WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavior change

  1. Scaling Climate Change Communication for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, V. C.; Lappé, M.; Flora, J. A.; Ardoin, N. M.; Robinson, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, effective climate change communication results in a change in behavior, whether the change is individual, household or collective actions within communities. We describe two efforts to promote climate-friendly behavior via climate communication and behavior change theory. Importantly these efforts are designed to scale climate communication principles focused on behavior change rather than soley emphasizing climate knowledge or attitudes. Both cases are embedded in rigorous evaluations (randomized controlled trial and quasi-experimental) of primary and secondary outcomes as well as supplementary analyses that have implications for program refinement and program scaling. In the first case, the Girl Scouts "Girls Learning Environment and Energy" (GLEE) trial is scaling the program via a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for Troop Leaders to teach the effective home electricity and food and transportation energy reduction programs. The second case, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) Assembly Program, is advancing the already-scaled assembly program by using communication principles to further engage youth and their families and communities (school and local communities) in individual and collective actions. Scaling of each program uses online learning platforms, social media and "behavior practice" videos, mastery practice exercises, virtual feedback and virtual social engagement to advance climate-friendly behavior change. All of these communication practices aim to simulate and advance in-person train-the-trainers technologies.As part of this presentation we outline scaling principles derived from these two climate change communication and behavior change programs.

  2. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations.

  3. Why behavior change is difficult to sustain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Unhealthy behavior is responsible for much human disease, and a common goal of contemporary preventive medicine is therefore to encourage behavior change. However, while behavior change often seems easy in the short run, it can be difficult to sustain. This article provides a selective review of research from the basic learning and behavior laboratory that provides some insight into why. The research suggests that methods used to create behavior change (including extinction, counterconditioning, punishment, reinforcement of alternative behavior, and abstinence reinforcement) tend to inhibit, rather than erase, the original behavior. Importantly, the inhibition, and thus behavior change more generally, is often specific to the "context" in which it is learned. In support of this view, the article discusses a number of lapse and relapse phenomena that occur after behavior has been changed (renewal, spontaneous recovery, reinstatement, rapid reacquisition, and resurgence). The findings suggest that changing a behavior can be an inherently unstable and unsteady process; frequent lapses should be expected. In the long run, behavior-change therapies might benefit from paying attention to the context in which behavior change occurs.

  4. Changing Behaviors by Changing the Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardino, Caroline A.; Fullerton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This case study explores the possibility of affecting classroom behaviors by modifying the classroom environment. Although this type of research previously has been conducted in self-contained special education classrooms (Guardino, 2009), this is the first study to explore modifications in an inclusive classroom. The results of this study align…

  5. Changing Food Related Behavior Through Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Fisker, Anna Marie; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    The aim of the workshop is to explore how designers can work actively and deliberately with changing food related behavior through socially responsible design. There will be focus on the holistic aspect of behavioral food design with active involving of the users experience. The workshop is based...

  6. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  7. Perceived Behavioral Changes in Early Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Souza Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired behavioral changes have essentially been described in advanced multiple sclerosis (MS. The present study was designed to determine whether behavioral modifications specifically related to the MS pathological process could be identified in the initial phase of the disease, as compared to control patients with chronic, relapsing and progressive inflammatory disorders not involving the central nervous system (CNS. Eighty-eight early MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤ 2.5 and 48 controls were tested. Perceived changes by informants in behavioral control, goal-directed behavior, decision making, emotional expression, insight and interpersonal relationships were assessed using the Iowa Scale of Personality Change (ISPC. Executive behavioral disturbances were screened using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX. The mean change between the premorbid and postmorbid ISPC ratings was similar in the MS [12.2 (SD 15.6] and in the control [11.5 (SD 15.1] group. The perceived behavioral changes (PBCs most frequently reported in both groups were lack of stamina, lability/moodiness, anxiety, vulnerability to stress and irritability. Pathological scores in the DEX were also similar in both groups. Correlations between PBCs and DEX scores were different in MS and control groups. MS patients with cognitive impairment had a marginally higher number of PBCs than control patients (p = 0.056 and a significantly higher DEXp score (p = 0.04. These results suggest that (1 PBCs occurring in early MS patients were not different from those induced by comparable chronic non-CNS disorders, (2 qualitative differences in the relationship between behavioral symptoms and executive-behavioral changes may exist between MS and control groups, and (3 behavioral symptoms seem associated with cognitive deficits in MS. We further plan to assess these observations longitudinally.

  8. The Information Architecture of Behavior Change Websites

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The extraordinary growth in Internet use offers researchers important new opportunities to identify and test new ways to deliver effective behavior change programs. The information architecture (IA)—the structure of website information—is an important but often overlooked factor to consider when adapting behavioral strategies developed in office-based settings for Web delivery. Using examples and relevant perspectives from multiple disciplines, we describe a continuum of website IA designs ra...

  9. Behavioral changes in mice following benzene inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H L; Dempster, A M; Snyder, C A

    1981-01-01

    Although benzene is an important occupational health hazard and a carcinogen, the possibility that behavioral changes may forewarn of the later-occurring hematological changes has not been investigated. A time-sampling protocol was used to quantify the occurrence of 7 categories of behavior in the homecage following daily 6-hr exposures to two strains of adult mice (CD1 and C57BL/6J). The behavioral categories were stereotypic behavior, sleeping, resting, eating, grooming, locomotion, and fighting. The inhalation exposures were designed to reflect occupational exposure. Dynamic vapor exposure techniques in standard inhalation chambers were employed. Exposure to 300 or 900 ppm benzene increased the occurrence of eating and grooming and reduced the number of mice that were sleeping or resting. The responses to benzene of both the CD1 and the C57 strains were similar. The positive findings with benzene inhalation indicate the utility of behavioral investigations into the toxicology of inhaled organic solvents. The methods described herein illustrate an objective observation of animal behavior that is capable of documenting toxicity and of guiding detailed follow-up studies aimed at mechanism of action.

  10. Instructional design strategies for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzie, Mable B

    2005-01-01

    To help health educators build upon the best of different health behavior change theories, this paper offers a unified set of instructional design strategies for health education interventions. This set draws upon the recommendations of Rosenstock (Health Belief Model), Bandura (Social Cognitive Theory), and Dearing (Diffusion Theory), and uses a modified Events of Instruction framework (adapted from Robert Gagne): gain attention (convey health threats and benefits), present stimulus material (tailor message to audience knowledge and values, demonstrate observable effectiveness, make behaviors easy-to-understand and do), provide guidance (use trustworthy models to demonstrate), elicit performance and provide feedback (to enhance trialability, develop proficiency and self-efficacy), enhance retention and transfer (provide social supports and deliver behavioral cues). Sample applications of these strategies are provided. A brief review of research on adolescent smoking prevention enables consideration of the frequency with which these strategies are used, and possible patterns between strategy use and behavioral outcomes.

  11. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D. [Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)]. E-mail: edclotfelter@amherst.edu; Rodriguez, Alison C. [Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, {beta}-sitosterol, and the positive control 17{beta}-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17{beta}-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish.

  12. Rewarding safe behavior: strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell-Carlson, Deborah

    2004-12-01

    Effective, sustainable safety incentives are integrated into a performance management system designed to encourage long term behavior change. Effective incentive program design integrates the fundamental considerations of compensation (i.e., valence, instrumentality, expectancy, equity) with behavior change theory in the context of a strong merit based performance management system. Clear expectations are established and communicated from the time applicants apply for the position. Feedback and social recognition are leveraged and used as rewards, in addition to financial incentives built into the compensation system and offered periodically as short term incentives. Rewards are tied to specific objectives intended to influence specific behaviors. Objectives are designed to challenge employees, providing opportunities to grow and enhance their sense of belonging. Safety contests and other awareness activities are most effective when used to focus safety improvement efforts on specific behaviors or processes, for a predetermined period of time, in the context of a comprehensive safety system. Safety incentive programs designed around injury outcomes can result in unintended, and undesirable, consequences. Safety performance can be leveraged by integrating safety into corporate cultural indicators. Symbols of safety remind employees of corporate safety goals and objectives (e.g., posted safety goals and integrating safety into corporate mission and vision). Rites and ceremonies provide opportunities for social recognition and feedback and demonstrate safety is a corporate value. Feedback opportunities, rewards, and social recognition all provide content for corporate legends, those stories embellished over time, that punctuate the overall system of organizational norms, and provide examples of the organizational safety culture in action.

  13. Decision making in the transtheoretical model of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, James O

    2008-01-01

    Decision making is an integral part of the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Stage of change represents a temporal dimension for behavior change and has been the key dimension for integrating principles and processes of change from across leading theories of psychotherapy and behavior change. The decision-making variables representing the pros and cons of changing have been found to have systematic relationships across the stages of change for 50 health-related behaviors. Implications of these patterns of relationships are discussed in the context of helping patients make more effective decisions to decrease health risk behaviors and increase health-enhancing behaviors.

  14. Changes in electoral behavior in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DUARTE RECALDE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Paraguayan electoral process has been historically conditioned by the control of the Asociación Nacional Republicana, the dominant political party during the Stroessner’s regime and the period of transition towards democracy. For this reason, the change of political representation in the Presidency that occurred in 2008 as a result of the electoral process was a milestone in the country’s political history and it highlighted the importance of analyzing the voting behavior of the Paraguayan population, its trends and the the conjectural and structural elements that condition them. In this opportunity we review the parameters of electoral behavior present in the country’s last three general elections, considering the electoral volatility rates resulting from such elections and the effective participation levels recorded, analyzing the socio-political context in which they occurred.

  15. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

    Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

  16. The information architecture of behavior change websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Brian G; McKay, H Garth; Seeley, John R

    2005-05-18

    The extraordinary growth in Internet use offers researchers important new opportunities to identify and test new ways to deliver effective behavior change programs. The information architecture (IA)-the structure of website information--is an important but often overlooked factor to consider when adapting behavioral strategies developed in office-based settings for Web delivery. Using examples and relevant perspectives from multiple disciplines, we describe a continuum of website IA designs ranging from a matrix design to the tunnel design. The free-form matrix IA design allows users free rein to use multiple hyperlinks to explore available content according to their idiosyncratic interests. The more directive tunnel IA design (commonly used in e-learning courses) guides users step-by-step through a series of Web pages that are arranged in a particular order to improve the chances of achieving a goal that is measurable and consistent. Other IA designs are also discussed, including hierarchical IA and hybrid IA designs. In the hierarchical IA design, program content is arranged in a top-down manner, which helps the user find content of interest. The more complex hybrid IA design incorporates some combination of components that use matrix, tunnel, and/or hierarchical IA designs. Each of these IA designs is discussed in terms of usability, participant engagement, and program tailoring, as well as how they might best be matched with different behavior change goals (using Web-based smoking cessation interventions as examples). Our presentation underscores the role of considering and clearly reporting the use of IA designs when creating effective Web-based interventions. We also encourage the adoption of a multidisciplinary perspective as we move towards a more mature view of Internet intervention research.

  17. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K

    2016-01-14

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

  18. Energy Behavior Change and Army Net Zero Energy; Gaps in the Army’s Approach to Changing Energy Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Strategy including energy security, job creation, investment in innovation, and fighting climate change . The Assistant Secretary of the Army for...company (Energy Trust of Oregon 2014). Energy behavior change efforts at Fort Carson, Colorado are part of a large information campaign and...behavior changes . Information they used included awareness on climate change and energy conservation. The researchers established a website to share

  19. Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change Applied to Voice Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Studies of patient adherence to health behavior programs, such as physical exercise, smoking cessation, and diet, have resulted in the formulation and validation of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change. Although widely accepted as a guide for the development of health behavior interventions, this model has not been applied to vocal rehabilitation. Because resolution of vocal difficulties frequently depends on a patient’s ability to make changes in vocal and health behaviors, th...

  20. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Dreibelbis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks. No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%, increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

  1. Changes in Illegal Behavior During Emerging Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiah Haffejee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging adulthood marks a critical developmental juncture during which some individuals disengage from the illegal behavior of their adolescence while others continue to use substances and commit crimes. While risk factors for delinquency during adolescence are well studied, factors that influence persisting or desisting from illegal activities during emerging adulthood have not been fully explored. This mixed methods study utilizes a sample of college students aged 18-25 (N=74 and examines factors differentiating those who abstained from illegal behaviors, desisted from illegal behaviors, and persisted in illegal behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression models indicated peers offending and hours spent studying predicted desisting and peers offending predicted persisting (compared to the abstaining group. Three qualitative themes: family and peer bonds, morals and values, and fear of consequences further explained factors influencing emerging adults’ persisting and desisting choices. Implications for social work practice are explored.

  2. Impact of Developing Teacher Commitment to Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    A study examined the effects of one aspect of trainer behavior on teachers' classroom behavioral change. The trainer behavior studied was elicitation of trainee public commitment. Seventeen teachers participated in a series of workshops from the Stallings' Effective Use of Time program. These workshops were team led by teacher, principal, and…

  3. Theory as a Foundation for Behavior Change in Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will highlight the benefits of designing Games for Health (i.e., games created to change health behavior) using informed by behavioral and communication theories. The need to include choice, link adoption of new behavior to personal values, and build confidence in ability to succes...

  4. Self-Determination Theory: Intrinsic Motivation and Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie

    2017-03-01

    Motivation is a central concept in behavioral change. This article reviews the self-determination theory with an emphasis on "intrinsic motivation," which is facilitated when three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are met. Intrinsic motivation is associated with improved well-being and sustained behavioral change.

  5. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sonal SinghMarketing and Management Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.Keywords: social marketing, customer engagement, behavioral influence, change, youth

  6. Goal setting as a strategy for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecher, V J; Seijts, G H; Kok, G J; Latham, G P; Glasgow, R; DeVellis, B; Meertens, R M; Bulger, D W

    1995-05-01

    This article discusses the beneficial effects of setting goals in health behavior change and maintenance interventions. Goal setting theory predicts that, under certain conditions, setting specific difficult goals leads to higher performance when compared with no goals or vague, nonquantitative goals, such as "do your best." In contrast to the graduated, easy goals often set in health behavior change programs, goal setting theory asserts a positive linear relationship between degree of goal difficulty and level of performance. Research on goal setting has typically been conducted in organizational and laboratory settings. Although goal setting procedures are used in many health behavior change programs, they rarely have been the focus of systematic research. Therefore, many research questions still need to be answered regarding goal setting in the context of health behavior change. Finally, initial recommendations for the successful integration of goal setting theory in health behavior change programs are offered.

  7. Propensity for Voluntary Travel Behavior Changes: An Experimental Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meloni, Italo; Sanjust, Benedetta; Sottile, Eleonora;

    2013-01-01

    implementation, which consisted of providing car users with a personalized travel plan after the first week of observation (before) and using the second week to monitoring the post-behavior (after). These data have then been used to estimate a Mixed Logit for the choice to use a personal vehicle or a light metro......In this paper we analyze individual propensity to voluntary travel behavior change combining concepts from theory of change with the methodologies deriving from behavioral models. In particular, following the theory of voluntary changes, we set up a two-week panel survey including soft measure......; and a Multinomial Logit for the decision to change behavior. Results from both models show the relevance of providing information about available alternatives to individuals while promoting voluntary travel behavioral change....

  8. Using goal setting as a strategy for dietary behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, K W; Baranowski, T; Smith, S P

    2001-05-01

    Recent reviews have noted that behavioral theory-based nutrition education programs are more successful at achieving food behavior change than knowledge-based programs and that a clear understanding of the mechanisms of behavior change procedures enable dietetics professionals to more effectively promote change. Successful dietary behavior change programs target 1 or more of the personal, behavioral, or environmental factors that influence the behavior of interest and apply theory-based strategies to influence or change those factors. Goal setting is a strategy that is frequently used to help people change. A 4-step goal-setting process has been identified: recognizing a need for change; establishing a goal; adopting a goal-directed activity and self-monitoring it; and self-rewarding goal attainment. The applications of goal setting in dietary interventions for adults and children are reviewed here. Because interventions using goal setting appear to promote dietary change, dietitians should consider incorporating the goal-setting strategies to enhance the behavior change process in nutrition education programs.

  9. Scaling Behavior and Phase Change in Complex Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Scaling behavior is a extremely typical phenomenon in complex system research, as well as it can act that many Macro indicators in system or distribution function of some variables meet exactly power-law behavior, which possesses different kinds of Exponents. In this article, according to Phase Change concept in Physics, it is researched that the nature in critical state of complex network with Seepage model, and it is totally stated that the basic reason of Self-similar behavior, Fractal behavior, and so on, and also Phase Change in complex network in critical state of complex network in accord with power-law distribution.    

  10. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonal

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.

  11. Collective purchase behavior toward retail price changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2011-02-01

    By analyzing a huge amount of point-of-sale data collected from Japanese supermarkets, we find power law relationships between price and sales numbers. The estimated values of the exponents of these power laws depend on the category of products; however, they are independent of the stores, thereby implying the existence of universal human purchase behavior. The rate of sales numbers around these power laws are generally approximated by log-normal distributions implying that there are hidden random parameters, which might proportionally affect the purchase activity.

  12. Social Cognitive Determinants of Dietary Behavior Change in University Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawna eDoerksen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many adults have poor dietary habits and few studies have focused on mechanisms underlying these behaviors. This study examined psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior change in university employees across a 5-month period. Participants completed measures of fruit and vegetable and low-fat food consumption and social cognitive constructs. Multiple regression analyses accounted for a unique proportion of variation in dietary change. Outcome expectations significantly predicted fruit and vegetable and low-fat consumption. Self-efficacy significantly predicted low-fat consumption. Goals were not associated with dietary behaviors. Further research into implementation strategies may provide insight into how goals work to bring about change.

  13. Social cognitive determinants of dietary behavior change in university employes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerksen, Shawna E; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Many adults have poor dietary habits and few studies have focused on mechanisms underlying these behaviors. This study examined psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior change in university employes across a 5-month period. Participants completed measures of fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and low fat food consumption (LFC) and social cognitive constructs. Multiple regression analyses accounted for a unique proportion of variation in dietary change. Outcome expectations significantly predicted FVC and LFC. Self-efficacy significantly predicted LFC. Goals were not associated with dietary behaviors. Further research into implementation strategies may provide insight into how goals work to bring about change.

  14. Weight loss and related behavior changes among lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Sarah; Young, Laura; Dietrich, Mary; Blakemore, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are known risk factors for several modifiable, if not preventable diseases. Growing evidence suggests that lesbians may have higher rates of obesity than other women. This study was designed to describe weight loss and behavior changes related to food choices and exercise habits among lesbians who participated in a predominantly lesbian, mainstream, commercial weight loss program. Behavioral changes were recorded in exercise, quality of food choices, and number of times dining out. Although there were several limitations based on sample size and heterogeneity, the impact of a lesbian-supportive environment for behavior change was upheld.

  15. Posterior cingulate cortex: adapting behavior to a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, John M; Heilbronner, Sarah R; Barack, David L; Hayden, Benjamin Y; Platt, Michael L

    2011-04-01

    When has the world changed enough to warrant a new approach? The answer depends on current needs, behavioral flexibility and prior knowledge about the environment. Formal approaches solve the problem by integrating the recent history of rewards, errors, uncertainty and context via Bayesian inference to detect changes in the world and alter behavioral policy. Neuronal activity in posterior cingulate cortex - a key node in the default network - is known to vary with learning, memory, reward and task engagement. We propose that these modulations reflect the underlying process of change detection and motivate subsequent shifts in behavior.

  16. Psychology Departments Are Changing Their Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    The neuroscience revolution has brought a set of difficult, at times uncomfortable, changes in university-based research psychology. The technologies that allow scholars to probe the structures and functions of the human brain are also causing profound alterations in the structures and functions of psychology departments: curricula, hiring…

  17. A Longitudinal Study Examining Changes in Students' Leadership Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Barry Z.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a leadership development program in students' first year with the subsequent leadership behaviors of those students in their senior year. Significant changes were reported in the frequency of engaging in leadership behaviors from freshman to senior years. No differences were found on the basis of gender. In…

  18. Surgery-induced behavioral changes in aged rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Iris B.; Schoemaker, Regien G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Heineman, Erik; Nyakas, Csaba; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Humpel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Elderly patients may experience impairments in cognition or mood following surgery. To study the development and underlying mechanisms of these postoperative behavioral changes, young (3 months) and aged (18-20 months) male rats were subjected to abdominal surgery followed by behavioral testing duri

  19. Determinants of Students' Interracial Behavior and Opinion Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Martin; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Describes a study of interracial behavior and opinion change among black and white high school students in Indianapolis. Factors such as personal aggressiveness, initial racial attitudes, and opportunities for interracial contact within and prior to school are analyzed in terms of their influence on negative and positive interracial behavior.…

  20. The Role of Communication in Ensuring Sustained Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Part 2 of a three-part webinar series on communications strategies and methods, we address how communications tools can be used throughout the implementation of climate and clean energy programs to achieve behavior change and ensure sustained.

  1. Social Cognitive Determinants of Dietary Behavior Change in University Employes

    OpenAIRE

    Shawna eDoerksen; Edward eMcAuley

    2014-01-01

    Many adults have poor dietary habits and few studies have focused on mechanisms underlying these behaviors. This study examined psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior change in university employees across a 5-month period. Participants completed measures of fruit and vegetable and low-fat food consumption and social cognitive constructs. Multiple regression analyses accounted for a unique proportion of variation in dietary change. Outcome expectations significantly predicted fruit and ...

  2. How Traumatic Violence Permanently Changes Shopping Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Sigirci

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences – such as combat, living in a conflict country or war-torn nation, or experience a violent crimes or natural disasters – change social relationships and may also influence a life-time of consumer relationships with brands and shopping. Our focus on this previously overlooked area is centered on an analysis of the long-term shopping habits 355 combat veterans. We show that those who experienced heavy trauma (e.g., heavy combat exhibited similar disconnection from brands as others have experienced in social relationships. They became more transactional in that they were more open to switching brands, to trying new products, and buying the least expensive alternative (p<0.01. In contrast, those who had experienced a light trauma were more influenced by ads and more open to buying brands even when they cost more (p<0.00. Trauma, such as combat, may change one’s decision horizon. Functionality and price become more important, which is consistent with the idea that they are more focused on the present moment than on building on the past or saving for the future.

  3. Some current dimensions of the behavioral economics of health-related behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Moody, Lara; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Health-related behaviors such as tobacco, alcohol and other substance use, poor diet and physical inactivity, and risky sexual practices are important targets for research and intervention. Health-related behaviors are especially pertinent targets in the United States, which lags behind most other developed nations on common markers of population health. In this essay we examine the application of behavioral economics, a scientific discipline that represents the intersection of economics and psychology, to the study and promotion of health-related behavior change. More specifically, we review what we consider to be some core dimensions of this discipline when applied to the study health-related behavior change. Behavioral economics (1) provides novel conceptual systems to inform scientific understanding of health behaviors, (2) translates scientific understanding into practical and effective behavior-change interventions, (3) leverages varied aspects of behavior change beyond increases or decreases in frequency, (4) recognizes and exploits trans-disease processes and interventions, and (5) leverages technology in efforts to maximize efficacy, cost effectiveness, and reach. These dimensions are overviewed and their implications for the future of the field discussed.

  4. Effects of habitual anger on employees' behavior during organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-11-25

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior-mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident's negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.

  5. Changing Family Habits: A Case Study into Climate Change Mitigation Behavior in Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Michel T.; Pruneau, Diane

    2012-01-01

    A case-study methodology was used to explore the process of change as experienced by 3 suburban families in an attempt to incorporate climate change mitigation behavior into their day to day life. Cross-case analysis of the findings revealed the emergence of three major conceptual themes associated with behavior adoption: collectively applied…

  6. Human Behavioral Contributions to Climate Change: Psychological and Contextual Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, Janet K.; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S.

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact,…

  7. A Change Impact Analysis to Characterize Evolving Program Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam; Person, Suzette; Branchaud, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Change impact analysis techniques estimate the potential effects of changes made to software. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE) is an intraprocedural technique for characterizing the impact of software changes on program behaviors. DiSE first estimates the impact of the changes on the source code using program slicing techniques, and then uses the impact sets to guide symbolic execution to generate path conditions that characterize impacted program behaviors. DiSE, however, cannot reason about the flow of impact between methods and will fail to generate path conditions for certain impacted program behaviors. In this work, we present iDiSE, an extension to DiSE that performs an interprocedural analysis. iDiSE combines static and dynamic calling context information to efficiently generate impacted program behaviors across calling contexts. Information about impacted program behaviors is useful for testing, verification, and debugging of evolving programs. We present a case-study of our implementation of the iDiSE algorithm to demonstrate its efficiency at computing impacted program behaviors. Traditional notions of coverage are insufficient for characterizing the testing efforts used to validate evolving program behaviors because they do not take into account the impact of changes to the code. In this work we present novel definitions of impacted coverage metrics that are useful for evaluating the testing effort required to test evolving programs. We then describe how the notions of impacted coverage can be used to configure techniques such as DiSE and iDiSE in order to support regression testing related tasks. We also discuss how DiSE and iDiSE can be configured for debugging finding the root cause of errors introduced by changes made to the code. In our empirical evaluation we demonstrate that the configurations of DiSE and iDiSE can be used to support various software maintenance tasks

  8. [Cognitive changes in decision making process underlying prosocial behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, K; Takagi, O

    1987-08-01

    Using a method of monitoring information acquisition, 76 subjects were instructed to simulate the information search process in which they selected a behavior from available behavioral alternatives which were expected to occur in a situation where donating behavior was needed. In order to measure the cognitive changes, they were asked to rate the importance of behavioral attributes both before and after the decision task. After the decision task, they were asked to rate the inner states. (1) Defensive cognitive changes were found which increased the importance of behavioral costs and decreased the importance of personal moral obligation feelings. This pattern of changes was consistent with the Schwartz & Howard model (1981, 1982, 1984). (2) The defensive cognitive changes were related to the information search strategies. This pattern of relationship partly confirmed the prediction derived from the Schwartz & Howard model (1981, 1982, 1984). (3) The result that the cognitive changes were not related to the inner states was inconsistent with the model of either Piliavin, Dovidio, Gaertner, & Clark (1981, 1982) or Schwartz & Howard (1981, 1982, 1984). An alternative model was proposed and discussed.

  9. [Severe behavioral changes in a patient with Fahr's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmer, Arthur; de Castro, Maila; Caramelli, Paulo; Cardoso, Francisco; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    2006-09-01

    We report on a case of a 40 year-old man with Fahrs disease, defined by idiopathic bilateral basal ganglia calcification, who developed depressive disorder, motor and phonic tics, stereotyped behaviors such as punding and personality changes with significant social and familiar implications. We discuss about the psychopathology of Fahrs disease and the relevance of the basal ganglia in the determination of humans behavior.

  10. Implicit Processes, Self-Regulation, and Interventions for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Quinton, Tom; Brunton, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to regulate and subsequently change behavior is influenced by both reflective and implicit processes. Traditional theories have focused on conscious processes by highlighting the beliefs and intentions that influence decision making. However, their success in changing behavior has been modest with a gap between intention and behavior apparent. Dual-process models have been recently applied to health psychology; with numerous models incorporating implicit processes that influence behavior as well as the more common conscious processes. Such implicit processes are theorized to govern behavior non-consciously. The article provides a commentary on motivational and volitional processes and how interventions have combined to attempt an increase in positive health behaviors. Following this, non-conscious processes are discussed in terms of their theoretical underpinning. The article will then highlight how these processes have been measured and will then discuss the different ways that the non-conscious and conscious may interact. The development of interventions manipulating both processes may well prove crucial in successfully altering behavior.

  11. State of the evidence regarding behavior change theories and strategies in nutrition counseling to facilitate health and food behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Joanne M; Reeves, Rebecca S; Keim, Kathryn S; Laquatra, Ida; Kellogg, Molly; Jortberg, Bonnie; Clark, Nicole A

    2010-06-01

    Behavior change theories and models, validated within the field of dietetics, offer systematic explanations for nutrition-related behavior change. They are integral to the nutrition care process, guiding nutrition assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation. The American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library Nutrition Counseling Workgroup conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature related to behavior change theories and strategies used in nutrition counseling. Two hundred fourteen articles were reviewed between July 2007 and March 2008, and 87 studies met the inclusion criteria. The workgroup systematically evaluated these articles and formulated conclusion statements and grades based upon the available evidence. Strong evidence exists to support the use of a combination of behavioral theory and cognitive behavioral theory, the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in facilitating modification of targeted dietary habits, weight, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors. Evidence is particularly strong in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving intensive, intermediate-duration (6 to 12 months) CBT, and long-term (>12 months duration) CBT targeting prevention or delay in onset of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Few studies have assessed the application of the transtheoretical model on nutrition-related behavior change. Little research was available documenting the effectiveness of nutrition counseling utilizing social cognitive theory. Motivational interviewing was shown to be a highly effective counseling strategy, particularly when combined with CBT. Strong evidence substantiates the effectiveness of self-monitoring and meal replacements and/or structured meal plans. Compelling evidence exists to demonstrate that financial reward strategies are not effective. Goal setting, problem solving, and social support are effective strategies, but additional research is needed in more diverse populations. Routine documentation

  12. Has microblogging changed stock market behavior? Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi; Shen, Dehua; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the stock market behavior for a long-lived subset of firms in Shanghai and Shenzhen CSI 300 Index (CSI 300 Index) both before and after the establishment of firms' Microblogging in Sina Weibo. The empirical results show a significant increase in the relative trading volume as well as the decreases in the daily expected stock return and firm-level volatility in the post-Sina Weibo period. These findings suggest that Sina Weibo as an alternative information interaction channel has changed the information environment for individual stock, enhanced the speed of information diffusion and therefore changed the overall stock market behavior.

  13. A Brief Review of the Usefulness of "The Health Behavior Theory" in Changing Human Health Behavior for Good

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Eating, physical acting and resting behavior is considered as important health behavior to promote our health level. Several health behavior theories have been developed applying to change our health behaviors for good in counseling, health education and action programs. There are three types of health behavior theory, mainly utilizing to person, mainly applying to group and to population. The stages of behavior change theory is useful for groups as well as for people in health counseling, in...

  14. Barriers to lifestyle behavioral change in migrant South Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mihir; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to describe and assess the cultural barriers to behavior change in migrant South Asians, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in this population. We reviewed studies that explored the relationship between South Asian culture in the Diaspora and lifestyle behaviors. Our review produced 91 studies, of which 25 discussed the relationship between various aspects of South Asians' belief system and their approach to modifying lifestyle habits. We identify 6 specific categories of beliefs which play the largest role in the difficulties South Asians describe with behavior change: gender roles, body image, physical activity misconceptions, cultural priorities, cultural identity, and explanatory model of disease. Future research and interventions should account for these cultural factors to successfully improve dietary habits and physical activity levels in migrant South Asian populations.

  15. Hemiballismus, Hyperphagia, and Behavioral Changes following Subthalamic Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Etemadifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of subthalamic nucleus (STN which is a part of the basal ganglia system is not clear, but it is hypothesized that this component might be involved in action selection. Unilateral damage to STN, which can commonly occur due to the small vessel stroke mainly, causes hemiballismus and sometimes hemichorea-hemiballismus. This paper deals with a 60-year-old patient with sudden onset of abnormal movements in his right limbs. He had increased appetite and hyperphagia and also developed mood and behavioral changes (aggressiveness, irritability, anxiety, and sometimes obscene speech. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarct area in left subthalamus. In our case, hemiballismus is caused by infarction in left subthalamic area. Occurrence of irritability, anxiety, and some behavioral changes such as aggressiveness and obscene speech can be explained by impairment of STN role in nonmotor behavior and cognitive function as a result of infarct.

  16. Help Preferences among Employees Who Wish to Change Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard; Villadsen, Ebbe; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the help preferences of employees in the Danish police who had acknowledged that they wished to change health behaviors. In addition, we explored whether preferences varied with age, gender, chronic health concerns, positive expectations of good health, and past experiences of in-house health promotion services (i.e.,…

  17. The Limiting Behavior for Observations That Change with Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuyun WANG; Zhengyan LIN

    2007-01-01

    Consider a system where units have random magnitude entering according to a homogeneous or nonhomogeneous Poisson process, while in the system, a unit's magnitude may change with time. In this paper, the authors obtain some results for the limiting behavior of the sum process of all unit magnitudes present in the system at time t.

  18. Anger Management Program Participants Gain Behavioral Changes in Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pish, Suzanne; Clark-Jones, Teresa; Eschbach, Cheryl; Tiret, Holly

    2016-01-01

    RELAX: Alternatives to Anger is an educational anger management program that helps adults understand and manage anger, develop communication skills, manage stress, and make positive behavioral changes in their interpersonal relationships. A sample of 1,168 evaluation surveys were collected from RELAX: Alternatives to Anger participants over 3…

  19. Religion Does Matter for Climate Change Attitudes and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mark; Duncan, Roderick; Parton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on the relationship between religion and climate change attitudes and behavior. Further, while there have been some studies examining the relationship between environmental attitudes and religion, most are focused on Christian denominations and secularism, and few have examined other religions such as Buddhism. Using an online survey of 1,927 Australians we examined links between membership of four religious groupings (Buddhists, Christian literalists and non-literalists, and Secularists) and climate change attitudes and behaviors. Differences were found across religious groups in terms of their belief in: (a) human induced climate change, (b) the level of consensus among scientists, (c) their own efficacy, and (d) the need for policy responses. We show, using ordinal regression, that religion explains these differences even after taking into account socio-demographic factors, knowledge and environmental attitude, including belief in man's dominion over nature. Differences in attitude and behavior between these religious groups suggest the importance of engaging denominations to encourage change in attitudes and behavior among their members.

  20. Social Integration and Health Behavioral Change in San Luis, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuestion, Michael J.; Calle, Ana Quijano; Drasbek, Christopher; Harkins, Thomas; Sagastume, Lourdes J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effects of social integration on behavioral change in the course of an intensive, community-based public health intervention. The intervention trained volunteers and mobilized local organizations to promote 16 key family health practices in rural San Luis, Honduras, during 2004 to 2006. A mixed methods approach is used.…

  1. Social gaming rules: Changing people's behavior through games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegt, N.J.H.; Visch, V.T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose an approach towards designing social games or game elements for changing people’s social behavior for serious applications. We use the concept of the magic circle, which outlines the experience of a game world as different from the real world. We can design a connection betw

  2. Design for healthy behavior: design interventions and stages of change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, Geke D.S.; Hekkert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Designers have increasingly used the capacity of design to influence human behavior and consequently to address the challenges that our society faces. One of these challenges is the rise of ‘lifestyle diseases’, such as obesity and diabetes. A change towards a more healthy lifestyle could in many ca

  3. Information acquisition and behavioral change: a social marketing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, L L; Johnson, K

    1991-01-01

    Previous literature provides insight into the importance of beliefs and other intrapersonal variables for health-related information acquisition and behavioral change. The results of an empirical investigation evidence the unique strength of the role of core health beliefs for each of the multi-level measures. Directions for the development of effective marketing strategy are discussed.

  4. Ethical Theories for Promoting Health through Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Janelle K.; Price, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments based on the philosophies of natural law, utilitarianism, paternalism, and distributive justice are examined for their pertinence to health behavior change strategies. Health educators should prepare individuals to make health-generating decisions but may need to limit the conditions under which they intervene. (Author/PP)

  5. Energy Challenges: Isolating Results Due to Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Kelly; Pallant, Eric; Bradshaw-Wilson, Casey; Choate, Beth; Carbone, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Approximately 700 colleges and universities have committed to climate neutrality, which will require significant reductions in energy consumption. This paper aims to explore the effectiveness of an Annual Energy Challenge in curtailing electricity use by changing consumption behaviors at one liberal arts college.…

  6. Changing Climate, Changing Behavior: Adaptive Economic Behavior and Housing Markets Responses to Flood Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatova, Tatiana; Bin, Okmyung; Kaminski, Bogumil; Koloch, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Spatial econometrics and analytical spatial economic modeling advanced significantly in the recent years. Yet, methodologically they are designed to tackle marginal changes in the underlying dynamics of spatial urban systems. In the world with climate change, however, abrupt sudden non-marginal chan

  7. Context change explains resurgence after the extinction of operant behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Sydney; Schepers, Scott T.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Extinguished operant behavior can return or “resurge” when a response that has replaced it is also extinguished. Typically studied in nonhuman animals, the resurgence effect may provide insight into relapse that is seen when reinforcement is discontinued following human contingency management (CM) and functional communication training (FCT) treatments, which both involve reinforcing alternative behaviors to reduce behavioral excess. Although the variables that affect resurgence have been studied for some time, the mechanisms through which they promote relapse are still debated. We discuss three explanations of resurgence (response prevention, an extension of behavioral momentum theory, and an account emphasizing context change) as well as studies that evaluate them. Several new findings from our laboratory concerning the effects of different temporal distributions of the reinforcer during response elimination and the effects of manipulating qualitative features of the reinforcer pose a particular challenge to the momentum-based model. Overall, the results are consistent with a contextual account of resurgence, which emphasizes that reinforcers presented during response elimination have a discriminative role controlling behavioral inhibition. Changing the “reinforcer context” at the start of testing produces relapse if the organism has not learned to suppress its responding under conditions similar to the ones that prevail during testing. PMID:27429503

  8. Validation of Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Ramirez, Leivy Patricia; De la Roca-Chiapas, Jose Maria; Colunga-Rodriguez, Cecilia; Preciado-Serrano, Maria de Lourdes; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Pedroza-Cabrera, Francisco Javier; Martinez-Arriaga, Reyna Jazmin

    2017-01-01

    Background The transtheoretical model (TTM) has been widely used to promote healthy behaviors in different groups. However, a questionnaire has not yet been developed to evaluate the health behaviors that medical practitioners often consider in individuals with cancer or at a high risk of developing cancer. Purpose The aim of this study was to construct and validate the Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire (HBSCQ), which is based on the TTM and health recommendations related to risk and factors that protect against cancer. Methods Content validity was conducted in two phases (qualitative and quantitative). Item difficulty index, item discrimination index, and discrimination coefficient were obtained based on the classical test theory. Finally, Cronbach’s alpha was used. Results Measure of concordance showed scores considered adequate and excellent. The item discrimination index obtained a rating of “excellent” and suggested the preservation of all items. The discrimination coefficient scores are >0.74. The global internal consistency of the HBSCQ was 0.384. HBSCQ specification between groups of internal consistency for the sample of men was 0.712 and that for the sample of women was 0.378. Conclusion/implications for practice The HBSCQ represents a proposal for a fast, simple, and innovative screening test, which aims to identify persons who may benefit from interventions to promote health behaviors delimited to the stage of change. PMID:28356769

  9. HESS Opinions: Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Schymanski

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that there are universal and time-invariant organizing principles that can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. These organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  10. Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schaefli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that these universal and time-invariant organizing principles can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. The organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  11. Motivating Treatment Seeking and Behavior Change by Untreated Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    people struggling with, but ambiva- lent about changing, high risk behavior, e.g., adults and teens with marijuana use disorders (Stephens, Roffman...Fearer, Williams, Picciano, & Burke, 2004; Walker et al., 2011), gay and bisexual men engaging in risky sexual be- havior (Picciano, Roffman, Kalichman...itary populations, particularly for addressing highly stig- matized topics such as substance abuse, PTSD, suicide, and military sexual trauma

  12. Collapsibility and Volume Change Behavior of Unsaturated Residual Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azalan A. Aziz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual soils occur in most countries of the world but the greater areas and depths are normally found in tropical humid areas. In these places, the soil forming processes are still very active and the weathering development is much faster than the erosive factor. Most residual soil exhibit high suctions for most of the year. The absence of positive pore water pressure except immediately after rain, makes conventional soil mechanics for saturated soil not so relevant. Ignorance or lack of understanding of the geotechnical behavior of soil in the partially or unsaturated state has caused a lot of damages to infrastructures, buildings and other structures. For instance, the collapsibility and volume change of partially saturated soils in connection with the drying or wetting causes a lot of damage in foundation, roads and other structures. It is also observed that many shallow slope failures involve a slumping (collapse type of failure. As such, the development of extended soil mechanics, which embraces the soil in the unsaturated state or subjected to soil suction, is essential. This study examines the collapsibility and volume change behavior specifically of an unsaturated residual soil under various levels of applied matric suction (ua-uw and net mean stress (σ-ua in a predetermined stress path. The volume change of the soil is found to be sensitive to both the applied matric suction and net mean stress. The soil is found to exhibit a collapsibility behavior upon a reduction in applied matric suction at constant net mean stress.

  13. Behavioral changes in female Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Ferreira de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the anthropic activities generating potentially toxic residues are those involved with bovine hide processing (tannery industries. However, knowledge is scant regarding the damage caused to the health of various organisms by tannery waste and studies are rare, especially in mammalian experimental models. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the physical and behavioral effects of the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluent. To accomplish this, for a period of 15 days the animals were fed tannery effluent diluted with water in the following concentrations: 0% (control group, received only potable water, 5% and 10%. The body mass of the animals was evaluated at the beginning and end of the experiment, as well as the daily consumption of water and food. After 15 days of exposure to the effluent, the animals were submitted to the elevated plus maze (predictive of anxiety and the forced swim test (predictive of depression. The treatments did not affect the animals' body mass, either in eating behavior or in consumption of water. However, it was found that the animals that ingested tannery effluent concentrations of 5% and 10% exhibited an anxiolytic (lower level of anxiety, greater percentage of time in the open arms, longer time and frequency in the diving behavior, less time of lurks and less frequency of freezing and an antidepressant effect (more time in climbing behavior and less time of immobility when compared to the control group. It was concluded that the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluents (5% and 10% diluted with water causes behavioral changes, possibly related to the neurotoxicity of this waste, without causing physical changes in the animals.

  14. Fertility and marriage behavior in Israel: Diversity, change, and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Okun

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Based on aggregate statistics, the population of Israel, as compared to all or most other developed societies, has very high levels of fertility and marriage (e.g. TFR of 2.96 in 2009 and only 9.7Š never married among women aged 40-44 in 2009. However, studying aggregate demographic measures is problematic, because Israel is an extremely heterogeneous society, with family formation patterns differing greatly across numerically important social groups. Until now, little has been documented about the basic fertility and marriage behavior of different population groups. OBJECTIVE We describe the fertility and marriage behavior of populations in Israel, broken down by nationality, religion, religiosity and nativity-status. Although our main focus is on a detailed presentation of fertility patterns, we also look at marriage behavior, as it is closely related to fertility in Israel. METHODS We analyze recently available annual data from the Israel Social Surveys for 2002-2009, which, for the first time in several decades,, provides detailed information on family and household demographic behavior and direct information on level of religiosity. We focus primarily on comparisons across cohorts born from the late 1940s to the late 1960s and between periods in the early and late 2000s. RESULTS We provide a detailed portrait of striking diversity in fertility and marriage behavior across population groups, along with important patterns of change and stability across cohorts and over time. We document findings and differential patterns, some unexpected, regarding comparisons across groups and across cohorts. CONCLUSIONS The descriptive findings form the basis for a clearer understanding of fertility and marriage patterns in different population subgroups in Israel. In addition, the reported results suggest many questions for future research, which are outlined in the paper.

  15. Understanding and Promoting Effective Engagement With Digital Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Lucy; Spring, Bonnie J; Riper, Heleen; Morrison, Leanne G; Crane, David H; Curtis, Kristina; Merchant, Gina C; Naughton, Felix; Blandford, Ann

    2016-11-01

    This paper is one in a series developed through a process of expert consensus to provide an overview of questions of current importance in research into engagement with digital behavior change interventions, identifying guidance based on research to date and priority topics for future research. The first part of this paper critically reflects on current approaches to conceptualizing and measuring engagement. Next, issues relevant to promoting effective engagement are discussed, including how best to tailor to individual needs and combine digital and human support. A key conclusion with regard to conceptualizing engagement is that it is important to understand the relationship between engagement with the digital intervention and the desired behavior change. This paper argues that it may be more valuable to establish and promote "effective engagement," rather than simply more engagement, with "effective engagement" defined empirically as sufficient engagement with the intervention to achieve intended outcomes. Appraisal of the value and limitations of methods of assessing different aspects of engagement highlights the need to identify valid and efficient combinations of measures to develop and test multidimensional models of engagement. The final section of the paper reflects on how interventions can be designed to fit the user and their specific needs and context. Despite many unresolved questions posed by novel and rapidly changing technologies, there is widespread consensus that successful intervention design demands a user-centered and iterative approach to development, using mixed methods and in-depth qualitative research to progressively refine the intervention to meet user requirements.

  16. Can We Really Get our Patients to Change Unhealthy Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    behavior shaped by reinforcement or lack of it Basis for all behavior modification Positive Reinforcement – strengthen behavior Negative...behaviors, consequences Positive Reinforcement : Compliments, approval, encouragement Affirmation: 5 compliments to every 1 complaint Extinction

  17. eHealth Applications Promising Strategies for Behavior Change

    CERN Document Server

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-01-01

    eHealth Applications: Promising Strategies for Behavior Change provides an overview of technological applications in contemporary health communication research, exploring the history and current uses of eHealth applications in disease prevention and management. This volume focuses on the use of these technology-based interventions for public health promotion and explores the rapid growth of an innovative interdisciplinary field. The chapters in this work discuss key eHealth applications by presenting research examining a variety of technology-based applications. Authors Seth M. Noar and Nancy

  18. Changing behavior: evidence based practice supporting hair removal with clippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Evidence based practice demonstrates using clippers immediately before surgery, when perioperative hair removal is necessary, results in the fewest surgical site infections (Kjonniksen, Andersen, Sondenaa, & Segadal, 2002). In addition, one of The Joint Commission's national patient safety goals for 2008 is "to reduce the risk of healthcare associated infections" (The Joint Commission, 2008, Goal 7). Therefore, a project was undertaken to change perioperative nursing care in a large teaching hospital from using razors for hair removal in the perioperative setting to using clippers. Change is difficult and encompasses many interdisciplinary areas. A description of the process of utilizing evidence to change behavior in the perioperative setting and its outcomes will be provided in this paper. Klevens, et al., (2007) reported that 22% of healthcare associated infections were the result of surgical site infections (SSIs). Changing practice to utilizing clippers for hair removal is an extrinsic factor of SSIs that can be easily modified. Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) patients that require hair removal before surgery (i.e., acoustic neuroma, cranial-facial resections, and head and neck reconstruction) may benefit from this change in practice. Perioperative nurses are in a prime position to reduce the incidence of SSIs in ORL patients.

  19. Characterizing Behavioral and Brain Changes Associated with Practicing Reasoning Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson P Mackey

    Full Text Available We have reported previously that intensive preparation for a standardized test that taxes reasoning leads to changes in structural and functional connectivity within the frontoparietal network. Here, we investigated whether reasoning instruction transfers to improvement on unpracticed tests of reasoning, and whether these improvements are associated with changes in neural recruitment during reasoning task performance. We found behavioral evidence for transfer to a transitive inference task, but no evidence for transfer to a rule generation task. Across both tasks, we observed reduced lateral prefrontal activation in the trained group relative to the control group, consistent with other studies of practice-related changes in brain activation. In the transitive inference task, we observed enhanced suppression of task-negative, or default-mode, regions, consistent with work suggesting that better cognitive skills are associated with more efficient switching between networks. In the rule generation task, we found a pattern consistent with a training-related shift in the balance between phonological and visuospatial processing. Broadly, we discuss general methodological considerations related to the analysis and interpretation of training-related changes in brain activation. In summary, we present preliminary evidence for changes in brain activation associated with practice of high-level cognitive skills.

  20. Spreading the Eco-Message: Using Proactive Coping to Aid Eco-Rep Behavior Change Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Zawadzki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Making pro-environmental behavior changes can be difficult, particularly when these changes challenge daily routines and comfortable lifestyles. We designed and implemented an eco-representative intervention program to help students reduce their energy use by proactively coping with barriers to pro-environmental behavior change, and then communicate effective behavior change strategies to student peers. Twenty-nine first-year college students participated in a four-week proactive coping training to change five environmentally impactful behaviors and then spread behavior change messages to fellow residents during a two-week energy challenge. Eco-reps successfully changed their own behaviors in a pro-environmental direction by generating important barriers and successful facilitators for behavior change, and eco-rep residence halls were more likely to reduce energy and maintain reductions compared to non-eco-rep halls. Implications for future environmental behavior change interventions are discussed.

  1. Sensory Systems and Environmental Change on Behavior during Social Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bierbower

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental conditions for transmitting sensory cues and the ability of crayfish to utilize olfaction and vision were examined in regards to social interactive behavior. The duration and intensity of interactions were examined for conspecific crayfish with different sensory abilities. Normally, vision and chemosensory have roles in agonistic communication of Procambarus clarkii; however, for the blind cave crayfish (Orconectes australis packardi, that lack visual capabilities, olfaction is assumed to be the primary sensory modality. To test this, we paired conspecifics in water and out of water in the presence and absence of white light to examine interactive behaviors when these various sensory modalities are altered. For sighted crayfish, in white light, interactions occurred and escalated; however, when the water was removed, interactions and aggressiveness decreased, but, there was an increase in visual displays out of the water. The loss of olfaction abilities for blind cave and sighted crayfish produced fewer social interactions. The importance of environmental conditions is illustrated for social interactions among sighted and blind crayfish. Importantly, this study shows the relevance in the ecological arena in nature for species survival and how environmental changes disrupt innate behaviors.

  2. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gerjo, E-mail: g.kok@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Lo, Siu Hing, E-mail: siu-hing.lo@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y., E-mail: gj.peters@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Ruiter, Robert A.C., E-mail: r.ruiter@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: > Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.> IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. > IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. > IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. > IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  3. Development and validation of a questionnaire to detect behavior change in multiple advance care planning behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Sudore

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Advance directives have traditionally been considered the gold standard for advance care planning. However, recent evidence suggests that advance care planning involves a series of multiple discrete behaviors for which people are in varying stages of behavior change. The goal of our study was to develop and validate a survey to measure the full advance care planning process. METHODS: The Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey assesses "Process Measures" of factors known from Behavior Change Theory to affect behavior (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness, using 5-point Likert scales and "Action Measures" (yes/no of multiple behaviors related to surrogate decision makers, values and quality of life, flexibility for surrogate decision making, and informed decision making. We administered surveys at baseline and 1 week later to 50 diverse, older adults from San Francisco hospitals. Internal consistency reliability of Process Measures was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (only continuous variables and test-retest reliability of Process and Action Measures was examined using intraclass correlations. For discriminant validity, we compared Process and Action Measure scores between this cohort and 20 healthy college students (mean age 23.2 years, SD 2.7. RESULTS: Mean age was 69.3 (SD 10.5 and 42% were non-White. The survey took a mean of 21.4 minutes (±6.2 to administer. The survey had good internal consistency (Process Measures Cronbach's alpha, 0.94 and test-retest reliability (Process Measures intraclass correlation, 0.70; Action Measures, 0.87. Both Process and Action Measure scores were higher in the older than younger group, p<.001. CONCLUSION: A new Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey that measures behavior change (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness and multiple advance care planning actions demonstrates good reliability and validity. Further research is needed to assess whether survey

  4. Neuroimaging mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for addictive behaviors: emerging translational approaches that bridge biology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Chung, Tammy

    2013-06-01

    Research on mechanisms of behavior change provides an innovative method to improve treatment for addictive behaviors. An important extension of mechanisms of change research involves the use of translational approaches, which examine how basic biological (i.e., brain-based mechanisms) and behavioral factors interact in initiating and sustaining positive behavior change as a result of psychotherapy. Articles in this special issue include integrative conceptual reviews and innovative empirical research on brain-based mechanisms that may underlie risk for addictive behaviors and response to psychotherapy from adolescence through adulthood. Review articles discuss hypothesized mechanisms of change for cognitive and behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based interventions, and neuroeconomic approaches. Empirical articles cover a range of addictive behaviors, including use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and pathological gambling and represent a variety of imaging approaches including fMRI, magneto-encephalography, real-time fMRI, and diffusion tensor imaging. Additionally, a few empirical studies directly examine brain-based mechanisms of change, whereas others examine brain-based indicators as predictors of treatment outcome. Finally, two commentaries discuss craving as a core feature of addiction, and the importance of a developmental approach to examining mechanisms of change. Ultimately, translational research on mechanisms of behavior change holds promise for increasing understanding of how psychotherapy may modify brain structure and functioning and facilitate the initiation and maintenance of positive treatment outcomes for addictive behaviors.

