavioral therapies which deviate from the traditional cognitive-behavioral model. In summary, the available studies support
Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. Methods: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly di-vided in two groups of intervention (n = 32 and control (n = 40. The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not re-ceive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Results: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44 and control (15 95 ± 4 66 groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395. The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11 compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27 after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001. Conclusions: Since a woman′s body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman′s favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the impor-tance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.
Gallistel, C R; Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Kheifets, Aaron; King, Adam
We describe a high-throughput, high-volume, fully automated, live-in 24/7 behavioral testing system for assessing the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on basic mechanisms of cognition and learning in mice. A standard polypropylene mouse housing tub is connected through an acrylic tube to a standard commercial mouse test box. The test box has 3 hoppers, 2 of which are connected to pellet feeders. All are internally illuminable with an LED and monitored for head entries by infrared (IR) beams. Mice live in the environment, which eliminates handling during screening. They obtain their food during two or more daily feeding periods by performing in operant (instrumental) and Pavlovian (classical) protocols, for which we have written protocol-control software and quasi-real-time data analysis and graphing software. The data analysis and graphing routines are written in a MATLAB-based language created to simplify greatly the analysis of large time-stamped behavioral and physiological event records and to preserve a full data trail from raw data through all intermediate analyses to the published graphs and statistics within a single data structure. The data-analysis code harvests the data several times a day and subjects it to statistical and graphical analyses, which are automatically stored in the "cloud" and on in-lab computers. Thus, the progress of individual mice is visualized and quantified daily. The data-analysis code talks to the protocol-control code, permitting the automated advance from protocol to protocol of individual subjects. The behavioral protocols implemented are matching, autoshaping, timed hopper-switching, risk assessment in timed hopper-switching, impulsivity measurement, and the circadian anticipation of food availability. Open-source protocol-control and data-analysis code makes the addition of new protocols simple. Eight test environments fit in a 48 in x 24 in x 78 in cabinet; two such cabinets (16 environments) may be
Greenberg, Jennifer L; Mothi, Suraj Sarvode; Wilhelm, Sabine
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a distressing or impairing preoccupation with a perceived defect in physical appearance. BDD by proxy (BDDBP) is a significant but understudied variant of BDD in which the primary preoccupation involves perceived imperfections of another person. Like BDD, individuals with BDDBP engage in time-consuming rituals to "fix" the other person's appearance or alleviate distress. Avoidance is common and the impact of BDDBP on social functioning is profound. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best-studied and most promising psychological treatment for BDD, but no studies have examined its generalizability to the BDDBP variant. We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome of CBT modified for BDDBP in a sample of 6 adults with primary BDDBP. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 12-20weeks. Mean symptom severity (BDDBP-YBOCS) dropped from the moderately severe range at pretreatment to the subclinical range at posttreatment, t(6)=10.7, p<.001, d=3.3. One hundred percent of treatment completers were responders (≥30% reduction in BDDBP-YBOCS). Insight also improved. Treatment gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. To our knowledge, this represents the first treatment study for BDDBP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Psychiatric nurses have played a significant role in disseminating cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in Western countries; however, in Japan, the application, practice, efficiency, and quality control of CBT in the psychiatric nursing field are unclear. This study conducted a literature review to assess the current status of CBT practice and research in psychiatric nursing in Japan. Three English databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO and two Japanese databases (Ichushi-Web and CiNii were searched with predetermined keywords. Fifty-five articles met eligibility criteria: 46 case studies and 9 comparative studies. It was found that CBT took place primarily in inpatient settings and targeted schizophrenia and mood disorders. Although there were only a few comparative studies, each concluded that CBT was effective. However, CBT recipients and outcome measures were diverse, and nurses were not the only CBT practitioners in most reports. Only a few articles included the description of CBT training and supervision. This literature review clarified the current status of CBT in psychiatric nursing in Japan and identified important implications for future practice and research: performing CBT in a variety of settings and for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, conducting randomized controlled trials, and establishing pre- and postqualification training system.
Kathryn A Roecklein
Full Text Available Although light therapy is effective in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder (SAD and other mood disorders, only 53-79% of individuals with SAD meet remission criteria after light therapy. Perhaps more importantly, only 12-41% of individuals with SAD continue to use the treatment even after a previous winter of successful treatment.Participants completed surveys regarding (1 social, cognitive, and behavioral variables used to evaluate treatment adherence for other health-related issues, expectations and credibility of light therapy, (2 a depression symptoms scale, and (3 self-reported light therapy use.Individuals age 18 or older responded (n = 40, all reporting having been diagnosed with a mood disorder for which light therapy is indicated. Social support and self-efficacy scores were predictive of light therapy use (p's<.05.The findings suggest that testing social support and self-efficacy in a diagnosed patient population may identify factors related to the decision to use light therapy. Treatments that impact social support and self-efficacy may improve treatment response to light therapy in SAD.
Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Toftgård, Rie Castella; Nørgaard, Cita
Learning outcome of activity: Formålet med brug af video og peer-feedback i færdighedstræningen var at: • Udvikle nye didaktiske undervisningsmetoder ved undervisning i færdighedstræning • Fremme synkron og asynkron feedback på de studerendes færdighedstræning • Facilitere de studerendes studieak......Learning outcome of activity: Formålet med brug af video og peer-feedback i færdighedstræningen var at: • Udvikle nye didaktiske undervisningsmetoder ved undervisning i færdighedstræning • Fremme synkron og asynkron feedback på de studerendes færdighedstræning • Facilitere de studerendes...... studieaktiviteter før, under og efter undervisningen • Styrke ’just-in-time’ instruktioner til de studerendes individuelle behov • Udnytte lærerressourcerne i tilstedeværelsestimerne mere hensigtsmæssigt Description of your teaching activity: Brug af video og peer-feedback blev implementeret i færdighedstræningen...... (supervision). Reflective description of experiences with activity as to how your practice can be inspirational/transferable to others (subjects, students, institutions,...) Fagene blev efterfølgende evalueret med et elektronisk spørgeskema udviklet til at evaluere brug af video og peer-feedback i...
Currently, there are different treatment options like computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy, computer-based cognitive behavioral therapy and also, internet-based CBT. However, preliminary evidence suggests that computerised cognitive behaviour therapies (cCBT, are acceptable and effective interventions for children and adolescents. In this study is to review not only the effectiveness of cognitive behaviour treatments of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents but also the tecniques which have been used and their effects on the course and the treatments. [JCBPR 2014; 3(2.000: 99-108
Narme, Pauline; Mouras, Harold; Roussel, Martine; Duru, Cécile; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Godefroy, Olivier
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with behavioral disorders that can affect social functioning but are poorly understood. Since emotional and cognitive social processes are known to be crucial in social relationships, impairment of these processes may account for the emergence of behavioral disorders. We used a systematic battery of tests to assess emotional processes and social cognition in PD patients and relate our findings to conventional neuropsychological data (especially behavioral disorders). Twenty-three PD patients and 46 controls (matched for age and educational level) were included in the study and underwent neuropsychological testing, including an assessment of the behavioral and cognitive components of executive function. Emotional and cognitive social processes were assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index caregiver-administered questionnaire (as a measure of empathy), a facial emotion recognition task and two theory of mind (ToM) tasks. When compared with controls, PD patients showed low levels of empathy (p = .006), impaired facial emotion recognition (which persisted after correction for perceptual abilities) (p = .001), poor performance in a second-order ToM task (p = .008) that assessed both cognitive (p = .004) and affective (p = .03) inferences and, lastly, frequent dysexecutive behavioral disorders (in over 40% of the patients). Overall, impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning was observed in 17% of patients and was related to certain cognitive dysexecutive disorders. In terms of behavioral dysexecutive disorders, social behavior disorders were related to impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning (p = .04) but were independent of cognitive impairments. Emotional and cognitive social processes were found to be impaired in Parkinson's disease. This impairment may account for the emergence of social behavioral disorders. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Montgomery, Guy H; Sucala, Madalina; Dillon, Matthew J; Schnur, Julie B
Radiotherapy is a common and effective treatment for women with breast cancer. However, radiotherapy has also been shown to adversely affect patients' emotional well-being. Currently, few mind-body interventions are designed to improve patients' quality of life during radiotherapy. One intervention which has demonstrated clinical efficacy in the breast cancer radiotherapy setting is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis on emotional distress in women with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. One hundred patients were randomly assigned to either the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis (n = 50) or Attention Control (n = 50) group. Results revealed significant benefits of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis on emotional distress at the mid-point (d = 0.54), the conclusion (d = 0.64), and 4 weeks following the conclusion (d = 0.65) of radiotherapy (all ps Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis as an evidence-based intervention to reduce emotional distress in women with breast cancer. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis has the benefits of being brief, noninvasive, lacking side-effects, and producing beneficial effects which last beyond the conclusion of radiotherapy. Given these strengths, we propose that Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis is a strong candidate for greater dissemination and implementation in cancer populations.
Scott, Kelli; Klech, David; Lewis, Cara C; Simons, Anne D
Knowledge gain has been identified as necessary but not sufficient for therapist behavior change. Declarative knowledge, or factual knowledge, is thought to serve as a prerequisite for procedural knowledge, the how to knowledge system, and reflective knowledge, the skill refinement system. The study aimed to examine how a 1-day workshop affected therapist cognitive behavioral therapy declarative knowledge. Participating community therapists completed a test before and after training that assessed cognitive behavioral therapy knowledge. Results suggest that the workshop significantly increased declarative knowledge. However, post-training total scores remained moderately low, with several questions answered incorrectly despite content coverage in the workshop. These findings may have important implications for structuring effective cognitive behavioral therapy training efforts and for the successful implementation of cognitive behavioral therapy in community settings.
Tyler, Patrick M; White, Stuart F; Thompson, Ronald W; Blair, R J R
A cognitive neuroscience perspective seeks to understand behavior, in this case disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), in terms of dysfunction in cognitive processes underpinned by neural processes. While this type of approach has clear implications for clinical mental health practice, it also has implications for school-based assessment and intervention with children and adolescents who have disruptive behavior and aggression. This review articulates a cognitive neuroscience account of DBD by discussing the neurocognitive dysfunction related to emotional empathy, threat sensitivity, reinforcement-based decision-making, and response inhibition. The potential implications for current and future classroom-based assessments and interventions for students with these deficits are discussed.
Schoenberger, N E
There is a growing body of research evaluating the use of hypnosis with cognitive-behavioral techniques in the treatment of psychological disorders. The central question for research is whether the addition of hypnosis enhances the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatments. Overall, studies demonstrate a substantial benefit from the addition of hypnosis; however, the number of published studies is relatively small, and many of them have methodological limitations. For cognitive-behavioral hypnotherapies to be recognized as empirically supported treatments, a number of well-designed, randomized clinical trials are necessary. Currently, the efficacy of hypnosis as an adjunctive treatment remains unresolved.
Chen, E Y; Cacioppo, J; Fettich, K; Gallop, R; McCloskey, M S; Olino, T; Zeffiro, T A
Early weak treatment response is one of the few trans-diagnostic, treatment-agnostic predictors of poor outcome following a full treatment course. We sought to improve the outcome of clients with weak initial response to guided self-help cognitive behavior therapy (GSH). One hundred and nine women with binge-eating disorder (BED) or bulimia nervosa (BN) (DSM-IV-TR) received 4 weeks of GSH. Based on their response, they were grouped into: (1) early strong responders who continued GSH (cGSH), and early weak responders randomized to (2) dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), or (3) individual and additional group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT+). Baseline objective binge-eating-day (OBD) frequency was similar between DBT, CBT+ and cGSH. During treatment, OBD frequency reduction was significantly slower in DBT and CBT+ relative to cGSH. Relative to cGSH, OBD frequency was significantly greater at the end of DBT (d = 0.27) and CBT+ (d = 0.31) although these effects were small and within-treatment effects from baseline were large (d = 1.41, 0.95, 1.11, respectively). OBD improvements significantly diminished in all groups during 12 months follow-up but were significantly better sustained in DBT relative to cGSH (d = -0.43). At 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments, DBT, CBT and cGSH did not differ in OBD. Early weak response to GSH may be overcome by additional intensive treatment. Evidence was insufficient to support superiority of either DBT or CBT+ for early weak responders relative to early strong responders in cGSH; both were helpful. Future studies using adaptive designs are needed to assess the use of early response to efficiently deliver care to large heterogeneous client groups.
Friðgeirsdóttir, Guðlaug; Jóhannsson, Gunnar; Ellertsson, Steindór; Björnsdóttir, Erla
Insomnia is a common health problem with serious mental and physical consequences as well as increased economical costs. The use of hypnotics in Iceland is immense in spite of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) being recommended as the first choice treatment of chronic insomnia. To meet the needs of more individuals suffering from insomnia, online CBT-I was established at betrisvefn.is. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of this internet-based CBT-I. One hundred seventy-five users (mean age 46 y (18-79 y)) started a 6 week online intervention for insomnia. The drop-out rate was 29%, leaving a final sample of 125 users. The intervention is based on well-established face-to-face CBT-I. Sleep diaries were used to determine changes in sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset. Treatment effects were assesed after 6 weeks of treatment and at the 6 week follow-up. Significant improvement was found in all main sleep variables except for 5% decrease in total sleep time (TST). Effects were sustained at 6 week follow-up and TST increased. The use of hypnotics decreased significantly. This form of treatment seems to suit its users very well and over 94% would recommend the treatment. Internet interventions for insomnia seem to have good potential. CBT-I will hopefully be offered as the first line treatment for chronic insomnia in Iceland instead of hypnotics as the availability of the CBT-I is growing. Thus, the burden on health care clinics might reduce along with the hypnotics use and the considerable costs of insomnia.
Young, Kimberly S
Research over the last decade has identified Internet addiction as a new and often unrecognized clinical disorder that impact a user's ability to control online use to the extent that it can cause relational, occupational, and social problems. While much of the literature explores the psychological and social factors underlying Internet addiction, little if any empirical evidence exists that examines specific treatment outcomes to deal with this new client population. Researchers have suggested using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as the treatment of choice for Internet addiction, and addiction recovery in general has utilized CBT as part of treatment planning. To investigate the efficacy of using CBT with Internet addicts, this study investigated 114 clients who suffered from Internet addiction and received CBT at the Center for Online Addiction. This study employed a survey research design, and outcome variables such as client motivation, online time management, improved social relationships, improved sexual functioning, engagement in offline activities, and ability to abstain from problematic applications were evaluated on the 3rd, 8th, and 12th sessions and over a 6-month follow-up. Results suggested that Caucasian, middle-aged males with at least a 4-year degree were most likely to suffer from some form of Internet addiction. Preliminary analyses indicated that most clients were able to manage their presenting complaints by the eighth session, and symptom management was sustained upon a 6-month follow-up. As the field of Internet addiction continues to grow, such outcome data will be useful in treatment planning with evidenced-based protocols unique to this emergent client population.
Laar, M. van de; Pevernagie, D.; Mierlo, P. van; Overeem, S.
Cognitive behavioral treatment is the gold standard treatment for insomnia, although a substantial group does not respond. We examined possible predictors for treatment outcome in psychophysiological insomniacs, with a focus on the presence of clearly defined psychiatric comorbidity. This was a
Goedendorp, Martine M.; Knoop, Hans; Gielissen, Marieke F. M.; Verhagen, Constans A. H. H. V. M.; Bleijenberg, Gijs
Context. After successful cancer treatment, a substantial number of survivors continue to experience fatigue and related concentration and memory problems. Severe fatigue after cancer treatment can be treated effectively with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), but it is unclear whether CBT has an
Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Prins, Pier J M; Boer, Frits; Vervoort, Leentje; Wolters, Lidewij H; Moorlag, Harma; Nauta, Maaike H; Garst, Harry; Hartman, Catharina A; de Haan, Else
The purpose is to investigate whether a change in putative mediators (negative and positive thoughts, coping strategies, and perceived control over anxious situations) precedes a change in anxiety symptoms in anxiety-disordered children and adolescents receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).
Andreeva, Valentina A.; Lassale, Camille; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar
Objectives. We examined the association between individual and clustered lifestyle behaviors in middle age and later in cognitive functioning. Methods. Middle-aged participants (n = 2430) in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydant study self-reported their low physical activity, sedentary behavior, alcohol use, smoking, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and low fish consumption. We assessed cognition 13 years later via 6 neuropsychological tests. After standardization, we summed the scores for a composite cognitive measure. We estimated executive functioning and verbal memory scores using principal component analysis. We estimated the mean differences (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) in cognitive performance by the number of unhealthy behaviors using analysis of covariance. We identified latent unhealthy behavior factor via structural equation modeling. Results. Global cognitive function and verbal memory were linearly, negatively associated with the number of unhealthy behaviors: adjusted mean differences = −0.36 (95% CI = −0.69, −0.03) and −0.46 (95% CI = −0.80, −0.11), respectively, per unit increase in the number of unhealthy behaviors. The latent unhealthy behavior factor with low fruit and vegetable consumption and low physical activity as main contributors was associated with reduced verbal memory (RMSEA = 0.02; CFI = 0.96; P = .004). No association was found with executive functioning. Conclusions. Comprehensive public health strategies promoting healthy lifestyles might help deter cognitive aging. PMID:25211733
Fonseca, Luciana Mascarenhas; de Oliveira, Melaine Cristina; de Figueiredo Ferreira Guilhoto, Laura Maria; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrao; Bottino, Cássio Mc
Cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease often affect older adults with Down syndrome (DS) much earlier than those in the general population. There is also growing evidence of the effects of negative life events on the mental health and behavior of individuals with intellectual disability. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study investigating objective cognitive decline following bereavement in aging individuals with DS. The objective of this study was to determine whether cognitive decline correlates with bereavement following the recent loss of a caregiver or with behavioral changes in a sample of adult individuals with DS who do not meet the criteria for dementia or depression, using the longitudinal assessment of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), together with the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). We evaluated 18 subjects at baseline and over a follow-up period of 14-22 months, attempting to determine whether cognitive decline correlates with bereavement following the recent loss of the main caregiver or with behavioral changes (as assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory). The mean rate of change in CAMCOG was -1.83 (standard deviation 4.51). Behavioral changes had a significant direct influence on cognitive decline. When bereavement was accompanied by behavioral changes, the probability of cognitive decline was 87% (odds ratio 3.82). The occurrence of behavioral changes attributed to bereavement following the loss of the primary caregiver significantly increases the probability of cognitive decline in individuals with DS. Longitudinal comparison of the CAMCOG and use of the IQCODE appear to enrich the analysis of cognitive decline in individuals with DS. Further studies involving larger samples are needed in order to corroborate and expand upon our findings, which can have implications for the clinical management of older adults with DS.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral interventions typically focus on objective behavioral endpoints like weight loss and smoking cessation. In reality, though, achieving full behavior change is a complex process in which several steps towards success are taken. Any progress in this process may also be considered as a beneficial outcome of the intervention, assuming that this increases the likelihood to achieve successful behavior change eventually. Until recently, there has been little consideration about whether partial behavior change at follow-up should be incorporated in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs. The aim of this explorative review is to identify CEAs of behavioral interventions in which cognitive outcome measures of behavior change are analyzed. Methods Data sources were searched for publications before May 2011. Results Twelve studies were found eligible for inclusion. Two different approaches were found: three studies calculated separate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for cognitive outcome measures, and one study modeled partial behavior change into the final outcome. Both approaches rely on the assumption, be it implicitly or explicitly, that changes in cognitive outcome measures are predictive of future behavior change and may affect CEA outcomes. Conclusion Potential value of cognitive states in CEA, as a way to account for partial behavior change, is to some extent recognized but not (yet integrated in the field. In conclusion, CEAs should consider, and where appropriate incorporate measures of partial behavior change when reporting effectiveness and hence cost-effectiveness.
Morgan, David L.; Morgan, Robin K.; Toth, James M.
The empirical and theoretical work of both operant and cognitive researchers has increasingly appealed to evolutionary concepts. In particular, both traditional operant studies of extinction-induced behavior and cognitive investigations of creativity and problem solving converge on the fundamental evolutionary principles of variation and selection. These contemporary developments and their implications for the alleged preparadigmatic status of psychology are discussed.
Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun
This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…
Holmbeck, Grayson N.; And Others
Cognitive development, egocentrism, and self-esteem were examined in relation to contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior for 300 high school and first-year college students. Adolescents with higher cognitive development and self-esteem scores had more knowledge about sexuality and contraception and were more likely to use contraceptives.…
McManus, Freda; Waite, Polly; Shafran, Roz
Low self-esteem is a common, disabling, and distressing problem that has been shown to be involved in the etiology and maintenance of a range of Axis I disorders. Hence, it is a priority to develop effective treatments for low self-esteem. A cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of low self-esteem has been proposed and a cognitive-behavioral…
Swagerman, Suzanne C; de Geus, Eco J C; Koenis, Marinka M G; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kan, Kees-Jan
Regular exercise has often been suggested to have beneficial effects on cognition, but empirical findings are mixed because of heterogeneity in sample composition (age and sex); the cognitive domain being investigated; the definition and reliability of exercise behavior measures; and study design
Black, Kathryn C.; Hynd, George W.
Children with epilepsy frequently display cognitive sequelae that are overlooked or misunderstood by educational personnel, yet may adversely impact academic performance. Reviews common cognitive-behavioral characteristics of children with epilepsy, typical effects of anticonvulsant medications, and various periictal phenomena and their relative…
Swagerman, S.C.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Koenis, M.M.G.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kan, K.J.
Regular exercise has often been suggested to have beneficial effects on cognition, but empirical findings are mixed because of heterogeneity in sample composition (age and sex); the cognitive domain being investigated; the definition and reliability of exercise behavior measures; and study design
Makinson, Ryan A.; Young, J. Scott
There is increasing evidence to support the biological basis of mental disorders. Subsequently, understanding the neurobiological context from which mental distress arises can help counselors appropriately apply cognitive behavioral therapy and other well-researched cognitive interventions. The purpose of this article is to describe the…
Kaufman, Noah K.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Clarke, Gregory N.; Stice, Eric
Several possible mediators of a group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depressed adolescents were examined. Six measures specific to CBT (e.g., negative cognitions, engagement in pleasurable activities) and 2 nonspecific measures (therapeutic alliance, group cohesion) were examined in 93 adolescents with comorbid major depressive disorder…
Newman, Michelle G.; Fisher, Aaron J.
Objective: This study examined (a) duration of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a moderator of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus its components (cognitive therapy and self-control desensitization) and (b) increases in dynamic flexibility of anxious symptoms during the course of psychotherapy as a mediator of this moderation. Degree of…
Cretenet, Joel; Dru, Vincent
Recent research has shown that performing approach versus avoidance behaviors (arm flexion vs. extension) effectively influences cognitive functioning. In another area, lateralized peripheral activations (left vs. right side) of the motivational systems of approach versus avoidance were linked to various performances in cognitive tasks. By…
Bhise, Vikram V.; Burack, Gail D.; Mandelbaum, David E.
Aim: Epilepsy is associated with difficulties in cognition and behavior in children. These problems have been attributed to genetics, ongoing seizures, psychosocial issues, underlying abnormality of the brain, and/or antiepileptic drugs. In a previous study, we found baseline cognitive differences between children with partial versus generalized…
Teri, Linda; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores
Presents two strategies for treating depression in Alzheimer's patients: cognitive therapy for mildly demented adults which challenges patient's negative cognitions to reduce distortions and enable patient to generate more adaptive ways of viewing specific events; and behavioral intervention for moderately or severely demented adults which…
Cabrera, Natasha J.; Fagan, Jay; Wight, Vanessa; Schadler, Cornelia
The association among mothers', fathers', and infants' risk and cognitive and social behaviors at 24 months was examined using structual equation modeling and data on 4,200 on toddlers and their parents from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. There were 3 main findings. First, for cognitive outcomes, maternal risk was directly…
Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi
The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.
Discussion: Cognitive-behavioral group counseling sessions can improve the self-concept of visually impaired adolescents. Moreover, positive self-concept will increase their social interaction and mental health.
van Noort, G.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.
Web site interactivity creates numerous opportunities for marketers to persuade online consumers and receives extensive attention in the marketing literature. However, research on cognitive and behavioral responses to web site interactivity is scarce, and more importantly, it does not provide
van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Vedel, Ellen; van den Brink, Wim; Schoevers, Robert A.
Two cases of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) for substance use disorder (SUD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are presented illustrating that ICBT is a promising new treatment option
van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Vedel, Ellen; van den Brink, Wir; Schoevers, Robert A.
Two cases of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) for substance use disorder (SUD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are presented illustrating that ICBT is a promising new treatment option. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ruwaard, J.; Lange, A.; Schrieken, B.; Dolan, C.V.; Emmelkamp, P.
Context Randomized controlled trails have identified online cognitive behavioral therapy as an efficacious intervention in the management of common mental health disorders. Objective To assess the effectiveness of online CBT for different mental disorders in routine clinical practice. Design An
Hornsveld, R.H.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.
The present study evaluated the progress of four groups of chronically psychotic patients in treatment at De Kijvelanden Forensic Psychiatric Hospital. The psychotic patients were offered a cognitive-behavioral program, including psycho education, grief processing, stress management, functional
Ruwaard, Jeroen; Lange, Alfred; Schrieken, Bart; Dolan, Conor V; Emmelkamp, Paul
CONTEXT: Randomized controlled trails have identified online cognitive behavioral therapy as an efficacious intervention in the management of common mental health disorders. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of online CBT for different mental disorders in routine clinical practice. DESIGN: An
Full Text Available Background & aim: Insomnias is associated with considerable problems in educational, vocational, social and familial performance. The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior group therapy on improvement of insomnia symptoms in students. Methods: The present clinical trial study was conducted on twenty-four students who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and the control (n = 12. The experimental group was participated in eight sessions of cognitive behavior therapy, while the control group received no intervention. Research tools include the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index that completed by both participants. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, t-test. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that the performance of cognitive behavioral therapy may improve symptoms and reduce the severity of insomnia in the experimental group compared with the control group (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective on symptoms of insomnia in students.
Robinson, Michael D; Meier, Brian P; Tamir, Maya; Wilkowski, Benjamin M; Ode, Scott
Approach motivation consists of the active, engaged pursuit of one's goals. The purpose of the present three studies (N = 258) was to examine whether approach motivation could be cognitively modeled, thereby providing process-based insights into personality functioning. Behavioral facilitation was assessed in terms of faster (or facilitated) reaction time with practice. As hypothesized, such tendencies predicted higher levels of approach motivation, higher levels of positive affect, and lower levels of depressive symptoms and did so across cognitive, behavioral, self-reported, and peer-reported outcomes. Tendencies toward behavioral facilitation, on the other hand, did not correlate with self-reported traits (Study 1) and did not predict avoidance motivation or negative affect (all studies). The results indicate a systematic relationship between behavioral facilitation in cognitive tasks and approach motivation in daily life. Results are discussed in terms of the benefits of modeling the cognitive processes hypothesized to underlie individual differences motivation, affect, and depression. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved
Armando Carlos Roca Socarras
Full Text Available Background: cognitive impairment and high comorbidity are common health problems in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Objective: to describe the behavior of cognitive impairment and comorbidity in hospitalized patients suffering from stroke. Method: descriptive study of 77 patients with ischemic stroke admitted from April 2010 to December 2011, in Seychelles General Hospital. The behavior of this disease in relation to variables such as age, presence of chronic noncommunicable diseases, cognitive impairment, educational level, affected cerebral hemisphere and time of evolution was analyzed. Results: 68,9 % of patients presented cognitive impairment, their average age was 74,2 (± 9,19 years old compared to 62,4 (± 14,2 years old for those with no cognitive impairment. We found a higher frequency of chronic noncommunicable diseases in cognitively impaired patients with a Charlson comorbidity index of 2,11 (± 0,97. 18 patients with cognitive impairment and 23 patients with no cognitive impairment were diagnosed with depression. Conclusions: more than half of hospitalized patients experienced cognitive impairment and in most cases previous to cerebrovascular disease. Male patients predominated. There was an increase in age, severity of depression, as well as in the frequency of chronic noncommunicable diseases, and myocardial infarction of considerable size, in respect to patients with no cognitive impairment.
Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi
The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the...
Roy, Prasanta Kumar
A 22-year-old female diagnosed with anorexia nervosa received brief psychotherapy within a span of 1.5 months. Detailed cognitive-behavioral assessment was done and eating attitude was rated. Intervention of eating behavior and cognitive restructuring were initiated along with regular practice of self-hypnosis with ego-strengthening suggestions. Age regression was done to identify conflicts. Significant improvement in eating attitude was noted after 8 sessions without relapse at 3 months. Details of the psychotherapy are discussed.
Herbert, James D; Gaudiano, Brandon A; Forman, Evan M
For the past 30 years, generations of scholars of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) have expressed concern that clinical practice has abandoned the close links with theory that characterized the earliest days of the field. There is also a widespread assumption that a greater working knowledge of theory will lead to better clinical outcomes, although there is currently very little hard evidence to support this claim. We suggest that the rise of so-called "third generation" models of CBT over the past decade, along with the dissemination of statistical innovations among psychotherapy researchers, have given new life to this old issue. We argue that theory likely does matter to clinical outcomes, and we outline the future research that would be needed to address this conjecture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Angélica M Prazeres,1 Antônio L Nascimento,1 Leonardo F Fontenelle1,21Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Niterói, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.Keywords: dysmorphophobia, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, literature review
Daniel W. Chaney
Full Text Available Use of the terms cognition and behavior and their variants can be traced back to the middle-ages. What is not widely known is how the terms were first used in the literature. This article identifies variations of terms for cognition and behavior and traces the first use of the terms using the Oxford English Dictionary (OED. A systematic search of the OED was conducted, identifying terms in the cognition and behavior families. Terms are defined and the year the term first appeared in the literature is identified. Terms are sorted and grouped chronologically by first appearance to determine their first use in the literature as noted in the OED. Results indicated more words are related to cognition than behavior. The first term related to cognition to appear was cogitation in circa 1225; while the first term related to behavior was port, which appeared circa 1330. Each family of terms experienced tremendous growth during the first appearance of terms. The cognition family saw 60% of its terms appear in the 17th and 19th centuries. The behavior family saw nearly 75% of its terms make their first appearance during the 15th through the 17th centuries.
Chaney, Daniel W
Use of the terms cognition and behavior and their variants can be traced back to the middle-ages. What is not widely known is how the terms were first used in the literature. This article identifies variations of terms for cognition and behavior and traces the first use of the terms using the Oxford English Dictionary (OED). A systematic search of the OED was conducted, identifying terms in the cognition and behavior families. Terms are defined and the year the term first appeared in the literature is identified. Terms are sorted and grouped chronologically by first appearance to determine their first use in the literature as noted in the OED. Results indicated more words are related to cognition than behavior. The first term related to cognition to appear was cogitation in circa 1225; while the first term related to behavior was port, which appeared circa 1330. Each family of terms experienced tremendous growth during the first appearance of terms. The cognition family saw 60% of its terms appear in the 17(th) and 19(th) centuries. The behavior family saw nearly 75% of its terms make their first appearance during the 15(th) through the 17(th) centuries.
Naqvi, Nasir H; Morgenstern, Jon
Researchers have begun to apply cognitive neuroscience concepts and methods to study behavior change mechanisms in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatments. This review begins with an examination of the current state of treatment mechanisms research using clinical and social psychological approaches. It then summarizes what is currently understood about the pathophysiology of addiction from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Finally, it reviews recent efforts to use cognitive neuroscience approaches to understand the neural mechanisms of behavior change in AUD, including studies that use neural functioning to predict relapse and abstinence; studies examining neural mechanisms that operate in current evidence-based behavioral interventions for AUD; as well as research on novel behavioral interventions that are being derived from our emerging understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms of behavior change in AUD. The article highlights how the regulation of subcortical regions involved in alcohol incentive motivation by prefrontal cortical regions involved in cognitive control may be a core mechanism that plays a role in these varied forms of behavior change in AUD. We also lay out a multilevel framework for integrating cognitive neuroscience approaches with more traditional methods for examining AUD treatment mechanisms.
Holloway, Susan D.
A study examined the relationship between change in daycare children's classroom behavior and the teacher's socialization behavior. Various behaviors of 69 children in 24 classrooms were observed and coded in the fall and spring of the school year. Observers coded teacher behavior according to the Caregiver Interaction Scale, which assesses…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although literature provides support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT as an efficacious intervention for social phobia, more research is needed to improve treatments for children. Methods Forty four Caucasian children (ages 8-14 meeting diagnostic criteria of social phobia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; APA, 1994 were randomly allocated to either a newly developed CBT program focusing on cognition according to the model of Clark and Wells (n = 21 or a wait-list control group (n = 23. The primary outcome measure was clinical improvement. Secondary outcomes included improvements in anxiety coping, dysfunctional cognitions, interaction frequency and comorbid symptoms. Outcome measures included child report and clinican completed measures as well as a diagnostic interview. Results Significant differences between treatment participants (4 dropouts and controls (2 dropouts were observed at post test on the German version of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children. Furthermore, in the treatment group, significantly more children were free of diagnosis than in wait-list group at post-test. Additional child completed and clinician completed measures support the results. Discussion The study is a first step towards investigating whether CBT focusing on cognition is efficacious in treating children with social phobia. Future research will need to compare this treatment to an active treatment group. There remain the questions of whether the effect of the treatment is specific to the disorder and whether the underlying theoretical model is adequate. Conclusion Preliminary support is provided for the efficacy of the cognitive behavioral treatment focusing on cognition in socially phobic children. Active comparators should be established with other evidence-based CBT programs for anxiety disorders, which differ significantly in their dosage and type of cognitive
Full Text Available Luciana Mascarenhas Fonseca,1 Melaine Cristina de Oliveira,2 Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira Guilhoto,3,4 Esper Abrao Cavalheiro,3,4 Cássio MC Bottino1 1Old Age Research Group, Department of Psychiatry, 2Institute of Mathematics and Statistics, University of São Paulo, 3Association of Parents and Friends of People with Intellectual Disability of São Paulo, 4Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease often affect older adults with Down syndrome (DS much earlier than those in the general population. There is also growing evidence of the effects of negative life events on the mental health and behavior of individuals with intellectual disability. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study investigating objective cognitive decline following bereavement in aging individuals with DS.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether cognitive decline correlates with bereavement following the recent loss of a caregiver or with behavioral changes in a sample of adult individuals with DS who do not meet the criteria for dementia or depression, using the longitudinal assessment of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG, together with the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE.Methods: We evaluated 18 subjects at baseline and over a follow-up period of 14–22 months, attempting to determine whether cognitive decline correlates with bereavement following the recent loss of the main caregiver or with behavioral changes (as assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory.Results: The mean rate of change in CAMCOG was -1.83 (standard deviation 4.51. Behavioral changes had a significant direct influence on cognitive decline. When bereavement was accompanied by behavioral changes, the probability of cognitive decline was 87% (odds ratio 3.82. Conclusion: The occurrence of behavioral changes attributed to bereavement following the loss of
Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin
The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior.
Panagiotidou, K; Zervas, I
Social changes and developments in medical science prompted mental health professionals to adopt new roles in relation to their self-disclosure practices. The physician-patient relationship has balanced on a different level, promoting the equity and the autonomy of the second. The contemporary patient is better informed, asks more questions and requires more answers. The boundaries between "professional" and "personal" are less strict and patients believe that they have a right to know whether the personal experiences (educational, clinical, research) of their therapists enable them to understand and help them. Although the latest version of the American Psychological Association's Ethics Code (APA, 2002) offers no explicit guidance on therapist self-disclosure, it incorporates an implicit message that therapists can no longer choose non-disclosure without having considered the issue carefully. Non-disclosure is no longer the easy answer, as it may affect adversely the therapeutic relationship and the therapeutic effect. These new circumstances prompted representatives of all psychotherapeutic orientations to reconsider traditional positions on therapist self-disclosure, to adapt to the diverse needs of the patients and the modern requirements of the therapeutic process and to define the framework within which its conduct is not only safe but also effective. This review attempts to describe the concept of therapist self-disclosure and its use and its functions in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, following a history of the term in other major therapeutic schools (psychoanalytic, client-centered and systemic). As the focus of any psychotherapy is the patient himself, we added reports of patients' experiences by their therapists' disclosures. Those descriptions reveal clearly not only the benefits of therapist self-disclosure but also the dangers posed by improper use. Finally, we attempt to set a framework in the form of proposals, as these result from existing
Sitnikov, Lilya; Rohan, Kelly J; Evans, Maggie; Mahon, Jennifer N; Nillni, Yael I
There is no empirical basis for determining which seasonal affective disorder (SAD) patients are best suited for what type of treatment. Using data from a parent clinical trial comparing light therapy (LT), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and their combination (CBT + LT) for SAD, we constructed hierarchical linear regression models to explore baseline cognitive vulnerability constructs (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, negative automatic thoughts, response styles) as prognostic and prescriptive factors of acute and next winter depression outcomes. Cognitive constructs did not predict or moderate acute treatment outcomes. Baseline dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts were prescriptive of next winter treatment outcomes. Participants with higher baseline levels of dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts had less severe depression the next winter if treated with CBT than if treated with LT. In addition, participants randomized to solo LT who scored at or above the sample mean on these cognitive measures at baseline had more severe depressive symptoms the next winter relative to those who scored below the mean. Baseline dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts did not predict treatment outcomes in participants assigned to solo CBT or CBT + LT. Therefore, SAD patients with extremely rigid cognitions did not fare as well in the subsequent winter if treated initially with solo LT. Such patients may be better suited for initial treatment with CBT, which directly targets cognitive vulnerability processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Daffner, Kirk R; Gale, Seth A; Barrett, A M; Boeve, Bradley F; Chatterjee, Anjan; Coslett, H Branch; D'Esposito, Mark; Finney, Glen R; Gitelman, Darren R; Hart, John J; Lerner, Alan J; Meador, Kimford J; Pietras, Alison C; Voeller, Kytja S; Kaufer, Daniel I
To evaluate the evidence basis of single-domain cognitive tests frequently used by behavioral neurologists in an effort to improve the quality of clinical cognitive assessment. Behavioral Neurology Section members of the American Academy of Neurology were surveyed about how they conduct clinical cognitive testing, with a particular focus on the Neurobehavioral Status Exam (NBSE). In contrast to general screening cognitive tests, an NBSE consists of tests of individual cognitive domains (e.g., memory or language) that provide a more comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Workgroups for each of 5 cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, language, and spatial cognition) conducted evidence-based reviews of frequently used tests. Reviews focused on suitability for office-based clinical practice, including test administration time, accessibility of normative data, disease populations studied, and availability in the public domain. Demographic and clinical practice data were obtained from 200 respondents who reported using a wide range of cognitive tests. Based on survey data and ancillary information, between 5 and 15 tests in each cognitive domain were reviewed. Within each domain, several tests are highlighted as being well-suited for an NBSE. We identified frequently used single-domain cognitive tests that are suitable for an NBSE to help make informed choices about clinical cognitive assessment. Some frequently used tests have limited normative data or have not been well-studied in common neurologic disorders. Utilizing standardized cognitive tests, particularly those with normative data based on the individual's age and educational level, can enhance the rigor and utility of clinical cognitive assessment. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
Tonga, Johanne Bjoernstad; Arnevik, Espen Ajo; Werheid, Katja; Ulstein, Ingun Dina
There is a growing attention worldwide to young-onset dementia (YOD) and this group's special challenges and needs. The literature on psychosocial interventions for this population is scarce, and little is known about the specific challenges and benefits of working therapeutically with this group of patients. The aim of this study was to explore if a manual-based structured cognitive behavioral/cognitive rehabilitation program would be beneficial for these patients. One case, a 63-year-old woman with YOD, is presented to illustrate how this intervention can be applied to individual patients to manage depressive symptoms in YOD.
da Silva Gusmão Cardoso, Thiago; Pompéia, Sabine; Miranda, Mônica Carolina
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a common respiratory sleep disorder in children that is believed to adversely affect both quality of life and cognition. The purpose of the present systematic review was to obtain evidence of the impact of OSA on children's cognitive/behavioral abilities from primary studies published in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases from 2002 to 2016. Of the 649 articles found, only 34 met the eligibility criteria: studies that evaluated cognition, behavior, and/or academic achievement of children meeting clinical criteria for OSA to compare their data to those of healthy controls or normative data, provided that the samples did not present conditions that might affect cognition/behavior irrespective of OSA. The few selected articles with low risk of bias (levels of evidence I and II) showed that OSA children's intellectual abilities may be impaired but remain within the normal range. Which specific cognitive ability drives this impairment is unclear, as there was insufficient evidence of deficits in language, memory, attention, executive functions, and academic performance, due to low levels of evidence, conflicting findings, and/or heterogeneity of tasks and cognitive abilities tapped by the measures used to assess these domains. To determine why this is so, future studies must test OSA patients using measures that allow for fractionated higher- and lower-order cognitive abilities based on accepted cognitive neuropsychology models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This paper reviews the characteristics of cognitive theories and their links to behavioral science and advanced intelligent systems. Cognitive theories model human cognition, perception, and communication. They suggest the human functions the system should have, serve as a philosophical basis for system development, and provide abstract design guidelines. The underlying assumption behind this paper is that if the cognitive theories are to have any value at all, they must be translated into usable systems. A process for testing a cognitive theory in terms of conceptual criteria, behavioral predictions and tests, and software development and tests, is suggested. Criteria for measuring the problem solving success of the advanced system are described. A theory of the system as an intelligent problem solver is presented. (author)
Takahashi, Makoto; Kubo, Osamu; Yasuta, Akira
In this paper, a method of human cognitive state estimation based on physiological measures has been applied to the analysis of cognitive behavior during anomaly diagnosis observed with nuclear power plant simulator. This method has also been combined with the conventional experimental protocol such as operational sequence and questionnaire results. The simulator experiments have been performed using plant experts and the results demonstrate that the cognitive state estimation method can be an effective way for understanding cognitive behavior during the anomaly diagnosis of the nuclear power plant. It has also been shown from the results that the combined use of the human cognitive state estimation and the conventional experimental protocol can provide effective information in decreasing the ambiguity of the analysis results. (author)
Lee, Kibeom; Allen, Natalie J
To investigate the role of affect and cognitions in predicting organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and workplace deviance behavior (WDB), data were collected from 149 registered nurses and their coworkers. Job affect was associated more strongly than were job cognitions with OCB directed at individuals, whereas job cognitions correlated more strongly than did job affect with OCB directed at the organization. With respect to WDB, job cognitions played a more important role in prediction when job affect was represented by 2 general mood variables (positive and negative affect). When discrete emotions were used to represent job affect, however, job affect played as important a role as job cognition variables, strongly suggesting the importance of considering discrete emotions in job affect research.