  5. Changes in Pilot Behavior with Predictive System Status Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1998-01-01

    Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, changes in pilot behavior associated with using this predictive information have not been ascertained. The study described here quantified these changes using three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and three initial time intervals until a parameter alert range was reached (ITIs) (1 minute, 5 minutes, and 15 minutes). With predictive information, subjects accomplished most of their tasks before an alert occurred. Subjects organized the time they did their tasks by locus-of-control with no predictive information and for the 1-minute ITI, and by aviatenavigate-communicate for the time for a parameter to reach an alert range and the 15-minute conditions. Overall, predictive information and the longer ITIs moved subjects to performing tasks before the alert actually occurred and had them more mission oriented as indicated by their tasks grouping of aviate-navigate-communicate.

  6. Changes in Thai sexual behavior lower HIV spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-02

    More than 700,000 people are thought to be HIV positive in Thailand. A booming sex industry and social attitudes which support the male patronage of prostitutes are major factors in the spread of disease in the country. A 4-day workshop on sexual behavior and AIDS in Thailand was attended by representatives from Burma, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. According to the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the percentage of military conscripts in northern Thailand who visited a brothel in the past year fell from 58% in 1991 to 23% in 1995, while the percentage of recruits using condoms during their most recent brothel visits increased from 60% to 90% over the same period. Statistics from the Thai Public Health Ministry indicate that the percentage of men in the general population who used condoms when visiting a brothel increased from 40% in 1990 to 90% in 1994. Furthermore, a nationwide survey among military conscripts found the prevalence of HIV infection fell from 3.7% in 1993 to 2.5% in 1995, with the downward trend continuing in 1996. This success in reducing the level of sexual risk behavior and the incidence of HIV infection in Thailand lends hope for the possibility of changing the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic elsewhere.

  7. HURRICANE CHANGES: EXAMINING ENHANCED MOTIVATION TO CHANGE DRUG USING BEHAVIORS AMONG KATRINA EVACUEES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio, Nelson Jose; Twiggs, Robert; Dunlap, Eloise E.

    2010-01-01

    Substance use disorders are credited with greater amounts of death and illness than all other preventable health problems. Billions of dollars are spent on efforts to control drug supplies and fund various treatment approaches, but relatively little resources have been directed towards investigating how environmental conditions can contribute to or detract from substance user’s individual motivation to change behavior. Hurricane Katrina caused untold property damage and upheaval, in addition to the vast numbers of people whose lives it drastically affected. This article examines how surviving this ordeal, subsequent evacuation, and eventual resettlement in New Orleans or re-location to a different city (in this case, Houston) impacted individuals’ motivation to change their substance use patterns and behaviors. This article’s approach is grounded in the values of the social work profession and examines: 1) the role of life events in motivating change of substance using behaviors in the absence of formal treatment interventions; and 2) participant resilience in overcoming the adversities inherent to this disaster. PMID:21852981

  8. Dynamic brain mapping of behavior change: tracking response initiation and inhibition to changes in reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlund, Michael W; Magee, Sandy; Hudgins, Caleb D

    2012-10-01

    Adaptive behavior change is supported by executive control processes distributed throughout a prefrontal-striatal-parietal network. Yet, the temporal dynamics of regions in the network have not been characterized. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tracked changes brain activation while subjects initiated and inhibited responding in accordance with changes in reinforcement rate. During imaging, subjects completed a free-operant task that involved repeated transitions between fixed-ratio reinforcement and extinction (RF:EXT), where reinforcement rate decreased and responding was inhibited, and between extinction and fixed-ratio reinforcement (EXT:RF), where reinforcement rate increased and responding was initiated. Our whole-brain temporal assessment revealed that transitions which required initiating and inhibiting responding prompted positive phasic responses in a prefrontal-parietal network, the insula and thalamus. However, response initiation prompted by an increase in reinforcement rate during the EXT:RF transition elicited positive phasic responses in reward-sensitive striatal regions. Furthermore, response inhibition prompted by a decrease in reinforcement rate during the RF:EXT transition elicited negative phasic responses in ventral frontal regions sensitive to value and contingency. Our findings highlight the temporal dynamics of a brain network that supports behavioral changes (initiation and inhibition) resulting from changes in local reinforcement rates.

  9. Designing Serious Video Games for Health Behavior Change: Current Status and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player’s knowledge and skill, ways in which per...

  10. Evidence that implementation intentions reduce drivers' speeding behavior: testing a new intervention to change driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Sarah E; Elliott, Mark A; Kelly, Steve W

    2015-01-01

    Implementation intentions have the potential to break unwanted habits and help individuals behave in line with their goal intentions. We tested the effects of implementation intentions in the context of drivers' speeding behavior. A randomized controlled design was used. Speeding behavior, goal intentions and theoretically derived motivational pre-cursors of goal intentions were measured at both baseline and follow-up (one month later) using self-report questionnaires. Immediately following the baseline questionnaire, the experimental (intervention) group (N=117) specified implementation intentions using a volitional help sheet, which required the participants to link critical situations in which they were tempted to speed with goal-directed responses to resist the temptation. The control group (N=126) instead received general information about the risks of speeding. In support of the hypotheses, the experimental group reported exceeding the speed limit significantly less often at follow-up than did the control group. This effect was specific to 'inclined abstainers' (i.e., participants who reported speeding more than they intended to at baseline and were therefore motivated to reduce their speeding) and could not be attributed to any changes in goal intentions to speed or any other measured motivational construct. Also in line with the hypotheses, implementation intentions attenuated the past-subsequent speeding behavior relationship and augmented the goal intention - subsequent speeding behavior relationship. The findings imply that implementation intentions are effective at reducing speeding and that they do so by weakening the effect of habit, thereby helping drivers to behave in accordance with their existing goal intentions. The volitional help sheet used in this study is an effective tool for promoting implementation intentions to reduce speeding.

  11. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  12. Understanding change in recycling and littering behavior across a school social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2014-06-01

    Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior.

  13. So much data, so little time: Using sequential data analysis to monitor behavioral changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tywanquila

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three infants (M = 13.7 months, SD = 3.73) and their primary caregivers were observed and video-taped in three 20-min play sessions. Over the course of a month, changes in infant behaviors and caregiver responsiveness to those behaviors were monitored. Repeated-measures ANOVAs indicated that caregiver responsiveness to infant object-related and dyadic behaviors significantly increased over the course of the sessions. However, the ANOVAs did not specify exactly which caregiver behaviors changed. Sequential data analysis revealed that caregivers specifically increased their use of dyadic vocal behaviors in response to all infant behaviors. This study reveals that although ANOVAs are useful for providing information about macro, overall changes in caregiver behavior, sequential data analysis is a useful tool for evaluating micro, moment-to-moment changes in behavior. With sequential analysis, specific behavioral patterns can be examined and, if necessary, steps can be taken to modify and monitor those behaviors over time. •Sequential data analysis was used to monitor changes in caregiver behavior.•Non-culture-specific behavioral codes and techniques were used to quantify caregiver responsiveness to infant object-related and dyadic behaviors.•When compared to ANOVA, sequential data analysis is more useful for assessing micro-level behavioral changes in infant-caregiver interactions.

  14. Non-occupational sedentary behaviors: Population changes in the Netherlands, 1975-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, H.P. van der; Venugopal, K.; Chau, J.Y.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Breedveld, K.; Merom, D.; Bauman, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence is accumulating that sedentary behaviors have detrimental health effects. Comprehensive data on population changes in various sedentary behaviors over time are scarce. Purpose: This study aimed to determine changes in non-occupational sedentary behaviors in the Dutch adult popul

  15. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  16. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: Current status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of o...

  17. Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Change in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…

  18. Changes in marriage and fertility behavior. Behavior versus attitudes of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K A; Stief, T M

    1991-03-01

    Hoping to determine whether recent changes in marriage and fertility behavior are simply temporary or more permanent, the attitudes and values of young adults were compared to the recent trends. The data come from the 1987 wave of the National Survey of Children, which has tracked a nationally representative sample of young people since 1976. The following behaviors and their corresponding attitudes are discussed: sexual activity, pregnancy, nonmarital childbearing, abortion, marriage and cohabitation, and divorce. Also considered are how blacks and whites differ in their behavior and attitudes. Since the 1970s, the incidence of premarital intercourse has increased substantially among adolescents and has resulted in a rise in the pregnancy rate. Adolescents strongly disapprove of sexual activity among younger teens, but accept it for older adolescents. Nonmarital childbearing increased by about 50% from 1970 to 1987. Adolescents, however, generally hold negative attitudes toward adolescent pregnancy, and the majority of sexually experienced teens report wanting to avoid pregnancy. In 1985, over 40% of teens who became pregnant obtained an abortion. Adolescents are divided on the acceptability of abortion -- except in instances of rape, in which case most accept abortion. Young adults strongly favor delayed marriage and oppose divorce, feeling that couples should not get married unless they intend to stay together for life. About 1/2 of young adults approve of cohabitation and only 1/5 are opposed to nonmarital childbearing. Based on the policy implications of the findings, it is concluded that the attitudes and values of young adults do not reflect the demise of the family, as has been predicted.

  19. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.

  20. Impact of Leader’s Change-Promoting Behavior on Readiness for Change: A Mediating Role of Organizational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahnawaz Adil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the leader’s change-promoting behavior on employee’s readiness for change and whether the organizational culture mediates this relationship. A sample of 205 responses is drawn from employees having junior or senior level of managerial responsibilities in Karachi. The method of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses is employed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the measurement model. The structural equation modeling method was then applied to examine the theoretical framework with the help of seven frequently reported goodness-of-fit indices. The results indicate that leader’s change-promoting behavior has a significant positive impact on change readiness and the organizational culture partially mediates the positive relationship between the leader’s change-promoting behavior and change readiness. The present study supports the theory of one of the six conceptual formations of change readiness that it is reflected as employee’s capacity to change. Therefore, managers should clearly advocate the desired change with the help of their own change-prompting behavior as well as establishing a trusting culture in their organization. Future studies may ascertain the impact of employees’ readiness for change in their commitment to change in the context of Pakistan which could further lead to passive or active change-related behaviors.

  1. Cognitive changes in cardiovascular patients following a tailored behavioral smoking cessation intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, FJ; Dijkstra, A; de Haes, JCJM; Legemate, DA; Smets, EMA

    2005-01-01

    Background. Action aimed at changing smoking behavior to prevent cardiovascular patients from further impairing their health is advisable. Cognitive behavioral interventions can be effective in this regard since they attempt to influence cognitive determinants that presumably lead to smoking cessati

  2. Change leadership behaviors to change performance results: the foundation of top customer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Stephanie G

    2002-01-01

    Raising customer satisfaction in health-care organizations has been a priority for the past 5 years or more. Articles and books continue to be written on the topic and speeches and presentations are given to eager audiences of professionals who have a deep desire to improve customer satisfaction. Yet research indicates that customer satisfaction, on average, in the health-care industry barely has improved. This column will examine why some organizations, using the same best practice techniques and approaches for top customer satisfaction, achieve wonderful results as most others achieve meager results, at best. The answer to achieving top customer satisfaction lies in the leadership of the organization. When leaders change their thinking and behaviors, results will change.

  3. Granular flow behavior at sharp changes in slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni; De Blasio, Fabio; Locatelli, Michele

    2015-04-01

    This study extends some recent experiments and analyses performed by the authors to examine the behavior of granular flows along path characterised by sharp changes in slope. In particular, various series of experiments along a bi-linear broken slope (an inclined initial sector followed by a horizontal one) have been completed using a uniform (Hostun, 0.32 mm) sand and a uniform fine gravel (2 mm grains). 60 new have been performed by releasing different volumes (1.5, 2.1 and 5.1 L) on surfaces characterized by different slope angles (35-60°), type of materials (wood and plexiglass), with or without an erodible layer (sand), or in presence of a shallow water pond (0.5 cm). These geometrical features are typical of many large rock and snow avalanches, rock falls and of chalk flows. The latter are usually typical of coastal cliffs where a shallow water environment is typical. The evolution of the flow has been monitored through a laser profilometer at 120 Hz sampling frequency and high speed camera, and in this way it has been possible to follow the evolution of the flow and deposition, and to analyse the change in deposition mode at varying the slope angle, the material and the basal friction. This is an extremely interesting development in the study of the evolution of the deposition and of the final morphology typical of such phenomena, and can support the testing of numerical models. Propagation and deposition occur forward or backward accordingly to the slope angle and the basal friction. Forward movement and deposition occur at high slope angles and with low basal friction. The opposite is true for the backward deposition. The internal "layering" within the deposit is also strongly controlled by the combination of such parameters. The time evolution of the flow allowed to determine the velocity of flow and the mode of deposition through the analysis of the change in thickness, position of the front and of the flow tail. Presence of water reduces the runout of

  4. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  5. Frequency, Clinical Correlates, and Ratings of Behavioral Changes in Primary Brain Tumor Patients: A Preliminary Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Grahame K.; Eng-Siew eKoh; Diane eWhiting; Wright, Kylie M.; Teresa eSimpson; Rochelle eFirth; Lauren eGillett; Kathryn eYounan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have addressed the specific behavioral changes associated with primary brain tumor (PBT). This paper will report on the frequency and demographic/clinical correlates of such behaviors, and the reliability of rating such behaviors among people with PBT, family informants, and clinicians. The association of behavioral changes and patient functional status will also be discussed. Methods A total of 57 patients with 37 family informants were recruited from two large...

  6. Cross-behavior associations and multiple health behavior change: A longitudinal study on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Küper, Carina; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf; Wiedemann, Amelie U

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the interrelation of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. The influence of stage congruence between physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake on multiple behavior change was also investigated. Health behaviors, social-cognitions, and stages of change were assessed in 2693 adults at two points in time. Physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed 4 weeks after the baseline. Social-cognitions, stages as well as stage transitions across behavior domains were positively interrelated. Stage congruence was not related to changes in physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. Physical activity and nutrition appear to facilitate rather than hinder each other. Having intentions to change both behaviors simultaneously does not seem to overburden individuals.

  7. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Breiter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion (LA, the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years, or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years. We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1 the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing, (2 its activation to both positive and negative stimuli, (3 its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations relative to approach responses (positive valuations with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  8. Behavioral effects of cyclic changes in serotonin during the human menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, D E; Tedford, W H; Flynn, W E

    1979-03-01

    Many cyclic changes during the menstrual cycle (temperature, depression, motor activity, pain sensitivity, etc.) are closely paralleled by changes in brain serotonin level. These changes, in turn, are associated with peripheral hormone levels which are comparatively regular and easily measured. Their measurement may be useful both in predicting behavior and in accounting for atypical menstrual-related behavior.

  9. Problem Internet Overuse Behaviors in College Students: Readiness-to-Change and Receptivity to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; Li, Wen; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores college students' readiness-to-change and receptivity to treatment for problem Internet overuse behaviors. Focus groups were conducted with 27 college students who self-identified as Internet over-users, and had experienced biopsychosocial problems related to Internet overuse. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing their Internet use and sociodemographic forms. Focus groups explored readiness to change problem Internet overuse behaviors and receptivity to treatment. Similar to college students with other addictive behaviors, students with problem Internet overuse fall along a continuum vis-à-vis readiness-to-change their behaviors. Over half of the participants were receptive to treatment for their problem Internet overuse behaviors.

  10. Behavioral change in longitudinal studies: adoption of condom use by homosexual/bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J G; Adib, S M; Koopman, J S; Ostrow, D G

    1990-12-01

    We compared reporting serial cross-sectional prevalence of sexual behavior over time, to reporting individual patterns of behavioral change in a cohort of homosexual men at a six-month interval. Aggregate prevalence rates underestimated the magnitude of change to safer practices, and failed to provide information on relapse to less safe practices. We conclude that it is important to report data based on individual fluctuations in behavior for the evaluation of change over time.

  11. Use of Motivational Interview Technique with Transtheoretical Model for Behavioral Change in Smoking Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Smoking addiction is an important problem and disease for public health. Researches show that transtheoretical model which is used as a guide to make behavior change easy is one of guide model which would provide that individuals would understand better the reasons of changing and/or not changing with motivational interviews focused on change steps and would make behavior change easy. The goal of this article is to present sample interview plans as to make core knowledge for researchers/nurse...

  12. Health behavior change among office workers: an exploratory study to prevent repetitive strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Els R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this evidence-based study is to investigate the impact of a multi-component intervention on health behavior change among office/computer workers in preventing repetitive strain injuries. Forty office workers employed in an administrative office in Michigan participated in this project. The subjects completed a comprehensive questionnaire at three different times in 1994 and 1995. The intervention took place between time 2 and time 3 and included posters, e-mail tips, mini-workshops, and activities of a Wellness Ergonomic Team. A theoretical model was tested to identify factors influencing healthy behaviors. Study findings revealed positive behavior change for 62% of the participants. The factors most strongly related to health behavior change appear to be self-efficacy, the intention to change one's behavior, and perceived health status. Better understanding of health behavior change coupled with ergonomic modifications is a significant step toward the prevention of repetitive strain injuries resulting from computer use.

  13. On their best behavior: how animal behavior can help determine the combined effects of species interactions and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jason P; Barton, Brandon T

    2013-09-01

    The increasingly appreciated link between climate change and species interactions has the potential to help us understand and predict how organisms respond to a changing environment. As this connection grows, it becomes even more important to appreciate the mechanisms that create and control the combined effect of these factors. However, we believe one such important set of mechanisms comes from species' behavior and the subsequent trait-mediated interactions, as opposed to the more often studied density-mediated effects. Behavioral mechanisms are already well appreciated for mitigating the separate effects of the environment and species interactions. Thus, they could be at the forefront for understanding the combined effects. In this review, we (1) show some of the known behaviors that influence the individual and combined effects of climate change and species interactions; (2) conceptualize general ways behavior may mediate these combined effects; and (3) illustrate the potential importance of including behavior in our current tools for predicting climate change effects. In doing so, we hope to promote more research on behavior and other mechanistic factors that may increase our ability to accurately predict climate change effects.

  14. Changing work, changing health: can real work-time flexibility promote health behaviors and well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L; Tranby, Eric; Huang, Qinlei

    2011-12-01

    This article investigates a change in the structuring of work time, using a natural experiment to test whether participation in a corporate initiative (Results Only Work Environment; ROWE) predicts corresponding changes in health-related outcomes. Drawing on job strain and stress process models, we theorize greater schedule control and reduced work-family conflict as key mechanisms linking this initiative with health outcomes. Longitudinal survey data from 659 employees at a corporate headquarters shows that ROWE predicts changes in health-related behaviors, including almost an extra hour of sleep on work nights. Increasing employees' schedule control and reducing their work-family conflict are key mechanisms linking the ROWE innovation with changes in employees' health behaviors; they also predict changes in well-being measures, providing indirect links between ROWE and well-being. This study demonstrates that organizational changes in the structuring of time can promote employee wellness, particularly in terms of prevention behaviors.

  15. Impact of social problem-solving training on aggressive boys: skill acquisition, behavior change, and generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevremont, D C; Foster, S L

    1993-02-01

    This study examined the impact of social problem-solving training on the behavior of five aggressive boys. Acquisition of problem-solving skills and changes in classroom behavior were evaluated using multiple-baseline designs within and across subjects. A generalization-programming procedure to promote the use of problem-solving skills in the natural environment was introduced across children in multiple-baseline fashion. Direct observation and behavior ratings were used to evaluate the treatment. Results indicated that each subject acquired the problem-solving skills at levels comparable to well-adjusted peers. Only one child showed behavioral improvement coincident with problem-solving skill acquisition. Three others showed moderate behavior change after the generalization-programming procedure was introduced. Only one child's gains on teacher ratings were maintained at the 6-month followup. The results suggest that cognitive-behavioral treatment of childrens' aggressive behavior may produce changes of limited magnitude and durability.

  16. Gamification: what it is and why it matters to digital health behavior change developers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugelman, Brian

    2013-12-12

    This editorial provides a behavioral science view on gamification and health behavior change, describes its principles and mechanisms, and reviews some of the evidence for its efficacy. Furthermore, this editorial explores the relation between gamification and behavior change frameworks used in the health sciences and shows how gamification principles are closely related to principles that have been proven to work in health behavior change technology. Finally, this editorial provides criteria that can be used to assess when gamification provides a potentially promising framework for digital health interventions.

  17. The influence of behavior preceding a reinforced response on behavior change in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdin, A E

    1977-01-01

    The influence of behavior that immediately precedes a reinforced target response on the effectiveness of a reinforcement contingency was examined in two experiments with mentally retarded children in a special-education classroom. Two reinforcement schedules were examined in each experiment. For each schedule, a prespecified period of attentive behavior served as the target response. The schedules differed in whether inattentive or attentive behavior was required immediately to precede the target response. These schedules were examined with one child in a simultaneous treatment design using praise as the reinforcer (Experiment I), and with two children in separate reversal designs using tokens as the reinforcer (Experiment II). While attentive behavior increased under each schedule, the increase was greater when attentive rather than inattentive behavior preceded the reinforced response. The results indicated that the effect of a contingency may be determined not only by the specific response reinforced but also by the behavior that immediately precedes that response.

  18. Testing theories of dietary behavior change in youth using the mediating variable model with intervention programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to review and critique current experimentally based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth, and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) wer...

  19. A Prospective Study of Extreme Weight Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined changes in extreme weight change attitudes and behaviors (exercise dependence, food supplements, drive for thinness, bulimia) among adolescent boys and girls over a 16 month period. It also investigated the impact of body mass index, puberty, body image, depression and positive affect on these attitudes and behaviors 16 months…

  20. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  1. The socio-cognitive links between road pricing acceptability and changes in travel-behavior

    OpenAIRE

    COOLS, Mario; Brijs, Kris; Tormans, Hans; Moons, Elke; Janssens, Davy; WETS, Geert

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of road pricing on people’s tendency to adapt their current travel behavior. To this end, the relationship between changes in activity-travel behavior on the one hand and public acceptability and its most important determinants on the other are investigated by means of a stated adaptation experiment. Using a two-stage hierarchical model, it was found that behavioral changes themselves are not dependent on the perceived acceptability of road...

  2. Differential pathways of positive and negative health behavior change in congestive heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Covadonga; Park, Crystal L

    2016-08-01

    This longitudinal study applied a stress and coping model to examine the differential pathways of perceived positive and negative health behavior changes. Participants with congestive heart failure completed self-report measures of psychological resources, coping strategies, and perceived behavior changes and were assessed again 6 months later. Patients with higher positive affect and spiritual well-being reported more positive health behavior changes over time, effects mediated by approach coping. Alternatively, patients with lower psychological resources reported more negative behavior changes over time, effects mediated by avoidance coping. The results suggest that different psychological resources are related to different types of coping which, in turn, are associated with perceived positive or negative changes in health behavior over time.

  3. Pregnancy-related Health Behavior of Women with Congenital Heart Disease : Room for Behavioral Change Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moons, Philip; Budts, Werner; Costermans, Els; Huyghe, Els; Pieper, Petronella G.; Drenthen, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. In order to reduce risks for unfavorable outcomes, pregnant women need to adopt specific health behaviors. We investigated the pregnancy-related health behavior of women with congenit

  4. A Selectionist Perspective on Systemic and Behavioral Change in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandaker, Ingunn

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a discussion of how different dynamics in production processes and communication structures in the organization serve as different environmental contingencies favoring different behavioral patterns and variability of performance in organizations. Finally, an elaboration on a systems perspective on the selection of corporate…

  5. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Shariff-Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron

    2014-12-15

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient's adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal control of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications, causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient's psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation, self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors, coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relation to DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  6. Behavioral changes in preschoolers treated with/without rotary instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Viral Pravin; Kumar, Amit; Badiyani, Bhumika Kamal; Sharma, Anant Raghav; Sharma, Jitendra; Dobariya, Chintan Vinodbhai

    2014-01-01

    Background: Behavioral dentistry is an interdisciplinary science which needs to be learned, practiced, and reinforced in order to provide quality dental care in children. Aim: To assess the anxiety experienced during dental treatment in preschool children with/without rotary instruments using behavioral scale. Study and Design: Sixty pediatric patients of preschool age with bilateral occlusal carious lesions extending into dentin were selected for the study. Carious lesions were removed using conventional rotary instruments on one side and Papacarie – chemomechanical caries removal of approach on contra lateral side. Both cavities were restored with glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX). Anxiety scores were determined using ‘Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale’ (Wong et al, 1998) during the various clinical stages of the treatment course. Results: Children experienced relaxed behavior when subjected to Papacarie method of caries removal compared to conventional method using rotary instruments. Conclusion: This study helped us to provide behavioral measures and introduce children to dentistry in a nonthreatening setting. PMID:25254189

  7. Collective Behavior of Market Participants during Abrupt Stock Price Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskawa, Jun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Under uncertainty, human and animal collectives often respond stochastically to events they encounter. Human or animal individuals behave depending on others' actions, and sometimes follow choices that are sub-optimal for individuals. Such mimetic behaviors are enhanced during emergencies, creating collective behavior of a group. A stock market that is about to crash, as markets did immediately after the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy, provides illustrative examples of such behaviors. We provide empirical evidence proving the existence of collective behavior among stock market participants in emergent situations. We investigated the resolution of extreme supply-and-demand order imbalances by increased balancing counter orders: buy and sell orders for excess supply and demand respectively, during times of price adjustment, so-called special quotes on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Counter orders increase positively depending on the quantity of revealed counter orders: the accumulated orders in the book until then. Statistics of the coming counter order are well described using a logistic regression model with the ratio of revealed orders until then to the finally revealed orders as the explanatory variable. Results given here show that the market participants make Bayesian estimations of optimal choices to ascertain whether to order using information about orders of other participants.

  8. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boon-How; Chew; Sazlina; Shariff-Ghazali; Aaron; Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus(DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal contro of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications,causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient’s psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation,self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors,coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relationto DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  9. Developing games for health behavior change: Getting started

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many investigators are considering developing video games for health (video-G4Hs) but have questions about how to get started. This report provides guidance for investigators considering a G4H as a behavioral intervention procedure from a team of experienced G4H developers. Thirteen commonly asked q...

  10. Planning versus action: Different decision-making processes predict plans to change one's diet versus actual dietary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    Most health decision-making models posit that deciding to engage in a health behavior involves forming a behavioral intention which then leads to actual behavior. However, behavioral intentions and actual behavior may not be functionally equivalent. Two studies examined whether decision-making factors predicting dietary behaviors were the same as or distinct from those predicting intentions. Actual dietary behavior was proximally predicted by affective associations with the behavior. By contrast, behavioral intentions were predicted by cognitive beliefs about behaviors, with no contribution of affective associations. This dissociation has implications for understanding individual regulation of health behaviors and for behavior change interventions.

  11. Does Product Placement Change Television Viewers' Social Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Levy Paluck

    Full Text Available To what extent are television viewers affected by the behaviors and decisions they see modeled by characters in television soap operas? Collaborating with scriptwriters for three prime-time nationally-broadcast Spanish-language telenovelas, we embedded scenes about topics such as drunk driving or saving money at randomly assigned periods during the broadcast season. Outcomes were measured unobtrusively by aggregate city- and nation-wide time series, such as the number of Hispanic motorists arrested daily for drunk driving or the number of accounts opened in banks located in Hispanic neighborhoods. Results indicate that while two of the treatment effects are statistically significant, none are substantively large or long-lasting. Actions that could be taken during the immediate viewing session, like online searching, and those that were relatively more integrated into the telenovela storyline, specifically reducing cholesterol, were briefly affected, but not behaviors requiring sustained efforts, like opening a bank account or registering to vote.

  12. Design of Video Games for Children’s Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and overcome challenges related to fruit and vegetable (FV) and physical activity (PA) goal attainment and/or consumption), skill development (e.g., asking behaviors; virtual recipe preparation), self reg...

  13. Behavioral Ecology of Narwhals in a Changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    bioenergetic models using updated narwhal abundance estimates, recent fisheries survey data, and knowledge of populations hot spots? 4. Predation...longitudinal and cross-population analyses will use a suite of ecological modeling approaches over a >2 decade period that encompass a period of sea ice...diving behavior. Analysis and habitat modeling We are using an extensive data analysis of over 18 years of satellite tracking and dive data (1993

  14. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy—theoretic premises and practical strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient’s everyday speech. The SLP’s plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit...... are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3...... change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy...

  15. Neural circuit changes mediating lasting brain and behavioral response to predator stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, Robert E; Blundell, Jacqueline; Burton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews recent work which points to critical neural circuitry involved in lasting changes in anxiety like behavior following unprotected exposure of rats to cats (predator stress). Predator stress may increase anxiety like behavior in a variety of behavioral tests including: elevated plus maze, light dark box, acoustic startle, and social interaction. Studies of neural transmission in two limbic pathways, combined with path and covariance analysis relating physiology to behavior, suggest long term potentiation like changes in one or both of these pathways in the right hemisphere accounts for stress induced changes in all behaviors changed by predator stress except light dark box and social interaction. Findings will be discussed within the context of what is known about neural substrates activated by predator odor.

  16. Fostering change in back pain beliefs and behaviors: when public education is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Douglas P; Deshpande, Sameer; Werner, Erik L; Reneman, Michiel F; Miciak, Maxi A; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-11-01

    Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views and individual behaviors about back pain have been undertaken and evaluated in multiple countries. In contrast to the original Australian campaign, subsequent campaigns have been less successful, with improvements observed in beliefs without the corresponding changes in related behaviors. This article summarizes the results of a literature review, expert panel, and workshop held at the Melbourne International Forum XI: Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain in March 2011 on the role and interplay of various social behavior change strategies, including public education, law and legislation, healthy public policy, and social marketing in achieving a sustained reduction in the societal burden of back pain. Given the complexities inherent to health-related behaviors change, the Rothschild framework is applied in which behavior change strategies are viewed on a continuum from public education at one end through law and health policy at the other. Educational endeavors should likely be augmented with social marketing endeavors and supportive laws and health policy to foster sustained change in outcomes such as work disability and health utilization. Practical suggestions are provided for future interventions aimed at changing back pain-related behaviors. Evaluation of previous back pain mass media campaigns reveals that education alone is unlikely to foster positive and persisting behavioral change without concomitant strategies.

  17. Growth and change in attention problems, disruptive behavior, and achievement from kindergarten to fifth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread interest in children's adjustment problems, existing research does not provide conclusive evidence regarding the direction of the associations of achievement with classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior over the course of elementary school. Using a nationally representative sample of 16,260 kindergarteners, this study examined the temporal sequence of achievement, classroom attention problems, and disruptive behavior, focusing on how changes in skills and problems unfold across key periods between kindergarten and fifth grade. Results indicate that improvements in attention during the earliest years of schooling predict achievement gains through third grade. However, changes in disruptive behavior do not predict subsequent changes in achievement. Evidence linking changes in achievement to changes in classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior was less consistent. These findings point to the need to develop and examine early interventions that can improve attention skills as a mechanism for improving children's academic trajectories in elementary school.

  18. 7α-Hydroxypregnenolone regulates diurnal changes in sexual behavior of male quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Yuki; Haraguchi, Shogo; Nagino, Koki; Ishikawa, Kei; Fukahori, Yoko; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    In the Japanese quail, 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, a previously undescribed avian neurosteroid, is actively produced in the brain. 7α-Hydroxypregnenolone acts as a novel neuronal activator to stimulate locomotor activity of quail. Therefore, in this study, we determined whether 7α-hydroxypregnenolone changes the expression of sexual behavior in Japanese quail. We first measured diurnal changes in sexual behavior of male quail exposed to a long-day photoperiod. We found that sexual behavior of male quail was high in the morning when endogenous 7α-hydroxypregnenolone level is high. Subsequently, we centrally administered 7α-hydroxypregnenolone in the evening when endogenous 7α-hydroxypregnenolone level is low. In the 30 min after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection, 7α-hydroxypregnenolone dose dependently increased the frequency of sexual behavior of male quail. However, 7β-hydroxypregnenolone, a stereoisomer of 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, did not effect on the frequency of sexual behavior of male quail. In addition, to confirm the action of 7α-hydroxypregnenolone on sexual behavior, male birds received an ICV injection of ketoconazole, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450s, and behavioral experiments were performed in the morning. Ketoconazole significantly decreased the frequency of sexual behavior of male quail, whereas administration of 7α-hydroxypregnenolone to ketoconazole-treated males increased the frequency of their sexual behavior. These results indicate that 7α-hydroxypregnenolone regulates diurnal changes in sexual behavior of male quail.

  19. Behavior change following self-confrontation: a test of the value-mediation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, J W; Rankin, W L; Greenstein, T N; Kearney, K A

    1977-04-01

    This study presents a reanalysis of data from Rokeach's self-confrontation experiments using path analytic techniques. Contrary to Rokeach's interpretations, findings indicate that behavior changes following self-confrontation are not primarily mediated through changes in value priorities. Rather, the available data suggest that the self-confrontation process involves the resolution of inconsistencies between behaviors and self-conceptions that are revelaed during the treatment session. The authors interpret these findings within the framework of Rokeach's general theory of self-disatisfaction and cognitive-behavioral change. Suggestions for future directions in self-confrontation research are offered.

  20. Selective breeding for a behavioral trait changes digit ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginia H Y Yan

    Full Text Available The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger divided by the fourth digit (ring finger tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized" in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ratios seem also to correlate with behavioral traits, including daily activity levels. Selective breeding for increased rates of voluntary exercise (wheel running in four lines of mice has caused correlated increases in aerobic exercise capacity, circulating corticosterone level, and predatory aggression. Here, we show that this selection regime has also increased 2D:4D. This apparent "feminization" in mice is opposite to the relationship seen between 2D:4D and physical fitness in human beings. The present results are difficult to reconcile with the notion that 2D:4D is an effective proxy for prenatal androgen exposure; instead, it may more accurately reflect effects of glucocorticoids, or other factors that regulate any of many genes.

  1. Beyond Knowledge: Service Learning and Local Climate Change Research Engagement Activities that Foster Action and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change engagement requires individuals to understand an abstract and complex topic and realize the profound implications of climate change for their families and local community. In recent years federal agencies have spent millions of dollars on climate change education to prepare a nation for a warming future. The majority of these education efforts are based on a knowledge deficit model. In this view 'educate' means 'provide information'. However cognitive and behavioral research and current action demonstrate that information alone is not enough; knowledge does not necessarily lead to action. Educators are speaking to deaf ears if we rely on passive and abstract information transfer and neglect more persuasive and affective approaches to communication. When climate change is presented abstractly as something that happens in the future to people, environments, animals somewhere else it is easy to discount. People employ two separate systems for information processing: analytical-rational and intuitive-experiential Authentic local research experiences that engage both analytical and experiential information processing systems not only help individuals understand the abstraction of climate change in a concrete and personally experienced manner, but are more likely to influence behavior. Two on-line, graduate-level courses offered within University of Nebraska's Masters of Applied Science program provide opportunities for participants to engage in authentic inquiry based studies climate change's local impacts, and work with K-12 learners in promoting the scientific awareness and behavioral changes that mitigate against the negative impacts of a changing climate. The courses are specifically designed to improve middle and high school (grades 6-12) teachers' content knowledge of climate processes and climate change science in the context of their own community. Both courses provide data-rich, investigative science experiences in a distributed digital

  2. Have drivers at alcohol outlets changed their behavior after the new traffic law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel B. De Boni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In an attempt to reduce high levels of traffic crashes, a new legislation was approved in Brazil in 2008. This study aimed to assess behavioral change among drivers who had drunk at alcohol outlets (AO after implementation of the law. Method: A three-stage probability sampling survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Individuals seen leaving AOs after drinking were approached (n=3,018. Selected drivers (n=683 answered a structured interview, were breathalyzed, and had saliva specimens collected for drug screening. Results: Overall, 60.3% (SE 4.5 of drivers reported they did not change their behavior. Among those who reported behavioral changes, most reported drinking less as their main strategy toward safer driving behavior. Variables independently associated with behavior change included having drunk at a high outlet density area (odds ratio [OR] 1.7 [1.1-2.8] and having a favorable opinion about the law (OR 4.3 [2.1-8.9]. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that awareness of the law has not been enough to promote behavioral change. As most drivers had a favorable opinion of the law and this variable was found to be the strongest predictor of behavior change, efforts to better integrate education and enforcement seem to be pivotal and might be well received by the population.

  3. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent  households or in families with a step-parent. For example, in 1980, almost 83% of all Danish children in the ages 0 to 17 lived with both of their parents, but this number steadily...... structure changes during childhood. More family structure changes implies worse outcomes and might actually be more important than the number of years a child has spent in a single parent household. The age at which the family structure change occurs also seems to be important at least for some outcomes....... decreased to 73% in 2005. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution on children. International studies mainly suggest a negative relationship between non-nuclear family structure and child outcomes. There are two...

  4. Antecedents and consequences of organizational change : 'Institutionalizing' the behavioral theory of the firm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, FC; Saka - Helmhout, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we highlight the conditions under which organizations initiate changes in two distinct institutional contexts. While the focus within behavioral research has been on aspiration-driven organizational change, the effect of institutional dynamics on the probability of change has been giv

  5. Design of video games for children's diet and physical activity behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet, and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and ov...

  6. Therapist adherence and organizational effects on change in youth behavior problems one year after multisystemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenwald, Sonja K; Carter, Rickey E; Chapman, Jason E; Sheidow, Ashli J

    2008-09-01

    The current study investigated the relations among therapist adherence to an evidence-based treatment for youth with serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy), organizational climate and structure, and improvement in youth behavior problems one-year post treatment. Participants were 1979 youth and families treated by 429 therapists across 45 provider organizations in North America. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) results showed therapist adherence predicted improvement in youth behavior. Two structure variables and one climate variable predicted changes in youth behavior, and the climate variable also predicted therapist adherence. No statistical support for formal mediation of organizational effects through adherence was found, though examination of changes in parameter estimates suggest a possible interplay of organizational climate with adherence and youth behavior change.

  7. Positive Exercise Experience Facilitates Behavior Change via Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parschau, Linda; Fleig, Lena; Warner, Lisa Marie; Pomp, Sarah; Barz, Milena; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf; Lippke, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Motivational processes can be set in motion when positive consequences of physical exercise are experienced. However, relationships between positive exercise experience and determinants of the motivational and the volitional phases of exercise change have attracted only sparse attention in research. Method: This research examines direct…

  8. Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert

    1977-01-01

    This research presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of "self-efficacy". (Editor/RK)

  9. Motivational Interviewing to Affect Behavioral Change in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Sherry M.; Cooper, R. Lyle; Cassie, Kim McClure

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews and assesses the existing research literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to promote lifestyle changes and improve functioning among older adults confronting serious health challenges. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of intervention studies that tested the use of MI to achieve behavioral…

  10. Changes in Healthy Childhood Lifestyle Behaviors in Japanese Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takahiro; Kasuga, Kosho; Murase, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy lifestyles during childhood constitute a public health problem in Japan. However, current health education in Japan is ineffective in counteracting them. Previous studies contend that healthy lifestyles in children vary by academic grade and sex. This study examined changes throughout childhood suggests some intervention…

  11. Reliable Change in Depression during Behavioral Weight Loss Treatment among Women with Major Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Andrew M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Schneider, Kristin L; Waring, Molly E.; DeBiasse, Michele A.; Jessica L Oleski; Sybil L. Crawford; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Although behavioral weight loss interventions generally have been shown to improve depressive symptoms, little is known as to whether some people with major depressive disorder experience worsening of depression during a weight loss intervention. We examined rates and predictors of change in depression symptoms among 148 obese women with major depressive disorder who participated in a trial comparing depression treatment plus behavioral weight loss treatment (Behavioral Activation; BA) to beh...

  12. Harnessing social media for health promotion and behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Holly; Itani, Zena

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and innovative advances in participative Internet communications, referred to as "social media," offer opportunities for modifying health behavior. Social media let users choose to be either anonymous or identified. People of all demographics are adopting these technologies whether on their computers or through mobile devices, and they are increasingly using these social media for health-related issues. Although social media have considerable potential as tools for health promotion and education, these media, like traditional health promotion media, require careful application and may not always achieve their desired outcomes. This article summarizes current evidence and understanding of using social media for health promotion. More important, it discusses the need for evaluating the effectiveness of various forms of social media and incorporating outcomes research and theory in the design of health promotion programs for social media.

  13. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors in Kappaphycus alvarezii Infected by Epiphyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Tong; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Qian; Lin, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Epiphytic filamentous algae (EFA) were noted as a serious problem to reduce the production and quality of K. alvarezii. The morphological studies revealed that the main epiphyte on K. alvarezii was Neosiphonia savatieri in China. Though the harmful effects of EFA on the production of K. alvarezii have been reported, the detailed mechanism of the N. savatieri in limiting the production of K. alvarezii has not been studied yet. The present paper studied the effects of N. savatieri infection on photosynthetic behaviors in K. alvarezii by detecting chlorophyll fluorescence transient in vivo. The results revealed that damage of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), decrease of active reaction centers (RCs), and the plastoquinone (PQ) pool as well as significant reduction in the performance indexes (PI) of PSII were caused by the infection of N. savatieri. The influence of N. savatieri on photosynthetic activity of K. alvarezii should be one of the important reasons to reduce the production of K. alvarezii infected by N. savatieri.

  14. Verbal Bullying Changes among Students Following an Educational Intervention Using the Integrated Model for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Saloshni; Satorius, Benn K.; de Vries, Hein; Taylor, Myra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bullying behavior in schools can lead to psychosocial problems. School-based interventions are important in raising student awareness, developing their skills and in planning to reduce bullying behavior. Methods: A randomized controlled trial, using a school-based educational intervention to reduce verbal bullying, was conducted among…

  15. Behavioral Sciences in a Changing Army. Proceedings in AMEDD Behavioral Sciences Seminar, 19 - 23 March 1979,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-23

    confronting us because we are vitally concerned with many of those issues. In order to help set the stage for that, I’d like to describe where I think Social...complaint concerning thle behavior of a member of (2) Reprmand ;!?is .4sinciatiof stall be inl vt -t. iflJ signo ~d bl, MeO com- 3)Ssesinfo emesi

  16. Player Experiences and Behaviors in a Multiplayer Game: designing game rules to change interdependent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Vegt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Serious gaming is used as a means for improving organizational teamwork, yet little is known about the effect of individual game elements constituting serious games. This paper presents a game design experiment aimed at generating knowledge on designing game elements for teamwork. In previous work, we suggested that interaction- and goal-driven rules could guide interdependence and teamwork strategies. Based on this finding, for the present experiment we developed two versions of multiplayer Breakout, varying in rule-sets, designed to elicit player strategies of either dependent competition or dependent cooperation. Results showed that the two rule-sets could generate distinct reported player experiences and observable distinct player behaviors that could be further discriminated into four patterns: expected patterns of helping and ignoring, and unexpected patterns of agreeing and obstructing. Classic game theory was applied to understand the four behavior patterns and made us conclude that goal-driven rules steered players towards competition and cooperation. Interaction rules, in contrast, mainly stimulated dependent competitive behavior, e.g. obstructing each other. Since different types of rules thus led to different player behavior, discriminating in game design between interaction- and goal-driven rules seems relevant. Moreover, our research showed that game theory proved to be useful for understanding goal-driven rules.

  17. A Culture-Change Approach to School Discipline: Reaction Paper to "School Organization and Student Behavior".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkey, Stewart C.

    Organizational changes, within the existing structure of public schooling, have the potential to decrease the oppositional behavior of students and to foster humane, positive learning and working enviroments. It has been documented that managers can create organizational structures that promote positive behaviors and facilitate people's…

  18. Burrowing Behavior of a Deposit Feeding Bivalve Predicts Change in Intertidal Ecosystem State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, T.J.; Bodnar, W.; Koolhaas, A.; Dekinga, A.; Holthuijsen, S.; Ten Horn, J.; McSweeney, N.; van Gils, J.A.; Piersma, T,

    2016-01-01

    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  19. Burrowing behavior of a deposit feeding bivalve predicts change in intertidal ecosystem state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, Tanya J.; Bodnar, Wanda; Koolhaas, Anita; Dekinga, Anne; Holthuijsen, Sander; ten Horn, Job; McSweeney, Niamh; van Gils, Jan; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  20. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. The purpose is to evaluate the outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, an...

  1. Issue Paper on Physiological and Behavioral Changes in Pregnant and Lactating Women and Available Exposure Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue paper provides a summary of information from the published literature related to behavioral and physiological changes during pregnancy and lactation that may affect women’s exposure or susceptibility to environmental contaminants, provides potentially useful exposur...

  2. Innovative interventions to promote behavioral change in overweight or obese individuals: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorodudu, Daniel E; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor

    2015-05-01

    The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades, placing significant burdens on health care in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet, and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost, and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data show promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions.

  3. Sexuality on Campus: Changes in Attitudes and Behavior During the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Milton; Abramowitz, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed college students (N=4,885) in 1969, 1973, 1977, and 1981 to examine changes in sexual attitudes and behavior. Results indicated sexual activity and permissiveness increased between 1969 and 1977, especially for women, but moderated by 1981. (JAC)

  4. Selected Health Behaviors that Influence College Freshman Weight Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparek, Danella Gilmore; Corwin, Sara J.; Valois, Robert F.; Sargent, Roger G.; Morris, Richard Lewis

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors investigated the effect of physical activity (PA), fruit and vegetable intake, and alcohol use on 6-month weight change in 193 college freshmen (78.8% white, 88.2% women, 94.5% on a meal plan). Methods: The authors administered a Web-based survey in fall 2002 (baseline) and spring 2003 (follow-up). Results:…

  5. Behavioral Ecology of Narwhals in a Changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    threshold)? How have these relationships changed over the past two decades of sea ice loss ? Are there population-level differences in sea ice habitat... ice and purported increase in killer whales in the Canadian Arctic , do killer whale catch and observation data from West Greenland follow this trend...ecology of narwhals in an area rapidly being altered by increases in shipping, seismic exploration, and sea ice loss . We anticipate our results will be

  6. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors in Kappaphycus alvarezii Infected by Epiphyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Pang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic filamentous algae (EFA were noted as a serious problem to reduce the production and quality of K. alvarezii. The morphological studies revealed that the main epiphyte on K. alvarezii was Neosiphonia savatieri in China. Though the harmful effects of EFA on the production of K. alvarezii have been reported, the detailed mechanism of the N. savatieri in limiting the production of K. alvarezii has not been studied yet. The present paper studied the effects of N. savatieri infection on photosynthetic behaviors in K. alvarezii by detecting chlorophyll fluorescence transient in vivo. The results revealed that damage of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC, decrease of active reaction centers (RCs, and the plastoquinone (PQ pool as well as significant reduction in the performance indexes (PI of PSII were caused by the infection of N. savatieri. The influence of N. savatieri on photosynthetic activity of K. alvarezii should be one of the important reasons to reduce the production of K. alvarezii infected by N. savatieri.

  7. Mind wandering via mental contrasting as a tool for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettingen, Gabriele; Schwörer, Bettina

    2013-09-02

    When people engage in mind wandering they drift away from a task toward their inner thoughts and feelings. These thoughts often circle around people's personal futures. One assumed function of mind wandering is that it aids problem solving and planning for the future. We will discuss different forms of mind wandering and their effects on problem solving and behavior change. While solely fantasizing about a desired future leads to poor problem solving and little behavior change, mind wandering in the form of mental contrasting leads to skilled problem solving and substantial behavior change. In mental contrasting, people first envision the desired future and then imagine the obstacles that need to be surmounted to reach said future. Mental contrasting instigates behavior change by modulating the strength of associations between future and reality and between reality and instrumental action. Intervention research shows that mental contrasting can be taught as a cost- and time-effective self-regulation strategy of behavior change. The findings have implications for research on mind wandering, problem solving, and on creating effective interventions of behavior change.

  8. Mind wandering via mental contrasting as a tool for behavior change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eOettingen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available When people engage in mind wandering they drift away from a task towards their inner thoughts and feelings. These thoughts often circle around people’s personal futures. One assumed function of mind wandering is that it aids problem solving and planning for the future. We will discuss different forms of mind wandering and their effects on problem solving and behavior change. While solely fantasizing about a desired future leads to poor problem solving and little behavior change, mind wandering in the form of mental contrasting leads to skilled problem solving and substantial behavior change. In mental contrasting, people first envision the desired future and then imagine the obstacles that need to be surmounted to reach said future. Mental contrasting instigates behavior change by modulating the strength of associations between future and reality and between reality and instrumental action. Intervention research shows that mental contrasting can be taught as a cost- and time-effective self-regulation strategy of behavior change. The findings have implications for research on mind wandering, problem solving, and on creating effective interventions of behavior change.

  9. Development in the smoking behavior of Danes compared to changes in smoking policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verwohlt, Betina; Jørgensen, Torben; Glümer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    and counseling. At the same time inequality in smoking behavior has increased. The article compares developments in Danish smoking policy to changes in smoking behavior in order to analyze whether there is consistency between the two. Doing so provides an important link between policy and behavior. Method...... for men with more than 4 years of education the smoking prevalence decreased from 63% to 20 %; similar picture was seen for women. Conclusions: Policy initiatives that address campaigns and individual counseling seem to increase disparities and creating inequality in smoking behavior as well as inequality...

  10. Effect of sepsis on behavioral changes on the ketamine-induced animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comim, Clarissa M; Silva, Napoleão C; Patrício, Janini J; Palmas, Daphne; Mendonça, Bruna P; Bittencourt, Mariana O; Cassol-Jr, Omar J; Barichello, Tatiana; Zugno, Alexandra I; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2015-04-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sepsis on behavioral changes on the ketamine-induced animal model of schizophrenia. Male Wistar rats underwent Cecal Ligation and Perporation (CLP) with "basic support" or were sham-operated. After 30 days, the animals were submitted to a model of schizophrenia by injection of Ketamine. The behavior tests were performed after 30 min of the injection of Ketamine or saline. Ketamine in doses of 15 and 25mg/kg increased locomotor activity, latency to first contact in the social interaction and stereotyped behavior. Some changes caused by sepsis may be associated with a predisposition to develop schizophrenia in the animal model.

  11. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe

    2012-07-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player's knowledge and skill, ways in which personal mastery experiences can be incorporated into a video game environment, using game characters and avatars to promote observational learning, creating personalized experiences through tailoring, and the importance of achieving a balance between "fun-ness" and "seriousness." The article concludes with suggestions for future research needed to inform this rapidly growing field.

  12. Associations between family structure change and child behavior problems: the moderating effect of family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca M; Claessens, Amy; Markowitz, Anna J

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated conditions under which family structure matters most for child well-being. Using data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 3,936), a national sample of U.S. families, it was estimated how changes in family structure related to changes in children's behavior between age 3 and 12 separately by household income level to determine whether associations depended on families' resources. Early changes in family structure, particularly from a two-biological-parent to single-parent family, predicted increases in behavior problems more than later changes, and movements into single and stepparent families mattered more for children of higher versus lower income parents. Results suggest that for children of higher income parents, moving into a stepfamily may improve, not undermine, behavior.