Van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; ter Kuile, Moniek M.; de Groot, H. Ellen; Melles, Reinhilde; Nefs, Janneke; Zandbergen, Maartje
Women with lifelong vaginismus (N = 117) were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral group therapy, cognitive-behavioral bibliotherapy, or a waiting list. Manualized treatment comprised sexual education, relaxation exercises, gradual exposure, cognitive therapy, and sensate focus therapy. Group therapy consisted of ten 2-hr sessions with 6 to 9…
Schütt, T.; Berendt, M.; Toft, Nils
BackgroundCanine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative condition dominated by changes in behavioral patterns. Cohort studies investigating cognitive status in dogs are lacking. ObjectivesTo investigate cognitive function, progression of age-related behavioral changes...
Foxall, Gordon R
Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Peterson, 2007; Wargo et al., 2010a). This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS) hypothesis (Bickel et al., 2012b) captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994) and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST; Gray and McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton and Corr, 2004), which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992) as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behavior. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003) in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making.
Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn
Severe health anxiety can be effectively treated with exposure-based Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT), but information about which factors that predict outcome is scarce. Using data from a recently conducted RCT comparing ICBT (n = 79) with Internet-delivered behavioral stress management (IBSM) (n = 79) the presented study investigated predictors of treatment outcome. Analyses were conducted using a two-step linear regression approach and the dependent variable was operationalized both as end state health anxiety at post-treatment and as baseline-to post-treatment improvement. A hypothesis driven approach was used where predictors expected to influence outcome were based on a previous predictor study by our research group. As hypothesized, the results showed that baseline health anxiety and treatment adherence predicted both end state health anxiety and improvement. In addition, anxiety sensitivity, treatment credibility, and working alliance were significant predictors of health anxiety improvement. Demographic variables, i.e. age, gender, marital status, computer skills, educational level, and having children, had no significant predictive value. We conclude that it is possible to predict a substantial proportion of the outcome variance in ICBT and IBSM for severe health anxiety. The findings of the present study can be of high clinical value as they provide information about factors of importance for outcome in the treatment of severe health anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Kirkwood, Hannah; Elliott, Julian
This study explored the cognitive and behavioral profiles of children with working memory impairments. In an initial screening of 3,189 five- to eleven-year-olds, 308 were identified as having very low working memory scores. Cognitive skills (IQ, vocabulary, reading, and math), classroom behavior, and self-esteem were assessed. The majority of the children struggled in the learning measures and verbal ability. They also obtained atypically high ratings of cognitive problems/inattentive symptoms and were judged to have short attention spans, high levels of distractibility, problems in monitoring the quality of their work, and difficulties in generating new solutions to problems. These data provide rich new information on the cognitive and behavioral profiles that characterize children with low working memory.
Park, Hyojun; Robert, Stephanie A.; Palta, Mari; Witt, Whitney P.
Objectives. We investigated relationships among cognitive delay, community factors, and behavior problems over 2 years in early childhood with a national sample of US families. Methods. Data were from 3 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (2001–2005; n = 7650). We defined cognitive delay as the lowest 10% of mental scores from the Bayley Short Form–Research Edition, administered at 9 and 24 months. At 24 months, we classified children as typically developing or as having resolved, newly developed, or persistent cognitive delays. Behavior was measured at age 4 years with the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales (range = 0–36). Community factors included perceived neighborhood safety and an index of county disadvantage. Results. Behavior scores at age 4 years (mean = 12.4; SD = 4.9) were higher among children with resolved (Β = 0.70; SE = 0.20), newly developed (Β = 1.92; SE = 0.25), and persistent (Β = 2.96; SE = 0.41) cognitive delays than for typically developing children. The interaction between county disadvantage and cognitive delay status was statistically significant (P < .01), suggesting that county disadvantage was particularly detrimental for children with persistent delays. Conclusions. The community context may provide an opportunity for public health interventions to improve the behavioral health of children with cognitive delays. PMID:25211742
Definition Prosocial behavior is any behavior performed by one individual that results in a benefit for another individual. Prosocial motivations, prosocial preferences, or other-regarding preferences refer to the psychological predisposition to behave in the best interest of another individual. A behavior need not be costly to the actor to be considered prosocial, thus the concept is distinct from altruistic behavior which requires that the actor incurs some cost when providing a benefit to ...
Delinsky, Sherrie S.; Wilson, G. Terence
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). However, among patients with BN, symptom improvement is more pronounced for behavioral eating symptoms (i.e., bingeing and purging) than for body image disturbance, and the persistence of body image disturbance is associated with relapse. The need for more…
Binford, Roslyn B.; Mussell, Melissa Pederson; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.
This study's purpose was to examine the extent to which participants (N = 143) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) reported implementing therapeutic strategies to abstain from BN behaviors, and to assess whether use of specific strategies predicts outcome at treatment end and 1-and 6-month follow-up. Frequency of…
Craighead, Linda W.; Agras, W. Stewart
Summarizes data pertaining to separate and combined effects of cognitive-behavioral and psychopharmacologic treatments for obesity and bulimia nervosa. Anorexiant medication appears to enhance restraint and facilitates weight loss with behavioral interventions in the treatment of obesity, but relapse occurs once medication is withdrawn.…
Tremblay, Valerie; Savard, Josee; Ivers, Hans
Prior studies have supported the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia comorbid with cancer. This article reports secondary analyses that were performed on one of these studies to investigate the predictive role of changes in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, adherence to behavioral strategies, and some nonspecific factors…
Wetterneck, Chad T.; Hart, John M.
Problems with intimacy and interpersonal issues are exhibited across most psychiatric disorders. However, most of the targets in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy are primarily intrapersonal in nature, with few directly involved in interpersonal functioning and effective intimacy. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) provides a behavioral basis for…
Britton, Peter C.; Patrick, Heather; Wenzel, Amy; Williams, Geoffrey C.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in preventing suicide-related behavior. However, it is often difficult to engage patients who are at-risk in treatment. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to increase treatment engagement and improve treatment outcomes when it is used to complement other treatments. As a…
Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer
Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…
Martin-Pichora, Andrea L.; Antony, Martin M.
Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is characterized by a preoccupation with the belief that one's body emits a foul odor. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was used to treat a woman in her 50s who presented in our outpatient anxiety disorders specialty clinic with ORS, accompanied by embarrassment, shame, distress, avoidance behavior, and social…
Dekovic, Maja; And Others
Studied the relationship of parental reasoning complexity to parental behavior during parent-child interactions, and the effect of this relationship on children's social cognitions. Results indicate that parental reasoning complexity is related to parental behaviors of restrictive control, authoritative control, and support, which, in turn, are…
Kärtner, Joscha; Schuhmacher, Nils; Collard, Jenny
The main aim of this study was to explain the domain-specificity of early prosocial behavior in different domains (i.e., helping, comforting, and cooperation) by simultaneously assessing specific socio-cognitive factors (i.e., self-other-differentiation and joint attentional skills) that were hypothesized to be differentially related to the three domains of prosocial behavior. Based on a longitudinal study design, observational and parental report data were collected when toddlers (N=42) from German urban middle-class families were 15 and 18 months of age. At 15 months, regression analyses indicated differential relationships between socio-cognitive development and prosocial behavior (i.e., joint attentional skills were positively related with helping and, as hypothesized, both joint attentional skills and self-other differentiation were positively related with cooperation). Furthermore, self-other differentiation at 15 months predicted increases in coordination between 15 and 18 months. Finally, between 15 and 18 months, parental reports of socio-cognitive measures increased significantly while behavioral measures of both socio-cognitive concepts and prosocial behavior were stable across time. In sum, these results support the theoretical assumption of domain-specific socio-cognitive influences that constitute differential development of prosocial behavior. Implications of the results for theory and future studies are discussed from different perspectives with a focus on an interference interpretation calling for the integration of socialization approaches to the study of prosocial development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gordon Robert Foxall
Full Text Available Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Wargo, Baglini & Nelson, 2010a; Peterson, 2007. This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS hypothesis (Bickel, Mueller & Jarmolowicz, 2012 captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994 and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (Gray & McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton & Corr, 2004, which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992 as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behaviour. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003 in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making.
Sarah N Biggs
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the long term effects of resolution of SDB in preschool children, either following treatment or spontaneous recovery, on cognition and behavior. Children diagnosed with SDB at 3-5y (N = 35 and non-snoring controls (N = 25, underwent repeat polysomnography (PSG and cognitive and behavioral assessment 3 years following a baseline study. At follow-up, children with SDB were grouped into Resolved and Unresolved. Resolution was defined as: obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI ≤1 event/h; no snoring detected on PSG; and no parental report of habitual snoring. 57% (20/35 of children with SDB received treatment, with SDB resolving in 60% (12/20. 43% (15/35 were untreated, of whom 40% (6/15 had spontaneous resolution of SDB. Cognitive reduced between baseline and follow-up, however this was not related to persistent disease, with no difference in cognitive outcomes between Resolved, Unresolved or Control groups. Behavioral functioning remained significantly worse in children originally diagnosed with SDB compared to control children, regardless of resolution. Change in OAHI did not predict cognitive or behavioral outcomes, however a reduction in nocturnal arousals, irrespective of full resolution, was associated with improvement in attention and aggressive behavior. These results suggest that resolution of SDB in preschool children has little effect on cognitive or behavioral outcomes over the long term. The association between sleep fragmentation and behavior appears independent of SDB, however may be moderated by concomitant SDB. This challenges the assumption that treatment of SDB will ameliorate associated cognitive and behavioural deficits and supports the possibility of a SDB phenotype.
Dzewaltowski, David A; Noble, John M; Shaw, Jeff M
Social cognitive theory and the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were examined in the prediction of 4 weeks of physical activity participation. The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were supported. Attitude and perceived control predicted intention, and intention predicted physical activity participation. The social cognitive theory variables significantly predicted physical activity participation, with self-efficacy and self-evaluation of the behavior significantly contributing to the prediction. The greater the confidence in participating in physical activity and the greater the satisfaction with present physical activity, the more physical activity performed. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived control and intentions did not account for any unique variation in physical activity participation over self-efficacy. Therefore the social cognitive theory constructs were better predictors of physical activity than those from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.
Emotions are the central process of motivation and play a key role in adaptive behavior in humans. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy stresses the importance of changing both cognition and behavior, there is growing emphasis on direct therapeutic work on emotions and emotional processing, as problematic emotional processes are at the core of nearly all psychic disorders. This type of work is the goal of emotion-focused psychotherapy, which centers on direct change of problematic emotions, especially those which are usually suppressed resp. overregulated by the patient. This paper examines the basic phobic/emotional conflict, the problematic emotional processes arising from this conflict, and the importance to cognitive-behavioral therapy of their potentially integrative role.
Yang, Zhen; Oathes, Desmond J; Linn, Kristin A; Bruce, Steven E; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Cook, Philip A; Satchell, Emma K; Shou, Haochang; Sheline, Yvette I
Both major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are characterized by depressive symptoms, abnormalities in brain regions important for cognitive control, and response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, whether a common neural mechanism underlies CBT response across diagnoses is unknown. Brain activity during a cognitive control task was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 104 participants: 28 patients with MDD, 53 patients with PTSD, and 23 healthy control subjects; depression and anxiety symptoms were determined on the same day. A patient subset (n = 31) entered manualized CBT and, along with controls (n = 19), was rescanned at 12 weeks. Linear mixed effects models assessed the relationship between depression and anxiety symptoms and brain activity before and after CBT. At baseline, activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was negatively correlated with Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores across all participants; this brain-symptom association did not differ between MDD and PTSD. Following CBT treatment of patients, regions within the cognitive control network, including ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, showed a significant increase in activity. Our results suggest that dimensional abnormalities in the activation of cognitive control regions were associated primarily with symptoms of depression (with or without controlling for anxious arousal). Furthermore, following treatment with CBT, activation of cognitive control regions was similarly increased in both MDD and PTSD. These results accord with the Research Domain Criteria conceptualization of mental disorders and implicate improved cognitive control activation as a transdiagnostic mechanism for CBT treatment outcome. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scher, Christine D; Suvak, Michael K; Resick, Patricia A
This study examined (a) relationships between trauma-related cognitions and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from pretreatment through a long-term period after cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for PTSD and (b) whether these relationships were impacted by treatment type. Participants were 171 women randomized into treatment for PTSD after rape. Measures of self-reported trauma-related cognitions and interviewer-assessed PTSD symptoms (i.e., Posttraumatic Maladaptive Beliefs Scale, Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory, and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) were obtained at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month, 9-month, and 5-10 year follow-ups. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine relationships between trauma-related cognitions and PTSD symptoms throughout the study period and whether these relationships differed as a function of treatment type (i.e., Cognitive Processing Therapy or Prolonged Exposure). Initial multilevel regression analyses that examined mean within-participant associations suggested that beliefs regarding Reliability and Trustworthiness of Others, Self-Worth and Judgment, Threat of Harm, and Guilt were related to PTSD symptoms throughout follow-up. Growth curve modeling suggested that patterns of belief change throughout follow-up were similar to those previously observed in PTSD symptoms over the same time period. Finally, multilevel mediation analyses that incorporated time further suggested that change in beliefs was related to change in symptoms throughout follow-up. With 1 minor exception, relationships between beliefs and symptoms were not moderated by treatment type. These data suggest that trauma-related cognitions are a potential mechanism for long-term maintenance of treatment gains after CBT for PTSD. Moreover, these cognitions may be a common, rather than specific, treatment maintenance mechanism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Yang, Zhen; Oathes, Desmond J.; Linn, Kristin A.; Bruce, Steven E.; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Cook, Philip A.; Satchell, Emma K.; Shou, Haochang; Sheline, Yvette I.
BACKGROUND Both major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are characterized by depressive symptoms, abnormalities in brain regions important for cognitive control, and response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, whether a common neural mechanism underlies CBT response across diagnoses is unknown. METHODS Brain activity during a cognitive control task was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 104 participants: 28 patients with MDD, 53 patients with PTSD, and 23 healthy control subjects; depression and anxiety symptoms were determined on the same day. A patient subset (n = 31) entered manualized CBT and, along with controls (n = 19), was rescanned at 12 weeks. Linear mixed effects models assessed the relationship between depression and anxiety symptoms and brain activity before and after CBT. RESULTS At baseline, activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was negatively correlated with Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores across all participants; this brain–symptom association did not differ between MDD and PTSD. Following CBT treatment of patients, regions within the cognitive control network, including ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, showed a significant increase in activity. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that dimensional abnormalities in the activation of cognitive control regions were associated primarily with symptoms of depression (with or without controlling for anxious arousal). Furthermore, following treatment with CBT, activation of cognitive control regions was similarly increased in both MDD and PTSD. These results accord with the Research Domain Criteria conceptualization of mental disorders and implicate improved cognitive control activation as a transdiagnostic mechanism for CBT treatment outcome. PMID:29628063
Klement, Daniel; Blahna, Karel; Nekovářová, Tereza
Roč. 57, Suppl.3 (2008), S161-S165 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spatial cognition * moving objects * recognition Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008
McCauley, Elizabeth; And Others
The study attemped to link cognitive and social problems seen in girls with Turner syndrome by assessing the girls' ability to process affective cues. Seventeen 9- to 17-year-old girls diagnosed with Turner syndrome were compared to a matched control group on a task which required interpretation of affective intention from facial expression.…
Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; MacMullen, Laura
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a continuum of cognitive and social problems that vary considerably in both impact and presentation for each child affected. Although successful interventions have been developed that target specific skill deficits often exhibited by children with autism, many of those interventions are exclusively…
Aggio, Daniel; Smith, Lee; Fisher, Abigail; Hamer, Mark
In the present study, we investigated how overall and specific domains of physical activity and sedentary behavior at the age of 7 years were associated with cognition at the age of 11 years in 8,462 children from the Millennium Cohort Study. Data were collected from 2001 to 2013. Participation in domains of physical activity and sedentary behavior at 7 years of age were reported. Activity levels were also measured objectively. Cognition was assessed using the British Ability Scales. General linear models were used to assess longitudinal associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior, measured both objectively and via self-report, with cognition. Analyses were adjusted for prespecified covariates. Sports/physical activity club attendance (B = 0.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 1.1), doing homework (B = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.0, 0.9), and objectively measured sedentary time (B = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.1, 1.4) at age 7 years were positively associated with cognition at age 11 years in final the models. Television viewing was negatively associated with cognition (B = -1.7, 95% CI: -2.4, -1.0), although the association was attenuated to the null after adjustments for baseline cognition. Objectively measured light physical activity was inversely associated with cognition (B = -0.7, 95% CI: -1.3, -0.1). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was also inversely associated with cognition in girls only (B = -1.1, 95% CI: -2.0, -0.3). Associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with cognition appear to be context-specific in young people. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Miquelote, Audrei F; Santos, Denise C C; Caçola, Priscila M; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de L; Gabbard, Carl
Although information is sparse, research suggests that affordances in the home provide essential resources that promote motor and cognitive skills in young children. The present study assessed over time, the association between motor affordances in the home and infant motor and cognitive behavior. Thirty-two (32) infants were assessed for characteristics of their home using the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development--Infant Scale and motor and cognitive behavior with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development--III. Infant's home and motor behavior were assessed at age 9 months and 6 months later with the inclusion of cognitive ability. Results for motor ability indicated that there was an overall improvement in performance from the 1st to the 2nd assessment. We found significant positive correlations between the dimensions of the home (daily activities and play materials) and global motor performance (1st assessment) and fine-motor performance on the 2nd assessment. In regard to cognitive performance (2nd assessment), results indicated a positive association with fine-motor performance. Our results suggest that motor affordances can have a positive impact on future motor ability and speculatively, later cognitive behavior in infants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Insomnia is of major public health importance. While cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial, in-person treatment is often unavailable. We assessed the effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia.The primary objectives were to determine whether online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia could improve sleep efficiency and reduce the severity of insomnia in adults. Secondary outcomes included sleep quality, total sleep time, time in bed, sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, and number of nocturnal awakenings.We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Web of Science for randomized trials.Studies were eligible if they were randomized controlled trials in adults that reported application of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia via internet delivery. Mean differences in improvement in sleep measures were calculated using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random effects meta-analysis.We found 15 trials, all utilizing a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Sleep efficiency was 72% at baseline and improved by 7.2% (95% CI: 5.1%, 9.3%; p<0.001 with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy versus control. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy resulted in a decrease in the insomnia severity index by 4.3 points (95% CI: -7.1, -1.5; p = 0.017 compared to control. Total sleep time averaged 5.7 hours at baseline and increased by 20 minutes with internet-delivered therapy versus control (95% CI: 9, 31; p = 0.004. The severity of depression decreased by 2.3 points (95% CI: -2.9, -1.7; p = 0.013 in individuals who received internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy compared to control. Improvements in sleep efficiency, the insomnia severity index and depression scores with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy were maintained from 4 to 48 weeks after post
Seyffert, Michael; Lagisetty, Pooja; Landgraf, Jessica; Chopra, Vineet; Pfeiffer, Paul N.; Conte, Marisa L.; Rogers, Mary A. M.