  13. Advanced Behavioral Analyses Show that the Presence of Food Causes Subtle Changes in C. elegans Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Nicholas B; Frank, Hans-Georg; Schmitz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    As a widely used and studied model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although, investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn or with no lawn. Using an advanced software, WormLab, the full skeleton and outline of worms were tracked to determine whether the presence of food affects behavioral traits. In all seven investigated parameters, statistically significant differences were found in worm behavior between those moving on NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn and NGM-agar plates with no lawn. Furthermore, multiple test groups showed differences in interaction between variables as the parameters that significantly correlated statistically with speed of locomotion varied. In the present study, we demonstrate the validity of a model to analyze C. elegans behavior beyond simple speed of locomotion. The need to account for a nested design while performing statistical analyses in similar studies is also demonstrated. With extended analyses, C. elegans behavioral change can be investigated with greater sensitivity, which could have wide utility in fields such as, but not limited to, toxicology, drug discovery, and RNAi screening.

  14. Advanced behavioral analyses show that the presence of food causes subtle changes in C. elegans movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eAngstman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a widely used and studied model organism, C. elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn or with no lawn. Using an advanced software, WormLab, the full skeleton and outline of worms were tracked to determine whether the presence of food affects behavioral traits. In all seven investigated parameters, statistically significant differences were found in worm behavior between those moving on NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn and NGM-agar plates with no lawn. Furthermore, multiple test groups showed differences in interaction between variables as the parameters that significantly correlated statistically with speed of locomotion varied. In the present study, we demonstrate the validity of a model to analyze C. elegans behavior beyond simple speed of locomotion. The need to account for a nested design while performing statistical analyses in similar studies is also demonstrated. With extended analyses, C. elegans behavioral change can be investigated with greater sensitivity, which could have wide utility in fields such as, but not limited to, toxicology, drug discovery, and RNAi screening.

  15. Changes in Illness-Related Behavior and Dysphoria Accompanying Behavioral Treatment of Recurrent Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Jeanetta C.; Lohr, Jeffrey M.

    Psychophysiologic research indicates that muscle-contraction headache often is not characterized by excessive or unusual muscular activity, and muscular changes seldom accompany headache improvement resulting from treatment. Multidimensional models have been proposed, which emphasize the interdependence of physiological and psychological systems…

  16. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity.

  17. Applying social marketing in health care: communicating evidence to change consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; McCormack, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    Social marketing uses commercial marketing strategies to change individual and organizational behavior and policies. It has been effective on a population level across a wide range of public health and health care domains. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of social marketing in changing health care consumer behavior through its impact on patient-provider interaction or provider behavior. Social marketers need to identify translatable strategies (e.g., competition analysis, branding, and tailored messages) that can be applied to health care provider and consumer behavior. Three case studies from social marketing illustrate potential strategies to change provider and consumer behavior. Countermarketing is a rapidly growing social marketing strategy that has been effective in tobacco control and may be effective in countering pharmaceutical marketing using specific message strategies. Informed decision making is a useful strategy when there is medical uncertainty, such as in prostate cancer screening and treatment. Pharmaceutical industry marketing practices offer valuable lessons for developing competing messages to reach providers and consumers. Social marketing is an effective population-based behavior change strategy that can be applied in individual clinical settings and as a complement to reinforce messages communicated on a population level. There is a need for more research on message strategies that work in health care and population-level effectiveness studies.

  18. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change.

  19. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department : a comparative case study

    OpenAIRE

    Frykman, Mandus; Hasson, Henna; Athlin, Åsa Muntlin; Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele

    2014-01-01

    Background: While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interven...

  20. The Effect of Life Skills Training in Group and Behavior Change on Affective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shakiba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although various medical and psychological interventions have been used to treat addiction, addiction particularly methamphetamine addiction as a social, health and medical issues is still jeopardizing the human community. This study is aimed at determining the impact of teaching life skills and changing behavior on the emotional well-being of the individuals addicted to crystal methamphetamine. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out using before-after plan with participation of 28 crystal methamphetamine addicts. In addition to receiving medical treatment, the intervention group patients obtained necessary trainings required for developing life skill and changing behavior during 15 sessions, whilst the control group received only the routine pharmacotherapy treatments and primary interventions. Then pretest and posttest scores of the two groups were compared. Results: The mean score on emotional well-being by the intervention group is lower than that in control group after treatment (10.71<18.78 which was statistically significant. The history of dependence on methamphetamine, age, education, the times of quits, and the marital status had no impact on the extent of the influence of teaching life skills and behavior changes on the individuals’ emotional well-being. Conclusion: Notwithstanding that addiction could influence various aspects of mental and emotional health of dependent people, teaching life skills and behavioral changes may lead to enhancement in their emotional well-being. Hence it is necessary to encourage these individuals to participate in group sessions of changing behavior and teaching life skills.

  1. Design of Video Games for Children's Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and overcome challenges related to fruit and vegetable (FV) and physical activity (PA) goal attainment and/or consumption), skill development (e.g., asking behaviors; virtual recipe preparation), self regulatory behaviors (problem solving, goal setting, goal review, decision making), rewards (e.g., points and positive statements generated by the program), immediate feedback (e.g., through characters and/or statements that appear on the computer screen at critical decision points), and personalization (e.g., tailored choices offered at critical junctures, based on responses to baselines questions related to preferences, outcome expectancies, etc). We are in the earliest stages of learning how to optimally design effective behavior change procedures for use in VG, and yet they have been demonstrated to change behavior. As we learn, VG offer more and better opportunities for obesity prevention that can adjust to individual needs and preferences.

  2. Change in Dysfunctional Beliefs About Sleep in Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, Polina; Talbot, Lisa; Ivers, Hans; Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M; Harvey, Allison G

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger randomized controlled trial, 188 participants were randomized to behavior therapy (BT), cognitive therapy (CT), or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. The aims of this study were threefold: (a) to determine whether change in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep was related to change in sleep, insomnia symptoms, and impairment following treatment; (b) to determine whether BT, CT, and CBT differ in their effects on dysfunctional beliefs; and (c) to determine whether the treatments differ in their effects on particular kinds of dysfunctional beliefs. Beliefs, sleep, insomnia symptoms, and sleep-related psychosocial impairment were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up. Greater change in dysfunctional beliefs occurring over the course of BT, CT, or CBT was associated with greater improvement in insomnia symptoms and impairment at posttreatment and both follow-ups. All groups experienced a significant decrease in dysfunctional beliefs during treatment, which were sustained through 6- and 12-month follow-up. Compared with the BT group, a greater proportion of participants in the CT and/or CBT groups endorsed dysfunctional beliefs below a level considered clinically significant at posttreatment and 12-month follow-up. The results demonstrate the importance of targeting dysfunctional beliefs in insomnia treatment, suggest that beliefs may be significantly modified with BT alone, and indicate that cognitive interventions may be particularly powerful in enhancing belief change.

  3. Can Mobile Phone Apps Influence People’s Health Behavior Change? An Evidence Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Li, Mu

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, mobile phones have achieved wide reach at an unprecedented rate, and mobile phone apps have become increasingly prevalent among users. The number of health-related apps that were published on the two leading platforms (iOS and Android) reached more than 100,000 in 2014. However, there is a lack of synthesized evidence regarding the effectiveness of mobile phone apps in changing people’s health-related behaviors. Objective The aim was to examine the effectiveness of mobile phone apps in achieving health-related behavior change in a broader range of interventions and the quality of the reported studies. Methods We conducted a comprehensive bibliographic search of articles on health behavior change using mobile phone apps in peer-reviewed journals published between January 1, 2010 and June 1, 2015. Databases searched included Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, Embase, Health Technology Assessment, Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Articles published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research during that same period were hand-searched on the journal’s website. Behavior change mechanisms were coded and analyzed. The quality of each included study was assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Results A total of 23 articles met the inclusion criteria, arranged under 11 themes according to their target behaviors. All studies were conducted in high-income countries. Of these, 17 studies reported statistically significant effects in the direction of targeted behavior change; 19 studies included in this analysis had a 65% or greater retention rate in the intervention group (range 60%-100%); 6 studies reported using behavior change theories with the theory of planned behavior being the most commonly used (in 3 studies). Self-monitoring was the most common behavior change technique applied (in 12 studies). The studies suggest that some features improve the

  4. Climate change helplessness and the (de)moralization of individual energy behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Erika; Preston, Jesse L; Tannenbaum, Melanie B

    2017-03-01

    Although most people understand the threat of climate change, they do little to modify their own energy conservation behavior. One reason for this gap between belief and behavior may be that individual actions seem unimpactful and therefore are not morally relevant. This research investigates how climate change helplessness-belief that one's actions cannot affect climate change-can undermine the moralization of climate change and personal energy conservation. In Study 1, climate change efficacy predicted both moralization of energy use and energy conservation intentions beyond individual belief in climate change. In Studies 2 and 3, participants read information about climate change that varied in efficacy message, that is, whether individual actions (e.g., using less water, turning down heat) make a difference in the environment. Participants who read that their behavior made no meaningful impact reported weaker moralization and intentions (Study 2), and reported more energy consumption 1 week later (Study 3). Moreover, effects on intentions and actions were mediated by changes in moralization. We discuss ways to improve climate change messages to foster environmental efficacy and moralization of personal energy use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Parental changes after involvement in their anxious child's cognitive behavior therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Nielsen, Sara Kerstine;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD: Chi......-reported maternal autonomy-granting (non-involved mothers showed a greater increase). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that child anxiety significantly influences parental behaviors and cognitions. Child therapy may successfully change the family system.......OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD...

  6. Changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain associated with feeding behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong V; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S.; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Domesticated chicks are precocial and therefore have relatively well-developed feeding behavior. The role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in food-intake regulation in chicks has been reported for decades. However, we hypothesized that nutrients and their metabolites in the brain may be involved in food intake in chicks because these animals exhibit a very frequent feeding pattern. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the feeding behavior of chicks as well as the associated change...

  7. Fostering change in back pain beliefs and behaviors: when public education is not enough

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas P Gross; Deshpande, Sameer; Werner, Erik L; Reneman, Michiel F; Miciak, Maxi A.; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views and individual behaviors about back pain have been undertaken and evaluated in multiple countries. In contrast to the original Australian campaign, subsequent campaigns have been less successful, with improvements observed in beliefs without the corresponding changes in related behaviors. This article summarizes the results of a literature review, expert panel, and workshop held at the Melbourne International Forum XI: Primary Care Researc...

  8. Adult Tea Green Leafhoppers, Empoasca onukii (Matsuda), Change Behaviors under Varying Light Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Longqing; Vasseur, Liette; Huang, Huoshui; Zeng, Zhaohua; Hu, Guiping; Liu, Xin; You, Minsheng

    2017-01-01

    Insect behaviors are often influenced by light conditions including photoperiod, light intensity, and wavelength. Understanding pest insect responses to changing light conditions may help with developing alternative strategies for pest control. Little is known about the behavioral responses of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to light conditions. The behavior of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda, was examined when exposed to different light photoperiods or wavelengths. Observations included the frequency of locomotion and cleaning activities, and the duration of time spent searching. The results suggested that under normal photoperiod both female and male adults were generally more active in darkness (i.e., at night) than in light. In continuous darkness (DD), the locomotion and cleaning events in Period 1 (7:00–19:00) were significantly increased, when compared to the leafhoppers under normal photoperiod (LD). Leafhoppers, especially females, changed their behavioral patterns to a two day cycle under DD. Under continuous illumination (continuous quartz lamp light, yellow light at night, and green light at night), the activities of locomotion, cleaning, and searching were significantly suppressed during the night (19:00–7:00) and locomotion activities of both females and males were significantly increased during the day (7:00–19:00), suggesting a shift in circadian rhythm. Our work suggests that changes in light conditions, including photoperiod and wavelength, can influence behavioral activities of leafhoppers, potentially affecting other life history traits such as reproduction and development, and may serve as a method for leafhopper behavioral control. PMID:28103237

  9. A Review of Multiple Health Behavior Change Interventions for Primary Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Prochaska, James O

    2011-05-01

    Most individuals engage in multiple unhealthy lifestyle behaviors with the potential for negative health consequences. Yet most health promotion research has addressed risk factors as categorically separate entities, and little is known about how to effectively promote multiple health behavior change (MHBC). This review summarizes the recent literature (January 2004 to December 2009) on randomized clinical trials evaluating MHBC interventions for primary prevention. Combining all the studies across all the reviews, fewer than 150 studies were identified. This is a fraction of the number of trials conducted on changing individual behavioral risks. Three primary behavioral clusters dominated: (1) the energy balance behaviors of physical activity and diet; (2) addictive behaviors like smoking and other drugs; and (3) disease-related behaviors, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer related. Findings were largely disappointing for studies of diet and physical activity, particularly with youth. Treating 2 addictions, including smoking, resulted in greater long-term sobriety from alcohol and illicit drugs. MHBC intervention effects were stronger and more consistent for cancer prevention than CVD prevention. MHBC interventions offer a new paradigm for broader, more comprehensive health promotion; however, the potential value in maximizing intervention impact is largely unmet.

  10. Protective effects of cholecystokinin-8 on methamphetamine-induced behavioral changes and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Hongyan; Wen, Di; Ma, Chunling; Li, Ming; Li, Yingmin; Zhang, Wenfang; Liu, Li; Cong, Bin

    2015-04-15

    We investigated whether pretreatment with the neuropeptide cholecystokinin-8 affected methamphetamine (METH)-induced behavioral changes and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in male C57/BL6 mice. CCK-8 pretreatment alone had no effect on locomotion and stereotypic behavior and could not induce behavioral sensitization; however, it attenuated, in a dose-dependent manner, hyperlocomotion and behavioral sensitization induced by a low dose of METH (1mg/kg). CCK-8 attenuated METH-induced stereotypic behavior at a dose of 3mg/kg but not at 10mg/kg. CCK-8 pretreatment attenuated METH (10mg/kg)-induced hyperthermia, the decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum, and TH in the substantia nigra. CCK-8 alone had no effect on rectal temperature, TH and DAT expression in the nigrostriatal region. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that pretreatment with CCK-8 inhibited changes typically induced by repeated exposure to METH, such as hyperlocomotion, behavioral sensitization, stereotypic behavior, and dopaminergic neurotoxicity. These findings make CCK-8 a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of multiple symptoms associated with METH abuse.

  11. Promoting health behavior change using appreciative inquiry: moving from deficit models to affirmation models of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley M; Charvat, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a new theoretical approach to health promotion and behavior change that may be especially suited to underserved women. Appreciative inquiry (AI), an organizational development process that focuses on the positive and creative as a force for an improved future, is described and adapted for use as an intervention to achieve health behavior change at the individual level. Guiding principles for its use with clients are provided, and an example of its application is illustrated in a hypothetical case study of an African American woman of low-socioeconomic resources who is attempting to increase lifestyle exercise following a cardiac event. AI is contrasted with the more traditional problem-solving approaches to the provision of care. The advantages, challenges, and issues associated with the use of AI as a health behavior change strategy are discussed.

  12. Experimental data showing the thermal behavior of a flat roof with phase change material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayça Tokuç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The selection and configuration of building materials for optimal energy efficiency in a building require some assumptions and models for the thermal behavior of the utilized materials. Although the models for many materials can be considered acceptable for simulation and calculation purposes, the work for modeling the real time behavior of phase change materials is still under development. The data given in this article shows the thermal behavior of a flat roof element with a phase change material (PCM layer. The temperature and energy given to and taken from the building element are reported. In addition the solid–liquid behavior of the PCM is tracked through images. The resulting thermal behavior of the phase change material is discussed and simulated in [1] A. Tokuç, T. Başaran, S.C. Yesügey, An experimental and numerical investigation on the use of phase change materials in building elements: the case of a flat roof in Istanbul, Build. Energy, vol. 102, 2015, pp. 91–104.

  13. Influence of a local change of depth on the behavior of bouncing oil drops

    CERN Document Server

    Carmigniani, Remi; Symon, Sean; McKeon, Beverley J

    2013-01-01

    The work of Couder \\textit{et al} (see also Bush \\textit{et al}) inspired consideration of the impact of a submerged obstacle, providing a local change of depth, on the behavior of oil drops in the bouncing regime. In the linked videos, we recreate some of their results for a drop bouncing on a uniform depth bath of the same liquid undergoing vertical oscillations just below the conditions for Faraday instability, and show a range of new behaviors associated with change of depth. This article accompanies a fluid dynamics video entered into the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics.

  14. Anterior cingulate dopamine turnover and behavior change in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Catherine L; Bell, Brian; Palotti, Matthew; Oh, Jen; Christian, Bradley T.; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Sojkova, Jitka; Buyan-Dent, Laura; Nickles, Robert J.; Harding, Sandra J.; Stone, Charles K.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Holden, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Subtle cognitive and behavioral changes are common in early Parkinson’s disease. The cause of these symptoms is probably multifactorial but may in part be related to extra-striatal dopamine levels. 6-[18F]-Fluoro-L-dopa (FDOPA) positron emission tomography has been widely used to quantify dopamine metabolism in the brain; the most frequently measured kinetic parameter is the tissue uptake rate constant, Ki. However, estimates of dopamine turnover, which also account for the small rate of FDOPA loss from areas of specific trapping, may be more sensitive than Ki for early disease-related changes in dopamine biosynthesis. The purpose of the present study was to compare effective distribution volume ratio (eDVR), a metric for dopamine turnover, to cognitive and behavioral measures in Parkinson’s patients. We chose to focus the investigation on anterior cingulate cortex, which shows highest FDOPA uptake within frontal regions and has known roles in executive function. 15 Non-demented early-stage PD patients were pretreated with carbidopa and tolcapone, a central catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor and then underwent extended imaging with FDOPA PET. Anterior cingulate eDVR was compared with composite scores for language, memory, and executive function measured by neuropsychological testing, and behavior change measured using two informant-based questionnaires, the Cambridge Behavioral Inventory and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function- Adult Version. Lower mean eDVR (thus higher dopamine turnover) in anterior cingulate cortex was related to lower (more impaired) behavior scores. We conclude that subtle changes in anterior cingulate dopamine metabolism may contribute to dysexecutive behaviors in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25511521

  15. [Behavior change from defection to cooperation in a social dilemma: a field study of attitude-behavior consistency in campus parking behavior by motorcyclists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoura, Y

    1987-12-01

    Behavior change by persuasive communications in a social dilemma, in which a university tried to persuade students to park their motorcycles in a designated lot in order to resolve noise problems, was studied by a questionnaire. Hayashi's quantification theory III was applied to variables such as subjective norms, beliefs in the effectiveness of one's cooperation, the perception of campus traffic conditions and attitudes toward one's parking behavior. Factor scores obtained were subjected to a cluster analysis, which, within 105 defectors, yielded three subgroups. Contrary to prediction, subgroups were not different in their cooperation ratio examined 10 months later, but tended to be different in their readiness for acceptance of persuasion and in their intention to cooperate in a social dilemma other than parking. Two mechanisms underlying cooperation were revealed: internalization of prosocial norm, and compliance in which cooperation was unaccompanied by correspondent changes in normative beliefs. The Fishbein model was applicable only to change through internalization. A linear assumption in the Fishbein model between evaluative attitude and behavior should be reexamined in its application to a social dilemma.

  16. Research of the factors which cause strategic changes in organization’s behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Romakhova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the research is theoretical analysis of the influence of factors that cause strategic changes in organization’s behavior and systematization of these factors. Authors suggest recomendations for realization of the chosen directions of organization development. The results of the analysis. It is analyzed the main features of innovative strategy, organizational changes and organization’s behavior. Innovative strategy is understood as the algorithm of protracted purposeful measures necessary for the achievement of advantageous results under potential possibilities. Realization of innovative strategy supposes that organizations will be need to resort the system of strategic changes. Taking into account the folded theoretical and practical generalizations, it is possible to distinguish two groups of strategies that are the most actual nowadays – technological and marketing. During realization of innovative strategy to guidance of organization, it will be necessary to take into account the external and internal factors that influence the behavior of organization. It is possible to choose the directions of strategic changes that can increase the effectiveness of organization activity and terms of changeability of environment and the use of those possibilities that are opened. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Thus, it is possible to draw conclusions, that the offered systematization of factors of external and internal environment of organization is the basis for visualization of long-term prospects of organization, forming the directions of strategic changes in its behavior.

  17. Circannual changes in stress and feeding hormones and their effect on food-seeking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Shaina; Tuplin, Erin; Holahan, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in food availability show a tight association with seasonal variations in body weight and food intake. Seasonal variations in food intake, energy storage, and expenditure appear to be a widespread phenomenon suggesting they may have evolved in anticipation for changing environmental demands. These cycles appear to be driven by changes in external daylength acting on neuroendocrine pathways. A number of neuroendocrine pathways, two of which are the endocrine mechanisms underlying feeding and stress, appear to show seasonal changes in both their circulating levels and reactivity. As such, variation in the level or reactivity to these hormones may be crucial factors in the control of seasonal variations in food-seeking behaviors. The present review examines the relationship between feeding behavior and seasonal changes in circulating hormones. We hypothesize that seasonal changes in circulating levels of glucocorticoids and the feeding-related hormones ghrelin and leptin contribute to seasonal fluctuations in feeding-related behaviors. This review will focus on the seasonal circulating levels of these hormones as well as sensitivity to these hormones in the modulation of food-seeking behaviors.

  18. Lane-changing behavior and its effect on energy dissipation using full velocity difference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Ding, Jian-Xun; Shi, Qin; Kühne, Reinhart D.

    2016-07-01

    In real urban traffic, roadways are usually multilane with lane-specific velocity limits. Most previous researches are derived from single-lane car-following theory which in the past years has been extensively investigated and applied. In this paper, we extend the continuous single-lane car-following model (full velocity difference model) to simulate the three-lane-changing behavior on an urban roadway which consists of three lanes. To meet incentive and security requirements, a comprehensive lane-changing rule set is constructed, taking safety distance and velocity difference into consideration and setting lane-specific speed restriction for each lane. We also investigate the effect of lane-changing behavior on distribution of cars, velocity, headway, fundamental diagram of traffic and energy dissipation. Simulation results have demonstrated asymmetric lane-changing “attraction” on changeable lane-specific speed-limited roadway, which leads to dramatically increasing energy dissipation.

  19. Changes in operant behavior of rats exposed to lead at the accepted no-effect level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Selbeck, E; Gross-Selbeck, M

    1981-11-01

    After weaning, male and female Wistar rats were fed a daily diet containing 1 g lead acetate/kg food until a level of about 20 micrograms/100 mL blood was obtained. The male rats were subjected to the different behavioral tests, whereas the females were mated to untreated males and further exposed until weaning of the offspring. Behavioral testing of the male offspring was performed between 3 and 4 months of age. General behavior of both groups was tested in the open-field task including locomotion, local movements, and emotionality. The conditioned instrumental behavior was tested in the Skinner box from simple to more complex programs. The blood-lead level was measured by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. No behavioral changes became apparent in the open-field task and in the preliminary operant training. In the more complex programs (DRH = Differential Reinforcement of High Rates), the rats exposed to lead after weaning showed slight changes of DRH performance. By contrast, in pre- and neonatally exposed animals, DRH performance was significantly increased, although blood-lead levels had returned to normal at the time of testing. A comparison of lead effects in animals to possible effects in man is discussed in this paper, and it is concluded that lead exposure to man at doses which presently are suggested to be innocuous may result in subclinical functional changes of the central nervous system.

  20. Investigation of Exercise Self - Efficacy and Stage of Exercise Behavior Change in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal ORAL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate self - efficacy and stage of exercise behavior change in students who were studying in school of physical education and sport (PES and students who were studying in other faculty and departments (OFD in Akdeniz University and to evaluate their sport participation habits. Par ticipants were 360 students who were studying in Akdeniz University. Stage of Exercise Behavior Change Questionnaire and Exercise Self - Efficacy Questionnaire were applied to the participants in classroom environment. Results: Results of statistical analyse s revealed that , 27.5 % of men and 19.2% of women were in preparation stage of exercise behavior. There were no significant differences between genders ( p>.05. According to the result of exercise self - efficacy analyses, there were no significant differen ces between male and female students ( p>.05. When examining exercise self - efficacy in student studying different department, there were significant differences between the PES and OFD students (p<.05. Discussion and According to the results o f present study, it was conclude that there were no significant gender differences in both exercise self - efficacy and stage of exercise behavior change. It was found that, PES students had significantly higher score in exercise self - efficacy and in highe r stage of exercise behavior than OFD students.

  1. Promoting Behavior Change from Alcohol Use through Mobile Technology: The Future of Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M.; Hunter-Reel, Dorian; Hagman, Brett T.; Mitchell, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Background Interactive and mobile technologies (i.e., smartphones such as Blackberries, iPhones, and palm-top computers) show promise as an efficacious and cost-effective means of communicating health-behavior risks, improving public health outcomes, and accelerating behavior change (Abroms and Maibach, 2008). The present study was conducted as a “needs assessment” to examine the current available mobile smartphone applications (e.g., apps) that utilize principles of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) -- daily self-monitoring or near real-time self-assessment of alcohol use behavior -- to promote positive behavior change, alcohol harm reduction, psycho-education about alcohol use, or abstinence from alcohol. Methods Data were collected and analyzed from iTunes for Apple iPhone©. An inventory assessed the number of available apps that directly addressed alcohol use and consumption, alcohol treatment, or recovery, and whether these apps incorporated empirically-based components of alcohol treatment. Results Findings showed that few apps addressed alcohol use behavior change or recovery. Aside from tracking drinking consumption, a minority utilized empirically-based components of alcohol treatment. Some apps claimed they could serve as an intervention, however no empirical evidence was provided. Conclusions More studies are needed to examine the efficacy of mobile technology in alcohol intervention studies. The large gap between availability of mobile apps and their use in alcohol treatment programs indicate several important future directions for research. PMID:21689119

  2. Motivating Treatment Seeking and Behavior Change by Untreated Military Personnel Abusing Alcohol or Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Award Number:W81XWH-09-2-0135 TITLE: Motivating Treatment Seeking and Behavior Change by Untreated Military Personnel Abusing Alcohol or Drugs ...Untreated Military Personnel Abusing Alcohol or Drugs 5b. GRANT NUMBER DR081215 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Denise Walker...consequences, (b) self-initiated change or enrollment in a treatment or self-help program, and (c) cessation of abuse of alcohol or other drugs

  3. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced

    OpenAIRE

    Paluch Rocco A; Cavanaugh Meghan D; Roemmich James N; Epstein Leonard H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. Methods The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participa...

  4. Gene expression changes following extinction testing in a heroin behavioral incubation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Willard M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of gene expression studies have investigated changes induced by drug exposure, but few reports describe changes that persist following relapse. In this study, genome-wide analysis of gene expression was conducted following an extinction session (90 min in rats that expressed behavioral incubation of heroin-seeking and goal-directed behavior. As an important modulator of goal-directed behavior, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC was the target of genomic analysis. Rats were trained to self-administer heroin during 3 h daily sessions for 14 d. Following the self-administration period, rats were reintroduced to the self-administration chambers for a 90-minute extinction session in which they could seek heroin, but received none. Extinction sessions were conducted on groups after either 1 d or 14 d of drug-free enforced abstinence to demonstrate behavioral incubation. Results Behavioral data demonstrated incubation (increased expression of heroin-seeking and goal-directed behavior after the 14 d abstinent period. That is, following 14 d of enforced abstinence, animals displayed heightened drug-seeking behavior when returned to the environment where they had previously received heroin. This increased drug-seeking took place despite the fact that they received no drug during this extinction session. Whole genome gene expression analysis was performed and results were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. Microarrays identified 66 genes whose expression was identified as changed by at least 1.4 fold (p bdnf, calb1, dusp5, dusp6, egr1, npy, rgs2. Conclusion Ontological analysis indicates that several of the genes confirmed to be changed are important for neuroplasticity, and through that role may impact learning and behavior. The importance of drug-seeking behavior and memory of previous drug-taking sessions suggest that such genes may be important for relapse. The global gene expression analysis adds to the

  5. The changing brain--insights into the mechanisms of neural and behavioral adaptation to the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergersen, L H; Bramham, C R; Hugdahl, K

    2013-01-01

    in the vomero-nasal organ can switch off male-specific and switch on female-specific innate behavior of mice in response to environmental stimulation (Dulac). Innate behaviors can be stably transmitted from parent to offspring through generations even when those behaviors cannot be expressed, as illustrated...... of the Symposium presentations was the mechanisms by which animals adapt to their environment. The symposium speakers--Michael Greenberg, Erin Schuman, Chiara Cirelli, Michael Meaney, Catherine Dulac, Hopi Hoekstra, and Stanislas Dehaene--covered topics ranging from the molecular and cellular levels to the systems...... level and behavior. Thus a single amino acid change in a transcriptional repressor can disrupt gene regulation through neural activity (Greenberg). Deep sequencing analysis of the neuropil transcriptome indicates that a large fraction of the synaptic proteome is synthesized in situ in axons...

  6. Sustaining Behavior Changes Following a Venous Leg Ulcer Client Education Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charne Miller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous leg ulcers are a symptom of chronic insufficiency of the veins. This study considered the sustainability of behavior changes arising from a client focus e-Learning education program called the “Leg Ulcer Prevention Program” (LUPP for people with a venous leg ulcer. Data from two related studies were used to enable a single sample (n = 49 examination of behavior maintenance across an average 8 to 9 months period. Physical activity levels increased over time. Leg elevation, calf muscle exercises, and soap substitute use were seen to fluctuate over the follow up time points. The use of a moisturizer showed gradual decline over time. The provision of a client-focused venous leg ulcer program was associated with behavior changes that had varied sustainability across the evaluation period.

  7. Sustaining Behavior Changes Following a Venous Leg Ulcer Client Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charne; Kapp, Suzanne; Donohue, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers are a symptom of chronic insufficiency of the veins. This study considered the sustainability of behavior changes arising from a client focus e-Learning education program called the “Leg Ulcer Prevention Program” (LUPP) for people with a venous leg ulcer. Data from two related studies were used to enable a single sample (n = 49) examination of behavior maintenance across an average 8 to 9 months period. Physical activity levels increased over time. Leg elevation, calf muscle exercises, and soap substitute use were seen to fluctuate over the follow up time points. The use of a moisturizer showed gradual decline over time. The provision of a client-focused venous leg ulcer program was associated with behavior changes that had varied sustainability across the evaluation period. PMID:27429280

  8. Changing health behavior motivation from I-must to I-want.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, S; Kenning, P

    2016-01-01

    In the past, medicine was dominated by acute diseases. Since treatments were unknown to patients they followed their medical doctors´ directives-at least for the duration of the disease. Behavior was thus largely motivated by avoiding expected costs associated with alternative behaviors (I-must). The health challenges prevailing today are chronic conditions resulting from the way we chose to live. Traditional directive communication has not been successful in eliciting and maintaining appropriate lifestyle changes. An approach successful in other fields is to motivate behavior by increasing expected rewards (I-want). Drawing on neuroeconomic and marketing research, we outline strategies including simplification, repeated exposure, default framing, social comparisons, and consumer friendliness to foster sustained changes in preference. We further show how these measures could be integrated into the health care system.

  9. Enforced water drinking induces changes in burying behavior and social interaction test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldívar-González, J A; Hernández-León, M J; Mondragón-Ceballos, R

    1996-09-01

    The effect of water deprivation and water intake on experimental anxiety in rats was tested using burying behavior (BB) and social interaction (SI) anxiety paradigms. Two groups of animals were studied: a control group with free access to water, and a 72-h water-deprived experimental group. Anxiety was studied in a water-deprived group or following a 10-min period of ad lib water drinking. An increase in the mean time of defensive burying in animals deprived for 72 h was observed, whereas an important reduction occurred in the levels of burying behavior immediately after the animals were allowed to drink ad lib for 10 min. These results suggest that the observed increase in defensive burying in the water-deprived animals represents an anxiogenic effect, whereas the decrease in this behavior in water-satiated animals is considered an anxiolytic action. The temporal course of reduction in burying behavior, observed after water drinking, revealed that the anxiolytic action lasts 5 min, whereas 15-30 min after drinking, burying behavior levels were similar to those in the control group. In the social interaction experiment a partial anxiogenic/anxiolytic effect of water deprivation and water intake was observed. The adaptive meaning of anxiogenic and anxiolytic changes linked to consummatory behaviors in rats is discussed on the basis of behavioral and biochemical data.

  10. Neural substrates of contingency learning and executive control: dissociating physical, valuative, and behavioral changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Contingency learning is fundamental to cognition. Knowledge about environmental contingencies allows behavioral flexibility, as executive control processes accommodate the demands of novel or changing environments. Studies of experiential learning have focused on the relationship between actions and the values of associated outcomes. However, outcome values have often been confounded with the physical changes in the outcomes themselves. Here, we dissociated contingency learning into valuative and non-valuative forms, using a novel version of the two-alternative choice task, while measuring the neural effects of contingency changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Changes in value-relevant contingencies evoked activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC, posterior parietal cortex (PPC, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC consistent with prior results (e.g., reversal-learning paradigms. Changes in physical contingencies unrelated to value or to action produced similar activations within the LPFC, indicating that LPFC may engage in generalized contingency learning that is not specific to valuation. In contrast, contingency changes that required behavioral shifts evoked activation localized to the DMPFC, supplementary motor, and precentral cortices, suggesting that these regions play more specific roles within the executive control of behavior.

  11. Clemastine Enhances Myelination in the Prefrontal Cortex and Rescues Behavioral Changes in Socially Isolated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Dupree, Jeffrey L; Gacias, Mar; Frawley, Rebecca; Sikder, Tamjeed; Naik, Payal; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2016-01-20

    Altered myelin structure and oligodendrocyte function have been shown to correlate with cognitive and motor dysfunction and deficits in social behavior. We and others have previously demonstrated that social isolation in mice induced behavioral, transcriptional, and ultrastructural changes in oligodendrocytes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation could be beneficial in reversing such changes remains unexplored. To test this hypothesis, we orally administered clemastine, an antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in vitro, for 2 weeks in adult mice following social isolation. Clemastine successfully reversed social avoidance behavior in mice undergoing prolonged social isolation. Impaired myelination was rescued by oral clemastine treatment, and was associated with enhanced oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation and epigenetic changes. Clemastine induced higher levels of repressive histone methylation (H3K9me3), a marker for heterochromatin, in oligodendrocytes, but not neurons, of the PFC. This was consistent with the capability of clemastine in elevating H3K9 histone methyltransferases activity in cultured primary mouse oligodendrocytes, an effect that could be antagonized by cotreatment with muscarine. Our data suggest that promoting adult myelination is a potential strategy for reversing depressive-like social behavior. Significance statement: Oligodendrocyte development and myelination are highly dynamic processes influenced by experience and neuronal activity. However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation is beneficial to treat depressive-like behavior has been unexplored. Mice undergoing prolonged social isolation display impaired myelination in the prefrontal cortex. Clemastine, a Food and Drug Administration-approved antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance myelination under

  12. Using Narrative Communication as a Tool for Health Behavior Change: A Conceptual, Theoretical, and Empirical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinyard, Leslie J.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2007-01-01

    Narrative is the basic mode of human interaction and a fundamental way of acquiring knowledge. In the rapidly growing field of health communication, narrative approaches are emerging as a promising set of tools for motivating and supporting health-behavior change. This article defines narrative communication and describes the rationale for using…

  13. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  14. Influencing Attitudes and Changing Behavior: A Basic Introduction to Relevant Methodology, Theory, and Applications. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip; Ebbesen, Ebbe B.

    In this introductory text to the field of attitude change, the emphasis is on one of the end products of research in social psychology--manipulation and control of attitudes and related behaviors. The text first defines the concept of attitude, then identifies ideas from the areas of history, literature, law, religion, and the social sciences that…

  15. Appreciative Inquiry and Video Self Modeling Leadership Program: Achieving Skill or Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, Bethany Jewell

    2013-01-01

    A leadership program was created for students to gain skills and/or change their behavior using Appreciative Inquiry and Video Self Modeling, VSM. In 2011a youth that experiences a disability had been unable to achieve a skill utilizing traditional methods of skill acquisition. He employed the Appreciative Inquiry and VSM leadership program and…

  16. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Unified Model of Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Levin, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The present article summarizes the assumptions, model, techniques, evidence, and diversity/social justice commitments of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). ACT focused on six processes (acceptance, defusion, self, now, values, and action) that bear on a single overall target (psychological flexibility). The ACT model of behavior change has…

  17. Sensitivity to Change of Objectively-Derived Measures of Sedentary Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastin, Sebastien F. M.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Eakin, Elizabeth G.; Gardiner, Paul A.; Dunstan, David W.; Owen, Neville; Healy, Genevieve N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the sensitivity to change of measures of sedentary behavior derived from body worn sensors in different intervention designs. Results from two intervention studies: "Stand up for Your Health" (pre-post home-based study with older adults not in paid employment) and "Stand Up Comcare"…

  18. Teacher Behaviors Associated with Student Change in Attitude Toward a Teacher Education Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Mary M.

    The relationship between student perception of teacher behaviors and change in students' attitude toward a course in preservice teacher education was studied. The course selected was School and Society, a required course in educational foundations. Subjects included 87 students enrolled in eight sections taught by six instructors. A common…

  19. Evaluation of Teachers’ Perceptions Related to High School Principals’ Behaviors about Change Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali TAŞ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate teacher perceptions related to behaviors of high school principals’management of change and whether there is any difference between these perceptions according to somevariables. The research is a descriptive study based on survey model. The data for the research were obtainedby means of “Change Management Behavior Scale”. The data obtained from 152 high school teachers wereconsidered as convenient for the analysis. Data were analyzed by using frequency, mean, t-test and ANOVAtest. Results showed that according to the perceptions of the teachers, high school principals “sometimes’’realize the behaviors of ‘‘taking risks to carry out the change’’ while they ‘‘usually’’ consider ‘‘the parentsand teachers affecting the change process’���. The teacher perceptions related to the behaviors of high schoolprincipals’ change management didn’t show any significant differences according to teachers’ gender,seniority, branch and type of the school that teachers work at.

  20. Aggressive behavior and change in salivary testosterone concentrations predict willingness to engage in a competitive task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2008-08-01

    The current study investigated relationships among aggressive behavior, change in salivary testosterone concentrations, and willingness to engage in a competitive task. Thirty-eight male participants provided saliva samples before and after performing the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (a laboratory measure that provides opportunity for aggressive and defensive behavior while working for reward; all three involve pressing specific response keys). Baseline testosterone concentrations were not associated with aggressive responding. However, aggressive responding (but not point reward or point protection responding) predicted the pre- to post-PSAP change in testosterone: Those with the highest aggressive responding had the largest percent increase in testosterone concentrations. Together, aggressive responding and change in testosterone predicted willingness to compete following the PSAP. Controlling for aggression, men who showed a rise in testosterone were more likely to choose to compete again (p=0.03) and controlling for testosterone change, men who showed the highest level of aggressive responding were more likely to choose the non-competitive task (p=0.02). These results indicate that situation-specific aggressive behavior and testosterone responsiveness are functionally relevant predictors of future social behavior.

  1. Southern Chinese Collegiate Stage of Exercise Behavior Changes and Exercise Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Xiaofen Deng; Huang, Yong; Deng, Minying; Chen, Li; Dwan, Chuanwei; Bridges, Dwan

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine southern Chinese college student (N = 1983) stage of exercise behavior changes (SEBC) and their exercise self-efficacy (ESE). The SEBC and ESE scales were used to collect data. ANOVA was performed to investigate the differences in ESE by SEBC. Post Hoc Tukey tests were employed to determine which variables contributed…

  2. Persuasive Embodied Agents: Using Embodied Agents to Change People's Behavior, Beliefs, and Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    Embodied Conversational Agents (i.e., avatars; ECAs) are appearing in increasingly many everyday contexts, such as e-commerce, occupational training, and airport security. Also common to a typical person's daily life is persuasion. Whether being persuaded or persuading, the ability to change another person's attitude or behavior is a…

  3. Social and behavior change communication in the fight against malaria in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroz, Jorge Alexandre Harrison

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and/or indoor residual spraying, associated with case management, are key interventions in the control of malaria in Africa. The objective of this study is to comment on the role of social and behavior change communication as a potential key intervention in the control of malaria in Mozambique.

  4. The Role of Persuasive Arguments in Changing Affirmative Action Attitudes and Expressed Behavior in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Fiona A.; Charles, Margaret A.; Nelson, Jacqueline K.

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of…

  5. Playing for Real, Video Games and Stories for Health-Related Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Video games provide extensive player involvement for large numbers of children and adults, and thereby provide a channel for delivering health behavior change experiences and messages in an engaging and entertaining format. Twenty-seven articles were identified on 25 video games that promoted health...

  6. Prediction of change in level of problem behavior among children of bipolar parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wals, M; Reichart, CG; Hillegers, MHJ; Nolen, WA; Van Os, J; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of familial loading, birth weight, and family problems on change in parent-reported problems across a 14-month period among children of bipolar parents. Method: Emotional and behavioral problems in a sample of 140 offspring of bipolar parents and familial loading

  7. Combinations of techniques that effectively change health behavior : evidence from meta-Cart analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, E.; Buuren, S. van; Genugten, L. van; Verheijden, M.W.; Empelen, P. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many health-promoting interventions combine multiple behavior change techniques (BCTs) to maximize effectiveness. Although, in theory, BCTs can amplify each other, the available meta-analyses have not been able to identify specific combinations of techniques that provide synergistic effec

  8. Behavioral Changes Based on a Course in Agroecology: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Kristyn; King, James; Francis, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated and described student perceptions of a course in agroecology to determine if participants experienced changed perceptions and behaviors resulting from the Agroecosystems Analysis course. A triangulation validating quantitative data mixed methods approach included a written survey comprised of both quantitative and open-ended…

  9. Exploring Environmental Identity and Behavioral Change in an Environmental Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States investigates the process of change in students' environmental identity and proenvironmental behaviors during an Environmental Science course. The study explores how sociocultural factors, such as students' background, social interactions, and classroom structures,…

  10. Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Behavior Change: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D.; Cushing, Christopher C.; Aylward, Brandon S.; Craig, James T.; Sorell, Danielle M.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) interventions for adolescent substance use behavior change. Method: Literature searches of electronic databases were undertaken in addition to manual reference searches of identified review articles. Databases searched include…

  11. Enhancing the Capacity to Create Behavior Change: Extension Key Leaders' Opinions about Social Marketing and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Extension educators endeavor to create and measure outcomes beyond knowledge gain. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the role of social marketing as a method for creating behavior change within the University of Florida Extension system through key leader opinions. Additionally, the study sought to identify perceptions about…

  12. An Adolescent Nutrition Learning Model to Facilitate Behavior Change in Overweight Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly J.; Ramsay, Samantha A.; Holyoke, Laura B.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the process by which adolescents learn about nutrition is necessary for developing tailored education that leads to sustainable behavior change. Teens aged 15-17 participating in an obesity prevention program were interviewed. From the data, three themes emerged and informed development of an adolescent nutrition learning model. The…

  13. Longitudinal Changes in Behavioral Approach System Sensitivity and Brain Structures Involved in Reward Processing during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urosevic, Snezana; Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Lim, Kelvin; Luciana, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of radical normative changes and increased risk for substance use, mood disorders, and physical injury. Researchers have proposed that increases in reward sensitivity (i.e., sensitivity of the behavioral approach system [BAS]) and/or increases in reactivity to all emotional stimuli (i.e., reward and threat sensitivities)…

  14. Bereavement and behavioral changes as risk factors for cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca LM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Luciana Mascarenhas Fonseca,1 Melaine Cristina de Oliveira,2 Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira Guilhoto,3,4 Esper Abrao Cavalheiro,3,4 Cássio MC Bottino1 1Old Age Research Group, Department of Psychiatry, 2Institute of Mathematics and Statistics, University of São Paulo, 3Association of Parents and Friends of People with Intellectual Disability of São Paulo, 4Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease often affect older adults with Down syndrome (DS much earlier than those in the general population. There is also growing evidence of the effects of negative life events on the mental health and behavior of individuals with intellectual disability. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study investigating objective cognitive decline following bereavement in aging individuals with DS.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether cognitive decline correlates with bereavement following the recent loss of a caregiver or with behavioral changes in a sample of adult individuals with DS who do not meet the criteria for dementia or depression, using the longitudinal assessment of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG, together with the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE.Methods: We evaluated 18 subjects at baseline and over a follow-up period of 14–22 months, attempting to determine whether cognitive decline correlates with bereavement following the recent loss of the main caregiver or with behavioral changes (as assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory.Results: The mean rate of change in CAMCOG was -1.83 (standard deviation 4.51. Behavioral changes had a significant direct influence on cognitive decline. When bereavement was accompanied by behavioral changes, the probability of cognitive decline was 87% (odds ratio 3.82. Conclusion: The occurrence of behavioral changes attributed to bereavement following the loss of

  15. Morphological and behavioral changes in the pathogenesis of a novel mouse model of communicating hydrocephalus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison B McMullen

    Full Text Available The Ro1 model of hydrocephalus represents an excellent model for studying the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus due to its complete penetrance and inducibility, enabling the investigation of the earliest cellular and histological changes in hydrocephalus prior to overt pathology. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy were used to characterize the histopathological events of hydrocephalus in this model. Additionally, a broad battery of behavioral tests was used to investigate behavioral changes in the Ro1 model of hydrocephalus. The earliest histological changes observed in this model were ventriculomegaly and disorganization of the ependymal lining of the aqueduct of Sylvius, which occurred concomitantly. Ventriculomegaly led to thinning of the ependyma, which was associated with periventricular edema and areas of the ventricular wall void of cilia and microvilli. Ependymal denudation was subsequent to severe ventriculomegaly, suggesting that it is an effect, rather than a cause, of hydrocephalus in the Ro1 model. Additionally, there was no closure of the aqueduct of Sylvius or any blockages within the ventricular system, even with severe ventriculomegaly, suggesting that the Ro1 model represents a model of communicating hydrocephalus. Interestingly, even with severe ventriculomegaly, there were no behavioral changes, suggesting that the brain is able to compensate for the structural changes that occur in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus if the disorder progresses at a sufficiently slow rate.

  16. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Methamphetamine-Induced Behavioral Changes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chiang-Wen; Lu, Zi-Yun; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Ho, Ing-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a major drug of abuse worldwide, and no efficient therapeutic strategies for treating METH addiction are currently available. Continuous METH use can cause behavioral upregulation or psychosis. The dopaminergic pathways, particularly the neural circuitry from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), have a critical role in this behavioral stage. Acupuncture has been used for treating diseases in China for more than 2000 years. According to a World Health Organization report, acupuncture can be used to treat several functional disorders, including substance abuse. In addition, acupuncture is effective against opioids addiction. In this study, we used electroacupuncture (EA) for treating METH-induced behavioral changes and investigated the possible therapeutic mechanism. Results showed that EA at the unilateral Zhubin (KI9)–Taichong (LR3) significantly reduced METH-induced behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference. In addition, both dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels decreased but monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) levels increased in the NAc of the METH-treated mice receiving EA compared with those not receiving EA. EA may be a useful nonpharmacological approach for treating METH-induced behavioral changes, probably because it reduces the METH-induced TH expression and dopamine levels and raises MAO-A expression in the NAc.

  17. Changes in taste perception and eating behavior after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Bradley, David; Eagon, J. Christopher; Sullivan, Shelby; Abumrad, Nada A.; Klein, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes greater weight loss than laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We tested the hypothesis that RYGB has weight loss-independent effects on taste perception which influence eating behavior and contribute to the greater weight loss. Design and Methods Subjects were studied before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n=17) or LAGB (n=10). We evaluated: taste sensitivity for sweet, salty and savory stimuli; sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) preferences; sweetness palatability; eating behavior; and expression of taste-related genes in biopsies of fungiform papillae. Results Weight loss induced by both procedures caused the same decrease in: preferred sucrose concentration (−12±10%), perceived sweetness of sucrose (−7±5%), cravings for sweets and fast-foods (−22 ±5%), influence of emotions (−27±5%) and external food cues (−30±4%) on eating behavior, and expression of α-gustducin in fungiform papillae (all P-values <0.05). RYGB, but not LAGB, shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (P=0.05). Neither procedure affected taste detection thresholds or MSG preferences. Conclusions LAGB and RYGB cause similar alterations in eating behaviors, when weight loss is matched. These changes in eating behavior were not associated with changes in taste sensitivity, suggesting other, as yet unknown, mechanisms are involved. PMID:24167016

  18. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Methamphetamine-Induced Behavioral Changes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Jung Ho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a major drug of abuse worldwide, and no efficient therapeutic strategies for treating METH addiction are currently available. Continuous METH use can cause behavioral upregulation or psychosis. The dopaminergic pathways, particularly the neural circuitry from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens (NAc, have a critical role in this behavioral stage. Acupuncture has been used for treating diseases in China for more than 2000 years. According to a World Health Organization report, acupuncture can be used to treat several functional disorders, including substance abuse. In addition, acupuncture is effective against opioids addiction. In this study, we used electroacupuncture (EA for treating METH-induced behavioral changes and investigated the possible therapeutic mechanism. Results showed that EA at the unilateral Zhubin (KI9–Taichong (LR3 significantly reduced METH-induced behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference. In addition, both dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH levels decreased but monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A levels increased in the NAc of the METH-treated mice receiving EA compared with those not receiving EA. EA may be a useful nonpharmacological approach for treating METH-induced behavioral changes, probably because it reduces the METH-induced TH expression and dopamine levels and raises MAO-A expression in the NAc.

  19. The Perception and Valuation of the Risks of Climate Change. A Rational and Behavioral Blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viscusi, W.K. [Cogan Professor of Law and Economics, Harvard Law School, 1575 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zeckhauser, R.J. [Ramsey Professor of Political Economy, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Over 250 respondents - graduate students in law and public policy - assessed the risks of climate change and valued climate-change mitigation policies. Many aspects of their behavior were consistent with rational behavior. For example, respondents successfully estimated distributions of temperature increases in Boston by 2100. The median value of best estimates was 1-3 degrees Fahrenheit. In addition, people with higher risk estimates, whether for temperature or related risks (e.g., hurricane intensities) offered more to avoid warming. Median willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid global warming was $0.50/gallon, and 3% of income. And important scope tests (e.g., respondents paid more for bigger accomplishments) were passed. However, significant behavioral propensities also emerged. For example, accessibility of neutral information on global warming boosted risk estimates. Warming projections correlated with estimates for unrelated risks, such as earthquakes and heart attacks. The implied WTP for avoidance was much greater when asked as a percent of income than as a gas tax, a percent thinking bias. Home team betting showed itself; individuals predicting a Bush victory predicted smaller temperature increases. In the climate-change arena, behavioral decision tendencies are like a fun-house mirror: They magnify some estimates and shrink others, but the contours of rational decision remain recognizable.

  20. Changes in brain protein expression are linked to magnesium restriction-induced depression-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Nigel; Li, Lin; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Yang, Jae-Won; Sartori, Simone B; Lubec, Gert; Singewald, Nicolas

    2011-04-01

    There is evidence to suggest that low levels of magnesium (Mg) are associated with affective disorders, however, causality and central neurobiological mechanisms of this link are largely unproven. We have recently shown that mice fed a low Mg-containing diet (10% of daily requirement) display enhanced depression-like behavior sensitive to chronic antidepressant treatment. The aim of the present study was to utilize this model to gain insight into underlying mechanisms by quantifying amygdala/hypothalamus protein expression using gel-based proteomics and correlating changes in protein expression with changes in depression-like behavior. Mice fed Mg-restricted diet displayed reduced brain Mg tissue levels and altered expression of four proteins, N(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1), manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) and voltage-dependent anion channel 1. The observed alterations in protein expression may indicate increased nitric oxide production, increased anti-oxidant response to increased oxidative stress and potential alteration in energy metabolism. Aberrant expressions of DDAH1, MnSOD and GDH1 were normalized by chronic paroxetine treatment which also normalized the enhanced depression-like behavior, strengthening the link between the changes in these proteins and depression-like behavior. Collectively, these findings provide first evidence of low magnesium-induced alteration in brain protein levels and biochemical pathways, contributing to central dysregulation in affective disorders.