Background Insomnia is of major public health importance. While cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial, in-person treatment is often unavailable. We assessed the effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. Objectives The primary objectives were to determine whether online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia could improve sleep efficiency and reduce the severity of insomnia in adults. Secondary outcomes included sleep quality, total sleep time, time in bed, sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, and number of nocturnal awakenings. Data Sources We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Web of Science for randomized trials. Methods Studies were eligible if they were randomized controlled trials in adults that reported application of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia via internet delivery. Mean differences in improvement in sleep measures were calculated using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random effects meta-analysis. Results We found 15 trials, all utilizing a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Sleep efficiency was 72% at baseline and improved by 7.2% (95% CI: 5.1%, 9.3%; pinternet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy versus control. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy resulted in a decrease in the insomnia severity index by 4.3 points (95% CI: -7.1, -1.5; p = 0.017) compared to control. Total sleep time averaged 5.7 hours at baseline and increased by 20 minutes with internet-delivered therapy versus control (95% CI: 9, 31; p = 0.004). The severity of depression decreased by 2.3 points (95% CI: -2.9, -1.7; p = 0.013) in individuals who received internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy compared to control. Improvements in sleep efficiency, the insomnia severity index and depression scores with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy were maintained from 4 to
Prazeres, Angélica M; Nascimento, Antônio L; Fontenelle, Leonardo F
The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder. PMID:23467711
Kondo, Masaki; Ino, Keiko; Imai, Risa; Ii, Toshitaka; Furukawa, Toshi A.; Akechi, Tatsuo
Background Many patients with panic disorder meet criteria for at least one other diagnosis, most commonly other anxiety or mood disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the best empirically supported psychotherapy for panic disorder. There is now evidence indicating that cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder yields positive benefits upon comorbid disorders. Objectives The present study aimed to examine the predictors of broad dimensions of psychopathology in panic disorder after cognitive-behavioral therapy. Methods Two hundred patients affected by panic disorder were treated with manualized group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We examined if the baseline personality dimensions of NEO Five Factor Index predicted the subscales of Symptom Checklist-90 Revised at endpoint using multiple regression analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Results Conscientiousness score of NEO Five Factor Index at baseline was a predictor of four Symptom Checklist-90 Revised subscales including obsessive-compulsive (β = −0.15, P cognitive-behavioral therapy. For the purpose of improving a wide range of psychiatric symptoms with patients affected by panic disorder, it may be useful to pay more attention to this personal trait at baseline. PMID:29721499
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of gestalt therapy and cognitive -behavioral therapy on assertiveness in middle school students. This study was a pre-post test experimental design. By cluster sampling between schools in Sharyar two schools were selected randomly. After conducting Gambrel and Rigy Questionnaire, 30 students were selected and assigned to three groups randomly. 8 sessions of gestalt therapy were implemented for one group and 8 sessions of cognitive- behavioral therapy were implemented for another group. The control group received no intervention. ANCOVA and Post hoc LSD Test were applied to analyze data. ANCOVA showed significant differences between groups. Post hoc LSD Test showed significant difference between the control group and the gestalt therapy and between the control group and cognitive -behavioral therapy group(P≤0/01, but there was no significant difference between the gestalt therapy and the cognitive- behavioral therapy group. Both gestalt therapy and cognitive- behavioral therapy had increased the assertiveness.
Maddineshat, Maryam; Keyvanloo, Sodabe; Lashkardoost, Hossein; Arki, Mina; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh
Standards of care and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) vary. Non-drug psychosocial intervention therapy is recommended for women with any kind of discomfort or distress caused by PMS. The current study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the symptoms of PMS at a girls' dormitory of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences. In this quasi-experimental study, 32 female students with PMS who were majoring in nursing and midwifery and residing in the dormitory were selected using the convenience sampling method and were assigned to experimental and control groups. The Standardized Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool was used as the research tool. Eight sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy were held for the students Results: There was a significant difference in psychological symptoms before and after cognitive-behavioral therapy (p=0.012). Furthermore, cognitive-behavioral therapy was effective on social interferences caused by PMS symptoms (p=0.012). Group cognitive-behavioral therapy effectively alleviates PMS symptoms in female college students..
Full Text Available Background. Many patients with panic disorder meet criteria for at least one other diagnosis, most commonly other anxiety or mood disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the best empirically supported psychotherapy for panic disorder. There is now evidence indicating that cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder yields positive benefits upon comorbid disorders. Objectives. The present study aimed to examine the predictors of broad dimensions of psychopathology in panic disorder after cognitive-behavioral therapy. Methods. Two hundred patients affected by panic disorder were treated with manualized group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We examined if the baseline personality dimensions of NEO Five Factor Index predicted the subscales of Symptom Checklist-90 Revised at endpoint using multiple regression analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Results. Conscientiousness score of NEO Five Factor Index at baseline was a predictor of four Symptom Checklist-90 Revised subscales including obsessive-compulsive (β=-0.15, P<0.01, depression (β=-0.13, P<0.05, phobic anxiety (β=-0.15, P<0.05, and Global Severity Index (β=-0.13, P<0.05. Conclusion. Conscientiousness at baseline may predict several dimensions of psychopathology in patients with panic disorder after cognitive-behavioral therapy. For the purpose of improving a wide range of psychiatric symptoms with patients affected by panic disorder, it may be useful to pay more attention to this personal trait at baseline.
Ogawa, Sei; Kondo, Masaki; Ino, Keiko; Imai, Risa; Ii, Toshitaka; Furukawa, Toshi A; Akechi, Tatsuo
Many patients with panic disorder meet criteria for at least one other diagnosis, most commonly other anxiety or mood disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the best empirically supported psychotherapy for panic disorder. There is now evidence indicating that cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder yields positive benefits upon comorbid disorders. The present study aimed to examine the predictors of broad dimensions of psychopathology in panic disorder after cognitive-behavioral therapy. Two hundred patients affected by panic disorder were treated with manualized group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We examined if the baseline personality dimensions of NEO Five Factor Index predicted the subscales of Symptom Checklist-90 Revised at endpoint using multiple regression analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Conscientiousness score of NEO Five Factor Index at baseline was a predictor of four Symptom Checklist-90 Revised subscales including obsessive-compulsive ( β = -0.15, P cognitive-behavioral therapy. For the purpose of improving a wide range of psychiatric symptoms with patients affected by panic disorder, it may be useful to pay more attention to this personal trait at baseline.
Branco, Lucas M T; de Rezende, Thiago J R; Roversi, Caroline de O; Zanao, Tamires; Casseb, Raphael F; de Campos, Brunno M; França, Marcondes C
We aimed to assess the brain signature of cognitive and behavioral impairment in C9orf72-negative non-demented ALS patients. The study included 50 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients (out of 75 initially recruited) and 38 healthy controls. High-resolution T1-weighted and spin-echo diffusion tensor images were acquired in a 3T MRI scanner. The multi atlas-based analysis protocol and the FreeSurfer tool were employed for gray matter assessment, and fiber tractography for white matter evaluation. Cognitively impaired ALS patients (n = 12) had bilateral amygdalae and left thalamic volumetric reduction compared to non-impaired ALS patients. Behaviorally impaired ALS patients (n = 14) had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) at the fornix in comparison with healthy subjects. These parameters did correlate with cognitive/behavioral scores, but not with motor-functional parameters in the ALS cohort. We believe that basal ganglia and fornix damage might be related to cognitive and behavioral impairment across ALS-frontotemporal dementia continuum. Also, distinct anatomical areas seem to influence the behavioral and cognitive status of these individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The importance of psychological factors in tinnitus distress has been formally recognized for almost three decades. The psychological understanding of why tinnitus can be a distressing condition posits that it becomes problematic when it acquires an emotive significance through cognitive processes. Principle therapeutic efforts are directed at reducing or removing the cognitive (and behavioral obstacles to habituation. Here, the evidence relevant to a new psychological model of tinnitus is critically reviewed. The model posits that patients’ interpretations of tinnitus and the changes in behavior that result are given a central role in creating and maintaining distress. The importance of selective attention and the possibility that this leads to distorted perception of tinnitus is highlighted. From this body of evidence, we propose a coherent cognitive behavioral model of tinnitus distress that is more in keeping with contemporary psychological theories of clinical problems (particularly that of insomnia and which postulates a number of behavioral processes that are seen as cognitively mediated. This new model provides testable hypotheses to guide future research to unravel the complex mechanisms underpinning tinnitus distress. It is also well suited to define individual symptomatology and to provide a framework for the delivery of cognitive behavior therapy.
Jaime, Karen; Knowlton, Earle
In many schools, supports for children with a dual diagnosis of mental retardation and behavioral disorders are inadequate or nonexistent. Often these students are placed with teachers who, although appropriately trained and licensed, are not familiar with support strategies for meeting the behavioral and emotional needs of these students at an…
Love, Bradley C
How can disparate neural and behavioral measures be integrated? Turner and colleagues propose joint modeling as a solution. Joint modeling mutually constrains the interpretation of brain and behavioral measures by exploiting their covariation structure. Simultaneous estimation allows for more accurate prediction than would be possible by considering these measures in isolation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Dechawatanapaisal, Decha; Siengthai, Sununta
Purpose: This research proposes a framework, which identifies the underlying factors that shape learning behavior in the workplace. It takes organizational members' perspectives into consideration to gain better understanding on managing people and their behavior in the organizational learning process. Design/methodology/approach: Primary data…
Jonker, F.A.; Jonker, C.; Scheltens, P.; Scherder, E.J.A.
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays a crucial role in behavior and is a common site for damage due to different types of injuries, e.g., closed head injuries, cerebrovascular accidents, tumors, neurosurgical interventions. Despite the (severe) behavioral changes following OFC lesions, persons with
McKenna, L.; Handscomb, L. E.; Hoare, D.; Hall, D.
The importance of psychological factors in tinnitus distress has been formally recognized for almost three decades. The psychological understanding of why tinnitus can be a distressing condition posits that it becomes problematic when it acquires an emotive significance through cognitive processes. Principle therapeutic efforts are directed at reducing or removing the cognitive (and behavioral) obstacles to habituation. Here, the evidence relevant to a new psychological model of tinnitus is c...
Laurence eMcKenna; Lucy eHandscomb; Lucy eHandscomb; Lucy eHandscomb; Derek eHoare; Derek eHoare; Deborah eHall; Deborah eHall
The importance of psychological factors in tinnitus distress has been formally recognized for almost three decades. The psychological understanding of why tinnitus can be a distressing condition posits that it becomes problematic when it acquires an emotive significance through cognitive processes. Principle therapeutic efforts are directed at reducing or removing the cognitive (and behavioral) obstacles to habituation. Here, the evidence relevant to a new psychological model of tinnitus is c...
McKenna, Laurence; Handscomb, Lucy; Hoare, Derek J.; Hall, Deborah A.
The importance of psychological factors in tinnitus distress has been formally recognized for almost three decades. The psychological understanding of why tinnitus can be a distressing condition posits that it becomes problematic when it acquires an emotive significance through cognitive processes. Principle therapeutic efforts are directed at reducing or removing the cognitive (and behavioral) obstacles to habituation. Here, the evidence relevant to a new psychological model of tinnitus is c...
Southam-Gerow, MA; McLeod, BD; Arnold, CC; Rodríguez, A; Cox, JR; Reise, SP; Bonifay, WE; Weisz, JR; Kendall, PC
© 2015 American Psychological Association.The measurement of treatment adherence (a component of treatment integrity defined as the extent to which a treatment is delivered as intended) is a critical element in treatment evaluation research. This article presents initial psychometric data for scores on the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Adherence Scale for Youth Anxiety (CBAY-A), an observational measure designed to be sensitive to common practice elements found in individual cognitive- behavio...
Ahmadvand A.; Saie R.; Sepehrmanesh Z.; Ghanbari A.R.
Background and Objectives: Hemodialysis as a treatment manner in chronic renal failure is a stressful process and has several various psycho-cognitive and social complications. The present study evaluated effect of cognitive-behavioral group therapy on anxiety and depression in hemodialysis patients. Methods: This research was a clinical trial study. Samples were young adults who were 18-45 years old. The Participants were divided into two groups (case & control). The Beck depression & anxiet...
Liu, Hesong; Atrooz, Fatin; Salvi, Ankita; Salim, Samina
Children subjected to traumatic events during childhood are reported to exhibit behavioral and cognitive deficits later in life, often leading to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Interestingly, some children continue to remain normal despite being exposed to the same risk factors. These trauma-related behavioral and cognitive profiles across different stages of life are not well understood. Animal studies can offer useful insights. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of early life exposure to traumatic events on behavioral and cognitive profile in rats by tracking the behavior of each rat at different ages. We utilized the single prolonged stress (SPS), a rodent model of PTSD, to study the effects of early life stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to SPS on post-natal day (PND) 25. Tests to assess anxiety- and depression-like behavior, as well as learning and memory function were performed at PND32, 60 and 90. Rats exposed to SPS exhibited both anxiety- and depression-like behavior at PND32. And, short-term (STM) but not long-term memory (LTM) was impaired. Rats exposed to SPS at PND60 exhibited anxiety- but not depression-like behavior. STM but not LTM was impaired. Rats exposed to SPS at PND90 exhibited fearful (as indicated by elevated plus maze test) but not an overall anxiety-like behavior (in light and dark test). These rats also displayed significant depression-like behavior with no changes in STM or LTM. Interestingly, when data was further analyzed, two subsets of PND90 rats exposed to SPS were identified, "susceptible": with depression-like behavior and "resilient": without depression-like behavior. Importantly, while resilient group expressed early signs of anxiety- (at PND32 and PND60) and depression-like behavior (at PND32), these behavioral deficits were absent at PND90. On the other hand, susceptible PND90 rats exposed to SPS expressed later onset of anxiety-like behavior (at PND60), while depression
Barlińska, Julia; Szuster, Anna; Winiewski, Mikołaj
The purpose of this study was to investigate if affective (vicarious sharing of emotions) and cognitive empathy (mental perspective taking) induction may stimulate adolescent online bystanders’ intervention in cyberbullying cases. The role of reporting the abuse is crucial because it is a form of active support to the victim, initiated by children, to stop the bullying. The effectiveness of empathy activation in decreasing negative cyberbystander reinforcing behavior has been proved in previous studies. The effects of affective and cognitive empathy activation on positive cyberbystander behavior, defined as reporting the bullying online, were explored in two follow-up studies N = 271 and N = 265. The influence of experiencing cyberbullying as perpetrator, victim, and as determined by gender on prosocial cyberbystander behavior was also controlled. The results indicate that only cognitive empathy activation increases the likelihood of intervening bystander behavior. Neither affective empathy induction, previous experience of cyberperpetration, cybervictimization, nor gender affected the engagement in prosocial bystander behavior. The conclusion of the research is that a program consequently activating more reflective cognitive empathy induction can contribute toward the establishment of healthier behavioral patterns among bystanders to cyberbullying, increasing the probability of their reporting the cyberbullying acts. PMID:29899715
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate if affective (vicarious sharing of emotions and cognitive empathy (mental perspective taking induction may stimulate adolescent online bystanders’ intervention in cyberbullying cases. The role of reporting the abuse is crucial because it is a form of active support to the victim, initiated by children, to stop the bullying. The effectiveness of empathy activation in decreasing negative cyberbystander reinforcing behavior has been proved in previous studies. The effects of affective and cognitive empathy activation on positive cyberbystander behavior, defined as reporting the bullying online, were explored in two follow-up studies N = 271 and N = 265. The influence of experiencing cyberbullying as perpetrator, victim, and as determined by gender on prosocial cyberbystander behavior was also controlled. The results indicate that only cognitive empathy activation increases the likelihood of intervening bystander behavior. Neither affective empathy induction, previous experience of cyberperpetration, cybervictimization, nor gender affected the engagement in prosocial bystander behavior. The conclusion of the research is that a program consequently activating more reflective cognitive empathy induction can contribute toward the establishment of healthier behavioral patterns among bystanders to cyberbullying, increasing the probability of their reporting the cyberbullying acts.
Toledo, Edson Luiz; De Togni Muniz, Enilde; Brito, Antônio Marcelo Cabrita; de Abreu, Cristiano Nabuco; Tavares, Hermano
Trichotillomania is a psychiatric condition characterized by the chronic pulling and plucking of one's own hair. Cognitive-behavioral therapy shows promise as a treatment for trichotillomania and might be preferable to pharmacotherapy. However, there have been no randomized, controlled studies of the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We evaluated 44 subjects, recruited from April 2009 to May 2010, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of trichotillomania. Subjects were randomized to receive 22 sessions of either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group supportive therapy (control). Treatment evaluation was non-blind and used self-report scales. The primary outcome measure was the improvement of hair-plucking behavior as assessed by the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale. Secondary measures included scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report. Both groups showed significant posttreatment improvement in the scores from the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale (F = 23.762, P behavior over time was significantly greater in the study group than in the control group (F = 3.545, P cognitive-behavioral therapy is a valid treatment for trichotillomania. This treatment model should be further revised and expanded to address comorbidities such as anxiety and social maladjustment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01968343. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Clerkin, Elise M; Teachman, Bethany A; Smith-Janik, Shannan B
The current study investigates sudden gains (rapid symptom reduction) in group cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder. Sudden gains occurring after session 2 of treatment predicted overall symptom reduction at treatment termination and some changes in cognitive biases. Meanwhile, sudden gains occurring immediately following session 1 were not associated with symptom reduction or cognitive change. Together, this research points to the importance of examining sudden gains across the entire span of treatment, as well as the potential role of sudden gains in recovery from panic disorder.
Emotion tunes cognition, such that approach-motivated positive states promote verbal cognition, whereas withdrawal-motivated negative states promote spatial cognition (Gray, 2001). The current research examined whether self-control resources become depleted and influence subsequent behavior when emotion tunes an inappropriate cognitive tendency. In 2 experiments, either an approach-motivated positive state or a withdrawal-motivated negative state was induced, and then participants completed a verbal or a spatial working memory task creating conditions of emotion-cognition alignment (e.g., approach/verbal) or misalignment (e.g., approach/spatial). A control condition was also included. To examine behavioral costs due to depleted self-control resources, participants completed either a Stroop task (Stroop, 1935; Experiment 1) or a Black/White implicit association test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998; Experiment 2). Participants in the misalignment conditions performed worse on the Stroop task, and they were worse at controlling their implicit attitude biases on the IAT. Thus, when emotion tunes inappropriate cognitive tendencies for one's current environment, self-control resources become depleted, impairing behavioral control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Seyffert, Michael; Lagisetty, Pooja; Landgraf, Jessica; Chopra, Vineet; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Conte, Marisa L; Rogers, Mary A M
Insomnia is of major public health importance. While cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial, in-person treatment is often unavailable. We assessed the effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. The primary objectives were to determine whether online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia could improve sleep efficiency and reduce the severity of insomnia in adults. Secondary outcomes included sleep quality, total sleep time, time in bed, sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, and number of nocturnal awakenings. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Web of Science for randomized trials. Studies were eligible if they were randomized controlled trials in adults that reported application of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia via internet delivery. Mean differences in improvement in sleep measures were calculated using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random effects meta-analysis. We found 15 trials, all utilizing a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Sleep efficiency was 72% at baseline and improved by 7.2% (95% CI: 5.1%, 9.3%; pcognitive behavioral therapy versus control. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy resulted in a decrease in the insomnia severity index by 4.3 points (95% CI: -7.1, -1.5; p = 0.017) compared to control. Total sleep time averaged 5.7 hours at baseline and increased by 20 minutes with internet-delivered therapy versus control (95% CI: 9, 31; p = 0.004). The severity of depression decreased by 2.3 points (95% CI: -2.9, -1.7; p = 0.013) in individuals who received internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy compared to control. Improvements in sleep efficiency, the insomnia severity index and depression scores with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy were maintained from 4 to 48 weeks after post-treatment assessment. There were no statistically
Seyyed Nahid Hosseininezhad
Full Text Available The present research aims to study the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT on bereaved students' hope. This is an applied research of quasi-experimental type and pretest and posttest design with control group. We selected 30 bereaved university students using stratified sampling method. We used Schneider Hope Questionnaire as the pretest-posttest in the research and analyzed using the statistical method of covariance analysis. The data analysis results indicate that cognitive-behavioral therapy increases bereaved students' hope and there is a significant difference between the two groups. The results of this study show that cognitive-behavioral group therapy influences hope and increases bereaved students' hope by helping them in their emotional discharge and acceptance of death.
Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in national and international databases. The articles that were gathered by the search have been read and the ones that were not therapy effectiveness studies, cognitive behavioral group therapies and that included posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with alcohol/substance abuse, personality disorders and psychotic disorders were eliminated. The remaining 13 studies that fulfiilrf research criteria were introduced in the context of method and therapy characteristics. It can be seen that the cognitive behavioral group therapies are effective in decreasing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and/or comorbid disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 95-107
Full Text Available In this research, Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT was used to increase low self-esteem on a school-age children (boy, 10 years old. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT is a treatment that aimed to reduce psychological distress and maladaptive behavior by altering cognitive processes. The design of this study was single-subject research design specifically experimental study which used one participant to verify the effectiveness of a theraphy. This treatment consists of 13 sessions, with 2 sessions for the assessment (pre-test and post-test, 10 session for the treatment sessions, and 1 session for the evaluation. The duration of each session approximately 1,5 - 2 hours. Based on observations, interviews, pre-test and post-test, CBT was effective to increase selfesteem on the participant.
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral stress management on relapse prevention in men who are substance dependent. Method: In a experimental study, 30 individuals who settled in Esfahan therapeutic community center were accidently divided in to an experimental (15 subjects and a control (15 subjects group. The experimental group underwent ten 90 minutes sessions of cognitive-behavioral stress management and the control group didn't receive any particular treatment. All participants underwent urine tests at the beginning of the study, completion of treatment and three months following the completion of treatment. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and X2 test. Findings: results showed significant difference in relapse rates of two groups in the following stage. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavioral stress management is effective in relapse prevention in men who are substance dependent.
Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.
Individuals with social anxiety are prone to engage in post event processing (PEP), a post mortem review of a social interaction that focuses on negative elements. The extent that PEP is impacted by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the relation between PEP and change during treatment has yet to be evaluated in a controlled study. The current study used multilevel modeling to determine if PEP decreased as a result of treatment and if PEP limits treatment response for two types of cognitive behavioral treatments, a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention and individually based virtual reality exposure. These hypotheses were evaluated using 91 participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. The findings suggested that PEP decreased as a result of treatment, and that social anxiety symptoms for individuals reporting greater levels of PEP improved at a slower rate than those with lower levels of PEP. Further research is needed to understand why PEP attenuates response to treatment. PMID:21159328
Shenefelt, Philip D
Biofeedback can improve cutaneous problems that have an autonomic nervous system component. Examples include biofeedback of galvanic skin resistance (GSR) for hyperhidrosis and biofeedback of skin temperature for Raynaud's disease. Hypnosis may enhance the effects obtained by biofeedback. Cognitive-behavioral methods may resolve dysfunctional thought patterns (cognitive) or actions (behavioral) that damage the skin or interfere with dermatologic therapy. Responsive diseases include acne excoriée, atopic dermatitis, factitious cheilitis, hyperhidrosis, lichen simplex chronicus, needle phobia, neurodermatitis, onychotillomania, prurigo nodularis, trichotillomania, and urticaria. Hypnosis can facilitate aversive therapy and enhance desensitization and other cognitive-behavioral methods. Hypnosis may improve or resolve numerous dermatoses. Examples include acne excoriée, alopecia areata, atopic dermatitis, congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, dyshidrotic dermatitis, erythromelalgia, furuncles, glossodynia, herpes simplex, hyperhidrosis, ichthyosis vulgaris, lichen planus, neurodermatitis, nummular dermatitis, postherpetic neuralgia, pruritus, psoriasis, rosacea, trichotillomania, urticaria, verruca vulgaris, and vitiligo. Hypnosis can also reduce the anxiety and pain associated with dermatologic procedures.
Okada, R; Tsushita, K; Wakai, K; Ishizaka, Y; Kato, K; Wada, T; Watanabe, K
To investigate whether the progression from prediabetes to diabetes is lower among those who undertake Ningen Dock (comprehensive health checkups with lifestyle education and doctor's consultation) than those who undertake basic mandatory occupational health checkups. Subjects aged 30-69 years with complete annual data from 2008 to 2012 for either Ningen Dock or basic health checkups were enrolled. Subjects with prediabetes (fasting plasma glucose 100-125 mg/dl or HbA1c 5.7-6.4%) at baseline were selected (14,928 in the comprehensive group and 10,433 in the basic group). The incidence of diabetes (fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dl, HbA1c ≥ 6.5% or taking glucose-lowering drugs) and the reduction of risk factors were compared. After 4 years, 3226 cases of diabetes occurred among 25,361 subjects with prediabetes. The incidence of diabetes was lower in the comprehensive group than the basic group (2.9 vs. 3.8 cases/100 person-years, hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.81 after adjustment). Moreover, more overweight subjects controlled their body mass index (16.2% vs. 13.2%) and more began a daily exercise habit (11.8% vs. 8.5%) in the comprehensive group than in the basic group. The incidence of diabetes was lower in subjects who could control their weight or start daily exercise at year 1 in the comprehensive group. Progression from prediabetes to diabetes was significantly lower in subjects undertaking a comprehensive health checkup with lifestyle education. Lifestyle education at health checkup for people with prediabetes might prevent progression to diabetes by reducing modifiable risk factors. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bektas, Murat; Ozturk, Candan; Armstrong, Merry
This review article discusses the theoretical principles of social cognitive learning theory and children's risk-taking behavior of cigarette smoking, along with preventive initiatives. Social cognitive learning theorists examine the behavior of initiating and sustained smoking using a social systems approach. The authors discuss the reciprocal determinism aspect of the theory as applied to the importance of individual factors, and environment and behavioral interactions that influence smoking behavior. Included is the concept of vicarious capability that suggests that smoking behavior is determined in response to and interaction with feedback provided by the environment. The principle of self-regulatory capability asserts that people have control over their own behavior and thus that behavior change is possible. The principle of self-efficacy proposes that high level of self-efficacy of an individual may decrease the behavior of attempting to or continuing to smoke. Examples of initiatives to be undertaken in order to prevent smoking in accordance with social cognitive learning theory are presented at the end of each principle.
Cornet, Liza J M; de Kogel, Catharina H; Nijman, Henk L I; Raine, Adrian; van der Laan, Peter H
This review focuses on the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Ten relevant studies were found. Although the literature on this topic is scarce and diverse, it appears that specific neurobiological characteristics, such as physiological arousal levels, can predict treatment outcome. The predictive value of neurobiological factors is important as it could give more insight into the causes of variability in treatment outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, results can contribute to improvement in current treatment selection procedures and to the development of alternative treatment options. © The Author(s) 2013.
Full Text Available Objective: That the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin is necessary to promote normal brain development and function, along with its recently described sufficiency in reversing cognitive manifestations of aging, raises novel questions. One of these is to assess whether bone health, which deteriorates rapidly with aging, is a significant determinant of cognition and anxiety-like behavior. Methods: To begin addressing this question, we used mice haploinsufficient for Runx2, the master gene of osteoblast differentiation and the main regulator of Osteocalcin expression. Control and Runx2+/− mice were evaluated for the expression of osteocalcin's target genes in the brain and for behavioral parameters, using two assays each for cognition and anxiety-like behavior. Results: We found that adult Runx2+/− mice had defects in bone resorption, reduced circulating levels of bioactive osteocalcin, and reduced expression of osteocalcin's target genes in the brain. Consequently, they had significant impairment in cognitive function and increased anxiety-like behavior. Conclusions: These results indicate that bone remodeling is a determinant of brain function. Keywords: Runx2, Osteocalcin, Bone remodeling, Cognition
Clouston, Sean A P; Richards, Marcus; Cadar, Dorina; Hofer, Scott M
Education is a fundamental cause of social inequalities in health because it influences the distribution of resources, including money, knowledge, power, prestige, and beneficial social connections, that can be used in situ to influence health. Recent studies have highlighted early-life cognition as commonly indicating the propensity for educational attainment and determining health and age of mortality. Health behaviors provide a plausible mechanism linking both education and cognition to later-life health and mortality. We examine the role of education and cognition in predicting smoking, heavy drinking, and physical inactivity at midlife using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 10,317), National Survey of Health and Development (N = 5,362), and National Childhood Development Study (N = 16,782). Adolescent cognition was associated with education but was inconsistently associated with health behaviors. Education, however, was robustly associated with improved health behaviors after adjusting for cognition. Analyses highlight structural inequalities over individual capabilities when studying health behaviors. © American Sociological Association 2015.
Schmidt, Norman B; Buckner, Julia D; Pusser, Andrea; Woolaway-Bickel, Kelly; Preston, Jennifer L; Norr, Aaron
We tested the efficacy of a unified cognitive-behavioral therapy protocol for anxiety disorders. This group treatment protocol, termed false safety behavior elimination therapy (F-SET), is a cognitive-behavioral approach designed for use across various anxiety disorders such as panic disorder (PD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). F-SET simplifies, as well as broadens, key therapeutic elements of empirically validated treatments for anxiety disorders to allow for easier delivery to heterogeneous groups of patients with anxiety psychopathology. Patients with a primary anxiety disorder diagnosis (N=96) were randomly assigned to F-SET or a wait-list control. Data indicate that F-SET shows good efficacy and durability when delivered to mixed groups of patients with anxieties (i.e., PD, SAD, GAD) by relatively inexperienced clinicians. Findings are discussed in the context of balancing treatment efficacy and clinical utility. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Hatch, Benjamin; Salimi, Ali; Mograss, Melodee; Boucetta, Soufiane; O'Byrne, Jordan; Brandewinder, Marie; Berthomier, Christian; Gouin, Jean-Philippe
While cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia constitutes the first-line treatment for chronic insomnia, only few reports have investigated how sleep architecture relates to response to this treatment. In this pilot study, we aimed to determine whether pre-treatment sleep spindle density predicts treatment response to cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia. Twenty-four participants with chronic primary insomnia participated in a 6-week cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia performed in groups of 4-6 participants. Treatment response was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index measured at pre- and post-treatment, and at 3- and 12-months' follow-up assessments. Secondary outcome measures were extracted from sleep diaries over 7 days and overnight polysomnography, obtained at pre- and post-treatment. Spindle density during stage N2-N3 sleep was extracted from polysomnography at pre-treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis assessed whether sleep spindle density predicted response to cognitive-behavioral therapy. After adjusting for age, sex, and education level, lower spindle density at pre-treatment predicted poorer response over the 12-month follow-up, as reflected by a smaller reduction in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index over time. Reduced spindle density also predicted lower improvements in sleep diary sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset immediately after treatment. There were no significant associations between spindle density and changes in the Insomnia Severity Index or polysomnography variables over time. These preliminary results suggest that inter-individual differences in sleep spindle density in insomnia may represent an endogenous biomarker predicting responsiveness to cognitive-behavioral therapy. Insomnia with altered spindle activity might constitute an insomnia subtype characterized by a neurophysiological vulnerability to sleep disruption associated with impaired responsiveness to
Tan, S Y; Leucht, C A
Since Tan's (1982) review of cognitive and cognitive-behavioral methods for pain control was published 15 years ago, significant advances have been made in cognitive-behavioral therapy for pain. The scientific evidence for its efficacy for clinical pain attenuation is now much more substantial and is briefly reviewed. In particular, cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic pain was recently listed as one of 25 empirically validated or supported psychological treatments available for various disorders. A number of emerging issues are further discussed in light of recent developments and research findings. The relationship of cognitive-behavioral therapy to hypnosis for pain control is briefly addressed, with suggestions for integrating hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral techniques.
Wahyu Nanda Eka Saputra
Full Text Available Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT is one of the major counseling theories today. However, reliability of this theory has received criticism from other theories, which claim to cognitive interventions do not provide added value on behavioral interventions. The theory criticized and showed dissatisfaction with the practice of CBT is the theory of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT. Furthermore, ACT is known to a new generation of CBT.ACT is one of the new counseling approach that can be applied to school counselors to deal with the issues of students in the school.
Nusairat, NM; Akhorshaideh, AHO; Rashid, T; Sahadev, S; Rembielak, G
This paper investigates the effect of social cues in a mall’s shopping environment on customer behavior. Two competing mediation scenarios are assessed: emotion-cognition and cognition-emotion in a stimulus-organism-response (SOR)-based framework. Although the role of social cues in driving customer behavior in shopping contexts is largely addressed in the extant literature, the mechanism of the effect is still under-researched area and this study is an attempt to fill this gap.\\ud The concep...
Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard; Cuijpers, Pim
During the last two decades, Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in hundreds of randomized controlled trials, often with promising results. However, the control groups were often waitlisted, care-as-usual or attention control. Hence, little is known about...... the relative efficacy of ICBT as compared to face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). In the present systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 1418 participants, guided ICBT for psychiatric and somatic conditions were directly compared to face-to-face CBT within the same trial. Out of the 2078...
Full Text Available Correlations of genetic variation in DNA with functional brain activity have already provided a starting point for delving into human cognitive mechanisms. However, these analyses do not provide the specific genes driving the associations, which are complicated by intergenic localization as well as tissue-specific epigenetics and expression. The use of brain-derived expression datasets could build upon the foundation of these initial genetic insights and yield genes and molecular pathways for testing new hypotheses regarding the molecular bases of human brain development, cognition, and disease. Thus, coupling these human brain gene expression data with measurements of brain activity may provide genes with critical roles in brain function. However, these brain gene expression datasets have their own set of caveats, most notably a reliance on postmortem tissue. In this perspective, I summarize and examine the progress that has been made in this realm to date, and discuss the various frontiers remaining, such as the inclusion of cell-type-specific information, additional physiological measurements, and genomic data from patient cohorts.
Li, Chung-Sheng; Darema, Frederica; Chang, Victor
The introduction of pervasive and ubiquitous instrumentation within Internet of Things (IoT) leads to unprecedented real-time visibility (instrumentation), optimization and fault-tolerance of the power grid, traffic, transportation, water, oil & gas, to give some examples. Interconnecting those distinct physical, people, and business worlds through ubiquitous instrumentation, even though still in its embryonic stage, has the potential to create intelligent IoT solutions that are much greener, more efficient, comfortable, and safer. An essential new direction to materialize this potential is to develop comprehensive models of such systems dynamically interacting with the instrumentation in a feed-back control loop. We describe here opportunities in applying cognitive computing on interconnected and instrumented worlds (Cognitive Internet of Things-CIoT) and call out the system-of-systems trend among distinct but interdependent worlds, and Dynamic Data-Driven Application System (DDDAS)-based methods for advanced understanding, analysis, and real-time decision support capabilities with the accuracy of full-scale models.
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the performance characteristics and differences between English and Oriya medium school children on various cognitive processing, reading, academic achievement, and teacher perception measures. The sample consists of 243 schoolchildren, 120 from Grade IV and 123 from Grade VII from three different schools of Cuttack city in Orissa, India. The children were individually administered the Figure-Copying, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Matching Familiar Figure Task, Serial Recall, Digit-Span, Wechsler’s Intelligence Scale for Children, Block Design, Cloze Reading Comprehension, and Oral Reading tasks. Classroom Achievement scores on different subjects and the teachers’ ratings about their students were also taken. Results revealed that children reading in English medium schools outperformed their Oriya medium counterparts in some cognitive measures such as Figure Copying, MFFT, RPM, and Digit-Span tasks irrespective of levels. However, the children studying in Oriya medium schools scored higher in Reading Comprehension task and commit less error compared with their English medium counterparts. However, in case of academic achievement measures at primary level, the Oriya medium children performed better in social science, whereas the English medium students excelled in first language and mathematics. The teachers of Oriya medium schools also rated their children better in general conduct, motivation, and effort in schoolwork, whereas, at the secondary level, there was no difference between these two groups in academic achievement or teacher perception measures.
Osório, Ana A C; Rossi, Natália F; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Sampaio, Adriana; Giacheti, Célia M
Several studies have documented the high prevalence of psychopathology and behavior problems in Williams syndrome (WS). However, the links between cognitive development and such symptoms need further clarification. Our study aims to expand current knowledge on levels of behavior problems and its links to cognition in a sample of Brazilian individuals with WS. A total of 25 children and adolescents with WS and their parents participated in this study. The participants' IQs were assessed with the Wechsler Scales of Intelligence (for children or adults) and parental reports of psychopathology/behavior problems were collected using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The presence of clinically significant attention problems was a main feature in our sample of children and adolescents with WS. In the children, higher IQ scores were found to be significantly associated with less externalizing problems, while in the adolescents cognitive abilities were found to be associated with less internalizing symptoms. These results provide further insight into the links between psychopathology and behavior problems and cognitive abilities in WS, and suggest the need to take age into consideration when analyzing such relationships.
Luzia Flavia Coelho
Full Text Available Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT with the Token Economy (TE technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11 on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior, a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in 7 categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication.
Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina
Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior), a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in seven categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication.
Habsy All Bakhrudin
Full Text Available This study aims to test the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Group Counseling to improve Self-Esteem vocational students. This study, using experimental design with pretest and posttest control group design. Based on the measurement results of self-esteem inventory netted twelve students identified as students who have low self-esteem characteristics. Subsequently the selection of subjects for the experimental and control groups was conducted randomly with a total of six students for each group. There are two types of instruments used are treatment and measurement instruments. The treatment instrument is guidance on the implementation of Cognitive Behavior Group Counseling, while the measurement instrument is self-esteem inventory which has a total grain validity value with R value above 0.32, and reliability of 0.945 can be concluded that reliable and feasible self-esteem inventory is used as research instrument . Data were analyzed by non-parametric statistics Two Independent Sample Test Mann Whitney. The result of hypothesis is Z value is -2.242 and Asymp number. Sig. (2-tailed is 0.025 <0.05, then Ho is rejected, meaning Cognitive Behavior Group Counseling to improve Self-Esteem vocational students. Based on the results of the research can be submitted suggestions: 1 for Counselors: Cognitive Behavior Group Counseling can be applied to improve the Self-Esteem students of SMK, and as a basis for understanding the development aspects of vocational students, 2 Further Research: This research apply Cognitive Behavior Group Counseling with technique Cognitive restructuring, problem solving and home duties, for further research to test their effectiveness by using other relevant techniques.