  1. Behavior Change or Empowerment: On the Ethics of Health-Promotion Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2016-03-01

    One important ethical issue for health promotion and public health work is to determine what the goals for these practices should be. This paper will try to clarify what some of these goals are thought to be, and what they ought to be. It will specifically discuss two different approaches to health promotion, such as, behavior change and empowerment. The general aim of this paper is, thus, to compare the behavior-change approach and the empowerment approach, concerning their immediate (instrumental) goals or aims, and to morally evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of these two goal models, in relation to the ultimate goal of health promotion. The investigation shows that the behavior-change approach has several moral problems. First of all, it is overly paternalistic and often disregards the individual's or group's own perception of what is important-something that also increases the risk of failed interventions. Furthermore, it risks leading to 'victim blaming' and stigmatization, and to increased inequalities in health, and it puts focus on the 'wrong' problems, i.e., behavior instead of the 'causes of the causes'. It is thereafter shown that the empowerment approach does not have any of these problems. Finally, some specific problems for the empowerment approach are discussed and resolved, such as, the idea that empowering some groups might lead to power over others, the objection that the focus is not primarily on health (which it should be), and the fact that empowered people might choose to live lives that risk reducing their health.

  2. Behavioral and cognitive changes after early postnatal lesions of the rat mediodorsal thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Mitchell, Anna S; Elidrissi, Abdeslem; Bennis, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Early insults to the thalamus result in functional and/or structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. However, differences in behavioral and cognitive changes after early insult are not well characterized. The present study assessed whether early postnatal damage to mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD), reciprocally interconnected with the prefrontal cortex, causes behavioral and cognitive alterations in young adult rats. Rat pups at postnatal day 4 received bilateral electrolytic lesion of MD, or a MD Sham lesion or were anesthetized controls; on recovery they were returned to their mothers until weaning. Seven weeks later, all rats were tested with the following behavioral and cognitive paradigms: T-maze test, open field test, actimetry, elevated plus maze test, social interactions test and passive avoidance test. Rats with bilateral MD damage presented with disrupted recognition memory, deficits in shifting response rules, significant hypoactivity, increased anxiety-like behavior, deficits in learning associations as well as decreased locomotor activity, and reduced social interactions compared to MD Sham lesion and anesthetized Control rats. The lesion also caused significant decreases in pyramidal cell density in three frontal cortex regions: medial infralimbic cortex, dorsolateral anterior cortex, and cingulate Cg1 cortex. The present findings suggest a functional role for MD in the postnatal maturation of affective behavior. Further some of the behavioral and cognitive alterations observed in these young adult rats after early MD lesion are reminiscent of those present in major psycho-affective disorders, such as schizophrenia in humans.

  3. Inhibition of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons results in complex behavioral changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J A; Ramikie, T S; Schmidt, M J; Báldi, R; Garbett, K; Everheart, M G; Warren, L E; Gellért, L; Horváth, S; Patel, S; Mirnics, Károly

    2015-12-01

    Reduced expression of the Gad1 gene-encoded 67-kDa protein isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) is a hallmark of schizophrenia. GAD67 downregulation occurs in multiple interneuronal sub-populations, including the parvalbumin-positive (PVALB+) cells. To investigate the role of the PV-positive GABAergic interneurons in behavioral and molecular processes, we knocked down the Gad1 transcript using a microRNA engineered to target specifically Gad1 mRNA under the control of Pvalb bacterial artificial chromosome. Verification of construct expression was performed by immunohistochemistry. Follow-up electrophysiological studies revealed a significant reduction in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release probability without alterations in postsynaptic membrane properties or changes in glutamatergic release probability in the prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons. Behavioral characterization of our transgenic (Tg) mice uncovered that the Pvalb/Gad1 Tg mice have pronounced sensorimotor gating deficits, increased novelty-seeking and reduced fear extinction. Furthermore, NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor antagonism by ketamine had an opposing dose-dependent effect, suggesting that the differential dosage of ketamine might have divergent effects on behavioral processes. All behavioral studies were validated using a second cohort of animals. Our results suggest that reduction of GABAergic transmission from PVALB+ interneurons primarily impacts behavioral domains related to fear and novelty seeking and that these alterations might be related to the behavioral phenotype observed in schizophrenia.

  4. Dolphin changes in whistle structure with watercraft activity depends on their behavioral state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Collado, Laura J; Quiñones-Lebrón, Shakira G

    2014-04-01

    Dolphins rely on whistles to identify each other and to receive and convey information about their environment. Although capable of adjusting these signals with changing environments, there is little information on how dolphins acoustically respond to different watercraft activities and if this response depends on dolphin behavioral state. Bottlenose dolphin whistles were recorded in the presence of research and dolphin-watching boats. Dolphins emitted lower frequency and longer whistles when interacting with dolphin-watching boats, particularly during foraging activities. This study suggests that dolphin-watching boat traffic significantly hinders dolphin communication during important behavioral states.

  5. Harnessing the power of conversations with virtual humans to change health behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Cyrille; Serri, Deborah; Bleeker, Seth; Goldman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Skillful, collaborative conversations are powerful tools to improve physical and mental health. Whether you are a parent talking with your child about the dangers of substance abuse, an educator concerned about a student’s signs of psychological distress, a veteran worried about a buddy who is contemplating suicide, or a healthcare professional wanting to better engage patients to increase treatment compliance, having the skill, confidence and motivation to engage in conversations can truly transform the health and well-being of those you interact with. Kognito develops role-play simulations that prepare individuals to effectively lead real-life conversations that measurably improve social, emotional, and physical health. The behavior change model that drives the simulations draws upon components of game mechanics, virtual human simulation technology and integrates evidence-based instructional design components as well as principles of social-cognitive theory and neuroscience such as motivational interviewing, emotional regulation, empathy and mindfulness. In the simulations, users or enter a risk-free practice environment and engage in a conversation with intelligent, fully animated, and emotionally responsive virtual characters that model human behavior. It is in practicing these conversations, and receiving feedback from a virtual coach, that users learn to better lead conversations in real life. Numerous longitudinal studies have shown that users who complete Kognito simulations demonstrate statistically significant and sustained increases in attitudinal variables that predict behavior change including preparedness, likelihood, and self-efficacy to better manage conversations. Pending the target population, each online or mobile simulation resulted in desired behavior changes ranging from increased referrals of students, patients or veterans in psychological distress to mental health support services, or increasing physician patient-centered communication or

  6. Predicting the effect of climate change on wildfire behavior and initial attack success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, William; Fried, Jeremy S.; Gilless, J. Keith; Riley, William J.; Moody, Tadashi J.; Simon de Blas, Clara; Hayhoe, Katharine; Moritz, Max; Stephens, Scott; Torn, Margaret

    2007-12-01

    This study focused on how climate change-induced effects on weather will translate into changes in wildland fire severity and outcomes in California, particularly on the effectiveness of initial attack at limiting the number of fires that escape initial attack. The results indicate that subtle shifts in fire behavior of the sort that might be induced by the climate changes anticipated for the next century are of sufficient magnitude to generate an appreciable increase in the number of fires that escape initial attack. Such escapes are of considerable importance in wildland fire protection planning, given the high cost to society of a catastrophic escape like those experienced in recent decades in the Berkeley-Oakland, Santa Barbara, San Diego, or Los Angeles areas. However, at least for the three study areas considered, it would appear that relatively modest augmentations to existing firefighting resources might be sufficient to compensate for change-induced changes in wildland fire outcomes.

  7. The association of income with health behavior change and disease monitoring among patients with chronic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J T Campbell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Management of chronic diseases requires patients to adhere to recommended health behavior change and complete tests for monitoring. While studies have shown an association between low income and lack of adherence, the reasons why people with low income may be less likely to adhere are unclear. We sought to determine the association between household income and receipt of health behavior change advice, adherence to advice, receipt of recommended monitoring tests, and self-reported reasons for non-adherence/non-receipt. METHODS: We conducted a population-weighted survey, with 1849 respondents with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases (heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke from Western Canada (n = 1849. We used log-binomial regression to examine the association between household income and the outcome variables of interest: receipt of advice for and adherence to health behavior change (sodium reduction, dietary improvement, increased physical activity, smoking cessation, weight loss, reasons for non-adherence, receipt of recommended monitoring tests (cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure, and reasons for non-receipt of tests. RESULTS: Behavior change advice was received equally by both low and high income respondents. Low income respondents were more likely than those with high income to not adhere to recommendations regarding smoking cessation (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (PRR: 1.55, 95%CI: 1.09-2.20, and more likely to not receive measurements of blood cholesterol (PRR: 1.72, 95%CI 1.24-2.40 or glucose (PRR: 1.80, 95%CI: 1.26-2.58. Those with low income were less likely to state that non-adherence/non-receipt was due to personal choice, and more likely to state that it was due to an extrinsic factor, such as cost or lack of accessibility. CONCLUSIONS: There are important income-related differences in the patterns of health behavior change and disease monitoring, as well as reasons for non-adherence or non

  8. Social transmission of avoidance behavior under situational change in learned and unlearned rats.

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    Akira Masuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats receive information from other conspecifics by observation or other types of social interaction. Such social interaction may contribute to the effective adaptation to changes of environment such as situational switching. Learning to avoid dangerous places or objects rapidly occurs with even a single conditioning session, and the conditioned memory tends to be sustained over long periods. The avoidance is important for adaptation, but the details of the conditions under which the social transmission of avoidance is formed are unknown. We demonstrate that the previous experience of avoidance learning is important for the formation of behaviors for social transmission of avoidance and that the experienced rats adapt to a change of situation determined by the presence or absence of aversive stimuli. We systematically investigated social influence on avoidance behavior using a passive avoidance test in a light/dark two-compartment apparatus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were divided into two groups, one receiving foot shocks and another with no aversive experience in a dark compartment. Experienced and inexperienced rats were further divided into subjects and partners. In Experiment 1, each subject experienced (1 interaction with an experienced partner, (2 interaction with an inexperienced partner, or (3 no interaction. In Experiment 2, each subject experienced interaction with a partner that received a shock. The entering latency to a light compartment was measured. The avoidance behavior of experienced rats was inhibited by interaction with inexperienced or experienced partners in a safely-changed situation. The avoidance of experienced rats was reinstated in a dangerously-changed situation by interaction with shocked rats. In contrast, the inexperienced rats were not affected by any social circumstances. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that transmitted information among rats can be updated under a

  9. Socioeconomic inequalities and changes in oral health behaviors among Brazilian adolescents from 2009 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Jordão, Lidia Moraes Ribeiro; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Peres, Marco Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health behaviors changes over time in Brazilian adolescents concerning maternal educational inequalities. METHODS Data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (Brazilian National School Health Survey) were analyzed. The sample was composed of 60,973 and 61,145 students from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The analyzed factors were oral health behaviors (toothbrushing frequency, sweets consumption, soft drink consumption, and cigarette experimentation) and sociodemographics (age, sex, race, type of school and maternal schooling). Oral health behaviors and sociodemographic factors in the two years were compared (Rao-Scott test) and relative and absolute measures of socioeconomic inequalities in health were estimated (slope index of inequality and relative concentration index), using maternal education as a socioeconomic indicator, expressed in number of years of study (> 11; 9-11; ≤ 8). RESULTS Results from 2012, when compared with those from 2009, for all maternal education categories, showed that the proportion of people with low toothbrushing frequency increased, and that consumption of sweets and soft drinks and cigarette experimentation decreased. In private schools, positive slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption in 2012 and higher cigarette experimentation in both years among students who reported greater maternal schooling, with no significant change in inequalities. In public schools, negative slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption among students who reported lower maternal schooling in both years, with no significant change overtime. The positive relative concentration index indicated inequality in 2009 for cigarette experimentation, with a higher prevalence among students who reported greater maternal schooling. There were no inequalities for

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities and changes in oral health behaviors among Brazilian adolescents from 2009 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Matias Freire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health behaviors changes over time in Brazilian adolescents concerning maternal educational inequalities.METHODS Data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar(Brazilian National School Health Survey were analyzed. The sample was composed of 60,973 and 61,145 students from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The analyzed factors were oral health behaviors (toothbrushing frequency, sweets consumption, soft drink consumption, and cigarette experimentation and sociodemographics (age, sex, race, type of school and maternal schooling. Oral health behaviors and sociodemographic factors in the two years were compared (Rao-Scott test and relative and absolute measures of socioeconomic inequalities in health were estimated (slope index of inequality and relative concentration index, using maternal education as a socioeconomic indicator, expressed in number of years of study (> 11; 9-11; ≤ 8.RESULTS Results from 2012, when compared with those from 2009, for all maternal education categories, showed that the proportion of people with low toothbrushing frequency increased, and that consumption of sweets and soft drinks and cigarette experimentation decreased. In private schools, positive slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption in 2012 and higher cigarette experimentation in both years among students who reported greater maternal schooling, with no significant change in inequalities. In public schools, negative slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption among students who reported lower maternal schooling in both years, with no significant change overtime. The positive relative concentration index indicated inequality in 2009 for cigarette experimentation, with a higher prevalence among students who reported greater maternal schooling. There were no inequalities

  11. Affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events: the moderating effect of religiosity on avoidance behavior among students studying under a high level of terror event exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Liat; Zukerman, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The goals of this study were to examine the development of affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events among Israeli students studying under a high level of terror event exposure and to assess the effects of religiosity on those changes development. A questionnaire was administered to 770 students in the Ariel University Center in Judea and Samaria. Higher levels of terror exposure were associated with higher levels of avoidance behavior, subjective feelings of insecurity, and emotional distress. Higher religiosity moderated avoidance behavior, even when controlling for the level of objective exposure to terror events exposure, but had no influence on subjective sense of insecurity, or the level of emotional distress. These findings suggest that religiosity moderates behavioral changes development after traumatic event exposure mainly by reducing avoidance behavior.

  12. How customer satisfaction changes behavior: A case study of banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Vazifedoost

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An increase on competition industry from one side and the need for customer retention on the other side in banking industry create necessary motivation to learn more about customer behavior. This paper investigated the relationship between seven perspectives of banking services and customers’ attitude towards changing behavior. The seven perspectives included how bank employees’ treat customers, service prices, how to promote and market synergies, place and time to serve customers, products, equipment and process. The proposed study was implemented in two Iranian banks called Mellat and Tejarat in city of Tehran, Iran. The results indicated that all components except one case, which was “how to promote and market synergies” had meaningful and negative relationship with customer behavior.

  13. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Herskin, Mette S

    2015-01-01

    after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior...... was evident in the mastitic dairy cows and local clinical signs in the udder as well as behavioral changes persisted beyond the 3 d of antibiotic treatment. In the days before diagnosis and treatment, feed intake was reduced compared with the control animals. Although reduced by the antibiotic treatment......, this difference persisted until at least 10 d after diagnosis. Sick cows spent less time lying in the initial days after treatment, reversing to the level of the control cows within the 10 d posttreatment period. In the 48 h before antibiotic treatment, the mastitic cows showed increased restlessness during...

  14. The contributions of cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging to understanding mechanisms of behavior change in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Jon; Naqvi, Nasir H; Debellis, Robert; Breiter, Hans C

    2013-06-01

    In the last decade, there has been an upsurge of interest in understanding the mechanisms of behavior change (MOBC) and effective behavioral interventions as a strategy to improve addiction-treatment efficacy. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about how treatment research should proceed to address the MOBC issue. In this article, we argue that limitations in the underlying models of addiction that inform behavioral treatment pose an obstacle to elucidating MOBC. We consider how advances in the cognitive neuroscience of addiction offer an alternative conceptual and methodological approach to studying the psychological processes that characterize addiction, and how such advances could inform treatment process research. In addition, we review neuroimaging studies that have tested aspects of neurocognitive theories as a strategy to inform addiction therapies and discuss future directions for transdisciplinary collaborations across cognitive neuroscience and MOBC research.

  15. Multiple Behavior Change in Diet and Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial Using Mobile Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bonnie; Schneider, Kristin; McFadden, H.G.; Vaughn, Jocelyn; Kozak, Andrea T.; Smith, Malaina; Moller, Arlen C.; Epstein, Leonard H.; DeMott, Andrew; Hedeker, Donald; Siddique, Juned; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many patients exhibit multiple chronic disease risk behaviors. Research provides little information about advice that can maximize simultaneous health behavior changes. Methods To test which combination of diet and activity advice maximizes healthy change, we randomized 204 adults with elevated saturated fat and low fruit/vegetable intakes, high sedentary leisure time and low physical activity to one of four treatments: increase fruit/vegetable and physical activity; decrease fat and sedentary leisure; decrease fat and increase physical activity; increase fruit/vegetable and decrease sedentary leisure. Treatments provided three weeks of remote coaching supported by mobile decision support technology and financial incentives. During treatment, incentives were contingent on using the mobile device to self-monitor and attain behavioral targets; during follow-up they were contingent only on recording. The outcome was standardized, composite improvement on the four diet and activity behaviors at end of treatment and five month follow-up. Results Of those randomized, 200 (98%) completed follow-up. The increase fruit/vegetable and decrease sedentary leisure treatment improved more than the other 3 treatments (p<.001). Specifically, fruit/vegetables increased from 1.2 servings/day to 5.5; sedentary leisure decreased from 219.2 minutes/day to 89.3; saturated fat decreased from 12.0% of calories consumed to 9.5%. Differences between treatment groups were maintained through follow-up. Traditional dieting (decrease fat and increase physical activity) improved less than the other 3 treatments (p<.001). Conclusions Remote coaching supported by mobile technology and financial incentives holds promise to improve diet and activity. Targeting fruits/vegetables and sedentary leisure together maximizes overall adoption and maintenance of multiple healthy behavior changes. PMID:22636824

  16. Electrofishing mark-recapture and depletion methodologies evoke behavioral and physiological changes in cutthroat trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M. G.; Schreck, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    We examined the behavioral and physiological responses of wild and hatchery-reared cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki subjected to a single electroshock, electroshock plus marking, and multiple electroshocks in natural and artificial streams. In a natural stream, cutthroat trout released after capture by electrofishing and marking showed distinct behavioral changes: fish immediately sought cover, remained relatively inactive, did not feed, and were easily approached by a diver. An average of 3–4 h was required for 50% of the fish to return to a seemingly normal mode of behavior, although responses varied widely among collection sites. Using the depletion method, we observed little change in normal behavior offish remaining in the stream section (i.e., uncaptured fish) after successive passes with electrofishing gear. In an artificial stream, hatchery-reared and wild cutthroat trout immediately decreased their rates of feeding and aggression after they were electroshocked and marked. Hatchery fish generally recovered in 2–3 h; wild fish required at least 24 h to recover. Analysis of feeding and aggression data by hierarchical rank revealed no distinct recovery trends among hatchery fish of different ranks; among wild cutthroat trout, however, socially dominant fish seemed to recover faster than intermediate and subordinate fish. Physiological indicators of stress (plasma cortisol and blood lactic acid) increased significantly in cutthroat trout subjected to electroshock plus marking or single or multiple electroshocks. As judged by the magnitude of the greatest change in cortisol and lactate, multiple electroshocks elicited the most severe stress response; however, plasma concentrations of both substances had returned to unstressed control levels by 6 h after treatment. It was evident that electrofishing and the procedures involved with estimating fish population size elicited a general stress response that was manifested not only physiologically but also

  17. Changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain associated with feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong V; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Domesticated chicks are precocial and therefore have relatively well-developed feeding behavior. The role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in food-intake regulation in chicks has been reported for decades. However, we hypothesized that nutrients and their metabolites in the brain may be involved in food intake in chicks because these animals exhibit a very frequent feeding pattern. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the feeding behavior of chicks as well as the associated changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain. The feeding behavior of chicks was recorded continuously for 6 h. The next day, brain and blood samples were collected when the chicks either attempted to have food (hungry group) or turned food down (satiated group), in order to analyze the concentrations of the free amino acids and monoamines. We confirmed that the feeding behavior of neonatal chicks was characterized by short resting periods between very brief times spent on food intake. Several free amino acids in the mesencephalon were significantly lower in the satiated group than in the hungry group, while l-histidine and l-glutamine were significantly higher. Notably, there was no change in the free amino acid concentrations in other brain regions or plasma. As for monoamines, serotonin and norepinephrine were significantly lower in the mesencephalon of the hungry group compared with the satiated group, but 5 hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) was higher. In addition, serotonin and norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in the brain stem of the hungry chicks compared with the satiated group, but levels of 5-HIAA and homovanillic acid were lower. Levels of both dopamine and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, were significantly higher in the diencephalon and telencephalon of the chicks in the hungry group. In conclusion, the changes in the free amino acids and monoamines in the brain may have some role in the feeding behavior of

  18. Increasing organizational energy conservation behaviors: Comparing the theory of planned behavior and reasons theory for identifying specific motivational factors to target for change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlinson, Scott Michael

    Social scientists frequently assess factors thought to underlie behavior for the purpose of designing behavioral change interventions. Researchers commonly identify these factors by examining relationships between specific variables and the focal behaviors being investigated. Variables with the strongest relationships to the focal behavior are then assumed to be the most influential determinants of that behavior, and therefore often become the targets for change in a behavioral change intervention. In the current proposal, multiple methods are used to compare the effectiveness of two theoretical frameworks for identifying influential motivational factors. Assessing the relative influence of all factors and sets of factors for driving behavior should clarify which framework and methodology is the most promising for identifying effective change targets. Results indicated each methodology adequately predicted the three focal behaviors examined. However, the reasons theory approach was superior for predicting factor influence ratings compared to the TpB approach. While common method variance contamination had minimal impact on the results or conclusions derived from the present study's findings, there were substantial differences in conclusions depending on the questionnaire design used to collect the data. Examples of applied uses of the present study are discussed.

  19. Neonatal tactile stimulation changes anxiety-like behavior and improves responsiveness of rats to diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufleur, Nardeli; Antoniazzi, Caren T D; Pase, Camila S; Benvegnú, Dalila M; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Dolci, Geisa S; Dias, Verônica T; Roversi, Katiane; Roversi, Karine; Koakoskia, Gessi; Rosa, João G; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Bürger, Marilise E

    2012-09-20

    In this study we evaluated the influence of neonatal tactile stimulation (TS) on behavioral and biochemical effects related to a low dose of diazepam (DZP) in adult rats. Male pups of Wistar rats were handled (TS) daily from PND1 to PND21 for 10 min, while unhandled (UH) rats were not touched. In adulthood, half the animals of each group received a single administration of diazepam (0.25mg/kg body weight i.p.) or vehicle and then were submitted to behavioral and biochemical evaluations. In the TS group, DZP administration reduced anxiety-like symptoms in different behavioral paradigms (elevated plus maze, EPM; staircase and open-field and defensive burying) and increased exploratory behavior. These findings show that neonatal TS increased DZP pharmacological responses in adulthood compared to neonatally UH animals, as observed by reduced anxiety-like symptoms and lower levels of plasma cortisol. TS also changed plasma levels of antioxidant defenses such as vitamin C and glutathione peroxidase, whose increase may be involved in lower oxidative damages to proteins in cortex, subthalamic region and hippocampus of these animals. Here we are showing for the first time that neonatal TS is able to change responsiveness to benzodiazepine drugs in adulthood and provides better pharmacological responses in novel situations of stress.

  20. Predictors of online health information seeking behavior: Changes between 2002 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert

    2016-12-01

    The Internet has become an important and preferred source of health information. Although the literature has highlighted several key predictors that influence an individual's online health information seeking behavior, insufficient attention has been paid to the changes in the predictors' roles and effects over time. This study explores and compares the effects that specific predictors had on online health information seeking behavior over a period of 10 years by integrating and analyzing two Pew datasets collected in 2002 and 2012. Hierarchical regression analyses indicate that socio-demographic factors and overall health condition are significant predictors that had an increasing impact on online health information seeking behavior. However, the impact of Internet usage decreased significantly from 2002 to 2012. A comparison across time contributes to a vertical understanding of the changes in online health information seeking behavior and its predictors and helps health professionals and researchers tailor their informational interventions to meet the up-to-date needs and preferences of users.

  1. The Evaluation of Lane-Changing Behavior in Urban Traffic Stream with Fuzzy Clustering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for The Evaluation of Lane-Changing Behavior in Urban Traffic Stream with Fuzzy Clustering Method. The trends for drivers Lane-Changing with regard to remarkable effects in traffic are regarded as a major variable in traffic engineering. As a result, various algorithms have presented most models of Lane-Changing developed by means of lane information and the manner of vehicle movement mainly obtained from images process not much attention is given to the characteristics of driver. Lane change divided into two parts the first one are compulsory lane including lane change to turn left or turn right. The second type of change is optional and lane change to improve driving condition. A low speed car is a good example, in this study, through focused group discussion method, drivers information can be obtained so that driver’s personality traits are taken into consideration. Then drivers are divided into four groups by means of Algorithm clusters. The four Algorithms suggest that phase typed cluster is a more suitable method for drivers classification based on Lane-Changing. Through notarization of different type of scenarios of lane change in Iran following results released. The percentage of drivers for each group is 17/5, 35, 20 and 27/ %, respectively.

  2. Health behavior changes following breast cancer treatment: a qualitative comparison among Chinese American, Korean American, and Mexican American survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-won; Gonzalez, Patricia; Wang-Letzkus, Ming F; Baik, Okmi; Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin T

    2013-05-01

    This study explored how Chinese American, Korean American, and Mexican American women modify their health behaviors following breast cancer treatment and identified motivators and barriers that influence their changes. An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study was undertaken using six focus groups. Discussions were transcribed and translated for content analysis. Significant differences among the ethnic groups were noted in the following health behavior practices which were most commonly stated as changed behaviors after a breast cancer diagnosis: 1) eating habits, 2) physical activity, 3) alternative medicine, 4) sleeping, 5) social activity, 6) weight control, and 7) alcohol consumption. Family, financial concerns, environment, and religious faith were commonly mentioned as motivators of and/or barriers to changes in health behaviors. Findings provide insight into different perspectives related to changes in health behaviors by ethnicity, which is critical for developing culturally tailored behavioral interventions to improve underserved breast cancer survivors' quality of life and to reduce health disparities.

  3. Are Social Networking Sites Making Health Behavior Change Interventions More Effective? A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua

    2017-03-01

    The increasing popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) has drawn scholarly attention in recent years, and a large amount of efforts have been made in applying SNSs to health behavior change interventions. However, these interventions showed mixed results, with a large variance of effect sizes in Cohen's d ranging from -1.17 to 1.28. To provide a better understanding of SNS-based interventions' effectiveness, a meta-analysis of 21 studies examining the effects of health interventions using SNS was conducted. Results indicated that health behavior change interventions using SNS are effective in general, but the effects were moderated by health topic, methodological features, and participant features. Theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed.

  4. A lack of response of the financial behaviors of biodiversity conservation nonprofits to changing economic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric R; Boyer, Alison G; Armsworth, Paul R

    2014-12-01

    The effectiveness of conservation organizations is determined in part by how they adapt to changing conditions. Over the previous decade, economic conditions in the United States (US) showed marked variation including a period of rapid growth followed by a major recession. We examine how biodiversity conservation nonprofits in the US responded to these changes through their financial behaviors, focusing on a sample of 90 biodiversity conservation nonprofits and the largest individual organization (The Nature Conservancy; TNC). For the 90 sampled organizations, an analysis of financial ratios derived from tax return data revealed little response to economic conditions. Similarly, more detailed examination of conservation expenditures and land acquisition practices of TNC revealed only one significant relationship with economic conditions: TNC accepted a greater proportion of conservation easements as donated in more difficult economic conditions. Our results suggest that the financial behaviors of US biodiversity conservation nonprofits are unresponsive to economic conditions.

  5. Entering adolescence: resistance to peer influence, risky behavior, and neural changes in emotion reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Masten, Carrie L; Moore, William E; Oswald, Tasha M; Mazziotta, John C; Iacoboni, Marco; Dapretto, Mirella

    2011-03-10

    Adolescence is often described as a period of heightened reactivity to emotions paired with reduced regulatory capacities, a combination suggested to contribute to risk-taking and susceptibility to peer influence during puberty. However, no longitudinal research has definitively linked these behavioral changes to underlying neural development. Here, 38 neurotypical participants underwent two fMRI sessions across the transition from late childhood (10 years) to early adolescence (13 years). Responses to affective facial displays exhibited a combination of general and emotion-specific changes in ventral striatum (VS), ventromedial PFC, amygdala, and temporal pole. Furthermore, VS activity increases correlated with decreases in susceptibility to peer influence and risky behavior. VS and amygdala responses were also significantly more negatively coupled in early adolescence than in late childhood while processing sad and happy versus neutral faces. Together, these results suggest that VS responses to viewing emotions may play a regulatory role that is critical to adolescent interpersonal functioning.

  6. alpha(7) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation prevents behavioral and molecular changes induced by repeated phencyclidine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Christensen, Ditte Z; Hansen, Henrik H;

    2009-01-01

    , and administration of the NMDA-antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) in rodents is a well validated model of such cognitive deficits. Here we show that repeated PCP treatment (10 mg/kg/day for 10 days) decreased the expression of parvalbumin and synaptophysin mRNA in the mouse PFC, which corresponds to changes seen...... in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, PCP increased the basal mRNA expression in the PFC of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), a molecule involved in synaptic plasticity. These molecular changes produced by PCP were accompanied by a behavioral impairment as determined...... in a modified Y-maze test. Polymorphisms in the alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene have been linked to schizophrenia. Here we demonstrate that acute administration of the selective alpha(7) nAChR partial agonist SSR180711 dose-dependently reversed the behavioral impairment induced by PCP...

  7. Changes in voiding behavior in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart T eBiallosterski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Besides cognitive decline and behavioral alteration, urinary incontinence often occurs in patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. To determine whether the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, APPSL/PS1M146L mouse, shows alteration of the urinary bladder function and anxiety, as for patients with Alzheimer’s disease, we examined the urinary marking behavior in relation to affective behavior. At 18 months of age voiding behavior of APPSL/PS1M146L (APP/PS1 and wild type (WT mice was assessed by using a modified filter paper assay in combination with video tracing, with the cage divided into a center and corner zones. Anxiety-related behavior and locomotion were respectively tested in an elevated zero maze and an open field. The APP/PS1 mice urinated more in the center zone than the WT mice. The total volume of markings was significantly lower in the APP/PS1 mice. In both groups, the average volume of a marking in the corner zone was larger than in the center zone. In the elevated zero maze, the APP/PS1 mice spent less time in the open arms of the arena, considered as anxiogenic zones, than the WT mice. During the open field task, the APP/PS1 mice covered a longer distance than the WT mice. These findings show that the APP/PS1 mice have a different voiding behavior compared to the WT mice, i.e. urinating with small volumes and voiding in the center of the cage, and suggest that increased locomotor activity and anxiety-related behaviors are factors in the change in voiding pattern in the APP/PS1 mouse.

  8. Changes in voiding behavior in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biallosterski, B. T.; Prickaerts, J.; Rahnama’i, M. S.; de Wachter, S.; van Koeveringe, G. A.; Meriaux, C.

    2015-01-01

    Besides cognitive decline and behavioral alteration, urinary incontinence often occurs in patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To determine whether the transgenic mouse model of AD, APP/PS1 (APPSL/PS1M146L) mouse, shows alteration of the urinary bladder function and anxiety, as for patients with AD, we examined the urinary marking behavior in relation to affective behavior. At 18 months of age voiding behavior of APP/PS1 and wild type (WT) mice was assessed by using a modified filter paper assay in combination with video tracing, with the cage divided into a center and corner zones. Anxiety-related behavior and locomotion were respectively tested in an elevated zero maze (EZM) and an open field (OF). The APP/PS1 mice urinated more in the center zone than the WT mice. The total volume of markings was significantly lower in the APP/PS1 mice. In both groups, the average volume of a marking in the corner zone was larger than in the center zone. In the EZM, the APP/PS1 mice spent less time in the open arms of the arena, considered as anxiogenic zones, than the WT mice. During the OF task, the APP/PS1 mice covered a longer distance than the WT mice. These findings show that the APP/PS1 mice have a different voiding behavior compared to the WT mice, i.e., urinating with small volumes and voiding in the center of the cage, and suggest that increased locomotor activity and anxiety-related behaviors are factors in the change in voiding pattern in the APP/PS1 mouse. PMID:26379542

  9. Behavior change to prevent or delay Type 2 diabetes: Psychology in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Elizabeth M

    2016-10-01

    Self-management is critical for the prevention and control of chronic health conditions. Research shows that dietary and physical activity behaviors related to obesity are inextricably linked to the development, course, and outcomes of Type 2 diabetes and its comorbidities. Therefore, a compelling case has been made for behavioral lifestyle intervention as the first-line approach. Academic psychologists and other behavioral scientists have contributed to all stages of obesity and diabetes prevention research and practice. They have made seminal contributions to the evidence-based science of health behavior change with the National Institutes of Health funded Diabetes Prevention Program randomized clinical trial and subsequent translation and dissemination efforts as exemplars. Beginning with social-cognitive learning theory and behavior modification for obesity, research psychologists have elucidated the critical elements associated with treatment efficacy and have demonstrated the benefits of identifying individuals at elevated risk and providing early intervention. Most often, the psychologist's role has been to design and evaluate programs based on behavioral principles, or supervise, train, and facilitate adherence to interventions, rather than function as the primary provider. Lifestyle interventions have made a strong public health impact, but pressing challenges remain. Issues include difficulties with long-term weight loss maintenance, heterogeneity of treatment response, pragmatic translation and dissemination concerns such as optimal training and delivery formats, scalability of lifestyle intervention programs, reimbursement, and a need for environmental and policy approaches that promote healthy lifestyle norms and behaviors for all communities. Health psychology should be at the forefront in addressing all of these concerns. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Repeated Predictable Stress Causes Resilience against Colitis-Induced Behavioral Changes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased risk of mental disorders and can be exacerbated by stress. In this study which was performed with male 10-week old C57Bl/6N mice, we used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis to evaluate behavioral changes caused by intestinal inflammation, to assess the interaction between repeated psychological stress (water avoidance stress, WAS and colitis in modifying behavior, and to analyze neurochemical correlates of this interaction. A 7-day treatment with DSS (2 % in drinking water decreased locomotion and enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and reduced social interaction. Repeated exposure to WAS for 7 days had little influence on behavior but prevented the DSS-induced behavioral disturbances in the open field and social interaction tests. In contrast, repeated WAS did not modify colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase content and circulating proinflammatory cytokines, parameters used to assess colitis severity. DSS-induced colitis was associated with an increase in circulating neuropeptide Y (NPY, a rise in the hypothalamic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and a decrease in the hippocampal expression of NPY mRNA, brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA. Repeated WAS significantly decreased the relative expression of corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in the hippocampus. The effect of repeated WAS to blunt the DSS-evoked behavioral disturbances was associated with a rise of circulating corticosterone and an increase in the expression of hypothalamic NPY mRNA. These results show that experimental colitis leads to a particular range of behavioral alterations which can be prevented by repeated WAS, a model of predictable chronic stress, while the severity of colitis remains unabated. We conclude that the mechanisms underlying the resilience effect of repeated WAS involves hypothalamic NPY and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  11. Visual Support in Children with Autism Spectrum Development as a Tool for Changing Problem Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    olpakova L.O.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data of observations made in a group of 10 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 5-8 years experiencing behavioral problems and difficulties with communication and social interaction. A behavioral intervention was carried out in the group basing on the principles of applied behavioral analysis (ABA. Following the primary test and with accordance to the parents’ requests, a team of specialists worked over the period of six months attempting to change problem behaviors and to compensate for academic deficiencies in the children. Each day the specialists along with the parents collected data and introduced necessary corrections into the intervention plans. Since all children in the group could barely understand speech and had much difficulty with communication, one of the core methods employed in the work was visual support which became a basic element in every technique applied. Applying visual supports in education settings as well as at home contributed much to the compensation of the difficulties related to speech understanding and helped decrease the level of anxiety in the children, which, in turn, resulted in an apparent decline in problem behavior and faster progress in the acquisition of academic skills.

  12. Promising Behavior Change Techniques in a Multicomponent Intervention to Reduce Concerns about Falls in Old Age: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestjens, Lotte; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.; Crutzen, Rik; Kok, Gerjo; Zijlstra, G. A. Rixt

    2015-01-01

    Complex behavior change interventions need evidence regarding the effectiveness of individual components to understand how these interventions work. The objective of this study was to identify the least and most promising behavior change techniques (BCTs) within the Dutch intervention "A Matter of Balance" (AMB-NL) aimed at concerns…

  13. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  14. Peripheral and central changes combine to induce motor behavioral deficits in a moderate repetition task

    OpenAIRE

    Coq, Jacques-Olivier; Barr, Ann E.; Strata, Fabrizio; Russier, Michael; Kietrys, David M; Merzenich, Michael M.; Byl, Nancy N; Barbe, Mary F

    2009-01-01

    Repetitive motion disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome and focal hand dystonia, can be associated with tasks that require prolonged, repetitive behaviors. Previous studies using animal models of repetitive motion have correlated cortical neuroplastic changes or peripheral tissue inflammation with fine motor performance. However, the possibility that both peripheral and central mechanisms coexist with altered motor performance has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the relat...

  15. Application of theory-based health behavior change techniques to the prevention of obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Heidi; Hawley, Suzanne; Bishop, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Few studies that apply behavior change constructs such as goal setting, self-efficacy, and readiness for change to childhood obesity interventions exist. The purpose of this study was to adapt these constructs for use within a community-based obesity prevention program designed for fifth and sixth graders and their families. Games, worksheets, and a helpful acronym made the constructs developmentally appropriate and comprehensible to 11- and 12-year-olds. The age-adapted techniques have the potential to enhance obesity programs in a population for whom the obesity issue is critical.

  16. Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatavisa Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into five groups. Four groups were subjected to chronic mild stress induced by using various stressors randomly scheduled in a week and continued for a period of 3 weeks. The stressed rodents were subjected to sertraline treatment for 9 weeks in different human therapeutic doses extrapolated to animal doses. Behavioral changes were monitored, assessed, and evaluated throughout the treatment phase with the help of tests such as locomotor activity test, forced swim test, tail suspension test, antianxiety test, and sucrose preference test (SPT. Results: All tests except SPT, demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 reduction in depressive-like activity in the stressed rodents by the mid-treatment phase, followed by an abrupt onset of the depressive state by the end of the treatment phase. SPT showed a significant (P < 0.05 increase in sucrose consumption throughout the treatment phase. Conclusion: Behavioral changes following chronic sertraline administration conferred gradual remission of depression state on initial treatment phase, followed by a reversal of effect on chronic use.

  17. Automatic Detection Method of Behavior Change in Dam Monitor Instruments Cause by Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mucio Bando

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A hydroelectric power plant consists of a project of great relevance for the social and economic development of a country. However, this kind of construction demands extensive attention because the occurrence of unusual behavior on its structure may result in undesirable consequences. Seismic waves are some of the phenomena which demand attention of one in charge of a dam safety because once it happens can directly affect the structure behavior. The target of this work is to present a methodology to automatically detect which monitoring instruments have gone under any change in pattern and their measurements after the seism. The detection method proposed is based on a neuro/fuzzy/bayesian formulation which is divided in three steps. Firstly, a clustering of points in a time series is developed from a self-organizing Kohonen map. Afterwards a fuzzy set is built to transform the initial time series, with arbitrary distribution, into a new series with beta distribution probability and thus enable the detection of changing points through a Monte Carlo simulation via Markov chains. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposal the methodology has been applied in time series generated by Itaipu power plant building structures measurement instruments, which showed little behavior change after the earthquake in Chile in 2010.

  18. Social exclusion induces early-stage perceptual and behavioral changes in response to social cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Social exclusion is so aversive that it causes broad cognitive and behavioral changes to regulate the individual's belonging status. The present study examined whether such changes also occur at early neural or automatic behavioral levels in response to social cues. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and facial electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded during a task in which participants viewed smiling, disgusted, and neutral faces after experiencing social exclusion or inclusion. Social exclusion was manipulated using a simple ball-tossing game (Cyberball), and need threat was assessed after the game. We found that zygomaticus major muscle activity, which reflects facial mimicry, was larger in response to smiling faces after exclusion than after inclusion. In addition, P1 amplitude, which reflects visual attention, was larger for disgusted faces than for neutral faces following social exclusion. N170 amplitude, which reflects structural encoding of the face, was correlated with heightened need threat. These findings demonstrate that social exclusion induces immediate and rapid changes in attention, perception, and automatic behavior. These findings reflect the rapid and primary regulation of belonging.

  19. Behavioral correlates of changes in hippocampal gray matter structure during acquisition of foreign vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellander, Martin; Berggren, Rasmus; Mårtensson, Johan; Brehmer, Yvonne; Wenger, Elisabeth; Li, Tie-Qiang; Bodammer, Nils C; Shing, Yee-Lee; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Lövdén, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Experience can affect human gray matter volume. The behavioral correlates of individual differences in such brain changes are not well understood. In a group of Swedish individuals studying Italian as a foreign language, we investigated associations among time spent studying, acquired vocabulary, baseline performance on memory tasks, and gray matter changes. As a way of studying episodic memory training, the language learning focused on acquiring foreign vocabulary and lasted for 10weeks. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were performed before and after the studies. Learning behavior was monitored via participants' use of a smartphone application dedicated to the study of vocabulary. A whole-brain analysis showed larger changes in gray matter structure of the right hippocampus in the experimental group (N=33) compared to an active control group (N=23). A first path analyses revealed that time spent studying rather than acquired knowledge significantly predicted change in gray matter structure. However, this association was not significant when adding performance on baseline memory measures into the model, instead only the participants' performance on a short-term memory task with highly similar distractors predicted the change. This measure may tap similar individual difference factors as those involved in gray matter plasticity of the hippocampus.

  20. Mobile applications for chronic disease self-management : building a bridge for behavior change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lähdesmäki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the biggest challenges in the future of healthcare is the rising prevalence of chronic, non-communicable diseases. In high-income countries seven out of ten leading risk factors of death are caused by the way people eat, drink or move. Health behavior patterns are considered to account for 40 % of early mortality. If nothing changes, from 2011 until 2030 the cost of chronic disease in the whole world may reach 47 trillion dollars. It is clear that chronic disease care needs to change. Today people with chronic disease spend less than 0,1 % of their time yearly in direct contact with healthcare and guidance. The rest of the time they are under the influence of family, colleagues, acquaintances, media and all the conflicting information from them. Digital elements are emerging in healthcare. Some of these digital elements emerging are mobile applications. Of all the people in Finland, 70 % own a smartphone. These devices are often in the proximity of their owner; in a pocket or a purse, making them easy and fast to use for various purposes. This is why they can also prove to be useful tools for personal healthcare and chronic disease self-management support, for example for recording diet and exercise related values as well as various disease specific values like blood glucose or blood pressure measurements. They also enable two-way interaction with healthcare professionals and patients in their everyday life. This requires well designed applications that affect the patient’s health behavior and are tempting to use. According to research, this is not always the case. Aim The aim of this thesis study was to find out how multipurpose mobile applications intended for chronic disease self-management implement known behavior change techniques in order to change behavior, and to find out how they utilize known gamification features in order to maintain the change. The purpose of this study was to create a new, multidisciplinary

  1. Reference Model of Desired Yaw Angle for Automated Lane Changing Behavior of Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianbo Ren; Guanzhe Zhang; Hangzhe Wu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, it studies the problem of trajectory planning and tracking for lane changing behavior of vehicle in automatic highway systems. Based on the model of yaw angle acceleration with positive and negative trapezoid constraint, by analyzing the variation laws of yaw motion of vehicle during a lane changing maneuver, the reference model of desired yaw angle and yaw rate for lane changing is generated. According to the yaw angle model, the vertical and horizontal coordinates of trajectory for vehicle lane change are calculated. Assuming that the road curvature is a constant, the difference and associations between two scenarios are analyzed, the lane changing maneuvers occurred on curve road and straight road, respectively. On this basis, it deduces the calculation method of desired yaw angle for lane changing on circular road. Simulation result shows that, it is different from traditional lateral acceleration planning method with the trapezoid constraint, by applying the trapezoidal yaw acceleration reference model proposed in this paper, the resulting expected yaw angular acceleration is continuous, and the step tracking for steering angle is not needed to implement. Due to the desired yaw model is direct designed based on the variation laws of raw movement of vehicle during a lane changing maneuver, rather than indirectly calculated from the trajectory model for lane changing, the calculation steps are simplified.

  2. Epigenetic and Proteomic Expression Changes Promoted by Eating Addictive-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancino, Samantha; Burokas, Aurelijus; Gutiérrez-Cuesta, Javier; Gutiérrez-Martos, Miriam; Martín-García, Elena; Pucci, Mariangela; Falconi, Anastasia; D'Addario, Claudio; Maccarrone, Mauro; Maldonado, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    An increasing perspective conceptualizes obesity and overeating as disorders related to addictive-like processes that could share common neurobiological mechanisms. In the present study, we aimed at validating an animal model of eating addictive-like behavior in mice, based on the DSM-5 substance use disorder criteria, using operant conditioning maintained by highly palatable chocolate-flavored pellets. For this purpose, we evaluated persistence of food-seeking during a period of non-availability of food, motivation for food, and perseverance of responding when the reward was associated with a punishment. This model has allowed identifying extreme subpopulations of mice related to addictive-like behavior. We investigated in these subpopulations the epigenetic and proteomic changes. A significant decrease in DNA methylation of CNR1 gene promoter was revealed in the prefrontal cortex of addict-like mice, which was associated with an upregulation of CB1 protein expression in the same brain area. The pharmacological blockade (rimonabant 3 mg/kg; i.p.) of CB1 receptor during the late training period reduced the percentage of mice that accomplished addiction criteria, which is in agreement with the reduced performance of CB1 knockout mice in this operant training. Proteomic studies have identified proteins differentially expressed in mice vulnerable or not to addictive-like behavior in the hippocampus, striatum, and prefrontal cortex. These changes included proteins involved in impulsivity-like behavior, synaptic plasticity, and cannabinoid signaling modulation, such as alpha-synuclein, phosphatase 1-alpha, doublecortin-like kinase 2, and diacylglycerol kinase zeta, and were validated by immunoblotting. This model provides an excellent tool to investigate the neurobiological substrate underlying the vulnerability to develop eating addictive-like behavior.

  3. Three empirical essays on consumer behavior related to climate change and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Grant Douglas

    This dissertation consists of three essays. All of the chapters address a topic in the area of household and consumer behavior related to climate change or energy. The first chapter is titled "The Al Gore Effect: An Inconvenient Truth and Voluntary Carbon Offsets". This chapter examines the relationship between climate change awareness and household behavior by testing whether Al Gore's documentary An Inconvenient Truth caused an increase in the purchase of voluntary carbon offsets. The analysis shows that in the two months following the film's release, zip codes within a 10-mile radius of a zip code where the film was shown experienced a 50 percent relative increase in the purchase of voluntary carbon offsets. The second chapter is titled "Are Building Codes Effective at Saving Energy? Evidence from Residential Billing Data in Florida". The analysis shows that Florida's energy-code change that took effect in 2002 is associated with a 4-percent decrease in electricity consumption and a 6-percent decrease in natural-gas consumption in Gainesville, FL. The estimated private payback period for the average residence is 6.4 years and the social payback period ranges between 3.5 and 5.3 years. The third chapter in this dissertation is titled "Do Environmental Offsets Increase Demand for Dirty Goods? Evidence from Residential Electricity Demand". This study evaluates the relationship between green products and existing patterns of consumer behavior by examining the relationship between household enrollment in a green electricity program and consumption of residential electricity. The results suggest there are two different types of green consumers. One type makes a small monthly donation and partially views the donation as a substitute for a previously existing pattern of green behavior, in this case, energy conservation. The other type makes a larger monthly donation and views the donation as a way to make strictly additional improvements in environmental quality.

  4. Dyadic planning of health-behavior change after prostatectomy: a randomized-controlled planning intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, Silke; Scholz, Urte; Gralla, Oliver; Roigas, Jan; Knoll, Nina

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of dyadic planning for health-behavior change. Dyadic planning refers to planning health-behavior change together with a partner. We assumed that dyadic planning would affect the implementation of regular pelvic-floor exercise (PFE), with other indicators of social exchange and self-regulation strategies serving as mediators. In a randomized-controlled trial at a German University Medical Center, 112 prostatectomy-patients with partners were randomly assigned to a dyadic PFE-planning condition or one of three active control conditions. Questionnaire data were assessed at multiple time points within six months post-surgery, measuring self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and pelvic-floor exercise as primary outcomes and social exchange (support, control) and a self-regulation strategy (action control) as mediating mechanisms. There were no specific intervention effects with regard to dyadic PFE-planning or pelvic-floor exercise, as two active control groups also showed increases in either of these variables. However, results suggested that patients instructed to plan dyadically still benefited from self-reported dyadic PFE-planning regarding pelvic-floor exercise. Cross-sectionally, received negative control from partners was negatively related with PFE only in control groups and individual action control mediated between self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and PFE for participants instructed to plan PFE dyadically. Longitudinally, action control mediated between self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and pelvic-floor exercise for all groups. Findings provide support for further investigation of dyadic planning in health-behavior change with short-term mediating effects of behavior-specific social exchange and long-term mediating effects of better self-regulation.

  5. Effects of temperature change on elastic behavior of steel beams with semi-rigid connections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jian-guo; FENG Jian; HAN Yun-long

    2010-01-01

    Based on the nonlinear displacement-strain relationship,the virtual work principle method was used to establish the nonlinear equilibrium equations of steel beams with semi-rigid connections under vertical uniform loads and temperature change.Considering the non-uniform temperature distribution across the thickness of beams,the formulas for stresses and vertical displacements were presented.On the basis of a flowchart for analysis of the numerical example,the effect of temperature change on the elastic behavior of steel beams was investigated.It is found that the maximal stress is mainly influenced by axial temperature change,and the maximal vertical displacement is principally affected by temperature gradients.And the effect of temperature gradients on the maximal vertical displacement decreases with the increase of rotational stiffness of joints.Both the maximal stress and vertical displacement decrease with the increase of rotational stiffness of joints.It can be concluded that the effects of temperature changes and rotational stiffness of joints on the elastic behavior of steel beams are significant.However,the influence of rotational stiffness becomes smaller when the rotational stiffness is larger.

  6. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN SEROTONIN SIGNALING: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY BRAIN FUNCTION, BEHAVIOR AND ADAPTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRUMMELTE, S.; GLANAGHY, E. MC; BONNIN, A.; OBERLANDER, T. F.

    2017-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays a central role in brain development, regulation of mood, stress reactivity and risk of psychiatric disorders, and thus alterations in 5-HT signaling early in life have critical implications for behavior and mental health across the life span. Drawing on preclinical and emerging human evidence this narrative review paper will examine three key aspects when considering the consequences of early life changes in 5-HT: (1) developmental origins of variations of 5-HT signaling; (2) influence of genetic and epigenetic factors; and (3) preclinical and clinical consequences of 5-HT-related changes associated with antidepressant exposure (SSRIs). The developmental consequences of altered prenatal 5-HT signaling varies greatly and outcomes depend on an ongoing interplay between biological (genetic/epigenetic variations) and environmental factors, both pre and postnatally. Emerging evidence suggests that variations in 5-HT signaling may increase sensitivity to risky home environments, but may also amplify a positive response to a nurturing environment. In this sense, factors that change central 5-HT levels may act as ‘plasticity’ rather than ‘risk’ factors associated with developmental vulnerability. Understanding the impact of early changes in 5-HT levels offers critical insights that might explain the variations in early typical brain development that underlies behavioral risk. PMID:26905950

  7. Behavioral and Psychological Factors Associated with 12-Month Weight Change in a Physical Activity Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Napolitano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining behavioral and psychological factors relating to weight stability over a 1-year period is of public health importance. We conducted a physical activity (PA intervention trial for women (N=247; mean age=47.5±10.7; mean BMI=28.6±5.3 in which participants were assigned to one of three groups (two PA and one contact-control. By Month 12, participants achieved 140.4±14.82 min of PA/week, with no group differences. Weight status change from baseline to Month 12 was categorized: no change (N=154; 62.4%; increase (N=34; 13.8%; decrease (N=59; 23.9%. Discriminant function analyses indentified two statistically significant dimensions associated with weight change. Dimension 1 was positively weighted by mood (0.73 and self-efficacy (0.79; dimension 2 was positively weighted to change in physical activity (0.58 and fat consumption (0.55. Results provide further evidence for the importance of behavior in long-term weight maintenance, particularly physical activity and dietary fat. These findings also provide evidence for the importance of addressing psychosocial variables, in particular depressed mood and self-efficacy.

  8. Evidence that changes in social cognitions predict changes in self-reported driver behavior: Causal analyses of two-wave panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark A; Thomson, James A; Robertson, Kirsty; Stephenson, Carry; Wicks, John

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) is characterized by cross-sectional tests of the model's proposed causal relationships. In the absence of effective experimental techniques for changing the TPB's cognitive antecedents, the present research aimed to provide a stronger non-experimental test of the model, using causal analyses of two-wave panel data. Two studies of driver behavior were conducted in which naturally occurring within-participant changes in TPB constructs were measured over time, and used to predict corresponding within-participant changes in both intentions and behavior. A two-wave panel design was used in both studies. Study 1 had a one-month gap between baseline and follow-up. At both waves, a convenience sample comprising predominantly university students (N=135) completed questionnaire measures of all TPB cognitions and behavior (compliance with speed limits in urban areas). Cross-lagged multiple regressions and bootstrapping procedures for testing multiple mediators supported all of the relationships proposed by the TPB. These findings were extended in study 2 using a large, non-student sample of speed limit offenders (N=1149), a six-month gap between baseline and follow-up, and a larger number of cognitive antecedents. Participants completed postal questionnaires at both waves to measure all cognitions proposed by the two-component TPB, along with moral norm, anticipated regret, self-identity and speeding on urban roads, country roads, and fast dual carriageways or motorways. Changes in instrumental and affective attitude, descriptive norm, self-efficacy, moral norm, anticipated regret and self-identity predicted changes in intention to speed. Changes in intention and self-efficacy predicted behavior-change. Injunctive norm and perceived controllability did not predict intention or behavior-change. Additionally, direct (unhypothesized) relationships with behavior were found for affective attitude, descriptive norm and

  9. Using statistical distances to detect changes in the normal behavior of ECG-Holter signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos de Figueiredo, Julio C.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2001-05-01

    One of the main problems in the study of complex systems is to define a good metric that can distinguish between different dynamical behaviors in a nonlinear system. In this work we describe a method to detect different types of behaviors in a long term ECG-Holter using short portions of the Holter signal. This method is based on the calculation of the statistical distance between two distributions in a phase-space of a dynamical system. A short portion of an ECG-Holter signal with normal behavior is used to reconstruct the trajectory of an attractor in low dimensional phase-space. The points in this trajectory are interpreted as statistical distributions in the phase-space and assumed to represent the normal dynamical behavior of the ECG recording in this space. A fast algorithm is then used to compute the statistical distance between this attractor and all other attractors that are built using a sliding temporal window over the signal. For normal cases the distance stayed almost constant and below a threshold. For cases with abnormal transients, on the abnormal portion of ECG, the distance increased consistently with morphological changes.

  10. Sensory extinction and sensory reinforcement principles for programming multiple adaptive behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincover, A; Cook, R; Peoples, A; Packard, D

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory reinforcement was examined in programming multiple treatment gains in self-stimulation and spontaneous play for developmentally disabled children. Two phases were planned. First, we attempted to identify reinforcers maintaining self-stimulation. Sensory Extinction procedures were implemented in which auditory, proprioceptive, or visual sensory consequences of self-stimulatory behavior were systematically removed and reintroduced in a reversal design. When self-stimulation was decreased or eliminated as a result of removing one of these sensory consequences, the functional sensory consequence was designated as a child's preferred sensory reinforcer. In Phase 2, we assessed whether children would play selectively with toys producing the preferred kind of sensory stimulation. The results showed the following. (1) Self-stimulatory behavior was found to be maintained by sensory reinforcement. When the sensory reinforcer was removed, self-stimulation extinguished. (2) The sensory reinforcers identified for self-stimulatory behavior also served as reinforcers for new, appropriate toy play. (3) The multiple treatment gains observed appeared to be relatively durable in the absence of external reinforcers for play or restraints on self-stimulation. These results illustrate one instance in which multiple behavior change may be programmed in a predictable, lawful fashion by using "natural communities of sensory reinforcement."

  11. [Long-term changes in adaptive behavior of rats after neonatal inflammatory pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailenko, V A; Butkevich, I P; Vershinina, E A; Ulanova, N A

    2015-01-01

    In this study we addressed the tonic nociceptive system functional activity in the formalin test, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and spatial learning in adolescent male rats exposed in the neonatal development to repeated inflammatory pain peripheral stimulation. The following groups of 25-day-old rats were used after being exposed on days 7 and 8 to: 1) formalin-induced inflammatory pain with maternal separation for 60 min (FS), 2) the same inflammatory pain stimulation without maternal separation (FWS), 3) physiological saline injection with maternal separation for 1 h (SS), 4) physiological saline injection without maternal separation (SWS) and 5) no stimulation (intact rats). The data obtained indicate that pain caused in 7-8-day-old rat pups by formalin injection into the plantar pad of the hind paw manifests by adolescence (day 25 as a strengthened inflammatory response under the analogous painful stimulation in the formalin test, adaptive behavior disorder in the forced swimming test and spatial learning disability. Our findings that a short-term repeated maternal deprivation of the 7-8-day-old rat pups without inflammatory pain increases the depression-like behavior are also of particular interest. Thus, a repeated inflammatory pain during the neonatal development brings about significant changes in the adaptive behaviors studied as well as in spatial learning in adolescent rats.

  12. Behavioral changes and cholinesterase activity of rats acutely treated with propoxur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesen, F V; Barros, H M; Tannhauser, M; Tannhauser, S L

    1999-01-01

    Early assessment of neurological and behavioral effects is extremely valuable for early identification of intoxications because preventive measures can be taken against more severe or chronic toxic consequences. The time course of the effects of an oral dose of the anticholinesterase agent propoxur (8.3 mg/kg) was determined on behaviors displayed in the open-field and during an active avoidance task by rats and on blood and brain cholinesterase activity. Maximum inhibition of blood cholinesterase was observed within 30 min after administration of propoxur. The half-life of enzyme-activity recovery was estimated to be 208.6 min. Peak brain cholinesterase inhibition was also detected between 5 and 30 min of the pesticide administration, but the half-life for enzyme activity recovery was much shorter, in the range of 85 min. Within this same time interval of the enzyme effects, diminished motor and exploratory activities and decreased performance of animals in the active avoidance task were observed. Likewise, behavioral normalization after propoxur followed a time frame similar to that of brain cholinesterase. These data indicate that behavioral changes that occur during intoxication with low oral doses of propoxur may be dissociated from signs characteristic of cholinergic over-stimulation but accompany brain cholinesterase activity inhibition.

  13. Fire behavior potential in central Saskatchewan under predicted climate change : summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisien, M.; Hirsch, K.; Todd, B.; Flannigan, M. [Canadian Forest Service, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kafka, V. [Parks Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Flynn, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This study assesses fire danger and fire behaviour potential in central Saskatchewan using simulated climate scenarios produced by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM), including scenario analysis of base, double and triple level carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and uses available forest fuels to develop an absolute measure of fire behaviour. For each of these climate scenarios, the CRCM-generated weather was used as input variables into the Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Prediction (FBP) System. Fire behavior potential was quantified using head fire intensity, a measure of the fire's energy output because it can be related to fire behavior characteristics, suppression effectiveness, and fire effects. The report discusses the implications of fire behavior potential changes for fire and forest management. Preliminary results suggest a large increase in area burned in the study area by the end of the twenty-first century. Some of the possible fire management activities for long-term prediction include: pre-positioning of resources, preparedness planning, prioritization of fire and forest management activities and fire threat evaluation. 16 refs., 1 tab, 7 figs.

  14. Exploring behaviors of stochastic differential equation models of biological systems using change of measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Sumit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE are often used to model the stochastic dynamics of biological systems. Unfortunately, rare but biologically interesting behaviors (e.g., oncogenesis can be difficult to observe in stochastic models. Consequently, the analysis of behaviors of SDE models using numerical simulations can be challenging. We introduce a method for solving the following problem: given a SDE model and a high-level behavioral specification about the dynamics of the model, algorithmically decide whether the model satisfies the specification. While there are a number of techniques for addressing this problem for discrete-state stochastic models, the analysis of SDE and other continuous-state models has received less attention. Our proposed solution uses a combination of Bayesian sequential hypothesis testing, non-identically distributed samples, and Girsanov's theorem for change of measures to examine rare behaviors. We use our algorithm to analyze two SDE models of tumor dynamics. Our use of non-identically distributed samples sampling contributes to the state of the art in statistical verification and model checking of stochastic models by providing an effective means for exposing rare events in SDEs, while retaining the ability to compute bounds on the probability that those events occur.

  15. Exploring behaviors of stochastic differential equation models of biological systems using change of measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Sumit Kumar; Langmead, Christopher James

    2012-04-12

    Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE) are often used to model the stochastic dynamics of biological systems. Unfortunately, rare but biologically interesting behaviors (e.g., oncogenesis) can be difficult to observe in stochastic models. Consequently, the analysis of behaviors of SDE models using numerical simulations can be challenging. We introduce a method for solving the following problem: given a SDE model and a high-level behavioral specification about the dynamics of the model, algorithmically decide whether the model satisfies the specification. While there are a number of techniques for addressing this problem for discrete-state stochastic models, the analysis of SDE and other continuous-state models has received less attention. Our proposed solution uses a combination of Bayesian sequential hypothesis testing, non-identically distributed samples, and Girsanov's theorem for change of measures to examine rare behaviors. We use our algorithm to analyze two SDE models of tumor dynamics. Our use of non-identically distributed samples sampling contributes to the state of the art in statistical verification and model checking of stochastic models by providing an effective means for exposing rare events in SDEs, while retaining the ability to compute bounds on the probability that those events occur.

  16. A Social Identity Analysis of Climate Change and Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors: Insights and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Kelly S; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper, we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing, how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories, such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions.

  17. Is Parenting the Mediator of Change in Behavioral Parent Training for Externalizing Problems of Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; Lafko, Nicole; Parent, Justin; Burt, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Change in parenting behavior is theorized to be the mediator accounting for change in child and adolescent externalizing problems in behavioral parent training (BPT). The purpose of this review is to examine this assumption in BPT prevention and intervention programs. Eight intervention and 17 prevention studies were identified as meeting all criteria or all but one criterion for testing mediation. Parenting behaviors were classified as positive, negative, discipline, monitoring/supervision, or a composite measure. Forty-five percent of the tests performed across studies to test mediation supported parenting as a mediator. A composite measure of parenting and discipline received the most support, whereas monitoring/supervision was rarely examined. More support for the mediating role of parenting emerged for prevention than intervention studies and when meeting all criteria for testing mediation was not required. Although the findings do not call BPT into question as an efficacious treatment, they do suggest more attention should be focused on examining parenting as a putative mediator in BPT. PMID:25455625

  18. Can a hearing education campaign for adolescents change their music listening behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichbold, Viktor; Zorowka, Patrick

    2007-03-01

    This study looked at whether a hearing education campaign would have behavioral effects on the music listening practices of high school students. A total of 1757 students participated in a hearing education campaign. Before the campaign and one year thereafter they completed a survey asking for: (1) average frequency of discotheque attendance, (2) average duration of stay in the discotheque, (3) use of earplugs in discotheques, (4) frequency of regeneration breaks while at a discotheque, and (5) mean time per week spent listening to music through headphones. On questions (2), (3) and (5) no relevant post-campaign changes were reported. On question (1) students' answers indicated that the frequency of discotheque attendance had even increased after the campaign. The only change in keeping with the purpose of the campaign was an increase in the number of regeneration breaks when at a discotheque. The effect of hearing education campaigns on music listening behavior is questioned. Additional efforts are suggested to encourage adolescents to adopt protective behaviors.

  19. A Behavioral Model of Landscape Change in the Amazon Basin: The Colonist Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. A.; Drzyzga, S. A.; Li, Y. L.; Wi, J. G.; Caldas, M.; Arima, E.; Vergara, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a predictive model capable of describing both magnitudes of deforestation and its spatial articulation into patterns of forest fragmentation. In a departure from other landscape models, it establishes an explicit behavioral foundation for algorithm development, predicated on notions of the peasant economy and on household production theory. It takes a 'bottom-up' approach, generating the process of land-cover change occurring at lot level together with the geography of a transportation system to describe regional landscape change. In other words, it translates the decentralized decisions of individual households into a collective, spatial impact. In so doing, the model unites the richness of survey research on farm households with the analytical rigor of spatial analysis enabled by geographic information systems (GIs). The paper describes earlier efforts at spatial modeling, provides a critique of the so-called spatially explicit model, and elaborates a behavioral foundation by considering farm practices of colonists in the Amazon basin. It then uses, insight from the behavioral statement to motivate a GIs-based model architecture. The model is implemented for a long-standing colonization frontier in the eastern sector of the basin, along the Trans-Amazon Highway in the State of Para, Brazil. Results are subjected to both sensitivity analysis and error assessment, and suggestions are made about how the model could be improved.

  20. Changes in attention to an emotional task after sleep deprivation: neurophysiological and behavioral findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarra, Ramey; Fins, Ana I; Chayo, Isaac; Tartar, Jaime L

    2015-01-01

    While sleep loss is shown to have widespread effects on cognitive processes, little is known about the impact of sleep loss on emotion processes. In order to expand on previous behavioral and physiological findings on how sleep loss influences emotion processing, we administered positive, negative, and neutral affective visual stimuli to individuals after one night of sleep deprivation while simultaneously acquiring EEG event related potential (ERP) data and recording affective behavioral responses. We compared these responses to a baseline testing session. We specifically looked at the late positive potential (LPP) component of the visual ERP as an established sensitive measure of attention to emotionally-charged visual stimuli. Our results show that after sleep deprivation, the LPP no longer discriminates between emotional and non-emotional pictures; after sleep deprivation the LPP amplitude was of similar amplitude for neutral, positive, and negative pictures. This effect was driven by an increase in the LPP to neutral pictures. Our behavioral measures show that, relative to baseline testing, emotional pictures are rated as less emotional following sleep deprivation with a concomitant reduction in emotional picture-induced anxiety. We did not observe any change in cortisol concentrations after sleep deprivation before or after emotional picture exposure, suggesting that the observed changes in emotion processing are independent of potential stress effects of sleep deprivation. Combined, our findings suggest that sleep loss interferes with proper allocation of attention resources during an emotional task.

  1. A social identity analysis of climate change and environmental attitudes and behaviors: Insights and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Shanene Fielding

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions.

  2. Hegemonic Masculinity, HIV/AIDS Risk Perception, and Sexual Behavior Change Among Young People in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganle, John Kuumuori

    2016-05-01

    Among the youth in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, a paradoxical mix of adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS and high-risk behavior characterizes their daily lives. Based on original qualitative research in Ghana, I explore in this article the ways in which the social construction of masculinity influences youth's responses to behavior change HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. Findings show that although awareness of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the risks of infection is very high among the youth, a combination of hegemonic masculinity and perceptions of personal invulnerability acts to undermine the processes of young people's HIV/AIDS risk construction and appropriate behavioral change. I argue that if HIV/AIDS prevention is to be effective and sustained, school- and community-based initiatives should be developed to provide supportive social spaces in which the construction of masculinity, the identity of young men and women as gendered persons, and perceptions of their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS infection are challenged.

  3. A Social Identity Analysis of Climate Change and Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors: Insights and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Kelly S.; Hornsey, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper, we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing, how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories, such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions. PMID:26903924

  4. Changes in Rational Economic Behavior Model, Caused By the Development of E-Commerce

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    Menzeleev Ilya, A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author examines the origins of rationality concept and its transformation within the framework of economic science. According to the author, rationality is a fundamental concept both for philosophy and for economics. Changes in rational economic behavior model significantly effect on informal institutes (in short-term perspective and on formal institutes (in long-term period. In the paper it is said about significant changes taking place with humanity right now. Today it becomes more and more difficult to describe human behavior by uniform concept of rationality. Now people live in a world that is developing unprecedentedly fast, with the usage of incredible amount of information, countless tasks and social contacts. The development of the Internet and IT tools facilitate this process. Already since the midtwentieth century advertising and marketing has been influencing people’s lifestyle like politics or news. Media resources brands today are comparable to the resources of some political parties or even TV channels what means that advertising today is one of the main factors affecting consumers ' minds and their behavioral model, main feature of which is the premise of rationality or justification of actions. The author analyzes the changes of models of rationality over time and, above all, the changes caused by the development of Internet marketing and its tools for monitoring user activity and the impact on decision making in the Network. In conclusion a number of recommendations is given, which can help consumers to save an independence in making decisions in the Internet environment.

  5. Behavioral and neurobiological changes in C57BL/6 mouse exposed to cuprizone: effects of antipsychotics

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    Haiyun Xu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent human studies suggest a role for altered oligodendrocytes in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Our recent animal study has reported some schizophrenia-like behaviors in mice exposed to cuprizone (Xu et al., 2009, a copper chelator that has been shown to selectively damage the white matter. This study was to explore mechanisms underlying the behavioral changes in cuprizone-exposed mice and to examine effects of the antipsychotics haloperidol, clozapine and quetiapine on the changes in the mice. Mice given cuprizone for 14 days showed a deficit in the prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle response and higher dopamine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, which changes were not seen in mice given cuprizone plus antipsychotics. Mice given cuprizone for 21 days showed lower spontaneous alternations in Y-maze, which was not seen in mice treated with the antipsychotics. Mice given cuprizone for 28 days displayed less social interactions, which was not seen in mice given cuprizone plus clozapine/quetiapine, but was seen in mice given cuprizone plus haloperidol. Mice given cuprizone for 42 days showed myelin sheath loss and lower myelin basic protein in PFC, caudate putamen, and hippocampus. The white matter damage in PFC was attenuated in mice given cuprizone plus clozapine/haloperidol. But the white matter damage in caudate putamen and hippocampus was only attenuated by clozapine and quetiapine, not by haloperidol. These results help us to understand the behavioral changes and provide experimental evidence for the protective effects of antipsychotics on white matter damage in cuprizone-exposed mice.

  6. PREDICTING THE CHANGE OF CHILD’S BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS: SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC AND MATERNAL PARENTING STRESS FACTORS

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    Evelina Viduoliene

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: evaluate 1 whether child’s externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2 the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3 which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child’s externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach: participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990 and Child Behavior Checklist 1.5−5 years (Achenbach, Rescorla, 2000 questionnaires. Findings: Child’s externalizing problems decreased within 12 months period. There were no effects of child’s age, gender and age*gender interaction on externalizing problems change within 12 months period. Higher initial level and more negative change within 12 months period of maternal parenting stress related to child characteristics, more stressful events in family life predicted the increase of child’s externalizing problems. Research limitations/implications: maternal parenting stress and child’s externalizing problems are related and may influence each other simultaneously. Child’s externalizing problems decrease within one year period in overall 2−5 years old children group. The change of child’s aggressive behavior and hyperactivity, distractibility should be evaluated individually, separately from each other. Practical implications: maternal parenting stress and child’s behavior problems are closely related to each other, it may be meaningful organize intervention for mothers in order to prevent child’s externalizing problems increase. Keywords: maternal parenting stress, externalizing problems, childhood, toddlerhood, longitudinal research. Research type: research paper.

  7. Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice.

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    Yuko Hisatomi

    Full Text Available In humans, emaciation from long-term dietary deficiencies, such as anorexia, reportedly increases physical activity and brain atrophy. However, the effects of single short-term fasting on brain tissue or behavioral activity patterns remain unclear. To clarify the impact of malnutrition on brain function, we conducted a single short-term fasting study as an anorexia model using male adult mice and determined if changes occurred in migratory behavior as an expression of brain function and in brain tissue structure. Sixteen-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were divided into either the fasted group or the control group. Experiments were conducted in a fixed indoor environment. We examined the effects of fasting on the number of nerve cells, structural changes in the myelin and axon density, and brain atrophy. For behavior observation, the amount of food and water consumed, ingestion time, and the pattern of movement were measured using a time-recording system. The fasted mice showed a significant increase in physical activity and their rhythm of movement was disturbed. Since the brain was in an abnormal state after fasting, mice that were normally active during the night became active regardless of day or night and performed strenuous exercise at a high frequency. The brain weight did not change by a fast, and brain atrophy was not observed. Although no textural change was apparent by fasting, the neuronal neogenesis in the subventricular zone and hippocampus was inhibited, causing disorder of the brain function. A clear association between the suppression of encephalic neuropoiesis and overactivity was not established. However, it is interesting that the results of this study suggest that single short-term fasting has an effect on encephalic neuropoiesis.

  8. The Role of Reciprocity and Directionality of Friendship Ties in Promoting Behavioral Change

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    Almaatouq, Abdullah; Pentland, Alex; Shmueli, Erez

    2016-01-01

    Friendship is a fundamental characteristic of human beings and usually assumed to be reciprocal in nature. Despite this common expectation, in reality, not all friendships by default are reciprocal nor created equal. Here, we show that reciprocated friendships are more intimate and they are substantially different from those that are not. We examine the role of reciprocal ties in inducing more effective peer pressure in a cooperative arrangements setting and find that the directionality of friendship ties can significantly limit the ability to persuade others to act. Specifically, we observe a higher behavioral change and more effective peer-influence when subjects shared reciprocal ties with their peers compared to sharing unilateral ones. Moreover, through spreading process simulation, we find that although unilateral ties diffuse behaviors across communities, reciprocal ties play more important role at the early stages of the diffusion process.

  9. Neural changes associated with semantic processing in healthy aging despite intact behavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Jacinthe; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Grimault, Stephan; Pineault, Jessica; Joubert, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Semantic memory recruits an extensive neural network including the left inferior prefrontal cortex (IPC) and the left temporoparietal region, which are involved in semantic control processes, as well as the anterior temporal lobe region (ATL) which is considered to be involved in processing semantic information at a central level. However, little is known about the underlying neuronal integrity of the semantic network in normal aging. Young and older healthy adults carried out a semantic judgment task while their cortical activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite equivalent behavioral performance, young adults activated the left IPC to a greater extent than older adults, while the latter group recruited the temporoparietal region bilaterally and the left ATL to a greater extent than younger adults. Results indicate that significant neuronal changes occur in normal aging, mainly in regions underlying semantic control processes, despite an apparent stability in performance at the behavioral level.

  10. Modulation of auditory evoked responses to spectral and temporal changes by behavioral discrimination training

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    Okamoto Hidehiko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to auditory experience, musicians have better auditory expertise than non-musicians. An increased neocortical activity during auditory oddball stimulation was observed in different studies for musicians and for non-musicians after discrimination training. This suggests a modification of synaptic strength among simultaneously active neurons due to the training. We used amplitude-modulated tones (AM presented in an oddball sequence and manipulated their carrier or modulation frequencies. We investigated non-musicians in order to see if behavioral discrimination training could modify the neocortical activity generated by change detection of AM tone attributes (carrier or modulation frequency. Cortical evoked responses like N1 and mismatch negativity (MMN triggered by sound changes were recorded by a whole head magnetoencephalographic system (MEG. We investigated (i how the auditory cortex reacts to pitch difference (in carrier frequency and changes in temporal features (modulation frequency of AM tones and (ii how discrimination training modulates the neuronal activity reflecting the transient auditory responses generated in the auditory cortex. Results The results showed that, additionally to an improvement of the behavioral discrimination performance, discrimination training of carrier frequency changes significantly modulates the MMN and N1 response amplitudes after the training. This process was accompanied by an attention switch to the deviant stimulus after the training procedure identified by the occurrence of a P3a component. In contrast, the training in discrimination of modulation frequency was not sufficient to improve the behavioral discrimination performance and to alternate the cortical response (MMN to the modulation frequency change. The N1 amplitude, however, showed significant increase after and one week after the training. Similar to the training in carrier frequency discrimination, a long lasting

  11. Videos Influence Behavior Change Measures for Voice and Speech in Individuals with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Lisa M; Graetzer, Simone; Huh, Jina

    2015-10-01

    The majority of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience voice and speech difficulties at some point over the course of the disease. Voice therapy has been found to help improve voice and speech in individuals with PD, but the majority of these individuals do not enroll in voice therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether watching short videos about voice symptoms and treatment in Parkinson's disease influences readiness to change, stages of change, and self-efficacy in individuals with PD. Eight individuals with PD participated in the study. Fifteen videos were chosen, three representing each of the five stages of change. We chose videos from YouTube that represented variety in speakers, content, and genre. We found that readiness to change significantly increased after watching videos, suggesting that watching videos helped these individuals move closer to actively improving their voice and speech. In addition, five of the eight participants showed forward movement in stages of change. Finally, self-efficacy demonstrated a positive trend following video watching. Overall, our results demonstrate that watching videos available on the internet can influence individuals with Parkinson's disease in changing vocal behavior. Implications for future wireless health applications are described.

  12. Behavior, color change and time for sexual inversion in the protogynous grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis.

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    Richard J Kline

    Full Text Available Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific "tuxedo" pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process.

  13. Behavior, color change and time for sexual inversion in the protogynous grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Richard J; Khan, Izhar A; Holt, G Joan

    2011-01-01

    Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis) in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific "tuxedo" pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process.

  14. Cohort Removal Induces Changes in Body Temperature, Pain Sensitivity, and Anxiety-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Keizo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal). Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests.

  15. Cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior

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    Keizo eTakao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal. Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests.

  16. Clemastine rescues behavioral changes and enhances remyelination in the cuprizone mouse model of demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifang; He, Yangtao; Fan, Shuangyi; Sun, Binbin

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that white matter disorders based on myelin sheath impairment may underlie the neuropathological changes in schizophrenia. But it is unknown whether enhancing remyelination is a beneficial approach to schizophrenia. To investigate this hypothesis, we used clemastine, an FDA-approved drug with high potency in promoting oligodendroglial differentiation and myelination, on a cuprizone-induced mouse model of demyelination. The mice exposed to cuprizone (0.2% in chow) for 6 weeks displayed schizophrenia-like behavioral changes, including decreased exploration of the center in the open field test and increased entries into the arms of the Y-maze, as well as evident demyelination in the cortex and corpus callosum. Clemastine treatment was initiated upon cuprizone withdrawal at 10 mg/kg per day for 3 weeks. As expected, myelin repair was greatly enhanced in the demyelinated regions with increased mature oligodendrocytes (APC-positive) and myelin basic protein. More importantly, the clemastine treatment rescued the schizophrenia-like behavioral changes in the open field test and the Y-maze compared to vehicle, suggesting a beneficial effect via promoting myelin repair. Our findings indicate that enhancing remyelination may be a potential therapy for schizophrenia.

  17. Exploring the Mode Change Behavior of Park-and-Ride Users

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    Shahi Taphsir Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mode change behavior of park-and-ride (P&R users, which is of considerable significance to analyze the effectiveness of P&R site on the commuters’ travel mode change as well as the increase of public transport mode share. Data from an intercept interview survey conducted at different P&R facilities in Metropolitan Melbourne is used. A questionnaire containing revealed preference (RP and stated preference (SP questions is used to interview the individuals who park at the facility and catch public transport to go to city. This study firstly aims to know the factors affecting current travel behavior using RP data and secondly to investigate the importance of the factors on influencing the commuters’ decision of travel mode choice using the SP data. The empirical models using multinomial logistic regression reveal that travel time taken by transit vehicle and transfer time at P&R stations are the primary factors affecting individuals’ decision on choosing public transport whereas parking fare is the additional factor affecting commuters’ choice of driving. Based on the results of this study, the effectiveness of P&R scheme on commuters’ travel mode change is evaluated which would be helpful to shed lights on the future construction of P&R sites.

  18. Predicting short-term weight loss using four leading health behavior change theories

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    Barata José T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conceived to analyze how exercise and weight management psychosocial variables, derived from several health behavior change theories, predict weight change in a short-term intervention. The theories under analysis were the Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Self-Determination Theory. Methods Subjects were 142 overweight and obese women (BMI = 30.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2; age = 38.3 ± 5.8y, participating in a 16-week University-based weight control program. Body weight and a comprehensive psychometric battery were assessed at baseline and at program's end. Results Weight decreased significantly (-3.6 ± 3.4%, p Conclusion The present models were able to predict 20–30% of variance in short-term weight loss and changes in weight management self-efficacy accounted for a large share of the predictive power. As expected from previous studies, exercise variables were only moderately associated with short-term outcomes; they are expected to play a larger explanatory role in longer-term results.

  19. Enhancing Behavioral Change with Motivational Interviewing: a case study in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada ePietrabissa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: psychological interventions in Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR programs appear relevant in as much they significantly contribute to achieve the goals of rehabilitation, to reduce the risk of relapses and to improve patients’ adherence to therapy. To this aim, Motivational Interviewing (MI has shown promising results in improving motivation to change and individuals’ confidence in their ability to do so. Objective: the purpose of this article is to integrate theory with practice by describing a 3-session case scenario. It illustrates how the use of MI’s skills and strategies can be used to enhance health. MI may be synergistic with other treatment approaches and it is used here in conjunction with Brief Strategic Therapy (BST. Conclusions: by the use of Motivational Interviewing principles and technique, the patient reported an increase in his motivation and ability to change, developing a post discharge plan that incorporates self-care behaviors. Clinical Implications: Motivational Interviewing may be effective in motivating and facilitating health behavior change in patients suffering from heart failure.

  20. The use of individualized goal setting to facilitate behavior change in women with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuifbergen, Alexa K; Becker, Heather; Timmerman, Gayle M; Kullberg, Vicki

    2003-04-01

    Setting goals is a useful strategy for changing behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a wellness intervention for women with multiple sclerosis (MS) on achieving health-related goals set individually by each participant in the experimental group (N = 57) using goal attainment scaling. The two-phase intervention included lifestyle-change classes over 8 weeks, then telephone follow-up over 3 months. Participants were followed over an 8-month period. Goal achievement was assessed at baseline, 2 months (following class), 3 1/2 months (6 weeks after class), 5 months (following 3 months of telephone follow-up), and at 8 months. The majority of the women met or exceeded all their individualized goals for changing behavior at the 6-week postclass assessment. Achievement and maintenance of individual goals remained high (59%-84%) over the 5 months after class follow-ups. These data support the positive effects of wellness interventions for helping women with MS to meet their own individualized health goals. Setting goals with incremental steps helped participants to articulate their individual goals and monitor achievement over time.

  1. Design of formative assessment model for professional behavior using stages of change theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Akram; Mirzazadeh, Azim; Shirazi, Mandana; Asghari, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. This study was conducted to design a model for formative assessment of professional commitment in medical students according to stages of change theory. Methods: In this qualitative study, data were collected through literature review & focus group interviews in the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2013 and analyzed using content analysis approach. Results: Review of the literature and results of focus group interviews led to design a formative assessment model of professional commitment in three phases, including pre-contemplation, contemplation, and readiness for behavior change that each one has interventional and assessment components. In the second phase of the study, experts' opinion collected in two main categories: the educational environment (factors related to students, students' assessment and educational program); and administrative problems (factors related to subcultures, policymakers or managers and budget). Moreover, there was a section of recommendations for each category related to curriculum, professors, students, assessments, making culture, the staff and reinforcing administrative factors. Conclusion: This type of framework analysis made it possible to develop a conceptual model that could be effective on forming the professional commitment and behavioral change in medical students.

  2. IS SELF-EFFICACY FOR SMOKING ABSTINENCE A CAUSE OF, OR A REFLECTION ON, SMOKING BEHAVIOR CHANGE?

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; Parzynski, Craig S.; Mercincavage, Melissa; Conklin, Cynthia A.; Fonte, Carolyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Social learning theory considers self-efficacy as a causal factor in behavior change. However, in line with behavioral theory, recent clinical research suggests that self-efficacy ratings may reflect, rather than cause, behavior change. To test these two disparate views, self-efficacy was related to actual smoking abstinence on the next day (i.e. self-efficacy causes change), and abstinence status over one day was tested as a predictor of rated self-efficacy for being quit the next day (i.e. ...

  3. Animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproate: behavioral changes and liver parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Rodrigues, Leticia; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Riesgo, Rudimar; Gottfried, Carmem

    2011-08-23

    Autism is characterized by behavioral impairments in three main domains: social interaction; language, communication and imaginative play; and range of interests and activities. This syndrome has attracted social attention by its high prevalence. The animal model induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) has been proposed to study autism. Several characteristics of behavioral abnormalities found in the VPA rats, such as repetitive/stereotypic-like activity and deficit in social interaction have been correlated with autism. Features like flexibility to change strategy, social memory and metabolic status of the induced rats have not been examined. Thus, the main aim of this work was to investigate additional behavioral rodent similarities with autism, as well as, liver redox parameters after prenatal exposure to VPA. Young rats from the VPA group presented aberrant approach to a stranger rat, decreased conditioned place preference to conspecifics, normal spatial learning and a lack of flexibility to change their strategy. As adults, they presented inappropriate social approach to a stranger rat, decreased preference for social novelty, apparently normal social recognition and no spatial learning deficits. Examination of the liver from the VPA group presented significantly increased (12%) levels of catalase (CAT) activity, no alteration in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and a decrease in the SOD/CAT ratio. TBARS, sulfhydril and carbonyl contents, and serum levels of aminotransferases remained unchanged. In summary, rats prenatally exposed to VPA presented decreased flexibility to change strategy and social impairments similar to the autism symptoms, contributing to the understanding of neurodevelopmental symptoms and oxidative imbalance associated to the autism spectrum disorder.

  4. Using social and behavior change communication to increase HIV testing and condom use: the Malawi BRIDGE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Rimal, Rajiv N; Carrasco, Maria; Fajobi, OlaOluwa; Soko, Anthony; Limaye, Rupali; Mkandawire, Glory

    2014-01-01

    While overall HIV prevalence in Malawi has decreased, it is still high in the southern region of the country. Behavioral prevention activities are crucial to continue the reduction in HIV prevalence. Behavior change is influenced by many factors. Previous work indicates knowledge about HIV transmission, self-efficacy to protect oneself from exposure, and accurate risk perception of one's susceptibility all impact sexual behavior. The current study looks at the effects of a behavior change communication program in Malawi called the BRIDGE II Project on psychosocial and behavioral variables. The program sought to address barriers to individual action and confront societal norms related to sexual risk behavior through a mix of community-based activities and mass media messages delivered through local radio stations. Using cohort data (n = 594), we examined the effect of BRIDGE exposure on three variables that affect HIV behaviors: knowledge, self-efficacy, and risk perception, as well as two behavioral outcomes: HIV testing and condom use at last sex. Data were collected at baseline and for a midterm evaluation. Regression analyses showed exposure to BRIDGE was significantly associated with knowledge level (β = 0.20, p behavioral outcome. However, program exposure was a significant predictor of both HIV testing in the past year (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40, p behaviors themselves, but also critical factors that affect HIV behaviors, including knowledge and self-efficacy. It is recommended that communication efforts around HIV risk reduction be increased.

  5. Grit, conscientiousness, and the transtheoretical model of change for exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Justy; Pritschet, Brian L; Cutton, David M

    2013-05-01

    Grit and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) Conscientiousness dimension were examined with respect to the transtheoretical model (TTM) stages of change for exercise behavior. Participants (N = 1171) completed an online survey containing exercise-related TTM staging questions, the Short Grit Scale and BFI Conscientiousness. Ordinal regression analyses showed that grit significantly predicted high intensity and moderate intensity exercise TTM stage while BFI Conscientiousness did not. The results suggest that grit is a potentially important differentiator of TTM stage for moderate and high intensity exercise.

  6. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed.

  7. The Influence of Leadership Behavior and Organizational Commitment on Organizational Readiness for Change in a Higher Learning Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Norshidah

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the effectiveness in implementing organizational change. However, many change effort fail due to several factors such as lack of commitment, style of leadership, and emotional distress of the employees who have to implement the change. This study was intended to determine the influence of leadership behavior and…

  8. Structural Change of Wood Molecules and Chemorheological Behaviors during Chemical Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Manhua; Zhao Guangjie

    2004-01-01

    It is very important to clarify the relationship of changes of molecular combinations in wood cell walls and the chemical rheological behavior during various chemical reagent treatments, for it would be helpful to develop new wood modification technologies and to enrich the theory of chemical rheology of wood. Based on previous investigations on the chemorheological properties of wood by chemical treatments and the applied methods in chemical rheology of wool fibers, this paper proposes the study of various additional reagents to wood saturated in water for long periods of time in order to investigate the chemical rheology of wood, which can provide information about the character of combinations between wood molecules and the structural changes of molecules and further put forward the idea of modifying wood in a decrystallized state.

  9. A Study of Rural Senegalese Attitudes and Perceptions of Their Behavior to Changes in the Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieye, Amadou M.; Roy, D. P.

    2012-11-01

    Semi-structured focus group discussions were employed to capture rural Senegalese attitudes and perceptions of their behavior to changes in the climate and their land use and livelihood strategies. Seven focus groups stratified by gender, ethnicity (Wolof and Peulh) and dominant production system (cultivators and pastoralists) in five villages in semi-arid northern Senegal revealed seven main themes. Rural livelihoods remain predominantly based on rainfall dependant practices, and although cultivators and pastoralists had a clear appreciation of changes in natural resources compared to a perceived more favorable past, few adaptive coping strategies beyond established ones were advocated. The seven themes are discussed in detail and their implications for rural livelihoods under future long term climate predictions discussed with the implications of this study for the development of scenarios of future land cover land use.

  10. Changes in single K+ channel behavior through the lipid phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, Heiko M; Alessandrini, Andrea; Facci, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    We show that the activity of an ion channel is strictly related to the phase state of the lipid bilayer hosting the channel. By measuring unitary conductance, dwell times, and open probability of the K+ channel KcsA as a function of temperature in lipid bilayers composed of POPE and POPG in different relative proportions, we obtain that all those properties show a trend inversion when the bilayer is in the transition region between the liquid disordered and the solid ordered phase. These data suggest that the physical properties of the lipid bilayer influence ion channel activity likely via a fine tuning of its conformations. In a more general interpretative framework, we suggest that other parameters such as pH, ionic strength, and the action of amphiphilic drugs can affect the physical behavior of the lipid bilayer in a fashion similar to temperature changes resulting in functional changes of transmembrane proteins.

  11. HIV risk-reduction counseling and testing on behavior change of MSM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiping Huan

    Full Text Available HIV and AIDS incidence in China is high among men who have sex with men (MSM and ours was one of few studies in China to evaluate the role of HIV risk reduction counseling and testing. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS was used to recruit 430 MSM. Participants were followed up at 6, 12 and 18 months to evaluate behavioral changes after counseling to reduce risk behaviors. At baseline, HIV prevalence was 4.7%, whereas HIV incidence was 5.2 per 100 person-years. The incidence was 3.8 during six to 12 months, and 1.1 during 12 to 18 months. During the study period, the reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI significantly decreased from 60.9% to 42.9%. The proportion of participants who had one or no partner significantly increased from 40.9% to 48.0%. The study also found that some risk behaviors decreased between baseline and 12 months, followed by a slight increase between 12 and 18 months. Reductions in UAI can be achieved through counseling and testing, but may wane over time. Future programs should consider HIV risk-reduction counseling and testing for interventions in MSM in China.

  12. The role of persuasive arguments in changing affirmative action attitudes and expressed behavior in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Fiona A; Charles, Margaret A; Nelson, Jacqueline K

    2008-11-01

    The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Studies 1 and 2 established effective manipulations of positive?negative AA information, and peripheral?central routes of processing. Study 3 implemented these techniques, and a path analysis was carried out testing the differential effects of valence of information processed via different routes on AA evaluative beliefs, attitudes, intention, and expressed behavior. Results indicated that positive AA messages processed centrally (i.e., for meaning) resulted in significantly more positive evaluative beliefs. Modifications to the original model resulted in a final model with excellent fit to the data that supported the mediating role of intention in the AA attitude?behavior relationship, as predicted by the theory of reasoned action. The findings highlight potential benefits of interventions for improving support for AA policies, provided that positive information is processed at a central, evaluative level.

  13. Color changing and behavioral context in the Amazonian Dwarf Cichlid Apistogramma hippolytae (Perciformes

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    Raoni Rosa Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Animal coloration has many functions, and fishes are noted among vertebrates for presenting a wide variety of color patterns. Although in marine fishes the relationship between body coloration and behavioral context is well documented, there's not much information about freshwater fishes. Here we describe color patterns displayed by the dwarf cichlid Apistogramma hippolytae and suggest that these patterns are dependent on different social and behavioral settings. Field observations were conducted underwater in a pond in Central Amazonia, Brazil. We recorded six body coloration patterns related to seven different kinds of behavioral activities: foraging, resting, reproductive and agonistic displays, aggression (attacking and fleeing and parental care. Changes in coloration occur rapidly and take only a few seconds. Females on parental care exhibited a unique pattern that are more persistent and probably manifests more slowly. In the shallow and clear waters of the natural environment of this dwarf cichlid, color communication seems to constitute an efficient way to display information about individual mood, social status and reproductive readiness, contributing to minimize loss of energy in unnecessary interactions.

  14. Oregano Extract Added into the Diet of Dairy Heifers Changes Feeding Behavior and Concentrate Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Jacob Kolling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to describe the effects of Oregano extract (OE inclusion into the concentrate fed to dairy heifers on physiological parameters, feeding behavior, intake, and performance. Thirty-two Holstein heifers were randomly distributed into four treatments: C = control, without addition of OE; OE2.5 = 2.5 g; OE5.0 = 5.0 g and OE7.5 = 7.5 g of Oregano extract per heifer/day. Feeding behavior and concentrate intake were assessed individually every day and total dry matter intake (DMI was determined on the last week of the trial. Compared to control group, OE7.5 reduced by 32% the latency time to approach the feed bunk but increased by 6% the time spent eating the concentrate. Each inclusion of 2.5 grams of OE into the concentrate increased the occurrence of postingestive licking the feed bunk with abundant saliva production 1.2 times (P<0.01 and tended to increase the occurrence of sneeze events 1.2 times (P<0.10. No statistical difference was detected between treatments for total DMI, but concentrate DMI was 9% lower for OE7.5 when compared to control and OE2.5. The inclusion of 7.5 grams/day of OE causes small but negative effects in feeding behavior and concentrate intake, without change on total dry matter intake.

  15. Oregano Extract Added into the Diet of Dairy Heifers Changes Feeding Behavior and Concentrate Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Giovani Jacob; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; da Cruz, Eduardo Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This experiment aimed to describe the effects of Oregano extract (OE) inclusion into the concentrate fed to dairy heifers on physiological parameters, feeding behavior, intake, and performance. Thirty-two Holstein heifers were randomly distributed into four treatments: C = control, without addition of OE; OE2.5 = 2.5 g; OE5.0 = 5.0 g and OE7.5 = 7.5 g of Oregano extract per heifer/day. Feeding behavior and concentrate intake were assessed individually every day and total dry matter intake (DMI) was determined on the last week of the trial. Compared to control group, OE7.5 reduced by 32% the latency time to approach the feed bunk but increased by 6% the time spent eating the concentrate. Each inclusion of 2.5 grams of OE into the concentrate increased the occurrence of postingestive licking the feed bunk with abundant saliva production 1.2 times (P < 0.01) and tended to increase the occurrence of sneeze events 1.2 times (P < 0.10). No statistical difference was detected between treatments for total DMI, but concentrate DMI was 9% lower for OE7.5 when compared to control and OE2.5. The inclusion of 7.5 grams/day of OE causes small but negative effects in feeding behavior and concentrate intake, without change on total dry matter intake. PMID:28116344

  16. Major factors for facilitating change in behavioral strategies to reduce obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalle Grave R

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Riccardo Dalle Grave,1 Elena Centis,2 Rebecca Marzocchi,2 Marwan El Ghoch,1 Giulio Marchesini21Department of Eating and Weight Disorders, Villa Garda Hospital, Garda VR, 2Unit of Metabolic Diseases and Clinical Dietetics, Alma Mater Studiorum University, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: It is very unlikely that our obesity-promoting environment will change in the near future. It is therefore mandatory to improve our knowledge of the main factors associated with successful adoption of obesity-reducing behaviors. This may help design more powerful procedures and strategies to facilitate the adoption of healthy lifestyles in a "toxic" environment favoring the development of a positive energy balance. The aim of this review is to describe the main factors associated with successful adoption of obesity-reducing behaviors and to describe the most recent development, limits, and outcomes of lifestyle modification programs. The evidence regarding predictors of weight loss and weight loss maintenance remains largely incomplete. It is necessary to develop strategies matching treatments to patients' needs to improve successful weight loss and its maintenance. How to detect and how to address these needs is a continuous, challenging, research problem.Keywords: weight loss, physical activity, food intake, motivational interviewing, behavioral therapy

  17. Objectives and Actual HIV and AIDS Education Programme Delivery and Behavioral Changes among Kenyan Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongunya, R. O.; Indoshi, F. C.; Agak, J. O.

    2009-01-01

    Although there seems to be a high level of awareness of the HIV and AIDS menace among the youth, their behavior does not reflect this level of awareness. There seems to be a mismatch between HIV and AIDS Programme objectives and behavior change among the youth. However, this level of mismatch has not been established for effective intervention…

  18. Ten-year changes in sun protection behaviors and beliefs of young adults in 13 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peacey, Victoria; Steptoe, Andrew; Sandennan, Robbert; Wardle, Jane; Sanderman, R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. Sun protection behaviors are important to the prevention of skin cancers, but little is known about changes over time in attitudes and behavior. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out among university students in thirteen European countries in 1990 (n = 10,241) and 2000 (n = 10

  19. Using Analogue Functional Analysis to Measure Variations in Problem Behavior Rate and Function after Psychotropic Medication Changes: A Clinical Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Nelson, Samantha M.; Kuhle, Jennifer L.; Dierks, Abigail M.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities are often prescribed psychotropic medication to treat behaviors such as aggression and self-injury. Evaluation of these medications is often based on caregiver report or changes in frequency of behavior. The purpose of this research was to characterize the rate and function of problem…

  20. A Time of Change: Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Adolescent Sensitivity to Appetitive and Aversive Environmental Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Leah H.; Jones, Rebecca M.; Casey, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period that entails substantial changes in affective and incentive-seeking behavior relative to both childhood and adulthood, including a heightened propensity to engage in risky behaviors and experience persistent negative and labile mood states. This review discusses the emotional and incentive-driven behavioral…

  1. Changes in Restricted Repetitive Behaviors with Age: A Study of High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Monali; Benson, Betsey A.; Hillier, Ashleigh

    2010-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that while impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) continue into adulthood, some behavioral symptoms tend to abate with age. However, there is a dearth of research examining changes in ASD symptoms from childhood to adulthood, especially for Restricted Repetitive Behaviors (RRBs). We examined age-related…

  2. Changes in Sun Tanning Attitudes and Behaviors of U.S. College Students from 1995 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Pettijohn, Terry F.; Geschke, Kaela S.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate changes in U.S. college student sun tanning attitudes and behaviors over the last decade, participants completed sun tanning attitude and behavior surveys in 1995 (n=151) and a different sample of participants completed surveys in 2005 (n=208). Consistent with predictions, results indicated that college students were more likely to…

  3. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  4. Efficient local behavioral change strategies to reduce the spread of epidemics in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, Yilei; Mills, Harriet L

    2013-01-01

    It has recently become established that the spread of infectious diseases between humans is affected not only by the pathogen itself but also by changes in behavior as the population becomes aware of the epidemic; for example, social distancing. It is also well known that community structure (the existence of relatively densely connected groups of vertices) in contact networks influences the spread of disease. We propose a set of local strategies for social distancing, based on community structure, that can be employed in the event of an epidemic to reduce the epidemic size. Unlike most social distancing methods, ours do not require individuals to know the disease state (infected or susceptible, etc.) of others, and we do not make the unrealistic assumption that the structure of the entire contact network is known. Instead, the recommended behavior change is based only on an individual's local view of the network. Each individual avoids contact with a fraction of his/her contacts, using knowledge of his/her l...

  5. Food behavior change in late-life widowhood: A two-stage process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesnaver, Elisabeth; Keller, Heather H; Sutherland, Olga; Maitland, Scott B; Locher, J L

    2015-12-01

    Widowhood is a common life event for married older women. Prior research has found disruptions in eating behaviors to be common among widows. Little is known about the process underlying these disruptions. The aim of this study was to generate a theoretical understanding of the changing food behaviors of older women during the transition of widowhood. Qualitative methods based on constructivist grounded theory guided by a critical realist worldview were used. Individual active interviews were conducted with 15 community-living women, aged 71-86 years, living alone, and widowed six months to 15 years at the time of the interview. Participants described a variety of educational backgrounds and levels of health, were mainly white and of Canadian or European descent, and reported sufficient income to meet their needs. The loss of regular shared meals initiated a two-stage process whereby women first fall into new patterns and then re-establish the personal food system, thus enabling women to redirect their food system from one that satisfied the couple to one that satisfied their personal food needs. Influences on the trajectory of the change process included the couple's food system, experience with nutritional care, food-related values, and food-related resources. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  6. When in Rome: factors associated with changes in drinking behavior among American college students studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2010-09-01

    Study abroad programs have the potential to promote cultural, experiential, and personal development for escalating numbers of American college students each year. Despite reports that study abroad students may be at particular risk for increased and problematic alcohol use, there is limited empirical documentation of this risk. Thus, the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the factors associated with changes in alcohol use among college students studying in foreign countries. A sample of 177 students completed measures of demographics, drinking behavior, and perceived peer drinking behavior 1 month before departure and 1-month postreturn from study abroad trips. Analyses revealed that participants more than doubled their drinking during study abroad trips and those who drank at heavier levels while abroad returned home drinking at significantly elevated levels. This pattern of increased use while abroad was moderated by several factors, with participants studying abroad in Europe (e.g., Italy, France) and Oceania (e.g., Australia, New Zealand), those under the age of 21, those with higher intentions of drinking while abroad, and those with higher drinking perceptions of other study abroad students in their host country increased their alcohol consumption to a greater extent than other participants. Results suggest drinking while abroad is a concern warranting further investigation, especially regarding how changes in drinking may contribute to the experience of alcohol-related consequences abroad. Continued identification of the risk factors associated with increased drinking can help inform targeted predeparture preventive interventions with these students.