Monshizadeh, Leila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Yadegari, Fariba; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Hashemi, Seyed Basir
To study how language acquisition can be facilitated for cochlear implanted children based on cognitive and behavioral psychology viewpoints? To accomplish this objective, literature related to behaviorist and cognitive psychology prospects about language acquisition were studied and some relevant books as well as Medline, Cochrane Library, Google scholar, ISI web of knowledge and Scopus databases were searched. Among 25 articles that were selected, only 11 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Based on the inclusion criteria, review articles, expert opinion studies, non-experimental and experimental studies that clearly focused on behavioral and cognitive factors affecting language acquisition in children were selected. Finally, the selected articles were appraised according to guidelines of appraisal of medical studies. Due to the importance of the cochlear implanted child's language performance, the comparison of behaviorist and cognitive psychology points of view in child language acquisition was done. Since each theoretical basis, has its own positive effects on language, and since the two are not in opposition to one another, it can be said that a set of behavioral and cognitive factors might facilitate the process of language acquisition in children. Behavioral psychologists believe that repetition, as well as immediate reinforcement of child's language behavior help him easily acquire the language during a language intervention program, while cognitive psychologists emphasize on the relationship between information processing, memory improvement through repetitively using words along with "associated" pictures and objects, motor development and language acquisition. It is recommended to use a combined approach based on both theoretical frameworks while planning a language intervention program.
Full Text Available Maarit Virta1,2, Anita Salakari1, Mervi Antila1, Esa Chydenius1, Markku Partinen1, Markus Kaski1, Risto Vataja3, Hely Kalska2, Matti Iivanainen11Rinnekoti Research Centre, Espoo, Finland; 2Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Finland; 3Kellokoski Hospital, Kellokoski, FinlandAbstract: In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective non-pharmacological treatments of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Here, we present the results of a pilot study of 10 adults with ADHD participating in short-term individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT, 9 adults participating in cognitive training (CT, and 10 controls. Self-report questionnaires, independent evaluations, and computerized neurocognitive testing were collected before and after the treatments to evaluate change. There were distinctive pre-hypotheses regarding the treatments, and therefore the statistical comparisons were conducted in pairs: CBT vs control, CT vs control, and CBT vs CT. In a combined ADHD symptom score based on self-reports, 6 participants in CBT, 2 in CT and 2 controls improved. Using independent evaluations, improvement was found in 7 of the CBT participants, 2 of CT participants and 3 controls. There was no treatment-related improvement in cognitive performance. Thus, in the CBT group, some encouraging improvement was seen, although not as clearly as in previous research with longer interventions. In the CT group, there was improvement in the trained tasks but no generalization of the improvement to the tasks of the neurocognitive testing, the self-report questionnaires, or the independent evaluations. These preliminary results warrant further studies with more participants and with more elaborate cognitive testing.Keywords: CBT, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, cognitive testing, non-pharmacological treatments
Chow, Philip I; Ingersoll, Karen S; Thorndike, Frances P; Lord, Holly R; Gonder-Frederick, Linda; Morin, Charles M; Ritterband, Lee M
The aim of this study was to investigate in a randomized clinical trial the role of sleep-related cognitive variables in the long-term efficacy of an online, fully automated cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for insomnia (CBT-I) (Sleep Healthy Using the Internet [SHUTi]). Three hundred and three participants (M age = 43.3 years; SD = 11.6) were randomly assigned to SHUTi or an online patient education condition and assessed at baseline, postintervention (nine weeks after baseline), and six and 12 months after the intervention period. Cognitive variables were self-reported internal and chance sleep locus of control, dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep (DBAS), sleep specific self-efficacy, and insomnia knowledge. Primary outcomes were self-reported online ratings of insomnia severity (Insomnia Severity Index), and sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from online sleep diaries, collected 12 months after the intervention period. Those who received SHUTi had, at postassessment, higher levels of insomnia knowledge (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.10-0.16) and internal sleep locus of control (95% CI = 0.04-0.55) as well as lower DBAS (95% CI = 1.52-2.39) and sleep locus of control attributed to chance (95% CI = 0.15-0.71). Insomnia knowledge, chance sleep locus of control, and DBAS mediated the relationship between condition and at least one 12-month postassessment sleep outcome. Within the SHUTi condition, changes in each cognitive variable (with the exception of internal sleep locus of control) predicted improvement in at least one sleep outcome one year later. Online CBT-I may reduce the enormous public health burden of insomnia by changing underlying cognitive variables that lead to long-term changes in sleep outcomes. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Halim, May Ling D.; Ruble, Diane N.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Amodio, David M.
This study examined factors that predicted children's gender intergroup attitudes at age 5 and the implications of these attitudes for intergroup behavior. Ethnically diverse children from low-income backgrounds (N = 246; Mexican-, Chinese-, Dominican-, and African American) were assessed at ages 4 and 5. On average, children reported positive…
Calvo Garzon, Paco; Keijzer, Fred
Plant intelligence has gone largely unnoticed within the field of animal and human adaptive behavior. In this context, we will introduce current work on plant intelligence as a new set of relevant phenomena that deserves attention and also discuss its potential relevance for the study of adaptive
Matusiak, Krystyna K.
Presents the results of a qualitative study that focuses on search patterns of college students and community users interacting with a digital image collection. The study finds a distinct difference between the two groups of users and examines the role of mental models in information seeking behavior in digital libraries.
Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L; Skinner, Timothy
Longitudinal research on the links between intelligence and health behaviors among adolescents is rare. We report longitudinal data in which we assessed the relationships between intelligence as assessed in Grade 7 and consequential health outcomes in Grade 11. The mean age of respondents (N=420;...
Greenaway, Melanie C.; Hanna, Sherrie M.; Lepore, Susan W.; Smith, Glenn E.
Individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) currently have few treatment options for combating their memory loss. The Memory Support System (MSS) is a calendar and organization system with accompanying 6-week curriculum designed for individuals with progressive memory impairment. Ability to learn the MSS and its utility were assessed in 20 participants. Participants were significantly more likely to successfully use the calendar system after training. Ninety-five percent were compliant with the MSS at training completion, and 89% continued to be compliant at follow-up. Outcome measures revealed a medium effect size for improvement in functional ability. Subjects further reported improved independence, self-confidence, and mood. This initial examination of the MSS suggests that with appropriate training, individuals with amnestic MCI can and will use a memory notebook system to help compensate for memory loss. These results are encouraging that the MSS may help with the symptoms of memory decline in MCI. PMID:18955724
Full Text Available Recent developments in stress theory have emphasized the significance of perseverative cognition (worry and rumination in furthering our understanding of stress-disease relationships. Substantial evidence has shown that perseverative cognition (PC is associated with somatic outcomes and numerous physiological concomitants have been identified (i.e., cardiovascular, autonomic and endocrine nervous system activity parameters. However, there has been no synthesis of the evidence regarding the association between PC and health behaviors. This is important given such behaviors may also directly and/or indirectly influence health and disease outcomes (triggered by PC. Therefore, the aim of the current review was to synthesise available studies that have explored the relationship between worry and rumination and health behaviors (health risk: behaviors which, if performed, would be detrimental to health; health promoting: behaviors which, if performed, would be beneficial for health. A systematic review and meta-analyses of the literature were conducted. Studies were included in the review if they reported the association between PC and health behavior. Studies identified in MEDLINE or PsycINFO (k = 7504 were screened, of which19 studies met the eligibility criteria. Random-effects meta-analyses suggested increased PC was generally associated with increased health risk behaviors but not health promoting behaviors. Further analyses indicated that increases in rumination, (r = .122, but not reflection (r = -.080, or worry, r = .048 were associated with health risk behaviors. In conclusion, these results showed that increases in PC are associated with increases in health risk behaviors (substance use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy eating and smoking that are driven primarily through rumination. These findings provide partial support for our hypothesis that in Brosschot and colleagues (2006 original perseverative cognition hypothesis, there may be scope
Migita, Masao; Moriyama, Tohru
Most animal behaviors are considered to have been evolved through their own courses of natural selection. Since mechanisms of natural selection depend tightly on environments in which animals of interest inhabit, the environment for an animal appears a priori, and stimulus-response (S-R) relationships are stable as long as it returns constant benefit. We claim, however, no environment for an animal cannot be regarded as a priori and any animal can exhibit more elaborated behavior than S-R. In other words, every animal is more or less cognitive in terms that it may modify a meaning of stimulus. We introduce a minimal model to demonstrate the cognitive aspect of the pill bug's turn alternation (TA) behavior. The simulated pill bug can modify its own response pattern to the stimulus of water, though stable response appears to be prerequisite to TA behavior.
The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Plus Media on the Reduction of Bullying and Victimization and the Increase of Empathy and Bystander Response in a Bully Prevention Program for Urban Sixth-Grade Students
McLaughlin, Laura Pierce
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy plus media on the reduction of bullying and victimization and the increase in empathy and bystander response in a bully prevention program for urban sixth-graders. Sixty-eight students participated. Because one of the…
Mangone, Carlos A; Genovese, Osvaldo; Abel, Carlos
A review of neurotoxics is made, given the low tendency to investigate for chronic exposure to environmental and industrial potential central nervous system toxic substances (heavy metals, insecticides, organic solvents and carbon monoxide) in the history of a patient consulting for behavioral - cognitive complains, and considering the potential overturn of the disease if a correct diagnosis and early treatment is made. to determine the onset of the cognitive - behavioral features, presentation pattern, diagnosis and treatment of such neurotoxics (NT). systematized search in Cochrane and Medline reviews, Embase and Lilacs. chronic exposure to neurotoxics can produce personality changes (sleeping problems, excitation, depression, delusions and hallucinations) as well as cognitive problems (memory, learning, language and cognitive reaction problems). NT may cause changes in the neuron morphology and its sub cellular structures, affecting its normal biochemistry and physiology (proteins and neurotransmitters synthesis). The clinical history, diagnosis and treatment of each neurotoxic are discussed. The NT must be taken in consideration among the possible different etiologies when a patient with a bizarre behavioral cognitive syndrome is examined.
Elston, Thomas W.; Pandian, Ashvini; Smith, Gregory D.; Holley, Andrew J.; Gao, Nanjing; Lugo, Joaquin N.
There is a growing community of individuals who self-administer the nootropic aniracetam for its purported cognitive enhancing effects. Aniracetam is believed to be therapeutically useful for enhancing cognition, alleviating anxiety, and treating various neurodegenerative conditions. Physiologically, aniracetam enhances both glutamatergic neurotransmission and long-term potentiation. Previous studies of aniracetam have demonstrated the cognition-restoring effects of acute administration in different models of disease. No previous studies have explored the effects of aniracetam in healthy subjects. We investigated whether daily 50 mg/kg oral administration improves cognitive performance in naïve C57BL/6J mice in a variety of aspects of cognitive behavior. We measured spatial learning in the Morris water maze test; associative learning in the fear conditioning test; motor learning in the accelerating rotarod test; and odor discrimination. We also measured locomotion in the open field test, anxiety through the elevated plus maze test and by measuring time in the center of the open field test. We measured repetitive behavior through the marble burying test. We detected no significant differences between the naive, placebo, and experimental groups across all measures. Despite several studies demonstrating efficacy in impaired subjects, our findings suggest that aniracetam does not alter behavior in normal healthy mice. This study is timely in light of the growing community of healthy humans self-administering nootropic drugs. PMID:25099639
Thomas W Elston
Full Text Available There is a growing community of individuals who self-administer the nootropic aniracetam for its purported cognitive enhancing effects. Aniracetam is believed to be therapeutically useful for enhancing cognition, alleviating anxiety, and treating various neurodegenerative conditions. Physiologically, aniracetam enhances both glutamatergic neurotransmission and long-term potentiation. Previous studies of aniracetam have demonstrated the cognition-restoring effects of acute administration in different models of disease. No previous studies have explored the effects of aniracetam in healthy subjects. We investigated whether daily 50 mg/kg oral administration improves cognitive performance in naïve C57BL/6J mice in a variety of aspects of cognitive behavior. We measured spatial learning in the Morris water maze test; associative learning in the fear conditioning test; motor learning in the accelerating rotarod test; and odor discrimination. We also measured locomotion in the open field test, anxiety through the elevated plus maze test and by measuring time in the center of the open field test. We measured repetitive behavior through the marble burying test. We detected no significant differences between the naive, placebo, and experimental groups across all measures. Despite several studies demonstrating efficacy in impaired subjects, our findings suggest that aniracetam does not alter behavior in normal healthy mice. This study is timely in light of the growing community of healthy humans self-administering nootropic drugs.
Slack, Kelley J.; Williams, Thomas J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Schmidt, Lacey L.; Shea, Camille
In April 2010, President Obama declared a space pioneering goal for the United States in general and NASA in particular. "Fifty years after the creation of NASA, our goal is no longer just a destination to reach. Our goal is the capacity for people to work and learn and operate and live safely beyond the Earth for extended periods of time, ultimately in ways that are more sustainable and even indefinite." Thus NASA's Strategic Objective 1.1 emerged as "expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and international collaboration" (NASA 2015b). Any space flight, be it of long or short duration, occurs in an extreme environment that has unique stressors. Even with excellent selection methods, the potential for behavioral problems among space flight crews remain a threat to mission success. Assessment of factors that are related to behavioral health can help minimize the chances of distress and, thus, reduce the likelihood of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders arising within a crew. Similarly, countermeasures that focus on prevention and treatment can mitigate the cognitive or behavioral conditions that, should they arise, would impact mission success. Given the general consensus that longer duration, isolation, and confined missions have a greater risk for behavioral health ensuring crew behavioral health over the long term is essential. Risk, which within the context of this report is assessed with respect to behavioral health and performance, is addressed to deter development of cognitive and behavioral degradations or psychiatric conditions in space flight and analog populations, and to monitor, detect, and treat early risk factors, predictors and other contributing factors. Based on space flight and analog evidence, the average incidence rate of an adverse behavioral health event occurring during a space mission is relatively low for the
Siebern, Allison T; Manber, Rachel
Allison T Siebern, Rachel ManberSleep Medicine Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Redwood City, California, USAAbstract: Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder. Psychological, behavioral, and biological factors are implicated in the development and maintenance of insomnia as a disorder, although the etiology of insomnia remains under investigation, as it is still not fully understood. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) is a treatment for insomnia that is grounde...
Rachel Gick Fan
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.
Hori, Toru; Komiyama, Tokutaro; Harada, Seiichi; Matsumoto, Takenori
We have introduced cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) into the treatment of substance dependence patients, which involves disease education and focused group therapy to obtain insight into the taking behavior and to establish concrete countermeasures to prevent relapse. We have created a bio-cognitive model based on biological aspects to explain the pathology of substance dependence. 'Dependence' is a term in behavioral pharmacology defined as reinforced drug seeking and taking behavior. Changes in taking behavior are thought to occur due to the repetition of the reinforcement action of psychoactive substances in the reward system of the brain. Therefore, when intake desire is strong, it is hard for patients to control themselves, and there is a feature of difficulties considering the process of thinking in CBT. In other words, when craving becomes strong, a chain of behavior happens spontaneously, without schema, involving automatic thoughts. We think that the improvement of protracted withdrawal syndrome (PWS) and entire frontal lobe function are important in learning to discern distortion of cognition. When PWS is improved, a conflict is easy to bring about in the process of drug seeking and taking behavior. And, it is easy to execute avoidance plans (coping skills) which are established to cope with craving in advance. We think that a goal for treatment is to discern drug seeking and taking behavior with natural emotion. The recovery of PWS and frontal lobe dysfunction takes a long time with a serious dependence, so we must perform repetition of CBT. As the treatment introduction of involuntary admission cases is adequate or cases of 1 to 3 months of admission treatment based on voluntary admission are hard to treat, treatment to obtain insights into patients while carrying out repeated CBT using a bio-cognitive model and to improve PWS could be a possibility as one treatment for the pathology of diversified substance dependence.
Cheon, Se Woo; Sur, Sang Moon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Young Taeck; Moon, Sang Joon
Computer modeling of an operator's cognitive behavior is a promising approach for the purpose of human factors study and man-machine systems assessment. In this paper, the states of the art in modeling operator behavior and the current status in developing an operator's model (MINERVA - NPP) are presented. The model is constructed as a knowledge-based system of a blackboard framework and is simulated based on emergency operating procedures
Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy counseling group in reducing vocational high school student’s doubts in making career decision. The research design uses pretest-posttest control group design. There are two types of instruments used, that is treatment materials and measuring instruments. The treatment instrument consisted of a manual cognitive behavior group counseling guide for the counselor, while the measuring instrument consist a scale of career decision making that had validity R values above 0.320 and reliability of 0.855 and student’s self-reflection sheets. Data analysis using Two-Independent-Sample Test-Mann-Whitney U. Statistical analysis show that the value of zcount> ztable is -3,315 then H0 is rejected. This is show that cognitive behavioral therapy group counseling is effective to reduce vocational high school student’s doubts in making career decision. Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keefektifan konseling kelompok cognitive behavior therapy dalam menurunkan keraguan pengambilan keputusan karier siswa Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan. Desain penelitian menggunakan pretest-posttest control group design. Ada dua jenis instrumen yang digunakan yaitu instrumen pengumpulan data dan panduan eksperimen. Panduan eksperimen terdiri dari buku konseling kelompok kognitif behavioral panduan untuk konselor, sedangkan alat ukur terdiri atas skala keraguan pengambilan keputusan karier yang memiliki validitas nilai R di atas 0.320 dan reliabilitas 0,855 dan lembar siswa refleksi diri. Analisis data yang digunakan Two-Independent-Sampel Test-Mann-Whitney U. Analisis statistik menunjukkan bahwa nilai zhitung > ztabel yaitu -3,315 maka H0 ditolak. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa konseling kelompok cognitive behavior therapy efektif untuk menurunkan keraguan pengambilan keputusan karier siswa sekolah menengah kejuruan. Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17977/um001v2
Full Text Available Background: Level of stress and its management affects the dimensions of psychosomatic patients′ quality of life (QoL, which is an important psychological issue. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral stress management program on psychosomatic patients′ QoL. In cognitive behavioral method, patients discover thought and behavioral mistakes and recover them. The criterion to evaluate the success of the present study was measurement of the patients′ QoL and its notable improvement after intervention. Materials and Methods: This is a before-and-after clinical trial with a control group. The study participants comprised 70 psychosomatic patients referred to subspecial psychiatry clinic in Isfahan who were selected through convenient sampling and allocated to the study and control groups. Quality of Life Questionnaire (SF36 was adopted to collect the data. The questionnaire was completed by the participants in three stages of before-and-after up to a month after intervention. Cognitive behavioral stress management program was administrated in study group for eight straight sessions, two month, and a month after intervention. Along with this, conventional medical treatments were conducted for both the groups. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. The significance level was P < 0.001. Results: There was no significant difference in QoL mean scores between the two groups before intervention (44, 43.1, but mean scores of QoL were significantly higher in intervention G (55.7, 59.1, compared to control (39.8, 35.7, after intervention (P < 0.001 and one month after intervention (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Cognitive behavioral stress management, conducted in the present study, had a notable effect on QoL. Therefore, designing psychological interventions based on cognitive behavioral stress management is suggested as an efficient clinical intervention.