  7. A novel EEG for alpha brain state training, neurobiofeedback and behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Bruce; Arthur, David

    2013-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation, with the resulting alpha brain state, is gaining a strong following as an adjunct to health, so too is applying self-affirmation to stimulate behavior change through subconscious re-programming. Until recently the EEG technology needed to demonstrate this has been cumbersome and required specialist training. This paper reports a pilot study using a remote EEG headband, which through a sophisticated algorithm, provides a real-time EEG readout unencumbered by conventional artifacts. In a convenience sample of 13, the difference in brain waves was examined while the subjects were occupied in an 'attention' and an 'alpha mind state' exercise. There was a significant difference in the mean scores for theta, delta, beta and gamma brain waves. Alpha brain waves remained static suggesting an ability of the headset to discriminate a mindful state and to provide real-time, easy to interpret feedback for the facilitator and subject. The findings provide encouragement for research applications in health care activities providing neurobiofeedback to subjects involved in mindfulness behavior change activities.

  8. Peripheral and Central Neuroinflammatory Changes and Pain Behaviors in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Samuel S; Perera, Chamini J; Makker, Preet G S; Lees, Justin G; Carrive, Pascal; Moalem-Taylor, Gila

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a widespread and debilitating symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Although central neuroinflammation and demyelination have been implicated in MS-related pain, the contribution of peripheral and central mechanisms during different phases of the disease remains unclear. In this study, we used the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to examine both stimulus-evoked and spontaneous pain behaviors, and neuroinflammatory changes, over the course of chronic disease. We found that mechanical allodynia of the hind paw preceded the onset of clinical EAE but was unmeasurable at clinical peak. This mechanical hypersensitivity coincided with increased microglial activation confined to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The development of facial mechanical allodynia also emerged in preclinical EAE, persisted at the clinical peak, and corresponded with pathology of the peripheral trigeminal afferent pathway. This included T cell infiltration, which arose prior to overt central lesion formation and specific damage to myelinated neurons during the clinical peak. Measurement of spontaneous pain using the mouse grimace scale, a facial expression-based coding system, showed increased facial grimacing in mice with EAE during clinical disease. This was associated with multiple peripheral and central neuroinflammatory changes including a decrease in myelinating oligodendrocytes, increased T cell infiltration, and macrophage/microglia and astrocyte activation. Overall, these findings suggest that different pathological mechanisms may underlie stimulus-evoked and spontaneous pain in EAE, and that these behaviors predominate in unique stages of the disease.

  9. The algorithmic complexity of multichannel EEGs is sensitive to changes in behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T A A; Cellucci, C J; Kohegyi, E; Bashore, T R; Josiassen, R C; Greenbaun, N N; Rapp, P E

    2003-01-01

    Symbolic measures of complexity provide a quantitative characterization of the sequential structure of symbol sequences. Promising results from the application of these methods to the analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) and event-related brain potential (ERP) activity have been reported. Symbolic measures used thus far have two limitations, however. First, because the value of complexity increases with the length of the message, it is difficult to compare signals of different epoch lengths. Second, these symbolic measures do not generalize easily to the multichannel case. We address these issues in studies in which both single and multichannel EEGs were analyzed using measures of signal complexity and algorithmic redundancy, the latter being defined as a sequence-sensitive generalization of Shannon's redundancy. Using a binary partition of EEG activity about the median, redundancy was shown to be insensitive to the size of the data set while being sensitive to changes in the subject's behavioral state (eyes open vs. eyes closed). The covariance complexity, calculated from the singular value spectrum of a multichannel signal, was also found to be sensitive to changes in behavioral state. Statistical separations between the eyes open and eyes closed conditions were found to decrease following removal of the 8- to 12-Hz content in the EEG, but still remained statistically significant. Use of symbolic measures in multivariate signal classification is described.

  10. Changes in sexual behavior following a sex education program in Brazilian public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Heloísa Helena Siqueira Monteiro; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Sousa, Maria Helena; Makuch, Maria Yolanda; Bertoni, Neilane; Faúndes, Anibal

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of possible changes in sexual behavior in adolescents who participated in a school-based sex education program in selected public schools in four municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The program is inserted within the context of reproductive rights, deals with risks involved in unsafe sexual practices and focuses on the positive aspects of sexuality. A quasi-experimental design with pre and post-tests and a non-equivalent control group was used to evaluate the intervention. A total of 4,795 questionnaires were included in this analysis. The program succeeded in more than doubling consistent condom use with casual partners and in increasing the use of modern contraceptives during last intercourse by 68%. The intervention had no effect on age at first intercourse or on adolescents' engagement in sexual activities. The sex education program was effective in generating positive changes in the sexual behavior of adolescents, while not stimulating participation in sexual activities.

  11. Moderate recurrent hypoglycemia during early development leads to persistent changes in affective behavior in the rat.

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    Moore, Holly; Craft, Tara K S; Grimaldi, Lisa M; Babic, Bruna; Brunelli, Susan A; Vannucci, Susan J

    2010-07-01

    Recurrent hypoglycemia is a common problem among infants and children that is associated with several metabolic disorders and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Although studies have reported a relationship between a history of juvenile hypoglycemia and psychological health problems, the direct effects of recurrent moderate hypoglycemia have not been fully determined. Thus, in this study, we used an animal model to examine the effects of recurrent hypoglycemia during the juvenile period on affective, social, and motor function (assessed under euglycemic conditions) across development. To model recurrent hypoglycemia, rats were administered 5 U/kg of insulin or saline twice per day from postnatal day (P)10 to P19. Body weight gain was retarded in insulin-treated rats during the treatment period, but recovered by the end of treatment. However, insulin-treated rats displayed increases in affective reactivity that emerged early during treatment and persisted after treatment into early adulthood. Specifically, insulin-treated pups showed increased maternal separation-induced vocalizations as infants, and an exaggerated acoustic startle reflex as juveniles and young adults. Moreover, young adult rats with a history of recurrent juvenile hypoglycemia exhibited increased fear-potentiated startle and increases in behavioral and hormonal responses to restraint stress. Some of these effects were sex-dependent. The changes in affective behavior in insulin-exposed pups were accompanied by decreases in adolescent social play behavior. These results provide evidence that recurrent, transient hypoglycemia during juvenile development can lead to increases in fear-related behavior and stress reactivity. Importantly, these phenotypes are not reversed with normalization of blood glucose and may persist into adulthood.

  12. Mimicking natural systems: Changes in behavior as a result of dynamic exposure to naproxen.

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    Neal, Alexandra E; Moore, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Animals living in aquatic habitats regularly encounter anthropogenic chemical pollution. Typically, the toxicity of a chemical toxicant is determined by the median lethal concentration (LC50) through a static exposure test. However, LC50 values and static tests do not provide an accurate representation of exposure to pollutants within natural stream systems. In their native habitats, animals experience exposure as a fluctuating concentration due to turbulent mixing, temporal variations of contamination (seasonal inputs), and contaminant input type (point vs. non-point). Research has shown that turbulent environments produce exposures with a high degree of fluctuation in frequency, duration, and intensity. In order to more effectively evaluate the effects of pollutants, we created a dynamic exposure paradigm, utilizing both flow and substrate within a small mesocosm. A commonly used pharmaceutical, naproxen, was used as the toxicant and female crayfish (Orconectes virilis) as the target organism to investigate changes in fighting behavior as a result of dynamic exposure. Crayfish underwent either a 23h long static or a dynamic exposure to naproxen. Following exposure, the target crayfish and an unexposed size matched opponent underwent a 15min fight trial. These fight trials were recorded and later analyzed using a standard ethogram. Results indicate that exposure to sublethal concentrations of naproxen, in both static and flowing conditions, negatively impact aggressive behavior. Results also indicate that a dynamic exposure paradigm has a greater negative impact on behavior than a static exposure. Turbulence and habitat structure play important roles in shaping chemical exposure. Future research should incorporate features of dynamic chemical exposure in order to form a more comprehensive image of chemical exposure and predict the resulting sublethal effects from exposure. Possible techniques for assessment include utilizing flow-through experimental set-ups in

  13. The Behavioral and Clinical Effects of Therapeutic Lifestyle Change on Middle-aged Adults

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    Steven G. Aldana, PhD

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes are responsible for most deaths in the United States. Lifestyle factors — poor nutrition, sedentary living, and tobacco use — appear to play a prominent role in the development of many chronic diseases. This study determined the behavioral and clinical impact of a therapeutic lifestyle-modification intervention on a group of community volunteers. Methods Participants included 348 volunteers aged 24 to 81 years from the Rockford, Ill, metropolitan area who participated in a randomized clinical trial. The intervention group attended a 40-hour educational course delivered as lectures during a 4-week period. Participants learned the importance of making better lifestyle choices and how to make improvements in nutrition and physical activity. Changes in nutrition, physical activity behavior, and several chronic disease risk factors were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Results Intervention participants showed significant 6-month improvement in all nutrition and physical activity measures except calories from protein and whole-grain servings and all clinical measures except blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were worse after 6 months in both groups but only significantly worse in the control group. The control group experienced small but significant improvements in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and high-density lipoproteins. Change-score comparisons between the intervention and control groups were significant for all nutrition and physical activity variables except total steps per week and daily sodium intake and were also significant for the clinical measures of weight, body fat, and body mass index. Conclusion This therapeutic lifestyle-modification program can significantly improve nutrition and physical activity behavior and can

  14. A new paradigm for teaching behavior change: Implications for residency training in family medicine and psychiatry

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    Triana A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care physicians (PCPs provide ~50 % of all mental health services in the U.S. Given the widening gap between patient mental health needs and resources available to meet those needs, there is an increasing demand for family medicine and psychiatry trainees to master competencies in both behavioral medicine and primary care counseling during residency-if for no other reason than to accommodate the realities of medical practice given the oft present gap between the need for psychiatric services and the availability, quality, and/or affordability of specialized psychiatric care. To begin to address this gap, a skills-based, interactive curriculum based on motivational interviewing (MI as a teaching method is presented. Methods The curriculum described in this paper is a four-week block rotation taught in the second year of residency. Motivational interviewing (MI is used as a teaching approach toward the goal of clinical behavior change. Residents’ strengths, personal choice and autonomy are emphasized. Each week of the rotation, there is a clinical topic and a set of specific skills for mastery. Residents are offered a “menu” of skills, role modeling, role/real play, practice with standardized patients (SP, and direct supervision in clinic. Results Thirty-nine residents have completed the curriculum. Based on residents’ subjective reporting using pre-post scales (i.e., importance and confidence, all participants to date have reported substantial increases in confidence/self-efficacy using primary care counseling skills in their continuity clinic. Conclusions This paper presents an innovative, empirically based model for teaching the essential skills necessary for physicians providing care for patients with mental/emotional health needs as well as health-behavior change concerns. Implications for training in the broader context, particularly as it relates to multi-disciplinary and collaborative models of

  15. Stochastic adaptation and fold-change detection: from single-cell to population behavior

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    Leier André

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cell signaling terminology, adaptation refers to a system's capability of returning to its equilibrium upon a transient response. To achieve this, a network has to be both sensitive and precise. Namely, the system must display a significant output response upon stimulation, and later on return to pre-stimulation levels. If the system settles at the exact same equilibrium, adaptation is said to be 'perfect'. Examples of adaptation mechanisms include temperature regulation, calcium regulation and bacterial chemotaxis. Results We present models of the simplest adaptation architecture, a two-state protein system, in a stochastic setting. Furthermore, we consider differences between individual and collective adaptive behavior, and show how our system displays fold-change detection properties. Our analysis and simulations highlight why adaptation needs to be understood in terms of probability, and not in strict numbers of molecules. Most importantly, selection of appropriate parameters in this simple linear setting may yield populations of cells displaying adaptation, while single cells do not. Conclusions Single cell behavior cannot be inferred from population measurements and, sometimes, collective behavior cannot be determined from the individuals. By consequence, adaptation can many times be considered a purely emergent property of the collective system. This is a clear example where biological ergodicity cannot be assumed, just as is also the case when cell replication rates are not homogeneous, or depend on the cell state. Our analysis shows, for the first time, how ergodicity cannot be taken for granted in simple linear examples either. The latter holds even when cells are considered isolated and devoid of replication capabilities (cell-cycle arrested. We also show how a simple linear adaptation scheme displays fold-change detection properties, and how rupture of ergodicity prevails in scenarios where transitions between

  16. Intracerebral infection with dengue-3 virus induces meningoencephalitis and behavioral changes that precede lethality in mice

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    Campos Marco A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue, one of the most important arboviral diseases of humans, may cause severe systemic disease. Although dengue virus (DENV has been considered to be a non-neurotropic virus, dengue infection has been associated recently with a series of neurological syndromes, including encephalitis. In this work, we evaluated behavioral changes and inflammatory parameters in C57BL/6 mice infected with non-adapted dengue virus 3 (DENV-3 genotype I. Methods C57BL/6 mice received 4 × 103 PFU of DENV-3 by an intracranial route. We evaluated the trafficking of leukocytes in brain microvasculature using intravital microscopy, and evaluated chemokine and cytokine profiling by an ELISA test at 3 and 6 days post infection (p.i.. Furthermore, we determined myeloperoxidase activity and immune cell populations, and also performed histopathological analysis and immunostaining for the virus in brain tissue. Results All animals developed signs of encephalitis and died by day 8 p.i. Motor behavior and muscle tone and strength parameters declined at day 7 p.i. We observed increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion in brain microvasculature of infected mice at days 3 and 6 p.i. The infection was followed by significant increases in IFN-γ, TNF-α, CCL2, CCL5, CXCL1, and CXCL2. Histological analysis showed evidence of meningoencephalitis and reactive gliosis. Increased numbers of neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were detected in brain of infected animals, notably at day 6 p.i. Cells immunoreactive for anti-NS-3 were visualized throughout the brain. Conclusion Intracerebral infection with non-adapted DENV-3 induces encephalitis and behavioral changes that precede lethality in mice.

  17. Associations between therapy skills and patient experiences of change processes in cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis.

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    Wittorf, Andreas; Jakobi-Malterre, Ute E; Beulen, Silke; Bechdolf, Andreas; Müller, Bernhard W; Sartory, Gudrun; Wagner, Michael; Wiedemann, Georg; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Herrlich, Jutta; Klingberg, Stefan

    2013-12-30

    Despite the promising findings in relation to the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp), little attention has been paid to the therapy skills necessary to deliver CBTp and to the influence of such skills on processes underlying therapeutic change. Our study investigated the associations between general and technical therapy skills and patient experiences of change processes in CBTp. The study sample consisted of 79 patients with psychotic disorders who had undergone CBTp. We randomly selected one tape-recorded therapy session from each of the cases. General and technical therapy skills were assessed by the Cognitive Therapy Scale for Psychosis. The Bern Post Session Report for Patients was applied to measure patient experiences of general change processes in the sense of Grawe's psychological therapy. General skills, such as feedback and understanding, explained 23% of the variance of patients' self-esteem experience, but up to 10% of the variance of mastery, clarification, and contentment experiences. The technical skill of guided discovery consistently showed negative associations with patients' alliance, contentment, and control experiences. The study points to the importance of general therapy skills for patient experiences of change processes in CBTp. Some technical skills, however, could detrimentally affect the therapeutic relationship.

  18. Effects of the Gama Cuulu radio serial drama on HIV-related behavior change in Zambia.

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    Kraft, Joan Marie; Hill, Zelee; Membe, Ian; Zhang, Yujia; Meassick, Elizabeth Onjoro; Monsour, Michael; Maumbi, Mwendalubi; Ndubani, Phillimon; Manengu, Joy Masheke; Mwinga, Alwyn

    2012-01-01

    The Gama Cuulu radio serial drama is written and produced in Zambia's Southern Province. It promotes behavior change and service use to prevent HIV transmission. The authors evaluated the effects of Gama Cuulu on intermediate outcomes (e.g., perceived norms), as well as number of sexual partners, condom use, and HIV testing in the past year among adults between 18 and 49 years of age. The authors used a pretest/posttest assessment with a comparison group design, with Southern Province as the intervention area and Western Province as the comparison area. Approximately 1,500 in-person interviews were conducted in both provinces in 2006 (pretest), 2007, and 2008. Regression models included terms for province, time, and the interaction of the two. Outcomes improved in both provinces (e.g., by 2008, 37.6% of participants in Southern Province and 28.3% participants in Western Province tested for HIV in the past year). Pretest-to-posttest changes in condom use (from 20.2% to 29.4% in Southern Province) and 5 intermediate outcomes were significantly different in the 2 provinces. However, changes in condom use were not associated with listening to Gama Cuulu and changes in other outcomes were similar in both provinces. Weak intervention effects might be attributable to implementation challenges or the saturation of HIV programs in Zambia.

  19. Neural Changes following Behavioral Activation for a Depressed Breast Cancer Patient: A Functional MRI Case Study

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    Michael J. Gawrysiak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging is an innovative but at this stage underutilized method to assess the efficacy of psychotherapy for depression. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used in this case study to examine changes in brain activity in a depressed breast cancer patient receiving an 8-session Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD, based on the work of Hopko and Lejuez (2007. A music listening paradigm was used during fMRI brain scans to assess reward responsiveness at pre- and posttreatment. Following treatment, the patient exhibited attenuated depression and changes in blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD response in regions of the prefrontal cortex and the subgenual cingulate cortex. These preliminary findings outline a novel means to assess psychotherapy efficacy and suggest that BATD elicits functional brain changes in areas implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Further research is necessary to explore neurobiological mechanisms of change in BATD, particularly the potential mediating effects of reward responsiveness and associated brain functioning.

  20. Behavior of audit fees in the audit firm or partner changes

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    Marcelo Antonio Pierri Junior

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify if the behavior of audit fees are affected when the partner or audit firm change for the period 2010 to 2013. For this, an empirical model was developed and hypotheses based on the international and national literature about determinants of audit fees and audit firm rotation. The hypothesis of the study sought to observe the discount on the initial year relationship between the audited company and the audit firm, the fees in change of audit partner and the differences in the type of audit firm change, whether big- Four or non-Big Four. In addition to the variables incorporated to the assumptions, the model features eight control variables: total assets, subsidiaries, foreign subsidiaries, general liquidity, big-four, inherent risk, loss and restructuring operations. Data analysis technique used was the regression model with panel data. From the fixed effects model, it was observed that the company's asset size, liquidity and the type of firm that performs the audit contribute to increase the value of the fees paid by the audited companies. It wasn't possible to get significant evidence about discounted value of the audit fees, either in the audit firm or partner changes.

  1. Behavior change interventions to prevent HIV infection among women living in low and middle income countries: a systematic review.

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    McCoy, Sandra I; Kangwende, Rugare A; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-06-01

    We conducted a systematic review of behavioral change interventions to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV among women and girls living in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and other databases and bibliographies were systematically searched for trials using randomized or quasi-experimental designs to evaluate behavioral interventions with HIV infection as an outcome. We identified 11 analyses for inclusion reporting on eight unique interventions. Interventions varied widely in intensity, duration, and delivery as well as by target population. Only two analyses showed a significant protective effect on HIV incidence among women and only three of ten analyses that measured behavioral outcomes reduced any measure of HIV-related risk behavior. Ongoing research is needed to determine whether behavior change interventions can be incorporated as independent efficacious components in HIV prevention packages for women or simply as complements to biomedical prevention strategies.

  2. A qualitative study of social facilitators and barriers to health behavior change among persons with serious mental illness.

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    Aschbrenner, Kelly; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Mueser, Kim; Kinney, Allison; Pratt, Sarah; Bartels, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    This qualitative focus group study was conducted to explore social facilitators and barriers to health behavior change in persons with serious mental illness engaged in a healthy lifestyle intervention. Six focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 30 clients stratified by "high" and "low" achievers in the program based on clinically significant weight loss or significant increase in fitness. Thematic analysis of focus group discussions revealed that emotional, practical, and mutual support from family members and significant others were social facilitators to health behavior change, while unhealthy social environments was a barrier. Participants in the "high" achiever group reported more mutual support for health behavior change than participants in the "low" achiever group. Results highlight the need for researchers and clinicians to consider the potential role of family and significant others as health supporters for persons with mental illness who could encourage healthy behavior in the social environment.

  3. Chronic Powder Diet After Weaning Induces Sleep, Behavioral, Neuroanatomical, and Neurophysiological Changes in Mice.

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    Emiko Anegawa

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of chronic powder diet feeding on sleep patterns and other physiological/anatomical changes in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were divided into two groups from weaning: a group fed with solid food (SD and a group fed with powder food (PD, and sleep and physiological and anatomical changes were compared between the groups. PD exhibited less cranial bone structure development and a significant weight gain. Furthermore, these PD mice showed reduced number of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Sleep analysis showed that PD induced attenuated diurnal sleep/wake rhythm, characterized by increased sleep during active period and decreased sleep during rest period. With food deprivation (FD, PD showed less enhancement of wake/locomotor activity compared to SD, indicating reduced food-seeking behavior during FD. These results suggest that powder feeding in mice results in a cluster of detrimental symptoms caused by abnormal energy metabolism and anatomical/neurological changes.

  4. Cholesterol changes in coronary patients after a short behavior modification program.

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    Sebregts, Ellen H; Falger, Paul R; Bär, Frits W; Kester, Arnold D; Appels, Ad

    2003-01-01

    Serum cholesterol changes after an 8-week behavior modification program for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) were studied in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients were randomly assigned to the intervention (N = 94) or to usual care (N = 90). After 9 months' follow-up the intervention was effective in reducing total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, particularly in patients with high baseline lipid levels. After correcting for changes in dose of statins during follow-up, effects were weakened, but for patients with high baseline cholesterol levels favorable effects remained. In these patients, the intervention group showed a decline of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels of 20% and 29%, respectively, compared to a 12% and 19% reduction in the control group (p <.01). These effects could not be explained by changes in dietary fat consumption. An unexpected finding was a lower increase in HDL cholesterol in the intervention group than in the control group.

  5. Effects of the Web Behavior Change Program for Activity and Multimodal Pain Rehabilitation: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelson, Peter; Gard, Gunvor; Eriksson, Margareta K

    2016-01-01

    Background Web-based interventions with a focus on behavior change have been used for pain management, but studies of Web-based interventions integrated in clinical practice are lacking. To emphasize the development of cognitive skills and behavior, and to increase activity and self-care in rehabilitation, the Web Behavior Change Program for Activity (Web-BCPA) was developed and added to multimodal pain rehabilitation (MMR). Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate the effects of MMR in combination with the Web-BCPA compared with MMR among persons with persistent musculoskeletal pain in primary health care on pain intensity, self-efficacy, and copying, as part of a larger collection of data. Web-BCPA adherence and feasibility, as well as treatment satisfaction, were also investigated. Methods A total of 109 participants, mean age 43 (SD 11) years, with persistent pain in the back, neck, shoulder, and/or generalized pain were recruited to a randomized controlled trial with two intervention arms: (1) MMR+WEB (n=60) and (2) MMR (n=49). Participants in the MMR+WEB group self-guided through the eight modules of the Web-BCPA: pain, activity, behavior, stress and thoughts, sleep and negative thoughts, communication and self-esteem, solutions, and maintenance and progress. Data were collected with a questionnaire at baseline and at 4 and 12 months. Outcome measures were pain intensity (Visual Analog Scale), self-efficacy to control pain and to control other symptoms (Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale), general self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale), and coping (two-item Coping Strategies Questionnaire; CSQ). Web-BCPA adherence was measured as minutes spent in the program. Satisfaction and Web-BCPA feasibility were assessed by a set of items. Results Of 109 participants, 99 received the allocated intervention (MMR+WEB: n=55; MMR: n=44); 88 of 99 (82%) completed the baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed with a sample

  6. Behavioral changes induced by cocaine in mice are modified by a hyperlipidic diet or recombinant leptin

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    E. Erhardt

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine if the acute behavioral effects of cocaine acutely administered intraperitoneally (ip at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg on white male CF1 mice, 90 days of age, would be influenced by leptin acutely administered ip (at doses of 5, 10 and 20 µg/kg or by endogenous leptin production enhanced by a high-fat diet. The acute behavioral effects of cocaine were evaluated in open-field, elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests. Results were compared between a group of 80 mice consuming a balanced diet and a high-fat diet, and a group of 80 mice fed a commercially available rodent chow formula (Ralston Purina but receiving recombinant leptin (rLeptin or saline ip. Both the high-fat-fed and rLeptin-treated mice showed decreased locomotion in the open-field test, spent more time in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze and showed less immobility time in the forced swimming test (F(1,68 = 7.834, P = 0.007. There was an interaction between diets and cocaine/saline treatments in locomotion (F(3,34 = 3.751, P = 0.020 and exploration (F(3,34 = 3.581, P = 0.024. These results suggest that anxiolytic effects and increased general activity were induced by leptin in cocaine-treated mice and that low leptin levels are associated with behavioral depression. Chronic changes in diet composition producing high leptin levels or rLeptin treatment may result in an altered response to cocaine in ethologic tests that measure degrees of anxiety and depression, which could be attributed to an antagonistic effect of leptin.

  7. Changes in corticosterone concentrations and behavior during Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus).

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    Love, Ashley C; Foltz, Sarah L; Adelman, James S; Moore, Ignacio T; Hawley, Dana M

    2016-09-01

    Glucocorticoid stress hormones are important for energy mobilization as well as regulation of the immune system, and thus these hormones are particularly likely to both influence and respond to pathogen infection in vertebrates. In this study, we examined how the glucocorticoid stress response in house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus) interacts with experimental infection of the naturally-occurring bacterial pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). We also investigated whether infection-induced concentrations of corticosterone (CORT), the primary glucocorticoid in birds, were associated with the expression of sickness behavior, the lethargy typically observed in vertebrates early in infection. We found that experimental infection with MG resulted in significantly higher CORT levels on day 5 post-infection, but this effect appeared to be limited to female house finches only. Regardless of sex, infected individuals with greater disease severity had the highest CORT concentrations on day 5 post-infection. House finches exposed to MG exhibited behavioral changes, with infected birds having significantly lower activity levels than sham-inoculated individuals. However, CORT concentrations and the extent of sickness behaviors exhibited among infected birds were not associated. Finally, pre-infection CORT concentrations were associated with reduced inflammation and pathogen load in inoculated males, but not females. Our results suggest that the house finch glucocorticoid stress response may both influence and respond to MG infection in sex-specific ways, but because we had a relatively low sample size of males, future work should confirm these patterns. Finally, manipulative experiments should be performed to test whether the glucocorticoid stress response acts as a brake on the inflammatory response associated with MG infection in house finches.

  8. Game playbooks: tools to guide multidisciplinary teams in developing videogame-based behavior change interventions.

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    Duncan, Lindsay R; Hieftje, Kimberly D; Culyba, Sabrina; Fiellin, Lynn E

    2014-03-01

    As mobile technologies and videogaming platforms are becoming increasingly prevalent in the realm of health and healthcare, so are the opportunities to use these resources to conduct behavioral interventions. The creation and empirical testing of game style interventions, however, is challenged by the requisite collaboration of multidisciplinary teams, including researchers and game developers who have different cultures, terminologies, and standards of evidence. Thus, traditional intervention development tools such as logic models and intervention manuals may need to be augmented by creating what we have termed "Game Playbooks" which are intervention guidebooks that are created by, understood by, and acceptable to all members of the multidisciplinary game development team. The purpose of this paper is to describe the importance and content of a Game Playbook created to aide in the development of a videogame intervention designed specifically for health behavior change in young teens as well as the process for creating such a tool. We draw on the experience of our research and game design team to describe the critical components of the Game Playbook and the necessity of creating such a tool.

  9. Tortuosity entropy: a measure of spatial complexity of behavioral changes in animal movement.

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    Liu, Xiaofeng; Xu, Ning; Jiang, Aimin

    2015-01-07

    The goal of animal movement analysis is to understand how organisms explore and exploit complex and varying environments. Animals usually exhibit varied and complicated movements, from apparently deterministic behaviours to highly random behaviours. It has been a common method to assess movement efficiency and foraging strategies by means of quantifying and analyzing movement trajectories. Here we introduce a tortuosity entropy (TorEn), a simple measure for quantifying the behavioral change in animal movement data. In our approach, the differences between pairwise successive track points are transformed into symbolic sequences, then we map these symbols into a group of pattern vectors and calculate the information entropy of pattern vectors. We test the algorithm on both simulated trajectories and real trajectories to show that it can accurately identify not only the mixed segments in simulated data, but also the different phases in real movement data. Tortuosity entropy can be easily applied to arbitrary real-world data, whether deterministic or stochastic, stationary or non-stationary. It could be a promising tool to reveal behavioral mechanism in movement data.

  10. Temperature dependent mortality and behavioral changes in a freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis to dimethoate exposure.

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    Kumar, Saurabh; Pandey, Rakesh Kumar; Das, Shobha; Das, Vijai Krishna

    2013-03-01

    Temperature is a crucial determinant of biogeography, directly affecting the behavioral responses of the organisms. An acute static bioassay was conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature on dimethoate toxicity in a freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis. The mussel, were exposed for 96 hr at different concentrations of dimethoate (155.00, 160.00, 165.00, 170.00, 175.00, 180.00, 185.00, 190.00, 195.00, and 200.00 mgl(-1)) in the month of January when water temperature was 14.9 +/- 1.2 degrees C and at concentration 35.00, 37.00, 39.00, 41.00, 43.00, 45.00, 47.00, and 49.00 mgl(-1) in the month of August when the water temperature was 28.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C. The LC50 values were calculated from the mortality data obtained (using EPA-Probit analysis version 1.5, statistical software). The 96 hr LC50 value recorded at higher temperature was 36.34 mgl(-1) and at low temperature was 163.59 mgl(-1). The mussel exposed at higher temperature showed more sensitive behavioral responses like huge mucus secretion, sudden closure of shell valves, quick post-mortem changes and increased oxygen consumption in comparison to exposure at low temperature. Therefore, the increasing threat of global warming increases the risk of pesticide toxicity in the exposed organisms.

  11. Smoking behavior, nicotine dependency, and motivation to cessation among smokers in the preparation stage of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Charkazi, Abdorrahman; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Shahnazi, Hossein; Badeleh, Mohammad Taghi; Sharifirad, Gholam Reza

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate selected constructs of the transtheoretical model (TTM) of behavior change regarding smoking behavior among people in the preparation stage, as well as motivation for cessation and nicotine dependency. Methods: A convenience sample of 123 smokers, during between June to and September 2011, completed the Persian version of the short form of a smoking questionnaire based on TTM, the Fagerstrom nicotine dependence test, and the motivational test. Results: Motivation for cessation was great (16.35 ± 2.45). The negative affects of self-efficacy were higher than those to other situations (4.02 ± 0.84). The pros and cons of smoking were 2.69 ± 1.00 and 3.78 ± 0.78, respectively. Temptation was influenced by nicotine dependency (P < 0.05). Early initiation of smoking was significantly associated with severe nicotine dependency (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results confirm the role of temptation, increase in the cons, decrease in the pros, and nicotine dependency. PMID:23555150

  12. Behavior change stages related to physical activity in adolescents from Santa Catarina: prevalence and associated factors

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    da Silva, Jaqueline Aragoni; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Nahas, Markus Vinícius

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Verify the prevalence and sociodemographic and economic factors associated with behavior change stages for habitual physical activity practice in adolescents from Santa Catarina. Methods: Secondary analysis of a study on the Behavior of Adolescents from Santa Catarina (CompAC 2). Cross-sectional school-based study of 6,529 high-school students (males, n=2,903) from the state of Santa Catarina public education system in 2011, aged 15 to 19 years. Multinomial logistic regression (crude and adjusted) was used to measure the association. Results: The highest and lowest prevalence rates were found in the maintenance (43.9%) and precontemplation stages (7.0%), respectively. The stages of action, preparation and contemplation showed similar results: 16.2%; 17.0% and 15.6%; respectively. Male adolescents show higher prevalence in the maintenance stage in relation to females and these show a higher prevalence in preparation, contemplation and precontemplation. All the assessed variables (gender, age, area of residence, employment status, family income, maternal education and school grade), with the exception of school shift, were associated with at least one of the stages. Conclusions: A large proportion of adolescents are in the pre-adoption stages and most of these have the intention to start regular physical activity. With the exception of school shift, the assessed variables were associated with stages in different ways, showing different profiles in relation to sociodemographic and economic characteristics in each subgroup. PMID:27181341

  13. Sustainable Development and Airport Surface Access: The Role of Technological Innovation and Behavioral Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Qazi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development reflects an underlying tension to achieve economic growth whilst addressing environmental challenges, and this is particularly the case for the aviation sector. Although much of the aviation-related focus has fallen on reducing aircraft emissions, airports have also been under increasing pressure to support the vision of a low carbon energy future. One of the main sources of airport-related emissions is passenger journeys to and from airports (the surface access component of air travel, which is the focus of this paper. Two aspects associated with the relationship between sustainable development and airport surface access are considered. Firstly, there is an evaluation of three technological innovation options that will enable sustainable transport solutions for surface access journeys: telepresence systems to reduce drop-off/pick-up trips, techniques to improve public transport and options to encourage the sharing of rides. Secondly, the role of behavioral change for surface access journeys from a theoretical perspective, using empirical data from Manchester airport, is evaluated. Finally, the contribution of technology and behavioral intervention measures to improvements in sustainable development are discussed.

  14. Sulfanilic acid: behavioral change related to azo food dyes in developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenring, J R; Batter, D K; Shaywitz, B A

    1982-01-01

    The effects of sulfanilic acid, a major azo food dye metabolite, were studied in normal developing rat pups and pups treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (60HDA). Chronic daily intraperitoneal injection of sulfanilic acid during the first postnatal month elicited hyperactivity and impaired shock escape performance in vehicle pups. No differences were noted in 60HDA treated rat pups receiving sulfanilic acid. These findings, which are similar to the results of our study of chronic administration of a food dye mix, suggest that sulfanilic acid may be one of the causative agents in food dye-induced behavioral changes in developing rats. While our work suggests a significant effect of azo food dyes on the developing rat central nervous system, species differences in parameters such as absorption, metabolism, and blood-brain barrier properties do not permit any extrapolation of these observations to proposed effects in children.

  15. Mindfulness-based treatment to prevent addictive behavior relapse: theoretical models and hypothesized mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah; Harrop, Erin N; Douglas, Haley; Enkema, Matthew; Sedgwick, Carly

    2014-04-01

    Mindfulness-based treatments are growing in popularity among addiction treatment providers, and several studies suggest the efficacy of incorporating mindfulness practices into the treatment of addiction, including the treatment of substance use disorders and behavioral addictions (i.e., gambling). The current paper provides a review of theoretical models of mindfulness in the treatment of addiction and several hypothesized mechanisms of change. We provide an overview of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP), including session content, treatment targets, and client feedback from participants who have received MBRP in the context of empirical studies. Future research directions regarding operationalization and measurement, identifying factors that moderate treatment effects, and protocol adaptations for specific populations are discussed.

  16. Seasonal changes in coastal dynamics and morphological behavior of the central and southern Changjiang River delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世伦; 赵庆英; 陈沈良; 丁平兴

    2001-01-01

    Seasonal changes in sea level, tidal range, wind, riverine discharges, nearshore SSC (suspended sediment concentration) and bed-level of intertidal flat at 4 different sites were shown. In addition, the statistical relationships between the dynamics and the behavior of the sediment surface were examined. The average intertidal elevation seems negatively correlated to sea level while positively correlated to nearshore SSC. The effect of wind on seasonal cycle of average intertidal elevation is not evident although wind is an important factor governing short-term erosion/accretion events. The influence of riverine discharges on seasonal cycle of deltaic intertidal flats is masked by other factors. It is concluded that seasonality on mudflats is more complicated than on beaches.

  17. Accounting standard changes and foreign analyst behavior:Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutao Wang; Yu Hou; Xiaolin Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates changes in foreign analyst behavior before and after Chinese New Accounting Standards was implemented during 2007.The empirical results show that after the new accounting standards were implemented,forecast error among foreign analysts decreased in both absolute and relative terms in comparison with domestic analysts,and foreign analysts forecast earnings more frequently than they did before the new accounting standards.These results imply that the implementation of new accounting standards in the Chinese capital market helped mitigate both information asymmetry between listed firms in China and foreign investors,and the "home bias" of foreign analysts.It also increased the attractiveness of listed firms and facilitated international communication and cooperation.This study also has significant implications for how resource allocation efficiency in the Chinese capital market can be raised and how the "introducing in" policy should be assessed.

  18. Changes in dissolved organic carbon of soil amendments with aging: effect on pesticide adsorption behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Lucia; Fernandes, M Conceicao; Zsolnay, Adam; Hermosín, M Carmen; Cornejo, Juan

    2004-09-01

    The effect of aging in the soil of three organic amendments (OAs), one liquid (LF) and two solid ones (SF and AL), has been investigated and related to changes in soil adsorption of metalaxyl and tricyclazole. LF and AL have very high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contents with low humification index values, whereas SF has a low DOC content but the highest amounts of highly humified material. All OAs increased the adsorption of tricyclazole, whereas adsorption of metalaxyl decreased in soils amended with LF and AL, due to competition with DOC for mineral adsorption sites. With aging, DOC from SF amended soils is not significantly affected and neither is adsorption behavior. On the contrary, the great reduction of DOC from LF and AL with aging has been shown to affect adsorption of metalaxyl and tricyclazole, and this effect is dependent on the pesticide, the nature of the DOC, and the type of soil, in particular its clay mineralogy.

  19. Sleep in high-functioning children with autism: longitudinal developmental change and associations with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Tamara; Cornish, Kim; Conduit, Russell; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Rinehart, Nicole J

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but longitudinal trajectories are poorly defined. This study measured sleep disturbance at baseline and 1 year later examining change over time and associated problem behaviors. Participants were 84 gender-matched children, aged between 7 and 12 years at baseline; 46 children were diagnosed with ASD, and 38 were typically developing (TYP) children. Parent reports on a range of scales were collected. The ASD group had more sleep disturbance than the TYP group. Sleep disturbance decreased over the year in children with ASD, but not in TYP children. Reduced sleep disturbance was associated with improved social ability. Sleep disturbance at baseline predicted later anxiety. Findings indicated different trajectories of sleep disturbance in ASD, and the implications are discussed.

  20. Vague behavioral and personality changes and a misdiagnosis of complex partial epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qalandar Kasnazan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic insulinomas are rare endocrine tumors and their diagnosis needs a high index of suspicion. Several patients receive an initial misdiagnosis before the tumor is being finally detected. We report on two patients who presented with vague and bizarre personality and behavioral changes. One patient was initially diagnosed with hysteria and both eventually were diagnosed with complex partial epilepsy. They had not improved on anti-epileptic medications and their symptomatology continued to deteriorate. Their final diagnosis turned out to be pancreatic insulinoma. Because of the rarity of insulinomas as well as their diverse and non-pathognomonic symptoms, the diagnosis remains challenging and may quite well escape detection unless it is entertained. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 860-867

  1. Altered Circulating Levels of Serotonin and Immunological Changes in Laying Hens Divergently Selected for Feather Pecking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Kjaer, Jørgen B.; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in immunological parameters as well as changes with respect to plasma levels of serotonin and tryptophan in lines selected for and against feather pecking (FP) behavior [high FP (HP) line and low FP (LP) line] for 5 generations. The hens from...

  2. Advances in understanding energy consumption behavior and the governance of its change - Outline of an integrated framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eBurger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transforming today’s energy systems in industrialized countries requires a substantial reduction of the total energy consumption at the individual level. Selected instruments have been found to be effective in changing people’s behavior in single domains. However, the so far weak success story on reducing overall energy consumption indicates that our understanding of the determining factors of individual energy consumption as well as of its change is far from being conclusive. Among others, the scientific state of the art is dominated by analyzing single domains of consumption and by neglecting embodied energy. It also displays strong disciplinary splits and the literature often fails to distinguish between explaining behavior and explaining change of behavior. Moreover, there are knowledge gaps regarding the legitimacy and effectiveness of the governance of individual consumption behavior and its change. Against this backdrop, the aim of this paper is to establish an integrated interdisciplinary framework that offers a systematic basis for linking the different aspects in research on energy related consumption behavior, thus paving the way for establishing a better evidence base to inform societal actions. The framework connects the three relevant analytical aspects of the topic in question: (1 It systematically and conceptually frames the objects, i.e. the energy consumption behavior and its change (explananda; (2 it structures the factors that potentially explain the energy consumption behavior and its change (explanantia; (3 it provides a differentiated understanding of change inducing interventions in terms of governance. Based on the existing states of the art approaches from different disciplines within the social sciences the proposed framework is supposed to guide interdisciplinary empirical research.

  3. Change in the Behavioral Phenotype of Adolescents and Adults with FXS: Role of the Family Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leann E.; Hong, Jinkuk; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined trajectories of adaptive behavior, behavior problems, psychological symptoms, and autism symptoms in adolescents and adults with fragile X syndrome (n = 147) over a three-year period. Adaptive behavior significantly increased over time, particularly for adolescents, and the severity of behavior problems decreased over…

  4. School promotion of healthful diet and exercise behavior: an integration of organizational change and social learning theory interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, G S; Simons-Morton, B G; O'Hara, N M; Baranowski, T; Kolbe, L J; Bee, D E

    1987-04-01

    In the Go For Health project, interventions based on organizational change and social learning theory facilitate changes in diet and exercise behavior by elementary school children. Baseline data documented the need for behavior change. Based on chemical analyses, average per meal amounts of total fat and sodium were higher than national recommendations: total fat was 29.3% higher than U.S. Dietary Goals; sodium was 107.4% greater than recommended levels. Observations of students in physical education class revealed children moved through space 50.1% of the time and moved continuously an average of 2.2 minutes per class period. These findings suggest the need for policy and practice changes in the school environment to enable children to engage in more healthful diet and exercise behavior.

  5. Psychological and social predictors of changes in fruit and vegetable consumption over 12 months following behavioral and nutrition education counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Perkins-Porras, Linda; Rink, Elisabeth; Hilton, Sean; Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2004-11-01

    This study assessed psychological and social factors predicting 12-month changes in fruit and vegetable consumption achieved by 271 men and women from a low-income population randomized to brief behavioral and nutrition education counseling. Greater increases in fruit and vegetable intake were achieved in the behavioral than in the nutrition education condition (1.49 vs. 0.87 portions per day, p=.021). Increases were predicted by baseline social support for dietary change but not by baseline psychological measures. However, short-term (8-week) changes in dietary self-efficacy, encouragement, anticipated regret, perceived benefits, and knowledge of recommended intake predicted 12-month changes in fruit and vegetable consumption independently of gender, age, ethnicity, income, and baseline intake. These factors accounted for 51% of the superiority of behavioral counseling over nutrition education.

  6. Ocean acidification induces changes in algal palatability and herbivore feeding behavior and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristian; López, Jorge; Benítez, Samanta; Manríquez, Patricio H; Navarro, Jorge M; Bonta, Cesar C; Torres, Rodrigo; Quijón, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    The effects of global stressors on a species may be mediated by the stressors' impact on coexisting taxa. For instance, herbivore-algae interactions may change due to alterations in algal nutritional quality resulting from high CO2 levels associated with ocean acidification (OA). We approached this issue by assessing the indirect effects of OA on the trophic interactions between the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata and the brown alga Durvillaea antarctica, two prominent species of the South-east Pacific coast. We predicted that amphipod feeding behavior and performance (growth rate) will be affected by changes in the palatability of the algae exposed to high levels (1000 ppm) of CO2. We exposed algae to current and predicted (OA) atmospheric CO2 levels and then measured their nutritive quality and amphipod preference in choice trials. We also assessed consumption rates separately in no-choice trials, and measured amphipod absorption efficiency and growth rates. Protein and organic contents of the algae decreased in acidified conditions and amphipods showed low preference for these algae. However, in the no-choice trials we recorded higher grazing rates on algae exposed to OA. Although amphipod absorption efficiency was lower on these algae, growth rates did not differ between treatments, which suggests the occurrence of compensatory feeding. Our results suggest that changes in algal nutritional value in response to OA induce changes in algal palatability and these in turn affect consumers' food preference and performance. Indirect effects of global stressors like OA can be equally or more important than the direct effects predicted in the literature.

  7. The Staff Perceptions of Behavior and Discipline Survey: A Tool to Help Achieve Systemic Change through Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerborn, Laura L.; Tyre, Ashli D.; King, Joe P.

    2015-01-01

    The practices of schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) are dependent on staff implementation in classroom and common areas throughout the school. Thus, gaining the support and commitment of school staff is a critical step toward reaching full implementation of SWPBS. However, achieving buildingwide support can be challenging; many schools…

  8. Changes in distressing behavior perceived by family of persons with schizophrenia at home - 25 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K Chaturvedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia disorders as well as their symptoms cause distress to the family members or caregivers, which may cause poor quality of life. However, there have been advances in management, which could possibly alter this family distress. Aims: To determine if there was any change in the perception of distressful symptoms of schizophrenia, by the family members, now, 25 years after the initial studies in the same centre. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six consecutive and consenting new cases diagnosed as schizophrenia were administered the Scale for Assessment of Family Distress to identify the amount of distress caused by each of the symptoms reported. These findings were then compared with those reported by 50 patients, 25 years earlier. Results: Symptoms like does not do work and earn, does not sleep, and does not do household tasks were reported as the commonest distressing symptoms in both the samples, however, in the 1988 sample, negative symptoms like, slow in doing things, social withdrawal and has few leisure interests, were the commonest, in the present sample behavioral symptoms like beats and assaults others, threatens, is abusive and talks nonsense were the commonest distressing symptoms. Conclusions: The relatives of patients with schizophrenia suffer from considerable amount of distress and burden. There are some changes in the type of behaviours considered distressful in the current period. Assessing family distress is helpful in providing support to caregivers of persons with schizophrenia

  9. Examination of the change in latent statuses in bullying behaviors across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Wang, Cixin; Swearer, Susan M

    2015-03-01

    Involvement in bullying and victimization has been mostly studied using cross-sectional data from 1 time point. As such, much of our understanding of bullying and victimization has not captured the dynamic experiences of youth over time. To examine the change of latent statuses in bullying and victimization, we applied latent transition analysis examining self-reported bullying involvement from 1,180 students in 5th through 9th grades across 3 time points. We identified unobserved heterogeneous subgroups (i.e., latent statuses) and investigated how students transition between the unobserved subgroups over time. For victimization, 4 latent statuses were identified: frequent victim (11.23%), occasional traditional victim (28.86%), occasional cyber and traditional victim (10.34%), and infrequent victim (49.57%). For bullying behavior, 3 latent statuses were identified: frequent perpetrator (5.12%), occasional verbal/relational perpetrator (26.04%), and infrequent perpetrator (68.84%). The characteristics of the transitions were examined. The multiple-group effects of gender, grade, and first language learned on transitions across statuses were also investigated. The infrequent victim and infrequent perpetrator groups were the most stable, and the frequent victim and frequent perpetrator groups were the least stable. These findings suggest instability in perpetration and victimization over time, as well as significant changes, especially during school transition years. Findings suggest that school-based interventions need to address the heterogeneity in perpetrator and victim experiences in adolescence.

  10. Social-cognitive theory mediators of behavior change in the National Institute of Mental Health Multisite HIV Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health Multisite HIV Prevention Trial was a trial of an intervention to reduce sexual HIV risk behaviors among 3,706 low-income at-risk men and women at 7 U.S. research sites. The intervention, based on social-cognitive theory and designed to influence behavior change by improving expected outcomes of condom use and increasing knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy to execute safer sex behaviors, was effective relative to a control condition in reducing sexual risk behavior. At 3 months after completion of the intervention, measures of these potential mediators were higher in the intervention than in the control condition. Although the effect of the intervention on sexual risk behavior was significantly reduced when the variables were controlled statistically, supporting the hypothesis of their mediation of the intervention effect, most of the effect remained unexplained, indicating the influence of unmeasured factors on outcome.

  11. Correlation of cognitive decline and behavioral changes in patients with presenile and senile onset Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most prevalent dementia, is characterized not only by cognitive but also behavioral changes that pose the heaviest burden to caregivers. Differences in the clinical picture depending on the time of disease onset have been observed. We correlated cognitive and behavioral deficits in patients with presenile- and senile-onset AD to explore the differences. We tested 60 AD patients, 19 male and 41 female, mean age 65.2 years with the Dementia Behavior Disturbance Scale (DBD and a standard neuropsychological battery. The patients were divided according to their DBD score into two groups: group I - score 0-2 (n=24; 40%, group II - score 3≥ (n=36; 60%, comparable in disease duration and neurological findings. The cognitive scores were significantly higher in the group with less behavioral changes than in the group with more behavioral changes: Mini Mental State Examination score (p=0.0015, serial subtraction (p=0.0009, block design (p=0.0049, copy of complex figure (p=0.0125, complex visual organization (p=0.0099, divided attention, visual memory and speech comprehension. A significantly higher frequency of behavioral disturbances was registered in patients with senile onset than in the presenile-onset group (p<0.005. There were no sex differences. Our data show a correlation between cognitive decline and behavioral changes in late onset AD patients, indicating that more behavioral disturbances were associated with a more severe degree of cognitive decline, especially in non-verbal functions and attention deficits, compared to early onset patients. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175033 i br. 175022

  12. Changes in dive behavior during naval sonar exposure in killer whales, long-finned pilot whales, and sperm whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivle, L D; Kvadsheim, P H; Fahlman, A; Lam, F P A; Tyack, P L; Miller, P J O

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic underwater sound in the environment might potentially affect the behavior of marine mammals enough to have an impact on their reproduction and survival. Diving behavior of four killer whales (Orcinus orca), seven long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas), and four sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) was studied during controlled exposures to naval sonar [low frequency active sonar (LFAS): 1-2 kHz and mid frequency active sonar (MFAS): 6-7 kHz] during three field seasons (2006-2009). Diving behavior was monitored before, during and after sonar exposure using an archival tag placed on the animal with suction cups. The tag recorded the animal's vertical movement, and additional data on horizontal movement and vocalizations were used to determine behavioral modes. Killer whales that were conducting deep dives at sonar onset changed abruptly to shallow diving (ShD) during LFAS, while killer whales conducting deep dives at the onset of MFAS did not alter dive mode. When in ShD mode at sonar onset, killer whales did not change their diving behavior. Pilot and sperm whales performed normal deep dives (NDD) during MFAS exposure. During LFAS exposures, long-finned pilot whales mostly performed fewer deep dives and some sperm whales performed shallower and shorter dives. Acoustic recording data presented previously indicates that deep diving (DD) is associated with feeding. Therefore, the observed changes in dive behavior of the three species could potentially reduce the foraging efficiency of the affected animals.

  13. Age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eHamel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverse cognitive functions decline with increasing age, including the ability to process central and peripheral visual information in a laboratory testing situation (useful visual field of view. To investigate whether and how this influences activities of daily life, we studied age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting: a driving simulator paradigm of variable complexity was tested in subjects of varying ages with simultaneous eye- and head-movement recordings via a head-mounted camera. Detection and reaction times were also measured by visual fixation and manual reaction. We considered video computer game experience as a possible influence on performance. Data of 73 participants of varying ages were analyzed, driving two different courses. We analyzed the influence of route difficulty level, age and eccentricity of test stimuli on oculomotor and driving behavior parameters. No significant age effects were found regarding saccadic parameters. In the older subjects head-movements increasingly contributed to gaze amplitude. More demanding courses and more peripheral stimuli locations, induced longer reaction times in all age groups. Deterioration of the functionally useful visual field of view with increasing age was not suggested in our study group. However, video game-experienced subjects revealed larger saccade amplitudes and a broader distribution of fixations on the screen. They reacted faster to peripheral objects suggesting the notion of a general detection task rather than perceiving driving as a central task. As the video game experienced population consisted of younger subjects, our study indicates that effects due to video game experience can easily be misinterpreted as age effects if not accounted for. We therefore view it as essential to consider video game experience in all testing methods using virtual media.