Falck, Ryan S; Landry, Glenn J; Best, John R; Davis, Jennifer C; Chiu, Bryan K; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a transition between normal cognitive aging and dementia and may represent a critical time frame for promoting cognitive health through behavioral strategies. Current evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior are important for cognition. However, it is unclear whether there are differences in PA and sedentary behavior between people with probable MCI and people without MCI or whether the relationships of PA and sedentary behavior with cognitive function differ by MCI status. The aims of this study were to examine differences in PA and sedentary behavior between people with probable MCI and people without MCI and whether associations of PA and sedentary behavior with cognitive function differed by MCI status. This was a cross-sectional study. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in adults dwelling in the community (N = 151; at least 55 years old) were measured using a wrist-worn actigraphy unit. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment was used to categorize participants with probable MCI (scores of Cognitive function was indexed using the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive-Plus (ADAS-Cog Plus). Physical activity and sedentary behavior were compared based on probable MCI status, and relationships of ADAS-Cog Plus with PA and sedentary behavior were examined by probable MCI status. Participants with probable MCI (n = 82) had lower PA and higher sedentary behavior than participants without MCI (n = 69). Higher PA and lower sedentary behavior were associated with better ADAS-Cog Plus performance in participants without MCI (β = -.022 and β = .012, respectively) but not in participants with probable MCI (β cognitive function. The diagnosis of MCI was not confirmed with a physician; therefore, this study could not conclude how many of the participants categorized as having probable MCI would actually have been diagnosed with MCI by a physician. Participants with probable MCI were less active
Full Text Available Autonomic dysregulation has been hypothesized to play a role in the relationships between psychopathology and cardiovascular risk. An important transdiagnostic factor that has been associated with autonomic dysfunction is perseverative cognition (PC, mainly present in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD in the form of rumination. As the ability to adaptively let our mind wander (MW without ruminating is critical to mental health, this study aimed to examine the autonomic concomitants of functional versus dysfunctional intrusive thoughts in MDD.Ambulatory heart rate (HR and variability (HRV of 18 MDD subjects and 18 healthy controls were recorded for 24 hours. Approximately every 30 minutes during waking hours subjects reported their ongoing thoughts and moods using electronic diaries. Random regression models were performed. Compared to controls, MDD subjects were more often caught during episodes of PC. In both groups, PC required more effort to be inhibited and interfered more with ongoing activities compared to MW (ps < .0001. This cognitive rigidity was mirrored by autonomic inflexibility, as PC was characterized by lower HRV (p < .0001 compared to MW. A worse mood was reported by MDD patients compared to controls, independently of their ongoing cognitive process. Controls, however, showed the highest mood worsening during PC compared to being on task and MW. HRV during rumination correlated with self reported somatic symptoms on the same day and several dispositional traits. MDD subjects showed lower HRV during sleep, which correlated with hopelessness rumination. Results show that PC is associated with autonomic dysfunctions in both healthy and MDD subjects. Understanding when spontaneous thought is adaptive and when it is not may clarify its role in the etiology of mood disorders, shedding light on the still unexplained association between psychopathology, chronic stress, and risk for health.
Full Text Available Last decades have witnessed a progressing decline of social trust, which has been predominantly linked to worsening economic conditions and increasing social inequality. In the present research we propose a different type of explanation for the observed decline - cognitive load related to technological development and the accelerating pace of modern life. In an experimental study participants played the trust game while performing one of two different secondary tasks - listening to a disturbing noise or memorizing a sequence of characters - or with no additional task in the control condition. Results show that in both cognitive load conditions participants expressed significantly less trust in the trust game than in case of no cognitive load. Additionally, when cognitive resources were limited, participants' behavior was more impulsive than when their resources were fully available.
Colin W. Clark; Reuven Dukas
Limited attention may constrain animal behavior in situations in which the rate of relevant information exceeds the threshold processing capacity of the brain. In the present study, we examine why attention is limited by quantifying how attention affects the ubiquitous problem of balancing foraging and antipredator activity. We analyze how a given attentional capacity affects feeding requirements, the optimal attentional focus during predator scanning, and the probability of detecting predato...
Meng, Xiu-Hong; Liu, Ping; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Xu, Zhong-Mei; Chen, Gui-Hai; Xu, De-Xiang
In human and rodent models, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the development of cognition and behaviors. Fenvalerate is a potential EDC. The purpose of this study was to examine whether pubertal fenvalerate exposure altered behavioral development. Mice were orally administered with either vehicle or fenvalerate (7.5 or 30 mg/kg/day) from postnatal day (PND) 28 to PND56. Learning and memory were assessed by Morris Water Maze. Aggressive performance was evaluated by aggressive behavior test. Anxiety-related activities were detected by three tests: open-field, plus-maze and black-white alley. Sensorimotor function was analyzed using beam walking and tightrope. Results found that the impairment for spatial learning and memory was more severe in fenvalerate-exposed female mice than in male mice. In addition, pubertal fenvalerate exposure inhibited aggressive behavior in males. Moreover, pubertal fenvalerate exposure increased anxiety activities in females. Altogether, these results suggest that pubertal fenvalerate exposure impairs spatial cognition and behavioral development in a gender-dependent manner. These findings identify fenvalerate as candidate environmental risk factors for cognitive and behavioral development, especially in the critical period of development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kanske, Philipp; Obermeier, Christian; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A.
Cognitive control supports goal-directed behavior by resolving conflict among opposing action tendencies. Emotion can trigger cognitive control processes, thus speeding up conflict processing when the target dimension of stimuli is emotional. However, it is unclear what role emotionality of the target dimension plays in the processing of emotional conflict (e.g. in irony). In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of emotional valence of the target (emotional, neutral) in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. To maximally approximate real-life communication, we used audiovisual stimuli. Participants either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict) or their emotional valence (emotional conflict), while visual information was congruent or incongruent. Emotional target dimension facilitated both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, as shown in a reduced reaction time conflict effect. In contrast, the N100 in the event-related potentials showed a conflict-specific reversal: the conflict effect was larger for emotional compared with neutral trials in cognitive conflict and smaller in emotional conflict. Additionally, domain-general conflict effects were observed in the P200 and N200 responses. The current findings confirm that emotions have a strong influence on cognitive and emotional conflict processing. They also highlight the complexity and heterogeneity of the interaction of emotion with different types of conflict. PMID:25925271
Zinchenko, Artyom; Kanske, Philipp; Obermeier, Christian; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A
Cognitive control supports goal-directed behavior by resolving conflict among opposing action tendencies. Emotion can trigger cognitive control processes, thus speeding up conflict processing when the target dimension of stimuli is emotional. However, it is unclear what role emotionality of the target dimension plays in the processing of emotional conflict (e.g. in irony). In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of emotional valence of the target (emotional, neutral) in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. To maximally approximate real-life communication, we used audiovisual stimuli. Participants either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict) or their emotional valence (emotional conflict), while visual information was congruent or incongruent. Emotional target dimension facilitated both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, as shown in a reduced reaction time conflict effect. In contrast, the N100 in the event-related potentials showed a conflict-specific reversal: the conflict effect was larger for emotional compared with neutral trials in cognitive conflict and smaller in emotional conflict. Additionally, domain-general conflict effects were observed in the P200 and N200 responses. The current findings confirm that emotions have a strong influence on cognitive and emotional conflict processing. They also highlight the complexity and heterogeneity of the interaction of emotion with different types of conflict. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina
The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430…
Tovote, K. Annika; Schroevers, Maya J.; Snippe, Evelien; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.; Links, Thera P.; Sanderman, Robbert; Fleer, Joke
Objective: Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) have shown to be effective interventions for treating depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes. However, little is known about which intervention works best for whom (i.e., moderators of efficacy). The
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn; Perrin, Nancy; Lynch, Frances; Rosselli, Francine; Kraemer, Helena C.
Objective: Despite proven efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating eating disorders with binge eating as the core symptom, few patients receive CBT in clinical practice. Our blended efficacy-effectiveness study sought to evaluate whether a manual-based guided self-help form of CBT (CBT-GSH), delivered in 8 sessions in a health…
Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane
Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…
Habigzang, Luisa Fernanda; Damasio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena
This study evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral group therapy model in Brazilian girls who had experienced sexual abuse. The effect of the waiting period before treatment and the enduring effectiveness of the treatment after six and 12 months were also evaluated. Forty-nine female sexual abuse victims between the ages of 9 and 16…
Erfan Soleimani Sefat
Discussion: The findings demonstrated that cognitive behavioral therapy was significantly effective in improving depression of male students with visual impairment in experimental group. The group training needs to be adopted by medical practitioners on a cohort for validating its effectiveness on a larger scale.
Rooij, A.J. van; Zinn, M.F.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Mheen, D. van de
In 2009, one of the major Dutch addiction care organizations initiated a pilot program to explore the possibility of using an existing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing based treatment program (‘Lifestyle Training’) to treat internet addiction. The current study evaluates
Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.
This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…
Jacobs, Ruud; Heuvelman, A.; Tan, Maurice; Peters, O.
This study refined and specified a model based on the application (e.g. LaRose & Kim, 2007) of social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) to analyze and compare the behavior and attitudes exhibited by movie downloaders and to compare the number of movies they consume. The model is tested against data
Lloyd, Anthony; Brett, David; Wesnes, Keith
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent behavioral diagnosis in children, with an estimated 500 000 children affected in the United Kingdom alone. The need for an appropriate and effective intervention for children with ADHD is a growing concern for educators and childcare agencies. This randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the impact of the HeartMath self-regulation skills and coherence training program (Institute of HeartMath, Boulder Creek, California) on a population of 38 children with ADHD in academic year groups 6, 7, and 8. Learning of the skills was supported with heart rhythm coherence monitoring and feedback technology designed to facilitate self-induced shifts in cardiac coherence. The cognitive drug research system was used to assess cognitive functioning as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures assessed teacher and student reposted changes in behavior. Participants demonstrated significant improvements in various aspects of cognitive functioning such as delayed word recall, immediate word recall, word recognition, and episodic secondary memory. Significant improvements in behavior were also found. The results suggest that the intervention offers a physiologically based program to improve cognitive functioning in children with ADHD and improve behaviors that is appropriate to implement in a school environment.
Background & aim: infertility and the attitude of the society toward it, makes women and even men deal with many emotional disturbances. Infertile women tolerate more stress than fertile women. Stress can reduce the amount of happiness and mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of stress management skills training (cognitive-behavioral on happiness of infertile women. Methods: In this clinical-trial study, the cases of infertile women who were referred to the Infertility Center of Shiraz in the summer of 2011were studied. A total of 24 infertile women with high stress scores were selected by purposive sampling and divided into two experimental and control groups. The stress management training (cognitive-behavioral was instructed during 10 weekly sessions on the target group. Using Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, a pre-test and a post-test was completed. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and ANCOVA. Results: The difference between the mean happiness was significant after controlling of the pretest variables in the two groups. The mean scored happiness of the experimental group significantly increased compared to the control group in the post-test (P=0.0001. Conclusion: The results indicated that the control effectiveness of stress management therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy on happiness levels of infertile women. Key words: Happiness, Cognitive- Behavioral, Stress Management, Infertility
Hogan, Eileen A.; Bryant, Sarah K.; Overymyer-Day, Leslie E.
The acquisition of credit card debt by college students has long been a topic of concern. This study explores relationships among debt, undesirable academic behaviors and cognitions, and academic performance, through surveys of 338 students in a public university, replicating two past measures of credit card debt and creating new measures of…
Fisch, Gene S; Grossfeld, Paul; Falk, Rena; Battaglia, Agatino; Youngblom, Janey; Simensen, Richard
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a complex congenital malformation produced by a loss of genomic material at the locus 4p16.3. In addition to its dysmorphic features, the deletion produces a range of intellectual disability (ID). Many clinical aspects of WHS are well-characterized; however, the cognitive-behavioral characteristics have been rarely examined in a systematic fashion. The purpose of our study was to examine the cognitive-behavioral features of WHS and to compare them to children with other subtelomeric deletions that also produce ID. We recruited 45 children with subtelomeric deletions and examined their cognitive-behavioral abilities using a neuropsychological assessment battery composed of standardized instruments. Nineteen children were diagnosed with WHS and 26 children with one of three other subtelomeric deletions-11q25 (Jacobsen syndrome), deletion 2q37, and inversion duplication deletion 8p21-23. We found children with WHS to be more severely impacted cognitively than children from any of the other groups. Their overall adaptive behavior was lower as well. However, children with WHS exhibit strengths in socialization skills comparable to the levels attained by the other groups we assessed. Importantly, the proportion of children with WHS with autism or autistic-like features is significantly lower than the rates of autism found in the other subtelomeric disorders we examined. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
This study longitudinally followed Non-Hispanic White and African American children to see whether the impact of early maternal employment on cognitive and behavioral outcomes reported at age three and four persisted into school-age years. Results indicated that maternal employment in the first year of a child's life had significant negative…
Haagsma, M.C.; Caplan, S.E.; Peters, O.; Pieterse, Marcel E.
The aim of this study was to apply the cognitive behavioral model of problematic Internet use to the context of online game use to obtain a better understanding of problematic use of online games and its negative consequences. In total, 597 online game playing adolescents aged 12–22 years
de Vries, Siebrich; Roorda, Gerrit
Activating and cognitively demanding teaching behavior is problematic for many teachers in Dutch secondary education, in particular for the less experienced advanced beginners. In the context of a Professional Learning Community (PLC) for both less and more experienced teachers of mathematics,
Friedlander, Myrna L.; Siegel, Sheri M.
Tested theoretical link between difficulties with separation-individuation and cognitive-behavioral indicators characteristic of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Assessed 124 college women using three self-report measures. Results suggest strong relation between 2 sets of variables and support theoretical assertions about factors that contribute to…
ter Huurne, E.D.; de Haan, H.A.; Postel, Marloes Gerda; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E.L.; de Jong, Cor A.J.
Background: Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy
Kahana, Shoshana Y.; Feeny, Norah C.
Although illness phobias are fairly common disorders, their treatment has been scarcely addressed in the literature. The current article discusses the treatment of a 9-year-old female diagnosed with health-related anxiety--specifically, a phobia of vomiting. A variety of cognitive-behavioral techniques, such as relaxation training (e.g., deep…
Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jones, Jessica M.; Tao, Rongrong; Stewart, Sunita M.; Jarrett, Robin B.
The outcome of a sequential treatment strategy that included cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the prevention of major depressive disorder relapse among 46 youths is examined. Results show that youths under the antidepressant medication management plus relapse prevention CBT treatment was at lower risk for relapse than those under the…
McCloskey, Michael S.; Noblett, Kurtis L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Gollan, Jackie K.; Coccaro, Emil F.
No randomized clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of psychotherapy for intermittent explosive disorder (IED). In the present study, the authors tested the efficacy of 12-week group and individual cognitive-behavioral therapies (adapted from J. L. Deffenbacher & M. McKay, 2000) by comparing them with a wait-list control in a randomized…
Perlman, Lawrence M.; Arnedt, J. Todd; Earnheart, Kristie L.; Gorman, Ashley A.; Shirley, Katherine G.
Effective cognitive-behavioral therapies for insomnia have been developed over the past 2 decades, but they have not been systematically evaluated in some clinical settings. While insomnia is common among veterans with mental health problems, the availability of effective treatments is limited. We report on the group application of a…
Hamilton, Kate E.; Wershler, Julie L.; Macrodimitris, Sophie D.; Backs-Dermott, Barb J.; Ching, Laurie E.; Mothersill, Kerry J.
Depression and anxiety are the most common mental health disorders seen in clinical practice and they are highly comorbid. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been demonstrated as an effective treatment for both depression and anxiety but is often not available to all individuals who could benefit from it. This paper investigates the…
Safir, Marilyn P.; Wallach, Helene S.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit
Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common social phobia. Although cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice, difficulties arise with both in vivo and in vitro exposure (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, and a lack of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT…
Wallach, Helene S.; Safir, Marilyn P.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit
Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common phobia. Although cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is preferred, difficulties arise with the exposure component (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, loss of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT (VRCBT) enables a high degree of therapist…
Chang, Mido; Park, Boyoung; Singh, Kusum; Sung, Youngji Y.
The study examined the longitudinal association of parental involvement in Head Start parent-focused programs, parenting behaviors, and the cognitive development of children by specifying two longitudinal growth models. Model 1 examined the longitudinal effects of the parental involvement in three Head Start parenting programs (parenting classes,…
van der Sluis, C.M.; van der Bruggen, C.O.; Brechman-Toussaint, M.L.; Thissen, M.A.P.; Bögels, S.M.
Anxiety in children age 8 years and above has been successfully treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, the efficacy of CBT for anxious children ages 4-7 years has not, to date, been fully investigated. This paper piloted a CBT intervention targeting child anxiety that was
Willoughby, Brian L. B.; Doty, Nathan D.
Few interventions have been proposed for the treatment of families following a child's disclosure of nonheterosexuality. To address this gap in the literature, the current paper outlines a brief cognitive behavioral family treatment (CBFT) for families negotiating the coming-out process and illustrates this approach with a case example. Parents'…
Bogels, Susan M.; Siqueland, Lynne
Objective: A family cognitive-behavioral therapy for children and adolescents ages 8 to 18 years with clinical anxiety disorders was developed and evaluated. Method: Seventeen families were measured before and after waitlist, after treatment, and at 3-month and 1-year follow-up. Results: No children changed their diagnostic status during waitlist,…
Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Przeworski, Amy; Leonard, Henrietta L.
Research on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and in particular, exposure with response prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), has only been systematically evaluated in children and adolescents ages 7-17. These treatments do not address the unique characteristics of young children with OCD. This paper discusses…
Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.
Recent meta-analytic data suggest a need for ongoing evaluation of treatments for youth depression. The present article calls attention to a number of issues relevant to the empirical evaluation of if and how cognitive behavior therapy for child depression works. A case series of 6 children and a primary caregiver received treatment--individual…
Cognitive dissonance causes people to rationalize actions that differ from their own preferences.Conformity, on the other hand, causes people to change their behavior as a result of pressure from others.This paper investigates the consequences of preference dynamic that occur when individuals
Conclusion: In summary, the available studies support cognitive-behavioral psychological treatments as an efficacious intervention in borderline personality disorder. However, the existing scientific literature on this topic is still scarce and there is need for more studies, with higher methodological rigor, that should validate these results.
Full Text Available Depression and anxiety are generally considered to be the most important psychopathological comorbidities of cancer patients and experienced by approximately one-third of cancer patients. In the literature, studies have reported that patient characteristics such as gender, age, education level and disease characteristics such as recurrence, stage of cancer and metestazis are associated with anxiety and depression among cancer patients. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT and techniques are one of the most frequently used approach in studying the effects of psychological intervention on anxiety and depression in cancer patients and its value has been demonstrated in reducing distress with diverse cancer populations. The aim of cognitive-behavioral interventions is to change particular thoughts and behaviors and teach specific coping skills, such as cognitive restructuring, behavior modification, relaxation training and activity plan by using specific techniques. Cognitive restructing, stress management and desensitization, relaxation and activity scheduling with use of diary sheet are most used among CBT techniques. This review summarizes the diagnosis, prevalence, risk factors and treatment of depression and anxiety in patients with cancer and CBT techniques applied to these symptoms and study findings related to treatment. [JCBPR 2015; 4(1.000: 54-63
Phielix, Chris; Prins, Frans; Kirschner, Paul A.
Phielix, C., Prins, F. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Group awareness of social and cognitive behavior in a CSCL environment. In K. Gomez, L. Lyons, & J. Radinsky (Eds.), Learning in the Disciplines: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS 2010): Volume 1 (pp.
Bögels, S.M.; Wijts, P.; Oort, F.J.; Sallaerts, S.J.M.
Objectives: Comparing the overall and differential effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT) versus cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Design: Patients with a primary SAD (N = 47) were randomly assigned to PDT (N = 22) or CBT (N = 27). Both PDT and CBT consisted
Arnett, Anne Bernard; MacDonald, Beatriz; Pennington, Bruce F.
Background: Previous research on the etiology of ADHD symptoms suggests that neuropsychological differences may be present as early as birth; however, the diagnosis is typically not given until school age. This study aimed to (a) identify early behavioral and cognitive markers of later significant parent and/or teacher ratings of ADHD…
Brothers, Brittany M.; Yang, Hae-Chung; Strunk, Daniel R.; Andersen, Barbara L.
Objective: In this Phase II trial, we evaluated a novel psychological treatment for depressed patients coping with the stresses of cancer. Effectiveness of a combined biobehavioral intervention (BBI) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was studied. Method: Participants were 36 cancer survivors (mean age = 49 years; 88% Caucasian; 92% female)…
Spangler, Diane L.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Agras, W. Stewart
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa (BN) has received considerable empirical support for its efficacy. However, few investigators have examined the mechanisms proposed to account for the reduction of BN symptoms during CBT. The current study examined the associations between therapist interventions, client mechanisms, and…
Horsch, C.H.G.; Lancee, J.; Griffioen-Both, F.; Spruit, S.; Fitrianie, S.; Neerincx, M.A.; Beun, R.J.; Brinkman, W.-P.
Background: This study is one of the first randomized controlled trials investigating cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) delivered by a fully automated mobile phone app. Such an app can potentially increase the accessibility of insomnia treatment for the 10% of people who have
Horsch, C.H.G.; Lancee, J; Griffioen-Both, Fiemke; Spruit, Sandor; Fitrianie, S.; Neerincx, M.A.; Beun, RJ; Brinkman, W.P.
Background: This study is one of the first randomized controlled trials investigating cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) delivered by a fully automated mobile phone app. Such an app can potentially increase the accessibility of insomnia treatment for the 10% of people who have
Kertes, Angela; Westra, Henny A.; Angus, Lynne; Marcus, Madalyn
Motivational Interviewing (MI) has recently been applied to the treatment of anxiety disorders in an effort to bolster engagement with and response rates to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). In a recent randomized control trial, the addition of MI as a pretreatment compared to no pretreatment was found to significantly improve response to CBT…
Van Lissa, Caspar J.; Hawk, Skyler T.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, Wim H J
Adolescents' development of two empathy dimensions, affective empathic concern and cognitive perspective taking, may be associated with shifts towards more constructive behaviors in conflict with parents. This six-year longitudinal study (ages 13-18) used multivariate latent growth curve modeling to
Martin, Paul R.; Forsyth, Michael R.; Reece, John
Sixty-four headache sufferers were allocated randomly to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), temporal pulse amplitude (TPA) biofeedback training, or waiting-list control. Fifty-one participants (14M/37F) completed the study, 30 with migraine and 21 with tension-type headache. Treatment consisted of 8, 1-hour sessions. CBT was highly effective,…
Neumann, C.G.; Murphy, S.P.; Gewa, C.; Grillenberger, M.; Bwibo, N.O.
A randomized, controlled school feeding study was conducted in rural Embu District, Kenya to test for a causal link between animal-source food intake and changes in micronutrient nutrition and growth, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. Twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups.
Anxiety Disorder; Worry; Uncertainty; Sleep Disorders; Insomnia; Fatigue; Pain; Depression; Cognitive-behavioral Therapy; Psychological Intervention; Esophageal Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Leukemia; Lung Cancer; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Neoplasm; Stage III or IV Cervical or Uterine Cancer; Stage IIIB, IIIC, or IV Breast Cancer; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Relapsed Lymphoma; Stage III or IV Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC or IV Melanoma
Rybarczyk, Bruce; Stepanski, Edward; Fogg, Louis; Lopez, Martita; Barry, Paulette; Davis, Andrew
The present study tested cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia in older adults with osteoarthritis, coronary artery disease, or pulmonary disease. Ninety-two participants (mean age = 69 years) were randomly assigned to classroom CBT or stress management and wellness (SMW) training, which served as a placebo condition. Compared with SMW,…
Homework, or self-help, is an essential and required part of cognitive behavioral treatment. It offers several opportunities for the therapist to extend and increase therapy contact by having the patient "live" the therapy outside of the consulting room. It can also serve as a measure of the patient's motivation for therapy or for change. Homework…
Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Smits, Marcel G.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Gunning, W. Boudewijn
Objective: To investigate the effect of melatonin treatment on sleep, behavior, cognition, and quality of life in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic sleep onset insomnia. Method: A total of 105 medication-free children, ages 6 to 12 years, with rigorously diagnosed ADHD and chronic sleep onset insomnia…
Khan, Fary; Pallant, Julie F.; Amatya, Bhasker; Young, Kevin; Gibson, Steven
The aim of this study was to replicate, in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), the three-cluster cognitive-behavioral classification proposed by Turk and Rudy. Sixty-two patients attending a tertiary MS rehabilitation center completed the Pain Impact Rating questionnaire measuring activity interference, pain intensity, social support, and…
Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Har, Kim; Chiu, Angela; Langer, David A.
Background: Children with autism spectrum disorders often present with comorbid anxiety disorders that cause significant functional impairment. This study tested a modular cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program for children with this profile. A standard CBT program was augmented with multiple treatment components designed to accommodate or…
Moree, Brittany N.; Davis, Thompson E., III
Anxiety disorders have been found to be highly comorbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Even so, the identification and dissemination of empirically supported treatments for anxiety in adults or children who have ASD has lagged behind the larger evidence-based trend. This review examines the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a…
Walczak, Monika; Esbjørn, Barbara H; Breinholst, Sonja
Parental factors have been linked to childhood anxiety, hence, parental involvement in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxious children has been examined. However, findings do not consistently show added effects of parent-enhanced CBT, longitudinal investigations are scarce and long...
Filges, Trine; Jorgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
Objectives: This review evaluates the evidence on the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on drug use reduction for young people in treatment for nonopioid drug use. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized trials. Meta-analytic methods were used to…
Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.
We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of…
Choate, Laura H.
Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article…
Stjerneklar, Silke; Hougaard, Esben; Nielsen, Amalie D.
Background: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-documented effective method for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. While internet based CBT (ICBT) programs for adults have been widely investigated, research on ICBT programs for anxiety disorders in youth...
James, Jessica S.
Depression is common in individuals with intellectual disabilities, but evidence regarding treatment for this population is lacking. Through a systematic literature review of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with individuals with intellectual disabilities, a total of six studies were identified that used pretest-post-test nonequivalent control…
Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Frost, Mads; Tuxen, Nanna
This position paper presents our preliminary design of context-aware cognitive behavioral therapy for unipolar and bipolar disorders. We report on the background for this study and the methods applied in the ongoing design process. The paper ends by presenting and discussing different design...
Hakvoort, L.; Bogaerts, S.
This article offers a theoretical foundation for cognitive behavioral music therapy in forensic psychiatry. First, two cases are presented to give an insight into music therapy in forensic psychiatry. Secondly some background information on forensic psychiatry is provided. The Risk-Need-Responsivity
Patricia Maria da Silva Roggi
Full Text Available Objective: The craving is a strong desire to consume a psychotropic substance and is one of the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome in drug addiction. As a theoretical construct, craving is complex and described by different authors, which results in various theoretical models, but there is a consensus on the importance of its treatment. This paper conducted a literature review to identify and describe the most widely used techniques of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for the management of craving and to verify the impact of applying these techniques on outcome variables, specifically the craving. Method: Searches were conducted in the databases of PubMed and PsycInfo using the following descriptors in association: “craving”, “cognitive therapy” “behavior therapy” and “cognitive behavior therapy”. Results: 198 papers were found, out of which thirty four were selected for analysis. The cognitive behavior therapy treatment includes various techniques such as Relapse Prevention, Psychoeducational, Humor and Stress Management, Motivational Interviewing, Exposure to the Relapse Prevention and Relaxation techniques. The manual for Project MATCH is one of the most cited and used for the treatment of drug addicts. Cue Exposure Therapy (CET, Attentional Bias Modification (ABM and newer “mindfulness” therapeutic methods are studied, and have shown promising results, but still need to be further investigated. Conclusion: Various treatments have been proposed and have allowed the achievement of significant improvements in the reduction of craving.
Telch, M.J.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Schmidt, N.B.
The present study investigated the influence of personality pathology assessed both dimensionally and categorically on acute clinical response to group cognitive-behavioral treatment in a large sample of panic disorder patients (N = 173) meeting DSMIII-R criteria for panic disorder with or without
Thomas, Michael S. C.; Forrester, Neil A.; Ronald, Angelica
In the multidisciplinary field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, statistical associations between levels of description play an increasingly important role. One example of such associations is the observation of correlations between relatively common gene variants and individual differences in behavior. It is perhaps surprising that such…
Ojeda, Lizette; Edwards, Lisa M.; Hardin, Erin E.; Piña-Watson, Brandy
We examined the role of behavioral (acculturation and enculturation) and cognitive cultural orientation (independent and interdependent self-construal) on Mexican American college students' life satisfaction. Analyses explained 28% of the variance in life satisfaction, with social class, grade point average, and independent self-construal being…
de Graaf, L. Esther; Hollon, Steven D.; Huibers, Marcus J. H.
Objective: To explore pretreatment and short-term improvement variables as potential moderators and predictors of 12-month follow-up outcome of unsupported online computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT), usual care, and CCBT combined with usual care for depression. Method: Three hundred and three depressed patients were randomly allocated…
Heins, M.J.; Knoop, H.; Lobbestael, J.; Bleijenberg, G.
Objective: To examine the relationship between a history of childhood maltreatment and the treatment response to cognitive behavior therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Methods: A cohort study in a tertiary care clinic with a referred sample of 216 adult patients meeting the Centers for
Sheeber, Lisa B.; Seeley, John R.; Feil, Edward G.; Davis, Betsy; Sorensen, Erik; Kosty, Derek B.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.
Objective: Develop and pilot an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention for depression, tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of young children. Method: Mothers (N = 70) of children enrolled in Head Start, who reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, were randomized to either the 8-session,…
Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.
Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…
ter Huurne, E.D.; Postel, Marloes Gerda; de Haan, H.A.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; de Jong, C.A.
Treatment dropout is an important concern in eating disorder treatments as it has negative implications for patients’ outcome, clinicians’ motivation, and research studies. Our main objective was to conduct an exploratory study on treatment dropout in a two-part web-based cognitive behavioral
Objective: The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-C Questionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to…
Satterfield, Jason M.; Crabb, Rebecca
Although strong evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life depression and depression in racial and ethnic minorities, there are no empirical studies on the treatment of depression in older sexual minorities. Three distinct literatures were tapped to create a depression treatment protocol for an older gay male. Interventions were…
van Rooij, Antonius J.; Zinn, Mieke F.; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; van de Mheen, Dike
In 2009, one of the major Dutch addiction care organizations initiated a pilot program to explore the possibility of using an existing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing based treatment program ("Lifestyle Training") to treat internet addiction. The current study evaluates this pilot treatment program by providing…
Kearny, Regina; Pawlukewicz, Justine; Guardino, Mary
Because anxiety is the most common mental health disorder diagnosed in children, early intervention is crucial for fundamental coping. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the preferred treatment method for this affective disorder, instruction for children needs to be specific for them to successfully acquire and implement essential CBT…
Hodge, David R.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective modality for the treatment of alcoholism. Given widespread interest in incorporating spirituality into professional treatment, this article orients practitioners to spiritually modified CBT, an approach that may enhance outcomes with some spiritually motivated clients. More specifically, by…
Crawley, Sarah A.; Kendall, Philip C.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Wei, Chiaying; Beidas, Rinad S.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Mauro, Christian
We developed and evaluated a brief (8-session) version of cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxiety disorders in youth ages 6 to 13. This report describes the design and development of the BCBT program and intervention materials (therapist treatment manual and child treatment workbook) and an initial evaluation of child treatment outcomes.…
Levita, Liat; Salas Duhne, Paulina Gonzalez; Girling, Carla; Waller, Glenn
Psychological therapists commonly fail to adhere to treatment protocols in everyday clinical practice. In part, this pattern of drift is attributable to anxious therapists being less likely to undertake some elements of evidence-based therapies - particularly the exposure-based elements. This study considers what facets of anxiety (cognitive, behavioral, physiological) are related to junior clinicians' reported use of cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques. Thirty-two clinicians (mean age = 28.9 years; mean length of CBT experience = 1.5 years; 23 female, nine male) who offered CBT were assessed for their cognitive, behavioral and physiological characteristics (Intolerance of Uncertainty scale; risk taking; skin conductance response and heart rate variability). While the three different facets of anxiety were relatively poorly associated with each other, as is usual in this literature, each facet was linked differently to the reported delivery of CBT techniques (P behavioral or cognitive methods. Of the three facets of anxiety, only physiological reactivity showed an association with the clinicians' temporal characteristics, with more experienced therapists being more likely to have greater skin conductance responses to positive and negative outcomes. These findings suggest that clinicians who are more anxious are less likely to deliver the full evidence-based form of CBT and to focus instead on less challenging elements of the therapy. Potential ways of overcoming this limitation are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lincoln, Tania M.; Ziegler, Michael; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lullmann, Eva; Westermann, Stefan; Rief, Winfried
Objective: Randomized controlled trials have attested the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing psychotic symptoms. Now, studies are needed to investigate its effectiveness in routine clinical practice settings. Method: Eighty patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who were seeking outpatient treatment were randomized…
Valmaggia, Lucia R.; Tabraham, Paul; Morris, Eric; Bourrian, Theo K.
Since the early 1990s, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been increasingly used as an adjunctive treatment for psychotic disorders. This paper describes the CBT of three cases, each at a different stage of psycholic disorder: at-risk mental state, first-episode psychosis, and chronic psychotic
Jacob, Karen L.; Christopher, Michael S.; Neuhaus, Edmund C.
Although several theories exist to describe why patients improve in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), in only a limited number of studies has CBT skill acquisition been examined, particularly among patients with complex clinical profiles. Thus, the overarching aim of this research was to develop a tool to measure patients' use of CBT skills,…
Radhu, Natasha; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Arpin-Cribbie, Chantal A.; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul
Objective: This study assessed a Web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for maladaptive perfectionism, investigating perfectionism, anxiety, depression, negative automatic thoughts, and perceived stress. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students defined as maladaptive perfectionists through a screening questionnaire at an urban…
Sijbrandij, Marit; Olff, Miranda; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Carlier, Ingrid V. E.; de Vries, Mirjam H.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of brief cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from various types of psychological trauma. METHOD: The authors randomly assigned 143 patients with acute PTSD (irrespective
Salloum, Alison; Scheeringa, Michael S.; Cohen, Judith A.; Storch, Eric A.
Background: In order to develop Stepped Care trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a definition of early response/non-response is needed to guide decisions about the need for subsequent treatment. Objective: The purpose of this article is to (1) establish criterion for defining an early indicator of response/non-response to the…
Full Text Available Background: Control of angry in effective manner is very important. In present study we compared the effect of reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy on decreasing of aggression in derelict children aged 10 to 18 years old at hostelry care center of Welfare Organization of Kermanshah. Methods: Fifty-seven out of 89 children (31 male, 26 female was diagnosed as aggressive according to the AGQ results from six hostelry care center of welfare organization of Kermanshah, were selected and participated in the study. Participants allocated in to reinforcement behavioral therapy, Ellis cognitive therapy or control group randomly. Each groups received two hours therapeutic teaching for 10 sessions during 10 weeks. The control group had not been received any intervention. After 10 weeks, the posttest AGQ was performed on participant. The results of pretest and posttest were compared using T-test and ANOVA.Results: The posttest aggression score in reinforcement behavioral therapy group was decreased significantly after intervention (P=0.011. We didn’t find significant differences between pre and post tests aggression score in Ellis cognitive therapy (P=0.258. Result of ANOVA show that there was no significant difference between three group after intervention (P=0.691Conclusion: Reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy did not change the aggression score in derelict children. This may relate to specific hard and stressful life of these children due to ineffectiveness of these short-term methods.
van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; Derkx, Bert H. F.; Benninga, Marc A.; Boer, Frits; de Haan, Else
This randomized controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of a 6-session protocolized cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) compared with 6 visits to a pediatrician (intensive medical care; IMC) for the treatment of pediatric functional abdominal pain (FAP). One hundred four children aged 7 to 18
Van Lissa, Caspar J.; Hawk, Skyler T.; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, W.H.J.
Adolescents' development of two empathy dimensions, affective empathic concern and cognitive perspective taking, may be associated with shifts towards more constructive behaviors in conflict with parents. This six-year longitudinal study (ages 13–18) used multivariate latent growth curve modeling to
van Lissa, C.J.; Hawk, S.T.; Branje, S.J.T.; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, W.H.J.
Adolescents' development of two empathy dimensions, affective empathic concern and cognitive perspective taking, may be associated with shifts towards more constructive behaviors in conflict with parents. This six-year longitudinal study (ages 13–18) used multivariate latent growth curve modeling to
Full Text Available Sarah Hamill-Skoch,1 Paul Hicks,2 Ximena Prieto-Hicks11Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ, USAAbstract: Major depressive disorder often begins in adolescence, is chronic and recurrent, and heightens an individual's risk for major depressive disorder in adulthood. Treatment-resistant depression is a problem for a significant minority of adolescents. Few studies have examined treatments for treatment-resistant depression among adolescents, and even fewer have examined the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a monotherapy or in combination with pharmacological treatments. Mental health professionals have a strong interest in understanding what treatments are appropriate for adolescents who are treatment resistant. Preliminary evidence from current published trials indicates that the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy in combination with antidepressant medication yields the best outcome for treatment-resistant depression in adolescents. Secondary analyses also suggest that the utility of cognitive behavioral therapy can be increased by ensuring adolescents receive a therapeutic dose of treatment sessions (more than nine sessions and the inclusion of two treatment components: social skills and problem solving training. Guidelines for clinicians as well as areas for future research are discussed.Keywords: cognitive behavior therapy, treatment-resistant depression, adolescent depression
Shamama-tus-Sabah, Syeda; Gilani, Nighat; Wachs, Theodore D.
Recent findings from Western developed countries have linked home chaos to children's cognitive performance and behavioral problems. In the present paper we test whether the same pattern of associations can be replicated in a non-Western developing country. Our sample was 203 Pakistani primary school children. To assess home chaos the Confusion,…
Pearsall, Matthew J.; Ellis, Aleksander P. J.; Stein, Jordan H.
The purpose of this study was to utilize the challenge-hindrance framework to examine the discrete and combined effects of different environmental stressors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective outcomes at the team level. Results from 83 teams working on a command and control simulation indicated that the introduction of a challenge stressor…
Kirsch, Irving; And Others
Performed a meta-analysis on 18 studies in which a cognitive-behavioral therapy was compared with the same therapy supplemented by hypnosis. Results indicated that hypnosis substantially enhanced treatment outcome, even though there were few procedural differences between the hypnotic and nonhypnotic treatments. Effects seemed particularly…
Allison, David B.; Faith, Myles S.
A meta-analysis for six weight-loss studies comparing the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) alone to CBT plus hypnotherapy. Notes that "the addition of hypnosis substantially enhanced treatment outcome." Concludes that the addition of hypnosis to CBT for weight loss results in, at most, a small enhancement of treatment…
Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.
This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…
Wu, Bei; Goins, R. Turner; Laditka, James N.; Ignatenko, Valerie; Goedereis, Eric
Purpose: Research suggests that men and women often differ in knowledge and beliefs about causes and treatments of a variety of diseases. This study examines gender differences in views about cognitive health and behaviors that have been associated with its maintenance, focusing on older adults living in rural areas. Design and Methods: We…
Johansson, R.; Nyblom, A.; Carlbring, P.; Cuijpers, P.; Andersson, G.
Background: Major depression is a world-wide problem that can be treated with various forms of psychotherapy. There is strong research support for treating major depression using cognitive behavior therapy delivered in the format of guided self-help via the Internet (ICBT). Recent research also
Curran, Charlotte; Williams, Amanda C de C; Potts, Henry W W
It is a tenet of cognitive behavioral treatment of persistent pain problems that ex-patients should adhere to treatment methods over the longer term, in order to maintain and to extend treatment gains. However, no research has quantified the causal influence of adherence on short-term outcome in this field. The aims of this study are to assess determinants of adherence to treatment recommendations in several domains, and to examine the extent to which cognitive and behavioral adherence predicts better outcome of cognitive behavioral treatment for persistent pain. Longitudinal data from a sample of 2345 persistent pain patients who attended a multicomponent treatment programme were subjected to structural equation modeling. Adherence emerged as a mediating factor linking post-treatment and follow-up treatment outcome, but contributed only 3% unique variance to follow-up outcomes. Combined end-of-treatment outcomes and adherence factors accounted for 72% of the variance in outcome at one-month follow-up. Notwithstanding shortcomings in the measurement of adherence, these findings question the emphasis normally given to adherence in the maintenance of behavioral and cognitive change, and clinical implications are discussed.
Ruwaard, Jeroen; Lange, Alfred; Schrieken, Bart; Emmelkamp, Paul
Since 1996, researchers of the Interapy research group of the University of Amsterdam have been examining the effects of online cognitive behavioral treatment (online CBT). Over the years, the group conducted nine controlled trials of online CBT for a variety of mental health disorders, among a
Frueh, B. Christopher; Monnier, Jeannine; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Elhai, Jon D.; Yim, Eunsil; Knapp, Rebecca
Using secondary analyses from a randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder, we compared ratings of therapist competency and adherence between two service delivery modes: telepsychiatry (TP) and same room (SR). Patients were 38 male treatment-seeking veterans recruited…