  14. Evaluation of an HIV-related behavior change project for female sex workers in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ding-feng; HU Jun; ZHANG Zhi-ying; WANG Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background As female sex workers (FSWs) were becoming the driving force behind the HIV epidemic in Central China,a project to promote condom use by FSWs was implemented from 2004 to 2009.In this study,we discussed the evaluation of the project,the factors associated with condom use among FSWs within the Chinese context,and proposed suggestions for future interventions for FSWs in China.Methods Two surveys using structured questionnaires were conducted in 2004 and 2009.Data collected from the surveys were analyzed and guided by a behavior change framework.We reviewed relevant articles to supplement the information that was not able to be obtained from the surveys.Results In general,the HIV prevalence among FSWs remained low (less than 1%) in the 5 years.With a high coverage of interventions for all FSWs in Central China,the project yielded better outcomes than the national average over the same time period.The awareness about HIV and condom use grew dramatically during the project period.The four factors/determinants that influence the behavior of FSWs using condoms are population characteristics,opportunity,ability,and motivation.Statistical model shows that the significant variables for using a condom are age,availability of services,HIV-related knowledge,and intention.Conclusions With a high coverage of interventions for FSWs,the project achieved its goals.The differences among workplaces of FSWs may serve as a symbol of their socioeconomic status,patterns of condom use,and therefore risks of acquiring HIV.

  15. Remarkable changes in behavior and physiology of laboratory mice after the massive 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Yanai

    Full Text Available A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011, followed by several long and intense aftershocks. Laboratory mice housed in the Tokyo, located approximately 330 km south of this earthquake's epicenter, displayed remarkable changes in a variety of behaviors and physiological measures. Although unusual pre-earthquake behaviors have been previously reported in laboratory animals, little is known about behavioral and physiological changes that occur after a great earthquake. In the present study, the effects of Tohoku earthquake on mice behavior were investigated. "Earthquake-experienced" mice displayed a marked increase in food consumption without gaining body weight in response to the earthquake. They also displayed enhanced anxiety, and in a formal fear memory task, showed significantly greater tone- and context-dependent conditioned freezing. Water maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed the quicker acquisition of the task, faster swim speed and longer swim distance than the naive mice. Serum corticosterone levels were elevated compared to the naive mice, indicating that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice. These results demonstrate that great earthquakes strongly affect mouse behaviors and physiology. Although the effects of a variety of experimental manipulations on mouse behaviors in disease models or in models of higher cognitive functions have been extensively examined, researchers need to be aware how natural phenomena, such as earthquakes and perhaps other natural environmental factors, influence laboratory animal behaviors and physiology.

  16. Remarkable changes in behavior and physiology of laboratory mice after the massive 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Shuichi; Semba, Yuki; Endo, Shogo

    2012-01-01

    A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011, followed by several long and intense aftershocks. Laboratory mice housed in the Tokyo, located approximately 330 km south of this earthquake's epicenter, displayed remarkable changes in a variety of behaviors and physiological measures. Although unusual pre-earthquake behaviors have been previously reported in laboratory animals, little is known about behavioral and physiological changes that occur after a great earthquake. In the present study, the effects of Tohoku earthquake on mice behavior were investigated. "Earthquake-experienced" mice displayed a marked increase in food consumption without gaining body weight in response to the earthquake. They also displayed enhanced anxiety, and in a formal fear memory task, showed significantly greater tone- and context-dependent conditioned freezing. Water maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed the quicker acquisition of the task, faster swim speed and longer swim distance than the naive mice. Serum corticosterone levels were elevated compared to the naive mice, indicating that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice. These results demonstrate that great earthquakes strongly affect mouse behaviors and physiology. Although the effects of a variety of experimental manipulations on mouse behaviors in disease models or in models of higher cognitive functions have been extensively examined, researchers need to be aware how natural phenomena, such as earthquakes and perhaps other natural environmental factors, influence laboratory animal behaviors and physiology.

  17. Methylphenidate to adolescent rats drives enduring changes of accumbal Htr7 expression: implications for impulsive behavior and neuronal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, D; Adriani, W; Cavaliere, C; Cirillo, G; Marco, E M; Romano, E; di Porzio, U; Papa, M; Perrone-Capano, C; Laviola, G

    2009-04-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) administration to adolescent rodents produces persistent region-specific changes in brain reward circuits and alterations of reward-based behavior. We show that these modifications include a marked increment of serotonin (5-hydroxy-tryptamine) receptor type 7 (Htr7) expression and synaptic contacts, mainly in the nucleus accumbens, and a reduction of basal behavioral impulsivity. We show that neural and behavioral consequences are functionally related: administration of a selective Htr7 antagonist fully counteracts the MPH-reduced impulsive behavior and enhances impulsivity when administered alone in naive rats. Agonist-induced activation of endogenous Htr7 significantly increases neurite length in striatal neuron primary cultures, thus suggesting plastic remodeling of neuronal morphology. The mixed Htr (1a/7) agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, reduces impulsive behavior in adolescent rats and in naive adults, whose impulsivity is enhanced by the Htr7 antagonist. In summary, behavioral pharmacology experiments show that Htr7 mediates self-control behavior, and brain primary cultures experiments indicate that this receptor may be involved in the underlying neural plasticity, through changes in neuronal cytoarchitecture.

  18. The impact of ethnic identity on changes in high risk HIV behaviors in sexually active migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Nancy; Virginia McCoy, H; Rubens, Muni; Batra, Anamica; Renfrew, Roderick; Winter, Kelly

    2012-02-01

    Among migrant workers (MWs) in the US, HIV/AIDS prevalence may be as high as 13.5%. This serial cross-sectional study examines associations between Ethnic Identity (EI) in African American and Hispanic MWs and short-term changes in high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline and 3-month follow-up data was collected from a larger HIV intervention study among MWs in Immokalee, Florida (n = 119) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess EI. A high EI score indicates less acculturation to one's new surroundings. Females had higher levels of positive behavior change. Lower EI was associated with higher levels of positive change in relation to HIV/AIDS risk behavior. Among Hispanics, education was negatively correlated with EI. Education was a predictor of behavior change. Future interventions should focus on reducing acculturation stress, which may prompt harmful coping behaviors, such as high-risk sex and substance abuse.

  19. Tourists’ Environmentally Responsible Behavior in Response to Climate Change and Tourist Experiences in Nature-Based Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyoung Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism destinations—locations in which economic viability and environmental responsibility are sought—are sensitive to climate change and its effects on important environmental components of the tourism areas. To meet the dual roles, it is important for destination marketers and resources managers to provide quality experiences for tourists and to induce tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior in such destinations. This study documents the importance of perceptions toward climate change and tourist experiences in determining tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior while enjoying holidays at nature-based tourism destinations in Jeju Island, South Korea. Two hundred and eleven Korean and 204 Chinese tourists marked dominant tourist arrivals to the island, and responded to the survey questionnaire. Results showed that perceptions toward climate change and tourist experiences affect Korean tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior intentions, whereas tourist experiences—not perceptions toward climate change—only significantly affect Chinese tourists’ behavior intention. In a nature-based tourism context under the pressure of climate change and adverse environmental effects as consequences of tourism activities, resources managers and destination marketers need to develop environmental campaigns or informative tourist programs to formulate environmentally responsible behavior as well as to increase tourist quality experiences among domestic and international tourists.

  20. Parental Behaviors during Family Interactions Predict Changes in Depression and Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…

  1. Managing Challenging Behaviors of Dementia in Veterans: Identifying and Changing Activators and Consequences Using STAR-VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curyto, Kim J; McCurry, Sue M; Luci, Katherine; Karlin, Bradley E; Teri, Linda; Karel, Michele J

    2017-02-01

    One of the most challenging clinical issues for long-term care staff is the management of dementia-related behavioral symptoms. STAR-VA is an interdisciplinary intervention for managing challenging behaviors of Veterans with dementia in Community Living Centers (CLCs) within the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The goals of the current article are to delineate categories of challenging behaviors found in CLCs, the context in which behaviors occurred, and the interventions used by CLC clinical teams when implementing STAR-VA. In 2013, 17 CLC teams completed STAR-VA training, enrolling 71 Veteran participants. Four independent raters identified common assessment and intervention themes for six behavior categories, coding activators, consequences, goal behaviors, and care plans for each category. Successful care plans included staff changes in communication approaches, incorporation of pleasant events into care, and individualized environmental modifications. Findings illustrate the range of interventions that CLC teams may apply as a result of systematic behavioral assessment informing an understanding of activators and consequences of dementia-related behaviors. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(2), 33-43.].

  2. Changes in functional connectivity correlate with behavioral gains in stroke patients after therapy using a brain-computer interface device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Mei Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interface (BCI technology is being incorporated into new stroke rehabilitation devices, but little is known about brain changes associated with its use. We collected anatomical and functional MRI of 9 stroke patients with persistent upper extremity motor impairment before, during, and after therapy using a BCI system. Subjects were asked to perform finger tapping of the impaired hand during fMRI. Action Research Arm Test (ARAT, 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT, and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS domains of Hand Function (HF and Activities of Daily Living (ADL were also assessed. Group-level analyses examined changes in whole-brain task-based functional connectivity (FC to seed regions in the motor network observed during and after BCI therapy. Whole-brain FC analyses seeded in each thalamus showed FC increases from baseline at mid-therapy and post-therapy (p< 0.05. Changes in FC between seeds at both the network and the connection levels were examined for correlations with changes in behavioral measures. Average motor network FC was increased post-therapy, and changes in average network FC correlated (p < 0.05 with changes in performance on ARAT (R2=0.21, 9-HPT (R2=0.41, SIS HF (R2=0.27, and SIS ADL (R2=0.40. Multiple individual connections within the motor network were found to correlate in change from baseline with changes in behavioral measures. Many of these connections involved the thalamus, with change in each of four behavioral measures significantly correlating with change from baseline FC of at least one thalamic connection. These preliminary results show changes in FC that occur with the administration of rehabilitative therapy using a BCI system. The correlations noted between changes in FC measures and changes in behavioral outcomes indicate that both adaptive and maladaptive changes in FC may develop with this therapy and also suggest a brain-behavior relationship that may be stimulated by the neuromodulatory component of BCI therapy.

  3. A review of physiological and behavioral changes during pregnancy and lactation: potential exposure factors and data gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Jacqueline; Phillips, Linda; Sanford, Jessica; Wooton, Maureen; Gregg, Anne; Schuda, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Exposures to environmental contaminants can pose risks to pregnant women's health, their developing fetuses, children, and adults later in their lives. Assessing risks to this potentially susceptible population requires a sound understanding of the physiological and behavioral changes that occur during pregnancy and lactation. Many physiological and anatomical changes occur in a woman's organ systems during the course of pregnancy and lactation. For example, blood volume and cardiac output increase during pregnancy, and other metabolic functions are altered to provide for the demands of the fetus. During lactation, nutritional demands are greater than during pregnancy. There are also changes in behavior during both pregnancy and lactation. For example, water consumption during pregnancy and lactation increases. These behavioral and physiological changes can lead to different environmental exposures than these women might otherwise experience in the absence of pregnancy or lactation. This paper provides a summary of information from the published literature related to behavioral and physiological changes in pregnant and lactating women that may affect their exposure or susceptibility to environmental contaminants, provides potentially useful exposure factor data for this population of women, and highlights data gaps.

  4. Personality change following internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for severe health anxiety.

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    Erik Hedman

    Full Text Available Personality traits have traditionally been viewed as stable, but recent studies suggest that they could be affected through psychological treatment. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT for severe health anxiety (DSM-IV hypochondriasis has been shown to be effective in reducing health anxiety, but its effect on measures of personality traits has not been investigated. The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of ICBT on personality traits in the three broad dimensions--neuroticism, extraversion and aggression. We hypothesized that participants in ICBT would reduce their level of neuroticism compared to controls that did not receive the active treatment. No specific predictions were made regarding extraversion and aggression. Data from a randomized controlled trial were used in which participants were allocated to 12 weeks of ICBT (n = 40 or to a basic attention control condition (n = 41. Personality traits were assessed with the Swedish Universities Scales of Personality and the primary outcome of health anxiety was the Health Anxiety Inventory. There was a significant interaction effect of group and time on neuroticism-related scales, indicating larger pre- to post-treatment reductions in the Internet-based CBT group compared to the control condition. Analyses at 6-month follow-up showed that changes were stable. Traits relating to extraversion and aggression were largely unchanged. This study is the first to demonstrate that a brief ICBT intervention for severe health anxiety causes long-term changes in measures of personality traits related to neuroticism. The treatment thus has a broader impact than just reducing health anxiety.Clinicaltrials.gov (ID NCT00828152.

  5. Changes in Regional Cerebral Blood Flow with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Panic Disorder

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    Won, K. S.; Jun, S. K.; Kim, J. B.; Jang, E. J. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Kyemyoung, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    This study attempted to prospectively investigate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) on SPECT and clinical response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with panic disorder with (PDA) and without (PD) agoraphobia. Using 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT, we assessed brain perfusion in 5 out patients at rest before and after CBT. The subjects received 12 weekly sessions of CBT. Subjects were assessed by Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire, Body Sensations Questionnaire, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and clinical global improvement (CGI) scale measurement were used as outcome measures. Patients were considered responders to CBT if they are much or very much improved on CGI scale and have a PDSS score at least 30% below their baseline. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The baseline scans were compared to the post-CBT scans by using the statistics option multi subject, different conditions. Of 5 subjects 4 were male, 3 diagnosed PDA, and 4 on anti-anxiety medication. All of the subjects were classified as CBT responders. Their mean pretreatment and posttreatment PDSS were 17.4 (SD=8.2) and 4.2 (SD=3.1), respectively. The results of SPM analysis showed a significant decrease in blood flow after CBT in the thalamus bilaterally and right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 6). All results were thresholded at an uncorrected p<0.001 (for voxel height) and a corrected p<0.04 (for spatial extent). These preliminary data suggest that SPM analysis of 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT can reveal the change of rCBF in patient with panic disorder before and after CBT and the CBT effect may be associated with limbic and thalamic networks. However this study was a short trial with small number of subjects. Further studies with larger patient cohorts are needed.

  6. Comparative behavioral changes in postpubertal rats after neonatal excitotoxic lesions of the ventral hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex.

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    Flores, Gonzalo; Silva-Gómez, Adriana B; Ibáñez, Osvaldo; Quirion, Remi; Srivastava, Lalit K

    2005-06-01

    The neonatal ventral hippocampal (nVH) and the neonatal prefrontal cortex (nPFC) lesions in rats have been used as models to test the hypothesis that early neurodevelopmental abnormalities lead to behavioral changes putatively linked to schizophrenia. We investigated the role of the nVH and the nPFC lesions on behavioral characteristics related to locomotor behaviors, social interaction, and grooming. Bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of the VH, the PFC, or both were made in neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (postnatal day 7, P7) and their behaviors studied at P35 and P60. No significant differences in any of the behaviors were observed between sham animals and rats with ibotenic acid lesions at P35. Postpubertally (at P60), the spontaneous locomotor activity of nVH-lesioned rats was significantly enhanced compared to the sham controls; however, this hyperactivity was reversed by nVH and nPFC double lesions. Neonatal PFC lesion alone did not alter spontaneous activity, although a trend of increased activity was observed. The duration of grooming was significantly decreased in rats with neonatal lesions of the VH. Similar to the data on locomotion, nVH plus nPFC lesion normalized the grooming behavior. Lesion of the PFC alone was without any significant effect on grooming behavior. Neonatal VH-lesioned animals spent less time in active social interaction, and this effect persisted even in nVH plus nPFC-lesioned animals. By itself, nPFC lesion did not alter social behavior. These data suggest that subtle developmental aberrations within PFC caused by nVH lesions, rather than the lesion of PFC itself, may contribute to some of the behavioral changes seen in the nVH-lesioned rats.

  7. BEHAVIORAL AND MEMORY CHANGES IN Mus musculus COINFECTED BY Toxocara canis AND Toxoplasma gondii

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    Flávia Motta Corrêa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several researchers have stated that parasites can alter the behavior of their hosts, in order to increase the transmission rate, principally when prey-predator relationships are a reliable way of infection transmission. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of changes in anxiety and short-term memory patterns in experimentally infected Mus musculus by Toxocara canis and/or Toxoplasma gondii. Forty male Mus musculus (Balb/c eight-week-old were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. One group was infected with 300 eggs of Toxocara canis; a second group was submitted to infection with 10 cysts of Toxoplasma gondii; a third group was concomitantly infected with both parasites with the same inoculums and the last group was maintained without infection. The anxiety levels were evaluated using an elevated plus maze and an actometer; the short-term memory was determined by a two-way active avoidance equipment. The determination of anxiety levels were conducted 40 and 70 days after infection and the short-term memory was evaluated 140 days after infection. Mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii showed impaired learning and short-term memory, but no significant differences were found in mice infected by Toxocara canis or concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii when compared to non infected mice.

  8. Neural mobilization reverses behavioral and cellular changes that characterize neuropathic pain in rats

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    Santos Fabio M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neural mobilization technique is a noninvasive method that has proved clinically effective in reducing pain sensitivity and consequently in improving quality of life after neuropathic pain. The present study examined the effects of neural mobilization (NM on pain sensitivity induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI in rats. The CCI was performed on adult male rats, submitted thereafter to 10 sessions of NM, each other day, starting 14 days after the CCI injury. Over the treatment period, animals were evaluated for nociception using behavioral tests, such as tests for allodynia and thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. At the end of the sessions, the dorsal root ganglion (DRG and spinal cord were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays for neural growth factor (NGF and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Results The NM treatment induced an early reduction (from the second session of the hyperalgesia and allodynia in CCI-injured rats, which persisted until the end of the treatment. On the other hand, only after the 4th session we observed a blockade of thermal sensitivity. Regarding cellular changes, we observed a decrease of GFAP and NGF expression after NM in the ipsilateral DRG (68% and 111%, respectively and the decrease of only GFAP expression after NM in the lumbar spinal cord (L3-L6 (108%. Conclusions These data provide evidence that NM treatment reverses pain symptoms in CCI-injured rats and suggest the involvement of glial cells and NGF in such an effect.

  9. Abnormal Behaviors and Microstructural Changes in White Matter of Juvenile Mice Repeatedly Exposed to Amphetamine

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    Hong-Ju Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphetamine (AMP is an addictive CNS stimulant and has been commonly abused by adolescents and young adults, during which period brain white matter is still developing. This study was to examine the effect of a nonneurotoxic AMP on the white matter of juvenile mice. d-AMP (1.0 mg/kg was given to young male C57BL/6 mice once a day for 21 days. The spatial working memory and locomotion of mice were measured at the end. Then, mice were sacrificed and their brains were processed for morphological analyses to examine the white matter structure and for Western blot analysis to measure three main proteins expressed in mature oligodendrocytes. AMP-treated mice displayed higher locomotion and spatial working memory impairment and showed lower levels of Nogo-A and GST-pi proteins in frontal cortex and lower MBP protein in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. They also had fewer mature oligodendrocytes and weak MBP immunofluorescent staining in the same two brain regions. But the striatum was spared. These results suggest that the late-developing white matter is vulnerable to AMP treatment which is able to increase striatal and cortical dopamine. Both the compromised white matter and increased dopamine may contribute to the observed behavioral changes in AMP-treated mice.

  10. Changing Behavior among Nurses to Track Indwelling Urinary Catheters in Hospitalized Patients

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    Bona Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs are preventable complications of hospitalization. An interdisciplinary team developed a curriculum to increase awareness of the presence of indwelling urinary catheters (IUCs in hospitalized patients, addressed practical, primarily nurse-controlled inpatient risk-reduction interventions, and promoted the use of the IUC labels (“tags”. Five thirty-minute educational sessions were cycled over three daily nursing shifts on two inpatient medical floors over a 1-year period; participants were surveyed (n=152 to elicit feedback and provide real-time insight on the learning objectives. Nurse self-reported IUC tagging was early and sustained; after the IUC tag was introduced, there was a significant increase in tagging reported by the end of the block of educational sessions (from 46.2% to 84.6%, P=0.001. Early engagement combined with a targeted educational initiative led to increased knowledge, changes in behavior, and renewed CAUTI awareness in hospitalized patients with IUCs. The processes employed in this small-scale project can be applied to broader, hospitalwide initiatives and to large-scale initiatives for healthcare interventions. As first-line providers with responsibility for the placement and daily maintenance of IUCs, nurses are ideally positioned to implement efforts addressing CAUTIs in the hospital setting.

  11. Competition as an Effective Tool in Developing Social Marketing Programs: Driving Behavior Change through Online Activities

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    Corina ŞERBAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, social marketing practices represent an important part of people’s lives. Consumers’ understanding of the need for change has become the top priority for social organizations worldwide. As a result, the number of social marketing programs has increased, making people reflect more on their behaviors and on the need to take action. Competition in social marketing can bring many benefits. The more programs initiated, the more people will start to involve in society’s problems, hereby contributing to beneficial causes. However, social organizations are in the search for competitive advantages to differentiate them on the market. This paper aims to present the role of online communication in driving competitive advantage for social organizations. Using the structural equation model, the paper describes the relations between four characteristics of the online communication: credibility, attractiveness, persuasion and promotion and then presents the correlations between these variables and website competitiveness. The resulting model shows that owning a competitive advantage in social marketing can bring many advantages to both the non-profit organization and the consumer. Therefore, the online environment can be considered a good solution for better serving consumers’ social needs. Its contribution is significant especially in programs for children and adolescents, since teenagers spend more time on the Internet than adults and are more open to using the online channels of communication. In conclusion, this article opens new opportunities for social marketers to address society’s problems and supports the integration of the online communication tools in the competition strategy.

  12. Changes of osteosarcoma cell biological behavior afterId1 gene silencing by siRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Li Xu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the changes of osteosarcoma cell biological behaviors proliferation, migration and invasion afterId1gene silencing by siRNA.Methods:Osteosarcoma HEK293 cell lines were cultured and transfected with Id1-siRNA and NC-siRNA respectively, cell proliferation, migration and invasion were detected after 24 h and 48 h of transfection, and the expression levels of proliferation-promoting genes, proliferation-inhibiting genes as well as migration and invasion-related genes in cells were detected after 48 h of transfection. Results:After 24 h and 48 h of transfection, cell OD value and the number of invasive cells of Id1-siRNA group were significantly lower than those of NC-siRNA group, and scratch area was significantly larger than that of NC-siRNA group; after 48 h of transfection, hnRNP A2, hnRNP B1, S100A6, RUNX2, Aurora-A, Grb2, Gab2 and Rap2a expression levels of Id1-siRNA group were significantly lower than those of NC-siRNA group, and p53, TAp73 and IGFBP5 were significantly higher than those of NC-siRNA group.Conclusions:Id1 gene silencing by siRNA can inhibit osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

  13. Generational Perspectives of Unprotected Sex and Sustainable Behavior Change in Nigeria

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    Amaechi D. Okonkwo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the HIV/AIDS pandemic and over two decades of safe-sex communication and condom social marketing in Nigeria, unmarried people continue to engage in unprotected sex. Understanding their perspectives of unprotected sex will be imperative for sustainable policy and intervention design. To realize this objective, the author synthesized Giddens’s structuration theory and Rob Stones’s structurationist project research brackets to develop a long interview guide used to elicit unmarried university students’ perspectives of influences on unprotected sex, and the feasibility of sustainable behavior change in Nigeria. Participants’ constructed unprotected sex as prescripted, and the cumulative outcome of complex institutional (structural, interpersonal, and agential influences. Their narratives challenge the popular but narrow loss of control, sensation-seeking, and ignorance theses of unprotected sex. Instead, participants’ narratives implicate an interrelated web of persuasive and insidious institutional and agential influences, in a manner that privilege neither structure nor agency. To promote safer sexual practices therefore, stakeholders must concurrently engage with institutional and agential influences on unprotected sex—and not focus on unmarried people’s sexual agencies alone, as current interventions do in Nigeria.

  14. Banishing the Control Homunculi in Studies of Action Control and Behavior Change

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    McLaren, Ian P. L.; Chambers, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, human self-control has fascinated scientists and nonscientists alike. Current theories often attribute it to an executive control system. But even though executive control receives a great deal of attention across disciplines, most aspects of it are still poorly understood. Many theories rely on an ill-defined set of “homunculi” doing jobs like “response inhibition” or “updating” without explaining how they do so. Furthermore, it is not always appreciated that control takes place across different timescales. These two issues hamper major advances. Here we focus on the mechanistic basis for the executive control of actions. We propose that at the most basic level, action control depends on three cognitive processes: signal detection, action selection, and action execution. These processes are modulated via error-correction or outcome-evaluation mechanisms, preparation, and task rules maintained in working and long-term memory. We also consider how executive control of actions becomes automatized with practice and how people develop a control network. Finally, we discuss how the application of this unified framework in clinical domains can increase our understanding of control deficits and provide a theoretical basis for the development of novel behavioral change interventions. PMID:25419227

  15. Young driver distraction: state of the evidence and directions for behavior change programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L; Sheehan, Mary

    2014-05-01

    Adolescent drivers are overrepresented in distraction-related motor vehicle crashes. A number of potential reasons for such an elevated risk include driving inexperience, high adoption of communication technology, increased peer involvement, and tendency to take risks, which render young drivers particularly vulnerable. Major legislative efforts in Graduated Licensing Systems that include passenger restrictions have shown positive effects. Restrictions on cell phone use are also being introduced; however, it is challenging to enforce such regulations. This article argues that such contextual, legislative interventions are an essential prevention strategy, but there is an unfilled need to introduce behavior change programs that may target adolescents, parents, and friends. A theoretical framework is applied in which risk and protective factors are identified from research within the contexts of community and jurisdiction. In the literature on distraction, social context and normative influences are key elements used to inform program design for adolescent drivers, with parental monitoring informing interventions targeting parents. Following from this assessment of the message content assessment, the design of strategies to deliver the messages is reviewed. In the current literature, school-based programs, simulations, and Web-delivered programs have been evaluated with supplementary strategies delivered by physicians and parents. Such developments are still at an early stage of development, and ultimately will need controlled implementation and evaluation studies. Of course, there is no likely single approach to prevent adolescent driver distraction. Complementary approaches such as the further development of technological interventions to manage phone use are needed.

  16. Magnetic field-induced changes of lattice parameters and thermal expansion behavior of the CoMnSi compound

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    Kou, R. H.; Gao, J.; Wang, G.; Liu, Y. D.; Wang, Y. D.; Ren, Y.; Brown, D. E.

    2016-02-01

    The crystal structure of the CoMnSi compound during zero-field cooling and field cooling from room temperature down to 200 K was studied using the synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction technique. The results show that the lattice parameters and thermal expansion behavior of the sample are changed by the applied magnetic fields. The lattice contracts along the a axis, but expands along the b and c axes. Due to enlarged and anisotropic changes under a magnetic field of 6 T, the lattice shows an invar-like behavior along all three axes. Critical interatomic distances and bond angles also show large changes under the influence of such a high magnetic field. These magnetic field-induced changes of the lattice are discussed with respect to their contributions to the large magnetocaloric effect of the CoMnSi compound.

  17. As clear as mud: Turbidity induces behavioral changes in the African cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor

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    Suzanne M. GRAY, Laura H. McDONNELL, Fabio G. CINQUEMANI,Lauren J. CHAPMAN

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic biodiversity is being lost at an unprecedented rate. One factor driving this loss is increased turbidity, an environmental stressor that can impose behavioral, morphological, and/or physiological costs on fishes. Here we describe the behavioral response of a widespread African cichlid, Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae, to turbidity. We used a split-brood rearing design to test if F1 offspring reared in turbid water, originating from river (turbid and swamp (clear populations, behave differently than full-sibs reared in clear water. We examined two facets of behavior: (1 behaviors of fish in full sib groups, including activity level and social dynamics collected during the rearing period; and (2 male aggressive behavior directed at potential male competitors after fish had reached maturity; this was done in an experimental set-up independent of the rearing aquaria. Regardless of population of origin, fish reared in turbid water were marginally less active and performed fewer social behaviors than those reared in clear water. On the other hand, when tested against a competitor in turbid water, males performed more aggressive behaviors, regardless of population of origin or rearing environment. Our results suggest a plastic behavioral response to turbidity that may allow P. multicolor to persist over a range of turbidity levels in nature by decreasing activity and general social behaviors and intensifying reproductive behaviors to ensure reproductive success [Current Zoology 58 (1: 146–157, 2012].

  18. As clear as mud: Turbidity induces behavioral changes in the African cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne M. GRAY; Laura H. McDONNELL; Fabio G. CINQUEMANI; Lauren J. CHAPMAN

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic biodiversity is being lost at an unprecedented rate.One factor driving this loss is increased turbidity,an environmental stressor that can impose behavioral,morphological,and/or physiological costs on fishes.Here we describe the behavioral response of a widespread African cichlid,Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae,to turbidity.We used a split-brood rearing design to test if F1 offspring reared in turbid water,originating from river (turbid) and swamp (clear) populations,behave differently than full-sibs reared in clear water.We examined two facets of behavior:(1) behaviors of fish in full sib groups,including activity level and social dynamics collected during the rearing period; and (2) male aggressive behavior directed at potential male competitors after fish had reached maturity; this was done in an experimental set-up independent of the rearing aquaria.Regardless of population of origin,fish reared in turbid water were marginally less active and performed fewer social behaviors than those reared in clear water.On the other hand,when tested against a competitor in turbid water,males performed more aggressive behaviors,regardless of population of origin or rearing environment.Our results suggest a plastic behavioral response to turbidity that may allow P multicolor to persist over a range of turbidity levels in nature by decreasing activity and general social behaviors and intensifying reproductive behaviors to ensure reproductive success [ Current Zoology 58 (1):146-157,2012].

  19. Demographic predictors of consistency and change in heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexual behavior over a two-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Kent; Heywood, Wendy; Simpson, Judy M; Pitts, Marian K; Richters, Juliet; Shelley, Julia M; Smith, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated demographic predictors of consistency and change in heterosexual people's attitudes toward homosexual behavior. A nationally representative sample of Australian men and women were recruited via random digit dialling in 2004 through 2005. Participants completed annual computer-assisted telephone interviews over the next five years. Questions about attitudes toward male and female homosexual behavior were assessed at Wave 1 (2004-2005) and Wave 3 (2006-2007) of the study. The majority of the sample reported tolerance of both male and female homosexual behavior (with women slightly more tolerant than men). Multivariate analyses showed that those who regularly attended religious services were more likely to consistently disapprove of homosexual behavior and more likely to change from tolerant to disapproving. Among those who were initially tolerant, younger respondents and those with higher educations were less likely to become homophobic. The results of this study show that individual attitudes toward homosexual behavior are open to change, particularly toward a more tolerant position. Religiosity appears to be consistently associated with the development and reinforcement of homophobic tendencies.

  20. Changes in phototactic behavior of Daphnia magna clone C1242 in response to copper, cadmium and pentachlorophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Ling; E. Michels; L. De Meester

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop a round biotechnique for monitoring water quality that builds on the previous experiments carried out in our laboratory, a specific D. magna clone C1 242 was used to study the effects of pollutants on phototactic behavior. In all experiments, the animals showed a stable and repeatable phototactic index approximated 0.2 in the presence and 0.4 in the absence of fish kairomones, which decreased significantly in response to pollutants. There existed no pollutant × fish kairomone interaction, indicating the changes in phototactic behavior of animals imposed by pollutants were independent of the presence of fish kairomones. The detection limits for changes in phototactic behavior of D. mgna clone C1242 are 0.04 mg/L for copper, 0.02 mg/L for cadmium, and 0.80 mg/L for PCP, respectively, quite lower than LC50 (48 h). The changes in phototactic behavior in presence to pollutants occurred quickly(3 h) compared to the period over whole acute toxicity tests. Therefore, D. magna clone C1242 could be potentially used to monitor water quality. Moreover, the phototactic behavior did not decrease further in the pollutant mixtures employed in our experiments compared to individual pollutants, except in the Cd-PCP treatment.This fact suggests that the formation of water quality criteria must be based upon pollutant mixture tests.

  1. Study of the influence of degenerative intervertebral disc changes on the deformation behavior of the cervical spine segment in flexion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmakova, Tatyana V.

    2016-11-01

    The paper describes the model of the cervical spine segment (C3-C4) and the calculation results of the deformation behavior of the segment under degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc. The segment model was built based on the experimental literature data taking into account the presence of the cortical and cancellous bone tissue of vertebral bodies. The calculation results show that degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc cause the immobility of the C3 vertebra at flexion.

  2. Intentions to use contraceptives in Pakistan: implications for behavior change campaigns

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    Agha Sohail

    2010-08-01

    -efficacy in being able to discuss family planning with his wife was the strongest driver of the intention to use withdrawal. A man's fear that contraceptives would make a woman sterile and harm her womb lowered his intention to use modern contraceptive methods. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of having secondary target audiences such as mothers-in-law and husbands in family planning behavior change campaigns implemented in Pakistan. Campaigns that stress the importance of child spacing are likely to have an impact. Client perceptions of the quality of care are important determinants of intentions to use contraceptive methods in Pakistan. Client concerns that the IUD and sterilization procedures might harm a woman's womb and cause sterility should be addressed. The findings suggest that there is a need to assess the actual quality of service delivery in Pakistan.

  3. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface

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    Brittany Mei Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n=8 or no therapy (n=6. Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test, and the Nine-Hole Peg Test as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and one month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy but not in the absence of therapy to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and nonlesioned hemisphere and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions.

  4. Effect of 17β-estradiol on olfactory bulbectomy-induced oxidative stress and behavioral changes in rats

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    Inmaculada Tasset

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Inmaculada Tasset1, José Peña2, Ignacio Jimena2, Montserrat Feijóo1, María del Carmen Muñoz1, Pedro Montilla1, Isaac Túnez11Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; 2Departamento de Ciencias Morfológicas, Sección de Histología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Córdoba, SpainAbstract: The present study evaluated 17β-estradiol (17βE2 (2.5 mg/kg sc effects on bilateral OBX-induced behavioral changes and oxidative stress. OBX in male Wistar rats produced an increase in lipid peroxidation products and a decline in reduced glutathione (GSH content and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity, together with an increase in caspase-3 activity. Additionally, OBX triggered changes of behavior such as an enhancement of immobility time in the forced swim test and hyperactivity in the open field test. These changes were reversed by treatment with 17βE2 (14 days. Our results reveled that 17βE2 has a protective effect against oxidative stress, cell damage and behavioral changes induced by OBX, and present antidepressant and antianxiety properties.Keywords: behavioral, depression, 17β-estradiol, oxidative stress

  5. Neural rhythms of change: Long-term improvement after successful treatment in children with disruptive behavior problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, S.; Liao, V.; Liu, Z.X.; Granic, I.

    2015-01-01

    Neural changes were investigated for children with disruptive behavior problems one year after a treatment program ended. Thirty-nine children and their parents visited the research lab before, after, and a year after treatment ended. During those lab visits, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorde

  6. Psychomotor slowing, neuroendocrine responses, and behavioral changes after oral administration of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, B; Hulstijn, W; Maes, M; Pier, M; Scharpé, S; Zitman, F

    2001-12-31

    The mixed 5-HT receptor agonist/antagonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) is known to suppress locomotor activity in mice and rats. This study aimed: (1) to determine whether mCPP induces cognitive and motor changes in normal human volunteers and how these changes relate to the neuroendocrine effects of mCPP; and (2) to compare these cognitive and motor changes to the known cognitive and motor slowing patterns in depression and schizophrenia. A computerized method (used in previous research) analyzed fine motor behavior during figure-copying tasks. In 14 normal male volunteers behavioral responses, body temperature, plasma levels of prolactin and cortisol, and cognitive and motor performance during figure-copying tasks were measured after a single oral dose of mCPP (0.5 mg/kg). mCPP-induced prolongation of the reaction times in all copying tasks, parallel to increases in cortisol and prolactin and some self-reported behavioral effects. There were no changes in the movement times or the velocities of the writing movements. In conclusion, mCPP induced cognitive, but not motor slowing, in normal male volunteers. This indicates that the human serotonin system is also implicated in psychomotor behavior. This pattern of slowing was different from that in depressed and schizophrenic patients.

  7. Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a social psychological model of prospective memory and habit development. The model is based on relevant research literature, and its dynamics were investigated by computer simulations. Time-series data from a behavior-change campaign in Cuba were used for calibration and validation of the model. The model scored well in…

  8. Stressful Life Events and Behavior Change: A Qualitative Examination of African American Women's Participation in a Weight Loss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks C.; Jefferson, Wendy K.; Ard, Jamy D.

    2011-01-01

    We qualitatively assessed how life stressors affected African American women's participation in a weight reduction program. A sample of 9 women, who completed a behavioral lifestyle intervention, participated in individual, structured, in-depth interviews. Life stressors, ranging from personal illness to changes in employment status, had varied…

  9. Behavior Change with Fitness Technology in Sedentary Adults: A Review of the Evidence for Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alycia N.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is closely linked with health and well-being; however, many Americans do not engage in regular exercise. Older adults and those with low socioeconomic status are especially at risk for poor health, largely due to their sedentary lifestyles. Fitness technology, including trackers and smartphone applications (apps), has become increasingly popular for measuring and encouraging physical activity in recent years. However, many questions remain regarding the effectiveness of this technology for promoting behavior change. Behavior change techniques such as goal setting, feedback, rewards, and social factors are often included in fitness technology. However, it is not clear which components are most effective and which are actually being used by consumers. We discuss additional strategies not typically included in fitness technology devices or apps that are promising for engaging inactive, vulnerable populations. These include action planning, restructuring negative attitudes, enhancing environmental conditions, and identifying other barriers to regular physical activity. We consider which strategies are most conducive to motivating behavior change among sedentary adults. Overall, fitness technology has the potential to significantly impact public health, research, and policies. We suggest ways in which app developers and behavior change experts can collaborate to develop successful apps. Advances are still needed to help inactive individuals determine how, when, where, and with whom they can increase their physical activity. PMID:28123997

  10. Use of Cognitive Dissonance to Produce Changes in the Attitudes and Behavior of Economically Disadvantaged First Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Teresa Martin

    Using Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance as a model, this study attempted to change the attitude and behavior of children toward well liked toys. The results offer only limited support for the theory. The subjects in the three groups did play a significantly different amount of time in the two play periods. The t-tests indicated it was the…

  11. Usability evaluation of an online, tailored self-management intervention for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients incorporating behavior change techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken-Brewster, V.; Moser, A.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Nagykaldi, Z.; Vries, H. de; Tange, H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An eHealth intervention using computer tailored technology including several behavior change techniques was developed to support the self-management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to evaluate and improve the usability of the eHeal

  12. Assessing Changes in Medical Student Attitudes toward Non-Traditional Human Sexual Behaviors Using a Confidential Audience Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Phebe; Candler, Chris; Hamm, Robert M.; Smith, E. Michael; Hudson, Joseph C.

    2010-01-01

    Medical students encountering patients with unfamiliar, unconventional sexual practices may have attitudes that can affect open communication during sexual history-taking. We measured changes in first-year US medical student attitudes toward 22 non-traditional sexual behaviors before and after exposure to human sexuality instruction. An…

  13. Effects of Self-Efficacy and Response Efficacy Messages in Health News: Changing Health Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Cortney Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is now the second leading cause of death for Americans, behind heart disease. By current estimates, up to two thirds of cancer diagnoses could be avoided or prevented with behavior changes such as the adoption of healthier lifestyles. One way that individuals learn about cancer is through the news media. Of all of the sources of health…

  14. Cognitive Change and Enhanced Coping: Missing Mediational Links in Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Anxiety-Disordered Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.M. Prins; T.H. Ollendick

    2003-01-01

    In this review, we examine the recent cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) outcome literature with anxiety-disordered children and, specifically, explore the status of cognitive change and increased coping ability as (1) specific treatment effects, and (2) possible mediators of the efficacy of CBT. In t

  15. [Functional Analytic Psychotherapy: Approaches and scope of behavior therapy based on changes in the therapeutic context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Martínez, Amanda M; Coletti, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a therapeutic approach developed in 'third wave therapies' context. FAP is characterized by use therapeutic relationship and the behaviors emit into it to improve clients daily life functioning. This therapeutic model is supported in behavior analysis principles and contextual functionalism philosophy. FAP proposes that clients behavior in session are functional equivalent with those out of session; therefore, when therapists respond to clients behaviors in session contingently, they promote and increase improvements in the natural setting. This article poses main features of FAP, its philosophical roots, achievements and research challenges to establish FAP as an independent treatment based on the evidence.

  16. [FUNCTIONAL ANALYTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY: APPROACHES AND SCOPE OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY BASED ON CHANGES IN THE THERAPEUTIC CONTEXT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Martínez, Amanda M; Coletti, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a therapeutic approach developed in context. FAP is characterized by use therapeutic relationship and the behaviors emit into it to improve clients daily life functioning. This therapeutic model is supported in behavior analysis principles and contextual functionalism philosophy. FAP proposes that clients behavior in session are functional equivalent with those out of session; therefore, when therapists respond to clients behaviors in session contingently, they promote and increase improvements in the natural setting. This article poses main features of FAP, its philosophical roots, achievements and research challenges to establish FAP as an independent treatment based on the evidence.

  17. Does what you know matter? Investigating the relationship between mental models of climate change and pro-environmental behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the conjecture that environmentally sustainable decisions and behaviors are related to individuals' conceptions of the natural world, in this case climate change; individuals' attitudes towards climate change; and the situations in which these decisions are made. The nature of mental models is an ongoing subject of disagreement. Some argue that mental models are coherent theories, much like scientific theories, that individuals employ systematically when reasoning about the world (Gopnik & Meltzoff, 1998). Others maintain that mental models are cobbled together from fragmented collections of ideas that are only loosely connected and context dependent (Disessa, 1988; Minstrell, 2000). It is likely that individuals sometimes reason about complex phenomena using systematic mental models and at other times reason using knowledge that is organized in fragmented pieces (Steedle & Shavelson, 2009). Thus, in measuring mental models of complex environmental systems, such as climate change, the assumption of systematicity may not be justified. Individuals may apply certain chains of reasoning in some contexts but not in others. The current study hypothesizes that an accurate mental model of climate change enables an individual to make effective evaluative judgments of environmental behavior options. The more an individual's mental model resembles that of an expert, the more consistent, accurate and automatic these judgments become. However, an accurate mental model is not sufficient to change environmental behavior. Real decisions and behaviors are products of a person-situation interaction: an interplay between psychosocial factors (such as knowledge and attitudes) and the situation in which the decision is made. This study investigates the relationship between both psychosocial and situational factors for climate change decisions. Data was collected from 436 adult participants through an online survey. The survey was comprised of

  18. Reciprocal effects among changes in weight, body image, and other psychological factors during behavioral obesity treatment: a mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in body image and subjective well-being variables (e.g. self-esteem are often reported as outcomes of obesity treatment. However, they may, in turn, also influence behavioral adherence and success in weight loss. The present study examined associations among obesity treatment-related variables, i.e., change in weight, quality of life, body image, and subjective well-being, exploring their role as both mediators and outcomes, during a behavioral obesity treatment. Methods Participants (BMI = 31.1 ± 4.1 kg/m2; age = 38.4 ± 6.7 y were 144 women who attended a 12-month obesity treatment program and a comparison group (n = 49, who received a general health education program. The intervention included regular group meetings promoting lasting behavior changes in physical activity and dietary intake. Body image, quality of life, subjective well-being, and body weight were measured at baseline and treatment's end. Mediation was tested by multiple regression and a resampling approach to measure indirect effects. Treatment group assignment was the independent variable while changes in weight and in psychosocial variables were analyzed alternatively as mediators and as dependent variables. Results At 12 months, the intervention group had greater weight loss (-5.6 ± 6.8% vs. -1.2 ± 4.6%, p Conclusion Changes in weight and body image may reciprocally affect each other during the course of behavioral obesity treatment. No evidence of reciprocal relationships was found for the other models under analysis; however, weight changes partially explained the effects of treatment on quality of life and self-esteem. Weight and psychosocial changes co-occur during treatment and will probably influence each other dynamically, in ways not yet adequately understood. Results from this study support the inclusion of intervention contents aimed at improving body image in weight management programs.

  19. Stress Management Apps With Regard to Emotion-Focused Coping and Behavior Change Techniques: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Alexandra; Bleser, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic stress has been shown to be associated with disease. This link is not only direct but also indirect through harmful health behavior such as smoking or changing eating habits. The recent mHealth trend offers a new and promising approach to support the adoption and maintenance of appropriate stress management techniques. However, only few studies have dealt with the inclusion of evidence-based content within stress management apps for mobile phones. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate stress management apps on the basis of a new taxonomy of effective emotion-focused stress management techniques and an established taxonomy of behavior change techniques. Methods Two trained and independent raters evaluated 62 free apps found in Google Play with regard to 26 behavior change and 15 emotion-focused stress management techniques in October 2015. Results The apps included an average of 4.3 behavior change techniques (SD 4.2) and 2.8 emotion-focused stress management techniques (SD 2.6). The behavior change technique score and stress management technique score were highly correlated (r=.82, P=.01). Conclusions The broad variation of different stress management strategies found in this sample of apps goes in line with those found in conventional stress management interventions and self-help literature. Moreover, this study provided a first step toward more detailed and standardized taxonomies, which can be used to investigate evidence-based content in stress management interventions and enable greater comparability between different intervention types. PMID:28232299

  20. Modeling early sexual initiation among young adolescents using quantum and continuous behavior change methods: implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Lunn, Sonja; Harris, Carole; Li, Xiaoming; Deveaux, Lynette; Marshall, Sharon; Cottrell, Leslie; Stanton, Bonita

    2010-10-01

    Behavioral research and prevention intervention science efforts have largely been based on hypotheses of linear or rational behavior change. Additional advances in the field may result from the integration of quantum behavior change and catastrophe models. Longitudinal data from a randomized trial for 1241 pre-adolescents 9-12 years old who self-described as virgin were analyzed. Data for 469 virgins in the control group were included for linear and cusp catastrophe models to describe sexual initiation; data for the rest in the intervention group were added for program effect assessment. Self-reported likelihood to have sex was positively associated with actual initiation of sex (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.43-2.06, R² = 0.13). Receipt of a behavioral prevention intervention based on a cognitive model prevented 15.6% (33.0% vs. 48.6%, OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.24-1.11) of the participants from initiating sex among only those who reported 'very likely to have sex.' The beta coefficients for the cubic term of the usp assessing three bifurcating variables (planning to have sex, intrinsic rewards from sex and self-efficacy for abstinence) were 0.0726, 0.1116 and 0.1069 respectively; R² varied from 0.49 to 0.54 (p sexual initiation, quantum change has contributed more than continuous change in describing sexual initiation among young adolescents, suggesting the need for quantum change and chaotic models to advance behavioral prevention of HIV/AIDS.

  1. Effectiveness of the behavior change intervention to improve harm reduction self-efficacy among people who inject drugs in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawa D

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Duangta Pawa,1 Chitlada Areesantichai1,2 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, 2Drug Dependence Research Center WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Drug Dependence, Bangkok, Thailand Background: People who inject drugs (PWID in Thailand reported unsafe injection practices resulting in injection-related health consequences. Harm reduction self-efficacy plays an important role and could be improved to reduce harm associated with injecting drugs. Evidence-based interventions targeting PWID are needed. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the behavior change intervention within the PWID population. Methods: The behavior change intervention, Triple-S, was designed to improve harm reduction self-efficacy among PWID. This quasi-experimental study was a pre- and post-comparison with a control group design. Participants were PWID, aged 18–45 years, and located in Bangkok. Changes in harm reduction self-efficacy of the intervention group were compared with the control group using paired and independent t-test. Results: Most of PWID were male (84%, had a secondary school and lower education (71%, were single, and had a mean age of 41 years. They had been injecting drugs for an average of 20 years, and the median of drug injections per week was ten times in the past month. Pre- and post-intervention effects were measured and results showed that the intervention group reported improvement in harm reduction self-efficacy in negative emotional conditions (P=0.048. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Triple-S intervention can significantly improve harm reduction self-efficacy in negative emotional conditions. The results may suggest the importance of behavior change intervention, especially when integrated with services provided by drop-in centers. The intervention can be further developed to cover other harm reduction behaviors and improve harm reduction self-efficacy. Keywords: drug injection, harm

  2. Changes in transport behavior during the financial crisis. An analysis of urban form, location and transport behavior in the greater Copenhagen area 2006-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2015-01-01

    A multitude of studies have focussed on the connections between urban form, location and transport behavior to inform sustainable and resilient urban planning. However, few have studied the stability of urban form and location effects under changing economic conditions. This paper presents...... an analysis of the changes in urban form and location correlates of travel distances in the Danish Zealand/Copenhagen region from before the financial crisis (2006/07) to some years after the financial downturn (2010/11). Significant changes are found in the socio-economic as well as urban form and location....../destinations. It follows that the location pattern, the geographical configuration of the urban region, is a factor in households' adaptive strategies which partly determine the possibilities for reducing travel and the possibilities for adaption and regional resilience....

  3. Acute Toxicity and Behavioral Changes Associated with Diazinon in Rutilus rutilus caspicus and Hypophthalmicthys molitrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Akbar Hedayati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diazinon is an organophosphorous pesticide which widely found in municipal, agricultural, and urban storm water discharges. The present study was conducted to achieve lethal concentration (LC50 and behavioral changes of Rutilus rutilus caspius and Hypophthal-micthys molitrix after exposure to lethal concentration of diazinon. Methods: The experiment was carried out in static conditions, based on instructions of OECD in 4 days under controlled water physicochemical conditions with pH of 7.2±0.2, oxygen of 7±0.3 mg/l, total hardness of 180 mg CaCo3 and temperature of 24±1 C°. All fishes were accli-matized in 400 L aquaria for 10 days. Treated aquaria had concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 ppm of diazinon for H. molitrix, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 20 for R. rutilus caspi-cus, while there was no toxic concentration for the control group. LC1, LC10, LC30, LC50, LC70, LC90, and LC99 were calculated for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. Results: LC50 96h diazinon values were 3.93 and 1.71 ppm for H. molitrix and R. rutilus caspi-cus, respectively. Clinical observation revealed that the poisoned fishes suffered from nerve paralysis syndrome. The fishes exhibited irregular, erratic, and darting swimming movements, severe aching, and collapse to the bottom of the aquarium. Conclusion: These findings suggest that diazinon has medium toxicity at low concentrations for thede two species and causes morbidities.

  4. Changes in smoking behavior and adherence to preventive guidelines among smokers after a heart attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoon-Jung Choi; Myeong-Chan Cho; Jang-Whan Bae; Chong-Jin Kim; Jin-Man Cho; Kyoo-Rok Han; Jun-Hee Lee; Jong-Seon Park; Ung Kim; Sang-Hee Lee; Jang-Won Son; Dong-Gu Shin; Young-Jo Kim; Myung-Ho Jeong; Young-Keun Ahn

    2013-01-01

    Objective Risk factor modification is key to preventing subsequent cardiac events after a heart attack. This study was designed to investigate the disparity between preventive guidelines and clinical practice among smoking patients. Methods The study was carried out in smokers admitted with myocardial infarction (MI). A total of 275 patients who had been regularly followed for over one year after MI were randomly selected and enrolled in this study. We investigated changes in smoking behavior and the adherence rate to ACC/AHA Guidelines for secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease at the time of, and one year after, the index event. Results The study population consisted of 275 patients (97.1% males) with a mean age of 57.0 ± 11.2 years. Achievement of target goals at one year was as follows: smoking cessation, 52.3%; blood pressure, 83.9%; HbA1c, 32.7%; lipid profile, 65.5%; and body mass index (BMI), 50.6%. Over one year, 80% of the patients attempted to quit smoking; 27% of them re-started smoking within one month after discharge while 65% succeeded in cessation of smoking. At one year, only 52% of the patients overall had stopped smoking. From the multivariate logistic analysis including smoking patterns and clinical characteristics, the severity of coronary artery disease was the only independent predictor for smoking cessation (Relative risk (RR): 1.230; P = 0.022). Conclusions Only a small percentage of MI patients adhere to guidelines for secondary prevention and a sizable proportion fail to stop smoking. These findings underscore the need for an effective patient education system.

  5. Helping COPD patients change health behavior in order to improve their quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almagro P

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pere Almagro, Alejandra CastroAcute Geriatric Care Unity, Internal Medicine Department, University Hospital Mútua de Terrassa, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases in adults worldwide and is associated with a deleterious effect on the quality of life of affected patients. Although it remains one of the leading causes of global mortality, the prognosis seems to have improved in recent years. Even so, the number of patients with COPD and multiple comorbidities has risen, hindering their management and highlighting the need for futures changes in the model of care. Together with standard medical treatment and therapy adherence – essential to optimizing disease control – several nonpharmacological therapies have proven useful in the management of these patients, improving their health-related quality of life (HRQoL regardless of lung function parameters. Among these are improved diagnosis and treatment of comorbidities, prevention of COPD exacerbations, and greater attention to physical disability related to hospitalization. Pulmonary rehabilitation reduces symptoms, optimizes functional status, improves activity and daily function, and restores the highest level of independent physical function in these patients, thereby improving HRQoL even more than pharmacological treatment. Greater physical activity is significantly correlated with improvement of dyspnea, HRQoL, and mobility, along with a decrease in the loss of lung function. Nutritional support in malnourished COPD patients improves exercise capacity, while smoking cessation slows disease progression and increases HRQoL. Other treatments such as psychological and behavioral therapies have proven useful in the treatment of depression and anxiety, both of which are frequent in these patients. More recently, telehealthcare has been associated with improved quality of life and a reduction in exacerbations

  6. Mindfulness training applied to addiction therapy: insights into the neural mechanisms of positive behavioral change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eric L Garland,1,2 Matthew O Howard,3 Sarah E Priddy,1 Patrick A McConnell,4 Michael R Riquino,1 Brett Froeliger4 1College of Social Work, 2Hunstsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3School of Social Work, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA Abstract: Dual-process models from neuroscience suggest that addiction is driven by dysregulated interactions between bottom-up neural processes underpinning reward learning and top-down neural functions subserving executive function. Over time, drug use causes atrophy in prefrontally mediated cognitive control networks and hijacks striatal circuits devoted to processing natural rewards in service of compulsive seeking of drug-related reward. In essence, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs can be conceptualized as mental training programs for exercising, strengthening, and remediating these functional brain networks. This review describes how MBIs may remediate addiction by regulating frontostriatal circuits, thereby restoring an adaptive balance between these top-down and bottom-up processes. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs facilitate cognitive control over drug-related automaticity, attentional bias, and drug cue reactivity, while enhancing responsiveness to natural rewards. Findings from the literature are incorporated into an integrative account of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness-based therapies for effecting positive behavior change in the context of addiction recovery. Implications of our theoretical framework are presented with respect to how these insights can inform the addiction therapy process. Keywords: mindfulness, frontostriatal, savoring, cue reactivity, hedonic dysregulation, reward, addiction

  7. Changes in Adult Behavior to Decrease Disruption from Students in Nonclassroom Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohanon, Hank

    2015-01-01

    Decreasing classroom disruptions that result from hallway-related behavior in high school settings can be very challenging for high school staff. This article presents a case example of preventing problem behavior related to hallway settings in a high school with over 1,200 students. The interventions are described, and the results of the plan are…

  8. A Study of Preservice Educators' Dispositions to Change Behavior Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Alison C.

    2012-01-01

    Student behavior problems contribute to poor academic achievement and poor teacher retention. This study investigated preservice teachers' dispositions to implement positive and proactive strategies for managing behavior in the general education elementary urban classroom. The author interviewed 19 preservice teachers in a large urban school…

  9. School Policy, Leadership Style, Teacher Change and Student Behavior in Eight Schools. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Jane A.; Mohlman, Georgea G.

    Eight secondary schools participated in this study of the relationships among school policies, principal leadership style, teacher behavior, and student behavior. Data were gathered through student and teacher observations, student and teacher questionnaires, student absence records, observations of the physical environment, and interviews with…

  10. Examining a Teacher's Negotiation through Change: Understanding the Influence of Beliefs on Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Jennelyn; Campbell, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Previous research asserts the connection between teacher beliefs and behaviors in the classroom. However, using broad, general constructs collected in teacher self-reported surveys has provided neither clear connections between beliefs and behaviors, nor explanatory power between connected or disparate beliefs. This research examines teacher…

  11. Behavioral Change as a Result of Videotaped Playback: An Examination of Two Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Don; Ripple, Richard E.

    The literature on the behavior effects of videotaped playback reveals that little theoretical formulation has been offered to explain the positive results which have been reported. Two theoretical models are considered in regard to these results. The first, a reinforcement model, suggests that some behaviors are reinforced positively and some…

  12. Developmental Changes in Dopamine Neurotransmission in Adolescence: Behavioral Implications and Issues in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Dustin; Collins, Paul; White, Tonya; Luciana, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increased risk-taking, novelty-seeking, and locomotor activity, all of which suggest a heightened appetitive drive. The neurotransmitter dopamine is typically associated with behavioral activation and heightened forms of appetitive behavior in mammalian species, and this pattern of activation has been described in…

  13. Understanding mechanisms of change in the development of antisocial behavior: The impact of a universal intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); P. Vuijk (Patricia); A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe association between the development of antisocial behavior, affiliation with deviant friends, and peer rejection was tested with a preventive intervention; 664 boys and girls were randomly assigned to a universal classroom-based intervention targeting disruptive behavior or a control

  14. Making less of a mess: Scent exposure as a tool for behavioral change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Martijn A. de; Debets, L.W.; Ruitenburg, K.; Holland, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Following a cognitive route from olfactory perception to goal-directed behavior, we aimed to influence littering behavior on Dutch trains. In order to achieve this, the scent of a cleaning product was subtly dispersed in train compartments. Compared to passengers in unscented compartments, passenger

  15. Multiple-Family Group Intervention for Incarcerated Male Adolescents Who Sexually Offend and Their Families: Change in Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Predicts Adaptive Change in Adolescent Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiley, Margaret K; Zaremba-Morgan, Ali; Datubo-Brown, Christiana; Pyle, Raven; Cox, Milira

    2015-07-01

    The multiple-family group intervention is an effective, yet affordable, 8-week treatment that is conducted in a juvenile correctional institution in Alabama with adolescents who sexually offend and their families. Data from 115 incarcerated male adolescents and their male and female caregivers collected at pre-, post-, and 1-year follow-up were used to determine that problem behaviors (internalizing, externalizing) decreased over pre- and posttest and the significant decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation predicted those changes. Adolescent-reported anxiety over abandonment and attachment dependence on parents increased significantly; these changes were predicted by decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation. Linear growth models were also fit over the 3 time points and indicate decreases in adolescent problem behavior and maladaptive emotion regulation.

  16. The behavioral changes that can be realized when leaders are exposed to the theories and metaphors found in quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, David Wayne

    Many are beginning to see the promise that the quantum world has offered those who manage and lead organizations (Wheatley, 1992; Zohar, 1997). The Newtonian world is one in which all "things" are reduced to their smallest parts, separated, divided, and analyzed with predictability, with complete control being the ultimate goal. The quantum world is one of infinite possibilities, infinite fields of influence, and infinite relationships. The hallmark characteristics found in a manager who has been schooled in the quantum sciences are flexibility, responsiveness, synchronicity, serendipity, creativity, innovation, participation, and motivation. In a quantum organization there is the constant awareness of the whole system, but there is also diversity (wave or particle), which allows for self-organization that is based on the environment and its requirements. In the quantum world many paths lead from A to Z, and depending on the path chosen, numerous realities wait to unfold. It was the goal of this research to explore the changing of leader behaviors through exposure to the models and theories found in quantum physics. From a quantum perspective this behavior change is possible; the only question is the readiness, willingness, and ability of the leaders to allow their behaviors to be surfaced and challenged. These are indeed the greatest challenges for all people as they proceed through life and work---readiness for change, willingness to change, and ability to surface key areas where change is needed.

  17. Stages of change of behavior in women on a multi-professional program for treatment of obesity 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilaqua, Cheila Aparecida; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to ascertain the effectiveness of an intervention program in relation to anthropometric measurements and stage of readiness for behavioral change in women with excess weight. Methods: the intervention group (IG) was made up of 13 women, and the control group (CG), by 20. The intervention lasted 16 weeks, and included the practice of guided physical activity three times a week, and health education once a week. The application of the questionnaire on stage of readiness for behavioral change, and the anthropometric evaluations, were undertaken at two points - before and after the period of intervention. The statistical analysis involved tests of comparison and association. Results: in general, at the first point, the participants in the two groups were predisposed to make changes in what they ate and in their physical activity. However, significant difference was only observed in relation to weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-hip ratio and readiness for change among the members of the intervention group. Conclusion: the intervention programmed was effective in weight loss, reduction of waist circumference and waist-hip ratio, and in changing behaviors related to the practicing of physical exercise and eating habits. PMID:27737377

  18. Stages of change of behavior in women on a multi-professional program for treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheila Aparecida Bevilaqua

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to ascertain the effectiveness of an intervention program in relation to anthropometric measurements and stage of readiness for behavioral change in women with excess weight. Methods: the intervention group (IG was made up of 13 women, and the control group (CG, by 20. The intervention lasted 16 weeks, and included the practice of guided physical activity three times a week, and health education once a week. The application of the questionnaire on stage of readiness for behavioral change, and the anthropometric evaluations, were undertaken at two points - before and after the period of intervention. The statistical analysis involved tests of comparison and association. Results: in general, at the first point, the participants in the two groups were predisposed to make changes in what they ate and in their physical activity. However, significant difference was only observed in relation to weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio and readiness for change among the members of the intervention group. Conclusion: the intervention programmed was effective in weight loss, reduction of waist circumference and waist-hip ratio, and in changing behaviors related to the practicing of physical exercise and eating habits.

  19. Sexual assault programming on college campuses: using social psychological belief and behavior change principles to improve outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A; Gray, Matt J

    2011-04-01

    Sexual assault programming is often delivered without a theoretical framework and does not typically utilize applicable research that could help to induce change among participants. Such interventions may target male and/or female students, although the focus of this review is on men. It is important to examine these programs in light of current theoretical knowledge and empirical findings from the social psychological attitudinal and behavioral change literatures. To this end, current programming efforts and their limitations are briefly reviewed. Three social psychological theories targeting belief and behavior change (i.e., social norms, hypocrisy salience, decision, and deterrents) are discussed and their application to such programming is elaborated. Given this information, recommendations for the research and practice of such interventions are provided.

  20. Comparative investigation on spindle behavior and MPF activity changes during oocyte maturation between gynogenetic and amphimictic crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGZHONGAN; QUNHUALI; 等

    1999-01-01

    The spindle behavior and MPF activity changes in the progression of oocyte maturation were investigated and compared with cytological observation and kinase assay between gynogenetic silver crucian carp and amphimictic colored crucian carp.MPF activity was measured by using histone H1 as phosphorylation substrate.There were two similar oscillatory MPF kinase activity changes during oocyte maturation in two kinds of fishes with different reproductive modes,but there existed some subtle difference between them.The subtle difference was that the first peak of MPF kinase activity was kept to a longerlasting time in the gynogenetic silver crucian carp than in the amphimictic colored crucian carp.It was suggested that the difference may be related to the spindle behavior changes,such as tripolar spindle formation and spindle rearrangement in the gynogenetic crucian carp.

  1. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Junni, E-mail: junxinni@163.com [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi (China); Hansen, Alana, E-mail: alana.hansen@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia); Zhang, Ying, E-mail: ying.zhang@sydney.edu.au [Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li, Hong [Shanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Taiyuan 030001 Shanxi (China); Liu, Qiyong, E-mail: liuqiyong@icdc.cn [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206 (China); Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China); Sun, Yehuan, E-mail: yhsun@sina.com [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, Anhui (China); Bi, Peng, E-mail: peng.bi@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in

  2. CSP and takeout genes modulate the switch between attraction and repulsion during behavioral phase change in the migratory locust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    Full Text Available Behavioral plasticity is the most striking trait in locust phase transition. However, the genetic basis for behavioral plasticity in locusts is largely unknown. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the behavioral phase change in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria, the gene expression patterns over the time courses of solitarization and gregarization were compared by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. Data analysis revealed that several gene categories relevant to peripheral olfactory perception are strongly regulated in a total of 1,444 differentially expressed genes during both time courses. Among these candidate genes, several CSP (chemosensory protein genes and one takeout gene, LmigTO1, showed higher expression in gregarious and solitarious locusts, respectively, and displayed opposite expression trends during solitarization and gregarization. qRT-PCR experiments revealed that most CSP members and LmigTO1 exhibited antenna-rich expressions. RNA interference combined with olfactory behavioral experiments confirmed that the CSP gene family and one takeout gene, LmigTO1, are involved in the shift from repulsion to attraction between individuals during gregarization and in the reverse transition during solitarization. These findings suggest that the response to locust-emitted olfactory cues regulated by CSP and takeout genes is involved in the behavioral phase change in the migratory locust and provide a previously undescribed molecular mechanism linked to the formation of locust aggregations.

  3. Perinatal caffeine, acting on maternal adenosine A(1 receptors, causes long-lasting behavioral changes in mouse offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Björklund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are lingering concerns about caffeine consumption during pregnancy or the early postnatal period, partly because there may be long-lasting behavioral changes after caffeine exposure early in life. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that pregnant wild type (WT mice given modest doses of caffeine (0.3 g/l in drinking water gave birth to offspring that as adults exhibited increased locomotor activity in an open field. The offspring also responded to cocaine challenge with greater locomotor activity than mice not perinatally exposed to caffeine. We performed the same behavioral experiments on mice heterozygous for adenosine A(1 receptor gene (A(1RHz. In these mice signaling via adenosine A(1 receptors is reduced to about the same degree as after modest consumption of caffeine. A(1RHz mice had a behavioral profile similar to WT mice perinatally exposed to caffeine. Furthermore, it appeared that the mother's genotype, not offspring's, was critical for behavioral changes in adult offspring. Thus, if the mother partially lacked A(1 receptors the offspring displayed more hyperactivity and responded more strongly to cocaine stimulation as adults than did mice of a WT mother, regardless of their genotype. This indicates that long-term behavioral alterations in the offspring result from the maternal effect of caffeine, and not a direct effect on fetus. WT offspring from WT mother but having a A(1R Hz grandmother preserved higher locomotor response to cocaine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that perinatal caffeine, by acting on adenosine A(1 receptors in the mother, causes long-lasting behavioral changes in the offspring that even manifest themselves in the second generation.

  4. Dopamine-mediated learning and switching in cortico-striatal circuit explain behavioral changes in reinforcement learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eHong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia (BG are thought to play a crucial role in reinforcement learning. Central to the learning mechanism are dopamine D1 and D2 receptors located in the cortico-striatal synapses. However, it is still unclear how this dopamine-mediated synaptic plasticity is deployed and coordinated during reward-contingent behavioral changes. Here we propose a computational model of reinforcement learning that uses different thresholds of D1- and D2-mediated synaptic plasticity which are antagonized by dopamine-independent synaptic plasticity. A phasic increase in dopamine release caused by a larger-than-expected reward induces long-term potentiation (LTP in the direct pathway, whereas a phasic decrease in dopamine release caused by a smaller-than-expected reward induces a cessation of long-term depression (LTD, leading to LTP in the indirect pathway. This learning mechanism can explain the robust behavioral adaptation observed in a location-reward-value-association task where the animal makes shorter latency saccades to rewarding locations. The changes in saccade latency become quicker as the monkey becomes more experienced. This behavior can be explained by a switching mechanism which activates the cortico-striatal circuit selectively. Our model can also simulate the effects of D1 and D2 receptor blockade, and behavioral changes in Parkinson’s disease.

  5. Framed, Interactive Theory-Driven Texting: Effects of Message Framing on Health Behavior Change for Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anne; Perozich, Alyssa; Rajan, Radha; Persky, Susan; Parisi, Jeanine; Bowie, Janice; Fahle, Jenna; Cho, Jeremy; Krishnan, Aravind; Cohen, Zoe; Ezike, Adaora; Schulte, Cara; Taylor, Jarrett; Storey, Douglas; Ahmed, Rafay Syed; Cheskin, Lawrence J

    More approaches to support weight control are needed, especially among racial minorities who shoulder a disproportionate obesity burden. Using an approach influenced by regulatory fit theory, we conducted a 28-day, 4-arm experimental trial with 89 obese adults recruited from urban, predominantly African American churches to ascertain the efficacy of framed text messages to motivate behaviors conducive to weight loss. Participants were assigned to receive message framing that was matched versus mismatched to their motivational orientation. Results were mixed overall; however, matched texts elicited greater motivation to change eating and exercise behavior, suggesting promise in using motivational approaches to tailor messages.

  6. Changes in behavior and hematological parameters of freshwater African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) following sublethal exposure to chloramphenicol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwani, Christopher Didigwu; Mkpadobi, Blessing Nonye; Onyishi, Grace; Echi, Paul Chinedu; Chukwuka, Christian Onyeka; Oluah, Stanley Ndubuisi; Ivoke, Njoku

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of different concentrations of the most commonly used fish antimicrobial drug, chloramphenicol (CAP), on the behavior and hematological parameters of Clarias gariepinus. Fish specimens were exposed to three (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg L(-1)) sublethal concentrations of CAP and a control. Abnormal behavioral changes were observed in fish exposed to higher concentration of CAP. Blood erythrocytes were sampled on days 1, 5, 10 and 15 postexposure to evaluate hematological parameters. Results showed concentration- and time-dependent significant increase in packed cell volume after day 5 of exposure (p gariepinus in aquaculture.

  7. Nonradial and radial period changes of the δ Scuti star 4 CVn. II. Systematic behavior over 40 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breger, M.; Montgomery, M. H.; Lenz, P.; Pamyatnykh, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: Radial and nonradial pulsators on and near the main sequence show period and amplitude changes that are too large to be the product of stellar evolution. The multiperiodic δ Sct stars are well suited to study this, as the period changes of different modes excited in the same star can be compared. This requires a very large amount of photometric data covering years and decades as well as mode identifications. Methods: We have examined over 800 nights of high-precision photometry of the multiperiodic pulsator 4 CVn obtained from 1966 through 2012. Because most of the data were obtained in adjacent observing seasons, it is possible to derive very accurate period values for a number of the excited pulsation modes and to study their systematic changes from 1974 to 2012. Results: Most pulsation modes show systematic significant period and amplitude changes on a timescale of decades. For the well-studied modes, around 1986 a general reversal of the directions of both the positive and negative period changes occurred. Furthermore, the period changes between the different modes are strongly correlated, although they differ in size and sign. For the modes with known values of the spherical degree and azimuthal order, we find a correlation between the direction of the period changes and the identified azimuthal order, m. The associated amplitude changes generally have similar timescales of years or decades, but show little systematic or correlated behavior from mode to mode. Conclusions: A natural explanation for the opposite behavior of the prograde and retrograde modes is that their period changes are driven by a changing rotation profile. The changes in the rotation profile could in turn be driven by processes, perhaps the pulsations themselves, that redistribute angular momentum within the star. In general, different modes have different rotation kernels, so this will produce period shifts of varying magnitude for different modes.

  8. Behavioral sexual dimorphism in models of anxiety and depression due to changes in HPA axis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokras, Nikolaos; Dalla, Christina; Sideris, Antonios C; Dendi, Artemis; Mikail, Hudu G; Antoniou, Katerina; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are considered as stress-related disorders, which present considerable sex differentiation. In animal models of anxiety and depression sex differences have been described and linked to the sexually dimorphic hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenals (HPA) axis. The present study aimed to adjust corticosterone, the main HPA axis stress hormone, in male and female adrenalectomized rats with oral (25 μg/ml) corticosterone replacement (ADXR). Subsequently we investigated the behavioral performance of ADXR rats in the open field, light/dark and forced swim test (FST). Male ADXR rats showed less anxiety-like behavior when compared to sham-operated controls, despite adequate corticosterone replacement. They further showed increased swimming and reduced climbing behavior in the FST, while immobility duration did not differ from sham-operated males. On the contrary, adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement did not have significant effects on the female behavioral response. Females were generally more active and presented less anxiety-like behavior than males, while they exhibited higher depressive-like symptomatology in the FST. ADXR affected behavioral responses predominantly in males, which in turn modified sex differences in the behavioral profile. Females in proestrous and estrous did not differ from females in diestrous and methestrous in any measured behavioral response. Present results suggest that the male and not the female behavioral responses in models of anxiety and depression were mainly affected by ADXR. These findings may play a significant role in explaining the differential coping strategy of the two sexes in response to stressful experiences. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'.

  9. Community supported agriculture programs: a novel venue for theory-based health behavior change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Christopher M; Hughner, Renee Shaw; MacMillan, Lexi; Dumitrescu, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Local foods programs such as community supported agriculture programs (CSAs) and farmers' markets have increased greatly in popularity. However, little research has been conducted regarding the effect of involvement in local foods programs on diet-related attitudes and behaviors. A series of focus groups was conducted to identify the motives that propel individuals to join a CSA, the experiences of belonging to a CSA, and the diet-related outcomes of CSA membership. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a framework to categorize findings, data suggest the potential of CSAs as a viable intervention strategy for promoting healthful diets and behaviors.

  10. Behavioral treatment of pulsatile tinnitus and headache following traumatic head injury. Objective polygraphic assessment of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegel, M T; Martin, J B

    1998-10-01

    Pulsatile tinnitus is a disorder that can be extremely disabling. Nonetheless, it has not been well-researched in the fields of psychology or behavioral therapy. This article describes the evaluation and behavioral treatment of a gentleman with pulsatile tinnitus. The evaluation included polygraphic assessment of vasomotor and electromyographic function both before and after treatment. The results show that the combination of lifestyle modifications and specific behavioral interventions were successful in modifying not only self-report indices of functioning, but also the underlying physiology related to the disorder. The potential role of the various treatment components and the value of including polygraphic assessment for informing treatment and evaluating outcome are discussed.

  11. The changes and factors associated with post-discharge self-care behaviors among Chinese patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu XL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Xiaolin Hu,1 Xiuying Hu,1 Yonglin Su,2 Moying Qu,3 Mary A Dolansky41Department of Nursing, 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, 3Department of Cardiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 4Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USABackground: Self-care behavior is essential for achieving good outcomes among patients with heart failure. Understanding the factors associated with self-care over time is important for the provision of appropriate and targeted interventions. However, little is known regarding the changes and factors associated with post-discharge self-care behaviors among Chinese patients with heart failure.Objective: To investigate the changes and factors of self-care behaviors during the first 3 months following discharge among patients with heart failure in the People’s Republic of China.Methods: A descriptive design with a convenience sample was utilized in this study. Patients (N=128 from two hospitals, West China Hospital and Angjin Hospital, in Chengdu, People’s Republic of China, were recruited from June 2013 to June 2014. The instruments used in the study included the following: the Social Support Rating Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease 6-Item Scale, and the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behaviour Scale. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify the factors related to self-care behaviors at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months following discharge.Results: Patients’ self-care behaviors were poor and decreased significantly over time (F=4.09, P<0.05. The factors associated with self-care behaviors at baseline included the following: education level, comorbidities, and social support. The factors related to self-care behaviors at 1 and 3 months following discharge included the following: education level, comorbidities, social

  12. Changes in Organizational Leadership and the Behavior of Relationship- and Task-Motivated Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, Paul M.; Fiedler, Fred E.

    1976-01-01

    This study, based on Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness, examines the effect of job rotation, succession, and reassignment of superiors on the behavior and performance of a sample of 115 infantry squad leaders. (Author)

  13. Understanding and Changing Food Consumption Behavior Among Children: The Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Jayne K; Noar, Seth M; Thayer, Linden

    2015-01-01

    Current theoretical models attempting to explain diet-related weight status among children center around three individual-level theories. Alone, these theories fail to explain why children are engaging or not engaging in health-promoting eating behaviors. Our Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model takes a comprehensive approach and was developed specifically to help explain child food consumption behavior and addresses many of the theoretical gaps found in previous models, including integration of the life course trajectory, key influencers, perceived behavioral control, and self-regulation. Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model highlights multiple levels of the socioecological model to explain child food consumption, illustrating how negative influence at multiple levels can lead to caloric imbalance and contribute to child overweight and obesity. Recognizing the necessity for multi-level and system-based interventions, this model serves as a template for holistic, integrated interventions to improve child eating behavior, ultimately impacting life course health development.

  14. Evidence-based tailoring of behavior-change campaigns: increasing fluoride-free water consumption in rural Ethiopia with persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Alexandra C; Tobias, Robert; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-03-01

    Two hundred million people worldwide are at risk of developing dental and skeletal fluorosis due to excessive fluoride uptake from their water. Since medical treatment of the disease is difficult and mostly ineffective, preventing fluoride uptake is crucial. In the Ethiopian Rift Valley, a fluoride-removal community filter was installed. Despite having access to a fluoride filter, the community used the filter sparingly. During a baseline assessment, 173 face-to-face interviews were conducted to identify psychological factors that influence fluoride-free water consumption. Based on the results, two behavior-change campaigns were implemented: a traditional information intervention targeting perceived vulnerability, and an evidence-based persuasion intervention regarding perceived costs. The interventions were tailored to household characteristics. The campaigns were evaluated with a survey and analyzed in terms of their effectiveness in changing behavior and targeted psychological factors. While the intervention targeting perceived vulnerability showed no desirable effects, cost persuasion decreased the perceived costs and increased the consumption of fluoride-free water. This showed that altering subjective perceptions can change behavior even without changing objective circumstances. Moreover, interventions are more effective if they are based on evidence and tailored to specific households.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Behavioral Models for Adaptive Learning in Changing Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Marković, Dimitrije; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2017-01-01

    Probabilistic models of decision making under various forms of uncertainty have been applied in recent years to numerous behavioral and model-based fMRI studies. These studies were highly successful in enabling a better understanding of behavior and delineating the functional properties of brain areas involved in decision making under uncertainty. However, as different studies considered different models of decision making under uncertainty, it is unclear which of these computational models p...

  16. Trial-to-trial reoptimization of motor behavior due to changes in task demands is limited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orban de Xivry J-J

    Full Text Available Each task requires a specific motor behavior that is tuned to task demands. For instance, writing requires a lot of accuracy while clapping does not. It is known that the brain adjusts the motor behavior to different task demands as predicted by optimal control theory. In this study, the mechanism of this reoptimization process is investigated by varying the accuracy demands of a reaching task. In this task, the width of the reaching target (0.5 or 8 cm was varied either on a trial-to-trial basis (random schedule or in blocks (blocked schedule. On some trials, the hand of the subjects was clamped to a rectilinear trajectory that ended 2 cm on the left or right of the target center. The rejection of this perturbation largely varied with target width in the blocked schedule but not in the random schedule. That is, subjects exhibited different motor behavior in the different schedules despite identical accuracy demands. Therefore, while reoptimization has been considered immediate and automatic, the differences in motor behavior observed across schedules suggest that the reoptimization of the motor behavior is neither happening on a trial-by-trial basis nor obligatory. The absence of trial-to-trial mechanisms, the inability of the brain to adapt to two conflicting task demands and the existence of a switching cost are discussed as possible sources of the non-optimality of motor behavior during the random schedule.

  17. Behavioral changes in female Asian elephants when given access to an outdoor yard overnight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David M; Vitale, Cathy

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted at the Bronx Zoo to determine whether providing elephants with access to an outdoor corral at night had any significant effects on behavior, use of space, and use of a sand corral. Activity budgets for three female Asian elephants were compared when the subjects were housed indoors overnight and when they were given access to an outdoor yard overnight. Observations were recorded via infrared video cameras between the hours of 1900 and 0700 during the months of July-September. Two of the three elephants showed a significant preference for spending time outdoors, whereas, the third elephant spent most of her time indoors. Standing and play behavior increased when the elephants had outdoor access while lying down and feeding behavior decreased. Swaying behavior decreased significantly when the elephants had access to the outdoor yard. The elephants made very little use of a sand-floor stall regardless of whether or not they had access to outdoors. The results of this study, suggest that having access to alternate areas overnight can promote well-being by reducing repetitive behavior and allowing animals to express their preferences for different locations. The relative importance of choice alone vs. the behavioral opportunities provided by choice options for zoo animals is discussed. Zoo Biol. 35:298-303, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Model for Pre-Service Teachers' Climate Change Awareness and Willingness to Act for Pro-Climate Change Friendly Behavior: Adaptation of Awareness to Climate Change Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal, Burçkin; Alper, Umut; Özdem-Yilmaz, Yasemin; Öztürk, Nilay; Sönmez, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    Public awareness of the negative effects of climate change is vital since it leads to collective action for prevention and adaptation. However, investigations on to what extent people are aware of the climate change issue are rare in the literature. The present study reported the adaptation process of awareness to climate change questionnaire into…

  19. Changes of marital behavior and family patterns in post-socialist countries: Delayed, incomplete or specific second demographic transition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Mina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts by questioning the theory of second demographic transition (SDT and its universal relevance in the field of marriage behavior and family organization in low fertility context, arguing for more differentiated approaches. With an aim to illustrate the contextual specifics of post-socialist countries in general and of Serbia in particular, the author claims that analyzed changes have not just been delayed or incomplete in comparison to more developed European countries, but shaped by specific modernization processes, which led to rationally developed strategies in overcoming structural risks, although, without ideational changes typical to the theory of SDT. Slow changes in marital behavior and family organization in Serbia are illustrated in recent sociological (empirical research findings. The perceived changes are linked to specific structural risks (war, slow transformation and enduring economic hardships, weak state and low trust in institutions, etc and value characteristics (persistence of materialism and traditionalism, but with increasing ambivalence. The connection between structural and ideational changes is considered through social stratification variable by relying on Coale's model on necessary preconditions for behavioral changes as well as on social deprivation concept. Having in mind upper social strata (more educated and better off, the value changes precede the behavioral that are adapted to economic uncertainty, which still force more traditional marital and family patterns. Therefore, there is a rank of different options, from extended family (for a short period at the beginning of marriage or after divorce to separated leaving (of married partners in parental households (due to refusing the extended family option thus creating quite specific "living apart together" form, combined with dominant strategy of prolonging the marriage. Hence, for upper social strata, marriage is still a universal but negotiable

  20. Oxidized trilinoleate and tridocosahexaenoate induce pica behavior and change locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Fuki; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Umeno, Aya; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Kurata, Kenji; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2013-01-01

    Pica behavior, a behavior that is characterized by eating a nonfood material such as kaolin and relates to the degree of discomfort in animals, and the variations of locomotor activity of rats after eating deteriorated fat and oil extracted from instant noodles were examined in our previous study. The result shows that oxidized fat and oil with at least 100 meq/kg in peroxide value (PV) increase pica behavior and decrease locomotor activity. In the present study, the same two behaviors were measured using autoxidized trilinoleate (tri-LA) and tridocosahexaenoate (tri-DHA) as a model of vegetable and fish oil, respectively, to compare fatty acid differences against the induction of two behaviors. The oxidized levels of tri-LA and tri-DHA were analyzed with PV and p-anisidine value (AnV), the method to analyze secondary oxidized products. The oxidation levels of respective triacylglycerol (TAG) samples were carefully adjusted to make them having almost the same PV and AnV. As the results, 600 or more meq/kg in PV of both TAGs significantly increased the consumption of kaolin pellets compared to the control group. Furthermore, 300 or more meq/kg in PV of tri-LA and 200 or more meq/kg in PV of tri-DHA demonstrated significant decrease in locomotor activity compared to control group. These results would indicate that the oxidized TAG having the same PV and/or AnV would induce the same type of pica behavior and locomotor activity. Furthermore, that the structure of oxidized products might not be important and the amount of hydroperoxide group and/or aldehyde group in deteriorated fats and oils might affect the pica behavior and locomotor activity were thought.

  1. Psychological and behavioral changes during confinement in a 520-day simulated interplanetary mission to mars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Basner

    Full Text Available Behavioral health risks are among the most serious and difficult to mitigate risks of confinement in space craft during long-duration space exploration missions. We report on behavioral and psychological reactions of a multinational crew of 6 healthy males confined in a 550 m(3 chamber for 520 days during the first Earth-based, high-fidelity simulated mission to Mars. Rest-activity of crewmembers was objectively measured throughout the mission with wrist-worn actigraphs. Once weekly throughout the mission crewmembers completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, Profile of Moods State short form (POMS, conflict questionnaire, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT-B, and series of visual analogue scales on stress and fatigue. We observed substantial inter-individual differences in the behavioral responses of crewmembers to the prolonged mission confinement and isolation. The crewmember with the highest average POMS total mood disturbance score throughout the mission also reported symptoms of depression in 93% of mission weeks, which reached mild-to-moderate levels in >10% of mission weeks. Conflicts with mission control were reported five times more often than conflicts among crewmembers. Two crewmembers who had the highest ratings of stress and physical exhaustion accounted for 85% of the perceived conflicts. One of them developed a persistent sleep onset insomnia with ratings of poor sleep quality, which resulted in chronic partial sleep deprivation, elevated ratings of daytime tiredness, and frequent deficits in behavioral alertness. Sleep-wake timing was altered in two other crewmembers, beginning in the first few months of the mission and persisting throughout. Two crewmembers showed neither behavioral disturbances nor reports of psychological distress during the 17-month period of mission confinement. These results highlight the importance of identifying behavioral, psychological, and biological markers of characteristics that

  2. Use of a Nutrition Behavior Change Counseling Tool: Lessons from a Rapid Qualitative Assessment in Eastern Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ingrid; Stepanovic, Serena; Chinyemba, Ulembe; Bateman, Jessica; Hemminger, Carolyn; Burrows, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Agency for International Development Feed the Future Mawa Project – led by Catholic Relief Services – aims to improve food and economic security for farming households in Zambia’s Eastern Province. Mawa employs social and behavior change (SBC) strategies with households and communities to improve nutrition and reduce stunting among children under two (CU2). To support these strategies, sub-partner University Research Co., LLC employed a participatory process to develop a series of 35 action cards, each illustrating one project-promoted behavior, that are used at household and community group levels. Caregivers of CU2 are given a full set of action cards to promote household dialogue and support for the promoted behaviors. As a final step in the action card tool development process, a qualitative rapid assessment was conducted 1 month after implementation to investigate preliminary ways action cards were being used, and if the methods of using the cards had the potential to impact behavior change. The research team conducted nine key informant interviews and four focus group discussions with Mawa staff and administered 41 qualitative interview questionnaires with project participants in the Chipata and Lundazi districts. Although not based on a representative sampling frame, the assessment produced valuable results for program improvement purposes. It also provided a feedback mechanism for community-based staff and project participants, a crucial step in the participatory tool development process. The assessment found that Mawa staff at every level use action cards combined with at least one other social behavior change tool for each nutrition intervention. Our results suggest that Mawa staff and project participants share a common understanding of the cards’ purpose. Each group noted that the cards provide a visual cue for action and reinforce previous Mawa nutrition messages. Intended uses confirmed by the assessment include encouraging

  3. The behavior and pathological changes characteristic to Alzheimer's disease produced by higher concentration zinc in cerebrospinal fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lin; Wu Jianliang Jin Zhang Zhihua; Hao JunWei; Cheng Yanqiu

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the behavior and pathological changes characteristic to Alzheimer' s disease(AD)inducedby local higher concentration of zinc in brain in rats. ZnC12 was infused into cerebral ventricle. Behavioral tests were performed in the Morris Wa-ter Maze( MWM). The apoptotic cells were tested by flow cytometry. Immuncytochemical staining was used to show expression of beta - amyloidprotein( Aβ). Pathological changes at cellular level were examined under transmission electron microscope(TEM). There was significant behaviordamage in zinc treated animals. There were more apoptosis in zinc treated animals. Fawn - coloured products of Aβwere interspersedly distributedin extensive areas of cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Karyolysis, and derangement of microtubules was seen in zinc treated animals. Researchdevelopments led to the conclusion that local higher concentration of zinc in brain will result in intelligence and pathology characteristic to AD.

  4. Cognitive Function, Progression of Age-related Behavioral Changes, Biomarkers, and Survival in Dogs More Than 8 Years Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütt, T.; Berendt, M.; Toft, Nils

    2015-01-01

    patted, difficulty finding dropped food and anxiety. Thirty-three percent of dogs with a normal cognitive status progressed to MCI and 22% classified as MCI progressed to CCD during the study period. For 6 dogs diagnosed with CCD, signs of cognitive dysfunction increased with time. A diagnosis of CCD did......BackgroundCanine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative condition dominated by changes in behavioral patterns. Cohort studies investigating cognitive status in dogs are lacking. ObjectivesTo investigate cognitive function, progression of age-related behavioral changes......, survival, and possible biomarkers of CCD in aged dogs. AnimalsFifty-one dogs >8 years old; 21 with no cognitive deficits, 17 with mild cognitive impairments (MCI) and 13 with CCD. MethodsLongitudinal study. Recruitment period of 12 months and an observational period of 24 months including a baseline and 3...

  5. Can functional magnetic resonance imaging studies help with the optimization of health messaging for lifestyle behavior change? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Maxine E; Morgan, Paul S; Sherar, Lauren B; Orme, Mark W; Esliger, Dale W

    2017-02-15

    Unhealthy behaviors, including smoking, poor nutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles, are global risk factors for non-communicable diseases and premature death. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) offers a unique approach to optimize health messages by examining how the brain responds to information relating to health. Our aim was to systematically review fMRI studies that have investigated variations in brain activation in response to health messages relating to (i) smoking; (ii) alcohol consumption; (iii) physical activity; (iv) diet; and (v) sedentary behavior. The electronic databases used were Medline/PubMed, Web of Science (Core Collection), PsychINFO, SPORTDiscuss, Cochrane Library and Open Grey. Studies were included if they investigated subjects aged ≥10years and were published before January 2017. Of the 13,836 studies identified in the database search, 18 studies (smoking k=15; diet k=2; physical activity/sedentary behavior k=1) were included in the review. The prefrontal cortex was activated in seven (47%) of the smoking-related studies and the physical activity study. Results suggest that activation of the ventromedial, dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortex regions were predictive of subsequent behavior change following exposure to aversive anti-smoking stimuli. Studies investigating the neurological responses to anti-smoking material were most abundant. Of note, the prefrontal cortex and amygdala were most commonly activated in response to health messages across lifestyle behaviors. The review highlights an important disparity between research focusing on different lifestyle behaviors. Insights from smoking literature suggest fMRI may help to optimize health messaging in relation to other lifestyle behaviors.

  6. Breaking out of the economic box: energy efficiency, social rationality and non-economic drivers of behavioral change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhardt-Martinez, Karen; Laitner, John A. ' Skip' (ACEEE, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C. (United States))

    2009-07-01

    Energy concerns are increasingly on people's minds. According to a recent Gallup poll, nearly 30 percent of American's reported that energy prices were the most important financial problem facing their families today. But are these new concerns likely to translate into long-term behavioral changes and more energy-efficient behavior? Research suggests that it will take more than high prices to achieve maximum energy savings. People may like to think of themselves as rational economic actors, but a variety of studies by social-psychologists and behavioral economists reveal that people often act in ways that may be better described as 'socially-rational' and 'predictably irrational'. Despite these findings, many residential energy programs and most policy assessments continue to model potential energy savings as a function of existing technologies and the cost of those energy resources. This paper explores the ways in which individual behavior is shaped by the social context within which people operate and presents an alternative framework for modeling efficiency behavior. The alternative model recognizes that while individuals may not always behave in economically-rational ways, their behavior may be entirely rational from other vantage points. In fact, individuals often behave as rational social actors, determining what is and isn't 'appropriate' behavior by gleaning information from their own observations, from their peers, and from interactions within their sphere of social influence. As such, this paper explores the ways in which social rules, resources and context shape individual patterns of energy consumption. This alternative approach has important implications for program designs and policy recommendations.

  7. Differential patterns of amygdala and ventral striatum activation predict gender-specific changes in sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Elizabeth C; Sansosti, Alexandra A; Bowman, Hilary C; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2015-06-10

    Although the initiation of sexual behavior is common among adolescents and young adults, some individuals express this behavior in a manner that significantly increases their risk for negative outcomes including sexually transmitted infections. Based on accumulating evidence, we have hypothesized that increased sexual risk behavior reflects, in part, an imbalance between neural circuits mediating approach and avoidance in particular as manifest by relatively increased ventral striatum (VS) activity and relatively decreased amygdala activity. Here, we test our hypothesis using data from seventy 18- to 22-year-old university students participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We found a significant three-way interaction between amygdala activation, VS activation, and gender predicting changes in the number of sexual partners over time. Although relatively increased VS activation predicted greater increases in sexual partners for both men and women, the effect in men was contingent on the presence of relatively decreased amygdala activation and the effect in women was contingent on the presence of relatively increased amygdala activation. These findings suggest unique gender differences in how complex interactions between neural circuit function contributing to approach and avoidance may be expressed as sexual risk behavior in young adults. As such, our findings have the potential to inform the development of novel, gender-specific strategies that may be more effective at curtailing sexual risk behavior.

  8. Reinforcement learning and counterfactual reasoning explain adaptive behavior in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Paik, Jaehyon; Pirolli, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Animals routinely adapt to changes in the environment in order to survive. Though reinforcement learning may play a role in such adaptation, it is not clear that it is the only mechanism involved, as it is not well suited to producing rapid, relatively immediate changes in strategies in response to environmental changes. This research proposes that counterfactual reasoning might be an additional mechanism that facilitates change detection. An experiment is conducted in which a task state changes over time and the participants had to detect the changes in order to perform well and gain monetary rewards. A cognitive model is constructed that incorporates reinforcement learning with counterfactual reasoning to help quickly adjust the utility of task strategies in response to changes. The results show that the model can accurately explain human data and that counterfactual reasoning is key to reproducing the various effects observed in this change detection paradigm.

  9. A primary care Web-based Intervention Modeling Experiment replicated behavior changes seen in earlier paper-based experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Treweek, S.; Francis, JJ; Bonetti, D; Barnett, K; Eccles, MP; Hudson, J.; Jones, C.; Pitts, NB; Ricketts, IW; Sullivan, F; Weal, M; MacLennan, G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Intervention Modeling Experiments (IMEs) are a way of developing and testing behavior change interventions before a trial. We aimed to test this methodology in a Web-based IME that replicated the trial component of an earlier, paper-based IME. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Three-arm, Web-based randomized evaluation of two interventions (persuasive communication and action plan) and a "no intervention" comparator. The interventions were designed to reduce the number of antibiotic p...

  10. Administration of the Y2 Receptor Agonist PYY3-36 in Mice Induces Multiple Behavioral Changes Relevant to Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Stadlbauer, Ulrike; Langhans, Wolfgang; Meyer, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Functional changes in neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling at the Y2 receptor subtype have been widely implicated in stress-related neuropsychiatric illnesses such as depression and anxiety disorders. Altered Y2 receptor signaling may also play a role in the precipitation of behavioral and cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia. To seek preclinical evidence for this possibility, we explored the functional consequences of treatment with the selective Y2 receptor agonist PYY3-36 using trans...

  11. Tourists’ Environmentally Responsible Behavior in Response to Climate Change and Tourist Experiences in Nature-Based Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Hyoung Han; Min Jae Lee; Yun-Seop Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Nature-based tourism destinations—locations in which economic viability and environmental responsibility are sought—are sensitive to climate change and its effects on important environmental components of the tourism areas. To meet the dual roles, it is important for destination marketers and resources managers to provide quality experiences for tourists and to induce tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior in such destinations. This study documents the importance of perceptions toward...

  12. Prenatal stress produces sex-specific changes in depression-like behavior in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, H M; Arentzen, T S; Dyrby, T B;

    2015-01-01

    and measured anxiety- (elevated plus maze, EPM) and depression-like (forced swim test, FST) behaviors in the offspring at a young adult age. As a stressful event later in life (in addition to PS) may be needed to actually trigger an episode of clinical depression, half of the animals were exposed to an acute...... affected in control animals after acute stressor exposure, however, this response was blunted in PS offspring. Moreover, FST immobility, as an indicator of depressive-like behavior, was increased in female but not male PS rats. Altogether, our results identify both sex- and circadian phase-specific effects......Stress during rat gestation can elicit depression-like physiological and behavioral responses in the offspring. However, human clinical depression is more prevalent among females than males. Accordingly, we examined how repeated variable prenatal stress (PS) alters rat anxiety- and depression...

  13. Refinement of the tripartite influence model for men: dual body image pathways to body change behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L

    2011-06-01

    Although muscularity and body fat concerns are central to conceptualizing men's body image, they have not been examined together within existing structural models. This study refined the tripartite influence model (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999) by including dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to engagement in muscular enhancement and disordered eating behaviors, respectively, and added dating partners as a source of social influence. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses supported this quadripartite model in 473 undergraduate men. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed and two unanticipated paths were added. Muscularity dissatisfaction and body fat dissatisfaction represented dual body image pathways to men's engagement in muscularity enhancement behaviors and disordered eating behaviors, respectively. Pressures to be mesomorphic from friends, family, media, and dating partners made unique contributions to the model. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction played key meditational roles within the model.

  14. Changing Teacher-Child Dyadic Interactions to Improve Preschool Children's Externalizing Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Whittaker, Jessica Vick; DeCoster, Jamie; Hartz, Karyn A; Carter, Lauren M; Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Hatfield, Bridget E

    2016-12-19

    A randomized controlled trial was used to examine the impact of an attachment-based, teacher-child, dyadic intervention (Banking Time) to improve children's externalizing behavior. Participants included 183 teachers and 470 preschool children (3-4 years of age). Classrooms were randomly assigned to Banking Time, child time, or business as usual (BAU). Sparse evidence was found for main effects on child behavior. Teachers in Banking Time demonstrated lower negativity and fewer positive interactions with children compared to BAU teachers at post assessment. The impacts of Banking Time and child time on reductions of parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior were greater when teachers evidenced higher-quality, classroom-level, teacher-child interactions at baseline. An opposite moderating effect was found for children's positive engagement with teachers.

  15. Temporal scaling behavior of sea-level change in Hong Kong - Multifractal temporally weighted detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanzhi; Ge, Erjia

    2013-01-01

    The rise in global sea levels has been recognized by many scientists as an important global research issue. The process of sea-level change has demonstrated a complex scaling behavior in space and time. Large numbers of tide gauge stations have been built to measure sea-level change in the North Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, and Antarctic Ocean. Extensive studies have been devoted to exploring sea-level variation in Asia concerning the Bohai Gulf (China), the Yellow Sea (China), the Mekong Delta (Thailand), and Singapore. Hong Kong, however, a mega city with a population of over 7 million situated in the mouth of the Pear River Estuary in the west and the South China Sea in the east, has yet to be studied, particularly in terms of the temporal scaling behavior of sea-level change. This article presents an approach to studying the temporal scaling behavior of sea-level change over multiple time scales by analyzing the time series of sea-level change in Tai Po Kou, Tsim Bei Tsui, and Quarry Bay from the periods of 1964-2010, 1974-2010, and 1986-2010, respectively. The detection of long-range correlation and multi-fractality of sea-level change seeks answers to the following questions: (1) Is the current sea-level rise associated with and responsible for the next rise over time? (2) Does the sea-level rise have specific temporal patterns manifested by multi-scaling behaviors? and (3) Is the sea-level rise is temporally heterogeneous in the different parts of Hong Kong? Multi-fractal temporally weighted de-trended fluctuation analysis (MF-TWDFA), an extension of multi-fractal de-trended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA), has been applied in this study to identify long-range correlation and multi-scaling behavior of the sea-level rise in Hong Kong. The experimental results show that the sea-level rise is long-range correlated and multi-fractal. The temporal patterns are heterogeneous over space. This finding implies that mechanisms associated with the

  16. Effects of minimal exercise and cognitive behavior modification on adherence, emotion change, self-image, and physical change in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, J J

    2000-08-01

    The present investigation tested a 12-wk. treatment protocol which employed low intensity cardiovascular and resistance exercise as well as cognitive-behavior modification on 13 obese, previously sedentary women. Separate analyses were conducted on program maintenance, emotional change, and physiological change. Although self motivation was lower in the treatment group than in the control group (n=35), measures of exercise maintenance were significantly higher. Analyses within the treatment group only indicated significant improvements in measures of State Anxiety, Depression, Anger, Fatigue, Tension, and Vigor, also Health Evaluation, Body Area Satisfaction, and heightened Overweight Preoccupation, over the 12 weeks. Their feelings after individual bouts of exercise indicated significantly increased Positive Engagement, Revitalization, and Tranquility, and reduced Physical Exhaustion. Maximum volume of oxygen uptake (VO2max) significantly increased (2nd to 10th percentile), but not resting heart rate. No significant correlation was found between cardiorespiratory change and change in scores on depression and anxiety. No significant association was found between physiological change and change in body image. Preliminary evaluation of the minimal exercise treatment was given. The need to replicate findings with larger and different samples was emphasized.

  17. New Ways of Working: does flexibility in time and location of work change work behavior and affect business outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Merle M; Groenesteijn, Liesbeth; Schelvis, Roos; Vink, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the changing modern economy some new factors have been addressed that are of importance for productivity and economic growth, such as human skills, workplace organization, information and communication technologies (ICT) and knowledge sharing. An increasing number of companies and organizations are implementing measures to better address these factors, often referred to as 'the New Ways of Working (NWW)'. This consists of a large variety of measures that enable flexibility in the time and location of work. Expectations of these measures are often high, such as a reduction in operating costs and an increase of productivity. However, scientific proof is still lacking, and it is worth asking whether al these implementations actually cause a change in work behavior and effect business outcomes positively. This article describes a case study of three departments (total of 73 employees) that changed from a traditional way of working towards a new way of working. Questionnaires and a new developed objective measurement system called 'work@task' were used to measure changes in work behavior (i.e. increased variation in work location, work times and a change towards NWW management style) and the effect on business objectives such as knowledge sharing, employees satisfaction, and collaboration.

  18. New ways of working: does flexibility in time and location of work change work behavior and affect business outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Merle M; Groenesteijn, Liesbeth; Schelvis, Roos; Vink, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the changing modern economy some new factors have been addressed that are of importance for productivity and economic growth, such as human skills, workplace organization, information and communication technologies (ICT) and knowledge sharing. An increasing number of companies and organizations are implementing measures to better address these factors, often referred to as 'the New Ways of Working (NWW)'. This consists of a large variety of measures that enable flexibility in the time and location of work. Expectations of these measures are often high, such as a reduction in operating costs and an increase of productivity. However, scientific proof is still lacking, and it is worth asking whether al these implementations actually cause a change in work behavior and effect business outcomes positively. This article describes a case study of three departments (total of 73 employees) that changed from a traditional way of working towards a new way of working. Questionnaires and a new developed objective measurement system called 'work@task' were used to measure changes in work behavior (i.e. increased variation in work location, work times and a change towards NWW management style) and the effect on business objectives such as knowledge sharing, employees satisfaction, and collaboration.

  19. Theory-Driven Intervention for Changing Personality: Expectancy Value Theory, Behavioral Activation, and Conscientiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Roberts, Brent W.; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-up approach. That is, by…

  20. Changes in Emotion Regulation Following Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Sood, Erica; Comer, Jonathan S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined emotion-related functioning following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with 37 youth with anxiety disorders (22 boys, 15 girls) ranging in age from 7 to 15 with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (n = 27), separation anxiety disorder (n = 12), and/or social phobia (n = 13). Treated youth exhibited a…